WorldWideScience

Sample records for program effectiveness methodologies

  1. Organizational Change Efforts: Methodologies for Assessing Organizational Effectiveness and Program Costs versus Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Barry A.; Mirvis, Philip H.

    1982-01-01

    A standardized methodology for identifying, defining, and measuring work behavior and performance rather than production, and a methodology that estimates the costs and benefits of work innovation are presented for assessing organizational effectiveness and program costs versus benefits in organizational change programs. Factors in a cost-benefit…

  2. Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

  3. 76 FR 73509 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Wage and Hour Division 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB61 Wage Methodology... Prevailing Wage Determinations AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Wage and Hour Division... effective date of the Wage Methodology for Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B Program Final Rule, 76...

  4. 76 FR 82116 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB61 Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H- 2B Program; Delay of Effective Date; Impact on Prevailing Wage Determinations AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION: Guidance. SUMMARY: The...

  5. Using Methodological Triangulation to Examine the Effectiveness of a Mentoring Program for Online Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Michelle; Stewart, Jennifer; Van Gorder, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental mixed methods study, we examined the effectiveness of a faculty-to-faculty mentoring program to increase student success rates in online courses at an American university. Over one semester, 24 faculty mentees worked with 6 faculty mentors on improving course organization and implementing student engagement techniques.…

  6. Studying creativity training programs: A methodological analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder

    2017-01-01

    published since the seminal 2004 review. Focusing on quantitative studies of creativity training programs for adults, our systematic review resulted in 22 publications. All studies were analyzed, but comparing the reported effectiveness of training across studies proved difficult due to methodological...... inconsistencies, variations in reporting of results as well as types of measures used. Thus a consensus for future studies is called for to answer the question: Which elements make one creativity training program more effective than another? This is a question of equal relevance to academia and industry......, as creativity training is a tool that can contribute to enhancement of organizational creativity and subsequently innovation. However, to answer the question, future studies of creativity training programs need to be carefully designed to contribute to a more transparent landscape. Thus this paper proposes...

  7. Severity Multipliers as a Methodology to Explore Potential Effects of Climate Change on Stream Bioassessment Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja C. Jähnig

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the scientific consensus that climate change is impacting biodiversity, estimates of future climate change effects on stream communities and assessments of potential biases are necessary. Here, we propose a simple technique to approximate changes in invertebrate and fish biomonitoring results. Taxa lists for 60 (invertebrate and 52 (fish sites were each modified by 10 multipliers as stepwise 5% or 10% changes in abundances to simulate potential climate-change severity, reflecting increasing climate change effects. These 10 multipliers were based on the stream zonation preference for invertebrates and the Fish Region Index (FRI values for fish, both reflecting the longitudinal gradient present in river ecosystems. The original and modified taxa lists were analyzed using the standard assessment software for the particular group, followed by analysis of key biomonitoring metrics. For invertebrates, our simulations affected small good quality streams more often negatively while large poor mountain streams showed a tendency to improve. Forty percent of the invertebrate data sites showed a change in the final ecological assessment class when using the multipliers, with the poor quality sites changing more often. For fish, metric changes were variable, but the FRI ratio showed mostly positive responses, i.e., a shift in FRI towards downstream communities. The results are discussed as an example that facilitates the interpretation of potential climate-change effects with varying severity. Further, we discuss the simplified approach and implications for assessment from climate change induced range shifts.

  8. Common Effects Methodology for Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is exploring how to build on the substantial high quality science developed under both OPP programs to develop additional tools and approaches to support a consistent and common set of effects characterization methods using best available information.

  9. 76 FR 73508 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... `` one of the funds made available by this or any other Act for fiscal year 2012 may be used to implement... wage determinations for the H-2B nonimmigrant visa program for employment prior to January 1, 2012, the...

  10. [Evaluating the effectiveness of a disease management program diabetes in the German Statutory Health Insurance: first results and methodological considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Anna; Graf, Christian; Büscher, Guido; Stock, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Disease management programs (DMPs) were implemented in the German Statutory Health Insurance (SHI) in a nationwide rollout in 2002. The explicit goal of the programs is to improve coordination and quality of care for the chronically ill (Sect. 137f, SGB V). To reach this goal extensive quality assurance measures in the programs are mandatory, enrolment and coordination of care rests with the primary care or DMP physician, treatment is based on evidence-based care guidelines, and patients are offered diabetes education classes to support self-management. The present study evaluates the DMP diabetes mellitus type II, a nationwide program offered by the BARMER, a German health insurance company. To minimize selection bias we formed a control group of administrative data using a propensity score matching approach. In comparison to the control group DMP participants have a significantly lower mortality rate, and their average drug and hospital costs are reduced. Enrolled patients also had a lower mean number of hospital stays and shorter hospital stays. These results indicate that the programs meet the initial goal of improving the quality of care for the chronically ill. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. 78 FR 19098 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... L. Carlson, Ph.D., Administrator, Office of Foreign Labor Certification, ETA, U.S. Department of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., Labor. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor is delaying the...

  12. 77 FR 60040 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ..., Office of Foreign Labor Certification, ETA, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room C... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., Labor. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (Department) is...

  13. 76 FR 82115 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    .... Carlson, Ph.D., Administrator, Office of Foreign Labor Certification, ETA, U.S. Department of Labor, 200... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., Labor. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (Department) is...

  14. 78 FR 53643 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...., Administrator, Office of Foreign Labor Certification, ETA, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., Labor. ACTION: Final rule; indefinite delay of effective date. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor...

  15. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  16. The Convergence of Two Methodologies: Implementing Programmed Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankmeyer, Harrison C.; Williams, Jerome

    The applicability of a programmed methodology to a non-programmed text can result in a new approach to and definition of programmed learning. In seeking to resolve the present conflict between grammar and foreign language instruction by making the grammatical elements implicit to both student and teacher through a logically ordered program of…

  17. Computer Presentation Programs and Teaching Research Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Motamedi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Supplementing traditional chalk and board instruction with computer delivery has been viewed positively by students who have reported increased understanding and more interaction with the instructor when computer presentations are used in the classroom. Some problems contributing to student errors while taking class notes might be transcription of numbers to the board, and handwriting of the instructor can be resolved in careful construction of computer presentations. The use of computer presentation programs promises to increase the effectiveness of learning by making content more readily available, by reducing the cost and effort of producing quality content, and by allowing content to be more easily shared. This paper describes how problems can be overcome by using presentation packages for instruction.

  18. An economic analysis methodology for project evaluation and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Economic analysis is a critical component of a comprehensive project or program evaluation methodology that considers all key : quantitative and qualitative impacts of highway investments. It allows highway agencies to identify, quantify, and value t...

  19. Vulnerability and Risk Analysis Program: Overview of Assessment Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Over the last three years, a team of national laboratory experts, working in partnership with the energy industry, has successfully applied the methodology as part of OCIP's Vulnerability and Risk Analysis Program (VRAP...

  20. Generalised Assignment Matrix Methodology in Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Discrete Mathematics instructors and students have long been struggling with various labelling and scanning algorithms for solving many important problems. This paper shows how to solve a wide variety of Discrete Mathematics and OR problems using assignment matrices and linear programming, specifically using Excel Solvers although the same…

  1. MANTECH (Manufacturing Technology) Prioritization Methodology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    700 comparions are involved. However, the Lotus 1-2-3 computer program, which was designed for this kind of calculation, can provide a spread sheet...evaluations. Because of the recent birth of this effort, project selection is implicit in the in-house process of origination. However, the following

  2. A Formal Verification Methodology for DDD Mode Pacemaker Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Shuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacemakers are safety-critical devices whose faulty behaviors can cause harm or even death. Often these faulty behaviors are caused due to bugs in programs used for digital control of pacemakers. We present a formal verification methodology that can be used to check the correctness of object code programs that implement the safety-critical control functions of DDD mode pacemakers. Our methodology is based on the theory of Well-Founded Equivalence Bisimulation (WEB refinement, where both formal specifications and implementation are treated as transition systems. We develop a simple and general formal specification for DDD mode pacemakers. We also develop correctness proof obligations that can be applied to validate object code programs used for pacemaker control. Using our methodology, we were able to verify a control program with millions of transitions against the simple specification with only 10 transitions. Our method also found several bugs during the verification process.

  3. Incorporation of lean methodology into pharmacy residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Natalie; Snider, Holly; Edgerton, Lisa; Whalin, Laurie

    2017-03-15

    The implementation of lean methodology into pharmacy residency programs at a community teaching hospital is described. New Hanover Regional Medical Center, a community teaching hospital in southeastern North Carolina, fully adopted a lean culture in 2010. Given the success of lean strategies organizationally, this methodology was used to assist with the evaluation and development of its pharmacy residency programs in 2014. Lean tools and activities have also been incorporated into residency requirements and rotation learning activities. The majority of lean events correspond to the required competency areas evaluating leadership and management, teaching, and education. These events have included participation in and facilitation of various lean problem-solving and communication tools. The application of the 4 rules of lean has resulted in enhanced management of the programs and provides a set of tools by which continual quality improvement can be ensured. Regular communication and direct involvement of all invested parties have been critical in developing and sustaining new improvements. In addition to program enhancements, lean methodology offers novel methods by which residents may be incorporated into leadership activities. The incorporation of lean methodology into pharmacy residency programs has translated into a variety of realized and potential benefits for the programs, the preceptors and residents, and the health system. Specific areas of growth have included quality-improvement processes, the expansion of leadership opportunities for residents, and improved communication among program directors, preceptors, and residents. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spread effects - methodology; Spredningseffekter - metodegrunnlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Diffusion of technology, environmental effects and rebound effects are the principal effects from the funding of renewable energy and energy economising. It is difficult to estimate the impact of the spread effects both prior to the measures are implemented and after the measures are carried out. Statistical methods can be used to estimate the spread effects, but they are insecure and always need to be complemented with qualitative and subjective evaluations. It is more adequate to evaluate potential spread effects from market and market data surveillance for a selection of technologies and parties. Based on this information qualitative indicators for spread effects can be constructed and used both ex ante and ex post (ml)

  5. Hydrogen program goal-setting methodologies: Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-08-01

    DOE's Hydrogen Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress summarizes the processes used to set Hydrogen Program goals and milestones. Published in August 2006, it fulfills the requirement under section 1819 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  6. A Big Data Analytics Methodology Program in the Health Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James; Joseph, Anthony; Howell-Barber, H.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of Big Data Analytics are cited frequently in the literature. However, the difficulties of implementing Big Data Analytics can limit the number of organizational projects. In this study, the authors evaluate business, procedural and technical factors in the implementation of Big Data Analytics, applying a methodology program. Focusing…

  7. A Methodology to Measure Synergy Among Energy-Efficiency Programs at the Program Participant Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.

    2003-11-14

    This paper presents a methodology designed to measure synergy among energy-efficiency programs at the program participant level (e.g., households, firms). Three different definitions of synergy are provided: strong, moderate, and weak. Data to measure synergy can be collected through simple survey questions. Straightforward mathematical techniques can be used to estimate the three types of synergy and explore relative synergistic impacts of different subsets of programs. Empirical research is needed to test the concepts and methods and to establish quantitative expectations about synergistic relationships among programs. The market for new energy-efficient motors is the context used to illustrate all the concepts and methods in this paper.

  8. Impact of the Surgical Research Methodology Program on surgical residents' research profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhyar, Forough; Amin, Nalin; Dath, Deepak; Bhandari, Mohit; Kelly, Stephan; Kolkin, Ann M; Gill-Pottruff, Catherine; Skot, Martina; Reid, Susan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether implementing the formal Surgical Research Methodology (SRM) Program in the surgical residency curriculum improved research productivity compared with the preceding informal Research Seminar Series (RSS). The SRM Program replaced the RSS in July 2009. In the SRM Program, the curriculum in Year-1 consisted of 12 teaching sessions on the principles of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, whereas the focus in Year-2 was on the design, conduct, and presentation of a research project. The RSS consisted of 8 research methodology sessions repeated annually for 2 years along with the design, conduct, and presentation of a research project. Research productivity was measured as the number of peer-reviewed publications and the generation of studies with higher levels of evidence. Outcome measures were independently assessed by 2 authors to avoid bias. Student t test and chi-square test were used for the analysis. Frequencies, mean differences with 95% CI, and effect sizes have been reported. In this study, 81 SRM residents were compared with 126 RSS residents. The performance of the SRM residents was superior on all metrics in our evaluation. They were significantly more productive and published more articles than the RSS residents (mean difference = 1.0 [95% CI: 0.5-1.5], p research performance improved 11.0 grades (95% CI: 8.5%-13.5%, p research methodology is crucial to appropriately apply evidence-based findings in clinical practice. The SRM Program has significantly improved the research productivity and performance of the surgical residents from all disciplines. The implementation of a similar research methodology program is highly recommended for the benefit of residents' future careers and ultimately, evidence-based patient care. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Methodology of Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program: First Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable death. The majority of smokers begin using tobacco products at teen ages. The aims of this study were providing a methodology of Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program and investigating the prevalence of tobacco use and its related factors. Method. It was a cross-sectional study among guidance and high school students in Isfahan province. Initiation, social, psychological (depression and self-efficacy, family, and attitudinal and belief factors and school policy toward smoking (cigarettes and water-pipe were investigated. Saliva qutinin was given from 5% of participants for determination of accuracy of responses. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used for gathering all data. Results. Of all 5500 questionnaires distributed, about 5408 completed questionnaires were returned (with response rate of 98.3%. Of all participants, 2702 (50.0% were girls and 2706 (50.0% were boys. Respectively, 4811 (89.0% and 597 (11.0% were from urban and rural. Of all participants, 2445 (45.2% were guidance school and 2962 (54.8% were high school students. Conclusion. This study will provide a unique opportunity to study prevalence of smoking cigarettes and water-pipe (ghelyan among guidance and high school students in Isfahan province and determine the role of initiation, social, psychological, family, and attitudinal and belief factors and school policy toward smoking.

  10. Experiences with Efficient Methodologies for Teaching Computer Programming to Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christian T.; Gorman, Gerard J.; Rees, Huw E.; Craig, Lorraine E.

    2016-01-01

    Computer programming was once thought of as a skill required only by professional software developers. But today, given the ubiquitous nature of computation and data science it is quickly becoming necessary for all scientists and engineers to have at least a basic knowledge of how to program. Teaching how to program, particularly to those students…

  11. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EXTREME PROGRAMMING (XP) PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY IN THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel NĂFTĂNĂILĂ; Ivona ORZEA

    2009-01-01

    Extreme Programming represents a modern Project Management methodology, being a part of AGILE methodologies. The present paper has the purpose of making a critical analysis of the Extreme Programming (XP) from the point of view of advantages and disadvantages that it implies, both from a theoretical and practical approach. From the theoretical point of view the paper will present the main contributions in the Extreme Programming literature, analyzing in the same time the main characteristics ...

  12. The Methodological Limitations of Popper's Research program on "Open Society

    OpenAIRE

    ALIREZA ISMAILZAD

    2009-01-01

    K. R. Popper, because of his standpoints on philosophy and methodology of science and also his attitudes on political thought, has gained a dignity in history of ideas of the twentieth century. Popper's significant contribution to philosophy of science is mainly concerned with the critique of "Inductionism" and defense of "Falsifiability "; and his significant contribution to political science is rooted in his defense of "Open Society". His emphasis is on "critical rationalism" in both method...

  13. Effective Methodology for Security Risk Assessment of Computer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. García; Adrián Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Today, computer systems are more and more complex and support growing security risks. The security managers need to find effective security risk assessment methodologies that allow modeling well the increasing complexity of current computer systems but also maintaining low the complexity of the assessment procedure. This paper provides a brief analysis of common security risk assessment methodologies leading to the selection of a proper methodology to fulfill these requirements. Then, a detai...

  14. Situated Research Design and Methodological Choices in Formative Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Design-based implementation research offers the opportunity to rethink the relationships between intervention, research, and situation to better attune research and evaluation to the program development process. Using a heuristic called the intervention development curve, I describe the rough trajectory that programs typically follow as they…

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Two Software Development Methodologies: Rational Unified Process and Extreme Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Rafael Borth; Henrique Yoshikazu Shishido

    2014-01-01

    Software development methodologies were created to meet the great market demand for innovation, productivity, quality and performance. With the use of a methodology, it is possible to reduce the cost, the risk, the development time, and even increase the quality of the final product. This article compares two of these development methodologies: the Rational Unified Process and the Extreme Programming. The comparison shows the main differences and similarities between the two approaches, and h...

  16. Draft report: a selection methodology for LWR safety R and D programs and proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husseiny, A. A.; Ritzman, R. L.

    1980-03-01

    The results of work done to develop a methodology for selecting LWR safety R and D programs and proposals is described. A critical survey of relevant decision analysis methods is provided including the specifics of multiattribute utility theory. This latter method forms the basis of the developed selection methodology. Details of the methodology and its use are provided along with a sample illustration of its application.

  17. Methodology to evaluate teen driver training programs : [brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, teenage drivers are more at risk of being involved in crashes than : any other age group. Statistics reveal a clear need for improving teenagers driving : skills, judgment and behavior. Driver education programs are a crucial...

  18. A Methodology for Teaching Computer Programming: first year students’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bassey Isong

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of computer programming is one of the greatest challenges that have remained for years in Computer Science Education. A particular case is computer programming course for the beginners. While the traditional objectivist lecture-based approaches do not actively engage students to achieve their learning outcome, we believe that integrating some cutting-edge processes and practices like agile method into the teaching approaches will be leverage. Agile software development has gained...

  19. Geographical targeting of poverty alleviation programs : methodology and applications in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigman, D.; Srinivasan, P.V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for mapping poverty within national borders at the level of relatively small geographical areas and illustrates this methodology for India. Poverty alleviation programs in India are presently targeted only at the level of the state. All states includes, however, many

  20. Using the Spec# Language, Methodology, and Tools to Write Bug-Free Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, K. Rustan M.; Müller, Peter

    Spec# is a programming system for the development of correct programs. It consists of a programming language, a verification methodology, and tools. The Spec# language extends C# with contracts, which allow programmers to document their design decisions in the code. The verification methodology provides rules and guidelines for how to use the Spec# features to express and check properties of interesting implementations. Finally, the tool support consists of a compiler that emits run-time checks for many contracts and a static program verifier that attempts to prove automatically that an implementation satisfies its specification. These lecture notes teach the use of the Spec# system, focusing on specification and static verification.

  1. Deployment of Performance Management Methodology as part of Liquid Waste Program at Savannah River Site - 12178

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prod' homme, A.; Drouvot, O.; Gregory, J. [AREVA, Paris (France); Barnes, B.; Hodges, B.; Hart, M. [SRR, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR) assumed the management lead of the Liquid Waste (LW) Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The four SRR partners and AREVA, as an integrated subcontractor are performing the ongoing effort to safely and reliably: - Close High Level Waste (HLW) storage tanks; - Maximize waste throughput at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF); - Process salt waste into stable final waste form; - Manage the HLW liquid waste material stored at SRS. As part of these initiatives, SRR and AREVA deployed a performance management methodology based on Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) at the DWPF in order to support the required production increase. This project took advantage of lessons learned by AREVA through the deployment of Total Productive Maintenance and Visual Management methodologies at the La Hague reprocessing facility in France. The project also took advantage of measurement data collected from different steps of the DWPF process by the SRR team (Melter Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering, Laboratory Operations, Plant Operations). Today the SRR team has a standard method for measuring processing time throughout the facility, a reliable source of objective data for use in decision-making at all levels, and a better balance between engineering department goals and operational goals. Preliminary results show that the deployment of this performance management methodology to the LW program at SRS has already significantly contributed to the DWPF throughput increases and is being deployed in the Saltstone facility. As part of the liquid waste program on Savannah River Site, SRR committed to enhance production throughput of DWPF. Beyond technical modifications implemented at different location of the facility, SRR deployed performance management methodology based on OEE metrics. The implementation benefited from the experience gained by AREVA in its own facilities in France. OEE proved to be a valuable tool in order

  2. Methodologies and Tools for Tuning Parallel Programs: 80% Art, 20% Science, and 10% Luck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Bailey, David (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The need for computing power has forced a migration from serial computation on a single processor to parallel processing on multiprocessors. However, without effective means to monitor (and analyze) program execution, tuning the performance of parallel programs becomes exponentially difficult as program complexity and machine size increase. In the past few years, the ubiquitous introduction of performance tuning tools from various supercomputer vendors (Intel's ParAide, TMC's PRISM, CRI's Apprentice, and Convex's CXtrace) seems to indicate the maturity of performance instrumentation/monitor/tuning technologies and vendors'/customers' recognition of their importance. However, a few important questions remain: What kind of performance bottlenecks can these tools detect (or correct)? How time consuming is the performance tuning process? What are some important technical issues that remain to be tackled in this area? This workshop reviews the fundamental concepts involved in analyzing and improving the performance of parallel and heterogeneous message-passing programs. Several alternative strategies will be contrasted, and for each we will describe how currently available tuning tools (e.g. AIMS, ParAide, PRISM, Apprentice, CXtrace, ATExpert, Pablo, IPS-2) can be used to facilitate the process. We will characterize the effectiveness of the tools and methodologies based on actual user experiences at NASA Ames Research Center. Finally, we will discuss their limitations and outline recent approaches taken by vendors and the research community to address them.

  3. Investment in selective social programs: a proposed methodological tool for the analysis of programs’ sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Barahona Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate sustainability of Selective Social Programs (SSP, based on the relationship between economic growth and human development posed by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP.  For such purposes, the Circle of Sustainability is developed, which is comprised of 12 pillars. Each pillar is evaluated based on its current status and impact.  Combining both results allows to assesses sustainability of these programs and identify areas of focus. Therefore, this methodology helps to better channel available efforts and resources.

  4. Teaching Programming via the Web: A Time-Tested Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Rex; Kaparthi, Shashidhar; Roth, Roberta M.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in information and communication technologies give us the ability to reach out beyond the time and place limitations of the traditional classroom. However, effective online teaching is more than just transferring traditional courses to the World Wide Web (WWW). We describe how we have used "off the shelf" software and the infrastructure…

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Two Software Development Methodologies: Rational Unified Process and Extreme Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rafael Borth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development methodologies were created to meet the great market demand for innovation, productivity, quality and performance. With the use of a methodology, it is possible to reduce the cost, the risk, the development time, and even increase the quality of the final product. This article compares two of these development methodologies: the Rational Unified Process and the Extreme Programming. The comparison shows the main differences and similarities between the two approaches, and highlights and comments some of their predominant features.

  6. The Development of a Checklist to Enhance Methodological Quality in Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Sánchez-Martín, Milagrosa

    2016-01-01

    The methodological quality of primary studies is an important issue when performing meta-analyses or systematic reviews. Nevertheless, there are no clear criteria for how methodological quality should be analyzed. Controversies emerge when considering the various theoretical and empirical definitions, especially in relation to three interrelated problems: the lack of representativeness, utility, and feasibility. In this article, we (a) systematize and summarize the available literature about methodological quality in primary studies; (b) propose a specific, parsimonious, 12-items checklist to empirically define the methodological quality of primary studies based on a content validity study; and (c) present an inter-coder reliability study for the resulting 12-items. This paper provides a precise and rigorous description of the development of this checklist, highlighting the clearly specified criteria for the inclusion of items and a substantial inter-coder agreement in the different items. Rather than simply proposing another checklist, however, it then argues that the list constitutes an assessment tool with respect to the representativeness, utility, and feasibility of the most frequent methodological quality items in the literature, one that provides practitioners and researchers with clear criteria for choosing items that may be adequate to their needs. We propose individual methodological features as indicators of quality, arguing that these need to be taken into account when designing, implementing, or evaluating an intervention program. This enhances methodological quality of intervention programs and fosters the cumulative knowledge based on meta-analyses of these interventions. Future development of the checklist is discussed. PMID:27917143

  7. WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; McNeil, Michael; Dunham_Whitehead, Camilla; Letschert, Virginie; della_Cava, Mirka

    2008-02-28

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) influences the market for plumbing fixtures and fittings by encouraging consumers to purchase products that carry the WaterSense label, which certifies those products as performing at low flow rates compared to unlabeled fixtures and fittings. As consumers decide to purchase water-efficient products, water consumption will decline nationwide. Decreased water consumption should prolong the operating life of water and wastewater treatment facilities.This report describes the method used to calculate national water savings attributable to EPA?s WaterSense program. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet model, the National Water Savings (NWS) analysis model, accompanies this methodology report. Version 1.0 of the NWS model evaluates indoor residential water consumption. Two additional documents, a Users? Guide to the spreadsheet model and an Impacts Report, accompany the NWS model and this methodology document. Altogether, these four documents represent Phase One of this project. The Users? Guide leads policy makers through the spreadsheet options available for projecting the water savings that result from various policy scenarios. The Impacts Report shows national water savings that will result from differing degrees of market saturation of high-efficiency water-using products.This detailed methodology report describes the NWS analysis model, which examines the effects of WaterSense by tracking the shipments of products that WaterSense has designated as water-efficient. The model estimates market penetration of products that carry the WaterSense label. Market penetration is calculated for both existing and new construction. The NWS model estimates savings based on an accounting analysis of water-using products and of building stock. Estimates of future national water savings will help policy makers further direct the focus of WaterSense and calculate stakeholder impacts from the program.Calculating the total gallons of water the

  8. FORMALIZED PROJECT METHODOLOGY OF EFFECTIVE LAYOUT PLANNING FOR INNOVATIVE UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Sirotkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the university’s effective use of its premises as part of the concept of exercising ownership powers by Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in relation to property of its affiliates. To solve this problem, the applicability of formalized project methodology of effective layout planning for innovative university is analyzed.

  9. Developing Effective Instructional Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Barbara; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing effective instructional programs, is presented in this document. The first paper, entitled "The Organization--A Viable Instrument for Progress" (Barbara Sizemore), addresses the subject of high-achieving, predominantly black elementary schools. Routines in these schools not present in…

  10. Methodology of investment effectiveness evaluation in the local energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamrat, W.

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents issues of investment effectiveness evaluation in the local energy market. Results of research presented in the paper are mainly proposing a concept of a methodology which allows the evaluation of investment processes in regional power markets at the decision-making stage. In this respect, selecting a rational investment strategy is an important stage of the entire investment process. In view of criteria of various nature, the construction of a methodology of investment effectiveness bears an especially important meaning for a local decision-maker or investor. It is of particular significance to countries that are undergoing a transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. (orig.)

  11. Impact of methodology on the results of economic evaluations of varicella vaccination programs: is it important for decision-making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Soárez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review the literature on economic evaluation of childhood varicella vaccination programs and to discuss how heterogeneity in methodological aspects and estimation of parameters can affect the studies' results. After applying the inclusion criteria, 27 studies published from 1980 to 2008 were analyzed in relation to methodological differences. There was great heterogeneity in the perspective adopted, evaluation of indirect costs, type of model used, modeling of the effect on herpes zoster, and estimation of vaccine price and efficacy parameters. The factor with the greatest impact on results was the inclusion of indirect costs, followed by the perspective adopted and vaccine price. The choice of a particular methodological aspect or parameter affected the studies' results and conclusions. It is essential that authors present these choices transparently so that users of economic evaluations understand the implications of such choices and the direction in which the results of the analysis were conducted.

  12. The placebo effect: Advances from different methodological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Karin; Bingel, Ulrike; Colloca, Luana; Wager, Tor D.; Watson, Alison; Flaten, Magne Arve

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence from different methodological approaches that the placebo effect is a neurobiological phenomenon. Behavioral, psychophysiological and neuroimaging results have largely contributed to accepting the placebo response as real. A major aspect of recent and future advances in placebo research is to demonstrate linkages between behavior, brain and bodily responses. This article provides an overview of the processes involved in the formation of placebo responses by combining research findings from behavioral, psychophysiological and neuroimaging methods. The integration of these different methodological approaches is a key objective, motivating our scientific pursuits toward a placebo research that can inform and guide important future scientific knowledge. PMID:22072664

  13. Effective World Modeling: Multisensor Data Fusion Methodology for Automated Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Elfring

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of perception sensors on automated vehicles increases due to the increasing number of advanced driver assistance system functions and their increasing complexity. Furthermore, fail-safe systems require redundancy, thereby increasing the number of sensors even further. A one-size-fits-all multisensor data fusion architecture is not realistic due to the enormous diversity in vehicles, sensors and applications. As an alternative, this work presents a methodology that can be used to effectively come up with an implementation to build a consistent model of a vehicle’s surroundings. The methodology is accompanied by a software architecture. This combination minimizes the effort required to update the multisensor data fusion system whenever sensors or applications are added or replaced. A series of real-world experiments involving different sensors and algorithms demonstrates the methodology and the software architecture.

  14. Effective World Modeling: Multisensor Data Fusion Methodology for Automated Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfring, Jos; Appeldoorn, Rein; van den Dries, Sjoerd; Kwakkernaat, Maurice

    2016-10-11

    The number of perception sensors on automated vehicles increases due to the increasing number of advanced driver assistance system functions and their increasing complexity. Furthermore, fail-safe systems require redundancy, thereby increasing the number of sensors even further. A one-size-fits-all multisensor data fusion architecture is not realistic due to the enormous diversity in vehicles, sensors and applications. As an alternative, this work presents a methodology that can be used to effectively come up with an implementation to build a consistent model of a vehicle's surroundings. The methodology is accompanied by a software architecture. This combination minimizes the effort required to update the multisensor data fusion system whenever sensors or applications are added or replaced. A series of real-world experiments involving different sensors and algorithms demonstrates the methodology and the software architecture.

  15. Measurement and verification of low income energy efficiency programs in Brazil: Methodological challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto De; Rodrigues da Silva, Ana Lucia; Melo, Conrado Augustus de; Paccola, Jose Angelo; Dourado Maia Gomes, Rodolfo (State Univ. of Campinas, International Energy Initiative (Brazil))

    2009-07-01

    Electric utilities in Brazil are investing about 80 million dollars annually in low-income energy efficiency programs, about half of their total compulsory investments in end-use efficiency programs under current regulation. Since 2007 the regulator has enforced the need to provide evaluation plans for the programs delivered. This paper presents the measurement and verification (MandV) methodology that has been developed to accommodate the characteristics of lighting and refrigerator programs that have been introduced in the Brazilian urban and peri-urban slums. A combination of household surveys, end-use measurements and metering at the transformers and grid levels were performed before and after the program implementation. The methodology has to accommodate the dynamics, housing, electrical wiring and connections of the population as well as their ability to pay for the electricity and program participation. Results obtained in slums in Rio de Janeiro are presented. Impacts of the programs were evaluated in energy terms to households and utilities. Feedback from the evaluations performed also permitted the improvement in the design of new programs for low-income households.

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Training Program for Organ Procurement Coordinators Using Standardized Patient Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Orhan; Elcin, Melih; Uzun Basusta, Bilge; Gulkaya Anik, Esin; Aki, Tuncay F; Bozoklar, Ata

    2015-12-01

    The low rate of consent by next of kin of donor-eligible patients is a major limiting factor in organ transplant. Educating health care professionals about their role may lead to measurable improvements in the process. Our aim was to describe the developmental steps of a communication skills training program for health care professionals using standardized patients and to evaluate the results. We developed a rubric and 5 cases for standardized family interviews. The 20 participants interviewed standardized families at the beginning and at the end of the training course, with interviews followed by debriefing sessions. Participants also provided feedback before and after the course. The performance of each participant was assessed by his or her peers using the rubric. We calculated the generalizability coefficient to measure the reliability of the rubric and used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare achievement among participants. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS software (SPSS: An IBM Company, version 17.0, IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). All participants received higher scores in their second interview, including novice participants who expressed great discomfort during their first interview. The participants rated the scenarios and the standardized patients as very representative of real-life situations, with feedback forms showing that the interviews, the video recording sessions, and the debriefing sessions contributed to their learning. Our program was designed to meet the current expectations and implications in the field of donor consent from next of kin. Results showed that our training program developed using standardized patient methodology was effective in obtaining the communication skills needed for family interviews during the consent process. The rubric developed during the study was a valid and reliable assessment tool that could be used in further educational activities. The participants showed significant improvements in

  17. Reactor safety study methodology applications program: Calvert Cliffs No. 2 power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, S.W.; Kolb, G.J.; Cybulskis, P.; Wooton, R.O.

    1982-05-01

    This volume represents the results of the analysis of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant which was performed as part of the Reactor Safety Study Methodology Applications Program (RSSMAP). The RSSMAP was conducted to apply the methodology developed in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) to an additional group of plants with the following objectives in mind: (1) identification of the risk dominating accident sequences for a broader group of reactor designs; (2) comparison of these accident sequences with those identified in the RSS; and (3) based on this comparison, identification of design differences which have a significant impact on risk.

  18. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Digital Technology Business Case Methodology Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lawrie, Sean [ScottMadden, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Hart, Adam [ScottMadden, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Vlahoplus, Chris [ScottMadden, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program aims to develop and deploy technologies that will make the existing U.S. nuclear fleet more efficient and competitive. The program has developed a standard methodology for determining the impact of new technologies in order to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in building sound business cases. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway is part of the DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. It conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. This work involves two major goals: (1) to ensure that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet and (2) to implement digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the NPP operating model. Resolving long-term operational concerns with the II&C systems contributes to the long-term sustainability of the LWR fleet, which is vital to the nation’s energy and environmental security. The II&C Pathway is conducting a series of pilot projects that enable the development and deployment of new II&C technologies in existing nuclear plants. Through the LWRS program, individual utilities and plants are able to participate in these projects or otherwise leverage the results of projects conducted at demonstration plants. Performance advantages of the new pilot project technologies are widely acknowledged, but it has proven difficult for utilities to derive business cases for justifying investment in these new capabilities. Lack of a business case is often cited by utilities as a barrier to pursuing wide-scale application of digital technologies to nuclear plant work activities. The decision to move forward with funding usually hinges on

  19. A new methodological development for solving linear bilevel integer programming problems in hybrid fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Biswas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with fuzzy goal programming approach to solve fuzzy linear bilevel integer programming problems with fuzzy probabilistic constraints following Pareto distribution and Frechet distribution. In the proposed approach a new chance constrained programming methodology is developed from the view point of managing those probabilistic constraints in a hybrid fuzzy environment. A method of defuzzification of fuzzy numbers using ?-cut has been adopted to reduce the problem into a linear bilevel integer programming problem. The individual optimal value of the objective of each DM is found in isolation to construct the fuzzy membership goals. Finally, fuzzy goal programming approach is used to achieve maximum degree of each of the membership goals by minimizing under deviational variables in the decision making environment. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach, a numerical example is provided.

  20. Symbolic Evaluation Graphs and Term Rewriting — A General Methodology for Analyzing Logic Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesl, J.; Ströder, T.; Schneider-Kamp, P.

    2013-01-01

    There exist many powerful techniques to analyze termination and complexity of term rewrite systems (TRSs). Our goal is to use these techniques for the analysis of other programming languages as well. For instance, approaches to prove termination of definite logic programs by a transformation...... to TRSs have been studied for decades. However, a challenge is to handle languages with more complex evaluation strategies (such as Prolog, where predicates like the cut influence the control flow). We present a general methodology for the analysis of such programs. Here, the logic program is first...... information on the termination or complexity of the original logic program. More information can be found in the full paper [1]. © 2013 Springer-Verlag....

  1. Students' needs reflected in the efl program: a small-scale evaluation of the methodologies proposed in an english program

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Acosta Lisbeth; Ramos Holguín Bertha

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate if there were discrepancies or not among the methodology proposed in the English program, students’ needs and what the teacher was actually doing in her classes, 13 ninth graders were asked to answer two questionnaires and they were also observed while they were in their English classes at the Institución Educativa Departamental El Vino (Cundinamarca, Colombia). The English teacher was also interviewed and a self- assessment questionnaire was given to her. The analysis of...

  2. Evaluating department of transportation's research program : a methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    An effective research program within a transportation organization can be a valuable asset to accomplish the goals of the overall : mission. Determining whether a research program is pursuing relevant research projects and obtaining results for the s...

  3. Methodology and Axiological Content of Values ​​Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Paez Gallego

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Values education is a learning process that enhances the axiological development of people. From this point of view, the models proposed by Kohlberg (1976 and Molina (2012 provide the basis for planning education programs in values. In the present paper is reviewed historical evolution of the most important in the development of education programs in values theoretical and methodological models. To this end it has carried out a careful review of the relevant scientific literature databases (PsycINFO, Psicodoc, ERIC, EBSCO, Social Services and Abstract Web of Knowledge. The result allows comparisons between different theoretical models and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each of these points, as well as exposure of the main methodological elements involved in values education. Thus, they describe the properties and components of judgment for the selection of the values considering the recipients of educational action.

  4. A methodology for evaluating social impact of Environmental Education Master Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Loret de Mola, E.; Méndez, I. E.

    2014-01-01

    The paper is intended to describe a methodology for evaluating social impact of Environmental Education master training program by presenting its main stages. The framework serving as starting point and other empirical methods lead to systematized and define the terms of environmental professional training, professional performance of the environmental educator, evaluation, evaluation of professional performance of environmental educators and impact evaluation; as well as distinguishing the f...

  5. Project success: A methodological and evaluative case study of the early alert program interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Randy James

    environment possible in whatever form the focus group takes place. Suggestions for future research include recruiting participants from online classes and attempting to engage more disenfranchised students in other studies. Similar to new types of focus group methods due to technological advances, academic interventions for students facing failing grades are also increasing due to the internet and new methods of service delivery. The contextual aspect of this research involved asking students to participate in an initial focus group session, four weeks of email updates, and a final focus group session in which students participated in the same group as the initial session. The purpose of the focus groups was to evaluate whether or not the universities' attempts to help students succeed in a course known in the past for high failure rates through a program known as the Early Alert Project was succeeding. Interview data were analyzed using thematic coding to evaluate available support services using a comprehensive implementation evaluation model which included effort, monitoring, process, components; and treatment specification. The primary findings were although students believed the university was trying to help them succeed, Early Alert Project efforts were adversely received. In addition, participants felt that although there were enough support services to help them succeed in the course, the components of the support system were confusing and not organized in any systematic manner. Suggestions for further research included researching delivery of this type of communication that might be more amenable to the students who received it and applying this research to other courses to examine whether the same results occur. Finally, implications of the use of traditional methods and academic support services are discussed in addition to the effect of the research itself upon its participants.

  6. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  7. The formation of life strategies juvenile probation: the program and methodological principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhevnikova E. N.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the possibility of extension of psycho-pedagogical Toolkit of prisoners through the establishment of programs of formation of their life strategies. The definition of the concept of life strategy conditionally convicted minors. Reveals the need for an integrated impact on the personality of the convict subject to various conditions and factors. Describes in detail the methodological principles of the organization of psychological correctional work. Explains the development and use in education methodology of the subject-citizen participation approach. Along with a review of various programs of correction of the person convicted, describe the purpose, tasks, methods and techniques of the program of formation of life strategies probation and parole of juveniles. It is concluded that the programs of psychological support and correction, along with controls and constraints play a major role in the process of correction and re-socialization of conditionally convicted juveniles, and their development and application become one of the most popular areas of the modern prison psychological science and practice.

  8. A methodology for assessing high intensity RF effects in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Kunz, K.S.; Molau, N.E.; Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.; Sharpe, R.M.

    1993-07-01

    Optical components have an inherent immunity to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). The optical technology embodied in Fly-by-Light (FBL) might therefore minimize the effects of HIRF on digitally controlled systems while providing lifetime immunity to signal EMI. This is one of the primary motivations for developing FBL systems for aircraft. FBL has the potential to greatly simplify EMI certification by enabling technically acceptable laboratory tests of subsystems, as opposed to expensive full airplane tests. In this paper the authors describe a methodology for assessing EMI effects on FBL aircraft that reduces or potentially eliminates the need for full airplane tests. This methodology is based on comparing the applied EMI stress--the level of interference signal that arrives at a unit under test--versus the EMI strength of the unit--the interference level it can withstand without upset. This approach allows one to use computer models and/or low power coupling measurement and similarity (to other previously tested aircraft) to determine the stress applied to installed subsystems, and to use benchtop cable injection tests and/or mode stirred chamber radiated tests to determine the strength of the subsystem.

  9. Methodology for measuring current distribution effects in electrochromic smart windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engfeldt, Johnny Degerman; Georen, Peter; Lagergren, Carina; Lindbergh, Göran

    2011-10-10

    Electrochromic (EC) devices for use as smart windows have a large energy-saving potential when used in the construction and transport industries. When upscaling EC devices to window size, a well-known challenge is to design the EC device with a rapid and uniform switching between colored (charged) and bleached (discharged) states. A well-defined current distribution model, validated with experimental data, is a suitable tool for optimizing the electrical system design for rapid and uniform switching. This paper introduces a methodology, based on camera vision, for experimentally validating EC current distribution models. The key is the methodology's capability to both measure and simulate current distribution effects as transmittance distribution. This paper also includes simple models for coloring (charging) and bleaching (discharging), taking into account secondary current distribution with charge transfer resistance and ohmic effects. Some window-size model predictions are included to show the potential for using a validated EC current distribution model as a design tool. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. Considerations for The Instruction Of Research Methodologies In Graduate-Level Distance Education Degree Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cleveland-INNERS

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerations for The Instruction Of Research Methodologies In Graduate-Level Distance Education Degree Programs Tom JONES, Ph.D. Associate Professor Centre for Distance Education Athabasca University, CANADA M. Cleveland-INNERS, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Centre for Distance Education Athabasca University, CANADA ABSTRACT The growth of basic and applied research activity in distance education requires redirection on several fronts, including the instruction of research methods in the education of graduate students. The majority of graduate students in distance education are practitioners whose goals range from carrying out original research to acquiring the concepts and skills necessary to become a practitioner. We argue that the best foundation for achieving both of those goals in distance education is developed by means of an understanding and internalization of sound research design methodologies, primarily acquired by formal instruction, and that an emphasis on research in graduate programs in distance education will encourage theory development. This paper presents the rationale for a general curricular model that attempts to address the sets of research competencies for graduate students in graduate-level distance education programs while at the same time moving students toward an appreciation and understanding of the epistemological foundations for social science research.

  11. Investigating on the Methodology Effect When Evaluating Lucid Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Nicolas; Gounden, Yannick; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is a state of consciousness in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and can possibly control the content of his or her dream. To investigate the LD prevalence among different samples, researchers have used different types of methodologies. With regard to retrospective self-report questionnaire, two ways of proceeding seem to emerge. In one case, a definition of LD is given to participants ("During LD, one is-while dreaming-aware of the fact that one is dreaming. It is possible to deliberately wake up, to control the dream action, or to observe passively the course of the dream with this awareness"), while in the other instances, participants are presented separate questions targeting specific LD indicators (dream awareness and dream control). In the present study, we measured LD frequency in a sample of French student in order to investigate for possible disparities in LD frequency depending on the type of questionnaire as outlined above. Moreover, we also study links between the prevalence of LD as assessed, respectively, by each questionnaire with various factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia. Results revealed no significant difference between LD frequencies across questionnaires. For the questionnaire with definition (DefQuest), 81.05% of participants reported experience of LD once or more. Concerning the questionnaire based on LD indicators (AwarContQuest), 73.38% of participants reported having experienced LD once or more. However, with regard to the correlations analysis, links between LD prevalence and factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia, varied across questionnaires. This result is an argument suggesting that researchers should be careful when investigating links between LD and other factors. The type of methodology may influence findings on LD research. Further studies are needed to investigate on the methodology effect in LD research namely on the respective weight of

  12. Investigating on the Methodology Effect when Evaluating Lucid Dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas RIBEIRO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lucid dreaming (LD is a state of consciousness in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and can possibly control the content of his or her dream. To investigate the LD prevalence among different samples, researchers have used different types of methodologies. With regard to retrospective self-report questionnaire, two ways of proceeding seem to emerge. In one case, a definition of LD is given to participants (During lucid dreaming, one is – while dreaming – aware of the fact that one is dreaming. It is possible to deliberately wake up, to control the dream action, or to observe passively the course of the dream with this awareness, while in the other instances, participants are presented separate questions targeting specific LD indicators (dream awareness and dream control.In the present study, we measured LD frequency in a sample of French student in order to investigate for possible disparities in LD frequency depending on the type of questionnaire as outlined above. Moreover, we also study links between the prevalence of LD as assessed respectively by each questionnaire with various factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia.Results revealed no significant difference between LD frequencies across questionnaires. For the questionnaire with definition (DefQuest, 81.05% of participants reported experience of LD once or more. Concerning the questionnaire based on LD indicators (AwarContQuest, 73.38% of participants reported having experienced LD once or more. However, with regard to the correlations analysis, links between LD prevalence and factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia, varied across questionnaires. This result is an argument suggesting that researchers should be careful when investigating links between LD and other factors. The type of methodology may influence findings on LD research. Further studies are needed to investigate on the methodology effect in LD research namely on the

  13. Methodological challenges of evaluating the impact of the Global Environment Facility's biodiversity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaessen, Jos; Todd, David

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we explore some of the methodological challenges that evaluators face in assessing the impacts of complex intervention strategies. We illustrate these challenges, using the specific example of an impact evaluation of one of the six focal areas of the Global Environment Facility; its biodiversity program. The discussion is structured around the concepts of attribution and aggregation, offering the reader a framework for reflection. Subsequently, the paper discusses how theory-based evaluation can provide a basis for addressing the attribution and aggregation challenges presented.

  14. A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of the ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program: rationale and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The transition to adolescence is a time of increased vulnerability for risk taking and poor health, social and academic outcomes. Parents have an important role in protecting their children from these potential harms. While the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing problem behavior has been demonstrated, it is not known if parenting programs that target families prior to the onset of significant behavioral difficulties in early adolescence (9-14 years) improve the wellbeing of adolescents and their parents. This paper describes the rationale and methodology of a randomised controlled trial testing the efficacy of a parenting program for the promotion of factors known to be associated with positive adolescent outcomes, such as positive parenting practices, parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent behavior. Methods/Design One hundred and eighty parents were randomly allocated to an intervention or wait list control group. Parents in the intervention group participated in the ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program, a 6-session behavioral family intervention program which also incorporates acceptance-based strategies. Participants in the Wait List control group did not receive the intervention during a six month waiting period. The study was designed to comply with recommendations of the CONSORT statement. The primary outcome measures were reduction in parent-adolescent conflict and improvements in parent-adolescent relationships. Secondary outcomes included improvements in parent psychosocial wellbeing, parenting self-efficacy and perceived effectiveness, parent-adolescent communication and adolescent behavior. Conclusions Despite the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing child behavioral difficulties, very few parenting programs for preventing problems in adolescents have been described in the peer reviewed literature. This study will provide data which can be used to examine the efficacy of a universal parenting interventions

  15. A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of the ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program: rationale and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Kylie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition to adolescence is a time of increased vulnerability for risk taking and poor health, social and academic outcomes. Parents have an important role in protecting their children from these potential harms. While the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing problem behavior has been demonstrated, it is not known if parenting programs that target families prior to the onset of significant behavioral difficulties in early adolescence (9-14 years improve the wellbeing of adolescents and their parents. This paper describes the rationale and methodology of a randomised controlled trial testing the efficacy of a parenting program for the promotion of factors known to be associated with positive adolescent outcomes, such as positive parenting practices, parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent behavior. Methods/Design One hundred and eighty parents were randomly allocated to an intervention or wait list control group. Parents in the intervention group participated in the ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program, a 6-session behavioral family intervention program which also incorporates acceptance-based strategies. Participants in the Wait List control group did not receive the intervention during a six month waiting period. The study was designed to comply with recommendations of the CONSORT statement. The primary outcome measures were reduction in parent-adolescent conflict and improvements in parent-adolescent relationships. Secondary outcomes included improvements in parent psychosocial wellbeing, parenting self-efficacy and perceived effectiveness, parent-adolescent communication and adolescent behavior. Conclusions Despite the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing child behavioral difficulties, very few parenting programs for preventing problems in adolescents have been described in the peer reviewed literature. This study will provide data which can be used to examine the efficacy of a

  16. Understanding the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination in children: methodological choices and seasonal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newall, Anthony T; Dehollain, Juan Pablo; Creighton, Prudence; Beutels, Philippe; Wood, James G

    2013-08-01

    The universal vaccination of children for influenza has recently been recommended in the UK and is being considered in other developed countries. The aim of this study was to explore the potential costs and benefits of childhood influenza vaccination to gain a better understanding of the key drivers of cost-effectiveness. As our case study we examined the cost-effectiveness of vaccination in Australian schoolchildren using an age-stratified Susceptible Exposed Infectious Recovered model. The results of this study highlight the critical role that methodological choices play in determining the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination. These choices include decisions about the structure of the model (including/excluding herd immunity) and what costs and benefits to include in the analysis. In scenarios where herd protection was included we estimated that the program was likely to be cost-effective. The study also illustrates the importance of the inherent seasonal variability of influenza, which can produce counter-intuitive results, with low transmission seasons being easier to control by vaccination but resulting in fewer benefits. Universal childhood influenza vaccination is likely to be cost-effective if a substantial herd protection effect can be achieved by the program. However, it is important that decision makers understand the role of seasonal variability and the impact of alternative methodological choices in economic evaluations of influenza vaccination.

  17. Review of effectiveness-evaluation methodologies for safeguards and security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdy, E.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    We discuss the factors that influence the effectiveness of safeguards and security measures and the characteristics required of effectiveness evaluation methodologies. Within this context and from a utility standpoint, we review those effectiveness evaluation methodologies that have been developed. Our principal recommendation concerns the application and concomitant validation of existing methodologies. This recommendation derives from our conclusion that there has been a gross imbalance between the effort spent on methodology development and the application of those methodologies. Only for those safeguards measures that do not seem to be covered by existing methodologies or that seem to be inadequately covered do we suggest development. 44 references.

  18. Effects of foot orthotics on running economy: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeanmarie R; Papuga, M Owen

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to collect preliminary data to address methodological considerations that may impact subject-specific reactions to foot orthotics during running. Six endurance-trained recreational runners recruited from a chiropractic college campus wore their preferred running shoes and then inserted either their custom-made orthotics during 1 testing session or their shoe-fitted insoles during the other testing session. Comfort perception was measured for each footwear condition. Measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) at several moderate exercise intensities, to mimic recreational running, generated an individual's economy-of-running line. Predicted running velocity at VO(2max) (vVO2max) was calculated as an index of endurance performance. Lower extremity muscle activity was recorded. Descriptive statistics, a repeated-measures analysis of variance model, and a paired t test were used to document any systematic changes in running economy, lower extremity muscle activities, and vVO2max within and across subjects as a function of footwear conditions. Decreases in VO2 at several moderate exercise intensities (F((1,5)footwear) = 10.37, P = .023) and increases in vVO2max (t(5) = 4.20, P = .008) occurred in all 6 subjects while wearing their orthotic intervention vs their shoe-fitted insoles. There were no consistent changes in lower extremity muscle activity. Methodological decisions to use a sustained incremental exercise protocol at several moderate exercise intensities and to measure comfort perception of a custom-molded foot orthosis were effective at documenting systematic improvements in running economy among the 6 recreational runners tested. The development of a less physically demanding sustained exercise protocol is necessary to determine underlying neuromuscular mechanisms and/or clinical effectiveness of orthotic interventions. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2008 benefits analysis, methodology and results --- final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

    2008-02-29

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Vehicle Technologies (VT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, and (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 08 the Heavy Vehicles program continued its involvement with various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. These changes are the result of a planning effort that first occurred during FY 04 and was updated in the past year. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY08 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the VT program for internal project management purposes.

  20. Methodological discussion for interdisciplinary project on the effects of climatic variability on cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa-Morocho, M.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Rodríguez-Fonseca, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Campus of International Excellence Moncloa (CEI, 2009) is a joint project of the Universities Complutense (UCM) and Politécnica of Madrid (UPM) which aims to promote connectivity between both of them in a context of scientific excellence. Within this framework an interdisciplinary doctoral Thesis is being developed, whose methodological line is presented here to collect the comments from the international scientific community. The aim of the Thesis is to assess the effect of the climatic variability in the agricultural systems of the Iberian Peninsula. It takes place between the group of agricultural systems (AgSystems) of the UPM and the TROPA group of Climatic Variability of the UCM. The provisional methodology consists on using time series of simulated crop yields and to correlate the monthly deviations with different atmospheric and oceanic anomalous fields in order to characterize the climate variability patterns affecting the fluctuations in productivity. We use observed data of climate reanalysis, general circulation models and crop simulation models. We have identified a common tool to connect both modeling disciplines: MATLAB software is used to program the functions used in data processing, for both climate and agricultural data. In this paper the methodological scheme will be shown. Both the potentials and synergies that we are finding between the group of modelers of climate and cropping systems, as well as the problems and methodological points to be resolved will be specified. We invite researchers with similar experiences to contribute to this discussion.

  1. Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs: The GPRA Metrics Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2004-06-18

    The requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993 mandate the reporting of outcomes expected to result from programs of the Federal government. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops official metrics for its 11 major programs using its Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis (OPBFA). OPBFA conducts an annual integrated modeling analysis to produce estimates of the energy, environmental, and financial benefits expected from EERE’s budget request. Two of EERE’s major programs include the Building Technologies Program (BT) and Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the OPBFA effort by developing the program characterizations and other market information affecting these programs that is necessary to provide input to the EERE integrated modeling analysis. Throughout the report we refer to these programs as “buildings-related” programs, because the approach is not limited in application to BT or WIP. To adequately support OPBFA in the development of official GPRA metrics, PNNL communicates with the various activities and projects in BT and WIP to determine how best to characterize their activities planned for the upcoming budget request. PNNL then analyzes these projects to determine what the results of the characterizations would imply for energy markets, technology markets, and consumer behavior. This is accomplished by developing nonintegrated estimates of energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., outcomes) of the technologies and practices expected to result from the budget request. These characterizations and nonintegrated modeling results are provided to OPBFA as inputs to the official benefits estimates developed for the Federal Budget. This report documents the approach and methodology used to estimate future energy, environmental, and financial benefits

  2. Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems

  3. Design and Implementation of an Evaluation Methodology for the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, M. G.; Miller, M.; Freeman, M.; Watson, C.; Khalkho, M.; Smith, T.

    2005-12-01

    The NFFP was created in 2002 to accommodate the needs and capabilities of both NASA and the university community. The program combines aspects of two successful former NASA programs, the NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and the NASA/USRA JOint VEnture (JOVE) program. The NFFP contributes directly to NASA's strategic goal to "inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics", and NASA's Office of Education strategic objective to "strengthen NASA's involvement in higher education to enhance the nation's science and technology capability in NASA related fields to help meet NASA's future personnel needs." The primary goals of the NFFP are to increase the quality and quantity of research collaborations between NASA and the academic community that contribute to Agency research objectives; provide research opportunities for college and university faculty that serve to enrich their knowledge base; involve faculty in cutting-edge science and engineering challenges related to NASA's strategic enterprises, while providing exposure to the methods and practices of real-world research; facilitate interdisciplinary networking; and establish an effective education and outreach activity to foster greater awareness of the program. Participants are required to submit a research report and complete a program evaluation. The NFFP is evaluated using Web-based survey instruments in the NASA Education Evaluation Information System (NEEIS) that have been designed to collect data that measure program activities and accomplishments against program goals and NASA's education programs evaluation criteria. Data are collected from Faculty Fellows, NASA Colleagues, and students who accompanied Faculty Fellows. Participant Feedback Forms gather quantitative and qualitative information on research accomplishments, the benefits and impacts of the program, and overall program evaluation data. Follow-up feedback instruments are designed to

  4. An Evaluation Methodology for Longitudinal Studies of Short-Term Cancer Research Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Luz A; Venkatesh, Raam; Daniel, Casey L; Desmond, Renee A; Brooks, C Michael; Waterbor, John W

    2016-03-01

    The need to familiarize medical students and graduate health professional students with research training opportunities that cultivate the appeal of research careers is vital to the future of research. Comprehensive evaluation of a cancer research training program can be achieved through longitudinal tracking of program alumni to assess the program's impact on each participant's career path and professional achievements. With advances in technology and smarter means of communication, effective ways to track alumni have changed. In order to collect data on the career outcomes and achievements of nearly 500 short-term cancer research training program alumni from 1999-2013, we sought to contact each alumnus to request completion of a survey instrument online, or by means of a telephone interview. The effectiveness of each contact method that we used was quantified according to ease of use and time required. The most reliable source of contact information for tracking alumni from the early years of the program was previous tracking results, and for alumni from the later years, the most important source of contact information was university alumni records that provided email addresses and telephone numbers. Personal contacts with former preceptors were sometimes helpful, as were generic search engines and people search engines. Social networking was of little value for most searches. Using information from two or more sources in combination was most effective in tracking alumni. These results provide insights and tools for other research training programs that wish to track their alumni for long-term program evaluation.

  5. Use of Balanced Scorecard Methodology for Performance Measurement of the Health Extension Program in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Tedella, Aregawi A; Abdella, Mustofa

    2016-05-04

    In 2004, Ethiopia introduced a community-based Health Extension Program to deliver basic and essential health services. We developed a comprehensive performance scoring methodology to assess the performance of the program. A balanced scorecard with six domains and 32 indicators was developed. Data collected from 1,014 service providers, 433 health facilities, and 10,068 community members sampled from 298 villages were used to generate weighted national, regional, and agroecological zone scores for each indicator. The national median indicator scores ranged from 37% to 98% with poor performance in commodity availability, workforce motivation, referral linkage, infection prevention, and quality of care. Indicator scores showed significant difference by region (P < 0.001). Regional performance varied across indicators suggesting that each region had specific areas of strength and deficiency, with Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region being the best performers while the mainly pastoral regions of Gambela, Afar, and Benishangul-Gumuz were the worst. The findings of this study suggest the need for strategies aimed at improving specific elements of the program and its performance in specific regions to achieve quality and equitable health services. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711)Revision 3: Update Methodology and Key Revisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; Fleger, S.

    2012-07-22

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. NUREG-0711 is the first document to be addressed. We present the methodology used to update NUREG-0711 and summarize the main changes made. Finally, we discuss the current status of the update program and the future plans.

  7. TOWARDS A MULTI-SCALE AGENT-BASED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE METHODOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Hagar, Amit; Glazier, James A

    2016-12-01

    Living tissues are dynamic, heterogeneous compositions of objects, including molecules, cells and extra-cellular materials, which interact via chemical, mechanical and electrical process and reorganize via transformation, birth, death and migration processes. Current programming language have difficulty describing the dynamics of tissues because: 1: Dynamic sets of objects participate simultaneously in multiple processes, 2: Processes may be either continuous or discrete, and their activity may be conditional, 3: Objects and processes form complex, heterogeneous relationships and structures, 4: Objects and processes may be hierarchically composed, 5: Processes may create, destroy and transform objects and processes. Some modeling languages support these concepts, but most cannot translate models into executable simulations. We present a new hybrid executable modeling language paradigm, the Continuous Concurrent Object Process Methodology (CCOPM) which naturally expresses tissue models, enabling users to visually create agent-based models of tissues, and also allows computer simulation of these models.

  8. THE ARTHRITIS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM (AMQUIP: A BREAKTHROUGH SERIES METHODOLOGY PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASTURA I

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian government had funded the National Primary Care Collaborative (NPCC program with funding of $14.6 million over three years. One of the pilots project was the Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Quality Improvement Program (AMQuIP.The study aims to optimize general practitioners (GPs management of patients with osteoarthritis (OA of the hip and knee by identifying gaps between their current practice and best practice. The Breakthrough Series Collaborative methodology with several Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA cycles was employed. Participants comprises of 12 GPs/practices from two Victorian Divisions of general Practice (one rural, one metropolitan with 10 patients per GP/practice. GPs/practices attended an orientation and three learning workshops and a videoconference. GPs/practices completed PDSA cycles between workshop and reported results at workshops. GPs/practices reported use of guidelines, change in patient management and change in practice management/systems. All recruited patients completed the SF-12v2 Health Survey and WOMAC OA Index Questionnaire twice. Follow up activities including focus groups and face-to-face interviews were held six months after the final workshop. All GPs/practices used the guidelines/key messages, introduced “new” management strategies to patients, and made positive changes to their practice management/systems. Patient reported positive changes and outcomes. By using a structured methodology and evidence-based guidelines/key messages; GPs can introduce new patient management strategies, and by identifying gaps in practice management systems, positive changes can be achieved.

  9. Evolution of teaching and evaluation methodologies: The experience in the computer programming course at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Gomez Perdomo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the evolution of a computer-programming course at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL. The teaching methodology has evolved from a linear and non-standardized methodology to a flexible, non-linear and student-centered methodology. Our methodology uses an e-learning platform that supports the learning process by offering students and professors custom navigation between the content and material in an interactive way (book chapters, exercises, videos. Moreover, the platform is open access, and approximately 900 students from the university take this course each term. However, our evaluation methodology has evolved from static evaluations based on paper tests to an online process based on computer adaptive testing (CAT that chooses the questions to ask a student and assigns the student a grade according to the student’s ability.

  10. Theoretical and methodological journeys in the history of journalism in theses at the postgraduate communication programs in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes, Felipe Simão; Silva, Gislene

    2010-01-01

    Research on theses in Brazilian postgraduate Communication programs that deal with the history of journalism. The study is based on the particular methodological strategies used in these works that recognise Journalism as a legitimate area of study and its relationship to History. As such, it places its methodological survey at the crossroads of the conceptual-theoretical perspectives of Journalism and History, aiming, as its central objective, to reflect on the subject of study of Journalism.

  11. Global Health Values of a Multidirectional Near Peer Training Program in Surgery, Pathology, Anatomy, Research Methodology, and Medical Education for Haitian, Rwandan, and Canadian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elharram, Malik; Dinh, Trish; Lalande, Annie; Ge, Susan; Gao, Sophie; Noël, Geoffroy

    As health care delivery increasingly requires providers to cross international borders, medical students at McGill University, Canada, developed a multidirectional exchange program with Haiti and Rwanda. The program integrates surgery, pathology, anatomy, research methodology, and medical education. The aim of the present study was to explore the global health value of this international training program to improve medical education within the environment of developing countries, such as Haiti and Rwanda, while improving sociocultural learning of Canadian students. Students from the University of Kigali, Rwanda and Université Quisqueya, Haiti, participated in a 3-week program at McGill University. The students spanned from the first to sixth year of their respective medical training. The program consisted of anatomy dissections, surgical simulations, clinical pathology shadowing, and interactive sessions in research methodology and medical education. To evaluate the program, a survey was administered to students using a mixed methodology approach. Common benefits pointed out by the participants included personal and professional growth. The exchange improved career development, sense of responsibility toward one's own community, teaching skills, and sociocultural awareness. The participants all agreed that the anatomy dissections improved their knowledge of anatomy and would make them more comfortable teaching the material when the returned to their university. The clinical simulation activities and shadowing experiences allowed them to integrate the different disciplines. However, the students all felt the research component had too little time devoted to it and that the knowledge presented was beyond their educational level. The development of an integrated international program in surgery, pathology, anatomy, research methodology, and medical education provided medical students with an opportunity to learn about differences in health care and medical education

  12. Earth Sciences Data and Information System (ESDIS) program planning and evaluation methodology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, William B.

    1995-01-01

    An Earth Sciences Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project Management Plan (PMP) is prepared. An ESDIS Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) consistent with the developed PMP is also prepared. ESDIS and related EOS program requirements developments, management and analysis processes are evaluated. Opportunities to improve the effectiveness of these processes and program/project responsiveness to requirements are identified. Overall ESDIS cost estimation processes are evaluated, and recommendations to improve cost estimating and modeling techniques are developed. ESDIS schedules and scheduling tools are evaluated. Risk assessment, risk mitigation strategies and approaches, and use of risk information in management decision-making are addressed.

  13. Methodologies for Effective Writing Instruction in EFL and ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma, Ed.; Thakur, Vijay Singh; Roscoe, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Educators continue to strive for advanced teaching methods to bridge the gap between native and non-native English speaking students. Lessons on written forms of communication continue to be a challenge recognized by educators who wish to improve student comprehension and overall ability to write clearly and expressively. "Methodologies for…

  14. A Solution Methodology and Computer Program to Efficiently Model Thermodynamic and Transport Coefficients of Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemann, Paul G.

    2000-01-01

    A solution methodology has been developed to efficiently model multi-specie, chemically frozen, thermally perfect gas mixtures. The method relies on the ability to generate a single (composite) set of thermodynamic and transport coefficients prior to beginning a CFD solution. While not fundamentally a new concept, many applied CFD users are not aware of this capability nor have a mechanism to easily and confidently generate new coefficients. A database of individual specie property coefficients has been created for 48 species. The seven coefficient form of the thermodynamic functions is currently used rather then the ten coefficient form due to the similarity of the calculated properties, low temperature behavior and reduced CPU requirements. Sutherland laminar viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients were computed in a consistent manner from available reference curves. A computer program has been written to provide CFD users with a convenient method to generate composite specie coefficients for any mixture. Mach 7 forebody/inlet calculations demonstrated nearly equivalent results and significant CPU time savings compared to a multi-specie solution approach. Results from high-speed combustor analysis also illustrate the ability to model inert test gas contaminants without additional computational expense.

  15. Using functional analysis in archival appraisal a practical and effective alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Marcus C

    2014-01-01

    In an age of scarcity and the challenge of electronic records, can archivists and records managers continue to rely upon traditional methodology essentially unchanged since the early 1950s? Using Functional Analysis in Archival Appraisal: A Practical and Effective Alternative to Traditional Appraisal Methodologies shows how archivists in other countries are already using functional analysis, which offers a better, more effective, and imminently more practical alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies that rely upon an analysis of the records themselves.

  16. Effective Communication and Neurolinguistic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Bashir (Corresponding Author

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Importance of effective communication can hardly be ignored in any sphere of life. This is achieved through various means. One such instrument is Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP which has now taken roots in various aspects of learning and education. Its potential spans education and learning, language teaching, business management and marketing, psychology, law, and several other fields. In our work, we will briefly explore various facets of NLP with special reference to effective communication.

  17. Una plataforma de evaluación automática con una metodología efectiva para la enseñanza/aprendizaje en programación de computadores An automatic evaluation platform with an effective methodology for teaching/learning computer programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López Reguera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aprender a programar computadores es un proceso difícil para los estudiantes novatos y un desafío a las metodologías empleadas por los docentes. En este artículo se presenta una plataforma de evaluación automática que apoya el proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje en cursos introductorios de programación de computadores para estudiantes de ingeniería de la Universidad de Concepción. Esta plataforma utiliza mecanismos que combinan análisis estático/dinámico y aplican evaluación de comprensión/análisis en línea, permitiendo una retroalimentación personalizada a los alumnos. En este trabajo se presentan los criterios usados para crear secuencias didácticas de problemas y una forma de aplicarlas efectivamente mediante la evaluación automática. Los resultados obtenidos después de seis años de aplicación muestran que la evaluación automática afecta positivamente la motivación, el desempeño y la autoeficacia de los alumnos. La metodología utilizada para estudiar la efectividad de la plataforma incluye análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo. Los aspectos cualitativos se extraen mediante la observación del comportamiento de los estudiantes durante el proceso de aprendizaje, mientras que el análisis cuantitativo está basado en los datos de los estudiantes registrados por la plataforma. Con el fin de acumular información cuantitativa, aplicamos distintos experimentos basados en grupos de estudiantes de control y grupos experimentales.Learning to program is a difficult process for novice students and challenging for teaching methods. In this paper we present an automatic evaluation platform and a methodology to support the teaching/learning process in computer programming introductory courses for engineering students at the Universidad de Concepción. This platform uses static/dynamic techniques and applies comprehension /analysis evaluation enabling personalized feedback to students. This work includes the criteria used to create

  18. A situational analysis methodology to inform comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programming, applied in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Naidoo, Evasen; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Raphela, Elsie; Barnhart, Scott; Lippman, Sheri A

    2017-09-01

    Successful HIV prevention programming requires engaging communities in the planning process and responding to the social environmental factors that shape health and behaviour in a specific local context. We conducted two community-based situational analyses to inform a large, comprehensive HIV prevention programme in two rural districts of North West Province South Africa in 2012. The methodology includes: initial partnership building, goal setting and background research; 1 week of field work; in-field and subsequent data analysis; and community dissemination and programmatic incorporation of results. We describe the methodology and a case study of the approach in rural South Africa; assess if the methodology generated data with sufficient saturation, breadth and utility for programming purposes; and evaluate if this process successfully engaged the community. Between the two sites, 87 men and 105 women consented to in-depth interviews; 17 focus groups were conducted; and 13 health facilities and 7 NGOs were assessed. The methodology succeeded in quickly collecting high-quality data relevant to tailoring a comprehensive HIV programme and created a strong foundation for community engagement and integration with local health services. This methodology can be an accessible tool in guiding community engagement and tailoring future combination HIV prevention and care programmes.

  19. Optimal design methodologies under the carbon emission trading program using MIP, GA, SA, and TS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadegheih, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Yazd University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, an adaptation of MIP, GA, SA, and TS to network planning under the carbon emission trading program is described and computational results are given. As will be shown, the results are very encouraging. The cost function of this problem consists of the capital investment cost in discrete form, the cost of transmission losses, the power generation costs and carbon emission costs. The optimization model has the ability to minimize the total costs and provides the best solutions, which are both cost-effective and environmentally friendly. This method of solution is demonstrated on the real problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed procedure is compared with that of the most well-known as mixed-integer programming. (author)

  20. The effect of training methodology on knowledge representation in categorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Hélie

    Full Text Available Category representations can be broadly classified as containing within-category information or between-category information. Although such representational differences can have a profound impact on decision-making, relatively little is known about the factors contributing to the development and generalizability of different types of category representations. These issues are addressed by investigating the impact of training methodology and category structures using a traditional empirical approach as well as the novel adaptation of computational modeling techniques from the machine learning literature. Experiment 1 focused on rule-based (RB category structures thought to promote between-category representations. Participants learned two sets of two categories during training and were subsequently tested on a novel categorization problem using the training categories. Classification training resulted in a bias toward between-category representations whereas concept training resulted in a bias toward within-category representations. Experiment 2 focused on information-integration (II category structures thought to promote within-category representations. With II structures, there was a bias toward within-category representations regardless of training methodology. Furthermore, in both experiments, computational modeling suggests that only within-category representations could support generalization during the test phase. These data suggest that within-category representations may be dominant and more robust for supporting the reconfiguration of current knowledge to support generalization.

  1. A Methodology for Identifying Cost Effective Strategic Force Mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    COPYRIGHT (C) 1992 REGENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PROGRAM CONTROL INFORMAT ION /PROBLEM TITLE IS ’ ESTIMATION OF CES PRODUCTION FUNCTION’. IINPUT...SPECIFIED IN THE INPUT PARAGRAPH MILL REFER TO LOCAL FILE NANE BD4K2C FOR THIS PROBLEM. PROBLEM TITLE IS ESTIMATION OF CES(P:-1) PRODUCTION FUNCTION NUMER OF...PROGRAM CONTROL INFORMAT ION /PROBLEM TITLE IS ’ ESTIMATION OF CES(P2-1) PRODUCTION FUNCTION’. /INPUT VARIABLES ARE 3. FORMAT IS ’ F3.0,1I,F3.0,11

  2. A Study of Program Manager Effectiveness and Risk Taking Propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    search for organizational effectiveness: a. Scientific Management - Taylor (1911). b. Principles of Management - Fayol (1916/1925). c. Human Relations... leadership . Management outcomes refer to the accomplishments of the organization or project team. This methodology is similiar to the model developed...C) W(IcFR Fl mp,’ II ~OF 4 A STUDY OF PROGRAM MANAGER EFFECTIVENESS AND RISK TAKING PROPENSITY THESIS Timothy P. McIntyre Captain, USAF AFIT/GSM/LSY

  3. Effects of Instruction in Methodological Reasoning on Information Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshowitz, Barry; DiCerbo, Kristen Eignor; Okun, Morris A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an instructional program focusing on the application of causal reasoning and related principles of the scientific method to problems that occur in daily life. Reports the results of a capstone exercise that investigated the changes in students' beliefs towards legalization of marijuana after reading persuasive communications. (CMK)

  4. Effects of methodology and stakeholder disaggregation on ecosystem service valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma G. E. Brooks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contingent valuation is one of the most commonly used methodologies utilized in ecosystem service valuation, thereby including a participatory approach to many such assessments. However, inclusion of nonmonetary stakeholder priorities is still uncommon in ecosystem service valuations and disaggregation of stakeholders is all but absent from practice. We look at four site-scale wetland ecosystem service valuations from Asia that used nonmonetary participatory stated preference techniques from a range of stakeholders, and compare these prioritizations to those obtained from the largest monetary assessments available globally, the Ecosystem Service Value Database (ESVD. Stakeholder assessment suggests very different priorities to those from monetary assessments, yet priorities between different sites remained broadly consistent. Disaggregation of beneficiaries in one site showed marked differences in values between stakeholders. Monetary values correlate positively with values held by government officers and business owners, but negatively with fishermen and women who are relying most directly on the wetland ecosystem services. Our findings emphasize that ecosystem service assessment, monetary or otherwise, must capture the diversity of values present across stakeholder groups to incorporate site scale management issues, particularly in relation to poverty alleviation.

  5. Development of Methodology for Spent Fuel Pool Severe Accident Analysis Using MELCOR Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Tae; Shin, Jae-Uk [RETech. Co. LTD., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kwang-Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The general reason why SFP severe accident analysis has to be considered is that there is a potential great risk due to the huge number of fuel assemblies and no containment in a SFP building. In most cases, the SFP building is vulnerable to external damage or attack. In contrary, low decay heat of fuel assemblies may make the accident processes slow compared to the accident in reactor core because of a great deal of water. In short, its severity of consequence cannot exclude the consideration of SFP risk management. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has performed the consequence studies of postulated spent fuel pool accident. The Fukushima-Daiichi accident has accelerated the needs for the consequence studies of postulated spent fuel pool accidents, causing the nuclear industry and regulatory bodies to reexamine several assumptions concerning beyond-design basis events such as a station blackout. The tsunami brought about the loss of coolant accident, leading to the explosion of hydrogen in the SFP building. Analyses of SFP accident processes in the case of a loss of coolant with no heat removal have studied. Few studies however have focused on a long term process of SFP severe accident under no mitigation action such as a water makeup to SFP. USNRC and OECD have co-worked to examine the behavior of PWR fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions in a spent fuel rack. In support of the investigation, several new features of MELCOR model have been added to simulate both BWR fuel assembly and PWR 17 x 17 assembly in a spent fuel pool rack undergoing severe accident conditions. The purpose of the study in this paper is to develop a methodology of the long-term analysis for the plant level SFP severe accident by using the new-featured MELCOR program in the OPR-1000 Nuclear Power Plant. The study is to investigate the ability of MELCOR in predicting an entire process of SFP severe accident phenomena including the molten corium and concrete reaction. The

  6. Methodology for developing teaching activities and materials for use in fluid mechanics courses in undergraduate engineering programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Javier Gamez-Montero

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available “Mechanics” and “Fluids” are familiar concepts for any newly-registered engineering student. However, when combined into the term “Fluid Mechanics”, students are thrust into the great unknown. The present article demonstrates the process of adaptation employed by the Fluid Mechanics course in the undergraduate engineering program, along with the teaching methodology, teaching materials and results obtained, evaluating the final objective in terms of student satsfaction and level of learning.

  7. Exclusion-list methodology for weatherization program in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Turiel, I.; Fisk, W.J.; Cirman, J.R.; Traynor, C.W.

    1982-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) weatherization program includes measures that have the effect of reducing the ventilation rate in the structures in question, thereby not only saving energy but also increasing the potential for increased concentrations of indoor-generated airborne pollutants. In order to avoid having a significant impact on the health of occupants, certain classes of homes were excluded on the basis of house characteristics that may serve as indicators of higher-than-average sources of indoor pollutants. The purpose of this document is to examine the list of excluded classes of homes and to delineate an approach for modifying that list in order to increase the number of houses for which infiltration-reducing measures are offered. The nature of the weatherization program, particularly with respect to infiltration reduction, what is known about the sources and concentrations of indoor pollutants, as well as their health effects are surveyed. Techniques for controlling levels of indoor pollutants, whether by source control or by ventilation and air cleaning, are reviewed. The main considerations relevant to changes in the exclusion list and for formulating the elements that ought to be available in conjunction with such alterations are identified. It is concluded that the two major exclusion classes, that for radon has the greatest potential for reformulation in the near future to permit offering of infiltration-reducing measures to a significantly larger number of homes than at present; a comparable basis for changing the wood-stove exclusion does not yet exist. It also appears feasible to offer infiltration-reducing measures, in some cases, even if an unvented combustion appliance or urea-formaldehyde (UF) foam insulation is present: for gas stoves, if provision of a ventilation hood is deemed adequate, and for UF foam insulation, if monitoring demonstrates low formaldehyde levels.

  8. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras (Ensayo metodologico) (Programming Foreign Languages [A Methodological Study])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    Stresses the importance of language laboratories and other technical devices used in foreign language teaching, particularly in programed language instruction. Illustrates, by means of taxonomies, the various stages a foreign language learning program should follow. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  9. The Effect of Business and Economics Education Programs on Students' Entrepreneurial Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jorge-Moreno, Justo; Castillo, Leopoldo Laborda; Triguero, Maria Sanz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the effect of participation in business and economics education programs on the student's entrepreneurial intention in terms of perceptions of the desirability and personal feasibility of starting a business. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology used to measure the student's entrepreneurial intention is…

  10. THE METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATION THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TAX REGIMES FOR SMALL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Pekarskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the development of the methodology for evaluation the effectiveness of tax regimes for small business in the Republic of Belarus (application of benefits under the general system of taxation, payment of tax under the simplified system, payment of the single tax for individual entrepreneurs and other individuals, based on synergy of macro and micro levels. As part of this methodology assessment of budget, social and economic efficiency of the tax regimes is proposed. The methodology shows the effect of the application of tax regulations, not only at the level of the budget or a business entity, but also at the level of the entire state.

  11. Improving Teaching Effectiveness through the Application of SPC Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadden, David; Driscoll, Vincent; Thompson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    One method used extensively to aid in determining instruction effectiveness is Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEI). This paper examines the use of statistical Process Control charts as a way to correctly measure teaching effectiveness. This field studying SEIs has produced a significant literature. It is not surprising that there is…

  12. How People Think about a TV Program: A Q-Methodology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgooyanfard, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies four viewpoints about a TV program by making use of Q-method. Based on a factor analysis, 35 participants of this study are classified into four groups that each one creates a viewpoint towards the TV program. Each viewpoint is interpreted carefully by using 48 statements representing possible opinions about the TV program.…

  13. 76 FR 9233 - Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); Allotment Methodology and States' Fiscal Years 2009...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), as amended by the Children's Health Insurance Program.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background A. The Children's Health Insurance Program Title XXI of the Social... Commonwealths and Territories to initiate and expand health insurance coverage to uninsured, low-income children...

  14. Framing-effects approach: A theoretical and methodological critique

    OpenAIRE

    Scheufele, Bertram

    2004-01-01

    The article deals with research on framing effects. First, I will start with classifying different approaches on framing. Subsequently, I will provide a definition of the concepts of frame, schema and framing, expand on framing research conducted so far - both theoretically and operationally. Having this equipment at hand, I will initiate a discussion on studies of framing-effects in terms of theory, methods and empirical results. This discussion leads to the conclusion that studies on framin...

  15. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: rationale and methodology for Argonne-conducted reviews of site characterization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Tisue, M.W.; Hambley, D.F.; Fenster, D.F.; Rote, D.M.

    1985-07-01

    Both regulatory and technical concerns must be addressed in Argonne-conducted peer reviews of site characterization programs for individual sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository in salt. This report describes the regulatory framework within which reviews must be conducted and presents background information on the structure and purpose of site characterization programs as found in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 4.17 and Title 10, Part 60, of the Code of Federal Regulations. It also presents a methodology to assist reviewers in addressing technical concerns relating to their respective areas of expertise. The methodology concentrates on elements of prime importance to the US Department of Energy's advocacy of a given salt repository system during the NRC licensing process. Instructions are given for reviewing 12 site characterization program elements, starting with performance objectives, performance issues, and levels of performance of repository subsystem components; progressing through performance assessment; and ending with plans for data acquisition and evaluation. The success of a site characterization program in resolving repository performance issues will be determined by judging the likelihood that the proposed data acquisition activities will reduce uncertainties in the performance predictions. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Effectiveness of the Comprehensive Approach to Rehabilitation (CARe) methodology: design of a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Neis A; Roeg, Diana P K; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-07-22

    There is an increasing amount of evidence for the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions for people with severe mental illness (SMI). In the Netherlands, a rehabilitation methodology that is well known and often applied is the Comprehensive Approach to Rehabilitation (CARe) methodology. The overall goal of the CARe methodology is to improve the client's quality of life by supporting the client in realizing his/her goals and wishes, handling his/her vulnerability and improving the quality of his/her social environment. The methodology is strongly influenced by the concept of 'personal recovery' and the 'strengths case management model'. No controlled effect studies have been conducted hitherto regarding the CARe methodology. This study is a two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) that will be executed in teams from three organizations for sheltered and supported housing, which provide services to people with long-term severe mental illness. Teams in the intervention group will receive the multiple-day CARe methodology training from a specialized institute and start working according the CARe Methodology guideline. Teams in the control group will continue working in their usual way. Standardized questionnaires will be completed at baseline (T0), and 10 (T1) and 20 months (T2) post baseline. Primary outcomes are recovery, social functioning and quality of life. The model fidelity of the CARe methodology will be assessed at T1 and T2. This study is the first controlled effect study on the CARe methodology and one of the few RCTs on a broad rehabilitation method or strength-based approach. This study is relevant because mental health care organizations have become increasingly interested in recovery and rehabilitation-oriented care. The trial registration number is ISRCTN77355880 .

  17. Program analysis methodology Office of Transportation Technologies: Quality Metrics final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-03-01

    "Quality Metrics" is the analytical process for measuring and estimating future energy, environmental and economic benefits of US DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) programs. This report focuses on the projected benefits of the programs currently supported by the Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within EE/RE. For analytical purposes, these various benefits are subdivided in terms of Planning Units which are related to the OTT program structure.

  18. Utility green pricing programs: A statistical analysis of program effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Olson, Scott; Bird, Lori; Swezey, Blair

    2004-02-01

    Development of renewable energy. Such programs have grown in number in recent years. The design features and effectiveness of these programs varies considerably, however, leading a variety of stakeholders to suggest specific marketing and program design features that might improve customer response and renewable energy sales. This report analyzes actual utility green pricing program data to provide further insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs. Statistical analysis is performed on both the residential and non-residential customer segments. Data comes from information gathered through a questionnaire completed for 66 utility green pricing programs in early 2003. The questionnaire specifically gathered data on residential and non-residential participation, amount of renewable energy sold, program length, the type of renewable supply used, program price/cost premiums, types of consumer research and program evaluation performed, different sign-up options available, program marketing efforts, and ancillary benefits offered to participants.

  19. An Evaluation of Research Ethics in Undergraduate Health Science Research Methodology Programs at a South African University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Tanya; Hoffmann, Willem A; de Roubaix, Malcolm

    2015-10-01

    The amended research ethics policy at a South African University required the ethics review of undergraduate research projects, prompting the need to explore the content and teaching approach of research ethics education in health science undergraduate programs. Two qualitative data collection strategies were used: document analysis (syllabi and study guides) and semi-structured interviews with research methodology coordinators. Five main themes emerged: (a) timing of research ethics courses, (b) research ethics course content, (c) sub-optimal use of creative classroom activities to facilitate research ethics lectures, (d) understanding the need for undergraduate project research ethics review, and (e) research ethics capacity training for research methodology lecturers and undergraduate project supervisors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Reading in a Nutshell: An Inservice Presentation on Reading Programs and Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Dick

    A study of the literature on reading can introduce teachers to current methods for improving reading instruction. One current approach is the individualized reading program, in which children read trade books; such a program is built around individual conferences devoted to the accomplishment of individual objectives. A second approach, the…

  1. Evolving software design methodologies in automatic programming systems using Cultural Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R.G.; Zannoni, E. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we will present the results of embedding a Genetic Programming system within the Cultural Algorithm framework. Our goal is two fold. First, we want to investigate whether information extracted from the individual programs generated by the Genetic Programming system can be used to improve the rate and quality of tile problem solving process. Second, we would like to identify the nature of the information extracted during the solution process and its function in the implementation of GP programs. Our investigations showed that tile {open_quotes}culturing{close_quotes} of the Genetic Programming paradigm can improve the search process for a solution to the quartic polynomial symbolic regression problem. Various categories of information extracted during the process have been identified, which can be related to some of the basic principles of software engineering.

  2. Effectiveness and Evaluation of Crime Prevention Programs in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Beato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes previous studies evaluating the effectiveness of the crime prevention policies adopted by the Government of Minas Gerais (Brazil. In this work, greater emphasis is placed on studies evaluating outcomes than on studies dealing with the process of setting up and implementing programs and projects. In order to allow a more systematic discussion, the Maryland Scale, which categorizes research and evaluations according to the methodological strengths and weaknesses in five levels, is employed. Subsequently, the authors draw a parallel between Brazil and other settings. Finally, this essay lays out the implications of this discussion regarding the prevention programs

  3. Analysis of Combined Data from Heterogeneous Study Designs: A Methodological Proposal from the Patient Navigation Research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetzheim, Richard G.; Freund, Karen M.; Corle, Don K.; Murray, David M.; Snyder, Frederick R.; Kronman, Andrea C.; Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Raich, Peter C.; Holden, Alan E. C.; Darnell, Julie S.; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Patierno, Steven; Design, PNRP; Committee, Analysis

    2013-01-01

    Background The Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) is a cooperative effort of nine research projects, each employing its own unique study design. To evaluate projects such as PNRP, it is desirable to perform a pooled analysis to increase power relative to the individual projects. There is no agreed upon prospective methodology, however, for analyzing combined data arising from different study designs. Expert opinions were thus solicited from members of the PNRP Design and Analysis Committee Purpose To review possible methodologies for analyzing combined data arising from heterogeneous study designs. Methods The Design and Analysis Committee critically reviewed the pros and cons of five potential methods for analyzing combined PNRP project data. Conclusions were based on simple consensus. The five approaches reviewed included: 1) Analyzing and reporting each project separately, 2) Combining data from all projects and performing an individual-level analysis, 3) Pooling data from projects having similar study designs, 4) Analyzing pooled data using a prospective meta analytic technique, 5) Analyzing pooled data utilizing a novel simulated group randomized design. Results Methodologies varied in their ability to incorporate data from all PNRP projects, to appropriately account for differing study designs, and in their impact from differing project sample sizes. Limitations The conclusions reached were based on expert opinion and not derived from actual analyses performed. Conclusions The ability to analyze pooled data arising from differing study designs may provide pertinent information to inform programmatic, budgetary, and policy perspectives. Multi-site community-based research may not lend itself well to the more stringent explanatory and pragmatic standards of a randomized controlled trial design. Given our growing interest in community-based population research, the challenges inherent in the analysis of heterogeneous study design are likely to become

  4. Methodological Considerations for Use of Routine Health Information System Data to Evaluate Malaria Program Impact in an Era of Declining Malaria Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Ruth A; Bennett, Adam; Yukich, Joshua; Bhattarai, Achuyt; Keating, Joseph; Eisele, Thomas P

    2017-09-01

    Coverage of malaria control interventions is increasing dramatically across endemic countries. Evaluating the impact of malaria control programs and specific interventions on health indicators is essential to enable countries to select the most effective and appropriate combination of tools to accelerate progress or proceed toward malaria elimination. When key malaria interventions have been proven effective under controlled settings, further evaluations of the impact of the intervention using randomized approaches may not be appropriate or ethical. Alternatives to randomized controlled trials are therefore required for rigorous evaluation under conditions of routine program delivery. Routine health management information system (HMIS) data are a potentially rich source of data for impact evaluation, but have been underused in impact evaluation due to concerns over internal validity, completeness, and potential bias in estimates of program or intervention impact. A range of methodologies were identified that have been used for impact evaluations with malaria outcome indicators generated from HMIS data. Methods used to maximize internal validity of HMIS data are presented, together with recommendations on reducing bias in impact estimates. Interrupted time series and dose-response analyses are proposed as the strongest quasi-experimental impact evaluation designs for analysis of malaria outcome indicators from routine HMIS data. Interrupted time series analysis compares the outcome trend and level before and after the introduction of an intervention, set of interventions or program. The dose-response national platform approach explores associations between intervention coverage or program intensity and the outcome at a subnational (district or health facility catchment) level.

  5. Sport Management Graduate Programs: Characteristics of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the characteristics that enable graduate sport management programs to achieve their objectives. Surveys of sport management educators found they agreed on 11 characteristics that indicated a sport management program's effectiveness. Respondents believed an effective program should produce sport managers, not…

  6. Organisational and methodological aspects of experimental training programs for athletes lightweights in academic rowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Omelchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: develop an experimental training program for lightweight rowers in academic rowing. Material: the study involved 27 qualified athletes who are engaged in academic rowing over 6 years, age 19-22 years, with sports qualifications KMS and MS. To better design the training program was conducted to study this physical condition of athletes also took into account the opinion of the leading coaches in academic rowing that are engaged with lightweight rowers. Results: as a result of an experimental study was designed training program in academic rowing. Conclusions: Experimental training program rowing provided its use for a year and was designed in the form of blocks and aims to developing and improving endurance (speed and power, strength and maximum strength. The experimental technique that was used in the training process, was designed with the preparation phase and plan on mesocycles and microcycle.

  7. Organisational and methodological aspects of experimental training programs for athletes lightweights in academic rowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelchenko E.S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: develop an experimental training program for lightweight rowers in academic rowing. Material: the study involved 27 qualified athletes who are engaged in academic rowing over 6 years, age 19-22 years, with sports qualifications KMS and MS. To better design the training program was conducted to study this physical condition of athletes also took into account the opinion of the leading coaches in academic rowing that are engaged with lightweight rowers. Results: as a result of an experimental study was designed training program in academic rowing. Conclusions: Experimental training program rowing provided its use for a year and was designed in the form of blocks and aims to developing and improving endurance (speed and power, strength and maximum strength. The experimental technique that was used in the training process, was designed with the preparation phase and plan on mesocycles and microcycle.

  8. Development of methodology and computer programs for the ground response spectrum and the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Kyoung [Semyung Univ., Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technol , Jecheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    Objective of this study is to investigate and develop the methodologies and corresponding computer codes, compatible to the domestic seismological and geological environments, for estimating ground response spectrum and probabilistic seismic hazard. Using the PSHA computer program, the Cumulative Probability Functions(CPDF) and Probability Functions (PDF) of the annual exceedence have been investigated for the analysis of the uncertainty space of the annual probability at ten interested seismic hazard levels (0.1 g to 0.99 g). The cumulative provability functions and provability functions of the annual exceedence have been also compared to those results from the different input parameter spaces.

  9. Nutrition and physical activity programs for obesity treatment (PRONAF study): methodological approach of the project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapico, Augusto G; Benito, Pedro J; González-Gross, Marcela; Peinado, Ana B; Morencos, Esther; Romero, Blanca; Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Cupeiro, Rocio; Szendrei, Barbara; Butragueño, Javier; Bermejo, Maite; Alvarez-Sánchez, María; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Bermejo, Laura M; Fernandez-Fernandez, Ceila; Calderón, Francisco J

    2012-12-21

    At present, scientific consensus exists on the multifactorial etiopatogenia of obesity. Both professionals and researchers agree that treatment must also have a multifactorial approach, including diet, physical activity, pharmacology and/or surgical treatment. These two last ones should be reserved for those cases of morbid obesities or in case of failure of the previous ones. The aim of the PRONAF study is to determine what type of exercise combined with caloric restriction is the most appropriate to be included in overweigth and obesity intervention programs, and the aim of this paper is to describe the design and the evaluation methods used to carry out the PRONAF study. One-hundred nineteen overweight (46 males) and 120 obese (61 males) subjects aged 18-50 years were randomly assigned to a strength training group, an endurance training group, a combined strength + endurance training group or a diet and physical activity recommendations group. The intervention period was 22 weeks (in all cases 3 times/wk of training for 22 weeks and 2 weeks for pre and post evaluation). All subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (25-30% less energy intake than the daily energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry). 29-34% of the total energy intake came from fat, 14-20% from protein, and 50-55% from carbohydrates. The mayor outcome variables assesed were, biochemical and inflamatory markers, body composition, energy balance, physical fitness, nutritional habits, genetic profile and quality of life. 180 (75.3%) subjects finished the study, with a dropout rate of 24.7%. Dropout reasons included: personal reasons 17 (28.8%), low adherence to exercise 3 (5.1%), low adherence to diet 6 (10.2%), job change 6 (10.2%), and lost interest 27 (45.8%). Feasibility of the study has been proven, with a low dropout rate which corresponds to the estimated sample size. Transfer of knowledge is foreseen as a spin-off, in order that overweight and obese subjects can benefit from the results. The

  10. Nutrition and physical activity programs for obesity treatment (PRONAF study: methodological approach of the project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapico Augusto G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, scientific consensus exists on the multifactorial etiopatogenia of obesity. Both professionals and researchers agree that treatment must also have a multifactorial approach, including diet, physical activity, pharmacology and/or surgical treatment. These two last ones should be reserved for those cases of morbid obesities or in case of failure of the previous ones. The aim of the PRONAF study is to determine what type of exercise combined with caloric restriction is the most appropriate to be included in overweigth and obesity intervention programs, and the aim of this paper is to describe the design and the evaluation methods used to carry out the PRONAF study. Methods/design One-hundred nineteen overweight (46 males and 120 obese (61 males subjects aged 18–50 years were randomly assigned to a strength training group, an endurance training group, a combined strength + endurance training group or a diet and physical activity recommendations group. The intervention period was 22 weeks (in all cases 3 times/wk of training for 22 weeks and 2 weeks for pre and post evaluation. All subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (25-30% less energy intake than the daily energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry. 29–34% of the total energy intake came from fat, 14–20% from protein, and 50–55% from carbohydrates. The mayor outcome variables assesed were, biochemical and inflamatory markers, body composition, energy balance, physical fitness, nutritional habits, genetic profile and quality of life. 180 (75.3% subjects finished the study, with a dropout rate of 24.7%. Dropout reasons included: personal reasons 17 (28.8%, low adherence to exercise 3 (5.1%, low adherence to diet 6 (10.2%, job change 6 (10.2%, and lost interest 27 (45.8%. Discussion Feasibility of the study has been proven, with a low dropout rate which corresponds to the estimated sample size. Transfer of knowledge is foreseen as a spin-off, in order

  11. Doctoral Training in Statistics, Measurement, and Methodology in Psychology: Replication and Extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) Survey of PhD Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD…

  12. Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies (ACAT) Program - Final Report of the Volvo-Ford-UMTRI Project: Safety Impact Methodology for Lane Departure Warning - Method Development and Estimation of Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The Volvo-Ford-UMTRI project: Safety Impact Methodology (SIM) for Lane Departure Warning is part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies (ACAT) program. The project developed a basic analytical framework for e...

  13. Effective Software Engineering Leadership for Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle West, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    Software is a critical component of systems ranging from simple consumer appliances to complex health, nuclear, and flight control systems. The development of quality, reliable, and effective software solutions requires the incorporation of effective software engineering processes and leadership. Processes, approaches, and methodologies for…

  14. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement compliance review effectiveness model results for carriers with compliance reviews in fiscal year 2009 : [analysis brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This Analysis Brief documents the methodology and results from the Compliance Review Effectiveness Model (CREM) for carriers receiving CRs in fiscal year (FY) 2009. The model measures the effectiveness of the compliance review (CR) program, one of th...

  15. Effective Career Exploration Programs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Replicated findings of Wiggins and Moody (1981). Evaluated four types of high school career exploration programs: cluster (N=53), Career Maturity Inventory (N=52), Career Survey (N=57), and Self-Directed Search/Vocational Preference Inventory (N=55). Results favored latter three programs which allowed students to pursue their own interests instead…

  16. Training in Strength-Based Intervention and Assessment Methodologies in APA-Accredited Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kayla; Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    The importance of identifying and building on individual strengths has been a key component of many psychoeducational theories and modalities focused on developing interventions. However, program training in this growing area is not well known. As such, this is the first study designed to ascertain the American Psychological Association-accredited…

  17. General design methodology applied to the research domain of physical programming for computer illiterate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss the application of the 'general design methodology‘ in the context of a physical computing project. The aim of the project was to design and develop physical objects that could serve as metaphors for computer programming elements...

  18. 76 FR 3451 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... unemployment rates among specific groups of vulnerable low-wage workers: Youth, Hispanics, and African..., unemployment-related issues, the incorporation or continuation of special procedures in the H-2B program... conditions below the established minimum levels, citing examples of high unemployment rates in industries in...

  19. Adaptation of Lean Six Sigma Methodologies for the Evaluation of Veterans Choice Program at 3 Urban Veterans Affairs Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Sherry L; Stevenson, Lauren D; Ladebue, Amy C; McCreight, Marina S; Lawrence, Emily C; Oestreich, Taryn; Lambert-Kerzner, Anne C

    2017-07-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is adapting to meet the changing needs of our Veterans. VHA leaders are promoting quality improvement strategies including Lean Six Sigma (LSS). This study used LSS tools to evaluate the Veterans Choice Program (VCP), a program that aims to improve access to health care services for eligible Veterans by expanding health care options to non-VHA providers. LSS was utilized to assess the current process and efficiency patterns of the VCP at 3 VHA Medical Centers. LSS techniques were used to assess data obtained through semistructured interviews with Veterans, staff, and providers to describe and evaluate the VCP process by identifying wastes and defects. The LSS methodology facilitated the process of targeting priorities for improvement and constructing suggestions to close identified gaps and inefficiencies. Identified key process wastes included inefficient exchange of clinical information between stakeholders in and outside of the VHA; poor dissemination of VCP programmatic information; shortages of VCP-participating providers; duplication of appointments; declines in care coordination; and lack of program adaptability to local processes. Recommendations for improvement were formulated using LSS. This evaluation illustrates how LSS can be utilized to assess a nationally mandated health care program. By focusing on stakeholder, staff, and Veteran perspectives, process defects in the VCP were identified and improvement recommendations were made. However, the current LSS language used is not intuitive in health care and similar applications of LSS may consider using new language and goals adapted specifically for health care.

  20. A QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR THEORY ELUCIDATION, EXPLICATION, AND DEVELOPMENT APPLIED WITHIN AN INTENSIVE GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Williams

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mental health day treatment (MHDT programs provide intensive group psychotherapy for patients with psychiatric pathology complicated by personality disorder. Recently, researchers have begun to examine specific components of these programs. Of importance is the theoretical rationale, which may be challenging to understand given the complexity of the treatment. The purpose of this project was to investigate the theory of one MHDT program. Community-based participatory research was chosen and accordingly, all stages of the project were collaborative with the MHDT clinical team. We engaged in a six-month, iterative process of weekly action-reflection cycles wherein material was discussed, analyzed for themes, and the findings presented back to the team to further the conversation. Results summarize this program’s Theories of Dysfunction and Therapeutic Change, which were primarily psychodynamic, but also integrative through assimilation of elements from other paradigms. Usefulness of the research process is discussed and recommendations are provided for others wishing to undergo a similar process.

  1. The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP): Clinical, Diagnostic, and Epidemiological Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kalckreuth, Vera; Konings, Frank; Aaby, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ali, Mohammad; Aseffa, Abraham; Baker, Stephen; Breiman, Robert F; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Clemens, John D; Crump, John A; Cruz Espinoza, Ligia Maria; Deerin, Jessica Fung; Gasmelseed, Nagla; Sow, Amy Gassama; Im, Justin; Keddy, Karen H; Cosmas, Leonard; May, Jürgen; Meyer, Christian G; Mintz, Eric D; Montgomery, Joel M; Olack, Beatrice; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Warren, Michelle R; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    New immunization programs are dependent on data from surveillance networks and disease burden estimates to prioritize target areas and risk groups. Data regarding invasive Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are currently limited, thus hindering the implementation of preventive measures. The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) was established by the International Vaccine Institute to obtain comparable incidence data on typhoid fever and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa through standardized surveillance in multiple countries. Standardized procedures were developed and deployed across sites for study site selection, patient enrolment, laboratory procedures, quality control and quality assurance, assessment of healthcare utilization and incidence calculations. Passive surveillance for bloodstream infections among febrile patients was initiated at thirteen sentinel sites in ten countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania). Each TSAP site conducted case detection using these standardized methods to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria from the bloodstream of febrile patients. Healthcare utilization surveys were conducted to adjust population denominators in incidence calculations for differing healthcare utilization patterns and improve comparability of incidence rates across sites. By providing standardized data on the incidence of typhoid fever and iNTS disease in sub-Saharan Africa, TSAP will provide vital input for targeted typhoid fever prevention programs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Welfare and Child Support Program Knowledge Gaps Reduce Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel R.; Cancian, Maria; Nam, Kisun

    2007-01-01

    There is little research on knowledge of the policy rules that could affect individuals, either in general or in evaluations of new programs. The lack of research is surprising, given that knowledge gaps could limit the effectiveness of reforms or lead to incorrect inferences regarding the effects of a policy change. In this article, we use survey…

  3. A methodology of estimation on air pollution and its health effects in large Japanese cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, Keiko; Shibuya, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Shogo; Kashima, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between air pollution and health effects in large Japanese cities presents a great challenge owing to the limited availability of data on the exposure to pollution, health effects and the uncertainty of mixed causes. A methodology for quantitative relationships (between the emission volume and air quality, and the air quality and health effects) is analysed with a statistical method in this article; the correlation of air pollution reduction policy in Japan from 1974 to 2007. ...

  4. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  5. The Effect of Soft Skills and Training Methodology on Employee Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rosli; Boerhannoeddin, Ali; Bakare, Kazeem Kayode

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of soft skill acquisition and the training methodology adopted on employee work performance. In this study, the authors study the trends of research in training and work performance in organisations that focus on the acquisition of technical or "hard skills" for employee…

  6. A methodology for assessing the effectiveness of serious games and for inferring player learning outcomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano-Laguna, Angel; Manero, Borja; Freire, Manuel; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2017-01-01

    Although serious games are proven educational tools in many educational domains, they lack reliable, automated and repeatable methodologies to measure their effectiveness: what do players know after playing a serious game? Did they learn with it? Literature research shows that the vast majority

  7. A methodology to assess the effectiveness of serious games and infer player learning outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano-Laguna, Angel; Manero, Borja; Freire, Manuel; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2017-01-01

    Although serious games are proven educational tools in many educational domains, they lack reliable, automated and repeatable methodologies to measure their effectiveness: what do players know after playing a serious game? Did they learn with it? Literature research shows that the vast majority

  8. Concept Attainment Teaching Methodology (CATM)--An Effective Approach for Training Workers on Chemicals Health Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Abdulqadir Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Workers handling chemicals need to understand the risk to health involved in their work, and this requires training. In this study effectivity of concept attainment teaching methodology (CATM) as training strategy for cleaning workers was assessed. CATM was used to train workers on chemicals information and health hazards. Pictures, illustrations,…

  9. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for U.S. EPA Energy Star Labeled Products: Expanded Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla; Homan, Gregory; Lai, Judy; Brown, Richard

    2009-09-24

    This report provides a top-level summary of national savings achieved by the Energy Star voluntary product labeling program. To best quantify and analyze savings for all products, we developed a bottom-up product-based model. Each Energy Star product type is characterized by product-specific inputs that result in a product savings estimate. Our results show that through 2007, U.S. EPA Energy Star labeled products saved 5.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided 100 MtC of emissions. Although Energy Star-labeled products encompass over forty product types, only five of those product types accounted for 65percent of all Energy Star carbon reductions achieved to date, including (listed in order of savings magnitude)monitors, printers, residential light fixtures, televisions, and furnaces. The forecast shows that U.S. EPA?s program is expected to save 12.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 215 MtC of emissions over the period of 2008?2015.

  10. Real-time visual effects for game programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Hun; Kim, Soo-Kyun; Kang, Shin-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the latest visual effects (VFX) techniques that can be applied to game programming. The usefulness of the physicality-based VFX techniques, such as water, fire, smoke, and wind, has been proven through active involvement and utilization in movies and images. However, they have yet to be extensively applied in the game industry, due to the high technical barriers. Readers of this book can learn not only the theories about the latest VFX techniques, but also the methodology of game programming, step by step. The practical VFX processing techniques introduced in this book will provide very helpful information to game programmers. Due to the lack of instructional books about VFX-related game programming, the demand for knowledge regarding these high-tech VFXs might be very high.

  11. Development and Validation of a Methodology to Reduce Mortality Using the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program Risk Calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Deborah S; Kroll, Donald; Papaconstantinou, Harry T; Ellis, C Neal

    2017-04-01

    To identify patients with a high risk of 30-day mortality after elective surgery, who may benefit from referral for tertiary care, an institution-specific process using the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) Risk Calculator was developed. The goal was to develop and validate the methodology. Our hypothesis was that the process could optimize referrals and reduce mortality. A VASQIP risk score was calculated for all patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery at a single Veterans Affairs (VA) facility. After statistical analysis, a VASQIP risk score of 3.3% predicted mortality was selected as the institutional threshold for referral to a tertiary care center. The model predicted that 16% of patients would require referral, and 30-day mortality would be reduced by 73% at the referring institution. The main outcomes measures were the actual vs predicted referrals and mortality rates at the referring and receiving facilities. The validation included 565 patients; 90 (16%) had VASQIP risk scores greater than 3.3% and were identified for referral; 60 consented. In these patients, there were 16 (27%) predicted mortalities, but only 4 actual deaths (p = 0.007) at the receiving institution. When referral was not indicated, the model predicted 4 mortalities (1%), but no actual deaths (p = 0.1241). These data validate this methodology to identify patients for referral to a higher level of care, reducing mortality at the referring institutions and significantly improving patient outcomes. This methodology can help guide decisions on referrals and optimize patient care. Further application and studies are warranted. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  12. Effective speed and agility conditioning methodology for random intermittent dynamic type sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jonathan; Polman, Remco; O'Donoghue, Peter; McNaughton, Lars

    2007-11-01

    Different coaching methods are often used to improve performance. This study compared the effectiveness of 2 methodologies for speed and agility conditioning for random, intermittent, and dynamic activity sports (e.g., soccer, tennis, hockey, basketball, rugby, and netball) and the necessity for specialized coaching equipment. Two groups were delivered either a programmed method (PC) or a random method (RC) of conditioning with a third group receiving no conditioning (NC). PC participants used the speed, agility, quickness (SAQ) conditioning method, and RC participants played supervised small-sided soccer games. PC was also subdivided into 2 groups where participants either used specialized SAQ equipment or no equipment. A total of 46 (25 males and 21 females) untrained participants received (mean +/- SD) 12.2 +/- 2.1 hours of physical conditioning over 6 weeks between a battery of speed and agility parameter field tests. Two-way analysis of variance results indicated that both conditioning groups showed a significant decrease in body mass and body mass index, although PC achieved significantly greater improvements on acceleration, deceleration, leg power, dynamic balance, and the overall summation of % increases when compared to RC and NC (p < 0.05). PC in the form of SAQ exercises appears to be a superior method for improving speed and agility parameters; however, this study found that specialized SAQ equipment was not a requirement to observe significant improvements. Further research is required to establish whether these benefits transfer to sport-specific tasks as well as to the underlying mechanisms resulting in improved performance.

  13. QPEL: Quantum Program and Effect Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Adams

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the syntax and rules of deduction of QPEL (Quantum Program and Effect Language, a language for describing both quantum programs, and properties of quantum programs - effects on the appropriate Hilbert space. We show how semantics may be given in terms of state-and-effect triangles, a categorical setting that allows semantics in terms of Hilbert spaces, C*-algebras, and other categories. We prove soundness and completeness results that show the derivable judgements are exactly those provable in all state-and-effect triangles.

  14. Neurolinguistic measures of typological effects in multilingual transfer: Introducing an ERP methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eRothman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article has two main objectives. First, we offer an introduction to the subfield of generative third language (L3 acquisition. Concerned primarily with modeling initial stages transfer of morphosyntax, one goal of this program is to show how initial stages L3 data make significant contributions towards a better understanding of how the mind represents language and how (cognitive economy constrains acquisition processes more generally. Our second objective is to argue for and demonstrate how this subfield will benefit from a neuro/psycholinguistic methodological approach, such as event related potential (ERP experiments, to complement the claims currently made on the basis of exclusively behavioral experiments.

  15. Neurolinguistic measures of typological effects in multilingual transfer: introducing an ERP methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jason; Alemán Bañón, José; González Alonso, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This article has two main objectives. First, we offer an introduction to the subfield of generative third language (L3) acquisition. Concerned primarily with modeling initial stages transfer of morphosyntax, one goal of this program is to show how initial stages L3 data make significant contributions toward a better understanding of how the mind represents language and how (cognitive) economy constrains acquisition processes more generally. Our second objective is to argue for and demonstrate how this subfield will benefit from a neuro/psycholinguistic methodological approach, such as event-related potential experiments, to complement the claims currently made on the basis of exclusively behavioral experiments.

  16. Glucocorticoids as mediators of developmental programming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulan, Batbayar; Drake, Amanda J

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to an adverse environment in early life is associated with an increased risk of cardio-metabolic and behavioral disorders in adulthood, a phenomenon termed 'early life programming'. One major hypothesis for early life programming is fetal glucocorticoid overexposure. In animal studies, prenatal glucocorticoid excess as a consequence of maternal stress or through exogenous administration to the mother or fetus is associated with programming effects on cardiovascular and metabolic systems and on the brain. These effects can be transmitted to subsequent generations. Studies in humans provide some evidence that prenatal glucocorticoid exposure may exert similar programming effects on glucose/insulin homeostasis, blood pressure and neurodevelopment. The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids mediate these effects are unclear but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. This review discusses the evidence for glucocorticoid programming in animal models and in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design and methodology of the LA Sprouts nutrition, cooking and gardening program for Latino youth: A randomized controlled intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lauren C; Gatto, Nicole M; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2015-05-01

    The LA Sprouts 12-week nutrition, cooking and gardening intervention targets obesity reduction in Latino children. While other gardening and nutrition programs are shown to improve dietary intake, LA Sprouts is unique in that it utilized a curriculum demonstrated to decrease obesity. This methodology paper outlines the design and processes of the LA Sprouts study, and discusses key strategies employed to foster successful implementation of the program. After-school program in four Los Angeles elementary schools. 3rd-5th grade students. Randomized controlled trial. Gardens were built on two of four school campuses, and the 90-minute weekly lessons focused on strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, gardening at school and home, and cooking healthy meals/snacks. Data collection was conducted pre- and post-intervention and included basic clinical and anthropometric measures, dietary intake and psychosocial constructs measured by questionnaire, and an optional fasting blood draw. Baseline data was collected from 364 children, and 320 (88%) completed follow-up. No participants withdrew from the program (data were missing for other reasons). Intervention students attended 9.7 ± 2.3 lessons. Fasting blood samples were collected on 169 children at baseline, and 113 (67%) at follow-up. Questionnaire scales had good internal consistency (IC) and intra-rater reliability (IRR; in child scales: 88% items with IC > 0.7 and 70% items with IRR > 0.50; in parent scales: 75% items with IC > 0.7). The intervention was successfully implemented in the schools and scales appear appropriate to evaluate psychosocial constructs relevant to a gardening intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and methodology of the LA Sprouts nutrition, cooking and gardening program for Latino youth: a randomized controlled intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lauren C.; Gatto, Nicole M.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The LA Sprouts 12-week nutrition, cooking and gardening intervention targets obesity reduction in Latino children. While other gardening and nutrition programs are shown to improve dietary intake, LA Sprouts is unique in that it utilized a curriculum demonstrated to decrease obesity. This methodology paper outlines the design and processes of the LA Sprouts study, and discusses key strategies employed to foster successful implementation of the program. Setting After-school program in four Los Angeles elementary schools. Subjects 3rd–5th grade students. Design Randomized controlled trial. Gardens were built on two of four school campuses, and the 90-minute weekly lessons focused on strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, gardening at school and home, and cooking healthy meals/snacks. Data collection was conducted pre- and post-intervention and included basic clinical and anthropometric measures, dietary intake and psychosocial constructs measured by questionnaire, and an optional fasting blood draw. Results Baseline data was collected from 364 children, and 320 (88%) completed follow-up. No participants withdrew from the program (data were missing for other reasons). Intervention students attended 9.7 ± 2.3 lessons. Fasting blood samples were collected on 169 children at baseline, and 113 (67%) at follow-up. Questionnaire scales had good internal consistency (IC) and intra-rater reliability (IRR; in child scales: 88% items with IC >0.7 and 70% items with IRR > 0.50; in parent scales: 75% items with IC > 0.7). Conclusions The intervention was successfully implemented in the schools and scales appear appropriate to evaluate psychosocial constructs relevant to a gardening intervention. PMID:25896115

  19. Case-Crossover Analysis of Air Pollution Health Effects: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Taracido, Margarita; Tobias, Aurelio; Saez, Marc; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background Case-crossover is one of the most used designs for analyzing the health-related effects of air pollution. Nevertheless, no one has reviewed its application and methodology in this context. Objective We conducted a systematic review of case-crossover (CCO) designs used to study the relationship between air pollution and morbidity and mortality, from the standpoint of methodology and application. Data sources and extraction A search was made of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Reports were classified as methodologic or applied. From the latter, the following information was extracted: author, study location, year, type of population (general or patients), dependent variable(s), independent variable(s), type of CCO design, and whether effect modification was analyzed for variables at the individual level. Data synthesis The review covered 105 reports that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 24 addressed methodological aspects, and the remainder involved the design’s application. In the methodological reports, the designs that yielded the best results in simulation were symmetric bidirectional CCO and time-stratified CCO. Furthermore, we observed an increase across time in the use of certain CCO designs, mainly symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. The dependent variables most frequently analyzed were those relating to hospital morbidity; the pollutants most often studied were those linked to particulate matter. Among the CCO-application reports, 13.6% studied effect modification for variables at the individual level. Conclusions The use of CCO designs has undergone considerable growth; the most widely used designs were those that yielded better results in simulation studies: symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. However, the advantages of CCO as a method of analysis of variables at the individual level are put to little use. PMID:20356818

  20. Axial Magneto-Inductive Effect in Soft Magnetic Microfibers, Test Methodology, and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    pinning was Vt > 0.10 V. For voltages > the minimum, the axial magnetic field is large enough to overcome the molecular resistance between domains and...NUWC-NPT Technical Report 12,186 24 March 2016 Axial Magneto-Inductive Effect in Soft Magnetic Microfibers, Test Methodology, and...does not display a currently valid OPM control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 24-03-2016

  1. A Methodology to Integrate Security and Cost-effectiveness in ATM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Matarese

    2014-01-01

    prioritizing the threats and proposing cost-effective countermeasures for the weaknesses found. ATM security is concerned with securing ATM assets in order to prevent threats and limit their effects on the overall aviation network. This effect limitation can be achieved by removing the vulnerability from the system and/or increasing the tolerance in case of component failures due to attacks. The security risk assessment methodology proposed is based on what is currently being done by the industry (the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO and the International Standard Organization (ISO, etc..

  2. Evaluating the quality and effectiveness of hazardous waste training programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.L.; Haffenden, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weaver, M.A. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    An installation`s compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations is strongly dependent on the knowledge, skill, and behavior of all individuals involved in the generation and management of hazardous waste. Recognizing this, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command (HQ/AFMC) determined that an in-depth evaluation of hazardous waste training programs at each AFMC installation was an appropriate element in assessing the overall effectiveness of installation hazardous waste management programs in preventing noncompliant conditions. Consequently, pursuant to its authority under Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-7042, Solid and Hazardous Waste Compliance (May 12, 1994) to support and maintain hazardous waste training, HQ/AFMC directed Argonne National Laboratory to undertake the Hazardous Waste Training Initiative. This paper summarizes the methodology employed in performing the evaluation and presents the initiative`s salient conclusions.

  3. A Methodology for Quantifying Effects and Psychological Functioning of Behavior-Change Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tobias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology to quantify the effects of behavior change techniques (BCTs that allows forecasting campaign effects on behavior and psychological constructs. The approach involves the gathering of longitudinal data during actual campaigns in which different combinations and sequences of BCTs are applied to different groups. Approximate metric data are gathered by asking for simple and specific evaluations. The data are analyzed using regression models that consider the value range of the dependent variable as bounded (bounded linear regression. Based on these models, forecasts of the intervention effects are calculated, considering the uncertainty of the parameter estimates. The methodology is applied to investigate the effects of prompts (external memory aids, public self-commitments, and implementation intentions on affective and instrumental attitudes, injunctive and descriptive norms, forgetting, perceived behavior control, and behavior in a health-promotion campaign in Bolivia. Prompts and public self-commitments reached more than half of the target population but only showed relevant effects when combined or repeated. The effects of both BCTs on behavior were mainly mediated by forgetting. Implementation intentions were not well received by the promoters and the population. From the few cases that implemented this BCT, no clear psychological effects could be derived.

  4. Utility Green Pricing Programs: A Statistical Analysis of Program Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Olson, S.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2004-02-01

    This report analyzes actual utility green pricing program data to provide further insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs.

  5. Partnerships for the Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Effectiveness, and Implementation Research: Experiences of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.

    2012-01-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786

  6. In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Miranda da Gama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can be assessed by various methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Protein Loss, Electrophoresis, color and brightness, thermal analysis and measuring mechanical resistance to combing and elasticity. The methodology used to test hair fibers must be selected according to the property being evaluated, such as sensory characteristics, determination of brightness, resistance to rupture, elasticity and integrity of hair strain and cortex, among others. If equipment is appropriate and accurate, reproducibility and ease of employment of the analytical methodology will be possible. Normally, the data set must be discussed in order to obtain conclusive answers to the test.

  7. Methodological challenges in measuring vaccine effectiveness using population cohorts in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C; Beard, J; Crampin, A C; Costello, A; Mwansambo, C; Cunliffe, N A; Heyderman, R S; French, N; Bar-Zeev, N

    2015-09-11

    Post-licensure real world evaluation of vaccine implementation is important for establishing evidence of vaccine effectiveness (VE) and programme impact, including indirect effects. Large cohort studies offer an important epidemiological approach for evaluating VE, but have inherent methodological challenges. Since March 2012, we have conducted an open prospective cohort study in two sites in rural Malawi to evaluate the post-introduction effectiveness of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) against all-cause post-neonatal infant mortality and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) against diarrhoea-related post-neonatal infant mortality. Our study sites cover a population of 500,000, with a baseline post-neonatal infant mortality of 25 per 1000 live births. We conducted a methodological review of cohort studies for vaccine effectiveness in a developing country setting, applied to our study context. Based on published literature, we outline key considerations when defining the denominator (study population), exposure (vaccination status) and outcome ascertainment (mortality and cause of death) of such studies. We assess various definitions in these three domains, in terms of their impact on power, effect size and potential biases and their direction, using our cohort study for illustration. Based on this iterative process, we discuss the pros and cons of our final per-protocol analysis plan. Since no single set of definitions or analytical approach accounts for all possible biases, we propose sensitivity analyses to interrogate our assumptions and methodological decisions. In the poorest regions of the world where routine vital birth and death surveillance are frequently unavailable and the burden of disease and death is greatest We conclude that provided the balance between definitions and their overall assumed impact on estimated VE are acknowledged, such large scale real-world cohort studies can provide crucial information to policymakers by providing

  8. 76 FR 5821 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for... Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct annual reviews of the program for...

  9. Do Methodological Choices in Environmental Modeling Bias Rebound Effects? A Case Study on Electric Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Vivanco, David; Tukker, Arnold; Kemp, René

    2016-10-18

    Improvements in resource efficiency often underperform because of rebound effects. Calculations of the size of rebound effects are subject to various types of bias, among which methodological choices have received particular attention. Modellers have primarily focused on choices related to changes in demand, however, choices related to modeling the environmental burdens from such changes have received less attention. In this study, we analyze choices in the environmental assessment methods (life cycle assessment (LCA) and hybrid LCA) and environmental input-output databases (E3IOT, Exiobase and WIOD) used as a source of bias. The analysis is done for a case study on battery electric and hydrogen cars in Europe. The results describe moderate rebound effects for both technologies in the short term. Additionally, long-run scenarios are calculated by simulating the total cost of ownership, which describe notable rebound effect sizes-from 26 to 59% and from 18 to 28%, respectively, depending on the methodological choices-with favorable economic conditions. Relevant sources of bias are found to be related to incomplete background systems, technology assumptions and sectorial aggregation. These findings highlight the importance of the method setup and of sensitivity analyses of choices related to environmental modeling in rebound effect assessments.

  10. Evaluating the effects of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on consumer behavior and health: methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Smallwood, David M

    2003-12-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans is the official nutrition policy statement for the United States. Government involvement in providing information on private behavior, such as food choice, is justified by the high cost of poor diets, as measured in medical expenses and lost productivity. The Guidelines are intended to provide an up-to-date, consistent information base for federal nutrition education and information efforts and food assistance program regulations. Through these policy mechanisms, the Guidelines are assumed to improve dietary behavior, and, ultimately, health. By law, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans must be updated every five years; however, there is no mandate for evaluation. Evaluation could provide useful information to assess the extent to which the Guidelines positively influence health and provide insights into reasons for their successes and limitations. However, evaluation would also present considerable challenges. This paper discusses the critical data and methodological needs for improving evaluation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  11. A methodology to assess the effects of high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E. R., Jr.; Eichler, C. H.; Barnes, P. R.

    Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from high altitude nuclear detonations (HEMP) has the potential to seriously disrupt electric power systems. A methodology has been developed to assess the vulnerability of electric power systems to this phenomena for any specified nuclear burst scenario. The methodology is based on a structured approach whereby the power system is broken down into subsystems, functional groups, and circuits and devices. Vulnerability (likelihood of failure) is assessed for individual equipment (circuits and devices) for each nuclear burst scenario. These effects are then evaluated for their performance impact on successively higher system levels. This forms the input for classical load flow, short circuit and transient stability studies to evaluate system stability and survivability. Applicability of the assessment methodology is not dependent on the quality of component/equipment vulnerability data. Susceptibility of power equipment to HEMP damage may be determined by established technical analysis, by intepretation of equipment design and testing standards, and by laboratory testing. This paper has been written not only for the electric utility engineer, but also for experts in EMP who may not be knowledgeable in electric utility systems.

  12. Effectiveness of the management of price risk methodologies for the corn market based on trading signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rossouw

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Corn production is scattered geographically over various continents, but most of it is grown in the United States. As such, the world price of corn futures contracts is largely dominated by North American corn prices as traded on the Chicago Board of Trade. In recent years, this market has been characterised by an increase in price volatility and magnitude of price movement as a result of decreasing stock levels. The development and implementation of an effective and successful derivative price risk management strategy based on the Chicago Board of Trade corn futures contract will therefore be of inestimable value to market stakeholders worldwide. The research focused on the efficient market hypothesis and the possibility of contesting this phenomenon through an application of a derivative price risk management methodology. The methodology is based on a combination of an analysis of market trends and technical oscillators with the objective of generating returns superior to that of a market benchmark. The study found that market participants are currently unable to exploit price movement in a manner which results in returns that contest the notion of efficient markets. The methodology proposed, however, does allow the user to consistently achieve returns superior to that of a predetermined market benchmark. The benchmark price for the purposes of this study was the average price offered by the market over the contract lifetime, and as such, the efficient market hypothesis was successfully contested

  13. An efficient methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack is presented. The methodology is based on an integration of the visual search paradigm, the choice paradigm and eye-tracking measures, and moves beyond reliance on self-report measures for attention

  14. Introducing Meta-Partition, a Useful Methodology to Explore Factors That Influence Ecological Effect Sizes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    Full Text Available The study of the heterogeneity of effect sizes is a key aspect of ecological meta-analyses. Here we propose a meta-analytic methodology to study the influence of moderators in effect sizes by splitting heterogeneity: meta-partition. To introduce this methodology, we performed a meta-partition of published data about the traits that influence species sensitivity to habitat loss, that have been previously analyzed through meta-regression. Thus, here we aim to introduce meta-partition and to make an initial comparison with meta-regression. Meta-partition algorithm consists of three steps. Step 1 is to study the heterogeneity of effect sizes under the assumption of fixed effect model. If heterogeneity is found, we perform step 2, that is, to partition the heterogeneity by the moderator that minimizes heterogeneity within a subset while maximizing heterogeneity between subsets. Then, if effect sizes of the subset are still heterogeneous, we repeat step 1 and 2 until we reach final subsets. Finally, step 3 is to integrate effect sizes of final subsets, with fixed effect model if there is homogeneity, and with random effects model if there is heterogeneity. Results show that meta-partition is valuable to assess the importance of moderators in explaining heterogeneity of effect sizes, as well as to assess the directions of these relations and to detect possible interactions between moderators. With meta-partition we have been able to evaluate the importance of moderators in a more objective way than with meta-regression, and to visualize the complex relations that may exist between them. As ecological issues are often influenced by several factors interacting in complex ways, ranking the importance of possible moderators and detecting possible interactions would make meta-partition a useful exploration tool for ecological meta-analyses.

  15. Introducing Meta-Partition, a Useful Methodology to Explore Factors That Influence Ecological Effect Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Vallejo, Javier; Mencía, Abraham; Galindo-Villardón, Maria Purificación; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    The study of the heterogeneity of effect sizes is a key aspect of ecological meta-analyses. Here we propose a meta-analytic methodology to study the influence of moderators in effect sizes by splitting heterogeneity: meta-partition. To introduce this methodology, we performed a meta-partition of published data about the traits that influence species sensitivity to habitat loss, that have been previously analyzed through meta-regression. Thus, here we aim to introduce meta-partition and to make an initial comparison with meta-regression. Meta-partition algorithm consists of three steps. Step 1 is to study the heterogeneity of effect sizes under the assumption of fixed effect model. If heterogeneity is found, we perform step 2, that is, to partition the heterogeneity by the moderator that minimizes heterogeneity within a subset while maximizing heterogeneity between subsets. Then, if effect sizes of the subset are still heterogeneous, we repeat step 1 and 2 until we reach final subsets. Finally, step 3 is to integrate effect sizes of final subsets, with fixed effect model if there is homogeneity, and with random effects model if there is heterogeneity. Results show that meta-partition is valuable to assess the importance of moderators in explaining heterogeneity of effect sizes, as well as to assess the directions of these relations and to detect possible interactions between moderators. With meta-partition we have been able to evaluate the importance of moderators in a more objective way than with meta-regression, and to visualize the complex relations that may exist between them. As ecological issues are often influenced by several factors interacting in complex ways, ranking the importance of possible moderators and detecting possible interactions would make meta-partition a useful exploration tool for ecological meta-analyses. PMID:27409084

  16. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Nick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP, from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP, from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers. In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project. The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness. While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR.

  17. Synergistic effects of Chinese herbal medicine: a comprehensive review of methodology and current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilised complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of Chinese herbal medicine, misconceptions about synergy, methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengthen and weakness of these models in the context of Chinese herbal medicine and summarise the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.

  18. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  19. Bacteria-material surface interactions: methodological development for the assessment of implant surface induced antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Welch, Ken; Brånemark, Rickard; Khalilpour, Poroshat; Engqvist, Håkan; Thomsen, Peter; Trobos, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The choice of material for implanted prostheses is of great importance concerning bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. Consequently, methods to investigate bacterial behavior are needed in order to develop new infection resistant surfaces. In this study, different methodological setups were used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of photocatalytic titanium oxide and silver surfaces. Biofilm formation and eradication under static and dynamic culture conditions were studied with the use of the following analytical techniques: viable colony-forming unit (CFU) counting, imprinting, fluorescence, and bioluminescence. The present study demonstrates that different methods are needed in order to evaluate the prophylactic and treatment effects on planktonic and biofilm bacteria and to assess the antimicrobial effect of different surface treatments/coatings. Choosing the right antibacterial testing model for the specific application is also of great importance. Both in situ approaches and indirect methods provide valuable complementary information. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) test program is being lead by NASA Ames for Configuration Aerodynamics (CA). Representatives from CA, Technology Integration (TI), Inlet, and the Nozzle ITD's are working with Ames in defining and executing this test program. The objective of the CA 4-14 milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) and design variations using computational and experimental methods. The experimental aspect includes static calibrations, transonic and supersonic wind tunnel testing. The test program will generate a comprehensive database that will include all appropriate wind tunnel corrections, with emphasis placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the TCA.

  1. Measuring Effectiveness in Digital Game-Based Learning: A Methodological Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa All

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a growing number of studies are being conducted into the effectiveness of digital game-based learning (DGBL. Despite this growing interest, there is a lack of sound empirical evidence on the effectiveness of DGBL due to different outcome measures for assessing effectiveness, varying methods of data collection and inconclusive or difficult to interpret results. This has resulted in a need for an overarching methodology for assessing the effectiveness of DGBL. The present study took a first step in this direction by mapping current methods used for assessing the effectiveness of DGBL. Results showed that currently, comparison of results across studies and thus looking at effectiveness of DGBL on a more general level is problematic due to diversity in and suboptimal study designs. Variety in study design relates to three issues, namely different activities that are implemented in the control groups, different measures for assessing the effectiveness of DGBL and the use of different statistical techniques for analyzing learning outcomes. Suboptimal study designs are the result of variables confounding study results. Possible confounds that were brought forward in this review are elements that are added to the game as part of the educational intervention (e.g., required reading, debriefing session, instructor influences and practice effects when using the same test pre- and post-intervention. Lastly, incomplete information on the study design impedes replication of studies and thus falsification of study results.

  2. Effect of programmed circadian temperature fluctuations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of programmed circadian temperature fluctuations on population dynamics of. Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss). K.N. de Kock and J.A. van Eeden. Snail Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education,. Potchefstroom. Until now all life-table studies on freshwater snails.

  3. The Programmed Instruction Era: When Effectiveness Mattered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Programmed instruction (PI) was devised to make the teaching-learning process more humane by making it more effective and customized to individual differences. B.F. Skinner's original prescription was modified by later innovators to incorporate more human interaction, social reinforcers and other forms of feedback, larger and more flexible chunks…

  4. Effectiveness of programs to prevent school bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.; Farrington, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Sixteen major evaluations of programs to prevent school bullying, conducted in 11 different countries, are reviewed in detail. Of these 16 evaluations, 8 produced desirable results, 2 produced mixed results, 4 produced small or negligible effects, and 2 produced undesirable results. These varying

  5. Inside Out: Program Integrity and Effectiveness of the Cognitive-Behavioural Program EQUIP for Incarcerated Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    In correctional facilities intervention programs are used to reduce behavioral problems and recidivism. Intervention programs can be effective when they contain effective ingredients and are implemented with high levels of program integrity. Program integrity is the degree to which programs are

  6. Cognitive and methodological considerations on the effects of musical expertise on speech segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Tillmann, Barbara; Schön, Daniele

    2012-04-01

    Both speech and music are constituted by sequences of sound elements that unfold in time and require listeners to engage cognitive functions such as sequencing, attention, and memory. We recently ran a set of experiments with the aim of testing the effect of musical expertise on a rather high cognitive function: speech segmentation. Here, we will present the main concepts underlying the investigation of speech segmentation as well as its link to music and musical expertise. Interestingly, our results seem to show that musical training and expertise have effects on brain plasticity that may go beyond primary regions. Moreover, to facilitate and improve future research in this domain, we will here describe several delicate methodological precautions that need to be taken into account (e.g., the choice of stimuli, participants, data analyses). Finally, we will give some possible future directions to better understand the impact that music may have on speech processing. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. A goal programming approach for a joint design of macroeconomic and environmental policies: a methodological proposal and an application to the Spanish economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Francisco J; Cardenete, M Alejandro; Romero, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    The economic policy needs to pay increasingly more attention to the environmental issues, which requires the development of methodologies able to incorporate environmental, as well as macroeconomic, goals in the design of public policies. Starting from this observation, this article proposes a methodology based upon a Simonian satisficing logic made operational with the help of goal programming (GP) models, to address the joint design of macroeconomic and environmental policies. The methodology is applied to the Spanish economy, where a joint policy is elicited, taking into consideration macroeconomic goals (economic growth, inflation, unemployment, public deficit) and environmental goals (CO(2), NO( x ) and SO( x ) emissions) within the context of a computable general equilibrium model. The results show how the government can "fine-tune" its policy according to different criteria using GP models. The resulting policies aggregate the environmental and the economic goals in different ways: maximum aggregate performance, maximum balance and a lexicographic hierarchy of the goals.

  8. Lean management in health care: definition, concepts, methodology and effects reported (systematic review protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Adegboyega K; Rotter, Thomas; Kinsman, Leigh; Sari, Nazmi; Harrison, Liz; Jeffery, Cathy; Kutz, Mareike; Khan, Mohammad F; Flynn, Rachel

    2014-09-19

    Lean is a set of operating philosophies and methods that help create a maximum value for patients by reducing waste and waits. It emphasizes the consideration of the customer's needs, employee involvement and continuous improvement. Research on the application and implementation of lean principles in health care has been limited. This is a protocol for a systematic review, following the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) methodology. The review aims to document, catalogue and synthesize the existing literature on the effects of lean implementation in health care settings especially the potential effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. We have developed a Medline keyword search strategy, and this focused strategy will be translated into other databases. All search strategies will be provided in the review. The method proposed by the Cochrane EPOC group regarding randomized study designs, non-randomised controlled trials controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series will be followed. In addition, we will also include cohort, case-control studies, and relevant non-comparative publications such as case reports. We will categorize and analyse the review findings according to the study design employed, the study quality (low- versus high-quality studies) and the reported types of implementation in the primary studies. We will present the results of studies in a tabular form. Overall, the systematic review aims to identify, assess and synthesize the evidence to underpin the implementation of lean activities in health care settings as defined in this protocol. As a result, the review will provide an evidence base for the effectiveness of lean and implementation methodologies reported in health care. PROSPERO CRD42014008853.

  9. FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF DRUG TRAFFICKING TERMS: A SUBSTANTIVE AND METHODOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF A VERBAL BEHAVIOR RESEARCH PROGRAM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angela Sanguinetti; Wendy Reyes

    2011-01-01

    .... An innovative methodology was used to explore verbal behavior in diverse media reports following the 2001 prison escape of Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman Loera, reputed prominent agent of the "Sinaloa Cartel...

  10. The Application of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Methodology to Intrathecal Drug Delivery for Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulino, Michael F; Patel, Teresa; Fisher, Stanley P

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to utilize failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) to transform clinical insights into a risk mitigation plan for intrathecal (IT) drug delivery in pain management. The FMEA methodology, which has been used for quality improvement, was adapted to assess risks (i.e., failure modes) associated with IT therapy. Ten experienced pain physicians scored 37 failure modes in the following categories: patient selection for therapy initiation (efficacy and safety concerns), patient safety during IT therapy, and product selection for IT therapy. Participants assigned severity, probability, and detection scores for each failure mode, from which a risk priority number (RPN) was calculated. Failure modes with the highest RPNs (i.e., most problematic) were discussed, and strategies were proposed to mitigate risks. Strategic discussions focused on 17 failure modes with the most severe outcomes, the highest probabilities of occurrence, and the most challenging detection. The topic of the highest-ranked failure mode (RPN = 144) was manufactured monotherapy versus compounded combination products. Addressing failure modes associated with appropriate patient and product selection was predicted to be clinically important for the success of IT therapy. The methodology of FMEA offers a systematic approach to prioritizing risks in a complex environment such as IT therapy. Unmet needs and information gaps are highlighted through the process. Risk mitigation and strategic planning to prevent and manage critical failure modes can contribute to therapeutic success. © 2016 The Authors. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Neuromodulation Society.

  11. A methodological framework to assess the environmental and economic effects of injection barriers against seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarkos, Ilias; Latinopoulos, Dionysis; Mallios, Zisis; Latinopoulos, Pericles

    2017-05-15

    Seawater intrusion is responsible for the progressive deterioration of groundwater quality in numerous coastal aquifers worldwide. As a consequence, seawater intrusion may constitute a serious threat to local groundwater resources, as well as to the regional economy of coastal areas. To alleviate these negative effects, a number of well-designed protective measures could be implemented. The implementation of these measures is usually associated with significant benefits for the environment and the local economy. In this perspective, the present study investigates the particular case of constructing injection barriers for controlling seawater intrusion by developing a methodological framework that combines numerical modeling with spatial and cost-benefit analyses. To this task, we introduce a novel approach, which considers the socio-economic aspects of seawater intrusion in the modeling procedure, and at the same time focuses on the spatial and temporal relationships between water salinity and farmers' income. To test the proposed methodology two alternative artificial recharge scenarios - with different volumes of water used for injection - are assessed. According to the results of this analysis, both scenarios are likely to have a positive impact on groundwater quality, as well as, a net economic benefit to local society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Developing effective cancer pain education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michelle Y; Pisu, Maria; Kvale, Elizabeth A; Johns, Shelley A

    2012-08-01

    Pain is prevalent, burdensome, and undertreated in individuals with cancer across the disease trajectory. Providing patients and family caregivers with psychosocial support and education to manage cancer pain is a core component of quality care that can result in significant clinical benefit. In this review, we: (1) outline an approach for developing and assessing the effectiveness of education programs for adults with cancer pain; (2) discuss considerations for tailoring programs to the needs of diverse populations and those with limited health literacy skills; (3) describe the resource needs and costs of developing a program; (4) highlight innovative approaches to cancer pain education. We conclude with recommendations for future research and the next generation of educational interventions.

  13. A methodology to evaluate the effect of video compression on the performance of analytics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsifouti, Anastasia; Nasralla, Moustafa M.; Razaak, Manzoor; Cope, James; Orwell, James M.; Martini, Maria G.; Sage, Kingsley

    2012-10-01

    The Image Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) provides benchmark surveillance datasets for analytics systems. This paper proposes a methodology to investigate the effect of compression and frame-rate reduction, and to recommend an appropriate suite of degraded datasets for public release. The library consists of six scenarios, including Sterile Zone (SZ) and Parked Vehicle (PV), which are investigated using two different compression algorithms (H.264 and JPEG) and a number of detection systems. PV has higher spatio-temporal complexity than the SZ. Compression performance is dependent on scene content hence PV will require larger bit-streams in comparison with SZ, for any given distortion rate. The study includes both industry standard algorithms (for transmission) and CCTV recorders (for storage). CCTV recorders generally use proprietary formats, which may significantly affect the visual information. Encoding standards such as H.264 and JPEG use the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) technique, which introduces blocking artefacts. The H.264 compression algorithm follows a hybrid predictive coding approach to achieve high compression gains, exploiting both spatial and temporal redundancy. The highly predictive approach of H.264 may introduce more artefacts resulting in a greater effect on the performance of analytics systems than JPEG. The paper describes the two main components of the proposed methodology to measure the effect of degradation on analytics performance. Firstly, the standard tests, using the `f-measure' to evaluate the performance on a range of degraded video sets. Secondly, the characterisation of the datasets, using quantification of scene features, defined using image processing techniques. This characterization permits an analysis of the points of failure introduced by the video degradation.

  14. An Effective Methodology with Automated Product Configuration for Software Product Line Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Uk-Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide adaptation of product line engineering in software industry has enabled cost effective development of high quality software for diverse market segments. In software product line (SPL, a family of software is specified with a set of core assets representing reusable features with their variability, dependencies, and constraints. From such core assets, valid software products are configured after thoroughly analysing the represented features and their properties. However, current implementations of SPL lack effective means to configure a valid product as core assets specified in SPL, being high-dimensional data, are often too complex to analyse. This paper presents a time and cost effective methodology with associated tool supports to design a SPL model, analyse features, and configure a valid product. The proposed approach uses eXtensible Markup Language (XML to model SPL, where an adequate schema is defined to precisely specify core assets. Furthermore, it enables automated product configuration by (i extracting all the properties of required features from a given SPL model and calculating them with Alloy Analyzer; (ii generating a decision model with appropriate eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT instructions embedded in each resolution effect; and (iii processing XSLT instructions of all the selected resolution effects.

  15. A methodological review of meta-analyses of the effectiveness of clinical psychology treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Aparicio, María; Marín-Martínez, Fulgencio; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; López-López, José Antonio

    2017-10-19

    This article presents a methodological review of 54 meta-analyses of the effectiveness of clinical psychological treatments, using standardized mean differences as the effect size index. We statistically analyzed the distribution of the number of studies of the meta-analyses, the distribution of the sample sizes in the studies of each meta-analysis, the distribution of the effect sizes in each of the meta-analyses, the distribution of the between-studies variance values, and the Pearson correlations between effect size and sample size in each meta-analysis. The results are presented as a function of the type of standardized mean difference: posttest standardized mean difference, standardized mean change from pretest to posttest, and standardized mean change difference between groups. These findings will help researchers design future Monte Carlo and theoretical studies on the performance of meta-analytic procedures, based on the manipulation of realistic model assumptions and parameters of the meta-analyses. Furthermore, the analysis of the distribution of the mean effect sizes through the meta-analyses provides a specific guide for the interpretation of the clinical significance of the different types of standardized mean differences within the field of the evaluation of clinical psychological interventions.

  16. Effect of passive acoustic sampling methodology on detecting bats after declines from white nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Laci S.; Ford, W. Mark; Dobony, Christopher A.; Britzke, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant with the emergence and spread of white-nose syndrome (WNS) and precipitous decline of many bat species in North America, natural resource managers need modified and/or new techniques for bat inventory and monitoring that provide robust occupancy estimates. We used Anabat acoustic detectors to determine the most efficient passive acoustic sampling design for optimizing detection probabilities of multiple bat species in a WNS-impacted environment in New York, USA. Our sampling protocol included: six acoustic stations deployed for the entire duration of monitoring as well as a 4 x 4 grid and five transects of 5-10 acoustic units that were deployed for 6-8 night sample durations surveyed during the summers of 2011-2012. We used Program PRESENCE to determine detection probability and site occupancy estimates. Overall, the grid produced the highest detection probabilities for most species because it contained the most detectors and intercepted the greatest spatial area. However, big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and species not impacted by WNS were detected easily regardless of sampling array. Endangered Indiana (Myotis sodalis) and little brown (Myotis lucifugus) and tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus) showed declines in detection probabilities over our study, potentially indicative of continued WNS-associated declines. Identification of species presence through efficient methodologies is vital for future conservation efforts as bat populations decline further due to WNS and other factors.   

  17. Evaluation of economic effects of population ageing--methodology of estimating indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Agata; Czech, Marcin; Gębska-Kuczerowska, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Process of demographic ageing, especially in recent decades, is steadily growing in dynamics and importance due to increasing health-related needs and expectations with regard to a guarantee of social services. Elaboration of the most effective model of care, tailored to Polish conditions, requires an estimation of actual costs of this care, including indirect costs which are greatly related to informal care. The fact that the costs of informal care are omitted, results from a determined approach to analyses. It is discussed only from a perspective of budget for health and does not cover societal aspects. In such situation, however, the costs borne by a receiver of services are neglected. As a consequence, the costs of informal care are underestimated or often excluded from calculations, even if they include indirect costs. Comprehensive methodological approach for estimating the costs of informal care seems to be important for a properly conducted economic evaluation in health care sector.

  18. Program Evaluation for Sexually Transmitted Disease Programs: In Support of Effective Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marion W

    2016-02-01

    Program evaluation is a key tool for gathering evidence about the value and effectiveness of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs and interventions. Drawing from published literature, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evaluation framework, and program examples, this article lays out some of the key principles of program evaluation for STD program staff. The purpose is to offer STD program staff a stronger basis for talking about, planning, conducting, and advocating for evaluation within their respective program contexts.

  19. A critical analysis of alcohol hangover research methodology for surveys or studies of effects on cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Grange, James A; Jones, Kate; Owen, Lauren

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol hangover may be defined as an adverse effect of heavy alcohol consumption present after sufficient time has elapsed for the alcohol to have been eliminated from the blood. Understanding how hangover may impair performance is important for public safety; yet, there is relatively little hangover research. This paper outlines good practice for future studies. This paper presents a critical analysis of hangover methodology for surveys or studies of effects on cognition with human subjects and provides suggestions for optimum research practice for laboratory-based and naturalistic alcohol hangover studies. Four hangover symptom scales have been developed and subjected to psychometric testing. For retrospective assessment, we recommend the Hangover Symptoms Scale (HSS) or the Alcohol Hangover Severity Scale (AHSS). For concurrent assessment of hangover symptoms, we recommend either the Acute Hangover Scale (AHS), the five-item version of the HSS, or the AHSS. In research aiming to assess the cognitive effects of alcohol hangover, we suggest focusing on the cognitive domains of attention, memory and executive function, and we specify a number of tests within these cognitive domains that are likely to be sensitive to any decrements due to hangover. Finally, we argue that naturalistic studies should assess biological markers to improve the accuracy of estimates of alcohol consumption. Specifically, we recommend the assessment of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for this purpose. Recommendations are made with respect to assessing hangover symptoms, cognitive effects of hangover and biological markers of alcohol consumption.

  20. A Methodology of Health Effects Estimation from Air Pollution in Large Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hirota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of health effects caused by air pollution seems to be a growing concern in Asian cities with increasing motorization. This paper discusses methods of estimating the health effects of air pollution in large Asian cities. Due to the absence of statistical data in Asia, this paper carefully chooses the methodology using data of the Japanese compensation system. A basic idea of health effects will be captured from simple indicators, such as population and air quality, in a correlation model. This correlation model enables more estimation results of respiratory mortality caused by air pollution to be yielded than by using the relative model. The correlation model could be an alternative method to estimate mortality besides the relative risk model since the results of the correlation model are comparable with those of the relative model by city and by time series. The classification of respiratory diseases is not known from the statistical yearbooks in many countries. Estimation results could support policy decision-making with respect to public health in a cost-effective way.

  1. Deliverable 4.2: Methodology for including specific biological effects and pathogen aspects into LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    of this methodology is presented here. Furthermore, special issues related to waste water have been addressed by including novel development on LCIA methodology for possible impact from pathogens and whole effluent toxicity. Special focus is also allocated to micropollutants with specific toxic mode of action (i......As described in deliverable 4.1 (Larsen et al. 2007) NEPTUNE is using two main types of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodologies when doing LCA studies on the waste water treatment technologies included. The basic methodology is the well known existing EDIP97 methodology (Wenzel et al....... 1997, Hauschild and Wenzel 1998) for which the impact assessment on toxicity is PNEC based. However, in order to include the newest development on especially best available practice as regards ecotoxicity a new revised and updated EDIP 200X LCIA methodology has been developed. A first draft...

  2. Selection Effects and Prevention Program Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura G.; Rosenman, Robert; Tennekoon, Vidhura; Mandal, Bidisha

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of the paper is to provide an example of an evaluation design and analytic method that can be used to strengthen causal inference in nonexperimental prevention research. We used this method in a nonexperimental multisite study to evaluate short-term outcomes of a preventive intervention, and we accounted for effects of two types of selection bias: self-selection into the program and differential dropout. To provide context for our analytic approach, we present an overview of the counterfactual model (also known as Rubin’s causal model or the potential outcomes model) and several methods derived from that model, including propensity score matching, the Heckman two-step approach, and full information maximum likelihood based on a bivariate probit model and its trivariate generalization. We provide an example using evaluation data from a community-based family intervention and a nonexperimental control group constructed from the Washington state biennial Healthy Youth risk behavior survey data (HYS) (HYS n = 68,846; intervention n = 1502). We identified significant effects of participant, program, and community attributes in self-selection into the program and program completion. Identification of specific selection effects is useful for developing recruitment and retention strategies, and failure to identify selection may lead to inaccurate estimation of outcomes and their public health impact. Counterfactual models allow us to evaluate interventions in uncontrolled settings and still maintain some confidence in the internal validity of our inferences; their application holds great promise for the field of prevention science as we scale up to community dissemination of preventive interventions. PMID:23417667

  3. 77 FR 14568 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... review in investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of... Commerce to establish an Earned Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct...

  4. Student Services and Special Programs: A Report on Program Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Skillman, Thelma; And Others

    Student services and special programs within the California Community Colleges (CCC) are designed to enhance student equity, access, retention, persistence toward goal completion, and successful educational outcomes. The special programs and services within the CCC which serve targeted and diverse student populations are Extended Opportunity…

  5. Combined methodology for estimating dose rates and health effects from exposure to radioactive pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    The work described in the report is basically a synthesis of two previously existing computer codes: INREM II, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and CAIRD, developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The INREM II code uses contemporary dosimetric methods to estimate doses to specified reference organs due to inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. The CAIRD code employs actuarial life tables to account for competing risks in estimating numbers of health effects resulting from exposure of a cohort to some incremental risk. The combined computer code, referred to as RADRISK, estimates numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 persons due to continuous lifetime inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. Also briefly discussed in this report is a method of estimating numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort due to continuous lifetime exposure to external radiation. This method employs the CAIRD methodology together with dose conversion factors generated by the computer code DOSFACTER, developed at ORNL; these dose conversion factors are used to estimate dose rates to persons due to radionuclides in the air or on the ground surface. The combination of the life table and dosimetric guidelines for the release of radioactive pollutants to the atmosphere, as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

  6. Experimental validation on the effect of material geometries and processing methodology of Polyoxymethylene (POM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizzal, Y.; Nurulhuda, A.; Izman, S.; Khadir, AZA

    2017-08-01

    POM-copolymer bond breaking leads to change depending with respect to processing methodology and material geometries. This paper present the oversights effect on the material integrity due to different geometries and processing methodology. Thermo-analytical methods with reference were used to examine the degradation of thermomechanical while Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to judge the thermal stability of sample from its major decomposition temperature. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) investigation performed to identify the thermal behaviour and thermal properties of materials. The result shown that plastic gear geometries with injection molding at higher tonnage machine more stable thermally rather than resin geometries. Injection plastic gear geometries at low tonnage machine faced major decomposition temperatures at 313.61°C, 305.76 °C and 307.91 °C while higher tonnage processing method are fully decomposed at 890°C, significantly higher compared to low tonnage condition and resin geometries specimen at 398°C. Chemical composition of plastic gear geometries with injection molding at higher and lower tonnage are compare based on their moisture and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) content, polymeric material content and the absence of filler. Results of higher moisture and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) content are report in resin geometries (0.120%) compared to higher tonnage of injection plastic gear geometries which is 1.264%. The higher tonnage of injection plastic gear geometry are less sensitive to thermo-mechanical degradation due to polymer chain length and molecular weight of material properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, fatigue strength and creep resistance.

  7. From concepts, theory, and evidence of heterogeneity of treatment effects to methodological approaches: a primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willke Richard J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Implicit in the growing interest in patient-centered outcomes research is a growing need for better evidence regarding how responses to a given intervention or treatment may vary across patients, referred to as heterogeneity of treatment effect (HTE. A variety of methods are available for exploring HTE, each associated with unique strengths and limitations. This paper reviews a selected set of methodological approaches to understanding HTE, focusing largely but not exclusively on their uses with randomized trial data. It is oriented for the “intermediate” outcomes researcher, who may already be familiar with some methods, but would value a systematic overview of both more and less familiar methods with attention to when and why they may be used. Drawing from the biomedical, statistical, epidemiological and econometrics literature, we describe the steps involved in choosing an HTE approach, focusing on whether the intent of the analysis is for exploratory, initial testing, or confirmatory testing purposes. We also map HTE methodological approaches to data considerations as well as the strengths and limitations of each approach. Methods reviewed include formal subgroup analysis, meta-analysis and meta-regression, various types of predictive risk modeling including classification and regression tree analysis, series of n-of-1 trials, latent growth and growth mixture models, quantile regression, and selected non-parametric methods. In addition to an overview of each HTE method, examples and references are provided for further reading. By guiding the selection of the methods and analysis, this review is meant to better enable outcomes researchers to understand and explore aspects of HTE in the context of patient-centered outcomes research.

  8. A program of methodological research to arrive at the new international EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppe, Mark; Devlin, Nancy J; van Hout, Ben; Krabbe, Paul F M; de Charro, Frank

    2014-06-01

    To describe the research that has been undertaken by the EuroQol Group to improve current methods for health state valuation, to summarize the results of an extensive international pilot program, and to outline the key elements of the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire valuation protocol, which is the culmination of that work. To improve on methods of health state valuation for the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire, we investigated the performance of different variants of time trade-off and discrete choice tasks in a multinational setting. We also investigated the effect of three modes of administration on health state valuation: group interviews, online self-completion, and face-to-face interviews. The research program provided the basis for the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire valuation protocol. Two different types of tasks are included to derive preferences: a newly developed composite time trade-off task and a forced-choice paired comparisons discrete choice task. Furthermore, standardized blocked designs for the selection of the states to be valued by participants were created and implemented together with all other elements of the valuation protocol in a digital aid, the EuroQol Valuation Technology, which was developed in conjunction with the protocol. The EuroQol Group has developed a standard protocol, with accompanying digital aid and interviewer training materials, that can be used to create value sets for the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. The use of a well-described, consistent protocol across all countries enhances the comparability of value sets between countries, and allows the exploration of the influence of cultural and other factors on health state values. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of arts-in-medicine programming on the medical-surgical work environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonke, Jill; Pesata, Virginia; Arce, Lauren; Carytsas, Ferol P.; Zemina, Kristen; Jokisch, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arts in medicine programs have significant impacts on patients and staff in long-term care environments, but the literature lacks evidence of effectiveness on hospital units with shorter average lengths of stay. Methods: The qualitative study used individual structured interviews to assess the impacts of arts programming on job satisfaction, stress, unit culture, support, quality of care, and patient outcomes on a short-term medical-surgical unit, and used a qualitative cross comparison grounded theory methodology to analyze data. Results: The study confirmed that arts programming can positively affect unit culture, nursing practice, and quality of care on short-stay medical-surgical units. Significant insights related to nursing practice and the art program were found, including that music can cause negative distraction for staff. Conclusions: While positive impacts of arts programming on the medical-surgical environment are clear, potential negative effects also need to be considered in the development of practice protocols for artists. PMID:25544861

  10. Effects of the Helping Early Literacy with Practice Strategies (HELPS) on Reading Fluency with Secondary Level Students Attending an Alternative Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Holly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the HELPS Program on the reading fluency skills of secondary level students attending an alternative education program using single case design methodology. Participants in this study included one 8th grade student and two 9th grade students attending an alternative education program in…

  11. Effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise: discrepancies and methodological appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Chackur Brum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, the main aim of this study was to discuss methodological differences between studies which could explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance have been investigated in depth. Although the results of much research demonstrates the effi cacy of this supplement, there is just as much evidence that does not support this ergogenic effect. The explanation for this divergence appears to be multifactorial, although it is always linked to methodological characteristics. Study design (crossover or parallel groups, individual variability of muscular creatine content, chronic high meat intake, sample size, exercise protocol characteristics (body weight dependence and time between series, and gender and age all differ between studies and are potentially the variables responsible, to differing extents, for the discrepancies observed in the literature. Studies involving young males, with parallel group design, adequate statistical power, control of the incorporation of creatine into muscles, food intake assessment and intermittent exercise protocols in which performance is independent of body weight and with rest-recovery intervals of 1 to 6 minutes, usually produce positive results. The many methodological factors which can contribute to divergence on the ergogenic effects of creatine should be considered in futures studies, as well as when prescribing creatine supplementation. Resumo Após breve revisão da literatura existente acerca dos efeitos da suplementação de creatina no rendimento em atividades intermitentes de alta intensidade, o objetivo principal dessa revisão foi discutir diferenças metodológicas dos estudos que possam explicar a divergência encontrada na literatura. Os efeitos da suplementação de creatina

  12. Review on health effects related to mobile phones (part I: introduction and methodology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mayada M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the recent literature on the health effects of exposure to mobile phones. The literature published in the last 10 years (2000-2010) has been reviewed. Those published in 2011 will be included in the updated review (part 2). Searches were made electronically through various search engines and health-related databases, and manually through journals, reports, and conference proceedings. The references used in the introduction of part 1 were mainly WHO reports, textbooks, and non serial publications. Search strategies identified a total of 772 references, with 85 finally being included in the results for 2000-2010. Nearly all types of studies were included in the review (experimental in vitro, in vivo, human provocation studies, epidemiological studies and review articles). The reported effects associated with exposure to mobile phones did not show a consistent pattern. Studies on exposure in children were very few. In spite of the abundance of publications on the effects of mobile phones, yet, at present, there is no consistency in the scientific evidence regarding their adverse health effects. Methodological problems are mostly behind these variation. However, strong and consistent evidence was revealed by review studies including meta-analysis which indicated that driving performance was significantly impacted when drivers were concurrently talking on a mobile phone, whether hand-held or hands-free. Continued research is recommended to address specific areas of concern, including health effects in children using mobile phones, and the relation between long-term low-level exposure to mobile phones and cancer.

  13. Effectiveness and efficacy of nutritional therapy: A systematic review following Cochrane methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Krznarić, Zeljko; Singer, Pierre; Barazzoni, Rocco; Cederholm, Tommy; Golay, Alain; Van Gossum, André; Kennedy, Nicholas; Kreymann, Georg; Laviano, Alessandro; Pavić, Tajana; Puljak, Livia; Sambunjak, Dario; Utrobičić, Ana; Schneider, Stéphane M

    2017-08-01

    Disease-related malnutrition has deleterious consequences on patients' outcome and healthcare costs. The demonstration of improved outcome by appropriate nutritional management is on occasion difficult. The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) appointed the Nutrition Education Study Group (ESPEN-NESG) to increase recognition of nutritional knowledge and support in health services. To obtain the best available evidence on the potential effects of malnutrition on morbidity, mortality and hospital stay; cost of malnutrition; effect of nutritional treatment on outcome parameters and pharmaco-economics of nutritional therapy, a systematic review of the literature was performed following Cochrane methodology, to answer the following key questions: Q1) Is malnutrition an independent predictive factor for readmission within 30 days from hospital discharge? Q2) Does nutritional therapy reduce the risk of readmission within 30 days from hospital discharge? Q3) Is nutritional therapy cost-effective/does it reduce costs in hospitalized patients? and Q4) Is nutritional therapy cost effective/does it reduce costs in outpatients? For Q1 six of 15 identified observational studies indicated that malnutrition was predictive of re-admissions, whereas the remainder did not. For Q2 nine randomized controlled trials and two meta-analyses gave non-conclusive results whether re-admissions could be reduced by nutritional therapy. Economic benefit and cost-effectiveness of nutritional therapy was consistently reported in 16 identified studies for hospitalized patients (Q3), whereas the heterogeneous and limited corresponding data on out-patients (Q4) indicated cost-benefits in some selected sub-groups. This result of this review supports the use of nutritional therapy to reduce healthcare costs, most evident from large, homogeneous studies. In general, reports are too heterogeneous and overall of limited quality for conclusions on impact of malnutrition and its

  14. NHLBI family blood pressure program: methodology and recruitment in the HyperGEN network. Hypertension genetic epidemiology network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R R; Rao, D C; Ellison, R C; Arnett, D K; Heiss, G; Oberman, A; Eckfeldt, J H; Leppert, M F; Province, M A; Mockrin, S C; Hunt, S C

    2000-08-01

    several options for DNA testing; 94% of participants gave permission for DNA testing now or in the future for any confidential medical research, with only 6% requesting restrictions for tests performed on their DNA. Since this is a family study, participants also are asked to list all first degree relatives (along with names, addresses, and phone numbers) and to indicate for each relative whether they were willing to allow study staff to make a contact. Seventy percent gave permission to contact some relatives; about 30% gave permission to contact all first degree relatives; and less than 1% asked that no relatives be contacted. Successes after the first four years of this study include: 1) productive collaboration of eight centers from six different locations; 2) early achievement of recruitment goals for study participants including African-Americans; 3) an encouraging rate of consent for DNA testing (including future testing) and relative contacting; 4) completed analyses of genetic linkage and association for several candidate gene markers and polymorphisms; 5) completed genotyping of random markers for over half of the full sample; and 6) early sharing of results among the four Family Blood Pressure Program networks for candidate and genome search analyses. Experience after four years of this five-year program (1995-2000) suggests that the newly initiated NHLBI Network Program mechanism is fulfilling many of the expectations for which it was designed. It may serve as a paradigm for future genetic research that can benefit from large sample sizes, frequent sharing of ideas among laboratories, and prompt independent confirmation of early findings, which are required in the search for common genes with relatively small effects such as those that predispose to human hypertension.

  15. New methodology for determining chronic effects on the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, N.A. [Springborn Labs., Inc., Wareham, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The study design incorporates the exposure of two generations of earthworms, Eisenia foetida, and includes the sensitive developmental stage following emergence from the cocoon. Adult earthworms (F{sub 0} generation) were exposed to nominal concentrations of 16, 31, 63, 125 and 250 mg A.I. copper sulfate/kg in composted cattle manure for 14 days. Cocoons were collected six times throughout the F{sub 0} generation exposure. Upon collection, individual cocoons were weighed and transferred to separate aliquots of treated and untreated exposure manure and were allowed to hatch. Hatched F{sub 1} earthworms were allowed to mature for 21 days before being counted and individually weighed. Parameters monitored and statistically analyzed were: F{sub 0} burrowing time at initiation, F{sub 0} survival following 7 and 14 days of exposure, cocoon production, cocoon weight, cocoon viability, number and weight of F{sub 1} earthworms at 21 days post-hatch. The following endpoints clearly demonstrated chronic effects in at least the highest exposure concentration: cocoon production, mean cocoon weight, sum of cocoon weights, cocoon viability, number and weight of surviving earthworms (F{sub 1}) at 21 days post-hatch, mean and total earthworm (F{sub 1}) biomass at 21 days post-hatch. Although the acute LC50 of copper sulfate to Eisenia foetida was previously determined to be 1,100 {+-} 380 mg copper sulfate/kg, this methodology indicates that chronic toxicity effects can be observed at substantially lower concentrations.

  16. A methodology for setting state and local regression-adjusted performance targets for workforce investment act programs

    OpenAIRE

    Randall W. Eberts; Huang, Wei-Jang; Cai, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with PY2009, the U.S. Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA) adopted a regression-adjusted approach for setting national targets for several federal workforce development programs, including WIA Adult, Dislocated Worker, and Youth programs. Prior to that time, national targets were based on past performance and the desire to encourage continuous improvement in the workforce programs. The continuous improvement approach typically increased target lev...

  17. Optimising methodology for determining the effect of ocean acidification on bacterial extracellular enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, T. J.; Maas, E. W.; Teesdale-Spittle, P.; Law, C. S.

    2015-04-01

    To fully understand the impact of ocean acidification on biogeochemical cycles, the response of bacterial extracellular enzymes needs to be considered as they play a central role in the degradation and distribution of labile organic matter. This study investigates the methodology, and potential artefacts involved in determining the response of bacterial extracellular glucosidase and protease to ocean acidification. The effect of pH on artificial fluorophores and substrates was examined, as well as the impact of three different acidification methods. The results indicate that pH has a significant effect on the fluorescence of the artificial fluorophore 4-methylumbeliferone for glucosidase activity, and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin for protease activity, while artificial aminopeptidase substrate alters the pH of seawater, confirming previous observations. Before use in ocean acidification research these enzyme assay components must be buffered in order to stabilise sample pH. Reduction of coastal seawater pH to 7.8 was shown to increase β-glucosidase activity rapidly (0.5 h), while no significant response was detected for leucine aminopeptidase, highlighting the need for short-term direct effects of pH on enzyme activities. Bubbling with CO2 gas resulted in higher β-glucosidase activity when compared to acidification using gas-permeable silicon tubing and acidification with HCl. Although bubbling showed variable effects between two experiments conducted at different times of the year. In addition, bacterial cell numbers were 15-40% higher with bubbling relative to seawater acidified with gas-permeable silicon tubing and HCl. Artefacts associated with bubbling may lead to the overestimation of extracellular enzyme activities, and interpretation of the impacts of ocean acidification on organic matter cycling.

  18. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  19. Medicare Program; Medicare Shared Savings Program; Accountable Care Organizations--Revised Benchmark Rebasing Methodology, Facilitating Transition to Performance-Based Risk, and Administrative Finality of Financial Calculations. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Under the Medicare Shared Savings Program (Shared Savings Program), providers of services and suppliers that participate in an Accountable Care Organization (ACO) continue to receive traditional Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) payments under Parts A and B, but the ACO may be eligible to receive a shared savings payment if it meets specified quality and savings requirements. This final rule addresses changes to the Shared Savings Program, including: Modifications to the program's benchmarking methodology, when resetting (rebasing) the ACO's benchmark for a second or subsequent agreement period, to encourage ACOs' continued investment in care coordination and quality improvement; an alternative participation option to encourage ACOs to enter performance-based risk arrangements earlier in their participation under the program; and policies for reopening of payment determinations to make corrections after financial calculations have been performed and ACO shared savings and shared losses for a performance year have been determined.

  20. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras; Ensayo metodologico (II) (Notions on Programed Instruction in Foreign Languages; Methodological Essay II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the prerequisites to programed language instruction, the role of the native language and the level of skill, and then explains materials and machines needed for such a program. Particular attention is given to phonetics. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  1. Social assistance and labor market programs in Latin America : methodology and key findings from the social protection database

    OpenAIRE

    Kostenbaum, Silvana; Grosh, Margaret; Oliveri, Maria Laura; Rodriguez-Alas, Claudia; Cerutti, Paula; Strokova, Victoria; Fruttero, Anna

    2014-01-01

    How much do countries spend on social protection? Do social protection programs cover all poor people? And, how well are they targeted? It is notoriously hard to find comprehensive cross-country data on social protection programs which can help answer such questions and allow to benchmark social protection systems. The World Bank s Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) Social Protection Datab...

  2. An Elusive Policy Imperative: Data and Methodological Challenges When Using Growth in Student Achievement to Evaluate Teacher Education Programs' "Value-Added"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Lawton, Kerry; Ronan, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    In this study researchers examined the effectiveness of one of the largest teacher education programs located within the largest research-intensive universities within the US. They did this using a value-added model as per current federal educational policy imperatives to assess the measurable effects of teacher education programs on their teacher…

  3. The effects of constraints and mastery on mental and physical health: Conceptual and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Frank J; Mayer, Axel

    2015-06-01

    Perceived control and health are closely interrelated in adulthood and old age. However, less is known regarding the differential implications of 2 facets of perceived control, constraints and mastery, for mental and physical health. Furthermore, a limitation of previous research testing the pathways linking perceived control to mental and physical health is that mediation was tested with cross-sectional designs and not in a longitudinal mediation design that accounts for temporal ordering and prior confounds. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; n = 7,612, M age = 68, SD = 10.66; 59% women) we examined the effect of constraints and mastery on 4-year changes in mental and physical health and whether physical activity mediated such effects in a longitudinal mediation design. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we modeled the 2-factor structure of perceived control that consisted of constraints and mastery. In our longitudinal mediation model, where we accounted for possible confounders (e.g., age, gender, education, neuroticism, conscientiousness, memory, and health conditions), constraints showed a stronger total effect on mental and physical health, than mastery, such that more constraints were associated with 4-year declines in mental and physical health. Physical activity did not mediate the effect of constraints and mastery on mental and physical health (indirect effect). To demonstrate the importance of a longitudinal mediation model that accounts for confounders, we also estimated the mediated effect using 2 models commonly used in the literature: cross-sectional mediation model and longitudinal mediation model without accounting for confounders. These mediation models indicated a spurious indirect effect that cannot be causally interpreted. Our results showcase that constraints and mastery have differential implications for mental and physical health, as well as how a longitudinal mediation design can illustrate (or not) pathways in

  4. Methodological, political and legal issues in the assessment of the effects of nanotechnology on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva Canu, Irina; Schulte, Paul A; Riediker, Michael; Fatkhutdinova, Liliya; Bergamaschi, Enrico

    2017-12-04

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) raise questions among the scientific community and public health authorities about their potential risks to human health. Studying a prospective cohort of workers exposed to ENMs would be considered the gold standard for identifying potential health effects of nanotechnology and confirming the 'no effect' levels derived from cellular and animal models. However, because only small, cross-sectional studies have been conducted in the past 5 years, questions remain about the health risks of ENMs. This essay addresses the scientific, methodological, political and regulatory issues that make epidemiological research in nanotechnology-exposed communities particularly complex. Scientific challenges include the array of physicochemical parameters and ENM production conditions, the lack of universally accepted definitions of ENMs and nanotechnology workers, and the lack of information about modes of action, target organs and likely dose-response functions of ENMs. Standardisation of data collection and harmonisation of research protocols are needed to eliminate misclassification of exposures and health effects. Forming ENM worker cohorts from a combination of smaller cohorts and overcoming selection bias are also challenges. National or international registries for monitoring the exposures and health of ENM workers would be helpful for epidemiological studies, but the creation of such a registry and ENM worker cohorts will require political support and dedicated funding at the national and international levels. Public authorities and health agencies should consider carrying out an ENM awareness campaign to educate and engage all stakeholders and concerned communities in discussion of such a project. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Predicting effectiveness of the Home-Start parenting support program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, J.J.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Dekovic, M.; Reitz, E.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examines predictive effects of participant's characteristics, program characteristics, and their interaction, on changes in parenting behavior of mothers who participated in the Home-Start parenting support program. The results confirm previous findings that effects of

  6. Comprehensive Auditing in Nuclear Medicine Through the International Atomic Energy Agency Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine (QUANUM) Program. Part 1: the QUANUM Program and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Maurizio; Torres, Leonel; Marengo, Mario; Massardo, Teresa; Mishani, Eyal; Van Zyl Ellmann, Annare; Solanki, Kishor; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika; Lobato, Enrique Estrada; Miller, Rodolfo Nunez; Paez, Diana; Pascual, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    An effective management system that integrates quality management is essential for a modern nuclear medicine practice. The Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the mission of supporting nuclear medicine practice in low- and middle-income countries and of helping them introduce it in their health-care system, when not yet present. The experience gathered over several years has shown diversified levels of development and varying degrees of quality of practice, among others because of limited professional networking and limited or no opportunities for exchange of experiences. Those findings triggered the development of a program named Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine (QUANUM), aimed at improving the standards of NM practice in low- and middle-income countries to internationally accepted standards through the introduction of a culture of quality management and systematic auditing programs. QUANUM takes into account the diversity of nuclear medicine services around the world and multidisciplinary contributions to the practice. Those contributions include clinical, technical, radiopharmaceutical, and medical physics procedures. Aspects of radiation safety and patient protection are also integral to the process. Such an approach ensures consistency in providing safe services of superior quality to patients. The level of conformance is assessed using standards based on publications of the IAEA and the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and guidelines from scientific societies such as Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) and European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Following QUANUM guidelines and by means of a specific assessment tool developed by the IAEA, auditors, both internal and external, will be able to evaluate the level of conformance. Nonconformances will then be prioritized and recommendations will be provided during an exit briefing. The

  7. An experimental strategy validated to design cost-effective culture media based on response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Bolaños, J L; Téllez-Martínez, M G; Miranda-López, R; Jiménez-Islas, H

    2017-07-03

    For any fermentation process, the production cost depends on several factors, such as the genetics of the microorganism, the process condition, and the culture medium composition. In this work, a guideline for the design of cost-efficient culture media using a sequential approach based on response surface methodology is described. The procedure was applied to analyze and optimize a culture medium of registered trademark and a base culture medium obtained as a result of the screening analysis from different culture media used to grow the same strain according to the literature. During the experiments, the procedure quantitatively identified an appropriate array of micronutrients to obtain a significant yield and find a minimum number of culture medium ingredients without limiting the process efficiency. The resultant culture medium showed an efficiency that compares favorably with the registered trademark medium at a 95% lower cost as well as reduced the number of ingredients in the base culture medium by 60% without limiting the process efficiency. These results demonstrated that, aside from satisfying the qualitative requirements, an optimum quantity of each constituent is needed to obtain a cost-effective culture medium. Study process variables for optimized culture medium and scaling-up production for the optimal values are desirable.

  8. Can we apply the Mendelian randomization methodology without considering epigenetic effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmaus Wilfried

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Instrumental variable (IV methods have been used in econometrics for several decades now, but have only recently been introduced into the epidemiologic research frameworks. Similarly, Mendelian randomization studies, which use the IV methodology for analysis and inference in epidemiology, were introduced into the epidemiologist's toolbox only in the last decade. Analysis Mendelian randomization studies using instrumental variables (IVs have the potential to avoid some of the limitations of observational epidemiology (confounding, reverse causality, regression dilution bias for making causal inferences. Certain limitations of randomized controlled trials, such as problems with generalizability, feasibility and ethics for some exposures, and high costs, also make the use of Mendelian randomization in observational studies attractive. Unlike conventional randomized controlled trials (RCTs, Mendelian randomization studies can be conducted in a representative sample without imposing any exclusion criteria or requiring volunteers to be amenable to random treatment allocation. Within the last decade, epigenetics has gained recognition as an independent field of study, and appears to be the new direction for future research into the genetics of complex diseases. Although previous articles have addressed some of the limitations of Mendelian randomization (such as the lack of suitable genetic variants, unreliable associations, population stratification, linkage disequilibrium (LD, pleiotropy, developmental canalization, the need for large sample sizes and some potential problems with binary outcomes, none has directly characterized the impact of epigenetics on Mendelian randomization. The possibility of epigenetic effects (non-Mendelian, heritable changes in gene expression not accompanied by alterations in DNA sequence could alter the core instrumental variable assumptions of Mendelian randomization. This paper applies conceptual

  9. 78 FR 16297 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... fourth annual review in investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the... an Earned Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct annual reviews of...

  10. Naturalistic driving studies: The effectiveness of the methodology in monitoring driver behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muronga, Khangwelo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic Driving Studies (NDS) is a research methodology that has the potential to improve existing approaches for collecting data about driver behaviour and performance in normal driving conditions. Analysis of naturalistic driving data...

  11. A framework for assessing the adequacy and effectiveness of software development methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, James D.; Nance, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    Tools, techniques, environments, and methodologies dominate the software engineering literature, but relatively little research in the evaluation of methodologies is evident. This work reports an initial attempt to develop a procedural approach to evaluating software development methodologies. Prominent in this approach are: (1) an explication of the role of a methodology in the software development process; (2) the development of a procedure based on linkages among objectives, principles, and attributes; and (3) the establishment of a basis for reduction of the subjective nature of the evaluation through the introduction of properties. An application of the evaluation procedure to two Navy methodologies has provided consistent results that demonstrate the utility and versatility of the evaluation procedure. Current research efforts focus on the continued refinement of the evaluation procedure through the identification and integration of product quality indicators reflective of attribute presence, and the validation of metrics supporting the measure of those indicators. The consequent refinement of the evaluation procedure offers promise of a flexible approach that admits to change as the field of knowledge matures. In conclusion, the procedural approach presented in this paper represents a promising path toward the end goal of objectively evaluating software engineering methodologies.

  12. A generic methodology for the optimisation of sewer systems using stochastic programming and self-optimizing control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurico-Iglesias, Miguel; Castro, Ignacio Montero; Mollerup, Ane Loft

    2015-01-01

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flow and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems....... Such controller is aimed at keeping the system close to the optimal performance, thanks to an optimal selection of controlled variables. The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current...

  13. Framework and components for effective discharge planning system: a delphi methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To reduce avoidable hospital readmissions, effective discharge planning and appropriate post discharge support care are key requirements. This study is a 3-staged process to develop, pretest and pilot a framework for an effective discharge planning system in Hong Kong. This paper reports on the methodology of Delphi approach and findings of the second stage on pre-testing the framework developed so as to validate and attest to its applicability and practicability in which consensus was sought on the key components of discharge planning. Methods Delphi methodology was adopted to engage a group of experienced healthcare professionals to rate and discuss the framework and components of an effective discharge planning. The framework was consisted 36 statements under 5 major themes: initial screening, discharge planning process, coordination of discharge, implementation of discharge, and post discharge follow-up. Each statement was rated independently based on 3 aspects including clarity, validity and applicability on a 5-point Likert-scale. Statement with 75% or above of participants scoring 4–5 on all 3 aspects would be included in the discharge planning framework. For those statements not reaching 75% of consensus in any one of the aspect, it would be revised or discarded following the group discussion, and be re-rated in another round. Results A total of 24 participants participated in the consensus-building process. In round one rating, consensus was achieved in 25 out of 36 statements. Among those 11 statements not reaching consensus, the major concern was related to the “applicability” of the statements. The participants expressed a lack of manpower, skills and time in particular during weekends and long holidays in carrying out assessment and care plans within 24 h after admission. There were also timeliness and availability issue in providing transportation and necessary equipment to the patients. To make the statements more applicable, the

  14. Do Loyalty Programs Enhance Behavioral Loyalty : An Empirical Analysis Accounting for Program Design and Competitive Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Smidts, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of loyalty programs on share-of-wallet using market-wide household panel data on supermarket purchases.We find that loyalty programs relate positively to share-of-wallet, but the programs differ in effectiveness and some are ineffective.Both a saving component and a

  15. Response surface methodology (RSM) to evaluate moisture effects on corn stover in recovering xylose by DEO hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; William R. Kenealy; Diane Dietrich; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a 22 full factorial design, evaluated the moisture effects in recovering xylose by diethyloxalate (DEO) hydrolysis. Experiments were carried out in laboratory reactors (10 mL glass ampoules) containing corn stover (0.5 g) properly ground. The ampoules were kept at 160 °C for 90 min. Both DEO...

  16. Measurement in Learning Games Evolution: Review of Methodologies Used in Determining Effectiveness of "Math Snacks" Games and Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Karen; Chamberlin, Barbara; Wiburg, Karin; Armstrong, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article captures the evolution of research goals and methodologies used to assess the effectiveness and impact of a set of mathematical educational games and animations for middle-school aged students. The researchers initially proposed using a mixed model research design of formative and summative measures, such as user-testing,…

  17. Programa educativo em esquistossomose: modelo de abordagem metodológica Educational program in schistosomiasis: a model for a methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Jesus Ribeiro

    2004-06-01

    schistosomiasis patients (groups 2 and 3, with 20 individuals in each group. Teaching material (illustrated manual and album of leaflets and a questionnaire consisting of 17 questions to evaluate the groups' knowledge were devised. The questionnaire was applied to groups 1 and 2 before and to group 3 after the educational program. The variables studied were the educational program, level of schooling, age, clinical form of schistosomiasis, symptoms, and the subject's performance when answering the questionnaire. For the statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test and variance analysis with one fixed factor were utilized. RESULTS: The educational program was evaluated in the form of four topics: cycle, clinical presentation, treatment and prevention of the disease. The median number of correct responses to the questionnaire was higher for group 3 than for groups 1 and 2, for all the topics dealt with. This median was also higher for group 2 than for group 1, for all topics except for the item "prevention". CONCLUSIONS: The educational process applied was efficient and improved the knowledge of the disease. It may provide an effective low-cost methodological model that can also be applied to combating other endemic diseases.

  18. Effectiveness of a Dental Students Stress Management Program

    OpenAIRE

    Alzahem, Abdullah M; Van Der Molen, Henk T.; De Boer, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    The dental education stress effects and sources were explored thoroughly in the literature, but the effectiveness of stress management programs received less attention. This study introduced a new stress management program, named Dental Education Stress Management (DESM) program. It showed its effectiveness in a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest-follow-up-control group design. The new program was based on the principle of psychoeducation and consisted of three 90-min sessions, to teach dent...

  19. Human reliability program: Components and effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baley-Downes, S.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''Human Reliability Program'' (HRP) is defined as a series of selective controls which are implemented and integrated to identify the ''insider threat'' from current and prospective employees who are dishonest, disloyal and unreliable. The HRP, although not a prediction of human behaviour, is an excellent tool for decision making and should compliment security and improve employee quality. The HRP consists of several component applications such as management evaluation; appropriate background investigative requirements; occupational health examination and laboratory testing; drug/alcohol screening; psychological testing and interviews; polygraph examination; job related aberrant behaviour recognition; on-going education and training; document control; drug/alcohol rehabilitation; periodic HRP audit; and implementation of an onsite central clearing house. The components and effects of HRP are discussed in further detail in this paper.

  20. Non-linear mixed effects modeling - from methodology and software development to driving implementation in drug development science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Goonaseelan Colin; Mentré, France; Steimer, Jean-Louis

    2005-04-01

    Few scientific contributions have made significant impact unless there was a champion who had the vision to see the potential for its use in seemingly disparate areas-and who then drove active implementation. In this paper, we present a historical summary of the development of non-linear mixed effects (NLME) modeling up to the more recent extensions of this statistical methodology. The paper places strong emphasis on the pivotal role played by Lewis B. Sheiner (1940-2004), who used this statistical methodology to elucidate solutions to real problems identified in clinical practice and in medical research and on how he drove implementation of the proposed solutions. A succinct overview of the evolution of the NLME modeling methodology is presented as well as ideas on how its expansion helped to provide guidance for a more scientific view of (model-based) drug development that reduces empiricism in favor of critical quantitative thinking and decision making.

  1. Methodological Approach to Determining the Effect of Parallel Energy Consumption on District Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latosov, Eduard; Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres; Kurnitski, Jarek; Thalfeldt, Martin

    2017-05-01

    District heating (DH) offers the most effective way to enhance the efficiency of primary energy use, increasing the share of renewable energy in energy consumption and decreasing the amount of CO2 emissions. According to Article 9 section 1 of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, the Member states of the European Union are obligated to draw up National Plans for increasing the number of nearly zero-energy buildings [1]. Article 2 section 2 of the same Directive states that the energy used in nearly zero-energy buildings should be created covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby. Thus, the heat distributed by DH systems and produced by manufacturing devices located in close vicinity of the building also have to be taken into account in determining the energy consumption of the building and the share of renewable energy used in the nearly zero-energy buildings. With regard to the spreading of nearly zero-energy and zero-energy houses, the feasibility of on-site energy (heat and/or electricity) production and consumption in DH areas energy (i.e. parallel consumption, when the consumer, connected to DH system, consumes energy for heat production from other sources besides the DH system as well) needs to be examined. In order to do that, it is necessary to implement a versatile methodological approach based on the principles discussed in this article.

  2. The need for quasi-experimental methodology to evaluate pricing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, F R; Cuesta, A

    1993-01-01

    Family planning program managers may be easily misled by conclusions about the effects of price increases on the demand for services when the findings are based on pre-experiments such as the single-group pretest-posttest study, generally believed to be practical. This report presents financial and service data from clinics of the Asociación Pro-Bienestar de la Familia Ecuatoriana (APROFE) in Ecuador, which, analyzed according to the single-group pretest-posttest design, would suggest that the demand for intrauterine device services is inelastic. However, considerable demand elasticity is detected when data are analyzed according to more rigorous quasi-experimental designs. Using the single-group pretest-posttest design for pricing studies is too flawed to be considered practical. Wherever possible, strong designs should be used in operations research, especially in pricing studies.

  3. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  4. Health education programs to encourage healthy lifestyles and prevent obesity in children and adolescents.The development, evaluation and implementation process of interventions to improve effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Llauradó Ribé, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness, using different methodologies, of health education programs to encourage healthy lifestyles and reduce obesity (OB) in children and adolescents. The program effectiveness includes the effects analysis when it is implemented in other localities, and the post-cessation intervention assessment of the results that were sustained at long-term. The EdAl-2 program (Educació en Alimentació) reproducibility, that was performed in Terres de l’Ebre schools...

  5. A Comparison Study of a Generic Coupling Methodology for Modeling Wake Effects of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verbrugghe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wave Energy Converters (WECs need to be deployed in large numbers in an array layout in order to have a significant power production. Each WEC has an impact on the incoming wave field, by diffracting, reflecting and radiating waves. Simulating the wave transformations within and around a WEC array is complex; it is difficult, or in some cases impossible, to simulate both these near-field and far-field wake effects using a single numerical model, in a time- and cost-efficient way in terms of computational time and effort. Within this research, a generic coupling methodology is developed to model both near-field and far-field wake effects caused by floating (e.g., WECs, platforms or fixed offshore structures. The methodology is based on the coupling of a wave-structure interaction solver (Nemoh and a wave propagation model. In this paper, this methodology is applied to two wave propagation models (OceanWave3D and MILDwave, which are compared to each other in a wide spectrum of tests. Additionally, the Nemoh-OceanWave3D model is validated by comparing it to experimental wave basin data. The methodology proves to be a reliable instrument to model wake effects of WEC arrays; results demonstrate a high degree of agreement between the numerical simulations with relative errors lower than 5 % and to a lesser extent for the experimental data, where errors range from 4 % to 17 % .

  6. A Program of Methodological Research to Arrive at the New International EQ-5D-5L Valuation Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, Mark; Devlin, Nancy J.; van Hout, Ben; Krabbe, Paul F.M.; de Charro, Frank

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the research that has been undertaken by the EuroQol Group to improve current methods for health state valuation, to summarize the results of an extensive international pilot program, and to outline the key elements of the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D-5L)

  7. 75 FR 67662 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...-Agricultural Employment H- 2B Program; Extension of the Comment Period AGENCIES: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On October 5, 2010, the Employment...-agricultural employment and the enforcement of the obligations applicable to employers of such nonimmigrant...

  8. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras: ensayo metodologico (Notions on the Programming of Foreign Languages: Methodological Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    Presents a computerized program for foreign language learning giving drills for all the major language skills. The drills are followed by an extensive bibliography of documents in some way dealing with computer based instruction, particularly foreign language instruction. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  9. Distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming for municipal solid waste management. Part I: System identification and methodology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanhui; Huang, Guohe; Dong, Cong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Xiujuan; Chen, Jiapei

    2017-03-01

    Due to the existence of complexities of heterogeneities, hierarchy, discreteness, and interactions in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems such as Beijing, China, a series of socio-economic and eco-environmental problems may emerge or worsen and result in irredeemable damages in the following decades. Meanwhile, existing studies, especially ones focusing on MSWM in Beijing, could hardly reflect these complexities in system simulations and provide reliable decision support for management practices. Thus, a framework of distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming (DMIFHP) is developed in this study for MSWM under these complexities. Beijing is selected as a representative case. The Beijing MSWM system is comprehensively analyzed in many aspects such as socio-economic conditions, natural conditions, spatial heterogeneities, treatment facilities, and system complexities, building a solid foundation for system simulation and optimization. Correspondingly, the MSWM system in Beijing is discretized as 235 grids to reflect spatial heterogeneity. A DMIFHP model which is a nonlinear programming problem is constructed to parameterize the Beijing MSWM system. To enable scientific solving of it, a solution algorithm is proposed based on coupling of fuzzy programming and mixed-integer linear programming. Innovations and advantages of the DMIFHP framework are discussed. The optimal MSWM schemes and mechanism revelations will be discussed in another companion paper due to length limitation.

  10. Effective Preparation Program Features: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Gary M.; Whiteman, Rodney S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a summary of a report prepared for the University Council for Educational Administration Program Improvement Project for the Wallace Foundation. This explores the research base for educational leadership preparation programs, specifically examining literature on program features. The review covers context, candidates, faculty,…

  11. The Effectiveness of Distance Education, Using Blended Method of Delivery for Limited-Resource Audiences in the Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Casey; Koszewski, Wanda M.; Behrends, Donnia

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here sought to determine if the use of distance education lessons for teaching limited resource participants in a nutrition education program (NEP) is as effective as face-to-face methodology. One hundred and six participants were in the experimental group. Data was gathered at entry and examined behavior change, nutrient intake…

  12. Rapid cross platform healthcare gaming design and implementation: The cost effective methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M

    2016-11-14

    There have been massive advances in E-Health and M-Health technology, with recent interest in the utility of games for healthcare and the promotion of well-being and recovery as well as patient empowerment. There has been various review demonstrating the clinical effectiveness and efficacy of games for healthcare. It is the aim of this technical note to illustrate how appropriate gaming engines could be used by non-expert clinicians to program games that could run across various platforms, as well as games that could integrate well with existing mechanical sensors. This would address the limitations with regards to the evidence base of games, as well as the limitations in the deployment of games to various participants. More importantly, games designed are also more likely to be cost-effective and lower in cost. The ability of integration with existing mechanical sensors would value-add existing games and enable recovery and remediation in various domains of health. This would further expand the potential of games as an adjunctive treatment for patients, or at least, to maintain the gains that they have made in their recovery process.

  13. Methodological fundamentals for increase of effectiveness designing both safety of operation of seaplanes and amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.А. Rasstrygin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available  On the basis of earlier developed methodology of estimation of local and general hydrodynamics of amphibious and water-landing aircrafts, some outcomes of numerical researches of hydrodynamic parameters and their analysis for a mild multi-purpose amphibian are adduced at different versions of interplay with water surface on take-off and landing modes.

  14. Methodological foundations of evaluation of effectiveness indicators of small-scale business activities

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova T.

    2013-01-01

    The methodological approach to the measurement of financial indicators of small-scale enterprises has been developed. It enables to secure the comparability of financial condition indicators and the results of small-scale enterprise activities, and also to develop the methods of vertical integral estimate calculation at separate aspects of financial condition and the results of smallscale enterprise activities.

  15. A literature review on methodology used in evaluating effects of preventive and de-radicalisation interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, A.R.; Gallucci, M.

    2015-01-01

    Policies aimed at preventing (further) radicalisation or aimed at de-radicalisation are required to be 'evidence-based'. This suggests that evaluators should apply rigorous empirical methodology and measurement techniques. However, it is often unclear what this evidence should consist of and how it

  16. Methodological foundations of evaluation of effectiveness indicators of small-scale business activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological approach to the measurement of financial indicators of small-scale enterprises has been developed. It enables to secure the comparability of financial condition indicators and the results of small-scale enterprise activities, and also to develop the methods of vertical integral estimate calculation at separate aspects of financial condition and the results of smallscale enterprise activities.

  17. Examining the relationship between human resources and mortality: the effects of methodological choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Dintrans, Pablo; Chaumont, Claire

    2017-04-01

    Relationship between human resources for health and mortality remains inconclusive despite numerous studies published on the topic in the last decades. This paper investigates how and why methodological trade-offs implicitly made by researchers when using macro-data can in part explains this puzzling lack of agreement. Using data from the Global Health Observatory, we build a model of the relationship between human resources and mortality, which we progressively alter by changing its scope, variables and analysis period. Then, we compare results among themselves to isolate the impact of methodological choices from other changes in the data. Results demonstrate how methodological choices linked to (1) the analysis period, (2) the definition of health inputs, health outcomes and control variables and (3) the choice of specific variables as proxy for human resources and health outcomes affects the relationship between human resources and health outputs. Results presented highlights the need for complementing existing macro-analysis with other analytical strategies, for better documenting methodological choices in research studies, as well as for further supporting countries' efforts to produce reliable and consistent data.

  18. Effects of Quizzing Methodology on Student Outcomes: Reading Compliance, Retention, and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Carey Bernini

    2017-01-01

    This study set out to replicate and extend research on students' reading compliance and examine the impact of daily quizzing methodology on students' reading compliance and retention. 98 students in two sections of Abnormal Psychology participated (mean age = 21.5, SD = 3.35; 72.4% Caucasian). Using a multiple baseline quasi-experimental design…

  19. The Effect of an Equilibrated Methodology on the Acquisition of the Concept-Conservation of Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Hansom Prentice, Jr.

    The Piagetian operations of multiple classification, multiple attributes, seriation and reversibility were used to develop an "equilibrated methodology" to help preschool children conserve quantity. Randomly assigned experimental and control groups within morning and afternoon classes at a nursery school were used to evaluate the…

  20. A Study to Develop a Methodology Determining the Feasibility of Establishing a Blood Collection Program in an Army Healthcare Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    or skin? (If ear piercing c. Blood pressure medications, taken and/or acupuncture are commonly per- chronically and successfully, so that formed in the...munization programs. g. Infectious diseases: b. Skin allografts and tattoo. (Ear pierc- Hepatitis: Have you ever had hepatitis ing and acupuncture done under...malaria? have epilepsy ’? Have you had convul- When? Are you a visitor or immigrant sions or fainting spells? Last episode? to the USA? How long have you

  1. The Air Force Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH): Technology transfer methodology as exemplified by the radar transmit/receive module program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, Tracy; Ridgely, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Manufacturing Technology program is involved with the improvement of radar transmit/receive modules for use in active phased array radars for advanced fighter aircraft. Improvements in all areas of manufacture and test of these modules resulting in order of magnitude improvements in the cost of and the rate of production are addressed, as well as the ongoing transfer of this technology to the Navy.

  2. Tourism Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in differen...... codings and analysis, and tapping into the global network of social media.......This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  3. ANALYSIS OF EFFECTIVENESS OF METHODOLOGICAL SYSTEM FOR PROBABILITY AND STOCHASTIC PROCESSES COMPUTER-BASED LEARNING FOR PRE-SERVICE ENGINEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chumak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author substantiates that only methodological training systems of mathematical disciplines with implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT can meet the requirements of modern educational paradigm and make possible to increase the educational efficiency. Due to this fact, the necessity of developing the methodology of theory of probability and stochastic processes computer-based learning for pre-service engineers is underlined in the paper. The results of the experimental study for analysis of the efficiency of methodological system of theory of probability and stochastic processes computer-based learning for pre-service engineers are shown. The analysis includes three main stages: ascertaining, searching and forming. The key criteria of the efficiency of designed methodological system are the level of probabilistic and stochastic skills of students and their learning motivation. The effect of implementing the methodological system of probability theory and stochastic processes computer-based learning on the level of students’ IT literacy is shown in the paper. The expanding of the range of objectives of ICT applying by students is described by author. The level of formation of students’ learning motivation on the ascertaining and forming stages of the experiment is analyzed. The level of intrinsic learning motivation for pre-service engineers is defined on these stages of the experiment. For this purpose, the methodology of testing the students’ learning motivation in the chosen specialty is presented in the paper. The increasing of intrinsic learning motivation of the experimental group students (E group against the control group students (C group is demonstrated.

  4. Tourism Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... ways. Several contributions draw on a critical perspective that pushes the boundaries of traditional methods and techniques for studying tourists and their experiences. In particular, the traditional qualitative interview is challenged, not only regarding the typical questions asked, but also regarding...

  5. Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M G Steuten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L M G Steuten1, K M M Lemmens2, A P Nieboer2, H JM Vrijhoef31Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Health, Organisation, Policy and Economics, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Erasmus University Medical Centre, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Integrated Care, Maastricht, The NetherlandsObjective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified.Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multi-component disease management or chronic care programs for adults with COPD, describing process, intermediate, and end results of care. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and descriptively summarized.Results: Twenty articles describing 17 unique COPD programs were included. There is little evidence for significant improvements in process and intermediate outcomes, except for increased provision of patient self-management education and improved disease-specific knowledge. Overall, the COPD programs generate end results equivalent to usual care, but programs containing ≥3 components show lower relative risks for hospitalization. There is limited scope for programs to break-even or save money.Conclusion: Identifying cost effective multi-component COPD programs remains a challenge due to scarce methodologically sound studies that demonstrate significant improvements on process, intermediate and end results of care. Estimations of potential cost effectiveness of specific programs illustrated in this paper can, in the absence of ‘perfect data’, support timely decision-making regarding these programs. Nevertheless, well-designed health economic studies are needed to decrease the current decision

  6. Evaluating Effectiveness of Pair Programming as a Teaching Tool in Programming Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faja, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of pair programming on student learning and satisfaction in introductory programming courses. Pair programming, used in the industry as a practice of an agile development method, can be adopted in classroom settings to encourage peer learning, increase students' social skills, and enhance student…

  7. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Bellissimo, Nick; Lawton, Clare L; Ford, Nikki A; Rains, Tia M; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia; Dye, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This review focuses on the myriad challenges involved in studying children and adolescents specifically. Key methodological challenges and considerations include study design and location, sampling and sample section, choice of objective cognitive tests, choice of objective and subjective appetite measures, merits of providing a fixed breakfast compared with ad libitum, assessment and definition of habitual breakfast consumption, transparency of treatment condition, difficulty of isolating the direct effects of breakfast consumption, untangling acute and chronic effects, and influence of confounding variables. These methodological challenges have hampered a clear substantiation of the potential positive effects of breakfast on cognition and appetite control and contributed to the debate questioning the notion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo, Nick; Ford, Nikki A; Rains, Tia M

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This review focuses on the myriad challenges involved in studying children and adolescents specifically. Key methodological challenges and considerations include study design and location, sampling and sample section, choice of objective cognitive tests, choice of objective and subjective appetite measures, merits of providing a fixed breakfast compared with ad libitum, assessment and definition of habitual breakfast consumption, transparency of treatment condition, difficulty of isolating the direct effects of breakfast consumption, untangling acute and chronic effects, and influence of confounding variables. These methodological challenges have hampered a clear substantiation of the potential positive effects of breakfast on cognition and appetite control and contributed to the debate questioning the notion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. PMID:28096143

  9. The Shaping Healthy Choices Program: design and implementation methodologies for a multicomponent, school-based nutrition education intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E; Linnell, Jessica D; Smith, Martin H; Briggs, Marilyn; Bergman, Jacqueline; Brian, Kelley M; Dharmar, Madan; Feenstra, Gail; Hillhouse, Carol; Keen, Carl L; Nguyen, Lori M; Nicholson, Yvonne; Ontai, Lenna; Schaefer, Sara E; Spezzano, Theresa; Steinberg, Francene M; Sutter, Carolyn; Wright, Janel E; Young, Heather M; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    To provide a framework for implementation of multicomponent, school-based nutrition interventions. This article describes the research methods for the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a model to improve nutrition and health-related knowledge and behaviors among school-aged children. Longitudinal, pretest/posttest, randomized, controlled intervention. Four elementary schools in California. Fourth-grade students at intervention (n = 252) and control (n = 238) schools and their parents and teachers. Power analyses demonstrate that a minimum of 159 students per group will be needed to achieve sufficient power. The sample size was determined using the variables of nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference score, and body mass index percentile. A multicomponent school-based nutrition education intervention over 1 academic year, followed by activities to support sustainability of the program. Dietary and nutrition knowledge and behavior, critical thinking skills, healthy food preferences and consumption, and physical activity will be measured using a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, a vegetable preferences assessment tool, the Test of Basic Science Process Skills, digital photography of plate waste, PolarActive accelerometers, anthropometrics, a parent questionnaire, and the School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey. Evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative measures. Quantitative data will use paired t, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests and regression modeling using P = .05 to determine statistical significance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Selecting Health Care Improvement Projects: A Methodology Integrating Cause-and-Effect Diagram and Analytical Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testik, Özlem Müge; Shaygan, Amir; Dasdemir, Erdi; Soydan, Guray

    It is often vital to identify, prioritize, and select quality improvement projects in a hospital. Yet, a methodology, which utilizes experts' opinions with different points of view, is needed for better decision making. The proposed methodology utilizes the cause-and-effect diagram to identify improvement projects and construct a project hierarchy for a problem. The right improvement projects are then prioritized and selected using a weighting scheme of analytical hierarchy process by aggregating experts' opinions. An approach for collecting data from experts and a graphical display for summarizing the obtained information are also provided. The methodology is implemented for improving a hospital appointment system. The top-ranked 2 major project categories for improvements were identified to be system- and accessibility-related causes (45%) and capacity-related causes (28%), respectively. For each of the major project category, subprojects were then ranked for selecting the improvement needs. The methodology is useful in cases where an aggregate decision based on experts' opinions is expected. Some suggestions for practical implementations are provided.

  11. Methodological advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebreton, J.-D.

    2004-06-01

    approaches are the usual ultra–structural model and a new one based on a random effects model. Thispaper can be viewed as part of a revival of studies of the dynamics of exploited populations, in the broad sense, including the study of man–induced mortality in the framework of conservation biology (Lebreton, in press. This revival is a direct consequence of the increasing impact of man on the biosphere and of continuing methodological progress (Ferson & Burgman, 2000. The use of random effects models (see also Schaub & Lebreton, 2004 directly builds upon the seminal work by Anderson and Burnham (1976. Stauffer presented a Winbugs implementation of the Cormack–Jolly–Seber model that complemented other presentations in the conference and the short course. Finally, Morgan, Besbeas, Thomas, Buckland, Harwood,Duck and Pomery, proposed a thorough and timely review of integrated modelling, i.e., in our context, of models considering simultaneously capture–recapture demographic information and census information. These methods were covered in other sessions, in relation to Bayesian methodology. Integrated modelling appears indeed to be the logical way of combining all pieces of information arising from integrated monitoring, and as one of the great methodological challenges for our community in the years to come (Besbeas et al., 2002.

  12. The Effects of Ionising Radiation on MEMS Silicon Strain Gauges: Preliminary Background and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    are silicon strain gauges that use the response of piezoresistors to distortion as the sensing mechanism, which have been designed for structural...gauges. Two test methodologies to characterise the strain gauges have been developed; namely, direct control over the piezoresistor length changes, or...structural defects. This can affect a material’s electronic properties (especially in the case of semiconductors , discussed below in Section 6) or its

  13. Profiles of Effective Corporate Giving Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauft, E. B.

    A research study of 48 United States corporate giving programs is described. The companies are generally large or mid-range in size and represent 15 different business and industry classifications. The size of their contributions programs ranged from $98,000 to $53 million in annual grants, with a median of $4.3 million. About three-fourths of the…

  14. Effective Teaching in Accelerated Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Drick

    2004-01-01

    According to Wlodkowski (2003), "accelerated learning programs are one of the fastest growing transformations in higher education" (p. 5). The Center for the Study of Accelerated Learning at Regis University has documented at least 250 colleges or universities that offer accelerated learning programs for working adults. By definition, accelerated…

  15. Effects of simulation language and modeling methodology on simulation modeling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Research in simulation modeling has made little advance over the past two decades. Many simulation languages and modeling methodologies were designed but not evaluated. Model developers were given no criteria for selecting from among these modeling tools. A framework of research in simulation modeling was developed to identify factors that might most affect simulation modeling performance. First, two simulation languages (MAGIE and GPSS) that differ greatly in complexity were compared. Both languages are similar in their design philosophy. However, MAGIE is a small simulation language with ten model building blocks while GPSS is a large simulation language with fifty-six model building blocks. Secondly, two modeling methodologies, namely the top-down and the bottom-up approaches, were compared. This research shows that it is feasible to apply the user-based empirical research methodology to study simulation modeling. It is also concluded that modeling with a large simulation language does not necessarily yield better results than modeling with a small simulation language. Furthermore, it was found that using the top-down modeling approach does not necessarily yield better results than using the bottom-up modeling approach.

  16. Redevelopment of the Arctic Area of Russia as an Objective of Systems Research and Special-Purpose Program Management Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolayevich Leksin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the methodological foundations of implementation of the rules and regulations of the development of the Arctic region of Russia, which relies on the hypothesis interpreting such development as the biggest integrated megaproject in the history of Russia. The substantiation involves both the project-oriented approach to identify the subject-matter of the research and the systems approach to assess the key opportunities of providing the integrative structure of the megaproject in the conditions of drastic differences between the areal components of the Arctic region, and to study the internal and external factors’ impact on the character, drivers and pace of the region redevelopment. The set of consistent methodological positions concerning their policy implementation by responsible governmental agencies in the foreseeable future of the Arctic is developed. The most important position involves the identification of the objective of the public administration of the Arctic region development as a systemically organized entity of multiple coordinated actions of the federal, regional and municipal authorities, corporations and civil society institutions integrated by the unique policy target and economic, social and infrastructure links. Implementation of the public administration requires the principles of systems approach, the reasonable trade-off between centralization, decentralization and continuity of governance focused exclusively on the Arctic issues. At the same time, the integration of the projects of the region’s areal components development to insure the common targets of the Arctic’s megaproject accompanied by the reconsideration of the earlier developed programs turns into a genuinely new methodological issue. In the article, recommendations to provide such integration are introduced.

  17. Is hand splinting effective for adults following stroke? A systematic review and methodologic critique of published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannin, N A; Herbert, R D

    2003-12-01

    Upper limb hemiplegia after stroke is common and disabling. Hand splints are widely used to prevent contracture and reduce spasticity. To assess the effectiveness of hand splinting on the hemiplegic upper extremity following stroke. A search was conducted of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, SCI, SSCI; websites of professional associations; reference lists in trial reports and other relevant articles. Studies of the effect of upper extremity splinting on motor control, functional abilities, contracture, spasticity, or pain in the hand or wrist. Validity of studies was assessed systematically and a content analysis was conducted of the methodologies used. Methodological quality of randomized trials was rated by two independent assessors using the PEDro scale. Nineteen studies were appraised for content. Of these, most (63%) were reports of case series. Four studies (21%) were randomized controlled trials. Methodological scores of trials ranged from 2 to 8 (maximum possible score 10). One trial of nominally 'medium' quality reported that inflatable arm splinting makes no difference to hand function (mean difference on Fugl-Meyer Assessment -0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) -9.8 to 9.6). The remaining trials investigated effects of thermoplastic splints; one trial of 'high quality' reported no difference in contracture formation in the wrist and finger flexor muscles after wearing a hand splint which positioned the wrist in the traditional functional position for 12 hours each night for four weeks (mean difference in range of movement after four weeks was 1 degree, 95% CI -3.7 degrees to 6.1 degrees; power >80%). All remaining trials were of poor methodological quality. Limited research and lack of a no-splint control group in all trials to date limit the usefulness of these results. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSION: There is insufficient evidence to either support or refute the effectiveness of hand

  18. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, K; Bellissimo, N; Lawton, CL; Ford, NA; Rains, TM; Totosy de Zepetnek, J; Dye, L

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This re...

  19. The effect of a science work experience program for teachers on the classroom environment: A qualitative program evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Wendy Michelle

    Science Work Experience Programs for Teachers (SWEPTs) provide an opportunity for science and math teachers to work in research laboratories during the summer to experience science as it is practiced in the laboratory-setting. Through the use of interviews with teachers and students, classroom observations, and an analysis of printed student sheets and student work, the lived experience of a cohort of program participants in Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Secondary School Science Teachers was recorded in an effort to describe the effect of experience in a SWEPT on the classroom environment of teacher participants and student outcomes. Relying on Social Learning Theory and science education reform documentation as a theoretical framework the following dimensions of the classroom were examined: (1) emergent themes that include the participants' perceptions of the importance of technology in the classroom, (2) interpersonal relationships with the teachers at the participants' schools, fellow program participants, research scientists, and students, and (3) changes in epistemological structure, curriculum, instructional strategies, and classroom practices. Methodological and theoretical implications are addressed with respect to future studies, and suggestions for refinement of SWEPTs are provided.

  20. An Intensive Training Program for Effective Teaching Assistants in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragisich, Vera; Keller, Valerie; Zhao, Meishan

    2016-01-01

    We report an intensive graduate teaching assistant (GTA) training program developed at The University of Chicago. The program has been assessed and has been successful in preparing GTAs for effective discussion and laboratory teaching for both general and organic chemistry. We believe that this training program can provide insightful information…

  1. Effectiveness of an Undergraduate Program in Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirnan, Jean P.; Reilly, Maura; Decker, William

    2000-01-01

    Reports on an evaluation of an undergraduate program in industrial/organizational psychology (College of New Jersey) five years after its implementation in order to assess the effectiveness of the program and identify areas in need of change. Describes the program and makes recommendations for future directions. (CMK)

  2. Action Research: Effective Marketing Strategies for a Blended University Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This action research study investigated a marketing plan based on collaboration among a program faculty team and other organizational units for a graduate professional program. From its inception through the second year of operation, program enrollment increased due to the marketing plan based on an effective approach grounded in simple marketing…

  3. Toward a More Nuanced Approach to Program Effectiveness Assessment: Hierarchical Linear Models in K-12 Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Xiaoxia A.; Llosa, Lorena

    2010-01-01

    Most K-12 evaluations are designed to make inferences about how a program implemented at the classroom or school level affects student learning outcomes and such inferences inherently involve hierarchical data structure. One methodological challenge for evaluators is linking program implementation factors typically measured at the classroom or…

  4. A Programming Environment Evaluation Methodology for Object-Oriented Systems. Ph.D Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1987-01-01

    The object-oriented design strategy as both a problem decomposition and system development paradigm has made impressive inroads into the various areas of the computing sciences. Substantial development productivity improvements have been demonstrated in areas ranging from artificial intelligence to user interface design. However, there has been very little progress in the formal characterization of these productivity improvements and in the identification of the underlying cognitive mechanisms. The development and validation of models and metrics of this sort require large amounts of systematically-gathered structural and productivity data. There has, however, been a notable lack of systematically-gathered information on these development environments. A large part of this problem is attributable to the lack of a systematic programming environment evaluation methodology that is appropriate to the evaluation of object-oriented systems.

  5. Effects of television programs about Family Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is an observational study, which sought to reflect on the impact of television programs on family health. Thus, from February to July 2011, a Family Health Unit of Barra do Garças - Mato Grosso, the researcher observed the behavior of customers, through spontaneous expressions which referred to the materials or articles about health programs. At the end of the study, it wasfound that such programs stimulated and generated new behaviors, especially in women. But to do so, health professionals must engage with this media education and participate in the conduct of learned information in accordance with the need of the viewer.

  6. The need for faculty training programs in effective feedback provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Wahbi A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Al Wahbi1,2 1King Saud University for Health Sciences, 2King Abdulaziz Medical City, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: An important aspect of professional teaching practice is a practitioner's ability to critically evaluate the performances of subordinates for whom he or she is responsible. This is a common practice within social sciences as well as for professionals from applied specialties. The literature on professional clinical expertise identifies reflective practice as perfect when they are thoroughly accepted by practitioners. In health-related professions, critical reflection in the form of feedback that serves as the bridge between theory and practice is endorsed. The aims and objectives of this study were directed toward the application of a mixed methodology approach in order to evaluate the requirements for a feedback training program and to detect the present feedback provision skills of clinical mentors in practice. The quantitative analysis measured the effectiveness of clinical teachers' feedback in order to understand whether their understanding of and skills for giving feedback to promote students were adequate. On the other hand, the qualitative methods explored self-perceptions of feedback skills and efficacy in enabling students to improve their clinical practice. Effective feedback from faculty and the learner provides a useful and meaningful experience for absorbing knowledge and critical thinking into clinical practice. Nonadherence and limited expertise of mentors in giving feedback are the main themes of this study, and were evaluated and acknowledged through systematic analysis. Keywords: clinical mentors, feedback mechanism, feedback proficiency 

  7. Assessing Capacity for Sustainability of Effective Programs and Policies in Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Duggan, Katie; Smith, Carson; Aisaka, Kristelle; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has been defined as the existence of structures and processes that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence-based public health and is important in local health departments (LHDs) to retain the benefits of effective programs. Explore the applicability of the Program Sustainability Framework in high- and low-capacity LHDs as defined by national performance standards. Case study interviews from June to July 2013. Standard qualitative methodology was used to code transcripts; codes were developed inductively and deductively. Six geographically diverse LHD's (selected from 3 of high and 3 of low capacity) : 35 LHD practitioners. Thematic reports explored the 8 domains (Organizational Capacity, Program Adaptation, Program Evaluation, Communications, Strategic Planning, Funding Stability, Environmental Support, and Partnerships) of the Program Sustainability Framework. High-capacity LHDs described having environmental support, while low-capacity LHDs reported this was lacking. Both high- and low-capacity LHDs described limited funding; however, high-capacity LHDs reported greater funding flexibility. Partnerships were important to high- and low-capacity LHDs, and both described building partnerships to sustain programming. Regarding organizational capacity, high-capacity LHDs reported better access to and support for adequate staff and staff training when compared with low-capacity LHDs. While high-capacity LHDs described integration of program evaluation into implementation and sustainability, low-capacity LHDs reported limited capacity for measurement specifically and evaluation generally. When high-capacity LHDs described program adoption, they discussed an opportunity to adapt and evaluate. Low-capacity LHDs struggled with programs requiring adaptation. High-capacity LHDs described higher quality communication than low-capacity LHDs. High- and low-capacity LHDs described strategic planning, but high

  8. [The National Research Program 1A: a community-oriented intervention study. Methodological considerations on various types of studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, F

    1980-11-01

    Intervention tricals can principally be classified into community or clinically oriented designs. The clinical approach of the randomized controlled trial (RCT) implies the individual randomization of a volunteer population into a study and a control group. In community-oriented trials, however, the study and control group are not composed of individuals, but rather of total population groups (e.g. communities, factories). The paper gives first an overview over the historial development of epidemiological methods as the basis for both study types. Shortcomings and advantages both of RCT's and of community trials are discussed, using the examples of the "diet-heart" hypothesis and of the National Research Program 1A design, respectively. The two study types uses as primary endpoints for the analysis changes in risk factor distribution, morbidity and/or mortality. A recent alternative is presented, too: advances in angiography allow direct measurements of changes in vessels with atherosclerotic disease. The different study types available complement one another in trying to understand the mechanisms involved in disease of multifactorial origin.

  9. Tourism Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  10. Evidence in multiple micronutrient nutrition: from history to science to effective programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Klaus; de Pee, Saskia; Badham, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The workshop involved key researchers from academic and development organizations reviewing what we have learned about multiple micronutrients and applying that knowledge to providing guidance to public health policy and program design. The participants highlighted the importance of evidence-based interventions, not to restrict evidence slanted toward one single origin but to appreciate the totality of evidence from history, epidemiology, basic science, randomized-controlled studies, and meta-analyses to inform policy and guideline development for the implementation of effective programs. It has to be understood and accepted that although the need for an evidence-based approach to nutritional recommendations is fundamental and cannot be disputed, there are distinct differences between evidence-based medicine and evidence-based nutrition practice. The level of confidence and certainty needed to launch programs to reduce micronutrient deficiencies can be different from what is required to treat a disease. An effective approach would be to ensure that both research and programs at scale are running in parallel and that both receive adequate attention and funding to fine tune the program or stop it when it is no longer required. There was much valuable discussion on the topic of what types of research methodologies are suitable for what type of intervention and, importantly, what is required before public health policy can be set. This paper is an introduction to a series of articles in this supplement that discuss the evidence on multiple micronutrients and what is required to establish policies and launch effective multiple micronutrient programs.

  11. Methodological issues of assessing the effects of social inequality in Russia’s regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Anatol’evna Kozlova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue concerning the assessment of the impact of social inequality on the socio-demographic characteristics of society. The authors evaluate the impact of the social inequality growth in the Russian Federation subjects on the basis of the analysis of the decile ratio dynamics. They propose a methodological approach to determine the degree of dependence of crime rate on the growth of social inequality. The authors compare the influence of the decile ratio and purchasing power on mortality rate in the regions of Russia

  12. 76 FR 59896 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Postponement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ..., Administrator, Office of Foreign Labor Certification, ETA, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Administration, Labor. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (Department...

  13. 76 FR 60720 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Postponement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ....D., Administrator, Office of Foreign Labor Certification, ETA, U.S. Department of Labor, 200... pending. In anticipation of the September 30, 2011 effective date, the Office of Foreign Labor... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  14. Effective Practices for Evaluating Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Stephanie Baird Wilkerson, PhD Carol Haden EdD Magnolia Consulting,LLC Education and public outreach (EPO) program developers and providers seeking insights regarding effective practices for evaluating EPO activities programs benefit from understanding why evaluation is critical to the success of EPO activities and programs, what data collection methods are appropriate, and how to effectively communicate and report findings. Based on our extensive experience evaluating EPO programs, we will share lessons learned and examples of how these practices play out in actual evaluation studies. EPO program developers, providers, and evaluators must consider several factors that influence which evaluation designs and data collection methods will be most appropriate, given the nature of EPO programs. Effective evaluation practices of EPO programs take into account a program's phase of development, duration, and budget as well as a program's intended outcomes. EPO programs that are just beginning development will have different evaluation needs and priorities than will well-established programs. Effective evaluation practices consider the 'life' of a program with an evaluation design that supports a program's growth through various phases including development, revision and refinement, and completion. It would be premature and inappropriate to expect the attainment of longer-term outcomes of activities during program development phases or early stages of implementation. During program development, EPO providers should clearly define program outcomes that are feasible and appropriate given a program's scope and expected reach. In many respects, this directly relates to the amount of time, or duration, intended audiences participate in EPO programs. As program duration increases so does the likelihood that the program can achieve longer-term outcomes. When choosing which outcomes are reasonable to impact and measure, program duration should be considered. Effective evaluation

  15. Optimization of Preparation Program for Biomass Based Porous Active Carbon by Response Surface Methodology Based on Adsorptive Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With waste walnut shell as raw material, biomass based porous active carbon was made by microwave oven method. The effects of microwave power, activation time and mass fraction of phosphoric acid on adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon in the process of physical activation of active carbon precursor were studied by response surface method and numerical simulation method, the preparation plan of biomass based porous active carbon was optimized, and the optimal biomass based porous active carbon property was characterized. The results show that three factors affect the adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon, but the effect of microwave power is obviously more significant than that of mass fraction of phosphoric acid, and the effect of mass fraction of phosphoric acid is more significant than that of activation time. The optimized preparation conditions are:microwave power is 746W, activation time is 11.2min and mass fraction of phosphoric acid is 85.9% in the process of physical activation of activated carbon precursor by microwave heating method. For the optimal biomass based porous active carbon, the adsorption value of iodine is 1074.57mg/g, adsorption value of methylene blue is 294.4mL/g and gain rate is 52.1%.

  16. A Q-Methodology approach to investigating the relationship between level of reflection and typologies among prospective teachers in the physics learning assistant program at Florida International University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Geraldine L.

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to understand physics Learning Assistants' (LAs) views on reflective teaching, expertise in teaching, and LA program teaching experience and to determine if views predicted level of reflection evident in writing. Interviews were conducted in Phase One, Q methodology was used in Phase Two, and level of reflection in participants' writing was assessed using a rubric based on Hatton and Smith's (1995) "Criteria for the Recognition of Evidence for Different Types of Reflective Writing" in Phase Three. Interview analysis revealed varying perspectives on content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and experience in relation to expertise in teaching. Participants revealed that they engaged in reflection on their teaching, believed reflection helps teachers improve, and found peer reflection beneficial. Participants believed teaching experience in the LA program provided preparation for teaching, but that more preparation was needed to teach. Three typologies emerged in Phase Two. Type One LAs found participation in the LA program rewarding and believed expertise in teaching does not require expertise in content or pedagogy, but it develops over time from reflection. Type Two LAs valued reflection, but not writing reflections, felt the LA program teaching experience helped them decide on non-teaching careers and helped them confront gaps in their physics knowledge. Type Three LAs valued reflection, believed expertise in content and pedagogy are necessary for expert teaching, and felt LA program teaching experience increased their likelihood of becoming teachers, but did not prepare them for teaching. Writing assignments submitted in Phase Three were categorized as 19% descriptive writing, 60% descriptive reflections, and 21% dialogic reflections. No assignments were categorized as critical reflection. Using ordinal logistic regression, typologies that emerged in Phase Two were not found to be predictors for the level of reflection

  17. Modeling the effects of study abroad programs on college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin H. Yu; Garry E. Chick; Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of modeling the effects of a study abroad program on students from a university in the northeastern United States. A program effect model was proposed after conducting an extensive literature review and empirically examining a sample of 265 participants in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA),...

  18. The Effectiveness of Parenting Programs: A Review of Campbell Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Coren, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Parenting practices predict important outcomes for children, and parenting programs are potentially effective means of supporting parents to promote optimal outcomes for children. This review summarizes findings of systematic reviews of parenting programs published in the Campbell Library. Six reviews evaluated the effectiveness of a range of…

  19. A guide to highly effective quality programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, John; Fifer, Joe

    2010-01-01

    To dramatically improve quality while decreasing costs, hospitals should: ensure all executives are vocal and visible supporters of quality improvement; focus the board of directors on quality as a strategic priority; strategically target quality resources to improve care for the majority of patients; use the finance system as the foundation for automated quality reporting; form a strong alliance between the CFO and chief quality officer, with each playing a leadership role in the quality program; rely on a well-executed quality program to improve efficiency and decrease the cost of care.

  20. Program Evaluation of a Distance Master's Degree Dental Hygiene Program: A Program Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensabaugh, Cynthia F; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando; Overman, Pamela R; Van Ness, Christopher J; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a program evaluation of the University of Missouri-Kansas City Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Education Program (MSDH). This evaluation examined long-term outcomes in the context of stakeholders (the profession, the student, and the degree-granting institution).Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to gather data from the 28 graduates from the MSDH program. An electronic questionnaire included both open- and closed-ended questions including demographic and practice data, and data related to alumni preparedness to reach their career goals. Virtual focus groups provided valuable insight into whether the program has achieved its goals, and prepared the graduates to meet their program competencies and future goals.Results: Out of a total of 28 individuals who have successfully completed the distance program (2001-2011), 19 participated in an online survey (67.8%). The majority of the participants (73.7%) participated in one of 3 focus groups. Sixty-three percent of the graduates are currently employed in dental hygiene education. Eighty-four percent of the respondents have published their research conducted while in the program, thereby contributing to the dental hygiene body of knowledge. Sixty-eight percent indicated that had the distance option not existed, they would not have been able to obtain their advanced degree in dental hygiene. Twenty-one percent of the respondents report either being currently enrolled in a doctoral program, or having completed a doctoral degree.Conclusion: These results suggest that the University of Missouri-Kansas City Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Education Program is meeting its goals from the perspective of all stakeholders and providing its graduates with access to education and educational resources to meet the program competencies and ultimately achieve their career goals. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  1. Further Insight into the Effectiveness of a Behavioral Teacher Program Targeting ADHD Symptoms Using Actigraphy, Classroom Observations and Peer Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenman, Betty; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Positivity and Rules program (PR program), a low-level behavioral teacher program targeting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has shown positive effects on teacher-rated ADHD symptoms and social functioning. This study aimed to assess whether program effects could be confirmed by instruments assessing classroom behavior other than teacher-ratings, given teachers' involvement with the training. Methods: Participants were 114 primary school children (age = 6-13) displaying ADHD symptoms in the classroom, who were randomly assigned to the treatment (n = 58) or control group (n = 65). ADHD symptoms were measured using classroom observations and actigraphy, and peer acceptance was measured using peer ratings. Intention-to-treat multilevel analyses were conducted to assess program effects. Results: No beneficial program effects were found for any of the measures. Conclusion: The earlier beneficial program effects on both ADHD symptoms and social functioning reported by teachers, may be explained by a change in the perception of teachers rather than changes in the child's behavior. Other methodological explanations are also discussed, such as differences between instruments in the sensitivity to program-related changes. The current study underlines the importance of using different measures of classroom behavior to study program effects. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02518711.

  2. National Guard State Partnership Program: Measuring Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    future development of partnerships. To use an idiomatic expression , gone are the days when we could pick our players and practice before the game. In the...Director, Graduate Degree Programs Robert F. Baumann, Ph.D. The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student

  3. Research methodology search filters: are they effective for locating research for evidence-based veterinary medicine in PubMed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sarah Anne

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the effectiveness of research methodology search filters developed by Haynes and colleagues and utilized by the Clinical Query feature of PubMed for locating literature for evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM). Methods: A manual review of articles published in 6 commonly read veterinary journals was conducted. Articles were classified by format (original study, review, general article, conference report, decision analysis, and case report) and purpose category (etiology, prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment). Search strategies listed in PubMed's Clinical Query feature were then tested and compared to the manually reviewed data to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Results: The author manually reviewed 914 articles to identify 702 original studies. Search #1 included terms determined to have the highest sensitivity and returned acceptable sensitivities over 75% for diagnosis and treatment. Search #2 included terms identified as providing the highest specificity and returned results with specificities over 75% for etiology, prognosis, and treatment. Discussion: The low precision for each search prompts the question: Are research methodology search filters practical for locating literature for the practice of EBVM? A study examining terms related to appropriate research methodologies for advanced clinical veterinary research is necessary to develop filters designed to locate literature for EBVM. PMID:14566380

  4. The Effectiveness of Customer Loyalty Program in Malaysian Retail Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Thela, Rendy Yudistira

    2008-01-01

    Customer loyalty has become a major theme in marketing research since the 20th century. While there are many loyalty programmes in the today’s market place in retail service industries, the effectiveness of such programmes has always been debatable. Hence this study intends to examine the effectiveness of a sample of services firms which offer loyalty programmes to their customers. This research is performed by using a quantitative methodology. There are three samples of firms in the retail s...

  5. Assessment of two school-based programs to prevent universal eating disorders: media literacy and theatre-based methodology in Spanish adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Marisol; Penelo, Eva; Gutiérrez, Teresa; Espinoza, Paola; González, Marcela L; Raich, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of two school-based prevention programs administered to a universal mixed-sex sample of school-going adolescents on disturbed eating attitudes, aesthetic ideal internalization, and other eating disorder risk factors, when compared to a control group. Participants were 200 adolescents aged 12-15 selected by means of incidental sampling from second-year compulsory secondary education at schools. An interactive multimedia media literacy program (ML + NUT, Media Literacy and Nutrition) and a program focused on the same topics using dramatic arts (Theatre Alive) were applied and compared with a control group. Pretest, posttest (1 month later), and 5- and 13-month follow-up measurements were taken. Analyses were conducted with two-way mixed 3 × 3 ANCOVA (group × phase) adjusted by baseline levels, body mass index, and sex. Participants in both experimental groups showed significantly higher self-esteem scores than the control group over time. The ML + NUT group also presented lower aesthetic ideal internalization scores than the control group. Both programs can benefit students' self-esteem. Moreover, ML + NUT program was useful in reducing thin-ideal internalization. However, differences in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes were not found. The programs may be protective on the core psychological variables, which are essential to adaptive adolescent development.

  6. Assessment of Two School-Based Programs to Prevent Universal Eating Disorders: Media Literacy and Theatre-Based Methodology in Spanish Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Mora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the long-term effects of two school-based prevention programs administered to a universal mixed-sex sample of school-going adolescents on disturbed eating attitudes, aesthetic ideal internalization, and other eating disorder risk factors, when compared to a control group. Methods. Participants were 200 adolescents aged 12–15 selected by means of incidental sampling from second-year compulsory secondary education at schools. An interactive multimedia media literacy program (ML + NUT, Media Literacy and Nutrition and a program focused on the same topics using dramatic arts (Theatre Alive were applied and compared with a control group. Pretest, posttest (1 month later, and 5- and 13-month follow-up measurements were taken. Analyses were conducted with two-way mixed 3×3 ANCOVA (group × phase adjusted by baseline levels, body mass index, and sex. Results. Participants in both experimental groups showed significantly higher self-esteem scores than the control group over time. The ML + NUT group also presented lower aesthetic ideal internalization scores than the control group. Discussion. Both programs can benefit students’ self-esteem. Moreover, ML + NUT program was useful in reducing thin-ideal internalization. However, differences in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes were not found. The programs may be protective on the core psychological variables, which are essential to adaptive adolescent development.

  7. Research methods to develop Measures of Effectiveness of the United States Coast Guard`s Vessel Inspection and Boarding Program. Volume 2, Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T.; Cox, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gawande, K. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Economics; Stone, R.; Waisel, L.; Wallace, W.A. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, New York (United States). Dept. of Decision Sciences and Engineering Systems

    1995-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to provide Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) of the US Coast Guard Marine Inspection and Boarding Program based on objective scientific methods. A secondary objective of the study is to provide USCG management with a methodologically and theoretically sound aid to effective policy decision-making. The MOEs constructed in this study are specific to the Marine Inspection and Boarding Program, but the methodology of the study is based on sound theoretical principles that are probably applicable to a range of USCG activities. Hence the methodology applied equally to other important USCG programs and can be similarly used to measure their effectiveness and as an aid to decision-making.

  8. Development of Effective Teacher Program: Teamwork Building Program for Thailand's Municipal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantathai, Pimpka; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn

    2015-01-01

    This research is aimed to formulate the effective teacher teamwork program in municipal schools in Thailand. Primary survey on current situation and problem was conducted to develop the plan to suggest potential programs. Samples were randomly selected from municipal schools by using multi-stage sampling method in order to investigate their…

  9. Effects of a Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program on Pediatric Obesity: The CEMHaVi Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jeremy; Mikulovic, Jacques; Fardy, Paul; Bui-Xuan, Gilles; Marchand, Frederic; Beghin, Laurent; Theunynck, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effects of the unique 1-year health-wellness program of exercise and health education for obese youth on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. The CEMHaVi program included 74 obese children. Participants, 19 girls and 18 boys, and controls, 17 girls and 20 boys, were assigned to treatment. The…

  10. Understanding Effective Higher Education Programs in Prisons: Considerations from the Incarcerated Individuals Program in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Allison Daniel; Noblit, George W.

    2011-01-01

    The North Carolina Workplace and Community Transition Youth Offender Program (YOP), recently renamed the Incarcerated Individuals Program (IPP), has proven to be effective in terms of its growth and expansion, the support of education directors across the correctional facilities, university collaboration, student evaluations, and a low recidivism…

  11. Measuring the Effects of Virtual Pair Programming in an Introductory Programming Java Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharis, N. Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of virtual pair programming (VPP) on student performance and satisfaction in an introductory Java course. Students used online tools that integrated desktop sharing and real-time communication, and the metrics examined showed that VPP is an acceptable alternative to individual programming experience.…

  12. Tourism Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...... with in different ways, depending on the ontological and epistemological stands of the researcher. The book suggests new methods and approaches, with innovative ways of collecting and creating empirical materials, by expanding the approaches to tried and tested methods, including digital innovations, digital...

  13. Energy efficiency in nonprofit agencies: Creating effective program models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Prindle, B.; Scherr, M.I.; White, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    Nonprofit agencies are a critical component of the health and human services system in the US. It has been clearly demonstrated by programs that offer energy efficiency services to nonprofits that, with minimal investment, they can educe their energy consumption by ten to thirty percent. This energy conservation potential motivated the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to conceive a project to help states develop energy efficiency programs for nonprofits. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (1) to analyze existing programs to determine which design and delivery mechanisms are particularly effective, and (2) to create model programs for states to follow in tailoring their own plans for helping nonprofits with energy efficiency programs. Twelve existing programs were reviewed, and three model programs were devised and put into operation. The model programs provide various forms of financial assistance to nonprofits and serve as a source of information on energy efficiency as well. After examining the results from the model programs (which are still on-going) and from the existing programs, several replicability factors'' were developed for use in the implementation of programs by other states. These factors -- some concrete and practical, others more generalized -- serve as guidelines for states devising program based on their own particular needs and resources.

  14. The cost-effectiveness of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review of the characteristics and methodological quality of published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katherine; Jones, Natasha; Newton, Julia; Foster, Charlie; Judge, Andrew; Jackson, Kate; Arden, Nigel K; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael

    2017-10-19

    This descriptive review aimed to assess the characteristics and methodological quality of economic evaluations of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs according to updated economic guidelines for healthcare interventions. Recommendations will be made to inform future research addressing the impact of a physical exercise component on cost-effectiveness. Electronic databases were searched for economic evaluations of exercise-based CR programs published in English between 2000 and 2014. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement was used to review the methodological quality of included economic evaluations. Fifteen economic evaluations met the review inclusion criteria. Assessed study characteristics exhibited wide variability, particularly in their economic perspective, time horizon, setting, comparators and included costs, with significant heterogeneity in exercise dose across interventions. Ten evaluations were based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) spanning 6-24 months but often with weak or inconclusive results; two were modelling studies; and the final three utilised longer time horizons of 3.5-5 years from which findings suggest that long-term exercise-based CR results in lower costs, reduced hospitalisations and a longer cumulative patient lifetime. None of the 15 articles met all the CHEERS quality criteria, with the majority either fully or partially meeting a selection of the assessed variables. Evidence exists supporting the cost-effectiveness of exercise-based CR for cardiovascular disease patients. However, variability in CR program delivery and weak consistency between study perspective and design limits study comparability and therefore the accumulation of evidence in support of a particular exercise regime. The generalisability of study findings was limited due to the exclusion of patients with comorbidities as would typically be found in a real-world setting. The use of longer time-horizons would be

  15. The cost-effectiveness of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review of the characteristics and methodological quality of published literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Edwards

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim This descriptive review aimed to assess the characteristics and methodological quality of economic evaluations of cardiac rehabilitation (CR programs according to updated economic guidelines for healthcare interventions. Recommendations will be made to inform future research addressing the impact of a physical exercise component on cost-effectiveness. Methods Electronic databases were searched for economic evaluations of exercise-based CR programs published in English between 2000 and 2014. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS statement was used to review the methodological quality of included economic evaluations. Results Fifteen economic evaluations met the review inclusion criteria. Assessed study characteristics exhibited wide variability, particularly in their economic perspective, time horizon, setting, comparators and included costs, with significant heterogeneity in exercise dose across interventions. Ten evaluations were based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs spanning 6–24 months but often with weak or inconclusive results; two were modelling studies; and the final three utilised longer time horizons of 3.5–5 years from which findings suggest that long-term exercise-based CR results in lower costs, reduced hospitalisations and a longer cumulative patient lifetime. None of the 15 articles met all the CHEERS quality criteria, with the majority either fully or partially meeting a selection of the assessed variables. Conclusion Evidence exists supporting the cost-effectiveness of exercise-based CR for cardiovascular disease patients. However, variability in CR program delivery and weak consistency between study perspective and design limits study comparability and therefore the accumulation of evidence in support of a particular exercise regime. The generalisability of study findings was limited due to the exclusion of patients with comorbidities as would typically be found in a

  16. APPLYING LCC METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN INVESTMENT OF PROJECTS OF THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Hurynovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is referring to the current problems of the evaluation of the effectiveness of an investment of new plans and of the modernization of existing sewage treatment plants including aspects of the optimization of costs of the sewage treatment. He shows the modernization of the sewage treatment plant the Evaluation of the life cycle as the adequate tool assisting choice of the best variant or the level. He is presenting characteristics of LCС methodology and examples of using to the technology assessment the sewage treatment.

  17. Characterization of BF4− in terms of its effect on water by the 1-propanol probing methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Takeshi; Ayako, Nitta; Nishikawa, Keilo

    2014-01-01

    the trend that the larger the hydrophobicity and the hydrophilicity of the chosen counter anion, the lower the melting point of the resulting RTIL made of [C2mim]+ cation and the chosen anion. For the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4mim]+) based RTILs, however, redetermination of the melting point......One of the most common constituent anions for room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), BF4−, was characterized in terms of its effect on H2O using the so-called 1-propanol (1P) probing methodology developed by us earlier [PCCP, 15(2013) 14548-14565]. The results indicated that BF4− is quantitatively...

  18. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque

    2002-01-01

    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  19. ReCAP: Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Pilot Program to Facilitate Quality Improvement Learning in Oncology: Experience of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Arif H; Quinn, Doris; Gilligan, Timothy D; Davis, Barbara Corning; Dalby, Carole K; Bretsch, Jennifer; McNiff, Kristen K; Jacobson, Joseph O; Kamal, Arif H; Quinn, Doris; Gilligan, Timothy D; Corning Davis, Barbara; Dalby, Carole K; Bretsch, Jennifer; McNiff, Kristen K; Jacobson, Joseph O

    2016-02-01

    Studies have demonstrated that structured training programs can improve health professionals' skills in performing clinical care or research. We sought to develop and test a novel quality training program (QTP) tailored to oncology clinicians. The American Society of Clinical Oncology QTP consisted of three in-person learning sessions and four phases: prework, planning, implementation, and sustain and spread. We measured two primary outcomes: program feasibility and effectiveness. Feasibility was evaluated by recording participation. Effectiveness was measured using the Kirkpatrick model, which evaluates four outcomes: reaction, learning, behavior, and results. We collected qualitative feedback through a focus group of participants and mixed quantitative–qualitative results from a 6-month follow-up evaluation survey. Results are presented using descriptive statistics. We received feedback from of 80% of participants who took part in 92% of in-person program days. QTP deliverables were completed by 100% of teams; none withdrew from the program. Regarding reaction, 100% of respondents expressed interest in actively contributing to future QTP courses. For learning, most teams continued to use the core methodology tools (eg, project charter, aims statements) after the program. Regarding behavior, when asked about intention to serve as a local quality improvement leader, a majority said they “definitely will” serve as: team leader on a specific project (75%), project champion or sponsor (75%), or teacher or trainer for others (64%). In evaluating outcomes, 50% reported applying learned methodology to new projects at their local institution. We demonstrate one of the first feasible and effective training programs to facilitate quality improvement learning for oncology clinicians. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. Methodologies of health impact assessment as part of an integrated approach to reduce effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K.; Seip, H.M.

    1995-12-01

    Quantification of average frequencies of health effects on a population level is an essential part of an integrated assessment of pollution effects. Epidemiological studies seem to provide the best basis for such estimates. This paper gives an introduction to a methodology for health impact assessment and also the results from selected parts of a case study in Hungary. This case study is aimed at testing and improving the methodology for integrated assessment and focuses on energy production and consumption and implications for air pollution. Using monitoring data from Budapest, the paper gives estimates of excess frequencies of respiratory illness, mortality and other health end-points. For a number of health end-points, particles probably may serve as a good indicator component. Stochastic simulation is used to illustrate the uncertainties imbedded in the exposure-response function applied. The paper uses the ``bottom up approach`` to find cost-effective abatement strategies against pollution damages, where specific abatement measures such as emission standards for vehicles are explored in detail. It is concluded that in spite of large uncertainties in every step of the analysis, an integrated assessment of costs and benefits of different abatement measures is valuable as it clarifies the main objectives of an abatement policy and explicitly describes the adverse impacts of different activities and their relative importance. 46 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A methodology to estimate earthquake effects on fractures intersecting canister holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, P.; Wallmann, P.; Thomas, A.; Follin, S. [Golder Assocites Inc. (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    A literature review and a preliminary numerical modeling study were carried out to develop and demonstrate a method for estimating displacements on fractures near to or intersecting canister emplacement holes. The method can be applied during preliminary evaluation of candidate sites prior to any detailed drilling or underground excavation, utilizing lineament maps and published regression relations between surface rupture trace length and earthquake magnitude, rupture area and displacements. The calculated displacements can be applied to lineament traces which are assumed to be faults and may be the sites for future earthquakes. Next, a discrete fracture model is created for secondary faulting and jointing in the vicinity of the repository. These secondary fractures may displace due to the earthquake on the primary faults. The three-dimensional numerical model assumes linear elasticity and linear elastic fracture mechanics which provides a conservative displacement estimate, while still preserving realistic fracture patterns. Two series of numerical studies were undertaken to demonstrate how the methodology could be implemented and how results could be applied to questions regarding site selection and performance assessment. The first series illustrates how earthquake damage to a hypothetical repository for a specified location (Aespoe) could be estimated. A second series examined the displacements induced by earthquakes varying in magnitude from 6.0 to 8.2 as a function of how close the earthquake was in relation to the repository. 143 refs, 25 figs, 7 tabs.

  2. A methodology to measure the effectiveness of academic recruitment and turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    of effectiveness used, and between the indicators andthe universities’ overall research performance. In countries that conduct regular nationalassessment exercises, the evaluation of effectiveness in recruitment and turnover couldcomplement the overall research assessments. In particular, monitoring...

  3. Bayesian methodology incorporating expert judgment for ranking countermeasure effectiveness under uncertainty: example applied to at grade railroad crossings in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Simon; Oh, Jutaek

    2006-03-01

    Transportation professionals are sometimes required to make difficult transportation safety investment decisions in the face of uncertainty. In particular, an engineer may be expected to choose among an array of technologies and/or countermeasures to remediate perceived safety problems when: (1) little information is known about the countermeasure effects on safety; (2) information is known but from different regions, states, or countries where a direct generalization may not be appropriate; (3) where the technologies and/or countermeasures are relatively untested, or (4) where costs prohibit the full and careful testing of each of the candidate countermeasures via before-after studies. The importance of an informed and well-considered decision based on the best possible engineering knowledge and information is imperative due to the potential impact on the numbers of human injuries and deaths that may result from these investments. This paper describes the formalization and application of a methodology to evaluate the safety benefit of countermeasures in the face of uncertainty. To illustrate the methodology, 18 countermeasures for improving safety of at grade railroad crossings (AGRXs) in the Republic of Korea are considered. Akin to "stated preference" methods in travel survey research, the methodology applies random selection and laws of large numbers to derive accident modification factor (AMF) densities from expert opinions. In a full Bayesian analysis framework, the collective opinions in the form of AMF densities (data likelihood) are combined with prior knowledge (AMF density priors) for the 18 countermeasures to obtain 'best' estimates of AMFs (AMF posterior credible intervals). The countermeasures are then compared and recommended based on the largest safety returns with minimum risk (uncertainty). To the author's knowledge the complete methodology is new and has not previously been applied or reported in the literature. The results demonstrate that the

  4. Monitoring safety in a phase III real-world effectiveness trial: use of novel methodology in the Salford Lung Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Sue; Harvey, Catherine; Brewster, Jill; Bakerly, Nawar Diar; Elkhenini, Hanaa F; Stanciu, Roxana; Williams, Claire; Brereton, Jacqui; New, John P; McCrae, John; McCorkindale, Sheila; Leather, David

    2017-03-01

    The Salford Lung Study (SLS) programme, encompassing two phase III pragmatic randomised controlled trials, was designed to generate evidence on the effectiveness of a once-daily treatment for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in routine primary care using electronic health records. The objective of this study was to describe and discuss the safety monitoring methodology and the challenges associated with ensuring patient safety in the SLS. Refinements to safety monitoring processes and infrastructure are also discussed. The study results are outside the remit of this paper. The results of the COPD study were published recently and a more in-depth exploration of the safety results will be the subject of future publications. The SLS used a linked database system to capture relevant data from primary care practices in Salford and South Manchester, two university hospitals and other national databases. Patient data were collated and analysed to create daily summaries that were used to alert a specialist safety team to potential safety events. Clinical research teams at participating general practitioner sites and pharmacies also captured safety events during routine consultations. Confidence in the safety monitoring processes over time allowed the methodology to be refined and streamlined without compromising patient safety or the timely collection of data. The information technology infrastructure also allowed additional details of safety information to be collected. Integration of multiple data sources in the SLS may provide more comprehensive safety information than usually collected in standard randomised controlled trials. Application of the principles of safety monitoring methodology from the SLS could facilitate safety monitoring processes for future pragmatic randomised controlled trials and yield important complementary safety and effectiveness data. © 2016 The Authors Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. DATINK pilot study: an effective methodology for ballpoint pen ink dating in questioned documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Román, I; Bartolomé, L; Alonso, M L; Alonso, R M; Ezcurra, M

    2015-09-10

    Establishing the approximate age of an ink entry from a questioned document is often a complicated task and a controversial issue in forensic sciences. Among the existing approaches, the analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In recent years, several ink dating methods have been proposed. These methods have been based on the analysis of common ink solvents using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as the analytical platform. Despite these recent methods, several questions remain. The aim of this work was to develop an ink dating methodology (DATINK) for documents written by ballpoint pens based on the disappearance of volatile solvents from the ink entry. Multiple solid-phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS was used to measure the solvents from ink entries made with four BIC(®) ballpoint pens. The β parameter, the remaining fraction of the analyte in the system after one equilibration, corresponding to the successive extractions was considered for modelling a mathematical equation for later ink age dating. Preliminary tests of DATINK method showed that it was possible to detect the presence of ink solvents on documents up to the studied five years. The analyses of different real samples of known age were analyzed in terms of β values, which provided a mean relative error of 21%. The proposed use of β parameter for estimating the absolute age of ballpoint ink entries has shown promising results with a standard deviation of β ranging from 0.002 to 0.004. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Legislative Issues in Disclosing Financial Conflicts of Interest to Participants in Biomedical Research: Effectiveness and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Sun

    2017-12-01

    This research focuses on the analysis regarding disclosure of financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) after Gelsinger v. University of Pennsylvania (Penn). The main legal issue was that the participants did not have enough opportunity to make an autonomous decision about participating in the research because he was not informed about the researchers' and the institution's substantial FCOI. The disclosure system was adopted by the Code of Federal Regulations. Under the regulation, researchers and institutions need to report FCOI over $5,000 to the institution, and the internal review boards have to report to the federal authority if needed. In case of human research, the disclosure to Food and Drug Administration is mandatory. FCOI disclosure system would help participants to make an autonomous decision, and increase trust to the research process and researchers. Moreover, the system would let researchers keep fiduciary duty while (possibly) lowering legal liability in case of a lawsuit. There were discussions about the disclosure methodology in the United States. However, there have not been a lot of discussions in Korea even after the "Humidifier Disinfectant" case. Therefore, new legislations need to be considered. First, the system requires disclosure funded by not only government but also private institutions. Second, like California Supreme Court, the subject would be reviewed under the reasonable person standard by participants, including patents, equity, and stock. Third, the disclosure needs to include simple or brief explanation to the FCOI to be better understood by the participants. Fourth, the disclosure should be in the informed consent process. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  7. A Methodology to Adjust ATMS Observations for Limb Effect and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kexin; Zhou, Lihang; Goldberg, Mitch; Liu, Xingpin; Wolf, Walter; Tan, Changyi; Liu, Quanhua

    2017-11-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounders (ATMS), carried on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011. The ATMS is a follow-on instrument to advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU), currently flying on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. The primary new ATMS features are a reduced hardware package and improved gap coverage. One thing in common about cross-track sounders is a scan perpendicular to the motion of the satellite, allowing a broad swath of measurements to be taken. But an undesirable feature is that the measurements vary with scan angle because of changes in the optical pathlength through the Earth's atmosphere between the Earth and the satellite. One approach to this problem is to limb adjust the measurements to a fixed view angle. The limb correction algorithm applied to ATMS is based on the heritage methodology originally applied to MSU and later to AMSU. The limb correction method is applied to each of the 96 ATMS field of view (FOV) per scan line, adjusting the off-nadir FOV to the nadir view with fitting error generally within the instrumental noise. The limb-adjusted brightness temperature were used in the original, legacy TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder, and Advanced TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder NOAA sounding product algorithms and more recently to derive the total precipitation water (TPW) retrieval over ocean, with a bias of 0.046 mm and a standard deviation of 3.43 mm, when compared with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts TPW data. The limb-corrected brightness temperature can be used to detect the atmospheric weather features, such as the warm cores for tropical cyclones, and the imagery presents snapshots for quick weather signal diagnosis.

  8. Cost effectiveness of two army physical fitness programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A; Metter, E Jeffrey; Fleg, Jerome L; Weinstein, Ali A; Frick, Kevin D

    2013-12-01

    Repeated failure in the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is associated with lower fitness level, premature discharge, and significant career disruption, at high economic and health costs to the individual soldier and the U.S. Army. We used cost-effectiveness analysis to estimate the health and economic implications of two exercise interventions for Army National Guard (ARNG) soldiers who had failed the APFT, a traditional remediation program and a new pedometer-based program called Fitness for Life, involving individual counseling and follow-up telephone calls. Effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed in terms of APFT pass rates and calculated 10-year coronary heart disease risk. Costs were calculated based on tracking of resources used in the programs. APFT pass rates were 54.3% and 47.9%, respectively, for traditional and Fitness for Life programs, p = not significant. Neither program affected 10-year coronary heart disease risk. For assumed APFT pass rates up to 40% without any formal remediation, both the traditional remediation program and the ARNG Fitness for Life intervention had cost savings without significant group differences. Depending on the ARNG unit and personnel preference, although the Fitness for Life Program was more expensive and thus less cost-effective, either program could be cost-effective and of benefit to the military. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Effects on Early Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Douglas G.; And Others

    The number of child sexual abuse prevention programs incorporated into school curricula has increased steadily in the past decade. This longitudinal study evaluated the effects of a school-based, child sexual abuse prevention program on child abuse reports in nine school districts over a five-year period. Districts had been randomly assigned to…

  10. Training programs in research into the effectiveness of teacher behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article contends that studies into the effectiveness of teacher behavior should give more attention both to a systematic design of training programs as well as to the collection of implementation data concerning teacher behavior, before incorporating the training program into an experimental

  11. 2012 Report Card on the Effectiveness of Teacher Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Tennessee General Assembly passed legislation in 2007 requiring that the State Board of Education produce an assessment on the effectiveness of teacher training programs. The law requires that the report include data on the performance of each program's graduates in the following areas: placement and retention rates, Praxis II results, and…

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Military Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Seth L; Smith, Kenneth J; Palmer, Catherine

    2018-02-07

    Occupational noise threatens U.S. worker health and safety and commands a significant financial burden on state and federal government worker compensation programs. Previous studies suggest that hearing conservation programs have contributed to reduced occupational hearing loss for noise-exposed workers. Many military personnel are overexposed to noise and are provided hearing conservation services. Select military branches require all active duty personnel to follow hearing conservation program guidelines, regardless of individual noise exposure. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a military hearing conservation program, relative to no intervention, in relation to cases of hearing loss prevented. We employed cost-effectiveness analytic methods to compare the costs and effectiveness, in terms of hearing loss cases prevented, of a military hearing conservation program relative to no program. We used costs and probability estimates available in the literature and publicly available sources. The effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed based on whether hearing loss occurred over a 20-yr time frame. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention was $10,657 per case of hearing loss prevented. Workers were 28% less likely to sustain hearing loss in our model when they received the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention, which reflected the greater effectiveness of the hearing conservation program. Cost-effectiveness results were sensitive to estimated values for the probability of acquiring hearing loss from both interventions and the cost of hearing protection. We performed a Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis where we simultaneously varied all the model parameters to their extreme plausible bounds. When we ran 10,000 Monte Carlo iterations, we observed that the hearing conservation program was more cost-effective in 99% of cases when decision makers were willing to

  13. A methodology to measure the effectiveness of academic recruitment and turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to measure the effectiveness of the recruitment and turnover of professors, in terms of their research performance. The method presented is applied tothe case of Italian universities over the period 2008–2012. The work then analyses thecorrelation between the indicators...... of effectiveness used, and between the indicators andthe universities’ overall research performance. In countries that conduct regular nationalassessment exercises, the evaluation of effectiveness in recruitment and turnover couldcomplement the overall research assessments. In particular, monitoring...

  14. Modeling of the effect of freezer conditions on the hardness of ice cream using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Ochi, H; Habara, K; Taketsuka, M; Saito, H; Ichihashi, N; Iwatsuki, K

    2009-12-01

    The effect of conventional continuous freezer parameters [mix flow (L/h), overrun (%), drawing temperature ( degrees C), cylinder pressure (kPa), and dasher speed (rpm)] on the hardness of ice cream under varying measured temperatures (-5, -10, and -15 degrees C) was investigated systematically using response surface methodology (central composite face-centered design), and the relationships were expressed as statistical models. The range (maximum and minimum values) of each freezer parameter was set according to the actual capability of the conventional freezer and applicability to the manufacturing process. Hardness was measured using a penetrometer. These models showed that overrun and drawing temperature had significant effects on hardness. The models can be used to optimize freezer conditions to make ice cream of the least possible hardness under the highest overrun (120%) and a drawing temperature of approximately -5.5 degrees C (slightly warmer than the lowest drawing temperature of -6.5 degrees C) within the range of this study. With reference to the structural elements of the ice cream, we suggest that the volume of overrun and ice crystal content, ice crystal size, and fat globule destabilization affect the hardness of ice cream. In addition, the combination of a simple instrumental parameter and response surface methodology allows us to show the relation between freezer conditions and one of the most important properties-hardness-visually and quantitatively on the practical level.

  15. A systematic review of studies on psychosocial late effects of childhood cancer: structures of society and methodological pitfalls may challenge the conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Rechnitzer, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    High survival rates after childhood cancer raise attention to possible psychosocial late effects. We focus on predictors of psychosocial outcomes based on diagnosis, treatment, demography, somatic disease, and methodological problems. Overall, survivors evaluate their health-related quality of li...

  16. Building effective cybersecurity programs a security manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schreider, Tari

    2017-01-01

    You know by now that your company could not survive without the Internet. Not in today's market. You are either part of the digital economy or reliant upon it. With critical information assets at risk, your company requires a state-of-the-art cybersecurity program. But how do you achieve the best possible program? Tari Schreider, in Building Effective Cybersecurity Programs: A Security Manager's Handbook, lays out the step-by-step roadmap to follow as you build or enhance your cybersecurity program.

  17. The Effect of Instructional Methodology on High School Students Natural Sciences Standardized Tests Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    2010-01-01

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on…

  18. An interprofessional palliative care oncology rehabilitation program: effects on function and predictors of program completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, M R; Feldstain, A; Gravelle, D; Macdonald, N; Pereira, J

    2013-12-01

    After treatment, patients with active cancer face a considerable burden from the effects of both the disease and its treatment. The Palliative Rehabilitation Program (prp) is designed to ameliorate disease effects and to improve the patient's functioning. The present study evaluated predictors of program completion and changes in functioning, symptoms, and well-being after the program. The program received referrals for 173 patients who had finished anticancer therapy. Of those 173 patients, 116 with advanced cancer were eligible and enrolled in the 8-week interprofessional prp; 67 completed it. Measures of physical, nutritional, social, and psychological functioning were evaluated at entry to the program and at completion. Participants experienced significant improvements in physical performance (p mobility, and balance or function (p = 0.001 to 0.001). Reasons that participants did not complete the prp were disease progression, geographic inaccessibility, being too well (program not challenging enough), death, and personal or unknown reasons. A normal level of C-reactive protein (<10 mg/L, p = 0.029) was a predictor of program completion. Patients living with advanced cancers who underwent the interprofessional prp experienced significant improvement in functioning across several domains. Program completion can be predicted by a normal level of C-reactive protein.

  19. Methodology of aging management in structures, systems and components of a nuclear power plant and its application to a pilot program in Laguna Verde; Metodologia de la gestion del envejecimiento en estructuras, sistemas y componentes de una central nuclear y su aplicacion a un programa piloto en Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvio C, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez S, G. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Centrales Nucleoelectricas, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Veracruz-Medellin Km. 7.5, Dos Bocas, 54270 Veracruz (Mexico)], e-mail: gfdezs@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    From its origin the nuclear power plants confront the effects of time and of environment, giving as result the aging of its structures, systems and components. In this document the general process is described for the establishment of Aging Management Program developed by IAEA. Following the program methodology is guaranteed that a nuclear power plant manages the aging effects appropriately and to make decisions for its solution, assuring the characteristic functions of structures, systems and components of same nuclear power plant. On the other hand, the implantation of an aging management program constitutes the base for development of a licence renovation program, like it can be the specific case of the Central Laguna Verde Units 1 and 2. (Author)

  20. 13 CFR 126.102 - What is the effect of the HUBZone program on the section 8(d) subcontracting program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... program on the section 8(d) subcontracting program? 126.102 Section 126.102 Business Credit and Assistance... effect of the HUBZone program on the section 8(d) subcontracting program? The HUBZone Act of 1997 amended the section 8(d) subcontracting program to include qualified HUBZone SBCs in the formal subcontracting...

  1. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Intergenerational Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garc?a-S?nchez, Jes?S-Nicasio; Canedo-Garc?a, Alejandro; Pacheco-Sanz, Deilis-Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    .... Of these, just 50 studies met the inclusion criteria of being an empirical investigation of the effectiveness of intergenerational programs that contain appropriate elaboration on theoretical constructs and methods.Results...

  2. The Theoretical, Methodological, and Practical Background for Looking at International Students' Learning Styles, Backgrounds, and Quality Perceptions with Regard to ASB's Three English-Language M.Sc. Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    This paper looking at the methodological background for a questionnaire study of student perceptions with regard to own learning styles and backgrounds as well as the quality of education in Aarhus School of Business' 3 English-language M.Sc. programs (FIB, EU, and BPM). Theories and models about...

  3. Oil and gas program: cumulative effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Horn, W; Melancon, A; Sun, J

    1985-01-01

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA) requires the Secretary of the Department of the Interior to submit an annual report to Congress assessing the cumulative environmental effects of mineral leasing and operations under the OCSLA...

  4. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  5. Expectancy and the Treatment of Depression: A Review of Experimental Methodology and Effects on Patient Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Wager, Tor D.; Roose, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Expectancies are a class of psychological and neurobiological processes that may be responsible for part of the improvement observed with psychiatric treatments. Patients' expectations can substantially affect the results of clinical trials, and managing them is an important part of clinical care. This review describes the history of research on expectancy effects in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), the relationship between expectancies and placebo effects, and what is currently known about t...

  6. Comparative effectiveness research for the clinician researcher: a framework for making a methodological design choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Skinner, Elizabeth H; James, Alicia M; Cook, Jill L; McPhail, Steven M; Haines, Terry P

    2016-08-17

    Comparative effectiveness research compares two active forms of treatment or usual care in comparison with usual care with an additional intervention element. These types of study are commonly conducted following a placebo or no active treatment trial. Research designs with a placebo or non-active treatment arm can be challenging for the clinician researcher when conducted within the healthcare environment with patients attending for treatment.A framework for conducting comparative effectiveness research is needed, particularly for interventions for which there are no strong regulatory requirements that must be met prior to their introduction into usual care. We argue for a broader use of comparative effectiveness research to achieve translatable real-world clinical research. These types of research design also affect the rapid uptake of evidence-based clinical practice within the healthcare setting.This framework includes questions to guide the clinician researcher into the most appropriate trial design to measure treatment effect. These questions include consideration given to current treatment provision during usual care, known treatment effectiveness, side effects of treatments, economic impact, and the setting in which the research is being undertaken.

  7. The Impact of Sociological Methodology on Statistical Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Clogg, Clifford C.

    1992-01-01

    Developments in sociological methodology and in quantitative sociology have always been closely related to developments in statistical theory, methodology and computation. The same statement applies if "methodology for social research" and "quantitative social research" replace the more specific terms in this statement. Statistical methodology, including especially the battery of methods used to estimate and evaluate statistical models, has had a tremendous effect on social research in the po...

  8. Measuring Satisfaction in the Program Manager, Procuring Contracting Officer Relationship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, John

    1997-01-01

    .... To comply with this Executive Order, Navy contracting offices require an effective methodology for developing an instrument to measure the satisfaction of their customers, Navy Program Managers...

  9. [PROFAMILIA studies the effectiveness of contraceptive marketing programs in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A recent study by PROFAMILIA, the private Colombian family planning organization, indicates that community based distribution programs and social marketing programs are not totally interchangeable forms of contraceptive distribution. Comparison of the efficacy of different systems in making contraceptives more accessible to the low income population led the researchers to conclude that social marketing programs work as well as community based distribution programs in rural areas which already have high rates of contraceptive usage. Community based distribution programs appear more effective than social marketing programs in areas where contraceptive usage is not yet well established. PROFAMILIA researchers conducted operational studies in 3 different states, each of which had a community based distribution program. In the first state the community based distribution program was suspended and a vender who had previously supplied only urban outlets added rural pharmacies to his route. The vender handled 3 kinds of pills, 2 types of spermicidal suppositories, and condoms. In a neighboring state, 3 instructors belonging to the community based distribution program were offered commissions of about 10% of the value of the products if the distributors they supervised met monthly sales quotas. The community based distribution program was left unchanged in the third state but a 2-member mobile team was trained to travel through the region by jeep, talking to community groups about the advantage of contraception. At the end of 18 months, sales of contraceptives had declined in the state where the community based distribution program was replaced by the social marketing program. The decline was believed to be related to unforeseen price increases for pills and devaluation of the Colombian peso. The social marketing project was however much more cost effective than the other 2, which continued to require PROFAMILIA subsidies. Contraceptive usage increased in the other 2 areas

  10. Effectiveness and Successful Program Elements of SOAR’s Afterschool Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Johnson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Project SOAR provided after-school programs that afforded expanded learning opportunities to help students succeed in local public schools and to contribute to the general welfare of the community. Program components focused on building students’ academic skills and positive attitudes, aided by teachers, mentors, parent education, and local agencies. Instructional programs were conducted to help reduce drug use and violence. Activities included academic assistance, technology training, mentoring, service learning projects, and education in life skills and the arts. Parent involvement was encouraged. Behavioral and academic outcomes—especially at the high school level—were analyzed to determine program effectiveness regarding academic achievement, dropout rates, and rates and frequency of suspensions. Successful program elements and strategies are noted.

  11. Methodology for Evaluating Cost-effectiveness of Commercial Energy Code Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This document lays out the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) method for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of energy code proposals and editions. The evaluation is applied to provisions or editions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The method follows standard life-cycle cost (LCC) economic analysis procedures. Cost-effectiveness evaluation requires three steps: 1) evaluating the energy and energy cost savings of code changes, 2) evaluating the incremental and replacement costs related to the changes, and 3) determining the cost-effectiveness of energy code changes based on those costs and savings over time.

  12. Effectiveness of iterative interventions to increase research productivity in one residency program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alweis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to expose residents to research opportunities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a series of iterative interventions to increase scholarly activity in one internal medicine residency. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of a series of interventions to increase resident and faculty scholarly productivity over a 14-year period was performed using quality improvement methodology. Outcomes measured were accepted regional and national abstracts and PubMed indexed manuscripts of residents and faculty. Results: Initially, regional meeting abstracts increased and then were supplanted by national meeting abstracts. Sustained gains in manuscript productivity occurred in the eighth year of interventions, increasing from a baseline of 0.01 publications/FTE/year to 1.57 publications/FTE/year in the final year measured. Run chart analysis indicated special cause variation associated with the interventions performed. Conclusions: Programs attempting to stimulate research production among faculty and residents can choose among many interventions cited in the literature. Since success of any group of interventions is likely additive and may take years to show benefit, measuring outcomes using quality improvement methodology may be an effective way to determine success.

  13. Development of a flight software testing methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccluskey, E. J.; Andrews, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The research to develop a testing methodology for flight software is described. An experiment was conducted in using assertions to dynamically test digital flight control software. The experiment showed that 87% of typical errors introduced into the program would be detected by assertions. Detailed analysis of the test data showed that the number of assertions needed to detect those errors could be reduced to a minimal set. The analysis also revealed that the most effective assertions tested program parameters that provided greater indirect (collateral) testing of other parameters. In addition, a prototype watchdog task system was built to evaluate the effectiveness of executing assertions in parallel by using the multitasking features of Ada.

  14. Modelling the effects of transglutaminase and L-ascorbic acid on substandard quality wheat flour by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimurina Olivera D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decade, there have been observed extreme variations in climatic conditions which in combination with inadequate agro techniques lead to decreased quality of mercantile wheat, actally flour. The application of improvers can optimise the quality of substandard wheat flour. This paper focuses to systematic analysis of individual and interaction effects of ascorbic acid and transglutaminase as dough strengthening improvers. The effects were investigated using the Response Surface Methodology. Transglutaminase had much higher linear effect on the rheological and fermentative properties of dough from substandard flour than L-ascorbic acid. Both transglutaminase and L-ascorbic acid additions had a significant linear effect on the increase of bread specific volume. Effects of transglutaminase and ascorbic acid are dependent on the applied concentrations and it is necessary to determine the optimal concentration in order to achieve the maximum quality of the dough and bread. Optimal levels of tested improvers were determined using appropriate statistical techniques which applied the desirability function. It was found that the combination of 30 mg/kg of transglutaminase and 75.8 mg/kg of L-ascorbic acid achieved positive synergistic effect on rheological and fermentative wheat dough properties, as well on textural properties and specific volume of bread made from substandard quality flour.

  15. Effective Inclusive Schools: Designing Successful Schoolwide Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehir, Thomas; Katzman, Lauren I.

    2012-01-01

    This book presents lessons learned from in-depth case studies of some of our most effective inclusive public schools. The authors conclusively demonstrate that schools can educate students with mild and severe disabilities in general education classrooms by providing special education services that link to and bolster general education…

  16. Soil Co2 efflux in central Amazonia: Environmental and methodological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanchi, F.B.; Waterloo, M.J.; Kruijt, B.; Kesselmeier, J.; Luizao, F.J.; Manzi, A.O.; Dolman, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Soil respiration plays a significant role in the carbon cycle of Amazonian rainforests. Measurements of soil respiration have only been carried out in few places in the Amazon. This study investigated the effects of the method of ring insertion in the soil as well as of rainfall and spatial

  17. Methodology in Seeking Stakeholder Perceptions of Effective Technical Oral Presentations: An Exploratory Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Ena; Patil, Arun; Sargunan, Rajeswary Appacutty

    2010-01-01

    Engineering communication studies indicate the importance of oral presentations as an indispensable component of workplace oral communication activities; however, since there is limited literature regarding stakeholder perceptions of effective presentation skills and attributes in technical oral presentations or final year engineering project…

  18. Outdoor studies on the effects of solar UV-B on bryophytes : Overview and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, P.; de Boer, M.K.; de Bakker, N.; Rozema, Jelte

    In this review all recent field studies on the effects of UV-B radiation on bryophytes are discussed. In most of the studies fluorescent UV-B tubes are used to expose the vegetation to enhanced levels of UV-B radiation to simulate stratospheric ozone depletion. Other studies use screens to filter

  19. Methodological approaches to investigate the effects of meaning, expectations and context in listening experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitler, Alfred; Hellbrueck, Jürgen; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    in applied situations is illustrated with examples from automotive research and development, pointing to the fundamental distinction between sound character and sound quality as proposed by [1]. Finally, the term context is defined within the theoretical framework of reference frames, and effects...

  20. Outdoor studies on the effects of solar UV-B on bryophytes: overview and methodology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, P.; de Boer, M.K.; Bakker, N.; Rozema, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this review all recent field studies on the effects of UV-B radiation on bryophytes are discussed. In most of the studies fluorescent UV-B tubes are used to expose the vegetation to enhanced levels of UV-B radiation to simulate stratospheric ozone depletion. Other studies use screens to filter

  1. Methodological approaches to investigate the effects of meaning, expectations and context in listening experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitler, Alfred; Hellbrueck, Jürgen; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive factors in sound evaluation have received an increasing amount of attention over the past years, and specific effects of meaning, expectations, and context have been under empirical investigation. The present paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical definition of these concepts...

  2. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Virtual Learning Methodology in Occupational Therapy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeau, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative, randomly controlled study sought to find relationships between occupational therapy students' participation in a virtual situated-case scenario (VSCS) and enhanced perceived self-efficacy as well as academic performance when compared to participation in a text-based case study. To determine effects of participation in a virtual…

  3. The Effect of Peer Instruction Method on Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptual Comprehension of Methodology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hebaishi, Safaa Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Peer teaching has become a productive learning strategy at all education levels. Peer Instruction Method is carried out in a range of forms and contexts like co-tutoring, reciprocal tutoring and discussion groups without teachers. To examine the effectiveness of using the peer instruction method to enhance the conceptual comprehension of…

  4. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  5. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  6. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu eFernandez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation.This paper presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services.The paper first describes the context and strategies of the program which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The paper analyses social, educational, economic, demographic and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  7. Supporting Imagers' VOICE: A National Training Program in Comparative Effectiveness Research and Big Data Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Stella K; Rawson, James V; Recht, Michael P

    2017-12-05

    Provided methodologic training, more imagers can contribute to the evidence basis on improved health outcomes and value in diagnostic imaging. The Value of Imaging Through Comparative Effectiveness Research Program was developed to provide hands-on, practical training in five core areas for comparative effectiveness and big biomedical data research: decision analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, evidence synthesis, big data principles, and applications of big data analytics. The program's mixed format consists of web-based modules for asynchronous learning as well as in-person sessions for practical skills and group discussion. Seven diagnostic radiology subspecialties and cardiology are represented in the first group of program participants, showing the collective potential for greater depth of comparative effectiveness research in the imaging community. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Medicaid disease management programs on emergency admissions and inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Matthew S

    2013-08-01

    To determine the impact of state Medicaid diabetes disease management programs on emergency admissions and inpatient costs. National InPatient Sample sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Project for the years from 2000 to 2008 using 18 states. A difference-in-difference methodology compares costs and number of emergency admissions for Washington, Texas, and Georgia, which implemented disease management programs between 2000 and 2008, to states that did not undergo the transition to managed care (N = 103). Costs and emergency admissions were extracted for diabetic Medicaid enrollees diagnosed in the reform and non-reform states and collapsed into state and year cells. In the three treatment states, the implementation of disease management programs did not have statistically significant impacts on the outcome variables when compared to the control states. States that implemented disease management programs did not achieve improvements in costs or the number of emergency of admissions; thus, these programs do not appear to be an effective way to reduce the burden of this chronic disease. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Methodology to assess the effects of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) on power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legro, J.R.; Abi-Samra, N.C.; Crouse, J.C.; Tesche, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes a method to evaluate the possible effects of magnetohydrodynamic-electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) on power systems. This method is based on the approach adapted to study the impact of geomagnetic storms on power systems. The paper highlights the similarities and differences between the two phenomena. Also presented are areas of concern which are anticipated from MHD-EMP on the overall system operation. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Effects of combined sewer overflows on a periurban stream ecosystem: Methodological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Breil, P.; Lafont, M.; Vivier, A.; Namour, P.; Schmitt, L.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Here we develop from a long term field experiment an assessment method of interstitial fauna resilience to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) effect. We address the case of small water courses for which the ratio of CSOs to natural flow can be 1 to much more. Biotic material was collected in the benthic and hyporheic layers. Biotic material focussed mainly on oligocheates species whose diversity, species category and abundance are resumed into metrics, called functional t...

  11. An Assessment of Current Methodologies Used to Evaluate Foreign Military Sales Payment Schedule Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    analysis, the following pages would not appear if it were not for the extremely capable and willing assistance of our typist and friend, Mrs. Keith ...through the inability to adjust politically, apply effective policy, or manage operations, we would surely abrogate an important world leadership ...inoae tots pcmion. 1. Shsla. .. "PC r ay h.r osn . sMoutulity grint " to vsates, u.e the aims sold hsonednonly a. For tan Puepinen ap1ctfletl to the

  12. A rapid automatic analyzer and its methodology for effective bentonite content based on image recognition technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Long

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate determination of effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand is very important for selecting the correct mixing ratio and mixing process to obtain high-performance molding sand. Currently, the effective bentonite content is determined by testing the ethylene blue absorbed in used clay bonded sand, which is usually a manual operation with some disadvantages including complicated process, long testing time and low accuracy. A rapid automatic analyzer of the effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand was developed based on image recognition technology. The instrument consists of auto stirring, auto liquid removal, auto titration, step-rotation and image acquisition components, and processor. The principle of the image recognition method is first to decompose the color images into three-channel gray images based on the photosensitive degree difference of the light blue and dark blue in the three channels of red, green and blue, then to make the gray values subtraction calculation and gray level transformation of the gray images, and finally, to extract the outer circle light blue halo and the inner circle blue spot and calculate their area ratio. The titration process can be judged to reach the end-point while the area ratio is higher than the setting value.

  13. Evaluation of STD/AIDS prevention programs: a review of approaches and methodologies Avaliação de programas de prevenção de DST/AIDS: revendo abordagens e metodologias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Marques da Cruz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of approaches and methodologies in the evaluation of STD/AIDS prevention programs, searching for theoretical and methodological support for the institutionalization of evaluation and decision-making. The review included the MEDLINE, SciELO, and ISI Web of Science databases and other sources like textbooks and congress abstracts from 1990 to 2005, with the key words: "evaluation", "programs", "prevention", "STD/AIDS", and similar terms. The papers showed a predominance of quantitative outcome or impact evaluative studies with an experimental or quasi-experimental design. The main use of evaluation is accountability, although knowledge output and program improvement were also identified in the studies. Only a few evaluative studies contemplate process evaluation and its relationship to the contexts. The review aimed to contribute to the debate on STD/AIDS, which requires more effective, consistent, and sustainable decisions in the field of prevention.O artigo apresenta uma revisão de abordagens e metodologias sobre avaliação de programas de prevenção de DST/AIDS, buscando um aporte teórico-metodológico que subsidie a institucionalização da avaliação e a tomada de decisão. A revisão foi realizada nas bases de dados do MEDLINE, SciELO, ISI Web of Science e outras fontes, tais como livros, textos e resumos apresentados em congressos, no período de 1990 a 2005, das palavras-chave: "avaliação", "programas", "prevenção", "DST/AIDS" e termos similares. Nos artigos levantados há uma predominância de estudos avaliativos quantitativos de resultado ou de impacto, do tipo experimental ou quase-experimental. O principal uso da avaliação é o da prestação de contas, embora a produção do conhecimento e a melhoria do programa possam ser identificados nos estudos examinados. Poucos são os estudos avaliativos que contemplam a avaliação de processo e discutem a sua relação com os contextos. Pretendeu

  14. Culture-sensitive adaptation and validation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases methodology for rheumatic disease in Latin American indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Granados, Ysabel; Silvestre, Adriana; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Valls, Evart; Quintana, Rosana; Figuera, Yemina; Santiago, Flor Julian; Goñi, Mario; González, Rosa; Santana, Natalia; Nieto, Romina; Brito, Irais; García, Imelda; Barrios, Maria Cecilia; Marcano, Manuel; Loyola-Sánchez, Adalberto; Stekman, Ivan; Jorfen, Marisa; Goycochea-Robles, Maria Victoria; Midauar, Fadua; Chacón, Rosa; Martin, Maria Celeste; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to validate a culturally sensitive adaptation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases (COPCORD) methodology in several Latin American indigenous populations. The COPCORD Spanish questionnaire was translated and back-translated into seven indigenous languages: Warao, Kariña and Chaima (Venezuela), Mixteco, Maya-Yucateco and Raramuri (Mexico) and Qom (Argentina). The questionnaire was administered to almost 100 subjects in each community with the assistance of bilingual translators. Individuals with pain, stiffness or swelling in any part of the body in the previous 7 days and/or at any point in life were evaluated by physicians to confirm a diagnosis according to criteria for rheumatic diseases. Overall, individuals did not understand the use of a 0-10 visual analog scale for pain intensity and severity grading and preferred a Likert scale comprising four items for pain intensity (no pain, minimal pain, strong pain, and intense pain). They were unable to discriminate between pain intensity and pain severity, so only pain intensity was included. For validation, 702 subjects (286 male, 416 female, mean age 42.7 ± 18.3 years) were interviewed in their own language. In the last 7 days, 198 (28.2 %) subjects reported having musculoskeletal pain, and 90 (45.4 %) of these had intense pain. Compared with the physician-confirmed diagnosis, the COPCORD questionnaire had 73.8 % sensitivity, 72.9 % specificity, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.7 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73. The COPCORD questionnaire is a valid screening tool for rheumatic diseases in indigenous Latin American populations.

  15. [Implementation of "5S" methodology in laboratory safety and its effect on employee satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yavuz; Ozkutuk, Aydan; Dogan, Ozlem

    2014-04-01

    Health institutions use the accreditation process to achieve improvement across the organization and management of the health care system. An ISO 15189 quality and efficiency standard is the recommended standard for medical laboratories qualification. The "safety and accommodation conditions" of this standard covers the requirement to improve working conditions and maintain the necessary safety precautions. The most inevitable precaution for ensuring a safe environment is the creation of a clean and orderly environment to maintain a potentially safe surroundings. In this context, the 5S application which is a superior improvement tool that has been used by the industry, includes some advantages such as encouraging employees to participate in and to help increase the productivity. The main target of this study was to implement 5S methods in a clinical laboratory of a university hospital for evaluating its effect on employees' satisfaction, and correction of non-compliance in terms of the working environment. To start with, first, 5S education was given to management and employees. Secondly, a 5S team was formed and then the main steps of 5S (Seiri: Sort, Seiton: Set in order, Seiso: Shine, Seiketsu: Standardize, and Shitsuke: Systematize) were implemented for a duration of 3 months. A five-point likert scale questionnaire was used in order to determine and assess the impact of 5S on employees' satisfaction considering the areas such as facilitating the job, the job satisfaction, setting up a safe environment, and the effect of participation in management. Questionnaire form was given to 114 employees who actively worked during the 5S implementation period, and the data obtained from 63 (52.3%) participants (16 male, 47 female) were evaluated. The reliability of the questionnaire's Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.858 (p5S it was observed and determined that facilitating the job and setting up a safe environment created a statistically significant effect on

  16. Assessing cancer drugs for reimbursement: methodology, relationship between effect size and medical need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sahb-Berkovitch, Rima; Woronoff-Lemsi, Marie-Christine; Molimard, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Reimbursement is assessed by the Transparency Commission from the Health Authority (HAS) using a medical benefit (SMR) score that gives access to reimbursement, an "improvement of medical service rendered" (ASMR) that determines the added therapeutic value, and the target population. Assessing cancer drugs for reimbursement raises the same issues as other therapeutic classes, with some key differences. Overall survival (OS) is considered by the Transparency Commission as the endpoint for assessing clinical benefit, and yet it is not an applicable primary endpoint in all types of cancer. Later lines of treatment, particularly during the development process, may make it difficult to interpret OS as the primary endpoint. Therefore, progression-free survival (PFS) for metastatic situations and disease-free survival (DFS) in adjuvant situations are wholly relevant endpoints for decisions on the reimbursement of a new cancer drug. Effect size is assessed using actuarial survival curves of the product versus the comparator, and it is difficult to summarise them into one single parameter. Results are generally interpreted based on median survival, which is fragmented because it only measures one point of the curve. The hazard ratio measures the effect of treatment throughout the duration of survival and is therefore more comprehensive in quantifying clinical benefit. Determining an effect size threshold for granting reimbursement is difficult given the diversity of cancer settings and the level of medical need, which influences assessment of the clinical relevance of the observed difference. Rapid progress in comparators (700 molecules in development) and the identification of predictive factors of efficacy (biomarkers, histology, etc.) during development may lead to different ASMR scores per population, or to the restriction of the target population to a subgroup of the marketing authorisation (MA) population in which the expected effect size is greater. To address these

  17. Research and evaluation of the effectiveness of e-learning in the case of linear programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Miletić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the effectiveness of the e-learning approach to linear programming. The goal was to investigate how proper use of information and communication technologies (ICT and interactive learning helps to improve high school students’ understanding, learning and retention of advanced non-curriculum material. The hypothesis was that ICT and e-learning is helpful in teaching linear programming methods. In the first phase of the research, a module of lessons for linear programming (LP was created using the software package Loomen Moodle and other interactive software packages such as Geogebra. In the second phase, the LP module was taught as a short course to two groups of high school students. These two groups of students were second-grade students in a Croatian high school. In Class 1, the module was taught using ICT and e-learning, while the module was taught using classical methods in Class 2. The action research methodology was an integral part in delivering the course to both student groups. The sample student groups were carefully selected to ensure that differences in background knowledge and learning potential were statistically negligible. Relevant data was collected while delivering the course. Statistical analysis of the collected data showed that the student group using the e-learning method produced better results than the group using a classical learning method. These findings support previous results on the effectiveness of e-learning, and also establish a specific approach to e-learning in linear programming.

  18. National Institutes of Health Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Late Effects Initiative: The Research Methodology and Study Design Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Bronwen E; Hahn, Theresa; Martin, Paul J; Mitchell, Sandra A; Petersdorf, Effie W; Armstrong, Gregory T; Shelburne, Nonniekaye; Storer, Barry E; Bhatia, Smita

    2017-01-01

    The increasing numbers of hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) performed each year, the changing demographics of HCT recipients, the introduction of new transplantation strategies, incremental improvement in survival, and the growing population of HCT survivors demand a comprehensive approach to examining the health and well-being of patients throughout life after HCT. This report summarizes strategies for the conduct of research on late effects after transplantation, including consideration of the study design and analytic approaches; methodologic challenges in handling complex phenotype data; an appreciation of the changing trends in the practice of transplantation; and the availability of biospecimens to support laboratory-based research. It is hoped that these concepts will promote continued research and facilitate the development of new approaches to address fundamental questions in transplantation outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CHANGES IN THE ORGANIZATION AND LOGISTICS OF SUPPLIES IN SUGAR FACTORIES (METHODOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Polowczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to determine the methodological assumptions for further research on the effectiveness of changes in the organization and logistics of supplies in sugar factories. For this purpose, data were collected on historical ways of organizing transport of sugar beets to various sugar factories. Preliminary analysis of the data shows that the direction of development of the organization and logistics of beet deliveries is towards a process fully organized and supervised by individual sugar producers. This approach allows for better use of existing resources and the development of new directions of the organization processes. All actions taken by the sugar sector are aimed at introducing optimization, acceleration of movement and use of the latest communication techniques in order to reduce effort and time in the organization of the process.

  20. An Effective Vacuum Assisted Extraction Method for the Optimization of Labdane Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, the VAE technique gave shorter extraction times and remarkable higher extraction efficiency, which indicated that a certain degree of vacuum gave the solvent a better penetration of the solvent into the pores and between the matrix particles, and enhanced the process of mass transfer. The present results demonstrated that VAE is an efficient, simple and fast method for extracting bioactive components from A. paniculata, which shows great potential for becoming an alternative technique for industrial scale-up applications.

  1. Program coordinators' perceptions of effective national citizen science programs and their impacts: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The increasing desire to engage the public in science and research has advanced citizen science as a valuable and popular means to this end. Citizen science, a process by which concerned individuals, agencies, industries or community groups collaborate to monitor, track, and respond to issues of common community concerns, has evolved and grown over the past decade. Much of the citizen science research thus far has primarily focused on the public participants (citizen scientists) and/or organizations themselves. This study looks instead at the people, the coordinators, implementing or coordinating citizen science programs and activities, specifically in the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network (CoCoRaHS), and their perceptions for program effectiveness. CoCoRaHS is a national program in which citizens monitor, record, and report precipitation conditions from backyard observations. Semi-structured interviews and an online survey completed by the program's coordinators in the state of Colorado found that the effectiveness of CoCoRaHS depends less on the interactions of the coordinators with each other or funding impacts on program activities, but rather on the interactions between coordinators and citizen scientists. The effectiveness of CoCoRaHS was perceived to depend more significantly on the connections coordinators have with the community of program users and citizen scientists, and a supportive culture within the program. The next step therefore is to explore these interactions between the coordinators and citizen scientists to develop a better understanding of their nature of participation in the citizen science program, and to describe the characteristics of all participants.

  2. Foresight for commanders: a methodology to assist planning for effects-based operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul K.; Kahan, James P.

    2006-05-01

    Looking at the battlespace as a system of systems is a cornerstone of Effects-Based Operations and a key element in the planning of such operations, and in developing the Commander's Predictive Environment. Instead of a physical battleground to be approached with weapons of force, the battlespace is an interrelated super-system of political, military, economic, social, information and infrastructure systems to be approached with diplomatic, informational, military and economic actions. A concept that has proved useful in policy arenas other than defense, such as research and development for information technology, addressing cybercrime, and providing appropriate and cost-effective health care, is foresight. In this paper, we provide an overview of how the foresight approach addresses the inherent uncertainties in planning courses of action, present a set of steps in the conduct of foresight, and then illustrate the application of foresight to a commander's decision problem. We conclude that foresight approach that we describe is consistent with current doctrinal intelligence preparation of the battlespace and operational planning, but represents an advance in that it explicitly addresses the uncertainties in the environment and planning in a way that identifies strategies that are robust over different possible ground truths. It should supplement other planning methods.

  3. Supervised Disulfiram's Superior Effectiveness in Alcoholism Treatment: Ethical, Methodological, and Psychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Colin; Streel, Emmanuel; Skinner, Marilyn

    2017-03-09

    Disulfiram (DSF) causes the ALDH-mediated deterrence of alcohol consumption. We review recent meta-analyses showing the superior effectiveness of supervised disulfiram (SD) in alcoholism treatment compared with oral naltrexone or acamprosate (ACP). The success of SD is also consistent with the almost complete absence of alcoholism in Japanese homozygotes for 'inefficient' ALDH. However, SD is an underused treatment and some clinicians have ethical objections to DSF. We examine these objections and argue that they are based on a misunderstanding of how DSF works. In particular, we argue that SD is not as is often claimed a variety of aversion therapy but aids cognitive, behavioural, educational and psychosocial interventions. It has some unique features that need to be better understood if it is to be properly compared with other treatments and effectively employed to help alcoholic patients, especially those who have not responded to other evidence-based interventions. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Safeguarding Ecosystem Services: A Methodological Framework to Buffer the Joint Effect of Habitat Configuration and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Tereza C; Tambosi, Leandro R; Acosta, André L; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Saraiva, Antonio M; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by mobile agents are increasingly threatened by the loss and modification of natural habitats and by climate change, risking the maintenance of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and human welfare. Research oriented towards a better understanding of the joint effects of land use and climate change over the provision of specific ecosystem services is therefore essential to safeguard such services. Here we propose a methodological framework, which integrates species distribution forecasts and graph theory to identify key conservation areas, which if protected or restored could improve habitat connectivity and safeguard ecosystem services. We applied the proposed framework to the provision of pollination services by a tropical stingless bee (Melipona quadrifasciata), a key pollinator of native flora from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and important agricultural crops. Based on the current distribution of this bee and that of the plant species used to feed and nest, we projected the joint distribution of bees and plants in the future, considering a moderate climate change scenario (following IPPC). We then used this information, the bee's flight range, and the current mapping of Atlantic Forest remnants to infer habitat suitability and quantify local and regional habitat connectivity for 2030, 2050 and 2080. Our results revealed north to south and coastal to inland shifts in the pollinator distribution during the next 70 years. Current and future connectivity maps unraveled the most important corridors, which if protected or restored, could facilitate the dispersal and establishment of bees during distribution shifts. Our results also suggest that coffee plantations from eastern São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais States could suffer a pollinator deficit in the future, whereas pollination services seem to be secured in southern Brazil. Landowners and governmental agencies could use this information to implement new land use schemes. Overall

  5. A methodology for assessing the effect of correlations among muscle synergy activations on task-discriminating information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Ioannis; Berret, Bastien; Pozzo, Thierry; Panzeri, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Muscle synergies have been hypothesized to be the building blocks used by the central nervous system to generate movement. According to this hypothesis, the accomplishment of various motor tasks relies on the ability of the motor system to recruit a small set of synergies on a single-trial basis and combine them in a task-dependent manner. It is conceivable that this requires a fine tuning of the trial-to-trial relationships between the synergy activations. Here we develop an analytical methodology to address the nature and functional role of trial-to-trial correlations between synergy activations, which is designed to help to better understand how these correlations may contribute to generating appropriate motor behavior. The algorithm we propose first divides correlations between muscle synergies into types (noise correlations, quantifying the trial-to-trial covariations of synergy activations at fixed task, and signal correlations, quantifying the similarity of task tuning of the trial-averaged activation coefficients of different synergies), and then uses single-trial methods (task-decoding and information theory) to quantify their overall effect on the task-discriminating information carried by muscle synergy activations. We apply the method to both synchronous and time-varying synergies and exemplify it on electromyographic data recorded during performance of reaching movements in different directions. Our method reveals the robust presence of information-enhancing patterns of signal and noise correlations among pairs of synchronous synergies, and shows that they enhance by 9–15% (depending on the set of tasks) the task-discriminating information provided by the synergy decompositions. We suggest that the proposed methodology could be useful for assessing whether single-trial activations of one synergy depend on activations of other synergies and quantifying the effect of such dependences on the task-to-task differences in muscle activation patterns. PMID

  6. Design for Vibration Monitoring: A Methodology for Reliable and Cost-Effective Vibration Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of health monitoring systems is to detect failures or defects for increased safety and performance and to provide on-condition maintenance with reduced costs. The problems associated with health monitoring systems include high rates of false alarms and missed failures, which make monitoring an unreliable and costly task. The reason for this is that unaccounted variations invalidate signal modeling assumptions. Our approach was to focus on vibration monitoring of rotating components. We analyzed baseline signals to determine statistical variations, identify and model factors that influence vibrations (pre-production vs. post-production variations), determine hit and false alarm rates with baseline flight data, model and predict effects of defects and variations on vibrations, and develop algorithms and metrics for failure and anomaly detection in the presence of variations.

  7. Methodology for the Assessment of 3D Conduction Effects in an Aerothermal Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Anthony Brandon

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for the assessment of three-dimensional conduction effects during test in a Aerothermal Wind Tunnel. The test objectives were to duplicate and extend tests that were performed during the 1960's on thermal conduction on proturberance on a flat plate. Slides review the 1D versus 3D conduction data reduction error, the analysis process, CFD-based analysis, loose coupling method that simulates a wind tunnel test run, verification of the CFD solution, Grid convergence, Mach number trend, size trends, and a Sumary of the CFD conduction analysis. Other slides show comparisons to pretest CFD at Mach 1.5 and 2.16 and the geometries of the models and grids.

  8. Effectiveness Analysis of a Non-Destructive Single Event Burnout Test Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Oser, P; Spiezia, G; Fadakis, E; Foucard, G; Peronnard, P; Masi, A; Gaillard, R

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to characterize power MosFETs regarding their tolerance to destructive Single Event Burnouts (SEB). Therefore, several non-destructive test methods have been developed to evaluate the SEB cross-section of power devices. A power MosFET has been evaluated using a test circuit, designed according to standard non-destructive test methods discussed in the literature. Guidelines suggest a prior adaptation of auxiliary components to the device sensitivity before the radiation test. With the first value chosen for the de-coupling capacitor, the external component initiated destructive events and affected the evaluation of the cross-section. As a result, the influence of auxiliary components on the device cross-section was studied. This paper presents the obtained experimental results, supported by SPICE simulations, to evaluate and discuss how the circuit effectiveness depends on the external components.

  9. A systematic review of studies on psychosocial late effects of childhood cancer: structures of society and methodological pitfalls may challenge the conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Rechnitzer, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    High survival rates after childhood cancer raise attention to possible psychosocial late effects. We focus on predictors of psychosocial outcomes based on diagnosis, treatment, demography, somatic disease, and methodological problems. Overall, survivors evaluate their health-related quality of li....... Significant methodological problems hamper current knowledge. Systematic registration of psychosocial and somatic problems at diagnosis and prospectively through protocols is needed. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  10. Playing nice: a multi-methodological study on the effects of social conformity on memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuker, Lorena; Müller, Anna R.; Montag, Christian; Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin; Fell, Juergen; Trautner, Peter; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Conformity is an important aspect of social behavior. Two main motives have been identified: people may adapt their behavior to “play nice” despite knowing better (normative conformity) or they may accept the others' opinion as a valid source of information (informative conformity). Neuroimaging studies can help to distinguish between these two possibilities. Here, we present a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on memory conformity in a real group situation. We investigated the effects of group pressure on activity in hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which likely support informative and normative memory conformity, respectively. Furthermore, we related the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 [called Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met] on the gene coding for COMT to both behavior and fMRI activation. Homozygous Met-allele carriers (Val−) behaved more conformist than carriers of at least one Val-allele (Val+). In the neuroimaging data, we compared trials in which subjects were confronted with a majority of incorrect group responses to trials in which they were confronted with a majority of correct group responses. We found increased hippocampal activity when the majority of the group was correct, possibly indicating retrieval processes. Moreover, we observed enhanced activity in the ACC when the majority of the group was incorrect, suggesting that conformity was mostly normative. Most interestingly, this latter effect was more pronounced for Val− as compared to Val+ participants. This offers a speculative explanation for the higher behavioral levels of social conformity in Val− allele carriers, because their subjectively perceived conflict in the presence of an incorrect group majority may have been higher. Overall, this study demonstrates how the mechanisms leading to complex social behavior such as conformity can be studied by combining genetic analyses and fMRI in social neuroscience paradigms. PMID

  11. Playing nice: a multi-methodological study on the effects of social conformity on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuker, Lorena; Müller, Anna R; Montag, Christian; Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin; Fell, Juergen; Trautner, Peter; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Conformity is an important aspect of social behavior. Two main motives have been identified: people may adapt their behavior to "play nice" despite knowing better (normative conformity) or they may accept the others' opinion as a valid source of information (informative conformity). Neuroimaging studies can help to distinguish between these two possibilities. Here, we present a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on memory conformity in a real group situation. We investigated the effects of group pressure on activity in hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which likely support informative and normative memory conformity, respectively. Furthermore, we related the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 [called Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met] on the gene coding for COMT to both behavior and fMRI activation. Homozygous Met-allele carriers (Val-) behaved more conformist than carriers of at least one Val-allele (Val+). In the neuroimaging data, we compared trials in which subjects were confronted with a majority of incorrect group responses to trials in which they were confronted with a majority of correct group responses. We found increased hippocampal activity when the majority of the group was correct, possibly indicating retrieval processes. Moreover, we observed enhanced activity in the ACC when the majority of the group was incorrect, suggesting that conformity was mostly normative. Most interestingly, this latter effect was more pronounced for Val- as compared to Val+ participants. This offers a speculative explanation for the higher behavioral levels of social conformity in Val- allele carriers, because their subjectively perceived conflict in the presence of an incorrect group majority may have been higher. Overall, this study demonstrates how the mechanisms leading to complex social behavior such as conformity can be studied by combining genetic analyses and fMRI in social neuroscience paradigms.

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of a multimedia program on home safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary Anne; Chiriboga, David A

    2003-06-01

    This study was designed to test the effectiveness and acceptance of multimedia home safety programming by community-dwelling seniors. A prototype CD-ROM was produced that required no reading or computer skills because the program included an audio narration of content and directions for operating the program on a touchscreen computer monitor. Volunteers (N = 126) from a senior center aged 55 and older were randomly assigned to (1) a multimedia group that used the interactive program to learn about home safety, (2) a traditional learning group that read well-established booklets on home safety, and (3) a control group that received no instruction on safety between the pre- and posttests. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that the multimedia group was the only group to improve in knowledge. The group was also very satisfied with the approach. Multimedia formats can effectively and economically provide information to older clients.

  13. Evaluation of effectiveness for MC&A programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkey, D. D. (David Dennis); DeMuth, S. F. (Scott F.); Longmire, V. L. (Victoria L.); Sinkule, B. J. (Barbara J.); Strittmatter, R. B. (Richard B.); Stevens, R. S. (Rebecca S.); Dawson, P. (Pamela); Preston, L. (Lynne)

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a progress report on a joint Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories effort to develop tools to evaluate MC&A system effectiveness and perform vulnerability assessments based on the system effectiveness metrics. It summarizes the work that the two labs have completed to date and provides an overview of the work remaining. The Department of Energy Office of Technology Development, SO-20.3, is presently considering whether it is possible to model MC&A programs at DOE facilities in order to better determine the need for and prioritize potential technology development projects. The intent is to develop an objective method of evaluating MC&A programs, to model the effect of changes to the systems used by the programs, and to quantify the extent to which these changes improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the programs. Project milestones include a review of the risk analysis tool developed at Sandia, ATLAS, to determine how MC&A system elements could be incorporated, identification of MC&A system elements and activities for which effectiveness metrics can be developed, and developing the metrics for these system elements. In addition, the milestones include validation of the system elements and effectiveness metrics by potential users. Upon completion of the development of MC&A system effectiveness metrics, we will determine the feasibility of integrating the data elements and process required for evaluation of MC&A effectiveness metrics into ATLAS.

  14. Measuring the effectiveness of an audiological counseling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kris; Archbold, Sue

    2014-02-01

    Audiologists routinely observe patients struggle with psycho-emotional difficulties associated with hearing loss, yet are often underprepared to manage this vital aspect of patient care. For this reason, a workshop was developed for audiologists interested in expanding their counselling skills. Since one-time workshops typically do not result in changes in practice, this program adopted a distributed-over-time learning model, consisting of 20 hours of participation across six weeks. The extended nature of the program provided multiple opportunities to learn several counselling strategies, and apply and evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies in clinical settings. Learning objectives were assessed throughout the six-week program. However, at the conclusion of each program, it was unknown whether new knowledge carried over into sustained new skills. Therefore, we surveyed attendees six months after their program, to determine if the program had affected changes in their practice. Twenty clinicians (response rate = 91%) participated in the survey. All respondents made some, and often many, changes in patient communication. They applied several counseling concepts to their work settings and reported positive changes in patient-clinician dynamics. Results suggest that a six-week program is effective in helping clinicians change their counseling skills within their practice.

  15. Antibullying programs in schools: how effective are evaluation practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Wendy; Smith, J David

    2009-09-01

    Bullying is a problem for schools around the world, and is an important topic for research because it has been associated with negative outcomes on numerous social, psychological, and academic measures. Antibullying prevention and intervention programs have varied greatly in their outcomes, with some studies reporting positive results while others have reported little or no positive impacts. Prompted by accountability demands, many agencies have developed standards with which to assess whether social programs are effective. Antibullying program evaluations have not been systematically reviewed to determine whether these types of standards are being applied. The purpose of this study was to assess the rigor of recent peer-reviewed antibullying program evaluations. Thirty-one peer-reviewed evaluations of antibullying programs, published within the last 10 years, were identified and coded for study characteristics. Shortcomings were identified in many of these program evaluations. In order to improve evaluation practices, researchers should consider using more rigorous designs to identify cause-effect relationships, including control conditions and random assignment, using more appropriate pre-post intervals, using more advanced methods of analyses such as hierarchical linear modeling, and systematically verifying program integrity to obtain dosage data that can be used in the outcome analyses.

  16. Effective poultry programming in the next century. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynnells, R D

    1999-05-01

    The symposium, coordinated by the PSA Extension Committee, is intended to stimulate productive discussions regarding the future, and component roles, of the land grant university system. To retain a strong infrastructure for our agricultural system, we must effectively meet challenges to the entire system, and recognize that the land grant university system has been, and will be, basic to the success of agriculture. Topics to be discussed include user fees for outreach and extension programs, balancing applied and basic research programs, and distance education opportunities. Many other topics are of great importance, such as recruitment, youth programs, the tenure system, personnel and program evaluation, and the capacity to inform the public regarding controversial issues. Societal changes have resulted in confusion between the role of stakeholders and shareholders in determining the proper focus of university programs. Although basic research is essential, it appears to many persons to be the idol of the land grant university system. Extension, applied research, and teaching programs are perceived to be a drag on such a system because little or no revenue is realized from this work. It is essential that we create respect and equality for research, teaching, extension, and youth programs, and recognize the importance of integrating all aspects of the land grant university system into aggressive and timely programs that address the needs of commodity and societal clientele.

  17. Effectiveness of a Danish early year preschool program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Holm, Anders; Bremberg, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of studies indicate that early year preschool programs lead to positive long-term effects. Systematic quality improvement of early year preschool may enhance these outcomes. The ASP Program was built on this principle. In this program preschool staff are supported...... in their efforts to critically reflect on current practices and to change these. A randomized controlled study was carried out in Denmark from September 2006 to May 2008. The study encompassed 2323 children in 59 preschools in two municipalities. Children were assessed using the Strength and Difficulties...

  18. Effectiveness of oral health education programs: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakre, Priya Devadas; Harikiran, A G

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, attention has been drawn toward assessing the effectiveness of oral health education programs. This is in line with demand for evidence based research and will help to inform policy makers on how to allocate resources. (1) Collect and collate all information on oral health education programs. (2) Assess the programs based on various coding criteria. (3) Assess effectiveness of oral health education programs on oral health status and knowledge, attitude and practice. A search of all published articles in Medline was done using the keywords "oral health education, dental health education, oral health promotion". The resulting titles and abstracts provided the basis for initial decisions and selection of articles. Out of the primary list of articles, a total number of 40 articles were selected as they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (1). Articles on oral health programs with an oral health education component (2). Articles published after the year 1990 (3). Articles published in English. The full text of the articles was then obtained from either the internet or libraries of dental research colleges and hospitals in and around Bangalore. A set of important variables were identified and grouped under five headings to make them amenable for coding. The coding variables were then described under various subheadings to allow us to compare the chosen articles. Oral health education is effective in improving the knowledge attitude and practice of oral health and in reducing plaque, bleeding on probing of the gingiva and caries increment. This study identifies a few important variables which contribute to the effectiveness of the programs. There is an indication in this review that the most successful oral health programs are labor intensive, involve significant others and has received funding and additional support. A balance between inputs and outputs and health care resources available will determine if the program can be recommended for

  19. Efficient microplastics extraction from sand. A cost effective methodology based on sodium iodide recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Mikaël; Le Tilly, Véronique; César, Guy; Sire, Olivier; Bruzaud, Stéphane

    2017-02-15

    Evaluating the microplastics pollution on the shores requires overcoming the technological and economical challenge of efficient plastic extraction from sand. The recovery of dense microplastics requires the use of NaI solutions, a costly process. The aim of this study is to decrease this cost by recycling the NaI solutions and to determine the impact of NaI storage. For studying the NaI recyclability, the solution density and the salt mass have been monitored during ten life cycles. Density, pH and salt mass have been measured for 40days to assess the storage effect. The results show that NaI solutions are recyclable without any density alterations with a total loss of 35.9% after the 10cycles of use. During storage, chemical reactions may appear but are reversible. Consequently, the use of recycling methods allows for a significant cost reduction. How far the plastic extraction by dense solutions is representative is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling threat assessments of water supply systems using markov latent effects methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Consuelo Juanita

    2006-12-01

    Recent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act emphasize efforts toward safeguarding our nation's water supplies against attack and contamination. Specifically, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 established requirements for each community water system serving more than 3300 people to conduct an assessment of the vulnerability of its system to a terrorist attack or other intentional acts. Integral to evaluating system vulnerability is the threat assessment, which is the process by which the credibility of a threat is quantified. Unfortunately, full probabilistic assessment is generally not feasible, as there is insufficient experience and/or data to quantify the associated probabilities. For this reason, an alternative approach is proposed based on Markov Latent Effects (MLE) modeling, which provides a framework for quantifying imprecise subjective metrics through possibilistic or fuzzy mathematics. Here, an MLE model for water systems is developed and demonstrated to determine threat assessments for different scenarios identified by the assailant, asset, and means. Scenario assailants include terrorists, insiders, and vandals. Assets include a water treatment plant, water storage tank, node, pipeline, well, and a pump station. Means used in attacks include contamination (onsite chemicals, biological and chemical), explosives and vandalism. Results demonstrated highest threats are vandalism events and least likely events are those performed by a terrorist.

  1. Cost effectiveness of pharmacological maintenance treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review of the evidence and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H; Goossens, Lucas M A

    2012-04-01

    Over 200 million people have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) worldwide. The number of disease-year equivalents and deaths attributable to COPD are high. Guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of the disease recommend an individualized step-up approach in which treatment is intensified when results are unsatisfactory. Our objective was to present a systematic review of the cost effectiveness of pharmacological maintenance treatment for COPD and to discuss the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the studies. A systematic literature search for economic evaluations of drug therapy in COPD was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Economic Evaluation Database of the UK NHS (NHS-EED) and the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED). Full economic evaluations presenting both costs and health outcomes were included. A total of 40 studies were included in the review. Of these, 16 were linked to a clinical trial, 14 used Markov models, eight were based on observational data and two used a different approach. The few studies on combining short-acting bronchodilators were consistent in finding net cost savings compared with monotherapy. Studies comparing inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with placebo or no maintenance treatment reported inconsistent results. Studies comparing fluticasone with salmeterol consistently found salmeterol to be more cost effective. The cost-effectiveness studies of tiotropium versus placebo, ipratropium or salmeterol pointed towards a reduction in total COPD-related healthcare costs for tiotropium in many but not all studies. All of these studies reported additional health benefits of tiotropium. The cost-effectiveness studies of the combination of inhaled long-acting β₂-agonists and ICS all report additional health benefits at an increase in total COPD-related costs in most studies. The cost-per-QALY estimates of this combination treatment vary widely and are very sensitive to the assumptions on

  2. Methodological considerations about the use of bimodal oddball P300 in psychiatry: topography and reference effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Schroder

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Event-Related Potentials (ERPs bimodal oddball task has disclosed increased sensitivity to show P300 modulations to subclinical symptoms. Even if the utility of such a procedure has still to be confirmed at a clinical level, gathering normative values of this new oddball variant may be of the greatest interest. We specifically addressed the challenge of defining the best location for the recording of P3a and P3b components and selecting the best reference to use by investigating the effect of an offline re-reference procedure on recorded bimodal P3a and P3b. Forty young and healthy subjects were submitted to a bimodal (synchronized and always congruent visual and auditory stimuli three-stimulus oddball task in which 140 frequent bimodal stimuli, 30 deviant target stimuli and 30 distractors were presented. Task consisted in clicking as soon as possible on the targets, and not paying attention to frequent stimuli and distractors. This procedure allowed us to record, for each individual, the P3a component, referring to the novelty process related to distractors processing, and the P3b component, linked to the processing of the target stimuli. Results showed that both P3a and P3b showed maximal amplitude in Pz. However, P3a displayed a more central distribution. Nose reference was also shown to give maximal amplitudes compared with average and linked mastoids references. These data were discussed in light of the necessity to develop multi-site recording guidelines to furnish sets of ERPs data comparable across laboratories.

  3. Methodological Considerations about the Use of Bimodal Oddball P300 in Psychiatry: Topography and Reference Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Elisa; Kajosch, Hendrik; Verbanck, Paul; Kornreich, Charles; Campanella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) bimodal oddball task has disclosed increased sensitivity to show P300 modulations to subclinical symptoms. Even if the utility of such a procedure has still to be confirmed at a clinical level, gathering normative values of this new oddball variant may be of the greatest interest. We specifically addressed the challenge of defining the best location for the recording of P3a and P3b components and selecting the best reference to use by investigating the effect of an offline re-reference procedure on recorded bimodal P3a and P3b. Forty young and healthy subjects were submitted to a bimodal (synchronized and always congruent visual and auditory stimuli) three-stimulus oddball task in which 140 frequent bimodal stimuli, 30 deviant "target" stimuli and 30 distractors were presented. Task consisted in clicking as soon as possible on the targets, and not paying attention to frequent stimuli and distractors. This procedure allowed us to record, for each individual, the P3a component, referring to the novelty process related to distractors processing, and the P3b component, linked to the processing of the target stimuli. Results showed that both P3a and P3b showed maximal amplitude in Pz. However, P3a displayed a more central distribution. Nose reference was also shown to give maximal amplitudes compared with average and linked mastoids references. These data were discussed in light of the necessity to develop multi-site recording guidelines to furnish sets of ERPs data comparable across laboratories.

  4. Boosting program integrity and effectiveness of the cognitive behavioral program EQUIP for incarcerated youth in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether a "program integrity booster" could improve the low to moderate program integrity and effectiveness of the EQUIP program for incarcerated youth as practiced in The Netherlands. Program integrity was assessed in EQUIP groups before and after the booster. Youth residing in

  5. Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been challenged to be cost effective in their educational programming. The cost effectiveness ratio is a versatile evaluation indicator for Extension educators to compare the cost of achieving a unit of outcomes or educating a client in similar educational programs. This article describes the cost effectiveness ratio and…

  6. A methodology to investigate the contribution of conduction and radiation heat transfer to the effective thermal conductivity of packed graphite pebble beds, including the wall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Beer, M., E-mail: maritz.db@gmail.com [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Du Toit, C.G., E-mail: Jat.DuToit@nwu.ac.za [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Rousseau, P.G., E-mail: pieter.rousseau@uct.ac.za [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The radiation and conduction components of the effective thermal conductivity are separated. • Near-wall effects have a notable influence on the effective thermal conductivity. • Effective thermal conductivity is a function of the macro temperature gradient. • The effective thermal conductivity profile shows a characteristic trend. • The trend is a result of the interplay between conduction and radiation. - Abstract: The effective thermal conductivity represents the overall heat transfer characteristics of a packed bed of spheres and must be considered in the analysis and design of pebble bed gas-cooled reactors. During depressurized loss of forced cooling conditions the dominant heat transfer mechanisms for the passive removal of decay heat are radiation and conduction. Predicting the value of the effective thermal conductivity is complex since it inter alia depends on the temperature level and temperature gradient through the bed, as well as the pebble packing structure. The effect of the altered packing structure in the wall region must therefore also be considered. Being able to separate the contributions of radiation and conduction allows a better understanding of the underlying phenomena and the characteristics of the resultant effective thermal conductivity. This paper introduces a purpose-designed test facility and accompanying methodology that combines physical measurements with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to separate the contributions of radiation and conduction heat transfer, including the wall effects. Preliminary results obtained with the methodology offer important insights into the trends observed in the experimental results and provide a better understanding of the interplay between the underlying heat transfer phenomena.

  7. Effects of lifestyle modification programs on cardiac risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Moaven; Fournier, Stephen; Shepard, Donald S; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Stason, William B

    2014-01-01

    Medicare conducted a payment demonstration to evaluate the effectiveness of two intensive lifestyle modification programs in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: the Dr. Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish) and Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute. This report describes the changes in cardiac risk factors achieved by each program during the active intervention year and subsequent year of follow-up. The demonstration enrolled 580 participants who had had an acute myocardial infarction, had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 months, or had documented stable angina pectoris. Of these, 98% completed the intense 3-month intervention, 71% the 12-month intervention, and 56% an additional follow-up year. Most cardiac risk factors improved significantly during the intense intervention period in both programs. Favorable changes in cardiac risk factors and functional cardiac capacity were maintained or improved further at 12 and 24 months in participants with active follow-up. Multivariable regressions found that risk-factor improvements were positively associated with abnormal baseline values, Ornish program participation for body mass index and systolic blood pressure, and with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Expressed levels of motivation to lose weight and maintain weight loss were significant independent predictors of sustained weight loss (p = 0.006). Both lifestyle modification programs achieved well-sustained reductions in cardiac risk factors.

  8. Effects of lifestyle modification programs on cardiac risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaven Razavi

    Full Text Available Medicare conducted a payment demonstration to evaluate the effectiveness of two intensive lifestyle modification programs in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: the Dr. Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish and Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute. This report describes the changes in cardiac risk factors achieved by each program during the active intervention year and subsequent year of follow-up. The demonstration enrolled 580 participants who had had an acute myocardial infarction, had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 months, or had documented stable angina pectoris. Of these, 98% completed the intense 3-month intervention, 71% the 12-month intervention, and 56% an additional follow-up year. Most cardiac risk factors improved significantly during the intense intervention period in both programs. Favorable changes in cardiac risk factors and functional cardiac capacity were maintained or improved further at 12 and 24 months in participants with active follow-up. Multivariable regressions found that risk-factor improvements were positively associated with abnormal baseline values, Ornish program participation for body mass index and systolic blood pressure, and with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Expressed levels of motivation to lose weight and maintain weight loss were significant independent predictors of sustained weight loss (p = 0.006. Both lifestyle modification programs achieved well-sustained reductions in cardiac risk factors.

  9. The effectiveness of mindful parenting programs in promoting parents' and children's wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, Kishani; Jordan, Zoe; Stephenson, Matthew; Tsey, Komla

    2016-03-01

    parents. Eight databases were searched for studies evaluating mindful parenting programs from 1997 to November 2014. A three-step search strategy was utilized to retrieve both published and unpublished studies written in English from PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Scopus, Psychological and Behavioral Sciences Collection, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses databases. A logic grid was developed for each of the eight databases to identify the indexing terms and synonyms for the keywords "mindful" and "parenting". Methodological limitations included small sample sizes leading to lack of statistical power, multiple testing leading to increased alpha errors in addition to information bias caused by a lack of blinding in the implementation and assessment phase. The data extraction process entailed using the standardized data extraction form from Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument to extract data from the selected studies. The heterogeneity of the samples, the measurement tools and outcomes measured precluded data synthesis through meta-analysis. Conclusions on intervention effects were based on comparisons of the overall statistical significance of the outcomes data. The search yielded 1232 articles, from which seven randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. The findings indicate mindful parenting programs may reduce parental stress, increase parents' emotional awareness of their 10-14-year-old children and reduce preschool children's symptoms associated with externalizing disorders. A recurring finding was that the mindful parenting programs reduced parents' emotional dismissal of their adolescents and preschoolers. At present, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that mindful parenting programs can improve parents' and children's wellbeing because of the methodological quality of the few studies that met the inclusion criteria. Although there is currently insufficient evidence

  10. Does location matter? A proposed methodology to evaluate neighbourhood effects on cardiac arrest survival and bystander CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buick, Jason E; Allan, Katherine S; Ray, Joel G; Kiss, Alexander; Dorian, Paul; Gozdyra, Peter; Morrison, Laurie J

    2015-05-01

    Traditional variables used to explain survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) account for only 72% of survival, suggesting that other unknown factors may influence outcomes. Research on other diseases suggests that neighbourhood factors may partly determine health outcomes. Yet, this approach has rarely been used for OHCA. This work outlines a methodology to investigate multiple neighbourhood factors as determinants of OHCA outcomes. A retrospective, observational cohort study design will be used. All adult non-emergency medical service witnessed OHCAs of cardiac etiology within the city of Toronto between 2006 and 2010 will be included. Event details will be extracted from the Toronto site of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry-Cardiac Arrest, an existing population-based dataset of consecutive OHCA patients. Geographic information systems technology will be used to assign patients to census tracts. Neighbourhood variables to be explored include the Ontario Marginalization Index (deprivation, dependency, ethnicity, and instability), crime rate, and density of family physicians. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis will be used to explore the association between neighbourhood characteristics and 1) survival-to-hospital discharge, 2) return-of-spontaneous circulation at hospital arrival, and 3) provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Receiver operating characteristics curves will evaluate each model's ability to discriminate between those with and without each outcome. Discussion This study will determine the role of neighbourhood characteristics in OHCA and their association with clinical outcomes. The results can be used as the basis to focus on specific neighbourhoods for facilitating educational interventions, CPR awareness programs, and higher utilization of automatic defibrillation devices.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Multidisciplinary Management Program and Exercise Training Program in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Weixiong; Yi, Anji; Jhamnani, Sunny; Wang, Shi-Yi

    2017-10-15

    Heart failure causes significant health and financial burdens for patients and society. Multidisciplinary management program (MMP) and exercise training program (ETP) have been reported as cost-effective in improving health outcomes, yet no study has compared the 2 programs. We constructed a Markov model to simulate life year (LY) gained and total costs in usual care (UC), MMP, and ETP. The probability of transitions between states and healthcare costs were extracted from previous literature. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) over a 10-year horizon. Model robustness was assessed through 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The expected LY for patients treated with UC, MMP, and ETP was 7.6, 8.2, and 8.4 years, respectively. From a societal perspective, the expected cost of MMP was $20,695, slightly higher than the cost of UC ($20,092). The cost of ETP was much higher ($48,378) because of its high implementation expense and the wage loss it incurred. The ICER of MMP versus UC was $976 per LY gained, and the ICER of ETP versus MMP was $165,702 per LY gained. The results indicated that, under current cost-effectiveness threshold, MMP is cost-effective compared with UC, and ETP is not cost-effective compared with MMP. However, ETP is cost-effective compared with MMP from a healthcare payer's perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ESP Methodology for Science Lecturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Angela; Mulyana, Cukup

    A program designed to teach university science lecturers in Indonesia how to design and teach one-semester courses in English for special purposes (ESP) is described. The program provided lecturers with training in language teaching methodology and course design. The piloting of the teacher training course, focusing on physics instruction, is…

  13. USTED: a methodology for a quantitative analysis of land use scenarios.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, J.J.; Schipper, R.A.; Jansen, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Scenarios are a useful tool to study the effects of changes in the socio-economic and/or biophysical environment on agricultural land use. For the analysis of these scenarios an operational methodology, USTED, has been developed. The methodology is based on a linear programming model in combination

  14. Examining methodological variation in response inhibition: The effects of outcome measures and task characteristics on age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenberg, Liisa; Närhi, Vesa; Korkman, Marit; Hokkanen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed methodological issues common to developmental studies on response inhibition. Age-related differences were investigated using two Stroop-like tasks with different levels of complexity and comparing different outcome measures in a sample of 340 children and adolescents aged 7-15 years. First, speed and accuracy of task performance were examined; the results showing that improvement in speed continued until age 13 in both the basic naming task and the two inhibition tasks. Improvement in accuracy was less consistent and continued until age 9 or 13 years. Second, two different algorithms were employed to control for the effects of basic processes in inhibition tasks. The difference algorithm indicated age-related differences similar to those for speed. The ratio algorithm, however, suggested earlier deceleration of development of response inhibition at 9 or 11 years of age. Factors related to the cognitive requirements and presented stimuli also had an effect on the results. The present findings shed light on the inconsistencies in the developmental studies of response inhibition and demonstrated that the selection of outcome measures and task characteristics are critical because they affect the way development is depicted.

  15. Effects of hurdle technology on Monascus ruber growth in green table olives: a response surface methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappato, Leandro P; Martins, Amanda M Dias; Ferreira, Elisa H R; Rosenthal, Amauri

    2017-10-13

    An ascomycetes fungus was isolated from brine storage of green olives of the Arauco cultivar imported from Argentina and identified as Monascus ruber. The combined effects of different concentrations of sodium chloride (3.5-5.5%), sodium benzoate (0-0.1%), potassium sorbate (0-0.05%) and temperature (30-40°C) were investigated on the growth of M. ruber in the brine of stored table olives using a response surface methodology. A full 24 factorial design with three central points was first used in order to screen for the important factors (significant and marginally significant factors) and then a Face-Centered Central Composite Design was applied. Both preservatives prevented fungal spoilage, but potassium sorbate was the most efficient to control the fungi growth. The combined use of these preservatives did not show a synergistic effect. The results showed that the use of these salts may not be sufficient to prevent fungal spoilage and the greatest fungal growth was recorded at 30°C. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of NaCl Effect on Vibration-Delaminated Metal-Polymer Composites by Improved Micro-Raman Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zumelzu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET is a polymer coating that protects the electrolytic chromium coated steel (ECCS against aggressive electrolytes like NaCl. It is widely accepted by manufacturers that NaCl has no effect on the PET coating, which is inert. However, we showed that there are some effects at the structural level, caused by vibrations, and facilitated by defects on the layers. The vibrations occurring during the transportation of food containers produce delaminations at given points of the metal-polymer interface, known as antinodes, which in turn may produce PET degradation affecting food quality. The former can be determined by electrochemical measurements, and the changes in composition or structural order can be characterized by Raman. The present work applied this latter technique in experimental samples of PET-coated ECCS sheets by performing perpendicular and parallel analyses to the surface, and determined that it constitutes a new potential methodology to determine the behavior of the composite under the above conditions. The results demonstrated that the delamination areas on the PET facilitated polymer degradation by the electrolyte. Moreover, the Raman characterization evidenced the presence of multilayers and crystalline orderings, which limited its functionality as a protective coating.

  17. Effect of microemulsions on transdermal delivery of citalopram: optimization studies using mixture design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Te; Tsai, Ming-Jun; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Fu, Yaw-Sya; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of microemulsions as a drug vehicle for transdermal delivery of citalopram. A computerized statistical technique of response surface methodology with mixture design was used to investigate and optimize the influence of the formulation compositions including a mixture of Brij 30/Brij 35 surfactants (at a ratio of 4:1, 20%-30%), isopropyl alcohol (20%-30%), and distilled water (40%-50%) on the properties of the drug-loaded microemulsions, including permeation rate (flux) and lag time. When microemulsions were used as a vehicle, the drug permeation rate increased significantly and the lag time shortened significantly when compared with the aqueous control of 40% isopropyl alcohol solution containing 3% citalopram, demonstrating that microemulsions are a promising vehicle for transdermal application. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters of citalopram, the flux required for the transdermal delivery system was about 1280 μg per hour. The microemulsions loaded with citalopram 3% and 10% showed respective flux rates of 179.6 μg/cm(2) and 513.8 μg/cm(2) per hour, indicating that the study formulation could provide effective therapeutic concentrations over a practical application area. The animal study showed that the optimized formulation (F15) containing 3% citalopram with an application area of 3.46 cm(2) is able to reach a minimum effective therapeutic concentration with no erythematous reaction.

  18. Big-fish-little-pond social comparison and local dominance effects : Integrating new statistical models, methodology, design, theory and substantive implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Kuyper, Hans; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Philip, D. Parker; Seaton, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    We offer new theoretical, substantive, statistical, design, and methodological insights into the seemingly paradoxical negative effects of school- and class-average achievement (ACH) on academic self-concept (ASC) the big-fish-little-pond-effect (BFLPE; 15,356 Dutch 9th grade students from 651

  19. A cost effectiveness study of integrated care in health services delivery: a diabetes program in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Jill

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is rapidly growing as a proportion of the disease burden in Australia as elsewhere. This study addresses the cost effectiveness of an integrated approach to assisting general practitioners (GPs with diabetes management. This approach uses a centralized database of clinical data of an Australian Division of General Practice (a network of GPs to co-ordinate care according to national guidelines. Methods Long term outcomes for patients in the program were derived using clinical parameters after 5 years of program participation, and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS Outcomes Model, to project outcomes for 40 years from the time of diagnosis and from 5 years post-diagnosis. Cost information was obtained from a range of sources. While program costs are directly available, and costs of complications can be estimated from the UKPDS model, other costs are estimated by comparing costs in the Division with average costs across the state or the nation. The outcome and cost measures are used derive incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results The clinical data show that the program is effective in the short term, with improvement or no statistical difference in most clinical measures over 5 years. Average HbA1c levels increased by less than expected over the 5 year period. While the program is estimated to generate treatment cost savings, overall net costs are positive. However, the program led to projected improvements in expected life years and Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE, with incremental cost effectiveness ratios of $A8,106 per life-year saved and $A9,730 per year of QALE gained. Conclusions The combination of an established model of diabetes progression and generally available data has provided an opportunity to establish robust methods of testing the cost effectiveness of a program for which a formal control group was not available. Based on this methodology, integrated health care

  20. The effective etch process proximity correction methodology for improving on chip CD variation in 20 nm node DRAM gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Geun; Kim, Sang-wook; Shim, Seong-Bo; Suh, Sung-Soo; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents an effective methodology for etch PPC (Process Proximity Correction) of 20 nm node DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) gate transistor. As devices shrinks, OCV(On chip CD Variation) control become more important to meet the performance goal for high speed in DRAM. The main factors which influence OCV are mask, photo, etch PPE (Process proximity effect) in DRAM gate. Model based etch PPC is required to properly correct Etch PPE as device density increases. To improve OCV in DRAM gate, we applied new type of etch loading kernel. It is called Vkernel which accounts for directional weight from the point of interest. And we optimized the etch PPC convergence by optimizing the etch PPC iteration. Because of density difference between spider mask and real gate mask, the skew difference occurs between them. We tested the effect of long range density using same real gate pattern clip by varying mask open image size from 0.5 ~ 10 mm. The ADI CD difference was on average in the order on 2 nm for varying mask open image size. But the ACI CD difference (the average of CD range by varying open image size) was very noticeable (about 15 nm). This result shows that etch skew affected by long range density by mm unit size. Due to asymmetrical pattern in real gate mask, spider mask which have symmetrical patterns is necessarily used to make PPC model. The etch skew of real pattern clip in spider mask was not also the same for the real pattern in real gate mask. To reduce this skew difference between spider mask and real mask, we applied open field mask correction term and long range density effects correlation equation to PPC modeling. There was noticeable improvement in the accuracy of PPC model. By applying these improvement items, OCV of 20 nm node DRAM gate is shown to improve up to 67%.

  1. Does consideration and assessment of effects on health equity affect the conclusions of systematic reviews? A methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Vivian; Petticrew, Mark; Ueffing, Erin; Benkhalti Jandu, Maria; Brand, Kevin; Dhaliwal, Bharbhoor; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Smylie, Janet; Wells, George Anthony; Tugwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Tackling health inequities both within and between countries remains high on the agenda of international organizations including the World Health Organization and local, regional and national governments. Systematic reviews can be a useful tool to assess effects on equity in health status because they include studies conducted in a variety of settings and populations. This study aims to describe the extent to which the impacts of health interventions on equity in health status are considered in systematic reviews, describe methods used, and assess the implications of their equity related findings for policy, practice and research. We conducted a methodology study of equity assessment in systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers extracted information on the reporting and analysis of impacts of health interventions on equity in health status in a group of 300 systematic reviews collected from all systematic reviews indexed in one month of MEDLINE, using a pre-tested data collection form. Any differences in data extraction were resolved by discussion. Of the 300 systematic reviews, 224 assessed the effectiveness of interventions on health outcomes. Of these 224 reviews, 29 systematic reviews assessed effects on equity in health status using subgroup analysis or targeted analyses of vulnerable populations. Of these, seven conducted subgroup analyses related to health equity which were reported in insufficient detail to judge their credibility. Of these 29 reviews, 18 described implications for policy and practice based on assessment of effects on health equity. The quality and completeness of reporting should be enhanced as a priority, because without this policymakers and practitioners will continue lack the evidence base they need to inform decision-making about health inequity. Furthermore, there is a need to develop methods to systematically consider impacts on equity in health status that is currently lacking in systematic reviews.

  2. A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Johanna M; Proper, Karin I; van Wier, Marieke F; van der Beek, Allard J; Bongers, Paulien M; van Mechelen, Willem; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to appraise and summarize the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportDiscus, PsycInfo, NIOSHTIC-2, NHSEED, HTA, and Econlit for studies published up to 14 January 2011. Additionally, we searched for articles by reviewing references, searching authors' databases, and contacting authors of included studies. Two researchers independently selected articles. Articles had to include a cost-effectiveness and/or cost-utility analysis comparing a worksite physical activity and/or nutrition program to usual care or an abridged version of the program. Data were extracted on study characteristics and results. Two researchers independently assessed the risk of bias using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). Ten studies (18 programs) were included. More than 50% of the studies fulfilled 11 (58%) of the 19 CHEC-list items. From various perspectives, worksite nutrition and worksite physical activity and nutrition programs (N=6) were more costly and more effective in reducing body weight than usual care. When only intervention costs were considered, most worksite nutrition (N=4/5) and worksite physical activity and nutrition programs (N=5/6) were more costly and more effective in reducing cholesterol level and cardiovascular disease risks, respectively. The cost-effectiveness of more costly and more effective programs depends on the "willingness to pay" for their effects. It is unknown how much decision-makers are willing to pay for reductions in body weight, cholesterol level, and cardiovascular disease risks. Therefore, conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs cannot be made. There is substantial need for improvement of the methodological quality of studies and particular emphasis should be placed on the handling of uncertainty.

  3. Testing methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

  4. Guidance on health effects of toxic chemicals. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.; Griffin, G.D.; Munro, N.B.; Socolof, M.L.

    1994-02-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), and Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. (MMUS), are engaged in phased programs to update the safety documentation for the existing US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities. The safety analysis of potential toxic hazards requires a methodology for evaluating human health effects of predicted toxic exposures. This report provides a consistent set of health effects and documents toxicity estimates corresponding to these health effects for some of the more important chemicals found within MMES and MMUS. The estimates are based on published toxicity information and apply to acute exposures for an ``average`` individual. The health effects (toxicological endpoints) used in this report are (1) the detection threshold; (2) the no-observed adverse effect level; (3) the onset of irritation/reversible effects; (4) the onset of irreversible effects; and (5) a lethal exposure, defined to be the 50% lethal level. An irreversible effect is defined as a significant effect on a person`s quality of life, e.g., serious injury. Predicted consequences are evaluated on the basis of concentration and exposure time.

  5. An evaluation of an urban renewal program and its effects on neighborhood resident's overall wellbeing using concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Malmusi, Davide; Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme

    2013-09-01

    Urban renewal programs aim to improve physical and socioeconomic position of neighborhoods. However, due to the intervention's complexity, there is often little evidence of their impact on health and health inequalities. This study aimed to identify the perception of a group of neighborhood residents towards a large-scale urban renewal program in Barcelona and to explore its effects and importance on their wellbeing using concept mapping methodology. Our results indicate that the majority of urban renewal projects within the initiative, including improved walkability, construction of new public spaces and more community programs, have positive and important effects on the overall wellbeing of participants. This study presents an innovative method that diverts from traditional outcome-based evaluations studies often used within this field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a method that teachers can use to increase their communication effectiveness by matching their communication patterns with those of their students. The basic premise of NLP is that people operate and make sense of their experience through information received from the world around them. This information is…

  7. Implementation and Effectiveness of the Response to Intervention (RTI) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Jessica Elaine; McGahey, James Todd

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine whether or not student test scores on the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) were positively impacted by the implementation of the Response to Intervention (RTI) program. This paper will review the implementation and effectiveness of the RTI method.

  8. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... This study was carried out to determine the effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality parameters of eggplant under greenhouse conditions, using Class A pan evaporation calculations and different plant-pan coefficients. Irrigation water was applied through drip irrigation method twice a ...

  9. A career counseling program for dentists: effects on burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, R C; Eijkman, M A; Hoogstraten, J

    2001-04-01

    The effects on burnout of a career counseling program were measured among general dental practitioners. Out of a group of 171 dentists, identified with unfavorable scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Dutch version (MBI-NL), nineteen chose to participate in the program. It consisted of individual counseling and group sessions, using cognitive and behavioral intervention techniques, over a 6-month period. One month after the last session, both program participants (N=17) and invited, but not participating, dentists (N=66) again filled in the MBI-NL. Comparison of participants' pre- and post-test scores showed significant statistical improvement on the MBI-NL scales emotional exhaustion (EE), and personal accomplishment (PA). Among the control group, a distinction was made between dentists who had self-initiated preventive measures (N=35) and those who had not (N=31). Self-prevention also appeared to have an effect on EE and PA. Among dentists who reported not to have undertaken preventive action, no change in burnout levels was found. With reservations, it can be concluded that the prevention program does have a positive effect on burnout scores among dentists, while different forms of self-initiated prevention activities also appeared to be effective.

  10. Effect of Audio-Visual Intervention Program on Cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus the purpose of the study was to study the effectiveness of the audio-visual intervention program on the cognitive development of preschool children in relation to their socio economic status. The researcher employed experimental method to conduct the study. The sample consisted of 100 students from preschool of ...

  11. therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TRAINING. PROGRAM ON SERUM CREATININE CONCENTRATION IN MEN. WITH HYPERTENSION: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. L. SIKIRU1and G. C. OKOYE2. 1Biomedical Technology Dept., School of Health Technology, Federal ...

  12. Therapeutic effect of a moderate intensity interval training program ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic effect of a moderate intensity interval training program on the lipid profile in men with hypertension: A randomized controlled trial. S Lamina, GC Okoye. Abstract. Objective: Physical inactivity has been established as a major primary risk factor for the development of hypertension. Also, factors such as elevated ...

  13. Ripple Effect Mapping: A "Radiant" Way to Capture Program Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollock, Debra Hansen; Flage, Lynette; Chazdon, Scott; Paine, Nathan; Higgins, Lorie

    2012-01-01

    Learn more about a promising follow-up, participatory group process designed to document the results of Extension educational efforts within complex, real-life settings. The method, known as Ripple Effect Mapping, uses elements of Appreciative Inquiry, mind mapping, and qualitative data analysis to engage program participants and other community…

  14. Effects of the Missouri Career Ladder Program on Teacher Mobility.

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Booker; Steven Glazerman

    2009-01-01

    This report presents evidence suggesting that a school district’s participation in the Missouri Career Ladder Program would tend to increase retention in the district and the profession, especially for mid-career teachers. The report notes that small bonuses can affect behavior but not necessarily lead to large effects.

  15. How Effective is the Basic Skills Pull-Out Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Kathryn

    A study examined the effectiveness of a reading and math basic skills pull-out program. Subjects, 60 students in first through sixth grades enrolled at an upper middle class, suburban school with small class sizes, were identified as having deficiencies in basic skills by their scores on the California Achievement Test (CAT). The basic skills…

  16. Characteristics of Effective Interpreter Education Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Lisa Ann Boegner

    2010-01-01

    The general purpose of this study was to investigate effective practices of interpreting education programs in the United States as measured by the readiness to credential gap. The increasing demand for interpreters has created an environment with under-credentialed interpreters and this is compounded by the fact that the field of interpreter…

  17. Designing and Implementing Effective Adapted Physical Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.

    2011-01-01

    "Designing and Implementing Effective Adapted Physical Education Programs" was written to assist adapted and general physical educators who are dedicated to ensuring that the physical and motor needs of all their students are addressed in physical education. While it is anticipated that adapted physical educators, where available, will typically…

  18. Neuro-Linguistics Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    1983-01-01

    Students and teachers experience the world primarily through visual, kinesthetic, or auditory representational systems. If teachers are aware of their own favored system and those of their students, classroom communication will improve. Neurolinguistic programing can help teachers become more effective communicators. (PP)

  19. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality parameters of eggplant under greenhouse conditions, using Class A pan evaporation calculations and different plant-pan coefficients. Irrigation water was applied through drip irrigation method twice a week during the ...

  20. Keys to success: Ten case studies of effective weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kolb, J.O.; White, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F.; Wilson, T. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1990, DOE initiated a nationwide evaluation of its Weatherization Program, with assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an advisory group of 40 weatherization professionals, program managers, and researchers. The evaluation is comprised of three impact studies covering the Program`s major market segments: Single-family homes, mobile homes, and dwellings in small (2 to 4-unit) multifamily buildings (the Single-Family Study), Single-family homes heated primarily with fuel oil (the Fuel-Oil Study), and Dwellings in buildings with five or more units (the Multifamily Study). The Single-Family Study, the subject of this report, is a critical part of this coordinated evaluation effort. Its focus on single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and dwellings in small multifamily buildings covers 83% of the income-eligible population and 96% of the dwellings weatherized during Program Year 1989. The first phase of the Single-Family Study involved the analysis of a massive data base of information collected from 368 local weatherization agencies and 543 electric and gas utilities. This analysis resulted in energy-saving and cost-effectiveness estimates for the Weatherization Program and the identification of a set of ten high-performing agencies located throughout the country. The second phase, which is the subject of this report, involves a ``process`` evaluation of these ten high performers, aimed at identifying those weatherization practices that explain their documented success.

  1. The effectiveness of scoliosis screening programs: methods for systematic review and expert panel recommendations formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Literature on scoliosis screening is vast, however because of the observational nature of available data and methodological flaws, data interpretation is often complex, leading to incomplete and sometimes, somewhat misleading conclusions. The need to propose a set of methods for critical appraisal of the literature about scoliosis screening, a comprehensive summary and rating of the available evidence appeared essential. Methods To address these gaps, the study aims were: i) To propose a framework for the assessment of published studies on scoliosis screening effectiveness; ii) To suggest specific questions to be answered on screening effectiveness instead of trying to reach a global position for or against the programs; iii) To contextualize the knowledge through expert panel consultation and meaningful recommendations. The general methodological approach proceeds through the following steps: Elaboration of the conceptual framework; Formulation of the review questions; Identification of the criteria for the review; Selection of the studies; Critical assessment of the studies; Results synthesis; Formulation and grading of recommendations in response to the questions. This plan follows at best GRADE Group (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) requirements for systematic reviews, assessing quality of evidence and grading the strength of recommendations. Conclusions In this article, the methods developed in support of this work are presented since they may be of some interest for similar reviews in scoliosis and orthopaedic fields. PMID:23883346

  2. EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY OF INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM THROUGH THE SYSTEM RESPONSE TIME TO INFORMATION SECURITY INCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. N. Shago

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality assessment of information security management system is an important step for obtaining baseline data for analysis of the security system control effectiveness, and evaluating implementation of the specified information security requirements of the organization. Proceeding from current analysis practice of information security management systems effectiveness assessment, it can be concluded that, in most cases, independent measurement of security control is carried out without regard to their interaction. The uncertainty of the stochastic nature of the measured security controls is not taken into account. There is a list of related measures for control and management; however, structural elements for measuring of these interactions are absent. Thus, there is an important and urgent task of improving the effectiveness assessing methodology for information security management system that can be solved by introducing a new integral effectiveness indicator of the system, which would give the possibility to take into account the above-mentioned shortcomings. The author proposes the usage of a new integral efficiency indicator - system response time to information security incidents. This efficiency indicator will make it possible to pass from the binary effectiveness assessment of the system "approve or disapprove" to a quantitative one. New performance indicator gives the possibility to take into account the uncertainty of the stochastic nature of the attributes and measures of management and control, provides a quantitative assessment of the information security state and has a clear physical interpretation for the organization management and information security officers. Dynamics of the indicator change from test to test will assess the information security management system state in general and effectiveness of taken control and management measures. The method for calculating of the new information security management system performance

  3. Evaluating disease management program effectiveness: an introduction to survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L; Roberts, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the most widely used method in the disease management industry for evaluating program effectiveness is the "total population approach." This model is a pretest-posttest design, with the most basic limitation being that without a control group, there may be sources of bias and/or competing extraneous confounding factors that offer plausible rationale explaining the change from baseline. Survival analysis allows for the inclusion of data from censored cases, those subjects who either "survived" the program without experiencing the event (e.g., achievement of target clinical levels, hospitalization) or left the program prematurely, due to disenrollement from the health plan or program, or were lost to follow-up. Additionally, independent variables may be included in the model to help explain the variability in the outcome measure. In order to maximize the potential of this statistical method, validity of the model and research design must be assured. This paper reviews survival analysis as an alternative, and more appropriate, approach to evaluating DM program effectiveness than the current total population approach.

  4. Effect of Ethanol, Sulfur Dioxide and Glucose on the Growth of Wine Spoilage Yeasts Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chandra

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used to study the effect of three factors, sulfur dioxide, ethanol and glucose, on the growth of wine spoilage yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Seventeen central composite rotatable design (CCRD trials were designed for each test yeast using realistic concentrations of the factors (variables in premium red wine. Polynomial regression equations were fitted to experimental data points, and the growth inhibitory conditions of these three variables were determined. The overall results showed Sa. ludwigii as the most resistant species growing under high ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations, i.e., 15% (v/v/20 mg L-1, 14% (v/v/32 mg L-1 and 12.5% (v/v/40 mg L-1, whereas other yeasts did not survive under the same levels of ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations. The inhibitory effect of ethanol was primarily observed during longer incubation periods, compared with sulfur dioxide, which showed an immediate effect. In some CCRD trials, Sa. ludwigii and S. cerevisiae showed growth recovery after a short death period under the exposure of 20-32 mg L-1 sulfur dioxide in the presence of 11% (v/v or more ethanol. However, Sc. pombe and Z. bailii did not show such growth recovery under similar conditions. Up to 10 g L-1 of glucose did not prevent cell death under the sulfur dioxide or ethanol stress. This observation demonstrates that the sugar levels commonly used in wine to sweeten the mouthfeel do not increase wine susceptibility to spoilage yeasts, contrary to the anecdotal evidence.

  5. Modeling of the effect of freezer conditions on the principal constituent parameters of ice cream by using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Ochi, H; Taketsuka, M; Saito, H; Sakurai, K; Ichihashi, N; Iwatsuki, K; Kokubo, S

    2008-05-01

    A systematic analysis was carried out by using response surface methodology to create a quantitative model of the synergistic effects of conditions in a continuous freezer [mix flow rate (L/h), overrun (%), cylinder pressure (kPa), drawing temperature ( degrees C), and dasher speed (rpm)] on the principal constituent parameters of ice cream [rate of fat destabilization (%), mean air cell diameter (mum), and mean ice crystal diameter (mum)]. A central composite face-centered design was used for this study. Thirty-one combinations of the 5 above-mentioned freezer conditions were designed (including replicates at the center point), and ice cream samples were manufactured and examined in a continuous freezer under the selected conditions. The responses were the 3 variables given above. A quadratic model was constructed, with the freezer conditions as the independent variables and the ice cream characteristics as the dependent variables. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were greater than 0.9 for all 3 responses, but Q(2), the index used here for the capability of the model for predicting future observed values of the responses, was negative for both the mean ice crystal diameter and the mean air cell diameter. Therefore, pruned models were constructed by removing terms that had contributed little to the prediction in the original model and by refitting the regression model. It was demonstrated that these pruned models provided good fits to the data in terms of R(2), Q(2), and ANOVA. The effects of freezer conditions were expressed quantitatively in terms of the 3 responses. The drawing temperature ( degrees C) was found to have a greater effect on ice cream characteristics than any of the other factors.

  6. Health Data Entanglement and artificial intelligence-based analysis: a brand new methodology to improve the effectiveness of healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, A; Cicchetti, A; Mennini, F S; Marcellusi, A; Baio, G; Favato, G

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare expenses will be the most relevant policy issue for most governments in the EU and in the USA. This expenditure can be associated with two major key categories: demographic and economic drivers. Factors driving healthcare expenditure were rarely recognised, measured and comprehended. An improvement of health data generation and analysis is mandatory, and in order to tackle healthcare spending growth, it may be useful to design and implement an effective, advanced system to generate and analyse these data. A methodological approach relied upon the Health Data Entanglement (HDE) can be a suitable option. By definition, in the HDE a large amount of data sets having several sources are functionally interconnected and computed through learning machines that generate patterns of highly probable future health conditions of a population. Entanglement concept is borrowed from quantum physics and means that multiple particles (information) are linked together in a way such that the measurement of one particle's quantum state (individual health conditions and related economic requirements) determines the possible quantum states of other particles (population health forecasts to predict their impact). The value created by the HDE is based on the combined evaluation of clinical, economic and social effects generated by health interventions. To predict the future health conditions of a population, analyses of data are performed using self-learning AI, in which sequential decisions are based on Bayesian algorithmic probabilities. HDE and AI-based analysis can be adopted to improve the effectiveness of the health governance system in ways that also lead to better quality of care.

  7. Effect of Doximity Residency Rankings on Residency Applicants’ Program Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee M. Rolston

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Choosing a residency program is a stressful and important decision. Doximity released residency program rankings by specialty in September 2014. This study sought to investigate the impact of those rankings on residency application choices made by fourth year medical students. Methods: A 12-item survey was administered in October 2014 to fourth year medical students at three schools. Students indicated their specialty, awareness of and perceived accuracy of the rankings, and the rankings’ impact on the programs to which they chose to apply. Descriptive statistics were reported for all students and those applying to Emergency Medicine (EM. Results: A total of 461 (75.8% students responded, with 425 applying in one of the 20 Doximity ranked specialties. Of the 425, 247 (58% were aware of the rankings and 177 looked at them. On a 1-100 scale (100=very accurate, students reported a mean ranking accuracy rating of 56.7 (SD 20.3. Forty-five percent of students who looked at the rankings modified the number of programs to which they applied. The majority added programs. Of the 47 students applying to EM, 18 looked at the rankings and 33% changed their application list with most adding programs. Conclusion: The Doximity rankings had real effects on students applying to residencies as almost half of students who looked at the rankings modified their program list. Additionally, students found the rankings to be moderately accurate. Graduating students might benefit from emphasis on more objective characterization of programs to assess in light of their own interests and personal/career goals

  8. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  10. Courseware Engineering Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Lorna

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of the Courseware Engineering Methodology (CEM), created to guide novices in designing effective courseware. Discusses CEM's four models: pedagogical (concerned with the courseware's pedagogical aspects), conceptual (dealing with software engineering), interface (relating to human-computer interaction), and hypermedia…

  11. The Avahan Transition: Effects of Transition Readiness on Program Institutionalization and Sustained Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ozawa

    methodology to measure transition readiness pre-transition to identify less ready organizations or program components in advance, improving the likelihood of service sustainability. Further research is needed around the conceptualization and development of measures of institutionalization and its effects on long-term program sustainability.

  12. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: nonmicrowave health and ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M R

    1980-11-01

    A Concept Development and Evaluation Program is being carried out for a proposed Satellite Power System (SPS). For purposes of this evaluation, a preliminary reference system has been developed. SPS, as described in the reference system, would collect solar energy on satellites in geosychronous orbit in space. The energy would be converted to microwaves and beamed to an earth-receiving antenna (rectenna). One task in the environmental part of the program is the assessment of the nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment. These effects would result from all phases of SPS development and operation. This report covers the current knowledge regarding these effects, and is based on the reference system. The assessment is summarized as to scope, methodology, impacts of terrestrial development, launch and recovery of spacecraft, space activities (including health effects of the space environment, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic exposure, spacecraft charging and environmental interactions, occupational hazards, etc.) and construction and operation of rectenna (ground receiving station).

  13. The Social Value Of Vaccination Programs: Beyond Cost-Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Jeroen; Beutels, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In the current global environment of increased strain on health care budgets, all medical interventions have to compete for funding. Cost-effectiveness analysis has become a standard method to use in estimating how much value an intervention offers relative to its costs, and it has become an influential element in decision making. However, the application of cost-effectiveness analysis to vaccination programs fails to capture the full contribution such a program offers to the community. Recent literature has highlighted how cost-effectiveness analysis can neglect the broader economic impact of vaccines. In this article we also argue that socioethical contributions such as effects on health equity, sustaining the public good of herd immunity, and social integration of minority groups are neglected in cost-effectiveness analysis. Evaluations of vaccination programs require broad and multidimensional perspectives that can account for their social, ethical, and economic impact as well as their cost-effectiveness. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Effective recruitment and retention strategies in community health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jennifer; Ridgers, Nicola D; Carver, Alison; Thornton, Lukar E; Teychenne, Megan

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this project was to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies used by health-promotion organisations that focus on increasing physical activity and improving nutrition within the local community. Semistructured telephone or face-to-face interviews with 25 key informants from stakeholder organisations were conducted. Key informants discussed strategies used by their organisation to effectively recruit and retain participants into community-based healthy eating and/or physical activity programs. Transcribed data were analysed with NVivo software. Effective recruitment strategies included word of mouth, links with organisations, dissemination of printed materials, media, referrals, cross-promotion of programs and face-to-face methods. Effective retention strategies included encouraging a sense of community ownership, social opportunities, recruiting a suitable leader and offering flexibility and support. Fees and support for recruiting and retaining participants was also identified. This study provides novel insights to a greatly under researched topic in the field of health promotion. There are two key take-home messages from the present study that are applicable to health practitioners as well as developers and deliverers of community health-promotion programs: (1) it is imperative that all community health organisations report on the effectiveness of their recruitment and retention, both successes and failures; and (2) there is a clear need to tailor the recruitment and retention approach to the target population and the setting the program is occurring in. SO WHAT? These findings provide important insights for the development of future community-based healthy eating and physical activity programs.

  15. Methodologic Guide for Evaluating Clinical Performance and Effect of Artificial Intelligence Technology for Medical Diagnosis and Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Ho; Han, Kyunghwa

    2018-03-01

    The use of artificial intelligence in medicine is currently an issue of great interest, especially with regard to the diagnostic or predictive analysis of medical images. Adoption of an artificial intelligence tool in clinical practice requires careful confirmation of its clinical utility. Herein, the authors explain key methodology points involved in a clinical evaluation of artificial intelligence technology for use in medicine, especially high-dimensional or overparameterized diagnostic or predictive models in which artificial deep neural networks are used, mainly from the standpoints of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics. First, statistical methods for assessing the discrimination and calibration performances of a diagnostic or predictive model are summarized. Next, the effects of disease manifestation spectrum and disease prevalence on the performance results are explained, followed by a discussion of the difference between evaluating the performance with use of internal and external datasets, the importance of using an adequate external dataset obtained from a well-defined clinical cohort to avoid overestimating the clinical performance as a result of overfitting in high-dimensional or overparameterized classification model and spectrum bias, and the essentials for achieving a more robust clinical evaluation. Finally, the authors review the role of clinical trials and observational outcome studies for ultimate clinical verification of diagnostic or predictive artificial intelligence tools through patient outcomes, beyond performance metrics, and how to design such studies. © RSNA, 2018.

  16. [Effectiveness of drinking plan and drinking diary in intervention program (HAPPY program) for heavy drinkers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toshiya; Muto, Takeo; Yoshimori, Chikako; Ishido, Koichi; Sunami, Takashi; Endo, Koichi; Yuzuriha, Takefumi

    2011-06-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a drinking plan (goal setting), and a drinking diary (self monitoring), in the intervention program (HAPPY program), for heavy drinkers in the workplace. 115 people participated, and 80 people were evaluated three months later and 31 people were evaluated one year later. We classified the drinking plans in the limitation of the quantity, non-drinking days, and the device of low risk drinking model. 75 people made the drinking diary for 12 weeks after brief intervention and studied three months later and 31 people were analyzed one year later. We evaluated on heavy drinking days of 28 days, and non-drinking days of 28 days and standard drinks of 7 days. The limitation of the quantity model is effective for low risk drinking. The non-drinking day model is easily achieved, but not effective for low risk drinking. The device of low risk drinking model improved drinking habits for a long-term. The drinking diary for 12 weeks after intervention improved drinking habits for a long-term. The drinking plan (goal setting), and drinking diary (self monitoring), in intervention program for heavy drinkers were effective for prevention of lifestyle-related disease and alcoholism.

  17. The effectiveness of assertiveness communication training programs for healthcare professionals and students: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mieko; Maguire, Jane; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Stone, Teresa Elizabeth

    2017-09-05

    Communication errors have a negative impact on patient safety. It is therefore essential that healthcare professionals have the skills and confidence to speak up assertively when patient safety is at risk. Although the facilitators to and barriers of assertive communication have been the subject of previous reviews, evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance assertive communication is lacking. Thus, this paper reports the findings from a systematic review of the effectiveness of assertiveness communication training programs for healthcare professionals and students. The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesise the best available quantitative evidence in relation to the effectiveness of assertiveness communication training programs for healthcare professionals and students on levels of assertiveness, communication competence and impact on clinicians' behaviours and patient safety. The databases included: CINAHL, Cochrane library, EMBASE, Informit health collection, MEDLINE, ProQuest nursing and allied health, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. The search for unpublished studies included: MedNar, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I. Studies published in English from 2001 until 2016 inclusive were considered. The review included original quantitative research that evaluated (a) any type of independent assertiveness communication training program; and (b) programs with assertiveness training included as a core component of team skills or communication training for healthcare professionals and students, regardless of healthcare setting and level of qualification of participants. Studies selected based on eligibility criteria were assessed for methodological quality and the data were extracted by two independent researchers using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal and data extraction tools. Eleven papers were critically appraised using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklists. Eight

  18. Project-Based Learning and Agile Methodologies in Electronic Courses: Effect of Student Population and Open Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marina Zapater; Pedro Malagón; Juan-Mariano de Goyeneche; José M. Moya

    2013-01-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) and Agile methodologies have proven to be very interesting instructional strategies in Electronics and Engineering education, because they provide practical learning skills that help students...

  19. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  20. Immediate Effects of Different Trunk Exercise Programs on Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, A; Kaneoka, K; Okubo, Y; Shiraki, H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercise (SE) and conventional trunk exercise (CE) programs on jump performance. 13 adolescent male soccer players performed 2 kinds of jump testing before and immediate after 3 experimental conditions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). The SE program consisted of the elbow-toe, hand-knee, and back bridge, and the CE program consisted of the sit-up, sit-up with trunk rotation and back extension. Testing of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) were performed to assess jump performance. Jump height of the CMJ and RJ-index, contact time, and jump height of the RJ were analyzed. The RJ index was improved significantly only after SE (p=0.017). However, contact time and jump height did not improve significantly in the SE condition. Moreover, no significant interaction or main effects of time or group were observed in the CMJ. Consequently, this study showed the different immediate effect on the RJ between the SE and CE, and suggested the possibility that the SE used in this study is useful as a warm-up program to improve the explosive movements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Effects of the PowerPoint methodology on content learning Efectos de la metodología PowerPoint en el aprendizaje de contenidos Effects of the PowerPoint methodology on content learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Cirera Amores

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study focuses on whether the use of PowerPoint technology as the main resource to convey information has an effect on students’ learning compared with classes taught without this technology.Design/methodology/approach: The sample consisted of 205 psychology students, divided into four groups, who were taught an ordinary Educational Psychology lesson. In two of these groups, a PowerPoint presentation (19 slides was used to deliver the contents, while in the other two the same contents were delivered by the professors with the only aid of the blackboard. After the lesson, students’ learning was assessed by means of a questionnaire consisting of ten multiple-choice items.Findings: Results showed significant differences (p Originality/value: The use of technology can have a very positive influence on learning, provided that its use fits the circumstances inherent in learning.Purpose: This study focuses on whether the use of PowerPoint technology as the main resource to convey information has an effect on students’ learning compared with classes taught without this technology.Design/methodology/approach: The sample consisted of 205 psychology students, divided into four groups, who were taught an ordinary Educational Psychology lesson. In two of these groups, a PowerPoint presentation (19 slides was used to deliver the contents, while in the other two the same contents were delivered by the professors with the only aid of the blackboard. After the lesson, students’ learning was assessed by means of a questionnaire consisting of ten multiple-choice items.Findings: Results showed significant differences (p Originality/value: The use of technology can have a very positive influence on learning, provided that its use fits the circumstances inherent in learning.Objeto: Este estudio se centra en los efectos del PowerPoint como medio principal de transmisión de contenidos en el aprendizaje del alumnado, comparándolos con el

  2. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Effectiveness of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoghi, Patrick; von Keudell, Arvind; Vavken, Patrick

    2012-05-02

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs and to perform a meta-analysis to address three questions: First, what is the effectiveness of ACL injury prevention programs? Second, is there evidence for a "best" program? Third, what is the quality of the current literature on ACL injury prevention? We conducted a systematic review with use of the online PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Search terms were anterior cruciate ligament, knee, injury, prevention, and control. Data on study design and clinical outcomes were extracted independently in triplicate. After assessment of between-study heterogeneity, DerSimonian-Laird random-effect models were used to calculate pooled risk ratios and risk differences. The risk difference was used to estimate the number needed to treat (the number of individuals who would need to be treated to avoid one ACL tear). The pooled risk ratio was 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.72), reflecting a significant reduction in the risk of ACL rupture in the prevention group (p = 0.003). The number needed to treat ranged from five to 187 in the individual studies. Stratified by sex, the pooled risk ratio was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.26 to 0.89) for female athletes and 0.15 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.28) for male athletes. Our study indicated strong evidence in support of a significant effect of ACL injury prevention programs. Our pooled estimates suggest a substantial beneficial effect of ACL injury prevention programs, with a risk reduction of 52% in the female athletes and 85% in the male athletes.

  4. A Probabilistic Ontology Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Journal of Human-Computer Studies, pp. 907-928, 1995. [8] Grigoris Antoniou and Frank Van Harmelen, "Web Ontology Language: OWL," in Handbook on...Probabilistic Ontology Development Methodology Topic 3: Data, Information,and Knowledge Topic 5: Modeling and Simulation Topic 7: Autonomy...2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Probabilistic Ontology Development Methodology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  5. Effective intervention programming: improving maternal adjustment through parent education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jaelyn R; Bert, Shannon S Carothers; Nicholson, Jody S; Glass, Kerrie; Borkowski, John G

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed the secondary effects of a parent training intervention program on maternal adjustment, with a focus on understanding ways in which program efficacy differed for participants as a function of whether or not their children had behavior problems. Mothers (N = 99) of toddlers (2-3 years of age) were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of intervention: (1) informational booklet (2) booklet + face-to-face parent training sessions, or (3) booklet + web-based parent training sessions. Findings indicated that all levels of intervention were associated with increases in maternal well-being for participants with typically developing children. Mothers of toddlers with behavior problems, however, did not benefit from receiving only the booklet but significantly benefitted from receiving either the face-to-face or web-based interventions. Findings are discussed in terms of efficient and efficacious program dissemination and the resulting implications for public policy.

  6. The Effectiveness of the Tupiq Program for Inuit Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lynn A; Hamilton, Ellen; Wilton, Geoff; Cousineau, Colette; Varrette, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the Tupiq program, a culturally specific program for Inuit sex offenders that incorporates cognitive behavioural methods with traditional Inuit knowledge and culture led by Inuit healers and facilitators. Outcomes of 61 offenders who participated in the Tupiq program and were released were compared with outcomes of a cohort of 114 released Inuit sex offenders incarcerated during the same time period who had taken alternative sex offender treatment programs, or had not attended any sex offender program. On release, Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of general reoffending and violent reoffending than those in the combined comparison group. The hazard of reoffending for the comparison group was almost twice that of the Tupiq group. Although the sexual reoffending rate for the Tupiq participants was less than half of that of the comparison group, the difference between the two groups was not significant because of reduced statistical power. Survival analysis controlling for covariates confirmed significantly lower rates of general reoffending for the Tupiq group. Further analyses comparing the outcomes of the subgroup of offenders in the comparison group who participated in alternative sex offender treatment programs with those who participated in Tupiq indicated that Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of both general and sexual reoffending. These positive results for this culturally specific program suggest that similarly designed interventions have a probability of contributing to the reduction of sexual offending within Inuit communities and, potentially, other jurisdictions that work with cultural minority sex offender groups from relatively isolated communities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Effectiveness of School-based Drug Prevention Programs for Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Nancy S.; Lessard, Terri; Marshall, Diana; Ochshorn, Peter; Roona, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Synthesizes evaluation of drug use programs (N=37) in schools for grades 6-12 by coding program characteristics and calculating weighted effect sizes (WES) for marijuana use. Program type and sample size were found to be significant predictors of program effectiveness. The primary finding for prevention program planning is that interactive…

  8. Effect of a physiotherapy program in women with primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Mario I; Cortés-Márquez, Sandra Kristal; Romero-Quezada, Luis C; Murguía-Cánovas, Gabriela; Jaramillo-Díaz, Alfonso P

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a physiotherapy program for relieving symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea among Mexican women. This was a single-center, prospective, experimental, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Universidad Politécnica de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Female patients with primary dysmenorrhea, age of 18-22 years; pain intensity from 4 to 10cm on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); and sedentary lifestyle were included. The patients were then randomized to receive a physiotherapy program for three months or to no intervention program. The physiotherapy program consisted of overall stretching, specific stretches, Kegel exercises, jogging, and relaxation exercises. Patient evaluations of symptomatology and pain intensity were recorded basally and throughout for three menstrual periods. The data were entered into a computerized database for descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. A per-protocol population of eighty three women with a mean age of 20.2±1.8 years underwent the physiotherapy program, and seventy seven participants with a mean age of 20.4±1.2 years received no treatment. The participant assessments of pain on the VAS during the second and the third menstrual cycles demonstrated a significant reduction in the treatment group (p<0.05) compared with the control group. The results showed that strengthening, stretching and muscle relaxation techniques, in addition to jogging, are effective for reducing dysmenorrheic symptoms when they are regularly performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. La efectividad de la educacion a distancia como metodologia en la desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento (Effectiveness of Distance Education as a Methodology for Developing Thinking Skills).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez Alicea, Juan

    1992-01-01

    Presents steps taken in designing, justifying, and implementing an experimental study designed to investigate the effectiveness of distance education as a methodology for developing thinking skills. A discussion reviews major findings of the study by comparing student experiences from multimedia distance education and student experiences from…

  10. Effects of Two Foreign Language Methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling, on Beginning-Level Students' Achievement, Fluency, and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    No empirical studies exist comparing the effectiveness of the two prevalent foreign language methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS), at helping students achieve second language acquisition. In turn, the purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to…

  11. Program Adherence and Effectiveness of a Commercial Nutrition Program: The Metabolic Balance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Meffert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a commercial nutrition program in improving weight, blood lipids, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Methods. Prospective observational study with followup after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months with data from questionnaires and blood samples. Subjects. After 12 months, we had data from 524 subjects (= 60.6% of the initial samples. 84.1% of the subjects were women. The average BMI at baseline was 30.3 (SD = 5.7. Results. After 12 months, the average weight loss was 6.8 kg (SD = 7.1 kg. Program adherence declined over time but was still high after 12 months and showed a positive linear correlation with weight loss. Relevant blood parameters as well as HRQOL improved significantly. Conclusion. After 12 months, nearly two thirds of the samples had achieved >5% reduction of their initial weights. The high degree of program adherence is probably due to personal counseling and individually designed nutrition plans provided by the program.

  12. SHRS RRCL selection methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainer, J E; Delaney, H M

    1980-05-01

    The CRBRP Safety Related Reliability Program requires a listing of those design items whose failure would impact the ability of the plant for a safe shutdown or shutdown heat removal mission. This listing is referred to as the Reliability Related Components List (RRCL) and heretofore, has been based on sound engineering judgement. As a check for completeness and as a means of providing a probabilistic-based rationale for component selection, this report presents a methodology by which this selection can be made for each of the decay heat removal loops comprising the Shutdown Heat Removal System (SHRS) using existing EG and G fault tree models.

  13. Project-Based Learning and Agile Methodologies in Electronic Courses: Effect of Student Population and Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zapater

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Project-Based Learning (PBL and Agile methodologies have proven to be very interesting instructional strategies in Electronics and Engineering education, because they provide practical learning skills that help students understand the basis of electronics. In this paper we analyze two courses, one belonging to a Master in Electronic Engineering and one to a Bachelor in Telecommunication Engineering that apply Agile-PBL methodologies, and compare the results obtained in both courses with a traditional laboratory course. Our results support previous work stating that Agile-PBL methodologies increase student satisfaction. However, we also highlight some open issues that negatively affect the implementation of these methodologies,such as planning overhead or accidental complexity. Moreover,we show how differences in the student population, mostly related to the time spent on-campus, their commitment to the course or part-time dedication, have an impact on the benefits of Agile-PBL methods. In these cases, Agile-PBL methodologies by themselves are not enough and need to be combined with other techniques to increase student motivation.

  14. OPORTUNITIES PROGRAM IN MEXICO AND SONORA: IMPACT, EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irasema Lilian Mancillas-Alvarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of poverty is based on the monetary approach, which is measured by the method of poverty lines (Foster, Greer and Thoerbecke, 1984; Sen, 1976; while the static microsimulation technique (Bourguignon and Spadaro, 2006 helps quantify the impact of Oportunities in reducing poverty in Mexico and Sonora during the years 2010-2012. The information for this study is obtained from the National Survey of Income and Expenditure Household INEGI (2010, 2012.Lower percentages of poverty were found in Sonora in comparison with the country and no significant impact from the program; the greatest impact was seen in the country since food poverty was reduced (-2.14%, capabilities poverty (- 1.86% and patrimonial poverty (-0.81%. In regards to targeting of the program, in the country there is a slight improvement in efficiency but not in effectiveness and Sonora experienced a significant improvement in efficiency and effectiveness.

  15. Methodology and assumptions for evaluating heating and cooling energy requirements in new single-family residential buildings: Technical support document for the PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) microcomputer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Wilson, D.; Hsui, C.; Foley, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides technical documentation for a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) developed by LBL. PEAR offers an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy savings associated with various energy conservation measures used in site-built, single-family homes. This program was designed for use by non-technical groups such as home builders, home buyers or others in the buildings industry, and developed as an integral part of a set of voluntary guidelines entitled Affordable Housing Through Energy Conservation: A Guide to Designing and Constructing Energy Efficient Homes. These guidelines provide a method for selecting and evaluating cost-effective energy conservation measures based on the energy savings estimated by PEAR. This work is part of a Department of Energy program aimed at conducting research that will improve the energy efficiency of the nation's stock of conventionally-built and manufactured homes, and presenting the results to the public in a simplified format.

  16. The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring Programs in Elementary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Melinda

    2004-01-01

    The present review examined the effectiveness of three peer tutoring programs: cross-age peer tutoring, Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), and Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), for elementary students in the academic areas of math and reading. The research reviewed indicates students who participated in cross-age peer tutoring and CWPT had improved test scores on basic math facts as well as increased math scores on standardized assessments. Students also showed improvement in reading flu...

  17. Identification of an Effective Total Quality Management Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-31

    quality= Responding to the consumer’s demand for the best value healthm r care, J. Nursing Quality Assurance. 2(3):70-78. - " mx"D0 Implementing Total...Quality takes 10 steps forward, Healthcare Forum Journal . 29-34. Process Management Institute, Inc. (1987). Achieving Integration of m the Philosophy of...missing link, Journal of Quality Assurance, 8-36. Effective Training Program 48 Tennessee Associates International (1990). Managing for Continuous

  18. The effectiveness of bilingual school programs for immigrant children

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeitsstelle Interkulturelle Konflikte und Gesellschaftliche Integration (AKI), Berlin (Ed.)

    2005-01-01

    "Bilingual education programs are a much debated way of integrating immigrant children into the host country's school system. One of the main arguments in favor of bilingual education is its assumed positive effect on the acquisition of the second language and on academic achievement in general. However, the actual scientific evidence on this question is not quite as clear. Evaluation studies in Europe - especially in Germany - are still rare, although some European countries have a long trad...

  19. Performance and Perception in the Flipped Learning Model: An Initial Approach to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a New Teaching Methodology in a General Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, David; Jeong, Jin Su; Airado Rodríguez, Diego; Cañada-Cañada, Florentina

    2016-06-01

    "Flipped classroom" teaching methodology is a type of blended learning in which the traditional class setting is inverted. Lecture is shifted outside of class, while the classroom time is employed to solve problems or doing practical works through the discussion/peer collaboration of students and instructors. This relatively new instructional methodology claims that flipping your classroom engages more effectively students with the learning process, achieving better teaching results. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the effects of the flipped classroom on the students' performance and perception of this new methodology. This study was conducted in a general science course, sophomore of the Primary Education bachelor degree in the Training Teaching School of the University of Extremadura (Spain) during the course 2014/2015. In order to assess the suitability of the proposed methodology, the class was divided in two groups. For the first group, a traditional methodology was followed, and it was used as control. On the other hand, the "flipped classroom" methodology was used in the second group, where the students were given diverse materials, such as video lessons and reading materials, before the class to be revised at home by them. Online questionnaires were as well provided to assess the progress of the students before the class. Finally, the results were compared in terms of students' achievements and a post-task survey was also conducted to know the students' perceptions. A statistically significant difference was found on all assessments with the flipped class students performing higher on average. In addition, most students had a favorable perception about the flipped classroom noting the ability to pause, rewind and review lectures, as well as increased individualized learning and increased teacher availability.

  20. Building a Three-Dimensional Nano-Bio Interface for Aptasensing: An Analytical Methodology Based on Steric Hindrance Initiated Signal Amplification Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaojiao; Jiang, Ding; Hao, Nan; Qian, Jing; Dai, Liming; Zhou, Lei; Hu, Jianping; Wang, Kun

    2016-10-04

    The development of novel detection methodologies in electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor fields with simplicity and ultrasensitivity is essential for constructing biosensing architectures. Herein, a facile, specific, and sensitive methodology was developed unprecedentedly for quantitative detection of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) based on three-dimensional boron and nitrogen codoped graphene hydrogels (BN-GHs) assisted steric hindrance amplifying effect between the aptamer and target analytes. The recognition reaction was monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to validate the possible steric hindrance effect. First, the BN-GHs were synthesized via self-assembled hydrothermal method and then applied as the Ru(bpy)32+ immobilization platform for further loading the biomolecule aptamers due to their nanoporous structure and large specific surface area. Interestingly, we discovered for the first time that, without the aid of conventional double-stranded DNA configuration, such three-dimensional nanomaterials can directly amplify the steric hindrance effect between the aptamer and target analytes to a detectable level, and this facile methodology could be for an exquisite assay. With the MC-LR as a model, this novel ECL biosensor showed a high sensitivity and a wide linear range. This strategy supplies a simple and versatile platform for specific and sensitive determination of a wide range of aptamer-related targets, implying that three-dimensional nanomaterials would play a crucial role in engineering and developing novel detection methodologies for ECL aptasensing fields.

  1. Effect of eprosartan-based antihypertensive therapy on coronary heart disease risk assessed by Framingham methodology in Canadian patients: results of the POWER survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, Robert J; Tremblay, Guy; De Backer, Guy; Gill, Dawn P

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) has identified blood pressure (BP) control as a key target for an overall reduction in cardiovascular disease risk. The POWER survey (Physicians' Observational Work on Patient Education According to their Vascular Risk) used Framingham methodology to investigate the impact of an angiotensin-receptor-blocker-based regimen on arterial BP and total coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in a subset of patients recruited in Canada. 309 Canadian practices screened for patients with either newly diagnosed or uncontrolled mild/moderate hypertension (sitting systolic blood pressure [SBP] >140 mmHg with diastolic blood pressure [DBP] <110 mmHg). Treatment comprised eprosartan 600 mg/day with add-on antihypertensive therapy after 1 month if required. The primary efficacy variable was change in SBP at 6 months; the secondary variable was the absolute change in the Framingham 10-year CHD risk score. 1,385 patients were identified, of whom 1,114 were included in the intention-to-treat (ITT) cohort. Thirty-eight point four percent of ITT patients were managed with monotherapy at 6 months, versus 35.2% and 13.7% with two-drug or multiple-drug therapy, respectively. SBP in the ITT cohort declined 22.4 (standard deviation [SD] 14.8) mmHg and DBP declined 10.5 (SD 10.3) mmHg during that time. The absolute mean Framingham score declined 2.1 (SD 3.1) points with significant age and sex variation (P<0.001) and differences between the various Framingham methods used. Primary care physicians were able to use a strategy of BP lowering and CHD risk assessment to achieve significant reductions in BP and Framingham-assessed CHD risk. The effect size estimate of the different Framingham methods varied noticeably; reasons for those differences warrant further investigation.

  2. A methodology for compiling the current licensing basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.A.; Levin, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Many licensees are considering comprehensive configuration management programs to maintain documentation and material consistency in all aspects of nuclear power plant operation. An effective licensing basis management program is a key component of the configuration management program. The purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology for compiling the current licensing basis. The current licensing basis for an operating nuclear power plant is the body of licensee obligations, which consist of imposed US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements and licensee commitments in effect at any given time during the license term, upon which the NRC relies to allow continued operation.

  3. SUGGESTED METHODOLOGY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ARTIFICIAL INTRODUCTION OF STINGLESS BEEHIVES IN THE PRODUCTIVITY OF ASSAI PALM TREE ORCHARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Rury Venturieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The assai palm tree (Euterpe oleracea Mart., is an Amazonian native species whose berries, can be extracted a pulp with antioxidant properties. Its productivity was evaluated, at upland, in two moments: before, and after introduction of 14 colonies of M. flavolineata and 14 of M. fasciculata stingless bees to serve as pollinators. Giving the impression that the bees had no influence. However, the experiment was considered as inconclusive due to methodological gaps, but used as a case study to discuss critically the validity of the applied methodology. Improvements in experimental design and parameters to be evaluated are suggested. Keywords: Euterpe oleracea; Melipona fasciculata; Melipona flavolineata; Amazonia.

  4. An approximate analytical methodology for the concentration CDF and corresponding adverse health effects in 3D heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarlenga, Antonio; de Barros, Felipe; Fiori, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    Predicting solutes displacement in ecosystems is a complex task because of heterogeneity of hydrogeological properties and limited financial resources for characterization. As a consequence, solute transport model predictions are subject to uncertainty and probabilistic methods are invoked. Despite the significant theoretical advances in subsurface hydrology, there is a compelling need to transfer those specialized know-hows into an easy-to-use practical tool. The deterministic approach is able to capture some features of the transport behavior but its adoption in practical applications (e.g. remediation strategies or health risk assessment) is often inadequate because of its inability to accurately model the phenomena triggered by the spatial heterogeneity. The rigorous evaluation of the local contaminant concentration in natural aquifers requires an accurate estimate of the domain properties and huge computational times; those aspects limit the adoption of fully 3D numerical models. In this presentation, we illustrate a physically-based methodology to analytically estimate of the statistics of the solute concentration in natural aquifers and the related health risk. Our methodology aims to provide a simple tool for a quick assessment of the contamination level in aquifers, as function of a few relevant, physically based parameters such as the log conductivity variance, the mean flow velocity, the Péclet number. Solutions of the 3D analytical model adopt the results of previous works: transport model is based on the solutions proposed by Zarlenga and Fiori (2013, 2014) where semi-analytical relations for the statics of local contaminant concentration are carry out through a Lagrangian first-order model. As suggested in de Barros and Fiori (2014), the Beta distribution is assumed for the concentration cumulative density function (CDF). We illustrate the use of the closed-form equations for the probability of local contaminant concentration and health risk in a

  5. Identfying the Needs of Pre-Service Classroom Teachers about Science Teaching Methodology Courses in Terms of Parlett's Illuminative Program Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çaliskan, Ilke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the needs of third grade classroom teaching students about science teaching course in terms of Parlett's Illuminative program evaluation model. Phenomographic research design was used in this study. Illuminative program evaluation model was chosen for this study in terms of its eclectic and process-based…

  6. Identfying the Needs of Pre-Service Classroom Teachers about Science Teaching Methodology Course in Terms of Parlett's Illuminative Program Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çaliskan, Ilke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the needs of third grade classroom teaching students about science teaching course in terms of Parlett's Illuminative program evaluation model. Phenomographic research design was used in this study. Illuminative program evaluation model was chosen for this study in terms of its eclectic and process-based…

  7. TRADITIONS OF SCIENCE POPULARIZATION IN RUSSIA AS A METHODOLOGICAL BASIS TO DEVELOP THE NEW MASTER’S PROGRAM “POPULAR SCIENCE JOURNALISM”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balashova, Y.B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the new master’s program “Popular science journalism”, which started three years ago at Saint Petersburg State University, Russia. The author of this article is the creator, developer and head of this program. The goal of this article is to characterize historical and cultural grounds of the master’s program, and their reflection in the curriculum. Installation for the commonwealth of sciences, targeting a broad audience comprised a profiling installation of the classical system of Russian popular science journalism. In accordance with this, the master’s program was designed as an interdisciplinary, with the incorporated idea of the sciences convergence, which based on the Russian history of scientific enlightenment. The article aims to show productivity of the interdisciplinary educational programs, combined into modules.

  8. Effectiveness of a Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program Following Shoulder Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bean

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder injuries in working age adults result in a major cost to the health care system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a new multidisciplinary rehabilitation program and to explore factors that affected a successful return to work (RTW in injured workers with shoulder problems who received this program. Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal study. The patient-oriented outcome measures were the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH. Range of motion (ROM in flexion, abduction, and external rotation and strength in lifting and push/pull were documented. All outcomes were measured before and at the completion of the program. Results: Data of 68 patients were used for analysis. All outcomes showed a statistically significant improvement over time. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs help to improve pain, disability, ROM, strength, and facilitate RTW. Higher stress and a fast-paced work environment increased the risk of not progressing in work status.

  9. Evaluating Value Chain Development Programs: Assessing Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity Effects of Contract Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Provides insights regarding the possible procedures for assessing welfare, efficiency, and equity effects of value chain development (VCD) programs, taking advantage of available analytical tools derived from impact analysis, transaction cost theory, and contract choice approaches and briefly

  10. The effectiveness of a mixed methodology implemented in a Beginner’s Spanish Course to develop the four language skills: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerwin Anthony Livingstone

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This present article seeks to provide a mixed methodological model for the development and implementation of a Teaching Module for Spanish as a Foreign Language in the face-to-face environment. The primary objective is to portray how methodological principles from different language teaching approaches (such as task based language teaching and cooperative learning can be combined effectively in designing activities for face-to-face contexts. In this regard, empirical evidence is analysed in order to determine the effectiveness of the mixed methodology in the teaching-learning of Spanish as a Foreign Language in the said settings, in a study based on a longitudinal experimental design with pre-test and post-test, but without control group. The results show an increase in the acquisition of specific knowledge in Spanish as a Foreign Language. It is therefore proposed that mixed methodological models be integrated and implemented when designing Teaching Modules for Language Learning, since they are the most suited for Second and Foreign Language Acquisition.

  11. A systematic review of the effectiveness of simulation-based education on satisfaction and learning outcomes in nurse practitioner programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jessie N; Luctkar-Flude, Marian; Godfrey, Christina; Lukewich, Julia

    2016-11-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) is becoming an integral component in healthcare education programs. There is considerable evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of HFS on satisfaction and learning outcomes within undergraduate nursing programs; however, there are few studies that have investigated its use and effectiveness within nurse practitioner (NP) programs. To synthesize the best available evidence about the effectiveness of HFS within NP education programs worldwide. The specific review question was: what is the effect of HFS on learner satisfaction, knowledge, attitudes, and skill performance in NP education? Joanna Briggs Institute systematic review methodology was utilized. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Epistemonikos, PROSPERO, HealthSTAR, AMED, Cochrane, Global Health and PsycINFO. Studies were included if they were quantitative in nature and reported on any aspect HFS within a NP program. Ten studies were included in the review. All studies were conducted in the United States and published between 2007 and 2014. Outcomes explored included: knowledge, attitudes, skills and satisfaction. The majority of studies compared HFS to online learning or traditional classroom lecture. Most study scenarios featured high acuity, low frequency events within acute care settings; only two studies utilized scenarios simulated within primary care. There is limited evidence supporting the use of HFS within NP programs. In general, HFS increases students' knowledge and confidence, and students are more satisfied with simulation-based teaching in comparison to other methods. Future studies should explore the effectiveness of simulation training within NP programs in reducing the theory to practice gap, and evaluate knowledge retention, transferability to real patient situations, and impact of simulation on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A psychological preoperative program: effects on anxiety and cooperative behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Larcan, Rosalba; Romeo, Carmelo; Turiaco, Nunzio; Dominici, Tiziana

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a psychological preoperative program in reducing preoperative anxiety and in promoting compliance of pediatric participants with surgical procedures. Fifty children and their mothers were subjected to two conditions of treatment to investigate whether psychological preparation activities and psychologist's support during all phases of the operatory iter (group 1) were as efficient in reducing mothers' and child's anxiety and in increasing the child's compliance as distraction activities (group 2). The observed child anxiety was assessed using mYPAS; compliant behaviors with Induction Compliance Checklist; and mothers' anxiety with Amsterdam Pre-operative Anxiety and Information Scale. Children of the first group were less anxious and more cooperative in the preoperative period and during anesthesia induction than in the other condition. The psychological program was also more efficient in reducing mothers' anxiety. Finally, the mothers of group 1 showed a significantly higher satisfaction and judged as significantly more effective the program proposed to prepare their children than the mothers of group 2. Preparing children through playful dramatization of the operative procedure, manipulation of medical instruments and psychologist's support may be useful in pediatric surgery structures. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Substitution Effect of Public Support Programs at Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria SZITÁSIOVÁ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the principle of addi-tionality in public support programs at local level. In the evaluation of public support policies a key question is whether the policy has made a differ-ence over what would have otherwise occurred. This could be measured by different ways as out-put, behavioral or input additionality. In this paper we analyze the impact of public support programs on input additionality as the extent to which the subsidy is refected in increased expenditures by supported subjects through the measurement of substitution effect. We studied public investment subsidies in the case of education support in Slo-vakia. We identifed the substitution effect in 10% of the analyzed municipalities. There are several differences in outcomes.An important factor is the size of the city as larger municipalities reduce their other activities when obtaining the support. We also showed that less developed regions have a lower tendency to misuse the support programs. The more de-veloped regions and cities reduce their own spending on a given priority when obtaining the support.

  14. Effects of Baltimore's Safe Streets Program on gun violence: a replication of Chicago's CeaseFire Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W; Whitehill, Jennifer Mendel; Vernick, Jon S; Curriero, Frank C

    2013-02-01

    Chicago's CeaseFire program is an evidence-based public health approach to preventing gun violence. Baltimore is one of many US cities attempting to replicate the program. We compared changes in the number of homicide and nonfatal shooting incidents per month in four intervention neighborhoods with changes in high-crime comparison areas (police posts) without the intervention, while controlling for several measures of police activity and baseline levels of homicide and nonfatal shootings. In South Baltimore there were large program-related reductions in homicide and nonfatal shooting incidents. Among three East Baltimore program sites, the program was associated with a reduction of homicides in one area, a reduction in nonfatal shootings in another area, and a simultaneous increase in homicides and decrease in nonfatal shootings in another area. In some instances, program effects extended to neighborhoods bordering the intervention areas. Program-related reductions in homicides appear to be linked with conflict mediations conducted by program outreach workers.

  15. Migration selectivity and the effects of public programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, M R; Wolpin, K I

    1988-12-01

    "A model of the spatial distribution of mobile heterogeneous agents is formulated to assess how a price change or program subsidy that is location-specific affects the composition of local residents via selective migration and thus biases evaluations of the effectiveness of the program based on its local consequences. Longitudinal data from Colombia are used to test the implications of migration selectivity. The findings confirm the existence of selective migration, suggesting that local subsidies to human capital attract high-income but, within income groups, low-fertility households and those with low human capital endowments. These migration patterns are shown to be consistent with the dominance of endowment over tastes heterogeneity in the population under plausible behavioral assumptions." excerpt

  16. Effectiveness of Human Research Protection Program Performance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed human research protection program performance metric data of all Department of Veterans Affairs research facilities obtained from 2010 to 2016. Among a total of 25 performance metrics, 21 (84%) showed improvement, four (16%) remained unchanged, and none deteriorated during the study period. The overall improvement from these 21 performance metrics was 81.1% ± 18.7% (mean ± SD), with a range of 30% to 100%. The four performance metrics that did not show improvement all had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance metrics that showed improvement ranged from 0.05% to 60%. However, of the 21 performance metrics that showed improvement, 10 had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance measurement is an effective tool in improving the performance of human research protection programs.

  17. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Intergenerational Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canedo-García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: The objective of the present review study is to identify the determinant elements of the effectiveness of empirically based interventions (EBI in the field of intergenerational work, contrasting face-to-face and combined (face-to-face and virtual intervention modalities against variables relating to this field according to EBI indicators.Design and Methods: An extensive literature search returned a total of 553 studies. Of these, just 50 studies met the inclusion criteria of being an empirical investigation of the effectiveness of intergenerational programs that contain appropriate elaboration on theoretical constructs and methods.Results: The descriptive and multivariate analysis conducted demonstrates that programs with a greater number of EBI controls have the greatest effectiveness, regardless of the intervention mode employed, and that this effectiveness is also modulated by other variables such as the participants' disabilities, their literacy level, or their membership of an organization.Conclusions: We examined the implications of these findings, noting the need to increase the number of virtual interventions that could improve the efficiency of the activities undertaken, and at the same time ensuring that EBI indicators are also fulfilled.

  18. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Intergenerational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo-García, Alejandro; García-Sánchez, Jesús-Nicasio; Pacheco-Sanz, Deilis-Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the study: The objective of the present review study is to identify the determinant elements of the effectiveness of empirically based interventions (EBI) in the field of intergenerational work, contrasting face-to-face and combined (face-to-face and virtual) intervention modalities against variables relating to this field according to EBI indicators. Design and Methods: An extensive literature search returned a total of 553 studies. Of these, just 50 studies met the inclusion criteria of being an empirical investigation of the effectiveness of intergenerational programs that contain appropriate elaboration on theoretical constructs and methods. Results: The descriptive and multivariate analysis conducted demonstrates that programs with a greater number of EBI controls have the greatest effectiveness, regardless of the intervention mode employed, and that this effectiveness is also modulated by other variables such as the participants' disabilities, their literacy level, or their membership of an organization. Conclusions: We examined the implications of these findings, noting the need to increase the number of virtual interventions that could improve the efficiency of the activities undertaken, and at the same time ensuring that EBI indicators are also fulfilled.

  19. Valdose program: methodologies for dose assessment in internal contamination, 1997 census; Programma valdose: metodologie di valutazione della dose da contaminazione interna, censimento 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    Dose assessment in internal dosimetry needs computational and interpretative tools that allow carrying out, as a first step, an evaluation of intake on the base of bioassay measurements or WBC measurements, and as a second step, dose evaluation on the base of estimated intake. In the frame of the MIDIA Co-ordination (WBC operating in Italy), in the first months of 1997 a census on methodologies for dose evaluation in internal contamination has been proposed. A technical form has been sent to all the WBC Centres allowing an accurate description of modalities used in each centre. 9 out of 17 centres sent the answers to the technical form in time. In this paper all the forms filled in are reported. A careful comparative evaluation of the answers has been made both for routine monitoring and for special monitoring. The various radionuclides present in the Italian reality, calculation methodologies both for intake and dose, hypotheses adopted for date, path and modalities of contaminations are also presented. Proposals for conforming to the methodology in Italy after the introduction of the models following ICRP 60 publication that are the base of the Euratom 96/29 Directive are also discussed. [Italiano] La valutazione di dose in contaminazione interna necessita di strumenti interpretativi che permettano di effettuare in una prima la valutazione dell`intake sulla base delle misure dei campioni biologici o del corpo intero (WBC), ed in una seconda fase la valutazione della dose sulla base dell`intake. All`interno del coordinamento MIDIA dei WBC operanti in Italia e` stato proposto, nel primo trimestre del 1997, un censimento sulle metodologie di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna. Ai diversi centri e` stato inviato una scheda tecnica che, mediante un particolareggiato schema di domande, aiutava i diversi centri nella esposizione delle modalita` di valutazione di dose che ogni centro segue. 9 au 17 centri WBC operanti al momemnto in Italia hanno inviato la

  20. Patrones metodológicos en la investigación española sobre evaluación de programas educativos [Methodological patterns in the spanish research on evaluation of educational programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Expósito

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to obtaining some inferences about the field of program evaluation, synthesizing some patterns about research methodologies. Concretely, ones that: foundation epistemological paradigm, specific design, evaluative model in use, sample techniques, instruments for information collecting, procedures of data analysis, research designs, threats to validity and evaluation agents. To this respect, we have obtained indicators about 208 studies published in Spain from 1975 year to 2000, mainly papers from educational scientific journals. These studies were retrieved from several data base and completed with other crossed-references.