WorldWideScience

Sample records for program effectiveness electronic

  1. Effective radiological safety program for electron linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, W.P.

    1980-10-01

    An outline is presented of some of the main elements of an electron accelerator radiological safety program. The discussion includes types of accelerator facilities, types of radiations to be anticipated, activity induced in components, air and water, and production of toxic gases. Concepts of radiation shielding design are briefly discussed and organizational aspects are considered as an integral part of the overall safety program

  2. Is electronic stability program effective on French roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie

    2006-03-01

    This paper proposes an evaluation of the effectiveness of the electronic stability program (ESP) in terms of reduction of injury accidents in France. The method consists of 3 steps: The identification, in the French National injury accident census, of accident-involved cars for which the determination of whether or not the car was fitted with ESP is possible. A sampler of 136 cars involved in injury accidents occurred in 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 was then selected. But we had to restrict the analysis to only 588 Renalut Laguna's. The identification of accident situations for which we can determine whether or not ESP is pertinent ( for example ESP is pertinent for loss of control accidents whilst it is not for cars pulling out of a junction). The calculation, via a logistic regression, of the relative risk of being involved in an ESP-pertinent accident for ESP equipped cars versus unequipped cars, divided by the relative risk of being involved in a non-ESP-pertinent accident for ESP equipped cars versus unequipped cars. This relative risk is assumed to be the best estimator of ESP effectiveness. The arguments for such a method, effectiveness indicator and implicit hypothesis are presented and discussed in the paper. Based on a few assumptions, ESP is proved to be likely effective. Currently, the relative risk of being involved in an ESP-pertinent accident for ESP-equipped cars is lower (-44%, although not statistically significant) than for other cars.

  3. Electron trajectory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-11-01

    The SLAC Electron Trajectory Program is described and instructions and examples for users are given. The program is specifically written to compute trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magntic fields may be specified using arbitrary configurations of coils, or the output of a magnet program such as Poisson or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. The program is available in IBM FORTRAN but can be easily converted for use on other brands of hardware. The program is intended to be used with a plotter whose interface the user must provide

  4. Electron trajectory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-11-01

    The SLAC Electron Trajectory Program is described and instructions and examples for users are given. The program is specifically written to compute trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magntic fields may be specified using arbitrary configurations of coils, or the output of a magnet program such as Poisson or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. The program is available in IBM FORTRAN but can be easily converted for use on other brands of hardware. The program is intended to be used with a plotter whose interface the user must provide.

  5. Using electronic clinical practice audits as needs assessment to produce effective continuing medical education programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Doug; Staples, John; Pittman, Carmen; Stepanko, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    The traditional needs assessment used in developing continuing medical education programs typically relies on surveying physicians and tends to only capture perceived learning needs. Instead, using tools available in electronic medical record systems to perform a clinical audit on a physician's practice highlights physician-specific practice patterns. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of implementing an electronic clinical audit needs assessment process for family physicians in Canada. A clinical audit of 10 preventative care interventions and 10 chronic disease interventions was performed on family physician practices in Alberta, Canada. The physicians used the results from the audit to produce personalized learning needs, which were then translated into educational programming. A total of 26 family practices and 4489 patient records were audited. Documented completion rates for interventions ranged from 13% for ensuring a patient's tetanus vaccine is current to 97% of pregnant patients receiving the recommended prenatal vitamins. Electronic medical record-based needs assessments may provide a better basis for developing continuing medical education than a more traditional survey-based needs assessment. This electronic needs assessment uses the physician's own patient outcome information to assist in determining learning objectives that reflect both perceived and unperceived needs.

  6. Electron tunneling in proteins program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2016-06-05

    We developed a unique integrated software package (called Electron Tunneling in Proteins Program or ETP) which provides an environment with different capabilities such as tunneling current calculation, semi-empirical quantum mechanical calculation, and molecular modeling simulation for calculation and analysis of electron transfer reactions in proteins. ETP program is developed as a cross-platform client-server program in which all the different calculations are conducted at the server side while only the client terminal displays the resulting calculation outputs in the different supported representations. ETP program is integrated with a set of well-known computational software packages including Gaussian, BALLVIEW, Dowser, pKip, and APBS. In addition, ETP program supports various visualization methods for the tunneling calculation results that assist in a more comprehensive understanding of the tunneling process. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Effect of In-Service Training of Computer Science Teachers on Scratch Programming Language Skills Using an Electronic Learning Platform on Programming Skills and the Attitudes towards Teaching Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaria, Ahmed; Alhassan, Riyadh

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of in-service training of computer science teachers in Scratch language using an electronic learning platform on acquiring programming skills and attitudes towards teaching programming. The sample of this study consisted of 40 middle school computer science teachers. They were assigned into two…

  8. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  9. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  10. A study of the quality and effectiveness of the Airway Science Electronic Systems program to meet the workforce needs of the Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, Clarence Alvin

    1999-11-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to determine the quality and effectiveness of the Airway Science Electronics Systems program to meet the workforce needs of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The study was to research traditional FAA hired electronics technicians and Airway Science degree graduate electronics technicians. More specially, the study sought (1) to compare the traditional electronics training course requirements to the Airway Science curriculum course requirements, (2) to examine the ratio of Airway Science Electronics Systems graduates to graduates of other Airway Science options and also related electronics training and (3) to determine strengths and weaknesses in the Airway Science Electronics System. Findings and conclusions. The data were obtained by questionnaires sent to (1) the 61 recognized Airway Science Institutions, (2) personal interviews with department chairmen who are members of the Oklahoma City Aviation Aerospace Alliance and (3) personal interviews were also conducted with Electronics Technicians and supervisors at the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. It was found that the present area of airway science curriculum encompasses Airway Science Management, Airway Computer Science, Airway Electronics Systems, Aviation Maintenance Management and Aircraft Systems Management. Programs in airway science are designed specifically to help prepare individuals for meeting the requirements for a strong educational background for tomorrow's aviation leaders. The data indicated that the majority of airway science students pursue careers with the FAA but also find even greater opportunities in industry. The data also shows that in the surveyed schools with approved airway science programs, Airway Science Management was the most frequent offered program.

  11. Electronic automation of LRFD design programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The study provided electronic programs to WisDOT for designing pre-stressed girders and piers using the Load : Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) methodology. The software provided is intended to ease the transition to : LRFD for WisDOT design engineers...

  12. In-situ electron and ion measurements and observed gravity wave effects in the polar mesosphere during the MaCWAVE program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Croskey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Langmuir probe electron and ion measurements from four instrumented rockets flown during the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically program are reported. Two of the rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, in the summer of 2002. Electron scavenging by ice particulates produced reductions of the electron density in both sharp narrow (≈1–2 km layers and as a broad (≈13 km depletion. Small-scale irregularities were observed in the altitude regions of both types of electron depletion. The scale of the irregularities extended to wavelengths comparable to those used by ground-based radars in observing PMSE. In regions where ice particles were not present, analysis of the spectral signatures provided reasonable estimates of the energy deposition from breaking gravity waves. Two more instrumented rockets were flown from Esrange, Sweden, in January 2003. Little turbulence or energy deposition was observed during one flight, but relatively large values were observed during the other flight. The altitude distribution of the observed turbulence was consistent with observations of a semidiurnal tide and gravity wave instability effects as determined by ground-based lidar and radar measurements and by falling sphere measurements of the winds and temperatures (Goldberg et al., 2006; Williams et al., 2006.

  13. In-situ electron and ion measurements and observed gravity wave effects in the polar mesosphere during the MaCWAVE program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Croskey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Langmuir probe electron and ion measurements from four instrumented rockets flown during the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically program are reported. Two of the rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, in the summer of 2002. Electron scavenging by ice particulates produced reductions of the electron density in both sharp narrow (≈1–2 km layers and as a broad (≈13 km depletion. Small-scale irregularities were observed in the altitude regions of both types of electron depletion. The scale of the irregularities extended to wavelengths comparable to those used by ground-based radars in observing PMSE. In regions where ice particles were not present, analysis of the spectral signatures provided reasonable estimates of the energy deposition from breaking gravity waves.

    Two more instrumented rockets were flown from Esrange, Sweden, in January 2003. Little turbulence or energy deposition was observed during one flight, but relatively large values were observed during the other flight. The altitude distribution of the observed turbulence was consistent with observations of a semidiurnal tide and gravity wave instability effects as determined by ground-based lidar and radar measurements and by falling sphere measurements of the winds and temperatures (Goldberg et al., 2006; Williams et al., 2006.

  14. Correlation of Chemisorption and Electronic Effects for Metal Oxide Interfaces: Transducing Principles for Temperature Programmed Gas Microsensors. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semancik, S.; Cavicchi, R. E.; DeVoe, D. L.; McAvoy, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    This Final Report describes efforts and results for a 3-year DoE/OST-EMSP project centered at NIST. The multidisciplinary project investigated scientific and technical concepts critical for developing tunable, MEMS-based, gas and vapor microsensors that could be applied for monitoring the types of multiple analytes (and differing backgrounds) encountered at DoE waste sites. Micromachined ''microhotplate'' arrays were used as platforms for fabricating conductometric sensor prototypes, and as microscale research tools. Efficient microarray techniques were developed for locally depositing and then performance evaluating thin oxide films, in order to correlate gas sensing characteristics with properties including composition, microstructure, thickness and surface modification. This approach produced temperature-dependent databases on the sensitivities of sensing materials to varied analytes (in air) which enable application-specific tuning of microsensor arrays. Mechanistic studies on adsorb ate transient phenomena were conducted to better understand the ways in which rapid temperature programming schedules can be used to produce unique response signatures and increase information density in microsensor signals. Chemometric and neural network analyses were also employed in our studies for recognition and quantification of target analytes

  15. Spaceradiation effects on electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Arto.

    1989-01-01

    The failure mechanisms and radiation hardening of electronic devices in spaceborne environment are considered. Radiation hardened components and radiation shielding of electronics are described. Because of the radiation belts and particle radiation from the Sun, the near earth space is hostile to electronics. Besides cosmic radiation represents fully random failure source, against which redundant methods have to be applied. Failures caused by absorbed doses can be dealt with component selection, layout adjustment and addition of absorber. Prepairing for radiation damage presupposes the calculation of absorbed doses and SEU-cross sections from flight parameters. Thus the expected lifetime for spacecraft can be estimated. The above observations belong to the domain of normal routine operation in space electronic engineering and product assurance, which has a crucial meaning in space technology. Devices are to operate years without failure in demanding conditions. The reliable products are result of careful consideration of space environment from the beginning of device design. This applies especially to component selection and circuit design

  16. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the goals and mission of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment and to ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs. The program has been supporting NASA for over 20 years. The focus is on the reliability aspects of electronic devices. In this work the program also supports the electronics industry. There are several areas that the program is involved in: Memories, systems on a chip (SOCs), data conversion devices, power MOSFETS, power converters, scaled CMOS, capacitors, linear devices, fiber optics, and other electronics such as sensors, cryogenic and SiGe that are used in space systems. Each of these area are reviewed with the work that is being done in reliability and effects of radiation on these technologies.

  17. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette ae...

  18. 77 FR 23193 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ..., 413, and 495 [CMS-0044-CN] RIN 0938-AQ84 Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record... proposed rule entitled ``Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program--Stage... (77 FR 13698), the proposed rule entitled ``Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record...

  19. Electron cloud and ion effects

    CERN Document Server

    Arduini, Gianluigi

    2002-01-01

    The significant progress in the understanding and control of machine impedances has allowed obtaining beams with increasing brilliance. Dense positively charged beams generate electron clouds via gas ionization, photoemission and multipacting. The electron cloud in turn interacts with the beam and the surrounding environment originating fast coupled and single bunch instabilities, emittance blow-up, additional loads to vacuum and cryogenic systems, perturbation to beam diagnostics and feedbacks and it constitutes a serious limitation to machine performance. In a similar way high brilliance electron beams are mainly affected by positively charged ions produced by residual gas ionization. Recent observations of electron cloud build-up and its effects in present accelerators are reviewed and compared with theory and with the results of state-of-the-art computer simulations. Two-stream instabilities induced by the interaction between electron beams and ions are discussed. The implications for future accelerators ...

  20. Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Benedetto, E.; Fischer, W.; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, K.; Schulte, D.; Sonnad, K.; Tomas, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; Rumolo, G.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.

    2007-01-01

    Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e+e- scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed

  1. Electronic Government Information and the Depository Library Program: Paradise Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Robert E.; Cheverie, Joan F.

    1992-01-01

    The trend in the 1980s to provide an increasingly larger amounts of government information in electronic formats has led to concerns regarding the inclusion of electronic items in the depository library program (DLP). Inclusion of electronic formats in the DLP provides increased public access but also poses technical problems for the depository…

  2. EGUN: An electron optics and gun design program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-10-01

    The name EGUN has become commonly associated with the program also known as the SLAC Electron Trajectory Program. This document is an updated version of SLAC-226, published in 1979. The program itself has had substantial upgrading since then, but only a few new features are of much concern to the user. Most of the improvements are internal and are intended to improve speed or accuracy. EGUN is designed to compute trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic fields, including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes, as well as used specified initial conditions. Either rectangular or cylindrical symmetry may be used. In the new jargon, the program is a 2-1/2 dimension code meaning 2-D in all fields and 3-D in all particle motion. A Poisson's Equation Solver is used to find the electrostatic fields by using difference equations derived from the boundary conditions. Magnetic fields are to be specified externally, by the user, by using one of several methods including data from another program or arbitrary configurations of coils. This edition of the documentation also covers the program EGN87c, which is a recently developed version of EGUN designed to be used on the newer models of personal computers, small main frames, work stations, etc. The EGN87c program uses the programming language C which is very transportable so the program should operate on any system that supports C. Plotting routines for most common PC monitors are included, and the capability to make hard copy plots on dot-matrix printer-plotters is provided. 18 refs., 7 figs

  3. High Burnup Effects Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D.

    1990-04-01

    This is the final report of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). It has been prepared to present a summary, with conclusions, of the HBEP. The HBEP was an international, group-sponsored research program managed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The principal objective of the HBEP was to obtain well-characterized data related to fission gas release (FGR) for light water reactor (LWR) fuel irradiated to high burnup levels. The HBEP was organized into three tasks as follows: Task 1 -- high burnup effects evaluations; Task 2 -- fission gas sampling; and Task 3 -- parameter effects study. During the course of the HBEP, a program that extended over 10 years, 82 fuel rods from a variety of sources were characterized, irradiated, and then examined in detail after irradiation. The study of fission gas release at high burnup levels was the principal objective of the program and it may be concluded that no significant enhancement of fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined rods. The rim effect, an as yet unquantified contributor to athermal fission gas release, was concluded to be the one truly high-burnup effect. Though burnup enhancement of fission gas release was observed to be low, a full understanding of the rim region and rim effect has not yet emerged and this may be a potential area of further research. 25 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs

  4. A simulation program for electronics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, R.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansroul, M.; Lassalle, Jc.

    1978-01-01

    A general description of the GEANT program is given. The GEANT program has been designed to cover a wide variety of particle detectors. The program is separated into 4 independent parts: kinematics generation, trackina in space, tracks intersection with detectors and digitization of detector information. The tracking requires the introduction of the experimental set-up description in terms of media. The detectors are described independently of the media in a separate way. The media and detector description have to be furnished by the user. The implementation of the GEANT program is based on 2 sets of subprograms: a fixed set of subprograms, which are independent of the experimental situation and thus transparent to the user; a set of user subprograms which should be written by the user. The GEANT program produces results stored in data banks, which the user can convert into his own format. In addition the GEANT program provides printed and graphical outputs

  5. Basic Research in Electronics (JSEP) Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    34 IEEE J. Quantum Electronics, vol. 2E-22, pp. 544-551, April 1986. 41. T. Tamir and F.Y. Kou, "Classification of leaky waves supported by multilayered...34Photoemisslon from Single Electrodynamically Levitated Microparticles," Rev. Sci. Inst. §. 1088 (1985). 7. K.M. Leung, "P-Polarized Nonlinear...for a Single Electrodynamically Levitated Micropartcle," Rev. Sci. Inst., §L 2250 (1986). 10. S. Arnold, K.M. Leung and A.B. Pluchino, "The Optical

  6. ONR D&I Electronics Technology Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moon, Jeong

    2008-01-01

    Program Status: One of the D&I program goals is to develop greatly improved field-plated MMW GaN HEMT devices with high ft/fmax, which will improve gain/PAE and output power of GaN HEMT MMIC PAs simultaneously...

  7. A program for quantitative electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trincavelli, J.; Castellano, G.

    1987-01-01

    A complete procedure for the intensity corrections in EPMA is described, avoiding the simplifications usually found in conventional programs. In addition to the different classical expressions, this program includes the latest models for the characteristic X-ray production distribution φ(ρz). Characteristic constants for the different chemical elements are stored in data files, allowing the evaluation using subroutines of the different mass absorption coefficients for the sample. (Author) [es

  8. User Interface Program for secure electronic tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Koehl, E.R.; Carlson, R.D.; Raptis, A.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report summarizes and documents the efforts of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in developing a secure tag communication user interface program comprising a tag monitor and a communication tool. This program can perform the same functions as the software that was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), but it is enhanced with a user-friendly screen. It represents the first step in updating the TRANSCOM Tracking System (TRANSCOM) by incorporating a tag communication screen menu into the main menu of the TRANSCOM user program. A working version of TRANSCOM, enhanced with ANL secure-tag graphics, will strongly support the Department of Energy Warhead Dismantlement/Special Nuclear Materials Control initiatives. It will allow commercial satellite tracking of the movements and operational activities of treaty-limited items and transportation vehicles throughout Europe and the former USSR, as well as the continental US

  9. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  10. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  11. Microwave and Electron Beam Computer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Research (ONR). SCRIBE was adapted by MRC from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Beam Trajectory Program, EGUN . oTIC NSECE Acc !,,o For IDL1C I...achieved with SCRIBE. It is a ver- sion of the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) code EGUN (Ref. 8), extensively modified by MRC for research on

  12. Dynamical effects in electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianqiang Sky, E-mail: jianqiang.zhou@polytechnique.edu; Reshetnyak, Igor; Giorgetti, Christine; Sottile, Francesco; Reining, Lucia [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA-DSM-IRAMIS, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Sponza, Lorenzo [Department of Physics, King’s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Guzzo, Matteo [Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Gatti, Matteo [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA-DSM-IRAMIS, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-11-14

    One of the big challenges of theoretical condensed-matter physics is the description, understanding, and prediction of the effects of the Coulomb interaction on materials properties. In electronic spectra, the Coulomb interaction causes a renormalization of energies and change of spectral weight. Most importantly, it can lead to new structures, often called satellites. These can be linked to the coupling of excitations, also termed dynamical effects. State-of-the-art methods in the framework of many-body perturbation theory, in particular, the widely used GW approximation, often fail to describe satellite spectra. Instead, approaches based on a picture of electron-boson coupling such as the cumulant expansion are promising for the description of plasmon satellites. In this work, we give a unified derivation of the GW approximation and the cumulant expansion for the one-body Green’s function. Using the example of bulk sodium, we compare the resulting spectral functions both in the valence and in the core region, and we discuss the dispersion of quasi-particles and satellites. We show that self-consistency is crucial to obtain meaningful results, in particular, at large binding energies. Very good agreement with experiment is obtained when the intrinsic spectral function is corrected for extrinsic and interference effects. Finally, we sketch how one can approach the problem in the case of the two-body Green’s function, and we discuss the cancellation of various dynamical effects that occur in that case.

  13. Dynamical effects in electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jianqiang Sky; Reshetnyak, Igor; Giorgetti, Christine; Sottile, Francesco; Reining, Lucia; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Sponza, Lorenzo; Guzzo, Matteo; Gatti, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    One of the big challenges of theoretical condensed-matter physics is the description, understanding, and prediction of the effects of the Coulomb interaction on materials properties. In electronic spectra, the Coulomb interaction causes a renormalization of energies and change of spectral weight. Most importantly, it can lead to new structures, often called satellites. These can be linked to the coupling of excitations, also termed dynamical effects. State-of-the-art methods in the framework of many-body perturbation theory, in particular, the widely used GW approximation, often fail to describe satellite spectra. Instead, approaches based on a picture of electron-boson coupling such as the cumulant expansion are promising for the description of plasmon satellites. In this work, we give a unified derivation of the GW approximation and the cumulant expansion for the one-body Green’s function. Using the example of bulk sodium, we compare the resulting spectral functions both in the valence and in the core region, and we discuss the dispersion of quasi-particles and satellites. We show that self-consistency is crucial to obtain meaningful results, in particular, at large binding energies. Very good agreement with experiment is obtained when the intrinsic spectral function is corrected for extrinsic and interference effects. Finally, we sketch how one can approach the problem in the case of the two-body Green’s function, and we discuss the cancellation of various dynamical effects that occur in that case

  14. Maximizing the Use of Electronic Individualized Education Program Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Cori M.; Hart, Juliet E.

    2013-01-01

    With the growing use of technology in today's schools, electronic IEP programs are being adopted by many school districts around the nation as part of special education service delivery. These programs provide a useful technology that can facilitate compliance with IDEA requirements in IEP development while concurrently lessening teacher paperwork…

  15. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159 Section 423.159 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality...

  16. Developments in the electron gun simulation program, EGUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-11-01

    This paper discusses the developments in the electron gun simulation programs that are based on EGUN with its derivatives and supporting programs. Much of the code development has been inspired by technology changes in computer hardware; the implications of this evolution on EGN2 are discussed. Some examples and a review of the capabilities of the EGUN family are described

  17. Developments in the electron gun simulation program, EGUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W. B.

    1995-07-01

    This paper discusses the developments in the electron gun simulation programs that are based on EGUN with its derivatives and supporting programs. Much of the code development has been inspired by technology changes in computer hardware; the implications of this evolution on EGN2 are discussed. Some examples and a review of the capabilities of the EGUN family are described.

  18. Using electronic medical records analysis to investigate the effectiveness of lifestyle programs in real-world primary care is challenging: a case study in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linmans, Joris J; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Koppenaal, Tjarco; Spigt, Mark; Knottnerus, J André

    2012-07-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes suggests a gap between real world and controlled trial effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, but real-world investigations are rare. Electronic medical registration facilitates research on real-world effectiveness, although such investigations may require specific methodology and statistics. We investigated the effects of real-world primary care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We used medical records of patients (n=2,549) with T2DM from 10 primary health care centers. A mixed-effects regression model for repeated measurements was used to evaluate the changes in weight and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over time. There was no statistically significant change in weight (+0.07 kg, P=0.832) and HbA1c (+0.03%, P=0.657) during the observation period of 972 days. Most patients maintained their physical activity level (70%), and 54 % had an insufficient activity level. The variability in the course of weight and HbA1c was because of differences between patients and not between health care providers. Despite effective lifestyle interventions in controlled trial settings, we found that real-world primary care is only able to stabilize weight and HbA1c in patients with T2DM over time. Medical registration can be used to monitor the actual effectiveness of interventions in primary care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M A

    2013-01-01

    We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire 'ECLOUD' series. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC. (author)

  20. Introduction and NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation includes an introduction to the space radiation environment, the effects on electronics, the environment in action, flight projects, mission needs, and radiation hardness assurance (RHA).

  1. Upgraded G-optk program for electron gun characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasao, K.; Takebe, M.; Ushio, W.; Fujita, S.; Ohye, T.; Shimoyama, H.

    2011-01-01

    The generalized trajectory theory (the G-optk program) has been extended in order to make the method applicable to electron guns with curved and/or asymmetric cathodes. The object-image analysis mode has also been added. Enhanced capability of the upgraded G-optk program was demonstrated by applying the program to three electron optical systems: (a) the point cathode gun, (b) the hairpin-type cathode gun, and (c) the LEEM objective lens. The Canonical Mapping Transformation (CMT) diagrams were calculated both by direct ray tracing and by the upgraded G-optk program. In each case, it was found that the upgraded program reproduces well the results obtained by ray tracing. The generalized trajectory method has several advantages over direct ray tracing, such as substantially lighter calculation load and easy interpretation of the calculation results in terms of the optical parameters.

  2. CIF2Cell: Generating geometries for electronic structure programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Torbjörn

    2011-05-01

    The CIF2Cell program generates the geometrical setup for a number of electronic structure programs based on the crystallographic information in a Crystallographic Information Framework (CIF) file. The program will retrieve the space group number, Wyckoff positions and crystallographic parameters, make a sensible choice for Bravais lattice vectors (primitive or principal cell) and generate all atomic positions. Supercells can be generated and alloys are handled gracefully. The code currently has output interfaces to the electronic structure programs ABINIT, CASTEP, CPMD, Crystal, Elk, Exciting, EMTO, Fleur, RSPt, Siesta and VASP. Program summaryProgram title: CIF2Cell Catalogue identifier: AEIM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 691 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 74 933 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python (versions 2.4-2.7) Computer: Any computer that can run Python (versions 2.4-2.7) Operating system: Any operating system that can run Python (versions 2.4-2.7) Classification: 7.3, 7.8, 8 External routines: PyCIFRW [1] Nature of problem: Generate the geometrical setup of a crystallographic cell for a variety of electronic structure programs from data contained in a CIF file. Solution method: The CIF file is parsed using routines contained in the library PyCIFRW [1], and crystallographic as well as bibliographic information is extracted. The program then generates the principal cell from symmetry information, crystal parameters, space group number and Wyckoff sites. Reduction to a primitive cell is then performed, and the resulting cell is output to suitably named files along with documentation of the information source generated from any bibliographic information contained in the CIF

  3. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  4. Program For Local-Area-Network Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    MailRoom is computer program for local-area network (LAN) electronic mail. Enables users of LAN to exchange electronically notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computers. Links all users of LAN into communication circle in which messages created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through series of menu-driven screens. Includes feature that enables users to determine whether messages sent have been read by receivers. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

  5. Effective electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the Hubbard-Holstein model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprea, G.; Di Castro, C.; Grilli, M. . E-mail marco.grilli@roma1.infn.it; Lorenzana, J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between the electron-electron and the electron-phonon interaction in the Hubbard-Holstein model. We implement the flow-equation method to investigate within this model the effect of correlation on the electron-phonon effective coupling and, conversely, the effect of phonons in the effective electron-electron interaction. Using this technique we obtain analytical momentum-dependent expressions for the effective couplings and we study their behavior for different physical regimes. In agreement with other works on this subject, we find that the electron-electron attraction mediated by phonons in the presence of Hubbard repulsion is peaked at low transferred momenta. The role of the characteristic energies involved is also analyzed

  6. The effect of electron-electron interaction induced dephasing on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahnoj, Sina Soleimani; Touski, Shoeib Babaee [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourfath, Mahdi, E-mail: pourfath@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Microelectronics, TU Wien, Gusshausstrasse 27–29/E360, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-08

    The effect of dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons is theoretically investigated. In the presence of disorder in graphene nanoribbons, wavefunction of electrons can set up standing waves along the channel and the conductance exponentially decreases with the ribbon's length. Employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism along with an accurate model for describing the dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction, we show that this kind of interaction prevents localization and transport of electrons remains in the diffusive regime where the conductance is inversely proportional to the ribbon's length.

  7. Developments in the electron gun simulation program, EGUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the developments in the electron gun simulation programs that are based on EGUN with its derivatives and supporting programs. Much of the code development has been inspired by technology changes in computer hardware; the implications of this evolution on EGN2 are discussed. Some examples and a review of the capabilities of the EGUN family are described. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] scientific program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1986-01-01

    The principal scientific mission of the Continuous Electron Beam Facility (CEBAF) is to study collective phenomena in cold (or normal) nucler matter in order to understand the structure and behavior of macroscopic systems constructed from nuclei. This document discusses in broad popular terms those issues which the CEBAF experimental and theoretical program are designed to address. Specific experimental programs currently planned for CEBAF are also reivewed. 35 refs., 19 figs

  9. Magnetization effects in electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Skrinskii, A.N.

    A study is made of cooling in an electron beam which is accompanied by a strong magnetic field and a longitudinal temperature low compared to the transverse temperature. It is shown that the combination of two factors--magnetization and low longitudinal temperature of electrons--can sharply increase the cooling rate of a heavy-particle beam when the velocity spread is smaller than the transverse spread of electron velocities and reduce its temperature to the longitudinal temperature of the electrons, which is lower than that of the cathode by several orders of magnitude

  10. Electron ray tracing programs for gun design and beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-05-01

    Computer simulation of electron and ion sources is made by using a class of computer codes known as gun design programs. In this paper, we shall first list most of the necessary and some optional capabilities of such programs. Then we will briefly note specific codes and/or authors of codes with attention to specialized applications if any. There may be many more such programs in use than are treated here; we are only trying to cover a range of examples, not perform a comprehensive survey

  11. 78 FR 70244 - Electronic Interim Assistance Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ..., Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background To be... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 [Docket No. SSA-2011-0104] RIN 0960-AH45 Electronic Interim Assistance Reimbursement Program AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

  12. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is at this point excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal in the development of this project was the demonstration and exploration of the microwave properties of single-electron systems. As discussed here, such work has to date been carried out

  13. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: NEPP Overview - Automotive Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using U.S. Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Council's AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASA's procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  14. Twelve Tips for Effective Electronic Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Joy

    1994-01-01

    Offers 12 tips for effective electronic presentation. This article is intended for readers who may be considering using electronic presentation for the first time. Offers reasons for its popularity and occasions when it may be used. The tips offer assistance in the design and presentation of electronic material. (LZ)

  15. MAILROOM- A LOCAL AREA NETWORK ELECTRONIC MAIL PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mailroom program is a Local Area Network (LAN) electronic mail program. It allows LAN users to electronically exchange notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computer. The Mailroom program links all LAN users into a communication circle where messages can be created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through a series of menu-driven screens. Mailroom includes a feature which allows users to determine if a message they have sent has been read by the receiver. Each user must be separately installed and removed from Mailroom as they join or leave the network. Mailroom comes with a program that accomplishes this with minimum of effort on the part of the Network Administrator/Manager. There is also a program that allows the Network Administrator/Manager to install Mailroom on each user's workstation so that on execution of Mailroom the user's station may be identified and the configurations settings activated. It will create its own configuration and data/supporting files during the setup and installation process. The Mailroom program is written in Microsoft QuickBasic. It was developed to run on networked IBM XT/ATs or compatibles and requires that all participating workstations share a common drive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 71K. Mailroom was developed in 1988.

  16. Electron cloud effects in hadron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Fedor; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Weiland, Thomas [TU-Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder,Schlossgartenstr. 8 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Accelerators operating with intense positively charged beams can suffer from the electron cloud phenomenon. For example, it is the intensity limiting factor in CERN LHC and SPS. In past decades a lot of progress in understanding the electron cloud effects was made worldwide. Methods to suppress or weaken the electron cloud phenomenon were proposed. Theories governing the bunch stability in presence of the electron cloud were developed. Recently the theory was introduced to describe the bunch energy loss due to the electron cloud. However, most of the publications concern the single bunch electron cloud effects. In reality bunches are packed into trains. A disturbance of the cloud caused by the bunch in the beginning of the train affects the subsequent bunches. We present a further investigation of single-bunch electron cloud effects and planned activities to study the phenomenon in case of multiple bunches.

  17. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is, again, excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal in the development of this project was the demonstration and exploration of the microwave properties of single-electron system. As discussed in this paper such work has to data been carried out. Also as discussed in our previous progress report, the next step in the experimental evolution of the project will be to use lithographically-defined small dots as capacitors as outlined in our proposal. At this point we have made such microdotsdots as will be discussed. We have also continued our work with metal droplets to form single-electron tunnel systems

  18. Strontium clusters: electronic and geometry shell effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2008-01-01

    charged strontium clusters consisting of up to 14 atoms, average bonding distances, electronic shell closures, binding energies per atom, and spectra of the density of electronic states (DOS). It is demonstrated that the size-evolution of structural and electronic properties of strontium clusters...... is governed by an interplay of the electronic and geometry shell closures. Influence of the electronic shell effects on structural rearrangements can lead to violation of the icosahedral growth motif of strontium clusters. It is shown that the excessive charge essentially affects the optimized geometry...

  19. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is, again, excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal for this project has been the development of a scanning tunneling instrument for the purpose of imaging individual particles and tunneling into these particles at high magnetic fields. Further progress is discussed in this report

  20. Radiation dose effects, hardening of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont-Nivet, E.

    1991-01-01

    This course reviews the mechanism of interaction between ionizing radiation and a silicon oxide type dielectric, in particular the effect of electron-hole pairs creation in the material. Then effects of cumulated dose on electronic components and especially in MOS technology are examined. Finally methods hardening of these components are exposed. 93 refs

  1. Effects of electronic communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kam, WJ; Moorman, PW; Koppejan-Mulder, MJ

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To obtain insight into the effects of electronic communication on GPs by studying those publications in literature describing the effects of structured electronic clinical communication in general practice. Methods: We retrieved all publications in the English language indexed in MEDLINE

  2. Effect of electronic radiation in Nb monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, M.P.; Lucki, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the electronic irradiation in the Nb monocrystalline samples is studied. The irradiation source were the electrons from the high voltage electronic microscopy from the Argonne National Laboratory operating in 900 KeV. With the irradiation and deformation 'in-situ' experiments, dislocations in the samples were observed and the effect of the electrons in those dislocations during 59m of irradiation was studied. The follow applied deformation, show the differences in the displacements behavior of the non-irradiated and irradiated region. The growth rate of the displacements rings were determined. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Electron beam effects in auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, J.M.; Duraud, J.P.; Le Gressus, C.

    1979-01-01

    Electron beam effects on Si(100) and 5% Fe/Cr alloy samples have been studied by measurements of the secondary electron yield delta, determination of the surface composition by Auger electron spectroscopy and imaging with scanning electron microscopy. Variations of delta as a function of the accelerating voltage Esub(p) (0.5 -9 Torr has no effect on technological samples covered with their reaction layers; the sensitivities to the beam depend rather on the earlier mechanical, thermal and chemical treatment of the surfaces. (author)

  4. The Livermore Free-Electron Laser Program Magnet Test Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.J.; Kulke, B.; Deis, G.A.; Frye, R.W.; Kallman, J.S.; Ollis, C.W.; Tyler, G.C.; Van Maren, R.D.; Weiss, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Free-Electron Laser Program Magnet Test Laboratory supports the ongoing development of the Induction Linac Free Electron Laser (IFEL) and uses magnetic field measurement systems that are useful in the testing of long periodic magnetic structures, electron-beam transport magnets, and spectrometer magnets. The major systems described include two computer-controlled, three-axis Hall probe-and-search coil transports with computer-controlled data acquisition; a unique, automated-search coil system used to detect very small inaccuracies in wiggler fields; a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based Hall probe-calibration facility; and a high-current DC ion source using heavy ions of variable momentum to model the transport of high-energy electrons. Additionally, a high-precision electron-beam-position monitor for use within long wigglers that has a positional resolution of less than 100 μm is under development in the laboratory and will be discussed briefly. Data transfer to LLNL's central computing facility and on-line graphics enable us to analyze large data sets quickly. 3 refs

  5. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    sensitivity increases more rapidly under high doses of irra- diation than under low doses of irradiation. The electron beam irradiation effects were simulated and the mecha- nism was discussed. Acknowledgements. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the MOST 973 program, grant no. 2006CB705604 ...

  6. PGOPHER: A program for simulating rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    The PGOPHER program is a general purpose program for simulating and fitting molecular spectra, particularly the rotational structure. The current version can handle linear molecules, symmetric tops and asymmetric tops and many possible transitions, both allowed and forbidden, including multiphoton and Raman spectra in addition to the common electric dipole absorptions. Many different interactions can be included in the calculation, including those arising from electron and nuclear spin, and external electric and magnetic fields. Multiple states and interactions between them can also be accounted for, limited only by available memory. Fitting of experimental data can be to line positions (in many common formats), intensities or band contours and the parameters determined can be level populations as well as rotational constants. PGOPHER is provided with a powerful and flexible graphical user interface to simplify many of the tasks required in simulating, understanding and fitting molecular spectra, including Fortrat diagrams and energy level plots in addition to overlaying experimental and simulated spectra. The program is open source, and can be compiled with open source tools. This paper provides a formal description of the operation of version 9.1. - Highlights: • Easy-to-use graphical interface for assigning and understanding molecular spectra. • Simulates rotational and vibrational structure of many types of molecular spectra. • Fits molecular properties to line positions or spectral contours. • Handles linear molecules and symmetric and asymmetric tops. • Handles perturbations, nuclear and electron spin, and electric and magnetic fields.

  7. NASA EEE Parts and NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Update 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Majewicz, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program and NASA Electronic Parts Assurance Group (NEPAG) are NASAs point-of-contacts for reliability and radiation tolerance of EEE parts and their packages. This presentation includes an FY18 program overview.

  8. Parallelization for first principles electronic state calculation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Oguchi, Tamio.

    1997-03-01

    In this report we study the parallelization for First principles electronic state calculation program. The target machines are NEC SX-4 for shared memory type parallelization and FUJITSU VPP300 for distributed memory type parallelization. The features of each parallel machine are surveyed, and the parallelization methods suitable for each are proposed. It is shown that 1.60 times acceleration is achieved with 2 CPU parallelization by SX-4 and 4.97 times acceleration is achieved with 12 PE parallelization by VPP 300. (author)

  9. A Mobile Nanoscience and Electron Microscopy Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Tonya; Kelley, Kyle

    2013-03-01

    We have established a mobile nanoscience laboratory outreach program in Western NC that puts scanning electron microscopy (SEM) directly in the hands of K-12 students and the general public. There has been a recent push to develop new active learning materials to educate students at all levels about nanoscience and nanotechnology. Previous projects, such as Bugscope, nanoManipulator, or SPM Live! allowed remote access to advanced microscopies. However, placing SEM directly in schools has not often been possible because the cost and steep learning curve of these technologies were prohibitive, making this project quite novel. We have developed new learning modules for a microscopy outreach experience with a tabletop SEM (Hitachi TM3000). We present here an overview of our outreach and results of the assessment of our program to date.

  10. Electron Cloud Effect in the Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M

    2004-01-01

    Beam induced multipacting, driven by the electric field of successive positively charged bunches, may arise from a resonant motion of electrons, generated by secondary emission, bouncing back and forth between opposite walls of the vacuum chamber. The electron-cloud effect (ECE) has been observed or is expected at many storage rings [1]. In the beam pipe of the Damping Ring (DR) of a linear collider, an electron cloud is produced initially by ionization of the residual gas and photoelectrons from the synchrotron radiation. The cloud is then sustained by secondary electron emission. This electron cloud can reach equilibrium after the passage of only a few bunches. The electron-cloud effect may be responsible for collective effects as fast coupled-bunch and single-bunch instability, emittance blow-up or incoherent tune shift when the bunch current exceeds a certain threshold, accompanied by a large number of electrons in the vacuum chamber. The ECE was identified as one of the most important R and D topics in the International Linear Collider Report [2]. Systematic studies on the possible electron-cloud effect have been initiated at SLAC for the GLC/NLC and TESLA linear colliders, with particular attention to the effect in the positron main damping ring (MDR) and the positron Low Emittance Transport which includes the bunch compressor system (BCS), the main linac, and the beam delivery system (BDS). We present recent computer simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud generation in both machine designs. Thus, single and coupled-bunch instability thresholds are estimated for the GLC/NLC design

  11. Photon and electron collimator effects on electron output and abutting segments in energy modulated electron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, Lennart; Karlsson, Magnus G.; Karlsson, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    In energy modulated electron therapy a large fraction of the segments will be arranged as abutting segments where inhomogeneities in segment matching regions must be kept as small as possible. Furthermore, the output variation between different segments should be minimized and must in all cases be well predicted. For electron therapy with add-on collimators, both the electron MLC (eMLC) and the photon MLC (xMLC) contribute to these effects when an xMLC tracking technique is utilized to reduce the x-ray induced leakage. Two add-on electron collimator geometries have been analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations: One isocentric eMLC geometry with an isocentric clearance of 35 cm and air or helium in the treatment head, and one conventional proximity geometry with a clearance of 5 cm and air in the treatment head. The electron fluence output for 22.5 MeV electrons is not significantly affected by the xMLC if the shielding margins are larger than 2-3 cm. For small field sizes and 9.6 MeV electrons, the isocentric design with helium in the treatment head or shielding margins larger than 3 cm is needed to avoid a reduced electron output. Dose inhomogeneity in the matching region of electron segments is, in general, small when collimator positions are adjusted to account for divergence in the field. The effect of xMLC tracking on the electron output can be made negligible while still obtaining a substantially reduced x-ray leakage contribution. Collimator scattering effects do not interfere significantly when abutting beam techniques are properly applied

  12. Critical voltage effects in electron channeling patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrow, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Electron channeling patterns were used to study critical voltage effects in the metals molybdenum and tungsten. The purpose was to characterize both theoretically and experimentally how a critical voltage will affect the channeling pattern line shapes. The study focused on the second order critical voltage that results from the degeneracy between the Bloch wave states of the (110) and (220) reflections. Theoretical (110) series electron channeling pattern line profiles were calculated using the dynamical theory of Hirsch and Humphreys (1970). A 10 beam dynamical electron diffraction calculation was performed (using complex Fourier lattice potentials) to generate Bloch wave coefficients, excitation amplitudes, and absorption coefficients needed for determining backscattering coefficients and subsequent backscattered electron intensities. The theoretical model is applicable to electron diffraction at all energies since no high energy approximation or perturbation method was used

  13. A FORTRAN program for an IBM PC compatible computer for calculating kinematical electron diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerpe, P.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes a computer program which is useful in transmission electron microscopy. The program is written in FORTRAN and calculates kinematical electron diffraction patterns in any zone axis from a given crystal structure. Quite large unit cells, containing up to 2250 atoms, can be handled by the program. The program runs on both the Helcules graphic card and the standard IBM CGA card

  14. PGOPHER: A program for simulating rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    The PGOPHER program is a general purpose program for simulating and fitting molecular spectra, particularly the rotational structure. The current version can handle linear molecules, symmetric tops and asymmetric tops and many possible transitions, both allowed and forbidden, including multiphoton and Raman spectra in addition to the common electric dipole absorptions. Many different interactions can be included in the calculation, including those arising from electron and nuclear spin, and external electric and magnetic fields. Multiple states and interactions between them can also be accounted for, limited only by available memory. Fitting of experimental data can be to line positions (in many common formats), intensities or band contours and the parameters determined can be level populations as well as rotational constants. PGOPHER is provided with a powerful and flexible graphical user interface to simplify many of the tasks required in simulating, understanding and fitting molecular spectra, including Fortrat diagrams and energy level plots in addition to overlaying experimental and simulated spectra. The program is open source, and can be compiled with open source tools. This paper provides a formal description of the operation of version 9.1.

  15. Implementing an effective wellness program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, N. [Bruce Power Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Bruce Power is one of the largest nuclear sites in the world, with more than 3,700 employees. The utility strives to be one of Canada's most dynamic and innovative teams. The values of Bruce Power include: safety first; profit through progress; openness; respect and recognition; and professional and personal integrity. With respect to health and safety, Bruce Power strives to have zero medically treated injuries. Details of the healthy workplace committee were presented as well as details of the health and wellness program. Charts of health and mental health screening strategies were presented. Other programs include: an excellent benefits package; flexible working hours; family care days; banked time; an electronic suggestion box; and station condition records. It was noted that there is a strong external focus on health and safety as well. Details of community involvement and sponsorship were presented, along with details of on-site fitness facilities and fitness membership subsidies. Details of the National Quality Institute certification were also provided, including physical environment; lifestyle behaviours; and psycho-social environment. The importance of strong leadership in encouraging feedback, team talk and continuous leadership development was emphasized. Strategies to strengthen leadership include new hiring criteria for managers; management days; first line manager academy; a mentoring program; and task observation and coaching. Communication strategies include articles in weekly newspapers; monthly safety meeting video segments; posters and electronic signs; and voice mail messages from the chief executive officer. Details of the Eat Smart and Weight Challenge certification were provided. The management at human resources faces the challenge of continual change, demographics, and the fact that wellness is difficult to measure. tabs., figs.

  16. Effective Communication and Neurolinguistic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Bashir (Corresponding Author

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Importance of effective communication can hardly be ignored in any sphere of life. This is achieved through various means. One such instrument is Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP which has now taken roots in various aspects of learning and education. Its potential spans education and learning, language teaching, business management and marketing, psychology, law, and several other fields. In our work, we will briefly explore various facets of NLP with special reference to effective communication.

  17. Analysis of spin depolarizing effects in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boege, M.

    1994-05-01

    In this thesis spin depolarizing effects in electron storage rings are analyzed and the depolarizing effects in the HERA electron storage ring are studied in detail. At high beam energies the equilibrium polarization is limited by nonlinear effects. This will be particularly true in the case of HERA, when the socalled ''spin rotators'' are inserted which are designed to provide longitudinal electron polarization for the HERMES experiment in 1994 and later for the H1 and ZEUS experiment. It is very important to quantify the influence of these effects theoretically by a proper modelling of HERA, so that ways can be found to get a high degree of polarization in the real machine. In this thesis HERA is modelled by the Monte-Carlo tracking program SITROS which was originally written by J. Kewisch in 1982 to study the polarization in PETRA. The first part of the thesis is devoted to a detailed description of the fundamental theoretical concepts on which the program is based. Then the approximations which are needed to overcome computing time limitations are explained and their influence on the simulation result is discussed. The systematic and statistical errors are studied in detail. Extensions of the program which allow a comparison of SITROS with the results given by ''linear'' theory are explained. (orig.)

  18. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Overview and Update FY15 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program, and its subset the NASA Electronic Parts Assurance Group (NEPAG), are NASA's point-of-contacts for reliability and radiation tolerance of electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts and their packages. This presentation includes a Fiscal Year 2015 program overview.

  19. Effects of dislocations on electron channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Juby; Pathak, A P

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of electron channeling in a crystal affected by dislocations is considered. Earlier we had considered the quantum aspects of the positron channeling in a crystal bent by dislocations where the effects of longitudinal motion of the particle were also considered along with the transverse motion. In this paper, the effective potential for the electron case is found for the two regions of dislocation-affected channel. There is considerable shift in the potential minima due to dislocations. The frequency and the corresponding spectrum of the channeling radiation due to electrons channeling through the perfect channel and the two regions of dislocation-affected channels are calculated. The spectral distribution of radiation intensity changes with the parameters of dislocation. The continuity of wavefunctions and their derivatives is used at the three boundaries and the reflection and transmission coefficients are found using these boundary conditions in the same way as in the positron case.

  20. Correlation effects in electron-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, W. van de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with correlation effects occurring in the outer region of configuration space after an ionising collision. The motion of both escaping electrons in the external region is then fully determined by the long-range Coulomb forces. Firstly the threshold ionisation of hydrogen-like targets is studied. In that case two slow electrons attempt to escape from the Coulomb attraction of the residual ion. Secondly ionising collisions, with the formation of an autoionising state as an intermediate step, are considered. Such an autoionising state is in fact a quasi bound state of the neutral atom which lies imbedded in the ionisation continuum. The state decays after a certain lifetime by emission of an electron. Of all states to be formed in the reaction region only the autoionising state(s) under consideration is then relevant for this type of ionisation process. The energy positions of autoionising states usually are such that the electron to be ionised is ejected with a rather large velocity. The correlation in the outer region of configuration space then consists of the interaction of a fast ejected electron and, in case of threshold excitation of the autoionising state, a slow scattered electron. (Auth.)

  1. Gamma and electron radiation effects on straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Baer, M.; Huebner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma and electron radiation effects on wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw and rye straw are reported. In vitro and in vivo studies show that the digestibility of these agricultural rough materials can be increased up to 80% and more at high doses. The increase of the digestibility is connected with a depolymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose. (author)

  2. Effective approaches for managing electronic records and archives

    CERN Document Server

    Dearstyne, Bruce W

    2006-01-01

    This is a book of fresh insights, perspectives, strategies, and approaches for managing electronic records and archives. The authors draw on first-hand experience to present practical solutions, including recommendations for building and sustaining strong electronic records programs.

  3. Electron irradiation effects on lithium peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Jun; Shiotsuki, Taishi; Shimo, Yusuke; Koshiya, Shogo; Nagai, Takuro; Nito, Takehiro; Kimoto, Koji

    2018-03-01

    In this study, electron irradiation effects on lithium peroxide (Li2O2), which is an important discharge product of Li-air (or Li-O2) batteries, were investigated using selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and high-energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The results obtained show that Li2O2 to Li2O transformation occurs with 80 and 300 keV incident electrons under high electron dose rates at 20 and -183 °C. The Li2O2 to Li2O transformation rate for 300 keV was 1/5 of that for 80 keV with the irradiation taking place at -183 °C. We also present a series of the EELS spectra that can be used as a criterion to judge the molar ratio of Li2O to Li2O2 in the general systems where Li2O2 and Li2O coexist.

  4. Electron transport effects in ion induced electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubus, A. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. FD Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: adubus@ulb.ac.be; Pauly, N. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. FD Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Roesler, M. [Karl-Pokern-Str. 12, D-12587 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Ion induced electron emission (IIEE) is usually described as a three-step process, i.e. electron excitation by the incident projectile, electron transport (and multiplication) and electron escape through the potential barrier at the surface. In many cases, the first step of the process has been carefully described. The second step of the process, i.e. electron transport and multiplication, has often been treated in a very rough way, a simple decreasing exponential law being sometimes used. It is precisely the aim of the present work to show the importance of a correct description of electron transport and multiplication in a theoretical calculation of IIEE. A short overview of the electron transport models developed for IIEE is given in this work. The so-called 'Infinite medium slowing-down model' often used in recent works is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, the importance of considering correctly the semi-infinite character of the medium and the boundary condition at the vacuum-medium interface is discussed. Quantities like the electron escape depth are also briefly discussed. This evaluation has been performed in the particular case of protons (25keV

  5. Specs: Simulation Program for Electronic Circuits and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Geus, Aart Jan

    Simulation tools are central to the development and verification of very large scale integrated circuits. Circuit simulation has been used for over two decades to verify the behavior of designs. Recently the introduction of switch-level simulators which model MOS transistors in terms of switches has helped to overcome the long runtimes associated with full circuit simulation. Used strictly for functional verification and fault simulation, switch -level simulation can only give very rough estimates of the timing of a circuit. In this dissertation an approach is presented which adds a timing capability to switch-level simulators at relatively little extra CPU cost. A new logic state concept is introduced which consists of a set of discrete voltage steps. Signals are known only in terms of these states thus allowing all current computations to be table driven. State changes are scheduled in the same fashion as in the case of gate-level simulators, making the simulator event-driven. The simulator is of mixed-mode nature in that it can model portions of a design at either the gate or transistor level. In order to represent the "unknown" state, a signal consists of both an upper and a lower bound defining a signal envelope. Both bounds are expressed in terms of states. In order to speed up the simulation, MOS networks are subdivided in small pull-up and pull-down transistor configurations that can be preanalysed and prepared for fast evaluation during the simulation. These concepts have been implemented in the program SPECS (Simulation Program For Electronic Circuits and Systems) and examples of simulations are given.

  6. The effects of radiation on electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, G.C.; Ash, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the first unified treatment of the analysis and design methods for protection of principally electronic systems from the deleterious effects of nuclear and electro-magnetic radiation. Coverage spans from a detailed description of the nuclear radiation sources to pertinent semiconductor physics, then to hardness assurance. This work combines the disciplines of solid state physics, semiconductor physics, circuit engineering, nuclear physics, together with electronics and electromagnetic theory into a book that can be used as a text with problems at the end of the majority of the chapters. Written by veterans in the field, the most significant feature of this book is its comprehensive treatment of the phenomena involved. This treatment includes the analysis and design of the effect of nuclear radiation on electronic systems from the experimental, theoretical, and engineering viewpoints. Unique pedagogical attempts are employed to make the material more understandable from the position of an enlightened engineering and scientific readership whose task is the design and analysis of radiation hardened electronic systems

  7. Selected programs at the new SURF III electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furst, Mitchell L.; Arp, Uwe; Cauchon, Gilles P.; Graves, Rossie M.; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Hughey, Lanny R.; Lucatorto, Thomas B.; Tarrio, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The conversion of the electron storage ring at NIST (the National Institute of Standards and Technology) to SURF III (the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility) has resulted in a significant improvement to the azimuthal uniformity of the magnetic field as well as the capability for operating at higher beam energies. Measurements of magnetic field strength revealed azimuthal uniformity of better than ±0.05% at field strengths equivalent to operating energies of 52 MeV to 417 MeV. Initial operation is restricted to energies up to 331 MeV due to temporary limitations in the rf transmission system. Even at 331 MeV there is already a significant extension of the usable short wavelength range of the synchrotron radiation as compared to the range available at the 284 MeV operating energy of SURF II. These and other improvements have a major impact on SURF programs including: the Nanodetector, a conversion microscope which is a prototype real-time imaging system for EUV (extreme ultraviolet) lithography; the Spectrometer Calibration Beamline, used for high-accuracy absolute calibration of spectrometers; and the National EUV Reflectometry Facility, used to measure optical constants of thin-film multilayer optics

  8. Overview of HPM Effects in Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The following presentation contains an overview of HPM effects in modern electronics. HPM effects can be categorized into two basic level of effects, which are damaging and non-damaging. Damaging effects include junction breakdowns, dielectric breakdowns, and latch-up. These types of effects render a system inoperable until repaired. With non-damaging effects, HPM signals couple to into system components generating circuit responses that can overwhelm normal operation. Non-damaging effects can temporarily render a system inoperable or cause a system to lock and require a restart. Since modern systems are so complex, fundamental mechanisms of upset in circuit primitives are studied. All topics covered and all figured contained within are found in open literature. All data plots presented were obtained from experimental measurements conducted at the University of Maryland College Park and are also found in the open literature.

  9. ECAP-370/IFIN - A program for the analysis of electrical and electronic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, C.D.

    1978-05-01

    A program to be used as a tool for electrical and electronic circuit design is presented. The program performs the DC, AC, and transient analysis for circuits with a given topological structure. (author)

  10. Development of Thermal Design Program for an Electronic Telecommunication System Using Heat Sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Kim, Jong Man; Chun, Ji Hwan; Bae, Chul Ho; Suh, Myung Won

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the cooling performance of heat sinks for an electronic telecommunication system by adequate natural convection. Heat generation rates of electronic components and the temperature distributions of heat sinks and surrounding air are analyzed experimentally and numerically. In order to perform the heat transfer analysis for the thermal design of telecommunication system, a program is developed. The program used the graphic user interface environment to determine the arrangement of heat sources, interior fan capacity, and heat sink configuration. The simulation results showed that the heat sinks were able to achieve a cooling capacity of up to 230W at the maximum temperature difference of 19 .deg. C. To verify the results from the numerical simulation, an experiment was conducted under the same condition as the numerical simulation, and their results were compared. The design program gave good prediction of the effects of various parameters involved in the design of a heat sinks for an electronic telecommunication system

  11. Effects of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Simon Timothy

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the role of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems. We first consider a novel non-linear sigma model in order to microscopically treat the effects of disorder and electronic interaction. We successfully reproduce the perturbative results for the zero-bias anomaly and the interaction correction to the conductivity in a weakly disordered system, and discuss possible directions for future work. Secondly we consider the fluctuations of the dephasing rate for a closed diffusive and quantum dot system. Using the Keldysh technique we derive an expression for the inelastic scattering rate with which we self-consistently obtain the fluctuations in the dephasing rate. For the diffusive regime we find the relative fluctuations is given by F ∼ (L φ /L) 2 /g 2 , where g is the dimensionless conductance, L φ is the dephasing length and L is the sample size. For the quantum dot regime we find a perturbative divergence due to the presence of the zero mode. By mapping divergent diagrams to those for the two-level correlation function, we conjecture the existence of an exact relation between the two. Finally we discuss the consequences of this relation. (author)

  12. Electron-electron collision effects on the bremsstrahlung emission in Lorentzian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Dae; Kato, Daiji

    2009-01-01

    Electron-electron collision effects on the electron-ion bremsstrahlung process are investigated in Lorentzian plasmas. The effective electron-ion interaction potential is obtained by including the far-field terms caused by electron-electron collisions with an effective Debye length in Lorentzian plasmas. The bremsstrahlung radiation cross section is obtained as a function of the electron energy, photon energy, collision frequency, spectral index and Debye length using the Born approximation for the initial and final states of the projectile electron. It is shown that the non-Maxwellian character suppresses the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section. It is also shown that the electron-electron collision effect enhances the bremsstrahlung emission spectrum. In addition, the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section decreases with an increase in the plasma temperature.

  13. Simulation of electron cloud effects to heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Fatih; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2011-07-01

    Electron cloud (EC) driven instability can cause beam loss, emittance growth, trajectory change and wake fields. Mentioned crucial effects of EC motivated researchers to understand the EC build up mechanism and the effects of EC to the beam. This motivation also induced the progress of developing new simulation codes. EC simulations can roughly be divided into two classes such as, softwares whose goals are to simulate the build up of the EC during the passage of a bunch train and the codes which model the interaction of a bunch with an EC. The aim of this study is to simulate the effects of electron cloud (EC) on the dynamics of heavy ion beams which are used in heavy ion synchrotron (SIS-18) at GSI. To do this, a 3-D and self-consistent simulation program based on particle in cell (PIC) method is used. In the PIC cycle, accurate solution of the Maxwell equations is obtained by employing discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. As a model, we assumed a perfectly conducting beam pipe which was uniformly (or randomly) loaded with the electrons. Then as parallel with the realistic cases in SIS-18, a single bunch consisting of U{sup +73} ions was extracted which could propagate in this pipe. Due to EC-ion bunch interaction, electrons gained energy and their displacements were observed. Electric and magnetic field components and EC charge density were calculated, numerically.

  14. Silver nanoparticle catalysed redox reaction: An electron relay effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, Kaushik; Witcomb, Mike; Scurrell, Mike

    2006-01-01

    A silver cluster shows efficient catalytic activity in a redox reaction because the cluster acts as the electron relay centre behaving alternatively as an acceptor and as a donor of electrons. An effective transfer of electrons is possible when the redox potential of the cluster is intermediate between the electron donor and electron acceptor system

  15. Interaction effects in liquids with low electron densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, W.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses two complementary classes of systems in which strong electron-electron or electron-ion interactions appear at low electron densities. The first are the expanded liquid alkali metals (cesium) in which electron correlation effects have a profound effect on the magnetic properties on the metallic side of the metal-nonmetal transition. The second group are molten alkali halides containing low densities of localized electrons introduced, say, by dissolution of small amounts of excess metal. (Auth.)

  16. Integrating electron microscopy into nanoscience and materials engineering programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormia, Robert D.; Oye, Michael M.; Nguyen, Anh; Skiver, David; Shi, Meng; Torres, Yessica

    2014-10-01

    Preparing an effective workforce in high technology is the goal of both academic and industry training, and has been the engine that drives innovation and product development in the United States for over a century. During the last 50 years, technician training has comprised a combination of two-year academic programs, internships and apprentice training, and extensive On-the-Job Training (OJT). Recently, and especially in Silicon Valley, technicians have four-year college degrees, as well as relevant hands-on training. Characterization in general, and microscopy in particular, is an essential tool in process development, manufacturing and QA/QC, and failure analysis. Training for a broad range of skills and practice is challenging, especially for community colleges. Workforce studies (SRI/Boeing) suggest that even four year colleges often do not provide the relevant training and experience in laboratory skills, especially design of experiments and analysis of data. Companies in high-tech further report difficulty in finding skilled labor, especially with industry specific experience. Foothill College, in partnership with UCSC, SJSU, and NASA-Ames, has developed a microscopy training program embedded in a research laboratory, itself a partnership between university and government, providing hands-on experience in advanced instrumentation, experimental design and problem solving, with real-world context from small business innovators, in an environment called `the collaboratory'. The program builds on AFM-SEM training at Foothill, and provides affordable training in FE-SEM and TEM through a cost recovery model. In addition to instrument and engineering training, the collaboratory also supports academic and personal growth through a multiplayer social network of students, faculty, researchers, and innovators.

  17. Theory and measurement of the electron cloud effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkey, K. C.

    1999-01-01

    Photoelectrons produced through the interaction of synchrotrons radiation and the vacuum chamber walls can be accelerated by a charged particle beam, acquiring sufficient energy to produce secondary electrons (SES) in collisions with the walls. If the secondary-electron yield (SEY) coefficient of the wall material is greater than one, a run-away condition can develop. In addition to the SEY, the degree of amplification depends on the beam intensity and temporal distribution. As the electron cloud builds up along a train of stored bunches, a transverse perturbation of the head bunch can be communicated to trailing bunches in a wakefield-like interaction with the cloud. The electron cloud effect is especially of concern for the high-intensity PEP-II (SLAC) and KEK B-factories and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. An initiative was undertaken at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring to characterize the electron cloud in order to provide realistic limits on critical input parameters in the models and improve their predictive capabilities. An intensive research program was undertaken at CERN to address key issues relating to the LHC. After giving an overview, the recent theoretical and experimental results from the APS and the other laboratories will be discussed

  18. Space charge effects and electronic bistability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffini, A.; Strumia, F.; Tommasi, O.

    1996-01-01

    The excitation of metastable states in an atomic beam apparatus by means of electron collision is a widespread technique. The authors have observed a large bistable behaviour in apparatus designed to provide an intense and collimated beam of metastable helium by excitation with orthogonally impinging electrons. This bistable behaviour largely affects the efficiency of the apparatus and is therefore worth of being carefully investigated. The apparatus has an electrode configuration equivalent to that of a tetrode valve with large intergrid distances. The bistability consists in a hysteresis cycle in the curve of the anode current vs. grid voltage. Experimental measurements, supported by a simple theoretical model and by numerical simulation, stress out the crucial role played by space charge effects for the onset of bistability. A comparison with previous observations of this phenomenon is given. Spontaneous current oscillations with various shapes have been recorded in one of the two curves of the hysteresis cycle

  19. 77 FR 10373 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid Provisions... technical revisions to the electronics manufacturing source category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule... final rule will also be available through the WWW on the EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Web site...

  20. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the NEPP Program. The NEPP Mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronics technologies; Improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment; Ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs. NEPP's Goals are to provide customers with appropriate and cost-effective risk knowledge to aid in: Selection and application of microelectronics technologies; Improved understanding of risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment; Appropriate evaluations to meet NASA mission assurance needs; Guidelines for test and application of parts technologies in space; Assurance infrastructure and support for technologies in use by NASA space systems.

  1. Electron distortion effects in quasi-eleastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yanhe.

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics: dirac single particle shell model; dirac free states in Coulomb and optical potentials; deep inelastic electron scattering; plane wave born approximation and Rosenbluth separation; analysis of the 40 Ca(e,e') experimental data; and analysis of the exclusive (e,e'p) experimental data

  2. Zeeman effects in heavy electron superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the properties of newly discovered strongly correlated electron compounds is a considerable challenge for both fundamental matters and long-term industrial impact. Experimental activity on heavy electron metals and superconductors has lead to highlighting effects that depart from current knowledge. The thesis is aimed at modelling effects that have been observed in response to magnetic field in the heavy electron superconductor CeCoIn 5 . This consists of two parts. In the first time we deal with the vortex lattice state anomalous local magnetic field space variations as highlighted by small angle neutron scattering and muon spin rotation experiment. On the basis of the Ginzburg-Landau theory with account of spin effect, we analyse the local field inhomogeneity in the vortex lattice and derive expressions for the neutron scattering form factors and muon spin rotation static linewidth. The anomalous experimental data are shown to be result of spin driven supercurrents which circulate around the vortex cores and lead to an increase with external field in the internal field inhomogeneity on a distance of the order of the superconducting coherence length from the vortex axis. The importance of the effect is controlled by a single quantity (the Maki parameter). The second part is on nearly commensurate spin density wave transition in a quasi two-dimensional superconductor. It is motivated by observation of the confinement of spin density wave ordering inside the superconducting state of CeCoIn 5 in magnetic field. In the frame of the spin-fermion formulation we propose a mechanism for the ground state transition consisting in the field-induced slowing down of a collective spin density fluctuation mode (spin-exciton) to static ordering. This represents a scenario by which the transition to spin ordering is intrinsically related to superconductivity. (author) [fr

  3. Electron beam fusion data acquisition program DATAIN (EBD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, W.B.

    1977-02-01

    This report describes the e beam automatic data acquisition program DATAIN. The program was written for a Modular Computer Systems Modcomp II computer interfaced to Tektronix R7912 Transient Digitizers. Operator Communications and data handling steps are described

  4. Nonadiabatic effects in electronic and nuclear dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Bircher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their very nature, ultrafast phenomena are often accompanied by the occurrence of nonadiabatic effects. From a theoretical perspective, the treatment of nonadiabatic processes makes it necessary to go beyond the (quasi static picture provided by the time-independent Schrödinger equation within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and to find ways to tackle instead the full time-dependent electronic and nuclear quantum problem. In this review, we give an overview of different nonadiabatic processes that manifest themselves in electronic and nuclear dynamics ranging from the nonadiabatic phenomena taking place during tunnel ionization of atoms in strong laser fields to the radiationless relaxation through conical intersections and the nonadiabatic coupling of vibrational modes and discuss the computational approaches that have been developed to describe such phenomena. These methods range from the full solution of the combined nuclear-electronic quantum problem to a hierarchy of semiclassical approaches and even purely classical frameworks. The power of these simulation tools is illustrated by representative applications and the direct confrontation with experimental measurements performed in the National Centre of Competence for Molecular Ultrafast Science and Technology.

  5. A new program for the design of electron microscopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lencová, Bohumila; Zlámal, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2008), s. 315-324 ISSN 1875-3892. [International Conference on Charged Particle Optics /7./ CPO-7. Cambridge, 24.07.2006-28.07.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : finite element method * electron lenses and deflectors * computer-aided design * user interface Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  6. Excited baryon program at the Bonn electron stretcher accelerator ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menze, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Bonn electron stretcher accelerator ELSA is the first of a new generation of continuous beam machines in the GeV region. It is qualified for experiments with tagged photons and with polarized electrons on polarized nucleons to investigate the electromagnetic properties of excited baryon resonances

  7. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  8. Effects of tritium on electron multiplier performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerst, R.A.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    In developing diagnostic instruments for fusion reactors, it is necessary to measure the effects of tritium contamination on channel electron multipliers (CEM). A CEM was exposed to T 2 pressures of up to 1.5 x 10 -1 Pa, with exposure quantities ranging up to 8800 Pa-s. The counting rate of the CEM is shown to consist of a prompt (Type I) signal caused by gas-phase tritium and a residual (Type II) signal, probably caused by near-surface tritium. The potential for using CEMs for observing the dynamics of tritium adsorption and absorption is discussed

  9. PIC simulation of the electron-ion collision effects on suprathermal electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yanqing; Han Shensheng

    2000-01-01

    The generation and transportation of suprathermal electrons are important to both traditional ICF scheme and 'Fast Ignition' scheme. The author discusses the effects of electron-ion collision on the generation and transportation of the suprathermal electrons by parametric instability. It indicates that the weak electron-ion term in the PIC simulation results in the enhancement of the collisional absorption and increase of the hot electron temperature and reduction in the maximum electrostatic field amplitude while wave breaking. Therefore the energy and distribution of the suprathermal electrons are changed. They are distributed more close to the phase velocity of the electrostatic wave than the case without electron-ion collision term. The electron-ion collision enhances the self-consistent field and impedes the suprathermal electron transportation. These factors also reduce the suprathermal electron energy. In addition, the authors discuss the effect of initial condition on PIC simulation to ensure that the results are correct

  10. Are Electronic Books Effective in Teaching Young Children Reading and Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jamillah M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether electronic books, CD-ROM'S, or interactive media are beneficial in teaching reading should be determined on evidence that they aid reading comprehension. Reading is worthless unless one comprehends. In order to examine the effectiveness of electronic books in a reading program, the characteristics and attributes of how…

  11. Sport Management Graduate Programs: Characteristics of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the characteristics that enable graduate sport management programs to achieve their objectives. Surveys of sport management educators found they agreed on 11 characteristics that indicated a sport management program's effectiveness. Respondents believed an effective program should produce sport managers, not…

  12. Electron collision effects on the bremsstrahlung emission in Lorentzian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Dae; Kato, Daiji

    2009-06-01

    The electron-electron collision effects on the electron-ion bemsstranhlung process are investigated in warm Lorentzian plasmas. The effective electron-ion interaction potential is obtained by including the far-field terms caused by the electron-electron collisions with the effective Debye length in Lorentzian plasmas. The bremsstranhlung radiation cross section is obtained as a function of the electron energy, photon energy, collision frequency, spectral index, and Debye length using the Born approximation for the initial and final states of the projectile electron. It is shown that the non-Maxwellian character suppresses the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section. It is also shown that the electron-electron collision effect enhances the bremsstrahlung emission spectrum. In addition, the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section decreases with an increase of the plasma temperature. (author)

  13. An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    AD-A264 299 SELECTE October 1992 S MAY1 4 1993U C An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program MT901R I N1. Augustine...NUMBERS An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program C MDA903-85-C -0139 M DA903-90-C-0006 PE 0902198D 6. AUTHOR(S) M...239-1L 299-01 LMI Executive Summary AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE STRATEGY FOR MTMC’S GUARANTEED TRAFFIC PROGRAM In 1979, the Military Traffic Management

  14. Hot electron effect in the dc SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstood, F.C.; Clarke, J.; Urbina, C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have investigated the temperature dependence of the noise in thin-film dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) down to 20 mK. The white noise measured in the early versions of our SQUIDs did not decrease as the bath temperature was lowered below 150 mK. They have attributed this saturation to a hot electron effect in the thin-film AuCu resistors shunting the Josephson junctions. A theoretical investigation showed that the temperature of the electrons in the shunts should be given by T/sub e/ = (P/ΣΩ)/sup 1/5/, where P is the power dissipated in the shunts, Ω is the shunt volume, and Σ is a proportionality constant. Experimentally, the authors found Σ=(2.4+-0.6)X10/sup 9/WK/sup -5/m/sup -3/. They have redesigned the shunts, adding large thin-film cooling fins, to increase their volume substantially. This technique has reduced T/sub e/ to about 50 mK, with a corresponding improvement in the sensitivity of the SQUIDs

  15. Electronic structure and correlation effects in actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report consists of the vugraphs given at a conference on electronic structure. Topics discussed are electronic structure, f-bonding, crystal structure, and crystal structure stability of the actinides and how they are inter-related

  16. Effects of geometry in itinerant electron magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Muro, Y [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Kohara, T [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Shiga, M [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2007-04-11

    The magnetism of quasi-one-dimensional itinerant electron magnets RMn{sub 4}Al{sub 8} is compared with that of the typical frustrated itinerant electron magnet YMn{sub 2}. The possible formation and observation of the spin pseudogap are discussed in connection with the spin-liquid state in strongly correlated itinerant electron systems.

  17. Bonded exciplex formation: electronic and stereoelectronic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingsheng; Haze, Olesya; Dinnocenzo, Joseph P; Farid, Samir; Farid, Ramy S; Gould, Ian R

    2008-12-18

    As recently proposed, the singlet-excited states of several cyanoaromatics react with pyridine via bonded-exciplex formation, a novel concept in photochemical charge transfer reactions. Presented here are electronic and steric effects on the quenching rate constants, which provide valuable support for the model. Additionally, excited-state quenching in poly(vinylpyridine) is strongly inhibited both relative to that in neat pyridine and also to conventional exciplex formation in polymers, consistent with a restrictive orientational requirement for the formation of bonded exciplexes. Examples of competing reactions to form both conventional and bonded exciplexes are presented, which illustrate the delicate balance between these two processes when their reaction energetics are similar. Experimental and computational evidence is provided for the formation of a bonded exciplex in the reaction of the singlet excited state of 2,6,9,10-tetracyanoanthracene (TCA) with an oxygen-substituted donor, dioxane, thus expanding the scope of bonded exciplexes.

  18. 78 FR 10201 - Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ..., Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) will ask the... refuges where admission is charged. Duck Stamps and products that bear stamp images are also popular... fee the State will charge for issuance of an electronic stamp. Description of the process the State...

  19. A 12-Step Program for Electronic Scholarly Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the path that the scientific, technical and medical scholarly publishers must follow to be successful in electronic publishing. Lists 12 "rehab rules" which focus on cooperative planning and implementation; sharing findings and debating openly; embracing change; retaining open standards and rejecting proprietary solutions; striving for…

  20. Joint Services Electronics Program (Harvard University. Cambridge, Massachusetts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    34Band Structures of Semimagnetic Compounds," Acta Physica Polonica bf A73 (6), 933-941 (1988). (Partially supported by N00014-86-K-0760). c. Books...Journals K.L. Babcock and R.M. Westervelt, "Dynamics of Simple Electronic neural Net- works," Physica 28D, 305 (1987). C.M. Marcus and R.M. Westervelt

  1. Electron Conditioning of Technical Aluminium Surfaces: Effect on the Secondary Electron Yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pimpec, F.

    2004-12-13

    The effect of electron conditioning on commercially aluminium alloys 1100 and 6063 were investigated. Contrary to the assumption that electron conditioning, if performed long enough, can reduce and stabilize the SEY to low values (< 1.3, value of many pure elements [1] ), the SEY of aluminium did not go lower than 1.8. In fact, it reincreases with continued electron exposure dose.

  2. Electronic Warfare (EW) Receiver and Processing Concepts Evaluation Program (RAPCEval 2)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, W

    1999-01-01

    .... Tasks initiated under OPTION 1 of the contract of this program provided analysis for inputs and countermeasures for electronic receivers of radar, electro-optic, infrared, and ultraviolet systems...

  3. Electronic Warfare (EW) Receiver and Processing Concepts Evaluation Program (RAPCEval2)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, W

    1999-01-01

    .... Tasks initiated under OPTION 1 of the contract of this program provided analysis for inputs and countermeasures for electronic receivers of radar, electro-optic, infrared, and ultraviolet systems...

  4. $ANBA; a rapid, combined data acquisition and correction program for the SEMQ electron microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, James J.

    1983-01-01

    $ANBA is a program developed for rapid data acquisition and correction on an automated SEMQ electron microprobe. The program provides increased analytical speed and reduced disk read/write operations compared with the manufacturer's software, resulting in a doubling of analytical throughput. In addition, the program provides enhanced analytical features such as averaging, rapid and compact data storage, and on-line plotting. The program is described with design philosophy, flow charts, variable names, a complete program listing, and system requirements. A complete operating example and notes to assist in running the program are included.

  5. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  6. Effective prevention programs for tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, M A

    1999-01-01

    Several types of prevention programs have shown effects on delaying or reducing youth tobacco use for periods of 1-5 years or more. These are referred to as evidence-based programs. However, they are not widely used. At the same time, with few exceptions, adolescent tobacco use rates have been stable or have increased in the 1990s. The challenge for prevention is to identify critical components shared by effective prevention programs--that is, components most associated with effect, and then to evaluate factors that are most likely to promote adoption, implementation, and diffusion of effective programs across schools and communities in the United States. Effective tobacco prevention programs focus on counteracting social influences on tobacco use, include either direct training of youth in resistance and assertiveness skills or, for policy and community organization interventions, direct or indirect (through adults) training in community activism, and are mainly theory-based, with an emphasis on three levels of theory: (a) personal (attitudes, normative expectations, and beliefs); (b) social (social or group behavior); and/or (c) environmental (communications and diffusion). Program effects increase with the use of booster sessions, standardized implementor training and support, multiple program components, and multiple levels of theory. Overall, multi-component community programs that have a school program as a basis, with supportive parent, media, and community organization components, have shown the most sustained effects on tobacco use. Positive program adoption by the school or community, extent and quality of program implementation, and existence of credible networks of leaders to promote the program are critical for any effect. Research on predictors of adoption, implementation, and diffusion of evidence-based programs is scanty relative to outcome research. In addition, more research is needed on why multi-component programs appear to be most effective

  7. A Competency-Based Program for Electronic Gaming Equipment Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, James R.

    This program is designed to provide entry-level training to individuals (especially workers displaced from industry) who desire employment as "slot technicians" in the casino industry. The 96-hour course includes both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. Sources for direct purchase of required manuals are provided. The 13…

  8. Utility green pricing programs: a statistical analysis of program effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, W.; Scott, O.; Lori, B.; Blair, S.

    2005-01-01

    Utility green pricing programs represent one way in which consumers can voluntarily support the development of renewable energy. The design features and effectiveness of these programs varies considerably. Based on a survey of utility program managers in the United States, this article provides insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs. We find that program length has a substantial impact on customer participation and purchases; to achieve higher levels of success, utilities will need to remain committed to their product offering for some time. Our findings also suggest that utilities should consider higher renewable energy purchase thresholds for residential customers in order to maximize renewable energy sales. Smaller utilities are found to be more successful than larger utilities, and we find some evidence that providing private benefits to nonresidential participants can enhance success. Interestingly, we find little evidence that the cost of the green pricing product greatly impacts customer participation and renewable energy sales, at least over the narrow range of premiums embedded in our data set, and for the initial set of green power purchasers. (author)

  9. Nonequilibrium Transport and the Bernoulli Effect of Electrons in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ismet I.

    2013-02-01

    Nonequilibrium transport of charged carriers in a two-dimensional electron gas is summarized from an experimental point of view. The transport regime in which the electron-electron interactions are enhanced at high bias leads to a range of striking effects in a two-dimensional electron gas. This regime of transport is quite different than the ballistic transport in which particles propagate coherently with no intercarrier energy transfer and the diffusive transport in which the momentum of the electron system is lost with the involvement of the phonons. Quite a few hydrodynamic phenomena observed in classical gasses have the electrical analogs in the current flow. When intercarrier scattering events dominate the transport, the momentum sharing via narrow angle scattering among the hot and cold electrons lead to negative resistance and electron pumping which can be viewed as the analog of the Bernoulli-Venturi effect observed classical gasses. The recent experimental findings and the background work in the field are reviewed.

  10. Constructing Effective Search Strategies for Electronic Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Lynn; Parente, Sharon Campbell

    Electronic databases have grown tremendously in both number and popularity since their development during the 1960s. Access to electronic databases in academic libraries was originally offered primarily through mediated search services by trained librarians; however, the advent of CD-ROM and end-user interfaces for online databases has shifted the…

  11. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Presentation to Korean Aerospace Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide basic information about NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP), for sharing with representatives of the South Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as part of a larger presentation by Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. The NEPP information includes mission and goals, history of the program, basic focus areas, strategies, deliverables and some examples of current tasks.

  12. SP@CE - An SP-based programming model for consumer electronics streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varbanescu, Ana Lucia; Nijhuis, Maik; Escribano, Arturo González; Sips, Henk; Bos, Herbert; Bal, Henri

    2007-01-01

    Efficient programming of multimedia streaming applications for Consumer Electronics (CE) devices is not trivial. As a solution for this problem, we present SP@CE, a novel programming model designed to balance the specific requirements of CE streaming applications with the simplicity and efficiency

  13. EELOSS: the program for calculation of electron energy loss data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1980-10-01

    A computer code EELOSS has been developed to obtain the electron energy loss data required for shielding and dosimetry of beta- and gamma-rays in nuclear plants. With this code, the following data are obtainable for any energy from 0.01 to 15 MeV in any medium (metal, insulator, gas, compound, or mixture) composed of any choice of 69 elements with atomic number 1 -- 94: a) Collision stopping power, b) Restricted collision stopping power, c) Radiative stopping power, and d) Bremsstrahlung production cross section. The availability of bremsstrahlung production cross section data obtained by the EELOSS code is demonstrated by the comparison of calculated gamma-ray spectrum with measured one in Pb layer, where electron-photon cascade is included implicitly. As a result, it is concluded that the uncertainty in the bremsstrahlung production cross sections is negligible in the practical shielding calculations of gamma rays of energy less than 15 MeV, since the bremsstrahlung production cross sections increase with the gamma-ray energy and the uncertainty for them decreases with increasing the gamma-ray energy. Furthermore, the accuracy of output data of the EELOSS code is evaluated in comparison with experimental data, and satisfactory agreements are observed concerning the stopping power. (J.P.N.)

  14. Effective exchange potentials for electronically inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, D.W.; Staszewska, G.; Truhlar, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose new methods for solving the electron scattering close coupling equations employing equivalent local exchange potentials in place of the continuum-multiconfiguration-Hartree--Fock-type exchange kernels. The local exchange potentials are Hermitian. They have the correct symmetry for any symmetries of excited electronic states included in the close coupling expansion, and they have the same limit at very high energy as previously employed exchange potentials. Comparison of numerical calculations employing the new exchange potentials with the results obtained with the standard nonlocal exchange kernels shows that the new exchange potentials are more accurate than the local exchange approximations previously available for electronically inelastic scattering. We anticipate that the new approximations will be most useful for intermediate-energy electronically inelastic electron--molecule scattering

  15. Effects of Electronic Word - of - Mouth Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Hoon Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased usage of online technologies, there has been an escalation of Electronic Word - of –Mouth (eWOM messages related to sport products and services offered and consumed. Therefore, in this original investigation by applying eWOM to the sport industry, this study examined how the combination of the quality of the eWOM message and the provider of the eWOM message affects purchaseintentions depending on the expertise level of the consumer. This study – which involved the collection of data from 134 students at a large university situated in the Midwest of the United States – utilized repeated measures of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA with tripartite groups of expertise and experimental conditions as independent variables. Purchase intention was the dependent variables. The results indicated that the quality of the eWOM message moderated the effect of the provider of the eWOM message. The subject’s level of expertise also had a moderating role on purchase intention.

  16. Oblique propagation of electron thermal modes below the electron plasma frequency without boundary effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sanuki, H.

    1981-08-01

    Propagation characteristics and refractive effects of an oblique electron thermal mode without boundary effects below the electron plasma frequency are studied experimentally and theoretically in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. The behavior of this mode observed experimentally was confirmed by the theoretical analysis based on a new type of ray theory. (author)

  17. Experience and development program for the I.V. Kurchatov Atomic Energy Institute electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'ev, A.V.; Blokhov, M.V.; Gerasimov, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A program of physical investigations and the corresponding requirements to accelerated beam parameters are discussed in brief. The state and working capacity of separate units and the accelerator as a whole for the 8-year operating period are analyzed. The aim and principal program points of linear electron accelerator modernization are defined. The program of accelerator modernization assumes: electron beam energy increase up to 100-120 MeV; mounting of three additional accelerating sections; clystron efficiency increase; development of a highly reliable modulator; stabilized power supply sources; a system of synchronous start-up; a focusing system; a beam separation system and etc [ru

  18. Effects of emitted electron temperature on the plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, J. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Wang, H.; Raitses, Y.; Sydorenko, D.; Hershkowitz, N.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been known that electron emission from a surface significantly affects the sheath surrounding that surface. Typical fluid theory of a planar sheath with emitted electrons assumes that the plasma electrons follow the Boltzmann relation and the emitted electrons are emitted with zero energy and predicts a potential drop of 1.03T e /e across the sheath in the floating condition. By considering the modified velocity distribution function caused by plasma electrons lost to the wall and the half-Maxwellian distribution of the emitted electrons, it is shown that ratio of plasma electron temperature to emitted electron temperature significantly affects the sheath potential when the plasma electron temperature is within an order of magnitude of the emitted electron temperature. When the plasma electron temperature equals the emitted electron temperature the emissive sheath potential goes to zero. One dimensional particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the predictions made by this theory. The effects of the addition of a monoenergetic electron beam to the Maxwellian plasma electrons were explored, showing that the emissive sheath potential is close to the beam energy only when the emitted electron flux is less than the beam flux

  19. Effect of Electronic Monitoring on Social Welfare Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Andersen, Signe Hald

    2014-01-01

    Research Summary We studied the effect on unemployment social welfare dependence of serving a sentence under elec-tronic monitoring rather than in prison, using Danish registry data and two policy shifts that extended the use of electronic monitoring in Denmark. We found electronic monitoring...... to experiences from other contexts. The experiences from Denmark are clear: Electronic monitoring is less harmful than imprisonment to the life course out-comes of offenders. Since electronic monitoring could also very well be less costly for the corrections administrations than imprisonment, efforts to extend...... the use of electronic monitoring in the United States could be accelerated....

  20. Effect of electron-photon interaction on the knight shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, G.S.; Misra, C.M.; Tripathi, P.; Misra, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of electron-phonon interaction is considered on the spin (K s ), orbital (K o ) and spin-orbit (K so ) contributions to the Knight shift. In case of K s , it is found that the modifications caused due to the magnetic field dependence of electron self-energy in the presence of electron-phonon interaction is cancelled by the electron-phonon mass enhancement. However, in the presence of both electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, the exchange enhancement parameter α is modified to α(1+γ) -1 where γ is the electron-phonon mass enhancement parameter. The orbital and spin-orbital contributions are mainly modified through the changes in the one-electron energies and wave functions. (orig.)

  1. Glucocorticoids as mediators of developmental programming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulan, Batbayar; Drake, Amanda J

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to an adverse environment in early life is associated with an increased risk of cardio-metabolic and behavioral disorders in adulthood, a phenomenon termed 'early life programming'. One major hypothesis for early life programming is fetal glucocorticoid overexposure. In animal studies, prenatal glucocorticoid excess as a consequence of maternal stress or through exogenous administration to the mother or fetus is associated with programming effects on cardiovascular and metabolic systems and on the brain. These effects can be transmitted to subsequent generations. Studies in humans provide some evidence that prenatal glucocorticoid exposure may exert similar programming effects on glucose/insulin homeostasis, blood pressure and neurodevelopment. The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids mediate these effects are unclear but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. This review discusses the evidence for glucocorticoid programming in animal models and in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electron precipitation in solar flares - Collisionless effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    A large fraction of the electrons which are accelerated during the impulsive phase of solar flares stream towards the chromosphere and are unstable to the growth of plasma waves. The linear and nonlinear evolution of plasma waves as a function of time is analyzed with a set of rate equations that follows, in time, the nonlinearly coupled system of plasma waves-ion fluctuations. As an outcome of the fast transfer of wave energy from the beam to the ambient plasma, nonthermal electron tails are formed which can stabilize the anomalous Doppler resonance instability responsible for the pitch angle scattering of the beam electrons. The non-collisional losses of the precipitating electrons are estimated, and the observational implication of these results are discussed.

  3. Space Charge Effect in the Sheet and Solid Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ho Young; Kim, Hyoung Suk; Ahn, Saeyoung

    1998-11-01

    We analyze the space charge effect of two different types of electron beam ; sheet and solid electron beam. Electron gun simulations are carried out using shadow and control grids for high and low perveance. Rectangular and cylindrical geometries are used for sheet and solid electron beam in planar and disk type cathode. The E-gun code is used to study the limiting current and space charge loading in each geometries.

  4. Electronic Rydberg wavepacket effects on molecular vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, I.G.; Meacher, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic wavepacket states of molecular hydrogen are considered which represent the situation of a spectator electron orbiting a molecular core. A quantum defect theory approach is used to determine the energy level structure, wavefunctions and molecular potentials, which is valid in regions where the quantum defects approach zero. In such a region the orbital motion of the wavepacket leads to a periodic variation in the molecular vibration frequency of the order of 100 cm -1 . Possible detection schemes are discussed. (author)

  5. Accomplishments of the heavy electron particle accelerator program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D. [Fermilab; Stratakis, D. [Fermilab; Palmer, M. [Brookhaven; Delahaye, J-P [SLAC; Summers, D. [Mississippi U.; Ryne, R. [LBNL, Berkeley; Cummings, M. A. [MUONS Inc.

    2016-10-18

    The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) has completed a four-year study on the feasibility of muon colliders and on using stored muon beams for neutrinos. That study was broadly successful in its goals, establishing the feasibility of heavy lepton colliders (HLCs) from the 125 GeV Higgs Factory to more than 10 TeV, as well as exploring using a μ storage ring (MSR) for neutrinos, and establishing that MSRs could provide factory-level intensities of νe ($\\bar{ve}$) and $\\bar{vμ}$ (νμ) beams. The key components of the collider and neutrino factory systems were identified. Feasible designs and detailed simulations of all of these components have been obtained, including some initial hardware component tests, setting the stage for future implementation where resources are available and the precise physics goals become apparent.

  6. Effective field theories for correlated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallington, J.P.

    1999-10-01

    In this thesis, techniques of functional integration are applied to the construction of effective field theories for models of strongly correlated electrons. This is accomplished by means of the Hubbard-Stratonovic transformation which maps a system of interacting fermions onto one of free fermions interacting, not with each other, but with bosonic fields representing the collective modes of the system. Different choices of transformation are investigated throughout the thesis. It is shown that there exists a new group of discrete symmetries and transformations of the Hubbard model. Using this new group, the problem of choosing a Hubbard-Stratonovic decomposition of the Hubbard interaction term is solved. In the context of the exotic doped barium bismuthates, an extended Hubbard model with on-site attraction and nearest neighbour repulsion is studied. Mean field and renormalisation group analyses show a 'pseudospin-flop' from charge density wave to superconductivity as a function of filling. The nearest neighbour attractive Hubbard model on a quasi-2D lattice is studied as a simple phenomenological model for the high-T c cuprates. Mean field theory shows a transition from pure d-wave to pure s-wave superconductivity, via a mixed symmetry s + id state. Using Gaussian fluctuations, the BCS-Bose crossover is examined and suggestions are made about the origin of the angle dependence of the pseudogap. The continuum delta-shell potential model is introduced for anisotropic superconductors. Its mean field phases are studied and found to have some unusual properties. The BCS-Bose crossover is examined and the results are compared with those of the lattice model. Quasi-2D (highly anisotropic 3D) systems are considered. The critical properties of a Bose gas are investigated as the degree of anisotropy is varied. A new 2D Bose condensate state is found. A renormalisation group analysis is used to investigate the crossover from 2D to 3D. (author)

  7. Effectiveness of the Army Mentorship Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieberding, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    ...). From the artifacts associated with this mentorship program, it appears that the Army highly values this program as a way to create a culture and climate that fosters learning and development for future leadership. This project will examine the effectiveness of mentorship in the today's Army and evaluate whether the program is sufficient to meet the needs for the Army's next generation of soldiers and leaders.

  8. Effective safety training program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, D.A.; Lombardo, G.J.; Pater, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the oil industry require new strategies to reduce costs and retain valuable employees. Training is a potentially powerful tool for changing the culture of an organization, resulting in improved safety awareness, lower-risk behaviors and ultimately, statistical improvements. Too often, safety training falters, especially when applied to pervasive, long-standing problems. Stepping, Handling and Lifting injuries (SHL) more commonly known as back injuries and slips, trips and falls have plagued mankind throughout the ages. They are also a major problem throughout the petroleum industry. Although not as widely publicized as other immediately-fatal accidents, injuries from stepping, materials handling, and lifting are among the leading causes of employee suffering, lost time and diminished productivity throughout the industry. Traditional approaches have not turned the tide of these widespread injuries. a systematic safety training program, developed by Anadrill Schlumberger with the input of new training technology, has the potential to simultaneously reduce costs, preserve employee safety, and increase morale. This paper: reviews the components of an example safety training program, and illustrates how a systematic approach to safety training can make a positive impact on Stepping, Handling and Lifting injuries

  9. Measurement of Electron Cloud Effects in SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, J M

    2004-01-01

    The electron cloud is not a new phenomenon, indeed, it was observed already in other machines like the proton storage rings in BINP Novosibirsk or in the Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR) at CERN. Inside an accelerator beam pipe, the electrons can collectively and coherently interact with the beam potential and degrade the performance of the accelerators operating with intense positively charged bunched beams. In the LHC, electron multipacting is expected to take place in the cold and warm beam pipe due to the presence of the high intensities bunched beams, creating an electron cloud. The additional heat load induced by the electron cloud onto the LHC beam screens of the cold magnets of the LHC bending sections (the arcs represent ~21 km in length) was, and is still, considered as one of the main possible limitation of LHC performances. Since 1997 and in parallel with the SPS studies with LHC-type beams, measurements in other machines or in the laboratory have been made to provide the input parameters required ...

  10. Progresses in organic field-effect transistors and molecular electronics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Weiping; Xu Wei; Hu Wenping; Liu Yunqi; Zhu Daoben

    2006-01-01

    In the past years,organic semiconductors have been extensively investigated as electronic materials for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs).In this review,we briefly summarize the current status of organic field-effect transistors including materials design,device physics,molecular electronics and the applications of carbon nanotubes in molecular electronics.Future prospects and investigations required to improve the OFET performance are also involved.

  11. Electron beam effects on gelatin polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Shimazaki, Kleber; Souza, Clecia de M.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: patyoko@yahoo.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Colombo, Maria A., E-mail: mascolombo@yahoo.com.b [Faculdade de Tecnologia da Zona Leste, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The main field of electron-beam radiation processing applications is the modification of polymeric material. Polymer development includes new pathways to produce natural polymers with better mechanical and barrier properties and thermal stability. The aim of this paper was to investigate the behavior of a gelatin/acrylamide polymer treated by electron-beam radiation. Gelatin is a heterogeneous mixture of water-soluble proteins of high average molecular mass derived by hydrolytic action from animal collagen, a fibrous insoluble protein, which is widely found in nature as the major constituent of skin, bones and connective tissue. Hydrolyzed collagen is composed of a unique sequence of amino acids, characterized particularly by the high content of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. Among biomaterials, gelatin is an interesting material because is a partially crystalline polymer and has a relatively low melting point. Samples of gelatin together with glycerin as plasticizer and acrylamide as copolymer were irradiated with doses of 10 kGy and 40 kGy, using an electron beam accelerator, dose rate 22.41kGy/s, at room temperature in presence of air. After irradiation, some preliminary analyses were done like viscometry, texture analyses and colorimetry. The results of the diverse tests showed changes that can be ascribed to radiation-induced crosslinking. The electron-beam processed acrylamide-gelatin polymer using glycerin as plasticizer must be first extensively characterized before to be used for general applications. (author)

  12. Electron beam effects on gelatin polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Shimazaki, Kleber; Souza, Clecia de M.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del; Colombo, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    The main field of electron-beam radiation processing applications is the modification of polymeric material. Polymer development includes new pathways to produce natural polymers with better mechanical and barrier properties and thermal stability. The aim of this paper was to investigate the behavior of a gelatin/acrylamide polymer treated by electron-beam radiation. Gelatin is a heterogeneous mixture of water-soluble proteins of high average molecular mass derived by hydrolytic action from animal collagen, a fibrous insoluble protein, which is widely found in nature as the major constituent of skin, bones and connective tissue. Hydrolyzed collagen is composed of a unique sequence of amino acids, characterized particularly by the high content of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. Among biomaterials, gelatin is an interesting material because is a partially crystalline polymer and has a relatively low melting point. Samples of gelatin together with glycerin as plasticizer and acrylamide as copolymer were irradiated with doses of 10 kGy and 40 kGy, using an electron beam accelerator, dose rate 22.41kGy/s, at room temperature in presence of air. After irradiation, some preliminary analyses were done like viscometry, texture analyses and colorimetry. The results of the diverse tests showed changes that can be ascribed to radiation-induced crosslinking. The electron-beam processed acrylamide-gelatin polymer using glycerin as plasticizer must be first extensively characterized before to be used for general applications. (author)

  13. Maximizing the Effectiveness of Electronic Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quible, Zane K.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that the manner in which the author was using the incorporation of electronic slides into his lectures allowed students to become disengaged from the learning process. Presents strategies to combat disengagement and strategies to supplement textbook slides. Concludes that student disengagement can be counteracted with limited expenditure of…

  14. Electronic Effects in the Cyclocondensation of Benzil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This is attributed to the reduced availability of the lone pair of electrons on nitrogen in urea that is needed for assisting the dehydration of the intermediate. Introduction. A popular experiment performed in MSc organic chemistry labo- ratory classes is the following sequence of simple preparations starting from benzaldehyde ...

  15. Quantum effects in biological electron transfer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la Lande, A.; Babcock, N. S.; Řezáč, Jan; Levy, B.; Sanders, B. C.; Salahub, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 17 (2012), s. 5902-5918 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : electron transfer * tunnelling * decoherence * semi-classical molecular dynamics * density functional theory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.829, year: 2012

  16. The effect of driven electron-phonon coupling on the electronic conductance of a polar nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardaani, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammad-m@sci.sku.ac.ir; Rabani, Hassan, E-mail: rabani-h@sci.sku.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P. O. Box 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Center, Shahrekord University, 8818634141 Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaili, Esmat; Shariati, Ashrafalsadat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P. O. Box 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    A semi-classical model is proposed to explore the effect of electron-phonon coupling on the coherent electronic transport of a polar chain which is confined between two rigid leads in the presence of an external electric field. To this end, we construct the model by means of Green's function technique within the nearest neighbor tight-binding and harmonic approximations. For a time-periodic electric field, the atomic displacements from the equilibrium positions are obtained precisely. The result is then used to compute the electronic transport properties of the chain within the Peierls-type model. The numerical results indicate that the conductance of the system shows interesting behavior in some special frequencies. For each special frequency, there is an electronic quasi-state in which the scattering of electrons by vibrating atoms reaches maximum. The system electronic conductance decreases dramatically at the strong electron-phonon couplings and low electron energies. In the presence of damping forces, the electron-phonon interaction has a less significant effect on the conductance.

  17. The effect of driven electron-phonon coupling on the electronic conductance of a polar nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardaani, Mohammad; Rabani, Hassan; Esmaili, Esmat; Shariati, Ashrafalsadat

    2015-01-01

    A semi-classical model is proposed to explore the effect of electron-phonon coupling on the coherent electronic transport of a polar chain which is confined between two rigid leads in the presence of an external electric field. To this end, we construct the model by means of Green's function technique within the nearest neighbor tight-binding and harmonic approximations. For a time-periodic electric field, the atomic displacements from the equilibrium positions are obtained precisely. The result is then used to compute the electronic transport properties of the chain within the Peierls-type model. The numerical results indicate that the conductance of the system shows interesting behavior in some special frequencies. For each special frequency, there is an electronic quasi-state in which the scattering of electrons by vibrating atoms reaches maximum. The system electronic conductance decreases dramatically at the strong electron-phonon couplings and low electron energies. In the presence of damping forces, the electron-phonon interaction has a less significant effect on the conductance

  18. Advanced educational program in optoelectronics for undergraduates and graduates in electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladescu, Marian; Schiopu, Paul

    2015-02-01

    The optoelectronics education included in electronics curricula at Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Information Technology of "Politehnica" University of Bucharest started in early '90s, and evolved constantly since then, trying to address the growing demand of engineers with a complex optoelectronics profile and to meet the increased requirements of microelectronics, optoelectronics, and lately nanotechnologies. Our goal is to provide a high level of theoretical background combined with advanced experimental tools in laboratories, and also with simulation platforms. That's why we propose an advanced educational program in optoelectronics for both grades of our study program, bachelor and master.

  19. Electronic and Solid State Sciences. Program Summary, FY 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    34, A. Kahn, D. Kanani, P. Mark, P. Chye , C. Su, I. Lindau and W. Spicer, Surface Science 87 (1979) 325. 15. "Order-Disorder Effect in GaAs(l1O)-Oxygen...3, z-D"..o) by Qunu-elLuminescence", R. Chin , 71. Ho-lonyak, Jr. , 21 rchoefer, .- bs an. F. A. De.zek, AprlI. Phys. l~t 7 (-6 (09 *"Ph n.-,n-Assiste...Recombination in ai 𔃾ultiple QunumWllTPS TnP-l jx(_7a, ie ter,-structiirc Laser", !]. A. Rezek, R. Chin , !:. 5s,! nyak, Jr, . Sand R. ’.’. Kolbas

  20. Electron-translation effects in heavy-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.; Greiner, W.; Mueller, B.

    1981-01-01

    The origin and importance of electron-translation effects within a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion collisions is investigated. First, a fully consistent quantum-mechanical description of the scattering process is developed; the electrons are described by relativistic molecular orbitals, while the nuclear motion is approximated nonrelativistically. Leaving the quantum-mechanical level by using the semiclassical approximation for the nuclear motion, a set of coupled differential equations for the occupation amplitudes of the molecular orbitals is derived. In these coupled-channel equations the spurious asymptotic dynamical couplings are corrected for by additional matrix elements stemming from the electron translation. Hence, a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion scattering has been achieved, which is free from the spurious asymptotic couplings of the conventional perturbated stationary-state approach. The importance of electron-translation effects for continuum electrons and positrons is investigated. To this end an algorithm for the description of continuum electrons is proposed, which for the first time should allow for the calculation of angular distributions for delta electrons. Finally, the practical consequences of electron-translation effects are studied by calculating the corrected coupling matrix elements for the Pb-Cm system and comparing the corresponding K-vacancy probabilities with conventional calculations. We critically discuss conventional methods for cutting off the coupling matrix elements in coupled-channel calculations

  1. Effects of electron-electron interactions on the electron distribution function of a plasma in the presence of an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, V.G.; Pizzio, F.; Spiga, G.

    1979-01-01

    The electron distribution function, the electron temperature and some transport parameters (electrical conductivity and energy flow coefficient) are obtained starting from the nonlinear Boltzmann equation for a plasma under the action of an external electric field. The Fokker-Planck approximation is used for electron-electron and electron-ion interactions. The effects of electron-electron collisions are studied for different values of collision frequencies and electric field. (author)

  2. Electron cloud effects: codes and simulations at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, K

    2013-01-01

    Electron cloud effects had been studied at KEK-Photon Factory since 1995. e-p instability had been studied in proton rings since 1965 in BINP, ISR and PSR. Study of electron cloud effects with the present style, which was based on numerical simulations, started at 1995 in positron storage rings. The instability observed in KEKPF gave a strong impact to B factories, KEKB and PEPII, which were final stage of their design in those days. History of cure for electron cloud instability overlapped the progress of luminosity performance in KEKB. The studies on electron cloud codes and simulations in KEK are presented. (author)

  3. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Macek, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures

  4. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  5. Electronic trade effect of marketing channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lovreta Stipe; Stojković Dragan

    2009-01-01

    E-commerce has caused many significant changes in marketing channels. Consumers had obtained multiple benefits from e-commerce. In addition, it has increased the level of competition in marketing channels. However, the focus of this paper is multichannel strategy and integration of physical (store) and electronic marketing channels. E-commerce has induced dynamic development of multichannel strategy. This strategy has evolved as a consequence of multichannel consumer orientation. In developed...

  6. Stray-electron accumulation and effects in HIF accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Furman, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Stoltz, P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Stray electrons can be introduced in positive-charge accelerators for heavy ion fusion (or other applications) as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary-electron emission. Electron accumulation is impacted by the ion beam potential, accelerating fields, multipole magnetic fields used for beam focus, and the pulse duration. We highlight the distinguishing features of heavy-ion accelerators as they relate to stray-electron issues, and present first results from a sequence of simulations to characterize the electron cloud that follows from realistic ion distributions. Also, we present ion simulations with prescribed random electron distributions, undertaken to begin to quantify the effects of electrons on ion beam quality

  7. Effects of lower hybrid fast electron populations on electron temperature measurements at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, C.P.; Bartlett, D.V.; Schunke, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system on JET has to date achieved up to 1.5 MA of driven current. This current is carried by a fast electron population with energies more than ten times the electron temperature and density about 10 -4 of the bulk plasma. This paper discusses the effects of this fast electron population on our ability to make reliable temperature measurements using ECE and reviews the effects on other plasma diagnostics which rely on ECE temperature measurements for their interpretation. (orig.)

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    2008-10-15

    system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under this subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable the development of technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEVs, and fuel-cell-powered automobiles that meet the goals of the Vehicle Technologies Program. A key element in making HEVs practical is providing an affordable electric traction drive system. This will require attaining weight, volume, and cost targets for the power electronics and electrical machines subsystems of the traction drive system. Areas of development include these: (1) novel traction motor designs that result in increased power density and lower cost; (2) inverter technologies involving new topologies to achieve higher efficiency and the ability to accommodate higher-temperature environments; (3) converter concepts that employ means of reducing the component count and integrating functionality to decrease size, weight, and cost; (4) more effective thermal control and packaging technologies; and (5) integrated motor/inverter concepts. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center conducts fundamental research, evaluates hardware, and assists in the technical direction of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program, APEEM subprogram. In this role, ORNL serves on the FreedomCAR Electrical and Electronics Technical Team, evaluates proposals for DOE, and lends its technological expertise to the direction of projects and evaluation of developing technologies.

  9. Joule-Thomson effect in a Pierce electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A model which can be investigated both by means of the system of Vlasov equations and by means of ideal gas state equation is proposed for evaluation of emittance growth in the Pierce electron gun of electron beam with the limiting small distribution rate and intended for electron cooling facilities. The assumption has been made that transverse emittance growth is different from the zero. Thermodynamical approach to the problem of electron beam propagation permits to evaluate the increase of its emittance. It is shown that the increase of the electron beam emittance in the Pierce electron gun is similar to Joule-Thompson effect for gases. The effect increases with the decrease of the beam initial temperature. The increase of the emittance can become essential even in hte perfect (without aberration) Pierce optics at beam transverse temperature of the order of 0.1 eV

  10. The Effectiveness of Electronic Text and Pictorial Graphic Organizers to Improve Comprehension Related to Functional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Karen H.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Langone, John; Bramlett, Virginia Bell

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a computer-based instructional program to assist three students with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities in using pictorial graphic organizers as aids for increasing comprehension of electronic text-based recipes. Student comprehension of recipes was measured by their ability to verbally retell recipe…

  11. Radiation effects on relativistic electrons in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation of high energy electron beams are a major issue in almost all types of charged particle accelerators. The objective of this thesis is both the analytical and numerical study of radiation effects. Due to its many applications the study of the self force has become a very active and productive field of research. The main part of this thesis is devoted to the study of radiation effects in laser-based plasma accelerators. Analytical models predict the existence of radiation effects. The investigation of radiation reaction show that in laser-based plasma accelerators, the self force effects lower the energy gain and emittance for moderate energies electron beams and increase the relative energy spread. However, for relatively high energy electron beams, the self radiation and retardation (radiation effects of one electron on the other electron of the system) effects increase the transverse emittance of the beam. The energy gain decreases to even lower value and relative energy spread increases to even higher value due to high radiation losses. The second part of this thesis investigates with radiation reaction in focused laser beams. Radiation effects are very weak even for high energy electrons. The radiation-free acceleration and the simple practical setup make direct acceleration in a focused laser beam very attractive. The results presented in this thesis can be helpful for the optimization of future electron acceleration experiments, in particular in the case of laser-plasma accelerators.

  12. 77 FR 53967 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Provider Order Entry CQM Clinical Quality Measure CY Calendar Year EHR Electronic Health Record EP Eligible... Measures b. Reporting on Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs) c. Payment Adjustments and Exceptions d... Multiple Practices/Locations (3) Discussion of the Reporting Requirements of the Measures Associated with...

  13. Electron beam irradiation effect on nanostructured molecular sieve catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhongyong; Zhou Wuzong; Parvulescu, Viorica; Su Baolian

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact can induce chemical changes on particle surfaces of zeolites and molecular sieve catalysts. Some experimental observations of electron irradiation effect on molecular sieve catalysts are presented, e.g., electron-beam-induced growth of bare silver nanowires from zeolite crystallites, formation of vesicles in calcium phosphate, migration of microdomains in iron-oxide doped mesoporous silicas, structural transformation from mesostructured MCM-41 to microporous ZSM-5, etc. The formation mechanisms of the surface structures are discussed

  14. Effect of suprathermal electrons on the impurity ionization state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochando, M A; Medina, F; Zurro, B; McCarthy, K J; Pedrosa, M A; Baciero, A; Rapisarda, D; Carmona, J M; Jimenez, D

    2006-01-01

    The effect of electron cyclotron resonance heating induced suprathermal electron tails on the ionization of iron impurities in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated. The behaviour of plasma emissivity immediately after injection provides evidence of a spatially localized 'shift' towards higher charge states of the impurity. Bearing in mind that the non-inductive plasma heating methods generate long lasting non-Maxwellian distribution functions, possible implications on the deduced impurity transport coefficients, when fast electrons are present, are discussed

  15. Effect of Electron Seeding on Experimentally Measured Multipactor Discharge Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Jonathan; Graves, Timothy; Lemon, Colby; Looper, Mark; Farkas, Alex

    2012-10-01

    Multipactor is a vacuum phenomenon in which electrons, moving in resonance with an externally applied electric field, impact material surfaces. If the number of secondary electrons created per primary electron impact averages more than unity, the resonant interaction can lead to an electron avalanche. Multipactor is a generally undesirable phenomenon, as it can cause local heating, absorb power, or cause detuning of RF circuits. In order to increase the probability of multipactor initiation, test facilities often employ various seeding sources such as radioactive sources (Cesium 137, Strontium 90), electron guns, or photon sources. Even with these sources, the voltage for multipactor initiation is not certain as parameters such as material type, RF pulse length, and device wall thickness can all affect seed electron flux and energy in critical gap regions, and hence the measured voltage threshold. This study investigates the effects of seed electron source type (e.g., photons versus beta particles), material type, gap size, and RF pulse length variation on multipactor threshold. In addition to the experimental work, GEANT4 simulations will be used to estimate the production rate of low energy electrons (< 5 keV) by high energy electrons and photons. A comparison of the experimental fluxes to the typical energetic photon and particle fluxes experienced by spacecraft in various orbits will also be made. Initial results indicate that for a simple, parallel plate device made of aluminum, there is no threshold variation (with seed electrons versus with no seed electrons) under continuous-wave RF exposure.

  16. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources

  17. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-04-10

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  18. Electronic laboratory quality assurance program: A method of enhancing the prosthodontic curriculum and addressing accreditation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Marjan; Jahangiri, Leila

    2015-08-01

    An electronic quality assurance (eQA) program was developed to replace a paper-based system and to address standards introduced by the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) and to improve educational outcomes. This eQA program provides feedback to predoctoral dental students on prosthodontic laboratory steps at New York University College of Dentistry. The purpose of this study was to compare the eQA program of performing laboratory quality assurance with the former paper-based format. Fourth-year predoctoral dental students (n=334) who experienced both the paper-based and the electronic version of the quality assurance program were surveyed about their experiences. Additionally, data extracted from the eQA program were analyzed to identify areas of weakness in the curriculum. The study findings revealed that 73.8% of the students preferred the eQA program to the paper-based version. The average number of treatments that did not pass quality assurance standards was 119.5 per month. This indicated a 6.34% laboratory failure rate. Further analysis of these data revealed that 62.1% of the errors were related to fixed prosthodontic treatment, 27.9% to partial removable dental prostheses, and 10% to complete removable dental prostheses in the first 18 months of program implementation. The eQA program was favored by dental students who have experienced both electronic and paper-based versions of the system. Error type analysis can yield the ability to create customized faculty standardization sessions and refine the didactic and clinical teaching of the predoctoral students. This program was also able to link patient care activity with the student's laboratory activities, thus addressing the latest requirements of the CODA regarding the competence of graduates in evaluating laboratory work related to their patient care. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Critic: a new program for the topological analysis of solid-state electron densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A.; Blanco, M. A.; Pendás, A. Martín; Luaña, Víctor

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce CRITIC, a new program for the topological analysis of the electron densities of crystalline solids. Two different versions of the code are provided, one adapted to the LAPW (Linear Augmented Plane Wave) density calculated by the WIEN2K package and the other to the ab initio Perturbed Ion ( aiPI) density calculated with the PI7 code. Using the converged ground state densities, CRITIC can locate their critical points, determine atomic basins and integrate properties within them, and generate several graphical representations which include topological atomic basins and primary bundles, contour maps of ρ and ∇ρ, vector maps of ∇ρ, chemical graphs, etc. Program summaryProgram title: CRITIC Catalogue identifier: AECB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPL, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 206 843 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 648 065 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 and 90 Computer: Any computer capable of compiling Fortran Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux Classification: 7.3 Nature of problem: Topological analysis of the electron density in periodic solids. Solution method: The automatic localization of the electron density critical points is based on a recursive partitioning of the Wigner-Seitz cell into tetrahedra followed by a Newton search from significant points on each tetrahedra. Plotting of and integration on the atomic basins is currently based on a new implementation of Keith's promega algorithm. Running time: Variable, depending on the task. From seconds to a few minutes for the localization of critical points. Hours to days for the determination of the atomic basins shape and properties. Times correspond to a typical 2007 PC.

  20. Electronic trade effect of marketing channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovreta Stipe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has caused many significant changes in marketing channels. Consumers had obtained multiple benefits from e-commerce. In addition, it has increased the level of competition in marketing channels. However, the focus of this paper is multichannel strategy and integration of physical (store and electronic marketing channels. E-commerce has induced dynamic development of multichannel strategy. This strategy has evolved as a consequence of multichannel consumer orientation. In developed economies, consumers are multichannel entities and active marketers aim to meet their requirements by creating multichannel offer.

  1. Effects of House Arrest with Electronic Monitoring on DUI Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Kevin E.; Berg, Bruce L.; Mutchick, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first 57 offenders who participated in an electronic monitoring (EM) program and compared them to offenders who went to jail. Analysis revealed no difference between the groups with respect to rearrest, revocations, and detainers filed. The overwhelming majority of EM offenders completed their period of supervision without incident.…

  2. Evaluation of a Pilot Asthma Care Program for Electronic Communication between School Health and a Healthcare System's Electronic Medical Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Kelly W; Taylor, Yhenneko; Tapp, Hazel; Ludden, Thomas; Shade, Lindsay E; Burton, Beth; Courtlandt, Cheryl; Dulin, Michael

    2016-10-19

    Asthma is a common childhood chronic lung disease affecting greater than 10% of children in the United States. School nurses are in a unique position to close gaps in care. Indeed, effective asthma management is more likely to result when providers, family, and schools work together to optimize the patient's treatment plan. Currently, effective communication between schools and healthcare systems through electronic medical record (EMR) systems remains a challenge. The goal of this feasibility pilot was to link the school-based care team with primary care providers in the healthcare system network via electronic communication through the EMR, on behalf of pediatric asthma patients who had been hospitalized for an asthma exacerbation. The implementation process and the potential impact of the communication with providers on the reoccurrence of asthma exacerbations with the linked patients were evaluated. By engaging stakeholders from the school system and the healthcare system, we were able to collaboratively design a communication process and implement a pilot which demonstrated the feasibility of electronic communication between school nurses and primary care providers. Outcomes data was collected from the electronic medical record to examine the frequency of asthma exacerbations among patients with a message from their school nurse. The percent of exacerbations in the 12 months before and after electronic communication was compared using McNemar's test. The pilot system successfully established communication between the school nurse and primary care provider for 33 students who had been hospitalized for asthma and a decrease in hospital admissions was observed with students whose school nurse communicated through the EMR with the primary care provider. Findings suggest a collaborative model of care that is enhanced through electronic communication via the EMR could positively impact the health of children with asthma or other chronic illnesses.

  3. Vertical and Horizontal Integration of Laboratory Curricula and Course Projects across the Electronic Engineering Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wei; Goulart, Ana; Morgan, Joseph A.; Porter, Jay R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the details of the curricular development effort with a focus on the vertical and horizontal integration of laboratory curricula and course projects within the Electronic Engineering Technology (EET) program at Texas A&M University. Both software and hardware aspects are addressed. A common set of software tools are…

  4. Status of experimental studies of electron cloud effects at the Los Alamos proton storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.; Browman, A.A.; Borden, M.J.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; McCrady, R.C.; Spickermann, T.J.; Zaugg, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Various electron cloud effects (ECE) including the two-stream (e-p) instability at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) have been studied extensively for the past five years with the goal of understanding the phenomena, mitigating the instability and ultimately increasing beam intensity. The specialized diagnostics used in the studies are two types of electron detectors, the retarding field analyzer and the electron sweepmg detector - which have been employed to measure characteristics of the electron cloud as functions of time, location in the ring and various influential beam parameters - plus a short stripline beam position monitor used to measure high frequency motion of the beam centroid. Highlights of this research program are summarized along with more detail on recent results obtained since the ECLOUD'02 workshop. Recent work mcludes a number of parametric studies of the various factors that affect the electron cloud signals, studies of the sources of initial or 'seed' electrons, additional observations of electron cloud dissipation after the beam pulse is extracted, studies of the 'first pulse instability' issue, more data on electron suppression as a cure for the instability, and observations of the effect of a one-turn weak kick on intense beams in the presence of a significant electron cloud.

  5. Electron and ion magnetohydrodynamic effects in plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, J.M.; DeVore, C.R.; Ottinger, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a numerical code designed to investigate electron and ion magnetohydrodynamic effects in plasma erosion opening switches. The present model is one-dimensional and resolves effects such as the JxB deformation of the plasma, and the penetration of magnetic field either by anomalous resistivity or electron magnetohydrodynamics (Hall effect). Comparisons with exact analytic results and experiment are made

  6. Quantum Hall Effect: proposed multi-electron tunneling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1985-11-01

    Here we propose a tunneling experiment for the fractional and Integral Quantum Hall Effect. It may demonstrate multi-electron tunneling and may provide information about the nature of the macroscopic quantum states of 2D electronic liquid or solid. (author)

  7. Electronic structure of molecules using relativistic effective core potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    In this review an approach is outlined for studying molecules containing heavy atoms with the use of relativistic effective core potentials (RECP's). These potentials play the dual roles of (1) replacing the chemically-inert core electrons and (2) incorporating the mass velocity and Darwin term into a one-electron effective potential. This reduces the problem to a valence-electron problem and avoids computation of additional matrix elements involving relativistic operators. The spin-orbit effects are subsequently included using the molecular orbitals derived from the RECP calculation as a basis

  8. Electron-Electron and Electron-Phonon interactions effects on the tunnel electronic spectrum of PbS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyue; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Yu, Qian; Mottaghizadeh, Alireza; Ulysse, Christian; Zimmers, Alexandre; Dubertret, Benoit; Aubin, Herve

    2015-03-01

    We present a tunnel spectroscopy study of the electronic spectrum of single PbS Quantum Dots (QDs) trapped between nanometer-spaced electrodes, measured at low temperature T=5 K. The carrier filling of the QD can be controlled either by the drain voltage in the shell filling regime or by a gate voltage. In the empty QD, the tunnel spectrum presents the expected signature of the 8x degenerated excited levels. In the drain controlled shell filling regime, the levels degeneracies are lifted by the global electrostatic Coulomb energy of the QD; in the gate controlled shell filling regime, the levels degeneracies are lifted by the intra-Coulomb interactions. In the charged quantum dot, electron-phonons interactions lead to the apparition of Franck-Condon side bands on the single excited levels and possibly Franck Condon blockade at low energy. The sharpening of excited levels at higher gate voltage suggests that the magnitude of electron-phonon interactions is decreased upon increasing the electron filling in the quantum dot. This work was supported by the French ANR Grants 10-BLAN-0409-01, 09-BLAN-0388-01, by the Region Ile-de-France in the framework of DIM Nano-K and by China Scholarship Council.

  9. Effective collision frequency of electrons in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baille, P.; Chang, J.-S.; Claude, A.; Yau, A.W.; Hobson, R.M.; Ogram, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The electron-neutral collision frequency in the noble gases has been calculated using recent numerical results for momentum transfer cross sections by assuming a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities. In all these gases, except for argon, good agreement is obtained with most previously published experimental and theoretical data. Mean free path, mobilities and diffusion coefficients are also calculated from the resulting effective collision frequencies. The empirical formulae are presented for an electron temperature dependence of the electron-neutral collision frequency for all noble gases up to Tsub(e) < approximately 25.000 K. (author)

  10. Impact of Microwaves on the Electron Cloud and Incoherent Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, Franz Josef; Zimmermann, Frank

    2002-01-01

    We consider the use of microwaves for manipulating the electron cloud, describing an exploratory experiment at PEP-II as well as computer simulations of the electron cloud build-up in the presence of a microwave for an LHC dipole. We then show that the incoherent effects of the electron cloud - energy loss and transverse emittance growth due to scattering of the electrons - are negligible. This suggests that the disturbance of the coherent motion may be another possible application of microwaves, which could prevent beam emittance growth and beam loss.

  11. 75 FR 44313 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Payment Calculation for Eligible Hospitals c. Medicare Share d. Charity Care e. Transition Factor f...), eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) participating in Medicare and Medicaid programs...) technology. This final rule specifies--the initial criteria EPs, eligible hospitals, and CAHs must meet in...

  12. 75 FR 1843 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Payment Calculation for Eligible Hospitals c. Medicare Share d. Charity Care e. Transition Factor f...) and eligible hospitals participating in Medicare and Medicaid programs that adopt and meaningfully use... an EP and eligible hospital must meet in order to qualify for the incentive payment; calculation of...

  13. Many-electron effects in photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1976-06-01

    The deviations from Koopmans' one-electron model of photoionization which lead to satellite structure in the photoelectron spectrum are examined within the formalism of configuration interaction (CI). The mechanisms which contribute to satellite intensity may be classified as continuum state configuration interaction, final ionic state configuration interaction, and initial state configuration interaction. The discussion centers around the last two mechanisms, these being the prime contributors to the satellite intensity well above threshold. Specific examples of theoretical ''spectra'' are presented for the F(1s) region of HF and the 1s region of neon. The agreement between theory and experiment is found to be excellent. In these two instances, initial state configuration interaction contributions increase the satellite intensity and are of nearly equal importance to the final ionic state mixing

  14. Effects of disorder on the electron pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo-Roa, R.; Wang, C.; Navarro, O.

    1996-01-01

    The electron pairing in randomly disordered lattices is studied by using an attractive Hubbard model, and by mapping the many-body problem onto a tight-binding one in a higher dimensional space, where a diagonal disorder is considered within the coherent-potential approximation. The results show an enhancement of the pair-binding energy as the self-energy difference increases in a binary alloy A x B 1-x . This fact suggests that the pairing process is highly sensitive to the one-particle localization condition. A ground-state phase diagram for on-site interaction disorder shows regions where pairing is avoided for ordered diatomic systems but not for disordered case

  15. Study of total ionization dose effects in electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidhin, T.S.; Bhattacharyya, Anindya; Gour, Aditya; Behera, R.P.; Jayanthi, T.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation effects in electronic devices are a major challenge in the dependable application developments of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems. The main radiation effects are total ionization dose (TID) effects, displacement damage dose (DDD) effects and single event effects (SEE). In this study, we are concentrating on TID effects in electronic devices. The focus of the study is mainly on SRAM based field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) along with that the devices of our interest are voltage regulators, flash memory and optocoupler. The experiments are conducted by exposing the devices to gamma radiation in power off condition and the degradation in the performances are analysed

  16. ProbeZT: Simulation of transport coefficients of molecular electronic junctions under environmental effects using Büttiker's probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Roman; Kilgour, Michael; Segal, Dvira

    2018-03-01

    We present our in-house quantum transport package, ProbeZT. This program provides linear response coefficients: electrical and electronic thermal conductances, as well as the thermopower of molecular junctions in which electrons interact with the surrounding thermal environment. Calculations are performed based on the Büttiker probe method, which introduces decoherence, energy exchange and dissipation effects phenomenologically using virtual electrode terminals called probes. The program can realize different types of probes, each introducing various environmental effects, including elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons. The molecular system is described by an arbitrary tight-binding Hamiltonian, allowing the study of different geometries beyond simple one-dimensional wires. Applications of the program to study the thermoelectric performance of molecular junctions are illustrated. The program also has a built-in functionality to simulate electron transport in double-stranded DNA molecules based on a tight-binding (ladder) description of the junction.

  17. Effects of electron inertia in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Nong

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the electron inertia on the plasma and sheath dynamics in capacitively coupled rf discharges with frequency ωω pi are investigated (here, ω and ω pi are the rf frequency and bulk ion plasma frequency, respectively). It is found that the effects of the electron inertia on the plasma density and ion velocity in the quasi-neutral region depend on the ratio of the amplitudes of the discharge current I rf and ion current I B =en 0 C s (here, e is the unit charge, n 0 is the plasma density at center, and C s is the ion sound speed). If the ratio is small so that I rf /I B √(m i /m e ) (here, m i and m e are ion and electron masses, respectively), the ion and time-averaged electron densities, ion velocity, and electric fields are little affected by the electron inertia. Otherwise, the effects of the electron inertia are significant. It is also shown that the assumption that the electrons obey the Boltzmann distribution in the sheath is invalid when the electron flux flowing to the electrode is significant

  18. [Electronic fetal monitoring and management of adverse outcomes: how to perform and improve a training program for clinicians?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secourgeon, J-F

    2012-10-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring during labor is the most commonly used method to evaluate the fetal status, but it remains exposed to some criticism. By comparison with intermittent auscultation and in the light of the results of the great studies in the last 30 years, it may be accused its failure to improve the neonatal outcome and its responsibility in the increase on operative deliveries. Actually, the electronic fetal monitoring is a tool whose effectiveness is linked to the accuracy of the analysis developed by the clinician. Studies on assessment of the tracing interpretation indicate that there is always a lack of quality, which may be improved through training programs. It also reveals the benefit of the fetal blood sampling to reduce operative deliveries and the generalization of this method, in addition to electronic fetal monitoring, is recommended by referral agencies. More generally, the continuous monitoring is only a part of the patient safety strategy in the labour ward and we are currently observing, in some European countries and in the United States, the development of training programs concerning the management of the adverse outcomes in obstetrics. The good performances related to the quality of care are demonstrated by the findings of the studies performed in the centers that have implemented an active training policy. In France, the professionals directly involved in the field of the perinatology should benefit from such educational programs that could be organized within the care networks under the authority of referral agencies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Electron bunch compression and coherent effects at the SDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, Henrik; Carr, G. Lawrence; Doyuran, Adnan; Graves, William S.; Johnson, Eric D.; Krinsky, Samuel; Rose, James; Sheehy, Brian; Shaftan, Timur V.; Skaritka, John; Yu Lihua

    2002-01-01

    The DUVFEL accelerator in the Source Development Lab of NSLS/BNL generates a high brightness electron beam from a laser driven electron source and a magnetic bunch compressor. This beam is used for different FEL experiments in SASE and future HGHG configurations. The compression of the electron beam to high peak current while preserving the transverse properties is of great importance to the performance goals of these FELs. In this paper we report on the experimental methods to characterize the longitudinal properties of the electron beam and the measured results for various settings of the DUVFEL accelerator. The observed effects on the electron beam spectra and time profiles during compression are most likely due to coherent effects while their exact origin is still subject of ongoing investigation

  20. Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit shell structures, very similar to atoms. Termed as 'artificial atoms' by some, they are much larger (1 100 nm) than real atoms. One can study a variety of manyelectron effects in them, which are otherwise difficult to observe in a real atom. We have treated these effects within the ...

  1. Real Time Space Radiation Effects in Electronic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effects that solar particle events can have on operational electronic systems is a significant concern for all missions, but especially for those beyond Low...

  2. Measurements and simulations of seeded electron microbunches with collective effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hacker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the longitudinal phase-space distributions of electron bunches seeded with an external laser were done in order to study the impact of collective effects on seeded microbunches in free-electron lasers. When the collective effects of Coulomb forces in a drift space and coherent synchrotron radiation in a chicane are considered, velocity bunching of a seeded microbunch appears to be a viable alternative to compression with a magnetic chicane under high-gain harmonic generation seeding conditions. Measurements of these effects on seeded electron microbunches were performed with a rf deflecting structure and a dipole magnet which streak out the electron bunch for single-shot images of the longitudinal phase-space distribution. Particle tracking simulations in 3D predicted the compression dynamics of the seeded microbunches with collective effects.

  3. Terrestrial radiation effects in ULSI devices and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Eishi H

    2014-01-01

    A practical guide on how mathematical approaches can be used to analyze and control radiation effects in semiconductor devices within various environments Covers faults in ULSI devices to failures in electronic systems caused by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha -rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn the environmental radiation features at the ground or avionics altitude. Readers will also learn how to make numerical models from physical insight and what kind of mathematical approaches should be implemented to analyze the radiation effects. A wide variety of mitigation techniques against soft-errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them. The book provides the reader with the knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. It explains how electronic systems including servers and rout...

  4. Hot-electron effect in spin relaxation of electrically injected electrons in intrinsic Germanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T; Wu, M W

    2015-07-01

    The hot-electron effect in the spin relaxation of electrically injected electrons in intrinsic germanium is investigated by the kinetic spin Bloch equations both analytically and numerically. It is shown that in the weak-electric-field regime with E ≲ 0.5 kV cm(-1), our calculations have reasonable agreement with the recent transport experiment in the hot-electron spin-injection configuration (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 257204). We reveal that the spin relaxation is significantly enhanced at low temperature in the presence of weak electric field E ≲ 50 V cm(-1), which originates from the obvious center-of-mass drift effect due to the weak electron-phonon interaction, whereas the hot-electron effect is demonstrated to be less important. This can explain the discrepancy between the experimental observation and the previous theoretical calculation (2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 085202), which deviates from the experimental results by about two orders of magnitude at low temperature. It is further shown that in the strong-electric-field regime with 0.5 ≲ E ≲ 2 kV cm(-1), the spin relaxation is enhanced due to the hot-electron effect, whereas the drift effect is demonstrated to be marginal. Finally, we find that when 1.4 ≲ E ≲ 2 kV cm(-1) which lies in the strong-electric-field regime, a small fraction of electrons (≲5%) can be driven from the L to Γ valley, and the spin relaxation rates are the same for the Γ and L valleys in the intrinsic sample without impurity. With the negligible influence of the spin dynamics in the Γ valley to the whole system, the spin dynamics in the L valley can be measured from the Γ valley by the standard direct optical transition method.

  5. Koka: Programming with Row Polymorphic Effect Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan Leijen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a programming model where effects are treated in a disciplined way, and where the potential side-effects of a function are apparent in its type signature. The type and effect of expressions can also be inferred automatically, and we describe a polymorphic type inference system based on Hindley-Milner style inference. A novel feature is that we support polymorphic effects through row-polymorphism using duplicate labels. Moreover, we show that our effects are not just syntactic labels but have a deep semantic connection to the program. For example, if an expression can be typed without an _exn_ effect, then it will never throw an unhandled exception. Similar to Haskell's `runST` we show how we can safely encapsulate stateful operations. Through the state effect, we can also safely combine state with let-polymorphism without needing either imperative type variables or a syntactic value restriction. Finally, our system is implemented fully in a new language called Koka and has been used successfully on various small to medium-sized sample programs ranging from a Markdown processor to a tier-splitted chat application. You can try out Koka live at www.rise4fun.com/koka/tutorial.

  6. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Readout Electronics Upgrade Program for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A S

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The ATLAS upgrade program is divided in three phases: The Phase~0 occurs during 2013-2014, Phase~1 during 2018-1019 and finally Phase~2, which is foreseen for 2022-2023, whereafter the peak luminosity will reach 5-7 x 10$^{34}$ cm$^2$s$^{-1}$ (HL-LHC). The main TileCal upgrade is focused on the Phase~2 period. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. All new electronics must be able to cope with the increased radiation levels. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued to study different electronics options. Three options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. The first option is an improved version of the present system built using comm...

  7. Effect of electronic media on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Jat, Kana Ram

    2010-07-01

    Radio, television (TV), movies, video games, cell phones, and computer networks have assumed central roles in our children's daily lives. The media has demonstrated potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on children's cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Considering the increasing exposure of children to newer forms of media, we decided to review the current literature on the effects of media on child health both in the Western countries and India. It is widely accepted that media has profound influence on child health, including violence, obesity, tobacco and alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Simultaneously, media may have some positive effects on child health. We need to find ways to optimize the role of media in our society, taking advantage of their positive attributes and minimizing their negative ones. We need to understand better how to reverse the negative impact of media and make it more positive.

  8. Evaluation of Arabic Language Learning Program for Non-Native Speakers in Saudi Electronic University According to Total Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alowaydhi, Wafa Hafez

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at standardizing the program of learning Arabic for non-native speakers in Saudi Electronic University according to certain standards of total quality. To achieve its purpose, the study adopted the descriptive analytical method. The author prepared a measurement tool for evaluating the electronic learning programs in light…

  9. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  10. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Overview and the New Tenets for Cost Conscious Mission Assurance on Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The NEPP Program focuses on the reliability aspects of electronic devices (integrated circuits such as a processor in a computer). There are three principal aspects of this reliability: 1) Lifetime, inherent failure and design issues related to the EEE parts technology and packaging; 2) Effects of space radiation and the space environment on these technologies, and; 3) Creation and maintenance of the assurance support infrastructure required for mission success. The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment, and to ensure that appropriate EEE parts research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs. NEPPs FY15 goals are to represent the NASA voice to the greater aerospace EEE parts community including supporting anti-counterfeit and trust, provide relevant guidance to cost-effective missions, aid insertion of advanced (and commercial) technologies, resolve unexpected parts issues, ensure access to appropriate radiation test facilities, and collaborate as widely as possible with external entities. In accordance with the changing mission profiles throughout NASA, the NEPP Program has developed a balanced portfolio of efforts to provide agency-wide assurance for not only traditional spacecraft developments, but also those in-line with the new philosophies emerging worldwide. In this presentation, we shall present an overview of this program and considerations for EEE parts assurance as applied to cost conscious missions.

  11. Paper to Electronic Questionnaires: Effects on Structured Questionnaire Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.

  12. Electrochemical migration in electronics: effect of contamination and bias conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    A number of reliability issues are caused by mechanisms different from the conventional corrosion due to specific aspects of the printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). The size of the components and the distance between them, combinations of dissimilar metals, voltage and temperature gradients...... – all together influence susceptibility of electronic PCBA to corrosion. When electronics is operating under humid conditions, the cleanliness of the PCBA becomes essential, since corrosion related failures in electronics can occur at extremely low levels of moisture and contamination. A synergetic...... effect of the aspects mentioned above makes it challenging to predict the lifetime of electronic device. The aim of this work is to investigate corrosion influencing factors, which at a later stage improve capabilities of predicting the functioning and herewith reliability of electronics under certain...

  13. Electron screening and its effects on big-bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Biao; Bertulani, C. A.; Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of electron screening on nuclear reaction rates occurring during the big-bang nucleosynthesis epoch. The sensitivity of the predicted elemental abundances on electron screening is studied in detail. It is shown that electron screening does not produce noticeable results in the abundances unless the traditional Debye-Hueckel model for the treatment of electron screening in stellar environments is enhanced by several orders of magnitude. This work rules out electron screening as a relevant ingredient to big-bang nucleosynthesis, confirming a previous study [see Itoh et al., Astrophys. J. 488, 507 (1997)] and ruling out exotic possibilities for the treatment of screening beyond the mean-field theoretical approach.

  14. Electron beam irradiation effect on GaN HEMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Yinhong; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Keying; Wang Yuanming; Zhang Fengqi

    2011-01-01

    In this work, GaN HEMTs (High Electron Mobility Transistor) were irradiated by 0.8 and 1.2 MeV electron beams, and the irradiation effects were investigated. The results show that the device damage caused by 0.8 MeV electrons is more serious than that by 1.2 MeV electrons. Saturation drain current increase and threshold voltage negative shift are due to trapped positive charge from ionization in the AlGaN layer and N, Ga vacancy from non-ionizing energy loss in the GaN layer. Electron traps and trapped positive charges from non-ionizing in the AlGaN layer act as trap-assisted-tunneling centers that increase the gate leakage current.(authors)

  15. Effective applications of auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnabi, H.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore different aspects of the AES process and to present the new techniques which can be used effectively for analytical purposes. More emphasis is given to AES data acquisition, sensitivity factor and Auger intensity. The experimental details of a typical scanning Auger microprobe (SAM) is also presented. Applications of AES to selected systems such as microelectronic devices, superconductors, an in metallurgy are described

  16. Numerical simulation of runaway electron effect on Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    1998-07-01

    The runaway electron effects on Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are studied by the numerical analyses. The present study is the first investigation of time-dependent thermal response of PFCs caused by runaway electron impact. For this purpose, we developed a new integrated numerical code, which consists of the Monte Carlo code for the coupled electrons and photons transport analysis and the finite element code for the thermo-mechanical analysis. In this code, we apply the practical incident parameters and distribution of runaway electrons recently proposed by S. Putvinski, which can express the time-dependent behavior of runaway electrons impact. The incident parameters of electrons in this study are the energy density ranging from 10 to 75 MJ/m 2 , the average electrons' energy of 12.5 MeV, the incident angle of 0.01deg and the characteristic time constant for decay of runaway electrons event of 0.15sec. The numerical results showed that the divertor with CFC (Carbon-Fiber-Composite) armor did not suffer serious damage. On the other hand, maximum temperatures at the surface of the divertor with tungsten armor and the first wall with beryllium armor exceed the melting point in case of the incident energy density of 20 and 50 MJ/m 2 . Within the range of the incident condition of runaway electrons, the cooling pipe of each PFCs can be prevented from the melting or burn-out caused by runaway electrons impact, which is one of the possible consequences of runaway electrons event so far. (author)

  17. Electron irradiation effect on single crystal of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, M.P.; Lucki, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of electron irradiation (900 KeV) on gliding dislocations of single crystal Nb with its tensile axe in the [941] orientation was observed for the in-situ deformation in a high voltage electron microscope (HVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory. The experimental was carried out by the 1 hour-electron irradiation with no stress applied. Straight dislocations actuating as sinks for the electron produced defects became helicoidal as the irradiation proceeded. Frenkel pairs were created in Nb for electron energies > = 650 KeV and, as the single vacancies do not undergo long-range migration in Nb at temperatures much below 620 K, the defects that are entrapped by the dislocations are self-interstitials produced by electron displacement. Applying the stress it was possible to observe that modified dislocations did not glide while the dislocations not affected by the irradiation are visibly in movement. This important result explains the neutron and electron-irradiation induced work-hardening effect for Nb that was previously observed. (Author) [pt

  18. Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jaihyunk; Bae, Seho; Bae, Changhyu [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy {approx} 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner.

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    2006-10-31

    technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subsystems work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the Vehicle Systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable the development of technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid and fuel-cell-powered automobiles that meet the goals of the FreedomCAR Program. A key element in making hybrid electric vehicles practical is providing an affordable electric traction drive system. This will require attaining weight, volume, and cost targets for the power electronics and electrical machines subsystems of the traction drive system. Areas of development include these: (1) Novel traction motor designs that result in increased power density and lower cost; (2) Inverter technologies involving new topologies to achieve higher efficiency and the ability to accommodate higher-temperature environments; (3) Converter concepts that employ means of reducing the component count and integrating functionality to decrease size, weight, and cost; (4) More effective thermal control and packaging technologies; and (5) Integrated motor/inverter concepts. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center conducts fundamental research, evaluates hardware, and assists in the technical direction of the DOE Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program. In this role, ORNL serves on the FreedomCAR Electrical and Electronics Technical Team, evaluates proposals for DOE

  20. An Electronic Wellness Program to Improve Diet and Exercise in College Students: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer, Amy L; Ross, Jamisha T; Klein, Catherine J; Lei, Kai Y; Mackey, Eleanor R

    2016-01-01

    Background In transitioning from adolescence to adulthood, college students are faced with significant challenges to their health habits. Independence, stress, and perceived lack of time by college students have been known to result in poor eating and exercise habits, which can lead to increased disease risk. Objective To assess the feasibility and to determine preliminary efficacy of an electronic wellness program in improving diet and physical activity in college students. Methods A 24-week...

  1. Simulation of Coulomb interaction effects in electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouse, John; Zhu Xieqing; Liu Haoning; Munro, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Over many years, we have developed electron source simulation software that has been used widely in the electron optics community to aid the development of rotationally symmetric electron and ion guns. The simulation includes the modelling of cathode emission and the effects of volumetric space charge. In the present paper we describe the existing software and explain how we have extended this software to include the effects of discrete Coulomb interactions between the electrons as they travel from the cathode surface to the exit of the gun. In the paper, we will describe the numerical models we have employed, the techniques we have used to maximize the speed of the Coulomb force computation and present several illustrative examples of cases analyzed using the new software, including thermal field emitters, LaB 6 guns and flat dispenser-type cathodes.

  2. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Relativistic effects on inner-shell electron properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desclaux, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of relativistic effects on hydrogen-like systems is first reviewed. After having considered one-electron systems, the influence of the other electrons is to be taken into account when considering inner ionization energy and ionization cross sections. Two-hole states in inner shells being then dealt with, the problem of angular momentum coupling among electrons can no longer be neglected. In an other way, this implies that wave functions are to be built on a jj basis instead of a ls one. Ksub(α)sup(h) hypersatellite spectra and KLL Auger transition energies are successively discussed

  4. Electron correlation effects in XUV photoabsorption spectroscopy of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codling, K.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to sophisticated experiments involving the measurement of the angular distribution of photo-ejected electrons, coincidence electrons and ion spectroscopy, which can only be interpreted in terms of electron correlation effects. After an introductory review of previous work, the lectures fall under the following headings: experimental procedures (light sources, monochromators, absorption cells, limitations on the simple photoasbsorption experiment, and complementary techniques); experimental results (discrete states in the continuum, gross features in the photoionisation continuum (rare gases, alkalis, alkaline earths, rare earths, transition elements)). (U.K.)

  5. Deterministic Line-Shape Programming of Silicon Nanowires for Extremely Stretchable Springs and Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhaoguo; Sun, Mei; Dong, Taige; Tang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yaolong; Wang, Junzhuan; Wei, Xianlong; Yu, Linwei; Chen, Qing; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca I Cabarrocas, Pere

    2017-12-13

    Line-shape engineering is a key strategy to endow extra stretchability to 1D silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown with self-assembly processes. We here demonstrate a deterministic line-shape programming of in-plane SiNWs into extremely stretchable springs or arbitrary 2D patterns with the aid of indium droplets that absorb amorphous Si precursor thin film to produce ultralong c-Si NWs along programmed step edges. A reliable and faithful single run growth of c-SiNWs over turning tracks with different local curvatures has been established, while high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals a high quality monolike crystallinity in the line-shaped engineered SiNW springs. Excitingly, in situ scanning electron microscopy stretching and current-voltage characterizations also demonstrate a superelastic and robust electric transport carried by the SiNW springs even under large stretching of more than 200%. We suggest that this highly reliable line-shape programming approach holds a strong promise to extend the mature c-Si technology into the development of a new generation of high performance biofriendly and stretchable electronics.

  6. Inhomogeneous effects in the quantum free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piovella, N.; Bonifacio, R.

    2006-01-01

    We include inhomogeneous effects in the quantum model of a free electron laser taking into account the initial energy spread of the electron beam. From a linear analysis, we obtain a generalized dispersion relation, from which the exponential gain can be explicitly calculated. We determine the maximum allowed initial energy spread in the quantum exponential regime and we discuss the limit of large energy spread

  7. Terra Nova Environmental effects monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, U.; Murdoch, M.

    2000-01-01

    Elements of the environmental effects monitoring program in the Terra Nova oil field, about 350 km east-southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland, are described. This oilfield is being developed using a floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) facility. A total of 24 wells are expected to be drilled through seven subsea templates located in four glory holes to protect them from icebergs. Subsea installations will be linked to the FPSO by trenched flowlines connected to flexible risers. The FPSO will offload to shuttle tankers. First oil is expected in 2001. The environmental effects monitoring program will be conducted annually for the first two years beginning in 2000. Subsequent scheduling will be determined after a review of monitoring data collected during the first three years. Input to the design of the monitoring program was provided by all stakeholders, i. e. owners, local public, government agencies and regional and international experts. A model was developed linking project discharges and possible effects to the environment, including marine resources in the area, and the information derived from these activities was used to generate a set of predictions and hypotheses to be tested in the monitoring program. The monitoring program will use two spatial models: a regression or gradient design and a control-impact design. The gradient design will monitor water column and sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity and benthic invertebrate communities. The control-impact design will be used to monitor larger and more mobile fish or shellfish. The evaluated results will serve as the basis for determining impact predictions and to provide information to allow for decisions pertaining to the protection of the marine environment

  8. The Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, Wim; Leclaire, Nicolas; Letang, Eric [IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Girault, Emmanuel; Fouillaud, Patrick [CEA, VALDUC (France)

    2008-07-01

    Various theoretical studies have shown that highly diluted plutonium solutions could have a positive temperature effect but (up to now) no experimental program has confirmed this effect. The main goal of the French Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program (or PU+ in short) is to effectively show that such a positive temperature effect exists for diluted plutonium solutions. The experiments were conducted in the 'Apparatus B' facility at the CEA Valduc research centre in France and involved several sub-critical approach type of experiments using plutonium nitrate solutions with concentrations of 14.3, 15 and 20 g/l at temperatures ranging from 20 to 40 deg. C. A total number of 14 phase I experiments (consisting of independent subcritical approaches) have been performed (5 at 20 g/l, 4 at 15 g/l and 5 at 14.3 g/l) between 2006 and 2007. The impact of the uncertainties on the solution acidity and the plutonium concentration makes it difficult to clearly demonstrate the positive temperature effect, requiring an additional phase II experiment (in which the use of the same plutonium solution was ensured) from 22 to 28 deg. C performed in July 2007. This experiment has shown the existence of a positive temperature effect approx +2 pcm/deg. C (from 22 to 28 deg. C for a plutonium concentration of 14.3 g/l). (authors)

  9. Effects of target plasma electron-electron collisions on correlated motion of fragmented H2+ protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to examined the effects of plasma target electron-electron collisions on H 2 + protons traversing it. Specifically, the target is deuterium in a plasma state with temperature T e =10 eV and density n=10 23 cm -3 , and proton velocities are v p =v th , v p =2v th , and v p =3v th , where v th is the electron thermal velocity of the target plasma. Proton interactions with plasma electrons are treated by means of the dielectric formalism. The interactions among close protons through plasma electronic medium are called vicinage forces. It is checked that these forces always screen the Coulomb explosions of the two fragmented protons from the same H 2 + ion decreasing their relative distance. They also align the interproton vector along the motion direction, and increase the energy loss of the two protons at early dwell times while for longer times the energy loss tends to the value of two isolated protons. Nevertheless, vicinage forces and effects are modified by the target electron collisions. These collisions enhance the calculated self-stopping and vicinage forces over the collisionless results. Regarding proton correlated motion, when these collisions are included, the interproton vector along the motion direction overaligns at slower proton velocities (v p =v th ) and misaligns for faster ones (v p =2v th , v p =3v th ). They also contribute to a great extend to increase the energy loss of the fragmented H 2 + ion. This later effect is more significant in reducing projectile velocity

  10. Effect of suprathermal electrons on the intensity and Doppler frequency of electron plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    Full Text Available In an incoherent scattering radar experiment, the spectral measurement of the so-called up- and downshifted electron plasma lines provides information about their intensity and their Doppler frequency. These two spectral lines correspond, in the backscatter geometry, to two Langmuir waves travelling towards and away from the radar. In the daytime ionosphere, the presence of a small percentage of photoelectrons produced by the solar EUV of the total electron population can excite or damp these Langmuir waves above the thermal equilibrium, resulting in an enhancement of the intensity of the lines above the thermal level. The presence of photo-electrons also modifies the dielectric response function of the plasma from the Maxwellian and thus influences the Doppler frequency of the plasma lines. In this paper, we present a high time-resolution plasma-line data set collected on the Eiscat VHF radar. The analysed data are compared with a model that includes the effect of a suprathermal electron population calculated by a transport code. By comparing the intensity of the analysed plasma lines data to our model, we show that two sharp peaks in the electron suprathermal distribution in the energy range 20-30 eV causes an increased Landau damping around 24.25 eV and 26.25 eV. We have identified these two sharp peaks as the effect of the photoionisation of N2 and O by the intense flux of monochromatic HeII radiation of wavelength 30.378 nm (40.812 eV created in the chromospheric network and coronal holes. Furthermore, we see that what would have been interpreted as a mean Doppler drift velocity for a Maxwellian plasma is actually a shift of the Doppler frequency of the plasma lines due to suprathermal electrons.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; solar radiation and cosmic ray effects

  11. Effect of suprathermal electrons on the intensity and Doppler frequency of electron plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In an incoherent scattering radar experiment, the spectral measurement of the so-called up- and downshifted electron plasma lines provides information about their intensity and their Doppler frequency. These two spectral lines correspond, in the backscatter geometry, to two Langmuir waves travelling towards and away from the radar. In the daytime ionosphere, the presence of a small percentage of photoelectrons produced by the solar EUV of the total electron population can excite or damp these Langmuir waves above the thermal equilibrium, resulting in an enhancement of the intensity of the lines above the thermal level. The presence of photo-electrons also modifies the dielectric response function of the plasma from the Maxwellian and thus influences the Doppler frequency of the plasma lines. In this paper, we present a high time-resolution plasma-line data set collected on the Eiscat VHF radar. The analysed data are compared with a model that includes the effect of a suprathermal electron population calculated by a transport code. By comparing the intensity of the analysed plasma lines data to our model, we show that two sharp peaks in the electron suprathermal distribution in the energy range 20-30 eV causes an increased Landau damping around 24.25 eV and 26.25 eV. We have identified these two sharp peaks as the effect of the photoionisation of N2 and O by the intense flux of monochromatic HeII radiation of wavelength 30.378 nm (40.812 eV created in the chromospheric network and coronal holes. Furthermore, we see that what would have been interpreted as a mean Doppler drift velocity for a Maxwellian plasma is actually a shift of the Doppler frequency of the plasma lines due to suprathermal electrons.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; solar radiation and cosmic ray effects

  12. Studies of runaway electrons via Cherenkov effect in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowski, J.; Jakubowski, L.; Rabinski, M.; Sadowski, M. J.; Jakubowski, M. J.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Malinowski, K.; Mirowski, R.; Mlynar, J.; Ficker, O.; Weinzettl, V.; Causa, F.; COMPASS; FTU Teams

    2018-01-01

    The paper concerns measurements of runaway electrons (REs) which are generated during discharges in tokamaks. The control of REs is an important task in experimental studies within the ITER-physics program. The NCBJ team proposed to study REs by means of Cherenkov-type detectors several years ago. The Cherenkov radiation, induced by REs in appropriate radiators, makes it possible to identify fast electron beams and to determine their spatial- and temporal-characteristics. The results of recent experimental studies of REs, performed in two tokamaks - COMPASS in Prague and FTU in Frascati, are summarized and discussed in this paper. Examples of the electron-induced signals, as recorded at different experimental conditions and scenarios, are presented. Measurements performed with a three-channel Cherenkov-probe in COMPASS showed that the first fast electron peaks can be observed already during the current ramp-up phase. A strong dependence of RE-signals on the radial position of the Cherenkov probe was observed. The most distinct electron peaks were recorded during the plasma disruption. The Cherenkov signals confirmed the appearance of post-disruptive RE beams in circular-plasma discharges with massive Ar-puffing. During experiments at FTU a clear correlation between the Cherenkov detector signals and the rotation of magnetic islands was identified.

  13. Renormalization of effective mass in self-assembled quantum dots due to electron-electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinski, A; Korkusinski, M; Hawrylak, P; Wasilewski, Z R; Potemski, M

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic-field dispersion of the multiexcitons related to the p shell of a single quantum dot (QD) is analysed in this work. The reduced cyclotron effective mass of carriers is determined from the energy splitting between the p + - and p − - related multiexcitonic emission lines. The reduced mass in the occupied QD was found to be larger than the mass related to the QD's single particle structure. The apparent increase of the reduced mass with increasing excitonic occupation of the dot is related to the mass renoralization due to electron-electron interactions within a multiexcitonic droplet

  14. Electron inertia effects for an electron fluid model by the applied-B ion diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, A V; Levchenko, S V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation). Nuclear Fusion Institute

    1997-12-31

    Numerical calculations within the framework of the one-dimensional vortex-like electron fluid model in applied-B ion diodes, taking account the electron inertia effects, are presented. The existence of the additional relation between the magnetic field and the electric potential offers an opportunity to reduce the ion diode problem to the system of the algebraic equations for the constants introduced. The ion current density in an ion diode is determined only by the magnetic flux cut out by the virtual cathode. As an illustration, the ion diode impedance for the KALIF device was calculated. (author). 2 figs., 6 refs.

  15. Outsourcing an Effective Postdischarge Call Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Kevin L.; Williams, Paula; Unterschuetz, Caryn J.

    2018-01-01

    To improve patient satisfaction ratings and decrease readmissions, many organizations utilize internal staff to complete postdischarge calls to recently released patients. Developing, implementing, monitoring, and sustaining an effective call program can be challenging and have eluded some of the renowned medical centers in the country. Using collaboration with an outsourced vendor to bring state-of-the-art call technology and staffed with specially trained callers, health systems can achieve elevated levels of engagement and satisfaction for their patients postdischarge. PMID:29494453

  16. Reference drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a common reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a process of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs, and others are considering

  17. THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF THE STUDENTS’ ELECTRONIC PORTFOLIO FORMATION IN TERMS OF THE HIGHER EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Dementieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the description of the main problems of formation of the student’s electronic portfolio in the conditions of realization of Federal State Educational Standards of the Higher Education (FSES of HE.Methods.Theoretical analysis of scientific literature concerning the subject under discussion; monitoring of existing practices in modern Russian Universities procedures for the formation and maintenance of students electronic portfolio.Results. The author describes the main problems of the electronic students’ portfolio formation; some ways of solving described problems are offered.Scientific novelty concludes in the formation of key ideas of the electronic students’ portfolio based on the understanding of requirements of Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education for the results of mastering educational programs. They are the formation of general cultural, general professional and professional competences.Practical significance. The researching results will become the theoretical basis for the systematic organization of the process of creating and maintaining an electronic students’ portfolio during the whole period of their studying at the university; the researching results can become a basis for methodological developments.

  18. EMSH program for calculating electron and photon transport through a matter at energies of 10 keV-1TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayurskij, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The EMSH program (Electro-Magnetic Shower) for the calculation of 1 keV-1 TeV electron and photon transport through a substance is described. The program is written in FORTRAN for the ES computers. Electron and positron bremsstrahlung, e - e - - and e + e - scattering, positron annihilation, production of e + e - -pairs by photons, photon. Compton scattering, photoelectric effect, photon Rayleigh scattering are taken into account during calculations. The cross sections of these processes are assigned with the 3-10% accuracy. Energy losses for atom ionization and excitation and bremsstrahlung, as well as multiple scattering are taken into account for charged particles. The program is used to calculate electron conversion into positrons, to estimate accelerator radiation background, to simulate electromagnetic showers in electromagntic calorimeters. 37 refs.; 15 figs

  19. Relativistic effects in elastic scattering of electrons in TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rother, Axel; Scheerschmidt, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy typically works with highly accelerated thus relativistic electrons. Consequently the scattering process is described within a relativistic formalism. In the following, we will examine three different relativistic formalisms for elastic electron scattering: Dirac, Klein-Gordon and approximated Klein-Gordon, the standard approach. This corresponds to a different consideration of spin effects and a different coupling to electromagnetic potentials. A detailed comparison is conducted by means of explicit numerical calculations. For this purpose two different formalisms have been applied to the approaches above: a numerical integration with predefined boundary conditions and the multislice algorithm, a standard procedure for such simulations. The results show a negligibly small difference between the different relativistic equations in the vicinity of electromagnetic potentials, prevailing in the electron microscope. The differences between the two numeric approaches are found to be small for small-angle scattering but eventually grow large for large-angle scattering, recorded for instance in high-angle annular dark field.

  20. Effects of Enhanced Eathode Electron Emission on Hall Thruster Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Smirnov, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Interesting discharge phenomena are observed that have to do with the interaction between the magnetized Hall thruster plasma and the neutralizing cathode. The steadystate parameters of a highly ionized thruster discharge are strongly influenced by the electron supply from the cathode. The enhancement of the cathode electron emission above its self-sustained level affects the discharge current and leads to a dramatic reduction of the plasma divergence and a suppression of large amplitude, low frequency discharge current oscillations usually related to an ionization instability. These effects correlate strongly with the reduction of the voltage drop in the region with the fringing magnetic field between the thruster channel and the cathode. The measured changes of the plasma properties suggest that the electron emission affects the electron cross-field transport in the thruster discharge. These trends are generalized for Hall thrusters of various configurations.

  1. Development of Geometrical Quality Control Real-time Analysis Program using an Electronic Portal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rok; Jung, Kyung Yong; Jang, Min Sun; Lee, Byung Gu; Kwon, Young Ho

    2012-01-01

    To develop a geometrical quality control real-time analysis program using an electronic portal imaging to replace film evaluation method. A geometrical quality control item was established with the Eclipse treatment planning system (Version 8.1, Varian, USA) after the Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) took care of the problems occurring from the fixed substructure of the linear accelerator (CL-iX, Varian, USA). Electronic portal image (single exposure before plan) was created at the treatment room's 4DTC (Version 10.2, Varian, USA) and a beam was irradiated in accordance with each item. The gaining the entire electronic portal imaging at the Off-line review and was evaluated by a self-developed geometrical quality control real-time analysis program. As for evaluation methods, the intra-fraction error was analyzed by executing 5 times in a row under identical conditions and procedures on the same day, and in order to confirm the infer-fraction error, it was executed for 10 days under identical conditions of all procedures and was compared with the film evaluation method using an Iso-align quality control device. Measurement and analysis time was measured by sorting the time into from the device setup to data achievement and the time amount after the time until the completion of analysis and the convenience of the users and execution processes were compared. The intra-fraction error values for each average 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.2 mm at light-radiation field coincidence, collimator rotation axis, couch rotation axis and gantry rotation axis. By checking the infer-fraction error through 10 days of continuous quality control, the error values obtained were average 1.7, 1.4, 0.7, 1.1 mm for each item. Also, the measurement times were average 36 minutes, 15 minutes for the film evaluation method and electronic portal imaging system, and the analysis times were average 30 minutes, 22 minutes. When conducting a geometrical quality control using an electronic portal imaging

  2. Effects of electron inertia in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrés, Nahuel, E-mail: nandres@iafe.uba.ar; Gómez, Daniel [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CC. 67, suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Univrsidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martin, Luis; Dmitruk, Pablo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Univrsidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-07-15

    We present a study of collisionless magnetic reconnection within the framework of full two-fluid MHD for a completely ionized hydrogen plasma, retaining the effects of the Hall current, electron pressure and electron inertia. We performed 2.5D simulations using a pseudo-spectral code with no dissipative effects. We check that the ideal invariants of the problem are conserved down to round-off errors. Our numerical results confirm that the change in the topology of the magnetic field lines is exclusively due to the presence of electron inertia. The computed reconnection rates remain a fair fraction of the Alfvén velocity, which therefore qualifies as fast reconnection.

  3. Effects of electron irradiation on LDPE/MWCNT composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Xingji, E-mail: lxj0218@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Chaoming; Rui, Erming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Liqin [School of Mechatronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, mutiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were incorporated into low density polyethylene (LDPE) in different concentrations (2%, 4% and 8%) using a melt blending process. Structural, thermal stability and tensile property of the unirradiated/irradiated LDPE/MWCNT composites by 110 keV electrons were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Raman spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and uniaxial tensile techniques. Experimental results show that the addition of MWCNTs obviously increases the ultimate tensile strength of LDPE and decreases the elongation at break, which is attributed to the homogeneous distribution of the MWCNTs in LDPE and intense interaction between MWCNTs and LDPE matrix. Also, the electron irradiation further increases the ultimate tensile strength of LDPE/MWCNT composites, which can be ascribed to the more intense interaction between MWCNTs and LDPE matrix, and the formation of crosslinking sites in LDPE matrix induced by the electron irradiation. The addition of MWCNTs significantly enhances thermal stability of the LDPE due to the hindering effect and the scavenging free radicals, while the electron irradiation decreases thermal stability of the LDPE/MWCNT composites since the structure of the MWCNTs and LDPE matrix damages.

  4. Automated processing of dynamic properties of intraventricular pressure by computer program and electronic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, D; Mahler, Y

    1980-04-01

    A procedure for automatic detection and digital processing of the maximum first derivative of the intraventricular pressure (dp/dtmax), time to dp/dtmax(t - dp/dt) and beat-to-beat intervals have been developed. The procedure integrates simple electronic circuits with a short program using a simple algorithm for the detection of the points of interest. The tasks of differentiating the pressure signal and detecting the onset of contraction were done by electronics, while the tasks of finding the values of dp/dtmax, t - dp/dt, beat-to-beat intervals and all computations needed were done by software. Software/hardware 'trade off' considerations and the accuracy and reliability of the system are discussed.

  5. Electron energy distribution function, effective electron temperature, and dust charge in the temporal afterglow of a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denysenko, I. B.; Azarenkov, N. A.; Kersten, H.

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions describing the variation of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an afterglow of a plasma are obtained. Especially, the case when the electron energy loss is mainly due to momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is considered. The study is carried out for different EEDFs in the steady state, including Maxwellian and Druyvesteyn distributions. The analytical results are not only obtained for the case when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy but also for the case when the collisions are a power function of electron energy. Using analytical expressions for the EEDF, the effective electron temperature and charge of the dust particles, which are assumed to be present in plasma, are calculated for different afterglow durations. An analytical expression for the rate describing collection of electrons by dust particles for the case when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy is also derived. The EEDF profile and, as a result, the effective electron temperature and dust charge are sufficiently different in the cases when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy and when the rate is a power function of electron energy.

  6. Summary: Electron-cloud effects and fast-ion instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    This is my summary of the talks on the electron-cloud effect and the fast-ion instability that were presented at the 8th ICFA Beam Dynamics Mini-Work shop on Two-Stream Instabilities in Particle Accelerators and Storage Rings,Santa Fe, NM, February 16--18, 2000

  7. Effects of electronic outlining on students' argumentative writing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, M.R.J.; Broekkamp, H.; Brand-Gruwel, S.; Kirschner, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of electronic outlining on the quality of students' writing products and how outlining affects perceived mental effort during the writing task. Additionally, it was studied how students appropriate and appreciate an outline tool and whether they need explicit

  8. Lower-hybrid wave penetration and effects on electron population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, L.; Grelot, P.; Parlange, F.; Weisse, J.

    1981-01-01

    In a high-power-density lower-hybrid experiment (approximately 10kW.cm -2 ), a parallel index spectrum was measured and the radial position where sidebands are excited was deduced from pump and sideband wavenumber measurements. On this basis, some considerations on wave propagation are given which are compatible with some effects observed on electron population. (author)

  9. Effective atomic number, electron density and kerma of gamma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An attempt has been made to estimate the effective atomic number, electron density (0.001 to 105 MeV) and kerma (0.001 to 20 MeV) of gamma radiation for a wide range of oxides of ... The lanthanide oxides find remarkable applications in the field of medicine, biology, nuclear engineering and space technology.

  10. Radiation effects on and dose enhancement of electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srour, J.R.; Long, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes radiation effects on and dose enhancement factors for electronic materials. Alteration of the electrical properties of solid-state devices and integrated circuits by impinging radiation is well-known. Such changes may cause an electronic subsystem to fail, thus there is currently great interest in devising methods for avoiding radiation-induced degradation. The development of radiation-hardened devices and circuits is an exciting approach to solving this problem for many applications, since it could minimize the need for shielding or other system hardening techniques. Part 1 describes the basic mechanisms of radiation effects on electronic materials, devices, and integrated circuits. Radiation effects in bulk silicon and in silicon devices are treated. Ionizing radiation effects in silicon dioxide films and silicon MOS devices are discussed. Single event phenomena are considered. Key literature references and a bibliography are provided. Part II provides tabulations of dose enhancement factors for electronic devices in x-ray and gamma-ray environments. The data are applicable to a wide range of semiconductor devices and selected types of capacitors. Radiation environments discussed find application in system design and in radiation test facilities

  11. The electron irradiation effects in different structures of diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Quanfen; Wang Jiaxu

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the different electron irradiation effects in different structures of diodes and the different results produced by different irradiation ways. From this work, we can know how to choose proper manufacture arts and comprehensive factors according to the structures of diodes and the irradiation conditions

  12. The effect of oxygen exposure on pentacene electronic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, A; Jurchescu, OD; Arfaoui, [No Value; Salzmann, [No Value; Palstra, TTM; Rudolf, P; Niemax, J; Pflaum, J; Rabe, JP; Koch, N; Arfaoui, I.; Salzmann, I.

    We use ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate the effect of oxygen and air exposure on the electronic structure of pentacene single crystals and thin films. it is found that O-2 and water do not react noticeably with pentacene, whereas singlet oxygen/ozone readily oxidize the organic

  13. Effects of electronic outlining on the organization of text ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Broekkamp, Hein; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Broekkamp, H., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, August). Effects of electronic outlining on the organization of text ideas. Presentation at the annual meeting of the Junior Researchers of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Exeter, UK.

  14. Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Broekkamp, Hein; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Broekkamp, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(6), 557-574. doi: 0.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00418.x

  15. Effectiveness of comprehensive care programs for patients with multiple chronic conditions or frailty : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, Petra; De Bruin, Simone R.; Forjaz, Maria João; Rodriguez-blazquez, Carmen; Tonnara, Giuseppe; Lemmens, Lidwien C.; Onder, Graziano; Baan, Caroline A.; Rijken, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe comprehensive care programs targeting multimorbid and/or frail patients and to estimate their effectiveness regarding improvement of patient and caregiver related outcomes, healthcare utilization and costs. Methods Systematic search in six electronic databases for scientific

  16. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  17. Effect of a computer-guided, quality improvement program for cardiovascular disease risk management in primary health care: the treatment of cardiovascular risk using electronic decision support cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, David; Usherwood, Tim; Panaretto, Kathryn; Harris, Mark; Hunt, Jennifer; Redfern, Julie; Zwar, Nicholas; Colagiuri, Stephen; Hayman, Noel; Lo, Serigne; Patel, Bindu; Lyford, Marilyn; MacMahon, Stephen; Neal, Bruce; Sullivan, David; Cass, Alan; Jackson, Rod; Patel, Anushka

    2015-01-01

    Despite effective treatments to reduce cardiovascular disease risk, their translation into practice is limited. Using a parallel arm cluster-randomized controlled trial in 60 Australian primary healthcare centers, we tested whether a multifaceted quality improvement intervention comprising computerized decision support, audit/feedback tools, and staff training improved (1) guideline-indicated risk factor measurements and (2) guideline-indicated medications for those at high cardiovascular disease risk. Centers had to use a compatible software system, and eligible patients were regular attendees (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged ≥ 35 years and others aged ≥ 45 years). Patient-level analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering. Median follow-up for 38,725 patients (mean age, 61.0 years; 42% men) was 17.5 months. Mean monthly staff support was improved overall risk factor measurements (62.8% versus 53.4% risk ratio; 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.50; P=0.02), but there was no significant differences in recommended prescriptions for the high-risk cohort (n=10,308; 56.8% versus 51.2%; P=0.12). There were significant treatment escalations (new prescriptions or increased numbers of medicines) for antiplatelet (17.9% versus 2.7%; Pquality improvement intervention, requiring minimal support, improved cardiovascular disease risk measurement but did not increase prescription rates in the high-risk group. Computerized quality improvement tools offer an important, albeit partial, solution to improving primary healthcare system capacity for cardiovascular disease risk management. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=336630. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No. 12611000478910. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Quantum interference effects for the electronic fluctuations in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.G.G.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas; Hussein, M.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Barbosa, A.L.R. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UAEADTec/UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Ensino a Distancia. Pos-Graduacao em Fisica Aplicada

    2014-07-01

    For the main quantum interference term of coherent electronic transport, we study the effect of temperature, perpendicular and/or parallel magnetic fields, spin-orbit coupling and tunneling rates in both metallic grains and mesoscopic heterostructures. We show that the Zeeman effects determines a crucial way to characterize the quantum interference phenomena of the noise for anisotropic systems (mesoscopic heterostructures), qualitatively distinct from those observed in isotropic structures (metallic grains). (author)

  19. Quantum interference effects for the electronic fluctuations in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, J.G.G.S.; Hussein, M.S.; Barbosa, A.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    For the main quantum interference term of coherent electronic transport, we study the effect of temperature, perpendicular and/or parallel magnetic fields, spin-orbit coupling and tunneling rates in both metallic grains and mesoscopic heterostructures. We show that the Zeeman effects determines a crucial way to characterize the quantum interference phenomena of the noise for anisotropic systems (mesoscopic heterostructures), qualitatively distinct from those observed in isotropic structures (metallic grains). (author)

  20. Effective atomic number and electron density of marble concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkurt, I.; El-Khayatt, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and effective electron density (N e ) of different type concrete have been measured and the results were compared with the calculation obtained using the mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) obtained via XCOM in the photon energy range of 1 keV-100 GeV. Six different concrete in where marble has been used in the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 %, has been used in the study. (author)

  1. Investigation of effect of electron beam on various polyethylene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morshedian, J.; Pourrashidi, A.

    2003-01-01

    With regards to the expanding usage of electron beams irradiation in polymer industries such as sterilization of polymeric disposable medical products; cable manufacturing; pipes, heat shrinkable materials, etc. In this project the effect of electron beam on polyethylene used in manufacturing of pipe and heat shrinkable products was studied. Results showed that by increasing the applied dose on samples; the crosslink density would increase and polymers with tertiary carbon atoms in their backbone structure tend to crosslink more readily. The melting temperature and crystallinity percent decreased and degradation temperature increased. Density in low doses decreased and in high doses increased

  2. Investigation of effect of electron beam on various polyethylene blends

    CERN Document Server

    Morshedian, J

    2003-01-01

    With regards to the expanding usage of electron beams irradiation in polymer industries such as sterilization of polymeric disposable medical products; cable manufacturing; pipes, heat shrinkable materials, etc. In this project the effect of electron beam on polyethylene used in manufacturing of pipe and heat shrinkable products was studied. Results showed that by increasing the applied dose on samples; the crosslink density would increase and polymers with tertiary carbon atoms in their backbone structure tend to crosslink more readily. The melting temperature and crystallinity percent decreased and degradation temperature increased. Density in low doses decreased and in high doses increased.

  3. Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-11-01

    Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

  4. Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

  5. Computer programs for unit-cell determination in electron diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.Z.

    2005-01-01

    A set of computer programs for unit-cell determination from an electron diffraction tilt series and pattern indexing has been developed on the basis of several well-established algorithms. In this approach, a reduced direct primitive cell is first determined from experimental data, in the means time, the measurement errors of the tilt angles are checked and minimized. The derived primitive cell is then checked for possible higher lattice symmetry and transformed into a proper conventional cell. Finally a least-squares refinement procedure is adopted to generate optimum lattice parameters on the basis of the lengths of basic reflections in each diffraction pattern and the indices of these reflections. Examples are given to show the usage of the programs

  6. Free-electron laser research-and-development and utilization program at Tokai, JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawarasaki, Yuuki

    1992-01-01

    The free-electron laser (FEL) research and development (R and D) and utilization program now underway at the Linac Laboratory, Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, is presented together with the current status of the R and D. Specific feature of this program is at the points that the R and D period will range over a long time, around a decade, tentatively divided into three developmental phases, aiming at the final utilization in a field of nuclear energy industry and the FEL here under R and D is based on a superconducting (SC) linear accelerator (linac) which will in later phases be incorporated with addition of more SC-cavity modules for beam energy increase and with adoption of rather novel accelerator technique: beam recirculation both for further energy increase and for power economy by beam energy recovery. Application scheme is additionally discussed. (author)

  7. Precessed electron beam electron energy loss spectroscopy of graphene: Beyond channelling effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedra, Ll.; Estradé, S., E-mail: sestrade@ub.edu [LENS, MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); TEM-MAT, CCiT, Universitat de Barcelona, Solé i Sabarís 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Torruella, P.; Eljarrat, A.; Peiró, F. [LENS, MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Darbal, A. D. [AppFive LLC, 1095 W Rio Salado Pkway, Suite 110, Tempe, Arizona 85281 (United States); Weiss, J. K. [AppFive LLC, 1095 W Rio Salado Pkway, Suite 110, Tempe, Arizona 85281 (United States); NanoMEGAS SPRL, Blvd. Edmond Machtens 79, B-1080 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-08-04

    The effects of beam precession on the Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) signal of the carbon K edge in a 2 monolayer graphene sheet are studied. In a previous work, we demonstrated the use of precession to compensate for the channeling-induced reduction of EELS signal when in zone axis. In the case of graphene, no enhancement of EELS signal is found in the usual experimental conditions, as graphene is not thick enough to present channeling effects. Interestingly, though it is found that precession makes it possible to increase the collection angle, and, thus, the overall signal, without a loss of signal-to-background ratio.

  8. Effect of resonant-to-bulk electron momentum transfer on the efficiency of electron-cyclotron current-drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Smith, G.R.; Cohen, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Efficiency of current drive by electron cyclotron waves is investigated numerically by a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code to ellucidate the effects of momentum transfer from resonant to bulk-electrons, finite bulk temperature relative to the energy of resonant electrons, and trapped electrons. Comparisons are made with existing theories to assess their validity and quantitative difference between theory and code results. Difference of nearly a factor of 2 was found in efficiency between some theory and code results. (author)

  9. Effects of energetic electrons on the electrodynamics in the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aksnes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available From the observations by the PIXIE and UVI cameras on board the Polar satellite, we derive global maps of the precipitating electron energy spectra from less than 1keV to 100keV. Based on the electron spectra, we generate instantaneous global maps of Hall and Pedersen conductances. The UVI camera provides good coverage of the lower electron energies contributing most to the Pedersen conductance, while PIXIE captures the high energy component of the precipitating electrons affecting the Hall conductance. By characterizing the energetic electrons from some tens of keV and up to about 100keV using PIXIE X-ray measurements, we will, in most cases, calculate a larger electron flux at higher energies than estimated from a simple extrapolation of derived electron spectra from UVI alone. Instantaneous global conductance maps derived with and without inclusion of PIXIE data have been implemented in the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE procedure, to study the effects of energetic electrons on electrodynamical parameters in the ionosphere. We find that the improved electron spectral characterization using PIXIE data most often results in a larger Hall conductance and a smaller inferred electric field. In some localized regions the increase in the Hall conductance can exceed 100%. On the contrary, the Pedersen conductance remains more or less unaffected by the inclusion of the PIXIE data. The calculated polar cap potential drop may decrease more than 10%, resulting in a reduction of the estimated Joule heating integrated over the Northern Hemisphere by up to 20%. Locally, Joule heating may decrease more than 50% in some regions. We also find that the calculated energy flux by precipitating electrons increases around 5% when including the PIXIE data. Combined with the reduction of Joule heating, this results in a decrease in the ratio between Joule heating and energy flux, sometimes exceeding 25%. An investigation of the relationship

  10. ePORT, NASA's Computer Database Program for System Safety Risk Management Oversight (Electronic Project Online Risk Tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    ePORT (electronic Project Online Risk Tool) provides a systematic approach to using an electronic database program to manage a program/project risk management processes. This presentation will briefly cover the standard risk management procedures, then thoroughly cover NASA's Risk Management tool called ePORT. This electronic Project Online Risk Tool (ePORT) is a web-based risk management program that provides a common framework to capture and manage risks, independent of a programs/projects size and budget. It is used to thoroughly cover the risk management paradigm providing standardized evaluation criterion for common management reporting, ePORT improves Product Line, Center and Corporate Management insight, simplifies program/project manager reporting, and maintains an archive of data for historical reference.

  11. Spin effects in medium-energy electron-3He scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Brand, J.F.J.; Alarcon, R.; Bauer, T.

    1998-01-01

    New physics can be accessed by scattering polarized electrons from a polarized 3 He internal gas target. It is discussed how the asymmetries for the reactions 3 vector He(vector e,e'), 3 vector He(vector e,e'p), 3 vector He(vector e,e'n), 3 vector He(vector e,e'd), and 3 vector He(vector e,e'pn) may provide precise information on the S' and the D-wave parts of the 3 He ground-state wave function, the neutron form factors, and the role of spin-dependent reaction mechanism effects. The experiment uses up to 900 MeV (polarized) electrons from the AmPS storage ring in Amsterdam, Netherlands, in combination with large acceptance electron and hadron detectors. (orig.)

  12. Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghee; Bae, Youngmin [Changwon Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination was investigated in this research. Electron beam of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy was irradiated to the seeds of lettuce, green onion and cucumber, and the irradiated seeds were incubated at 25 .deg. Cn Nitsch medium solidified with 0.2% Phytagel. Germination percentage and the length of the sprouts were determined after 72 hours. Germination percentage of lettuce seeds was greatly reduced by the irradiation, and that of the green onion and cucumber were moderately reduced or unchanged by the irradiation. Although average length of the lettuce sprouts was reduced severely, that of the green onion and cucumber was unchanged or moderately reduced. Conclusively, electron beam irradiation might be a useful way of disinfecting some plant seeds including green onion and cucumber.

  13. Intermolecular thermoelectric-like effects in molecular nano electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabzyan, H.; Safari, R.

    2012-01-01

    Intramolecular thermoelectric-like coefficients are introduced and computed of a single molecule nano electronic system. Values of the electronic Intramolecular thermoelectric-like coefficients are calculated based on the density and energy transfers between different parts of the molecule using quantum theory of atoms in molecule. Since, Joule and Peltier heating are even (symmetrical) and odd (antisymmetric) functions of the external bias, it is possible to divide Intramolecular thermoelectric-like coefficients into two components, symmetrical and antisymmetrical Intramolecular thermoelectric-like coefficients, which describe the intramolecular Joule-like and Peltier-like effects, respectively. In addition, a semiclassical temperature model is presented to describe intramolecular temperature mapping (intramolecular energy distributions) in molecular nano electronic systems.

  14. Effect of re-heating on the hot electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, K.; Rosen, M.

    1980-01-01

    Resonant absorption is the direct conversion of the transverse laser light to longitudinal electron plasma waves (epw) at the critical density [10 21 (1.06 μm/lambda 0 ) 2 cm -3 ]. The oscillating longitudinal electric field of the epw heats the electrons by accelerating them down the density gradient to a temperature of approximately 21T/sub e/ 0 25 ([I(W/cm 2 )/10 16 ](lambda 0 /1.06 μm) 2 ) 0 4 . This section extends the previous work by studying the effects of magnetic fields and collisions (albedo) which return the heated electrons for further heating. A magnetic field increases their temperature and collisions do not

  15. Effects of electrostatic interactions on electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickel, B.

    1987-01-01

    The fast reactions of electron transfer are studied by pulse radiolysis. This technique allows the creation in about 10 -8 second radicals and radical ions with high redox potentials. For solvated electrons electrostatic interaction on the kinetics of reactions limited by diffusion is described by Debye's equation when ion mobility is known. Deviation from theory can occur in ion pairs formation. This is evidenced experimentally for anions by cation complexation with a cryptate. Relatively slow reactions are more sensitive to electrostatic interactions than limited by diffusion. If ion pairs are not formed kinetics constant depends on dielectric constant of solvent and reaction radius. Experimentally is studied the effect of electrostatic interaction on the rate constants of solvated electrons with anions and cations in water-ethanol mixtures where the dielectric constant change from 80 to 25 at room temperature. 17 refs

  16. Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seunghee; Bae, Youngmin

    2013-01-01

    Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination was investigated in this research. Electron beam of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy was irradiated to the seeds of lettuce, green onion and cucumber, and the irradiated seeds were incubated at 25 .deg. Cn Nitsch medium solidified with 0.2% Phytagel. Germination percentage and the length of the sprouts were determined after 72 hours. Germination percentage of lettuce seeds was greatly reduced by the irradiation, and that of the green onion and cucumber were moderately reduced or unchanged by the irradiation. Although average length of the lettuce sprouts was reduced severely, that of the green onion and cucumber was unchanged or moderately reduced. Conclusively, electron beam irradiation might be a useful way of disinfecting some plant seeds including green onion and cucumber

  17. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Roadmap for FY15 and Beyond and Recent Radiation Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Roadmap for FY15 and Beyond. This roadmap provides a snapshot for current plans and collaborations on testing and evaluation of electronics as well as a discussion of the technology selection approach.

  18. Effect of protonation on the electronic properties of DNA base pairs: applications for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallajosyula, Sairam S; Pati, Swapan K

    2007-10-11

    Protonation of DNA basepairs is a reversible phenomenon that can be controlled by tuning the pH of the system. Under mild acidic conditions, the hydrogen-bonding pattern of the DNA basepairs undergoes a change. We study the effect of protonation on the electronic properties of the DNA basepairs to probe for possible molecular electronics applications. We find that, under mild acidic pH conditions, the A:T basepair shows excellent rectification behavior that is, however, absent in the G:C basepair. The mechanism of rectification has been discussed using a simple chemical potential model. We also consider the noncanonical A:A basepair and find that it can be used as efficient pH dependent molecular switch. The switching action in the A:A basepair is explained in the light of pi-pi interactions, which lead to efficient delocalization over the entire basepair.

  19. Theory and measurement of the electron cloud effect

    CERN Document Server

    Harkay, K C

    1999-01-01

    Photoelectrons produced through the interaction of synchrotron radiation and the vacuum chamber walls can be accelerated by a charged particle beam, acquiring sufficient energy to produce secondary electrons (SEs) in collisions with the walls. If the secondary-electron yield (SEY) coefficient of the wall material is greater than one, a runaway condition can develop. In addition to the SEY, the degree of amplification depends on the beam intensity and temporal distribution. As the electron cloud builds up along a train of stored bunches, a transverse perturbation of the head bunch can be communicated to trailing bunches in a wakefield-like interaction with the cloud. The electron cloud effect is especially of concern for the high-intensity PEP-II (SLAC) and KEK B-factories and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. An initiative was undertaken at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring to characterize the electron cloud in order to provide realistic limits on critical input parameters in the models ...

  20. Magnetic effects in the paraxial regime of elastic electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Alexander; Lubk, Axel; Rusz, Ján

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by a recent claim [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 127203 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.127203] that electron vortex beams can be used to image magnetism at the nanoscale in elastic scattering experiments, using transmission electron microscopy, a comprehensive computational study is performed to study magnetic effects in the paraxial regime of elastic electron scattering in magnetic solids. Magnetic interactions from electron vortex beams, spin polarized electron beams, and beams with phase aberrations are considered, as they pass through ferromagnetic FePt or antiferromagnetic LaMnAsO. The magnetic signals are obtained by comparing the intensity over a disk in the diffraction plane for beams with opposite angular momentum or aberrations. The strongest magnetic signals are obtained from vortex beams with large orbital angular momentum, where relative magnetic signals above 10-3 are indicated for 10 ℏ orbital angular momentum, meaning that relative signals of one percent could be expected with the even larger orbital angular momenta, which have been produced in experimental setups. All results indicate that beams with low acceleration voltage and small convergence angles yield stronger magnetic signals, which is unfortunately problematic for the possibility of high spatial resolution imaging. Nevertheless, under atomic resolution conditions, relative magnetic signals in the order of 10-4 are demonstrated, corresponding to an increase with one order of magnitude compared to previous work.

  1. Electron effects in the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eylon, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), MS47R 0112, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States) and Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory, Cyclotron Road, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: S_Eylon@lbl.gov; Henestroza, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), MS47R 0112, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory, Cyclotron Road, CA 94720 (United States); Roy, P.K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), MS47R 0112, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory, Cyclotron Road, CA 94720 (United States); Yu, S.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), MS47R 0112, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory, Cyclotron Road, CA 94720 (United States)

    2005-05-21

    The Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high-perveance heavy ion beams. To focus a high-intensity beam to a small spot requires a high-brightness beam. In the NTX experiment, a potassium ion beam of up to 400 keV and 80 mA is generated in a Pierce-type diode. At the diode exit, an aperture with variable opening provides the capability to vary the beam perveance. The beam is transported through four quadrupole magnets to a distance of 2.5 m. The beam can be neutralized and focused using a MEVVA plasma plug and a RF plasma source. We shall report on the measurement of the electron effects and the ways to mitigate the effects. Furthermore, we shall present the results of EGUN calculations consistent with the measurements effects of the electrons.

  2. Electron effects in the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high-perveance heavy ion beams. To focus a high-intensity beam to a small spot requires a high-brightness beam. In the NTX experiment, a potassium ion beam of up to 400 keV and 80 mA is generated in a Pierce-type diode. At the diode exit, an aperture with variable opening provides the capability to vary the beam perveance. The beam is transported through four quadrupole magnets to a distance of 2.5 m. The beam can be neutralized and focused using a MEVVA plasma plug and a RF plasma source. We shall report on the measurement of the electron effects and the ways to mitigate the effects. Furthermore, we shall present the results of EGUN calculations consistent with the measurements effects of the electrons

  3. Electron effects in the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Roy, P. K.; Yu, S. S.

    2005-05-01

    The Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high-perveance heavy ion beams. To focus a high-intensity beam to a small spot requires a high-brightness beam. In the NTX experiment, a potassium ion beam of up to 400 keV and 80 mA is generated in a Pierce-type diode. At the diode exit, an aperture with variable opening provides the capability to vary the beam perveance. The beam is transported through four quadrupole magnets to a distance of 2.5 m. The beam can be neutralized and focused using a MEVVA plasma plug and a RF plasma source. We shall report on the measurement of the electron effects and the ways to mitigate the effects. Furthermore, we shall present the results of EGUN calculations consistent with the measurements effects of the electrons.

  4. Electronic structure of molecules using relativistic effective core potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Starting with one-component Cowan-Griffin relativistic Hartree-Fock orbitals, which successfully incorporate the mass-velocity and Darwin terms present in more complicated wavefunctions such as Dirac-Hartree-Fock, one can derive relativistic effective core potentials (RECP's) to carry out molecular calculations. These potentials implicitly include the dominant relativistic terms for molecules while allowing one to use the traditional quantum chemical techniques for studying the electronic structure of molecules. The effects of spin-orbit coupling can then be included using orbitals from such calculations using an effective 1-electron, 1-center spin-orbit operator. Applications to molecular systems involving heavy atoms, show good agreement with available spectroscopic data on molecular geometries and excitation energies

  5. A theoretical model on surface electronic behavior: Strain effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, W.G.; Shaw, D.

    2009-01-01

    Deformation from mechanical loading can affect surface electronic behavior. Surface deformation and electronic behavior can be quantitatively expressed using strain and work function, respectively, and their experimental relationship can be readily determined using the Kelvin probing technique. However, the theoretical correlation between work function and strain has been unclear. This study reports our theoretical exploration, for the first time, of the effect of strain on work function. We propose a simple electrostatic action model by considering the effect of a dislocation on work function of a one-dimensional lattice and further extend this model to the complex conditions for the effect of dislocation density. Based on this model, we established successfully a theoretical correlation between work function and strain.

  6. General theory for environmental effects on (vertical) electronic excitation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Tobias

    2016-10-21

    Almost 70 years ago, the first theoretical model for environmental effects on electronic excitation energies has been derived. Since then, several different interpretations and refined models have been proposed for the perichromic shift of a chromophore due to its surrounding medium. Some of these models are contradictory. Here, the contributing terms are derived within the framework of long-range perturbation theory with the least approximations so far. The derivation is based on a state-specific interpretation of the interaction energies and all terms can be identified with individual properties of either the chromophore or the surroundings, respectively. Further, the much debated contribution due to transition moments coupled to the environment can be verified in the form of a non-resonant excitonic coupling to the dynamic polarizabilities in the environment. These general insights should clarify discussions and interpretations of environmental effects on electronic excitations and should foster the development of new models for the computation of these effects.

  7. Department of Energy security program needs effective information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Although security is an important, nearly billion-dollar-a-year function in the Department of Energy (DOE), key information systems that hold important data about security weaknesses and incidents have limited analytical capabilities and contain unreliable information. The resultant difficulty in identifying patterns and trends reduces managers' ability to ensure the effectiveness of the security program. Resources are also wasted because DOE has deployed incompatible systems that are unable to electronically share or transfer data, often forcing employees to manually re-enter data that are already stored in computers elsewhere. Finally, continuing data problems with other important security information systems, such as those used to track security clearances and classified documents, indicate that information system deficiencies are extensive. A major reason for these problems is that DOE has not done a comprehensive, strategic assessment of its information and information technology needs of the security program. DOE's efforts are fragmented because it has not assigned to any organization the leadership responsibility to determine security information needs and to plan and manage security information resources Department-wide. This paper reports that a number of changes are needed to correct these problems and take advantage of information technology to help strengthen the security program

  8. Effect of proton transfer on the electronic coupling in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rak, Janusz; Makowska, Joanna; Voityuk, Alexander A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of single and double proton transfer within Watson-Crick base pairs on donor-acceptor electronic couplings, V da , in DNA are studied on the bases of quantum chemical calculations. Four dimers [AT,AT], [GC,GC], [GC,AT] and [GC,TA)] are considered. Three techniques - the generalized Mulliken-Hush scheme, the fragment charge method and the diabatic states method - are employed to estimate V da for hole transfer between base pairs. We show that both single- and double proton transfer (PT) reactions may substantially affect the electronic coupling in DNA. The electronic coupling in [AT,AT] is predicted to be most sensitive to PT. Single PT within the first base pair in the dimer leads to increase in the hole transfer efficiency by a factor of 4, while proton transfer within the second pair should substantially, by 2.7 times, decrease the rate of charge transfer. Thus, directional asymmetry of the PT effects on the electronic coupling is predicted. The changes in the V da matrix elements correlate with the topological properties of orbitals of donor and acceptor and can be qualitatively rationalized in terms of resonance structures of donor and acceptor. Atomic pair contributions to the V da matrix elements are also analyzed

  9. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Readout Electronics Upgrade Program for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The ATLAS upgrade program is divided in three phases: The Phase 0 occurs during 2013-2014 and prepares the LHC to reach peak luminosities of 1034 cm2s-1; Phase 1, foreseen for 2018-1019, prepares the LHC for peak luminosity up to 2-3 x 1034 cm2s-1, corresponding to 55 to 80 interactions per bunch-crossing with 25 ns bunch interval; and Phase 2 is foreseen for 2022-2023, whereafter the peak luminosity will reach 5-7 x 1034 cm2s-1 (HL-LHC). With luminosity leveling, the average luminosity will increase with a factor 10. The main TileCal upgrade is focused on the HL-LHC period. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. All new electronics must be able to cope with the increased rad...

  10. Project based education as motivation factor in undergraduate program in Electronics at Copenhagen University College of Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the contents of our experience with project based courses and team work in the undergraduate program in Electronics. The main points of our program are described in this paper, where the leading idea is to combine theory with practical engineering projects. Our students work...

  11. Cost-effectiveness of electronic training in domestic violence risk assessment: ODARA 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke

    2015-03-01

    The need for domestic violence training has increased with the development of evidence-based risk assessment tools, which must be scored correctly for valid application. Emerging research indicates that training in domestic violence risk assessment can increase scoring accuracy, but despite the increasing popularity of electronic training, it is not yet known whether it can be an effective method of risk assessment training. In the present study, 87 assessors from various professions had training in the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment either face-to-face or using an electronic training program. The two conditions were equally effective, as measured by performance on a post-training skill acquisition test. Completion rates were 100% for face-to-face and 86% for electronic training, an improvement over a previously evaluated manual-only condition. The estimated per-trainee cost of electronic training was one third that of face-to-face training and expected to decrease. More rigorous evaluations of electronic training for risk assessment are recommended. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Do Loyalty Programs Enhance Behavioral Loyalty : An Empirical Analysis Accounting for Program Design and Competitive Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Smidts, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of loyalty programs on share-of-wallet using market-wide household panel data on supermarket purchases.We find that loyalty programs relate positively to share-of-wallet, but the programs differ in effectiveness and some are ineffective.Both a saving component and a

  13. Self-field effects on electron dynamics in free-electron lasers with axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzanejhad, S.; Maraghechi, B.; Mohsenpour, T.

    2004-01-01

    A self-consistent method for the analysis of self-magnetic field for a free-electron laser with a one-dimensional helical wiggler and an axial guide magnetic field is presented. The equilibrium orbits and their stability, under the influence of self-electric and self-magnetic fields, are analyzed. New unstable orbits, in the first part of the Group I orbits and in the resonance region of the Group II orbits, are found. It is shown that an increase in the defocusing effect of self-fields will widen the unstable orbits. An anomalous self-field regime is found where an increase in the defocusing effect of self-fields can have stabilizing effect on the resonance region

  14. Human reliability program: Components and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baley-Downes, S.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''Human Reliability Program'' (HRP) is defined as a series of selective controls which are implemented and integrated to identify the ''insider threat'' from current and prospective employees who are dishonest, disloyal and unreliable. The HRP, although not a prediction of human behaviour, is an excellent tool for decision making and should compliment security and improve employee quality. The HRP consists of several component applications such as management evaluation; appropriate background investigative requirements; occupational health examination and laboratory testing; drug/alcohol screening; psychological testing and interviews; polygraph examination; job related aberrant behaviour recognition; on-going education and training; document control; drug/alcohol rehabilitation; periodic HRP audit; and implementation of an onsite central clearing house. The components and effects of HRP are discussed in further detail in this paper

  15. Offense History and the Effectiveness of Juvenile Diversion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, D. Wayne; And Others

    Some evaluations have concluded that diversion programs for juvenile offenders (programs intended as community-based alternatives to formal justice dispositions) reduce recidivism only among youths with the least serious offense histories. To investigate the relationship of offense history to program effectiveness, three diversion programs were…

  16. Anomalous Skin Effect for Anisotropic Electron Velocity Distribution Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Gennady Shvets

    2004-01-01

    The anomalous skin effect in a plasma with a highly anisotropic electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) is very different from skin effect in a plasma with the isotropic EVDF. An analytical solution was derived for the electric field penetrated into plasma with the EVDF described as a Maxwellian with two temperatures Tx >> Tz, where x is the direction along the plasma boundary and z is the direction perpendicular to the plasma boundary. The skin layer was found to consist of two distinctive regions of width of order nTx/w and nTz/w, where nTx,z/w = (Tx,z/m)1/2 is the thermal electron velocity and w is the incident wave frequency

  17. Electron correlation effects on the N2--N2 interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, P.J.; Pack, R.T.; Martin, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Ab initio self-consistent field, configuration interaction, and many-body perturbation theory methods are used to calculate the intermolecular potential between two nitrogen molecules. The emphasis is placed on the repulsive region important at the temperatures and pressures encountered in detonations. In addition, electron gas calculations are employed to fit and extend the ab initio data. We also generate effective spherical potentials which fit dilute gas virial, viscosity, and differential scattering data while being constrained by Hugoniot or ab initio data in the repulsive region. Finally, we discuss the roles of electron correlation and of many-body effects on the N 2 --N 2 interaction. Comparisons are also made to the Ar 2 potential where similar ab initio calculations are compared to an accurate empirical potential

  18. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  19. Electronic mail : attitudes, self-efficacy, and effective communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kandies, Jerry T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the functional use of e-mail in a university setting and the relationship of attitudes toward and self-efficacy with email technology, and (b) to evaluate writing effectiveness in an electronic medium. The study also sought to determine if certain personal characteristics could serve as predictor variables for explaining e-mail use, attitudes toward email, and self-efficacy with e-mail technology. The population of inter...

  20. Emergent Gauge Fields and Their Nonperturbative Effects in Correlated Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Tanaka, Akihiro

    The history of modern condensed matter physics may be regarded as the competition and reconciliation between Stoner's and Anderson's physical pictures, where the former is based on momentum-space descriptions focusing on long wave-length fluctuations while the latter is based on real-space physics emphasizing emergent localized excitations. In particular, these two view points compete with each other in various nonperturbative phenomena, which range from the problem of high Tc superconductivity, quantum spin liquids in organic materials and frustrated spin systems, heavy-fermion quantum criticality, metal-insulator transitions in correlated electron systems such as doped silicons and two-dimensional electron systems, the fractional quantum Hall effect, to the recently discussed Fe-based superconductors. An approach to reconcile these competing frameworks is to introduce topologically nontrivial excitations into the Stoner's description, which appear to be localized in either space or time and sometimes both, where scattering between itinerant electrons and topological excitations such as skyrmions, vortices, various forms of instantons, emergent magnetic monopoles, and etc. may catch nonperturbative local physics beyond the Stoner's paradigm. In this review article we discuss nonperturbative effects of topological excitations on dynamics of correlated electrons. First, we focus on the problem of scattering between itinerant fermions and topological excitations in antiferromagnetic doped Mott insulators, expected to be relevant for the pseudogap phase of high Tc cuprates. We propose that nonperturbative effects of topological excitations can be incorporated within the perturbative framework, where an enhanced global symmetry with a topological term plays an essential role. In the second part, we go on to discuss the subject of symmetry protected topological states in a largely similar light. While we do not introduce itinerant fermions here, the nonperturbative

  1. Effects of Parenting Programs on Child Maltreatment Prevention: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengtong; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing child maltreatment and modifying associated factors as well as to examine the moderator variables that are linked to program effects. For this meta-analysis, we searched nine electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials published before September 2013. The effect sizes of various outcomes at different time points were computed. From the 3,578 studies identified, we selected 37 studies for further analysis. The total random effect size was 0.296. Our results showed that parenting programs successfully reduced substantiated and self-reported child maltreatment reports and reduced the potential for child maltreatment. The programs also reduced risk factors and enhanced protective factors associated with child maltreatment. However, the effects of the parenting programs on reducing parental depression and stress were limited. Parenting programs produced positive effects in low-, middle-, and high-income countries and were effective in reducing child maltreatment when applied as primary, secondary, or tertiary child maltreatment intervention. In conclusion, parenting programs are effective public health approaches to reduce child maltreatment. The evidence-based service of parenting programs could be widely adopted in future practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Observation of strongly forbidden solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions via electron-electron double resonance detected NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Albert A.; Corzilius, Björn; Haze, Olesya; Swager, Timothy M.; Griffin, Robert G., E-mail: rgg@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry and Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    We present electron paramagnetic resonance experiments for which solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions were observed indirectly via polarization loss on the electron. This use of indirect observation allows characterization of the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) process close to the electron. Frequency profiles of the electron-detected solid effect obtained using trityl radical showed intense saturation of the electron at the usual solid effect condition, which involves a single electron and nucleus. However, higher order solid effect transitions involving two, three, or four nuclei were also observed with surprising intensity, although these transitions did not lead to bulk nuclear polarization—suggesting that higher order transitions are important primarily in the transfer of polarization to nuclei nearby the electron. Similar results were obtained for the SA-BDPA radical where strong electron-nuclear couplings produced splittings in the spectrum of the indirectly observed solid effect conditions. Observation of high order solid effect transitions supports recent studies of the solid effect, and suggests that a multi-spin solid effect mechanism may play a major role in polarization transfer via DNP.

  3. Use of Interactive Electronic Audience Response Tools (Clickers) to Evaluate Knowledge Gained in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Patrick; Loy, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effectively measuring short-term impact, particularly a change in knowledge resulting from Extension programming, can prove to be challenging. Clicker-based technology, when used properly, is one alternative that may allow educators to better evaluate this aspect of the logic model. While the potential interface between clicker technology and…

  4. Electronic Polarizability and the Effective Pair Potentials of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontyev, I. V.; Stuchebrukhov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Employing the continuum dielectric model for electronic polarizability, we have developed a new consistent procedure for parameterization of the effective nonpolarizable potential of liquid water. The model explains the striking difference between the value of water dipole moment μ~3D reported in recent ab initio and experimental studies with the value μeff~2.3D typically used in the empirical potentials, such as TIP3P or SPC/E. It is shown that the consistency of the parameterization scheme can be achieved if the magnitude of the effective dipole of water is understood as a scaled value μeff=μ∕εel, where εel =1.78 is the electronic (high-frequency) dielectric constant of water, and a new electronic polarization energy term, missing in the previous theories, is included. The new term is evaluated by using Kirkwood - Onsager theory. The new scheme is fully consistent with experimental data on enthalpy of vaporization, density, diffusion coefficient, and static dielectric constant. The new theoretical framework provides important insights into the nature of the effective parameters, which is crucial when the computational models of liquid water are used for simulations in different environments, such as proteins, or for interaction with solutes. PMID:25383062

  5. Proceedings of the Santa Fe workshop on electron effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.; Jason, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Workshop was held under the sponsorship of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project to further project understanding of the effects and cause of the presence of electrons in proton accelerators. In particular, the fast instability seen in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring was the major topic of discussion since it limits the particles/pulse to the LANSCE target and could have an impact on the SNS Ring. This instability is believed due to the interaction of trapped electrons in the accumulated beam, i.e., an electron-proton or e-p instability. The first day of the workshop was occupied by invited talks that included a review of e-p instability theory, an overview of PSR observations, observations at other laboratories, reviews of electron-production mechanisms, theoretical studies on the PSR instability, and design issues of the SNS ring. For the second day, the workshop was organized into three working groups: a theory and computation group, a past-experiences and proposed-experiments group, and the SNS-design-strategy group. Their charter was to summarize previous work in their respective areas and to originate a course for future progress. The results of the working groups and the workshop were summarized in a joint session during the morning of the third day. These proceedings are a simple collection of the viewgraphs used as submitted to a member of the LANL secretarial staff by speakers

  6. The effect of the ergodic divertor on electron thermal confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.R.; Capes, H.; Garbet, X.

    1992-06-01

    The thermal confinement within the confinement zone of Tore Supra ohmically heated deuterium plasmas bounded by the ergodic divertor (ED) configuration is studied in a 1 1/2D analysis of the local power balance. Although the edge electron temperature and mean electron density (n e ) are both on average halved with application of the ED, the mean electron thermal diffusivity χ e shows the same density dependence as exhibited by standard ohmic limiter discharges, i.e., an Alcator-like inverse dependence on (n e ) at low density and a saturation at high density. The ion thermal transport at low to medium densities in both limiter and ED discharges is between 10 to 20 times that predicted by neoclassical theory. Comparing ED and limiter plasmas of the same density, a strong plasma decontamination is observed, with a reduction, in Z eff by between 1.0 to 1.5. The effective decoupling of (n e ) and Z eff by the ED and the invariant behaviour of χ e imply that electron thermal transport is only weakly dependent on Z eff in ohmic Tore Supra discharges

  7. Assessing the effects of employee assistance programs: a review of employee assistance program evaluations.

    OpenAIRE

    Colantonio, A.

    1989-01-01

    Employee assistance programs have grown at a dramatic rate, yet the effectiveness of these programs has been called into question. The purpose of this paper was to assess the effectiveness of employee assistance programs (EAPs) by reviewing recently published EAP evaluations. All studies evaluating EAPs published since 1975 from peer-reviewed journals in the English language were included in this analysis. Each of the articles was assessed in the following areas: (a) program description (subj...

  8. Effect of electron-electron collisions on the phase transition and kinetics of nonequilibrium superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V.F.; Kashurnikov, V.A.; Kondrashov, V.E.; Shamraev, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    An explicit expression is obtained for the distribution function of excess quasiparticles, taking into account electron-electron collisions in nonequilibrium superconductors. It is shown that the character of the phase transition may change at a definite ratio of the electron-electron and electron-phonon interaction constants: the dependence of the order parameter on the power of the source becomes single-valued. In addition, diffusion instability and paramagnetism of the superconductors arise. The multiplication factor of the excess quasiparticles due to electron-electron collisions and to reabsorption of phonons is calculated

  9. Effect of electron beam on the properties of electron-acoustic rogue waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shewy, E. K.; Elwakil, S. A.; El-Hanbaly, A. M.; Kassem, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    The properties of nonlinear electron-acoustic rogue waves have been investigated in an unmagnetized collisionless four-component plasma system consisting of a cold electron fluid, Maxwellian hot electrons, an electron beam and stationary ions. It is found that the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The dependence of rogue wave profiles and the associated electric field on the carrier wave number, normalized density of hot electron and electron beam, relative cold electron temperature and relative beam temperature are discussed. The results of the present investigation may be applicable in auroral zone plasma.

  10. Fermi-degeneracy and discrete-ion effects in the spherical-cell model and electron-electron correlation effects in hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, H.; Nishihara, K.

    1992-01-01

    The spherical-cell model [F. Perrot, Phys. Rev. A 25, 489 (1982); M. W. C. Dharma-wardana and F. Perrot, ibid. 26, 2096 (1982)] is improved to investigate laser-produced hot, dense plasmas. The free-electron distribution function around a test free electron is calculated by using the Fermi integral in order that the free-electron--free-electron correlation function includes Fermi-degeneracy effects, and also that the calculation includes the discrete-ion effect. The free-electron--free-electron, free-electron--ion, and ion-ion correlation effects are coupled, within the framework of the hypernetted-chain approximation, through the Ornstein-Zernike relation. The effective ion-ion potential includes the effect of a spatial distribution of bound electrons. The interparticle correlation functions and the effective potential acting on either an electron or an ion in hot, dense plasmas are calculated numerically. The Fermi-degeneracy effect on the correlation functions between free electrons becomes clear for the degeneracy parameter θ approx-lt 1. The discrete-ion effect in the calculation of the correlation functions between free electrons affects the electron-ion pair distribution functions for r s approx-gt 3. As an application of the proposed model, the strong-coupling effect on the stopping power of charged particles [Xin-Zhong Yan, S. Tanaka, S. Mitake, and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. A 32, 1785 (1985)] is estimated. While the free-electron--ion strong-coupling effect and the Fermi-degeneracy effect incorporated in the calculation of the free-electron distribution function around a test free electron enhance the stopping number, the quantum-diffraction effect incorporated in the quantal hypernetted-chain equations [J. Chihara, Prog. Theor. Phys. 72, 940 (1984); Phys. Rev. A 44, 1247 (1991); J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 8715 (1991)] reduces the stopping number substantially

  11. Effective Summer Programming: What Educators and Policymakers Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachin, Andrew; Augustine, Catherine H.; McCombs, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The evidence suggests that many types of summer learning programs have the potential to reduce summer learning losses and perhaps create learning gains. However, implementing a summer program does not guarantee positive effects on students' learning. A key question then is: What factors make a summer learning program effective? This article, drawn…

  12. Electron Bernstein wave heating and current drive effects in QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, H.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Watanabe, H.; Yoshida, N.; Tokunaga, K.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Kalinnikova, E.; Sakaguchi, M.; Itado, T.; Tashima, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Ejiri, A.; Takase, Y.; Igami, H.; Kubo, S.; Toi, K.; Isobe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Nishino, N.; Ueda, Y.; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Fujita, Takaaki; Mitarai, O.; Maekawa, T.

    2012-11-01

    Electron Bernstein Wave Heating and Current Drive (EBWH/CD) effects have been first observed in over dense plasmas using the developed phased-array antenna (PAA) system in QUEST. Good focusing and steering properties tested in the low power facilities were confirmed with a high power level in the QUEST device. The new operational window to sustain the plasma current was observed in the RF-sustained high-density plasmas at the higher incident RF power. Increment and decrement of the plasma current and the loop voltage were observed in the over dense ohmic plasma by the RF injection respectively, indicating the EBWH/CD effects. (author)

  13. Density effects on electronic configurations in dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    We present a quantum mechanical model to describe the density effects on electronic configurations inside a plasma environment. Two different approaches are given by starting from a quantum average-atom model. Illustrations are shown for an aluminum plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium at solid density and at a temperature of 100 eV and in the thermodynamic conditions of a recent experiment designed to characterize the effects of the ionization potential depression treatment. Our approach compares well with experiment and is consistent in that case with the approach of Stewart and Pyatt to describe the ionization potential depression rather than with the method of Ecker and Kröll.

  14. Reagent-Free Programming of Shape-Memory Behavior in Gelatin by Electron Beams: Experiments and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Stefanie; Mayr, Stefan G.

    2018-02-01

    Recent years have seen a paradigm shift in biomaterials toward stimuli-responsive switchable systems that actively interact with their environment. This work demonstrates how to turn the ubiquitous off-the-shelf material gelatin into such a smart biomaterial. This is achieved by realizing the shape-memory effect, viz., a temperature-induced transition from a secondary into a primary shape that has been programmed in the first place merely by exposure to energetic electrons without addition of potentially hazardous cross-linkers. While this scenario is experimentally quantified for exemplary actuators, a theoretical framework capable of unraveling the molecular foundations and predicting experiments is also presented. It particularly employs molecular dynamics modeling based on force fields that are also derived within this work. Implementing this functionality into a highly accepted material, these findings open an avenue for large-scale application in a broad range of areas.

  15. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  16. Effects of Shock and Turbulence Properties on Electron Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, G.; Kong, F.-J.; Zhang, L.-H.

    2018-06-01

    Using test particle simulations, we study electron acceleration at collisionless shocks with a two-component model turbulent magnetic field with slab component including dissipation range. We investigate the importance of the shock-normal angle θ Bn, magnetic turbulence level {(b/{B}0)}2, and shock thickness on the acceleration efficiency of electrons. It is shown that at perpendicular shocks the electron acceleration efficiency is enhanced with the decrease of {(b/{B}0)}2, and at {(b/{B}0)}2=0.01 the acceleration becomes significant due to a strong drift electric field with long time particles staying near the shock front for shock drift acceleration (SDA). In addition, at parallel shocks the electron acceleration efficiency is increasing with the increase of {(b/{B}0)}2, and at {(b/{B}0)}2=10.0 the acceleration is very strong due to sufficient pitch-angle scattering for first-order Fermi acceleration, as well as due to the large local component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the shock-normal angle for SDA. On the other hand, the high perpendicular shock acceleration with {(b/{B}0)}2=0.01 is stronger than the high parallel shock acceleration with {(b/{B}0)}2=10.0, the reason might be the assumption that SDA is more efficient than first-order Fermi acceleration. Furthermore, for oblique shocks, the acceleration efficiency is small no matter whether the turbulence level is low or high. Moreover, for the effect of shock thickness on electron acceleration at perpendicular shocks, we show that there exists the bendover thickness, L diff,b. The acceleration efficiency does not noticeably change if the shock thickness is much smaller than L diff,b. However, if the shock thickness is much larger than L diff,b, the acceleration efficiency starts to drop abruptly.

  17. Three Perspectives for Making Loyalty Programs More Effective

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhoff, Lena; Palmatier, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Loyalty programs are an ubiquitous instrument of customer relationship management. However, many loyalty programs perform poorly, which ultimately results in their abolition. Among both marketing managers and researchers, reasons for loyalty program failure are far from clear. The aim of this research is to enhance our understanding of loyalty program effectiveness. We propose a broadened framework for analyzing loyalty program performance which relies on three perspectives: a customer portfo...

  18. Triboelectric effect: A new perspective on electron transfer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuaihang; Zhang, Zhinan

    2017-10-01

    As interest in the triboelectric effect increases in line with the development of tribo-electrification related devices, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon require more systematic review from the dual perspectives of developed classical insights and emerging quantum understanding. In this paper, the clear energy changing and transferring process of electrons have been proposed from the quantum point of view as the trigger for the charging initiation process in the triboelectric effect, and the phonon modes on the friction surfaces are believed to hold great importance as one of the main driving forces. Compatible with Maxwell Displacement Current theory, the complete consideration for charging steady state, i.e., the competition mechanisms between the breakdown process and the continuously charging process, and the balance mechanisms of phonon-electron interaction, built voltage, and induced polarization, are illustrated. In brief, the proposed theory emphasizes the fundamental role of electron transferring in tribo-electrical fields. By comparing certain experimental results from the previous studies, the theory is justified.

  19. An Electronic Mail List for a Network of Family Practice Residency Programs: A Good Idea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Summers Holtrop

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of an electronic mailing list as a means of communication among faculty in a network of university-affiliated family practice residency programs was evaluated. Faculty were automatically subscribed to the list by the list owner. Messages were tracked for one year and a written evaluation survey was sent. Ninety two messages were sent, with 52% of the messages being posted information. While most (65% survey respondents reported reading 61% or more of the messages, with only 33% ever actually posted at least one message to the list. Given that faculty were automatically subscribed and that there were only 84 total members, the list may have failed to reach a critical mass of active participants. It is concluded that an email list for network faculty did not function as an online discussion group, although it was extremely beneficial as a way of posting information to affiliated residency faculty.

  20. The powerful pulsed electron beam effect on the metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Yuferov, V.B.; Kosik, N.A.; Druj, O.S.; Skibenko, E.I.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results of the influence of powerful pulsed electron beams on the surface structure,hardness and corrosion resistance of the Cr18ni10ti steel are presented. The experiments were carried out in the powerful electron accelerators of directional effect VGIK-1 and DIN-2K with an energy up to approx 300 KeV and a power density of 10 9 - 10 11 W/cm 2 for micro- and nanosecond range. The essential influence of the irradiation power density on the material structure was established. Pulsed powerful beam action on metallic surface leads to surface melting,modification of the structure and structure-dependent material properties. The gas emission and mass-spectrometer analysis of the beam-surface interaction were defined

  1. Trojan Horse Method: A tool to explore electron screening effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R G; Spitaleri, C; Cherubini, S; Cognata, M La; Lamia, L; Romano, S; Sergi, M L [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy) and Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Rolfs, C; Strieder, F [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Burjan, V; Kroha, V; Mrazek, J [Cyclotron Institute, Academy of Science, Rez (Czech Republic); Li, C; Wen, Q; Zhou, S [CIAE, Beijing (China); Tumino, A, E-mail: rgpizzone@lns.infn.i [Universita Kore, Erma (Italy)

    2010-01-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure reaction rates for charged particle induced reactions. Moreover due to the presence of the electron screening effect in direct measurements, the relevant nuclear input for astrophysics, i.e. the bare nucleus S(E)-factor, can hardly be extracted. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is an unique: indirect technique which allows one to measure reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest down the thermal energies typical of the different scenarios. The basic principle and a review of the main applications of the Trojan Horse Method are given. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S{sub b}(E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U{sub e} for several two body processes are discussed.

  2. Effect of electrostatic interactions on electron-transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickel, B.

    1987-01-01

    Fast reactions of electron transfer are studied by pulsed radiolysis. By this technique radicals and ionic radicals with high redox potentials are created homogeneously in the solution in about 10 -8 second. For solvated electron effect of electrostatic interaction on kinetics of reactions limited by diffusion is obtained with a good approximation by the Debye equation when ion mobility is known. Deviation from the theory occurs in ion pair formation, which is evidenced experimentally in reactions between anions when cations are complexed by a cryptate. Slow reactions k 8 M -1 s -1 are more sensitive to electrostatic interactions than reactions limited by diffusion. When there is no ion pair formation the velocity constant depends upon dielectric constant of the solvent and reaction distance. 17 refs

  3. Effects of electrons on the solar wind proton temperature anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michno, M. J.; Lazar, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Among the kinetic microinstabilities, the firehose instability is one of the most efficient mechanisms to restrict the unlimited increase of temperature anisotropy in the direction of an ambient magnetic field as predicted by adiabatic expansion of collision-poor solar wind. Indeed, the solar wind proton temperature anisotropy detected near 1 AU shows that it is constrained by the marginal firehose condition. Of the two types of firehose instabilities, namely, parallel and oblique, the literature suggests that the solar wind data conform more closely to the marginal oblique firehose condition. In the present work, however, it is shown that the parallel firehose instability threshold is markedly influenced by the presence of anisotropic electrons, such that under some circumstances, the cumulative effects of both electron and proton anisotropies could describe the observation without considering the oblique firehose mode.

  4. Steric-electronic effects in malarial peptides inducing sterile immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Vranich, Armando [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@mail.com [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is it evident that the residues position are relevant regarding of {phi} angular value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The geometry considered for detailing the alterations undergone by HABPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inter planar interactions ruled by clashes between the atoms making them up. -- Abstract: Conserved Plasmodium falciparum high activity binding peptides' (HABPs) most relevant proteins involved in malaria parasite invasion are immunologically silent; critical binding residues must therefore be specifically replaced to render them highly immunogenic and protection-inducing. Such changes have a tremendous impact on these peptides' steric-electronic effects, such as modifications to peptide length peptide bonds and electronic orbitals' disposition, to allow a better fit into immune system MHCII molecules and better interaction with the TCR which might account for the final immunological outcome.

  5. Effects of electron beam irradiation on cut flowers and mites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KOCH were irradiated with electron beams (2.5MeV) to develop an alternative quarantine treatment for imported cut flowers. The tolerance of eggs increased with age (1-5-day-old). Immature stages (larva-teleiochrysalis) irradiated at 0.4-0.8kGy increased tolerance with their development. Mated mature females irradiated at 0.4kGy or higher did not produce viable eggs, although temporary recovery was observed at 0.2kGy. Adult males were sterilized at 0.4kGy because non-irradiated virgin females mated with yielded female progeny malformed and sterilized. Various effects of electron beam irradiation were observed when nine species of cut flowers were irradiated in 5MeV Dynamitron accelerator. Chrysanthemum and rose were most sensitive among cut flowers. (author)

  6. Relative effectiveness of electron-proton damage on organic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolomei, P.; Cabrini, A.

    1988-01-01

    With aim to verify the validity of simulation with photon irradiators, of damage caused on internal containment coatings by beta plus gamma mixed field following to a LOCA in LWR, irradiation tests with Co 60 photon and with nearly 1.5 MeV mean energy electrons have been performed. Changes of some properties of coating film have been verified versus absorbed doses up to 1000 KGy (100 Mrad). A special technique for measurement of dose absorbed in thin film of coating has been tested, to be related to absorbed dose in organic dosimeters and in water (Fricke solution) dosimeter. The changes of considered properties (tensile strength, ease to decontamination, color, brightness) do not allow at the moment, to determine undoubtedly the degree of equivalence between radiation damage to coatings by two types of radiation. A strong backscatter effect mainly evident in electron irradiation, has been pointed out, which contribute to damage to coating film

  7. Incoming dental students' expectations and acceptance of an electronic textbook program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Darlene P; Bates, Michael L; Gallo, John R; Strother, Elizabeth A

    2011-05-01

    Since 2005, the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Dentistry has required the VitalSource Technologies, Inc. Bookshelf as the textbook program for all dental students. In a 2008 survey, four classes of dental students expressed dissatisfaction with most features of the bookshelf. With the expectation that incoming students would be more accustomed and amenable to digital textbooks and to further determine student attitudes toward electronic textbooks, we developed two surveys for first-year dental students in the class of 2013. The sixty-five first-year students received a survey (S1) one week before they were introduced to the e-textbook program. Questions centered on their undergraduate experience with e-books and their expectations of studying with an electronic textbook collection. In the second survey (S2), sent nine months later, the questions focused on students' opinion of the VitalSource Bookshelf. Forty-five students (69.2 percent) completed the S1 survey. Of those, thirty-six (80 percent) responded that they never used e-textbooks in college. Of the nine students who responded that they used e-books, only two liked them without reservations. The response rate to S2 increased to fifty students (77 percent). After using VitalSource for nine months, thirty-three students (66 percent) indicated a preference for reading print textbooks, compared to forty-seven students (57.3 percent) of the four classes surveyed in 2008. Although we expected incoming dental students to have had previous experience with e-textbooks, only nine students had used e-books in college courses. Few students indicated preference for e-textbooks, and over half of the group was undecided. After experience with VitalSource for first-year courses, students indicated that they like VitalSource for the ability to search for specific topics across the entire collection of dental books, but not for reading large amounts of text.

  8. Challenges for embedded electronics in systems used in future facilities dedicated to international physics programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flament, O.; Bazzoli, S.; Girard, S.; Raimbourg, J.; Sauvestre, J. E. [CEA, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Baggio, J. [CEA, CESTA, F33830, Le Barp (France); Leray, J. L. [CEA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    The implementation of equipment with embedded electronic to monitor, control, measure and operate future large facilities dedicated to high energy physics or nuclear fusion are necessary. Reliable operation of these equipment will be achieved through availability and reliability analysis. In several cases, the equipment selection or development approach has to be done by considering a harsh environment in terms of radiations. In order to implement these systems in such environments shielding, location and distance from the source must be considered to reduce, to protect and to avoid radiation effects. People in charge of the choice of the equipment have to take into account and mitigate radiation effects from subsystem to system level. It is beyond the scope of this paper to address all the radiation effects: the electromagnetic effects are not dealt with. This paper is organised as follows: we describe the electronics and semiconductor trends in today applications, then we present the radiation effects and their impact on the device response and eventually we review different ways to mitigate these impacts

  9. Challenges for embedded electronics in systems used in future facilities dedicated to international physics programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, O.; Bazzoli, S.; Girard, S.; Raimbourg, J.; Sauvestre, J. E.; Baggio, J.; Leray, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of equipment with embedded electronic to monitor, control, measure and operate future large facilities dedicated to high energy physics or nuclear fusion are necessary. Reliable operation of these equipment will be achieved through availability and reliability analysis. In several cases, the equipment selection or development approach has to be done by considering a harsh environment in terms of radiations. In order to implement these systems in such environments shielding, location and distance from the source must be considered to reduce, to protect and to avoid radiation effects. People in charge of the choice of the equipment have to take into account and mitigate radiation effects from subsystem to system level. It is beyond the scope of this paper to address all the radiation effects: the electromagnetic effects are not dealt with. This paper is organised as follows: we describe the electronics and semiconductor trends in today applications, then we present the radiation effects and their impact on the device response and eventually we review different ways to mitigate these impacts

  10. The effect of electron range on electron beam induced current collection and a simple method to extract an electron range for any generation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahreche, A.; Beggah, Y.; Corkish, R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electron range on electron beam induced current (EBIC) is demonstrated and the problem of the choice of the optimal electron ranges to use with simple uniform and point generation function models is resolved by proposing a method to extract an electron range-energy relationship (ERER). The results show that the use of these extracted electron ranges remove the previous disagreement between the EBIC curves computed with simple forms of generation model and those based on a more realistic generation model. The impact of these extracted electron ranges on the extraction of diffusion length, surface recombination velocity and EBIC contrast of defects is discussed. It is also demonstrated that, for the case of uniform generation, the computed EBIC current is independent of the assumed shape of the generation volume. -- Highlights: → Effect of electron ranges on modeling electron beam induced current is shown. → A method to extract an electron range for simple form of generation is proposed. → For uniform generation the EBIC current is independent of the choice of it shape. → Uses of the extracted electron ranges remove some existing literature ambiguity.

  11. Effective atomic numbers and electron density of dosimetric material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaginelli S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for determination of mass attenuation coefficient of x-rays employing NaI (Tl detector system and radioactive sources is described.in this paper. A rigid geometry arrangement and gating of the spectrometer at FWHM position and selection of absorber foils are all done following detailed investigation, to minimize the effect of small angle scattering and multiple scattering on the mass attenuation coefficient, m/r, value. Firstly, for standardization purposes the mass attenuation coefficients of elemental foils such as Aluminum, Copper, Molybdenum, Tantalum and Lead are measured and then, this method is utilized for dosimetric interested material (sulfates. The experimental mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with the theoretical values to find good agreement between the theory and experiment within one to two per cent. The effective atomic numbers of the biological substitute material are calculated by sum rule and from the graph. The electron density of dosimetric material is calculated using the effective atomic number. The study has discussed in detail the attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of dosimetric material/biological substitutes.

  12. Effect of prenatal programming on heifer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, Richard N; Summers, Adam F

    2013-11-01

    In beef cattle, the main factors influencing nutrient partitioning between the dam and fetus include age of the dam, number of fetuses, production demand, and environmental stress. These factors play a critical role in programming the fetus for its future environment and available resources. Fetal programming reportedly affects neonatal mortality and morbidity, postnatal growth rate, body composition, health, and reproduction. Two main mechanisms responsible for fetal programming include DNA methylation and histone modifications. Alterations in the genome can be passed through multiple generations. Maternal environment (nutrition, age, physiologic status) can program progeny heifer growth and reproductive performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating Effectiveness of Pair Programming as a Teaching Tool in Programming Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faja, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of pair programming on student learning and satisfaction in introductory programming courses. Pair programming, used in the industry as a practice of an agile development method, can be adopted in classroom settings to encourage peer learning, increase students' social skills, and enhance student…

  14. Do Loyalty Programs Enhance Behavioral Loyalty: An Empirical Analysis Accounting for Program Design and Competitive Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Leenheer, J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Smidts, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of loyalty programs on share-of-wallet using market-wide household panel data on supermarket purchases.We find that loyalty programs relate positively to share-of-wallet, but the programs differ in effectiveness and some are ineffective.Both a saving component and a multi-vendor structure enhance the effectiveness of a loyalty program, but high discounts do not lead to higher share-of-wallets.Further, if households have multiple loyalty cards, the effectiveness ...

  15. Electromagnetic effects of neutrinos in an electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, Jose F.; Sahu, Sarira

    2005-01-01

    We study the electromagnetic properties of a system that consists of an electron background and a neutrino gas that may be moving or at rest, as a whole, relative to the background. The photon self-energy for this system is characterized by the usual transverse and longitudinal polarization functions, and two additional ones which are the focus of our calculations, that give rise to birefringence and anisotropic effects in the photon dispersion relations. Expressions for them are obtained, which depend on the neutrino number densities and involve momentum integrals over the electron distribution functions, and are valid for any value of the photon momentum and general conditions of the electron gas. Those expressions are evaluated explicitly for several special cases and approximations which are generally useful in astrophysical and cosmological settings. Besides studying the photon dispersion relations, we consider the macroscopic electrodynamic equations for this system, which involve the standard dielectric and permeability constants plus two additional ones related to the photon self-energy functions. As an illustration, the equations are used to discuss the evolution of a magnetic field perturbation in such a medium. This particular phenomena has also been considered in a recent work by Semikoz and Sokoloff as a mechanism for the generation of large-scale magnetic fields in the early Universe as a consequence of the neutrino-plasma interactions, and allows us to establish contact with a specific application in a well defined context, with a broader scope and from a very different point of view

  16. Electronic surveillance systems in infection prevention: organizational support, program characteristics, and user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grota, Patti G; Stone, Patricia W; Jordan, Sarah; Pogorzelska, Monika; Larson, Elaine

    2010-09-01

    The use of electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) is gradually increasing in infection prevention and control programs. Little is known about the characteristics of hospitals that have a ESS, user satisfaction with ESSs, and organizational support for implementation of ESSs. A total of 350 acute care hospitals in California were invited to participate in a Web-based survey; 207 hospitals (59%) agreed to participate. The survey included a description of infection prevention and control department staff, where and how they spent their time, a measure of organizational support for infection prevention and control, and reported experience with ESSs. Only 23% (44/192) of responding infection prevention and control departments had an ESS. No statistically significant difference was seen in how and where infection preventionists (IPs) who used an ESS and those who did not spend their time. The 2 significant predictors of whether an ESS was present were score on the Organizational Support Scale (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.18) and hospital bed size (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.00-1.007). Organizational support also was positively correlated with IP satisfaction with the ESS, as measured on the Computer Usability Scale (P = .02). Despite evidence that such systems may improve efficiency of data collection and potentially improve patient outcomes, ESSs remain relatively uncommon in infection prevention and control programs. Based on our findings, organizational support appears to be a major predictor of the presence, use, and satisfaction with ESSs in infection prevention and control programs.

  17. Electronic surveillance systems in infection prevention: Organizational support, program characteristics, and user satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grota, Patti G.; Stone, Patricia W.; Jordan, Sarah; Pogorzelska, Monika; Larson, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) is gradually increasing in infection prevention and control programs. Little is known about the characteristics of hospitals that have a ESS, user satisfaction with ESSs, and organizational support for implementation of ESSs. Methods A total of 350 acute care hospitals in California were invited to participate in a Web-based survey; 207 hospitals (59%) agreed to participate. The survey included a description of infection prevention and control department staff, where and how they spent their time, a measure of organizational support for infection prevention and control, and reported experience with ESSs. Results Only 23% (44/192) of responding infection prevention and control departments had an ESS. No statistically significant difference was seen in how and where infection preventionists (IPs) who used an ESS and those who did not spend their time. The 2 significant predictors of whether an ESS was present were score on the Organizational Support Scale (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.18) and hospital bed size (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.00-1.007). Organizational support also was positively correlated with IP satisfaction with the ESS, as measured on the Computer Usability Scale (P = .02). Conclusion Despite evidence that such systems may improve efficiency of data collection and potentially improve patient outcomes, ESSs remain relatively uncommon in infection prevention and control programs. Based on our findings, organizational support appears to be a major predictor of the presence, use, and satisfaction with ESSs in infection prevention and control programs. PMID:20176411

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of School Instrumental Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    Describes the analysis of "Strengths and Weaknesses and Opportunities and Threats" (SWOT). Discusses the study, "Gemeinhardt 4," that used the SWOT analysis to determine 13 different types of music programs. Addresses how music teachers can utilize this information. Includes other sections such as, "Possible Solution to Music Program Threats."…

  19. Channelling and related effects in electron microscopy: The current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Channelling or Borrmann effect in electron diffraction has been developed into a versatile, high spatial resolution, crystallographic technique with demonstrated applicability in solving a variety of materials problems. In general, either the characteristic x-ray emissions or the electron energy-loss intensities are monitored as a function of the orientation of the incident beam. The technique, as formulated in the planar geometry has found wide applications in specific site occupancy and valence measurements, determination of small atomic displacements and crystal polarity studies. For site occupancy studies, the appropriate orientations in most cases can be determined by inspection and the analysis carried out according to a simple classification of the crystal structure discussed in this paper. Concentration levels as low as 0.1 wt% can be easily detected. The reciprocity principle may be used to advantage in all these studies, if electron energy-loss spectra are monitored, as both the channelling of the incoming beam and the blocking of the outgoing beam are included in the formulation and analysis. The formulation in the axial geometry is an useful alternative, particularly for monatomic crystals. Localization effects are important if, either the experiment is performed in the axial geometry or if low atomic number elements (z < 11) are detected. In general, the sensitivity to L-shells is lower compared to K-shell excitations. Other experimental parameters to be considered include temperature of the sample, the acceleration voltage and parallelism of the incident beam. Any detrimental effects of channelling on conventional microanalysis can be minimized either by tilting the crystal to an orientation where no lower order diffraction vectors are excited or by using a convergent probe such that a large range of incident beam orientations are averaged in the analysis. 49 refs., 9 figs

  20. Simulation and Digitization of a Gas Electron Multiplier Detector Using Geant4 and an Object-Oriented Digitization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Timothy; Liyanage, Nilanga; Xiong, Weizhi; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Our research has focused on simulating the response of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector using computational methods. GEM detectors provide a cost effective solution for radiation detection in high rate environments. A detailed simulation of GEM detector response to radiation is essential for the successful adaption of these detectors to different applications. Using Geant4 Monte Carlo (GEMC), a wrapper around Geant4 which has been successfully used to simulate the Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID) at Jefferson Lab, we are developing a simulation of a GEM chamber similar to the detectors currently used in our lab. We are also refining an object-oriented digitization program, which translates energy deposition information from GEMC into electronic readout which resembles the readout from our physical detectors. We have run the simulation with beta particles produced by the simulated decay of a 90Sr source, as well as with a simulated bremsstrahlung spectrum. Comparing the simulation data with real GEM data taken under similar conditions is used to refine the simulation parameters. Comparisons between results from the simulations and results from detector tests will be presented.

  1. Monte Carlo study of electron-plasmon scattering effects on hot electron transport in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.V.; Bagaeva, T.Yu.; Solodkaya, T.I.

    1994-07-01

    It is shown using Monte Carlo simulation that electron-plasmon scattering affects substantially the hot-electron energy distribution function and transport properties in bulk GaAs. However, this effect is found to be much less than that predicted in earlier paper of other authors. (author). 5 refs, 7 figs

  2. Relativistic electron kinetic effects on laser diagnostics in burning plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2018-02-01

    Toroidal interferometry/polarimetry (TIP), poloidal polarimetry (PoPola), and Thomson scattering systems (TS) are major optical diagnostics being designed and developed for ITER. Each of them relies upon a sophisticated quantitative understanding of the electron response to laser light propagating through a burning plasma. Review of the theoretical results for two different applications is presented: interferometry/polarimetry (I/P) and polarization of Thomson scattered light, unified by the importance of relativistic (quadratic in vTe/c) electron kinetic effects. For I/P applications, rigorous analytical results are obtained perturbatively by expansion in powers of the small parameter τ = Te/me c2, where Te is electron temperature and me is electron rest mass. Experimental validation of the analytical models has been made by analyzing data of more than 1200 pulses collected from high-Te JET discharges. Based on this validation the relativistic analytical expressions are included in the error analysis and design projects of the ITER TIP and PoPola systems. The polarization properties of incoherent Thomson scattered light are being examined as a method of Te measurement relevant to ITER operational regimes. The theory is based on Stokes vector transformation and Mueller matrices formalism. The general approach is subdivided into frequency-integrated and frequency-resolved cases. For each of them, the exact analytical relativistic solutions are presented in the form of Mueller matrix elements averaged over the relativistic Maxwellian distribution function. New results related to the detailed verification of the frequency-resolved solutions are reported. The precise analytic expressions provide output much more rapidly than relativistic kinetic numerical codes allowing for direct real-time feedback control of ITER device operation.

  3. Electron-inertia effects on driven magnetic field reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salti, N.; Shivamoggi, B.K.

    2003-01-01

    Electron-inertia effects on the magnetic field reconnection induced by perturbing the boundaries of a slab of plasma with a magnetic neutral surface inside are considered. Energetics of the tearing mode dynamics with electron inertia which controls the linearized collisionless magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are considered with a view to clarify the role of the plasma pressure in this process. Cases with the boundaries perturbed at rates slow or fast compared with the hydromagnetic evolution rate are considered separately. When the boundaries are perturbed at a rate slow compared with the hydromagnetic evolution rate and fast compared with the resistive diffusion rate, the plasma response for early times is according to ideal MHD. A current sheet formation takes place at the magnetic neutral surface for large times in the ideal MHD stage and plasma becomes motionless. The subsequent evolution of the current sheet is found to be divided into two distinct stages: (i) the electron-inertia stage for small times (when the current sheet is very narrow); (ii) the resistive-diffusion stage for large times. The current sheet mainly undergoes exponential damping in the electron-inertia regime while the bulk of the diffusion happens in the resistivity regime. For large times of the resistive-diffusion stage when plasma flow is present, the current sheet completely disappears and the magnetic field reconnection takes place. When the boundaries are perturbed at a rate fast compared even with the hydromagnetic evolution rate, there is no time for the development of a current sheet and the magnetic field reconnection has been found not to take place

  4. Effectiveness Of Security Controls On Electronic Health Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everleen Wanyonyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Health Record EHR systems enhance efficiency and effectiveness in handling patients information in healthcare. This study focused on the EHR security by initially establishing the nature of threats affecting the system and reviewing the implemented security safeguards. The study was done at a referral hospital level 6 government facility in Kenya. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample of 196 out of 385 staff and a questionnaire designed for qualitative data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. Correlations and binary logistic regression were obtained. Binary Logistic Regression BLR was used to establish the effect of the safeguards predictors on EHR security. It was established that physical security contributes more to the security of an information system than administrative controls and technical controls in that order. BLR helped in predicting effective safeguards to control EHR security threats in limited resourced public health facilities.

  5. Electronic Cigarettes and Awareness of Their Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, A; Gawlikowska-Sroka, A; Stępien-Słodkowska, M; Dzięciołowska-Baran, E; Michnik, K

    2018-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes is strongly on the rise. The literature confirms that in the process of quitting smoking using an electronic device dispensing nicotine should be a transitional stage before the complete cessation of smoking. The aim of the present study was to assess the popularity of e-cigarettes, the underlying reasons for use of such nicotine products, and the level of awareness of health hazards associated with e-cigarettes. The study is of a survey type. The material consisted of data collected from an anonymous survey distributed among 46 female and 23 male users of e-cigarettes in 2015. We used a questionnaire of our own design. The findings demonstrate that the main reason for a recourse to e-cigarettes is a desire to use fashionable technological innovations, and the conviction that such cigarettes are less harmful than the traditional tobacco products. Some respondents used e-cigarettes to quit smoking; others to minimize the harmful effects of smoking. Most respondents acquired information about e-cigarettes from friends or from the Internet. There was a high awareness of the chemical composition of substances contained in e-cigarettes. An interest in e-cigarettes is caused by an increased knowledge on the negative effects of traditional smoking. Currently, the e-cigarettes remains a technological novelty, so that the exact health effects of their long-term use are open to conjecture.

  6. Guiding effect of bent macroscopic quartz tube for high current electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingwu; Chen Jing; Wu Yehong; Yang Bian; Wang Wei; Xue Yingli; Yu Deyang; Cai Xiaohong

    2012-01-01

    By using an incident electron beam with the high current and high energy, the guiding effect of the bent macroscopic quartz tube for the electron beam has been investigated. The angular distributions of outgoing electrons depending on the current and energy of incident electrons were measured. The dependences of electron transmitted fraction on energy and current of incident electrons are also shown. As the incident electron energy increasing, the electron transmitted fraction increases, but it decreases while the incident electron current increasing. The results have been compared with the present data. This work presents, the process of guiding electrons is essentially different from that of guiding highly charged ions, the guiding electron beam was caused by both elastic and inelastic collisions between electrons and inner walls of quartz tube, rather than self-organized charging effect on the surface of inner wall of quartz tube. (authors)

  7. An Overview of Effects of Space Radiation on the Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sun Tae; Shin, Dong Kwan; Son, Young Jong; Kim Jin Hong

    2009-01-01

    The first Korean astronaut successfully carried out the scientific experiments at International Space Station (ISS) in April 2008. Due to the government's strong will and support for the field of space, Korea has enhanced its space technology based on the accomplishments in space development. On October 12∼16, 2009 the 60 th International Astronautical Congress (IAC) was held in Daejeon. IAC 2009 must serve as a place for the extensive exchange of global space technology and information in order to speed up the development of space technology in Korea. With regard for space research and development, the radiation effects in space have been reviewed from the viewpoint of electronics

  8. Effect of contact barrier on electron transport in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang-Bo; Han, Bing-Hong; Liao, Zhi-Min; Zhao, Qing; Xu, Jun; Yu, Da-Peng

    2010-01-14

    The influence of the barrier between metal electrodes and graphene on the electrical properties was studied on a two-electrode device. A classical barrier model was used to analyze the current-voltage characteristics. Primary parameters including barrier height and effective resistance were achieved. The electron transport properties under magnetic field were further investigated. An abnormal peak-valley-peak shape of voltage-magnetoresistance curve was observed. The underlying mechanisms were discussed under the consideration of the important influence of the contact barrier. Our results indicate electrical properties of graphene based devices are sensitive to the contact interface.

  9. Effect of ammonia and electron beam irradiation on lignocelulosic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del; Gennari, S.M.; Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on some of the effects produced on sugarcane bagasse and eucaliptus wood saccharification by combining irradiation and NH 3 treatment. The samples irradiated at 10 5 Gy, 2x10 5 Gy and 5x10 5 Gy with an electron accelerator were treated with anhydrous gaseous ammonia. Cellulase complex from T. reesei was used for hydrolysis assays. Bromatological analysis and 'in vitro' digestibility tests were performed. The combination of EBI and ammonia treatments produced and increase in the saccharification yield, 'in vitro' digestibility and protein content for the two kinds of sample. (Author) [pt

  10. Mesonic effects in the elastic electron deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, G.

    1981-01-01

    The present thesis was concerned with the study of the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron in the framework of the OBE model using elastic electron-deuteron scattering with high momentum transfer. In the framework of the S-matrix formalism the differential cross sections was derived in first Born approximation. The calculation of the invariant amplitude led to the introduction of the electric and magnetic structure functions. From these structure functions the electromagnetic form factor was calculated. Furthermore the effective OBE-potential was derived in the framework of a projection procedure on the base of unitary transformations. (orig./HSI). [de

  11. Moessbauer effect and electron paramagnetic resonance studies on yeast aconitase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Maeda, Yutaka; Sakai, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Shigeru; Morita, Yuhei.

    1975-01-01

    The Moessbauer effect and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of yeast aconitase [EC 4.2.1.3] purified from the cells of Candida lipolytica (ATCC 20114) were measured. Moessbauer spectra suggested that yeast acontitase mostly contained two high-spin Fe(III) ions in an antiferromagnetically coupled binuclear complex that resembled oxidized 2 Fe ferredoxins, together with a small amount of high-spin Fe(II). EPR spectra recorded no signal at 77 0 K, but showed a slightly asymmetric signal centered at g=2.0 at 4.2 0 K, presumably due to the small amount of Fe(II) Fe(III) pairs. (auth.)

  12. Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauber, T; Peres, N M R

    2008-01-01

    We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of 1%. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach, which does not include inter-band transitions and can thus not treat optical phonons due to their high energy of ℎω 0 ∼ 0.1-0.2 eV, remains valid

  13. Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, T.; Peres, N. M. R.

    2007-01-01

    We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of one percent. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo-formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach which does not include inter-band transition and can thus not treat optica...

  14. Effect of resonant-to-bulk electron momentum transfer on the efficiency of electron-cyclotron current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Smith, G.R.; Cohen, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiency of current drive by electron-cyclotron waves is investigated numerically by a bounce-average Fokker-Planck code to elucidate the effects of momentum transfer from resonant to bulk electrons, finite bulk temperature relative to the energy of resonant electrons, and trapped electrons. Comparisons are made with existing theories to assess their validity and quantitative difference between theory and code results. Difference of nearly a factor of 2 was found in efficiency between some theory and code results. 4 refs., 4 figs

  15. Development of an IMRT quality assurance program using an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, P.; Oliver, L.; Mallik, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Quality Assurance (QA) for an intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) megavoltage beam is a complex task. The positional accuracy of the MLC; its radiation leakage; the overall distribution of the dose delivered as compared to the treatment plan and; the accuracy of the calculated monitor units to deliver this dose, are all important parameters to clinically monitor. We are presently assessing the Varian version 6 software package with CadPlan, Helios with IMRT and inverse planning, VARiS Vision and the linear accelerator DMLC controller. Whilst conventional QA tools such as ionisation chamber and film measurements are used, these methods are inconvenient for directly monitoring an IMRT patient treatment. Varian Medical Systems has developed an improved electronic portal imaging device (EPID) with an amorphous silicon (a-Si) detector array. The A-Si has a sensitive area of 40x30cm and an improved image resolution of 512x384 pixels. Images are recorded at approximately 7-10 frames per second for an exposure rate of 100-600 MU/minute. Although the A-Si was designed as an EPID for a static treatment field, this new device could be a valuable IMRT QA tool for a range of different tests. Measurements taken on the RNSH and Varian prototype A-Si EPI devices showed a linear dose response for 6-18MeV X-ray energy. In addition to the Varian IAS2 internal software handlers, we have developed some image data handling programs to view and analyse these images in more detail. The software is primarily used to view the images; measure the reading in a region of interest or profile; or merge, overlay, add or subtract images during the analysis. The small pixel resolution provides a reliable, highly accurate means of measuring beam size, leaf position, MLC radiation leakage or profile intensity curves with a positional accuracy of 0.8mm. The images produced by an IMRT exposure is clearly discernible and appears consistent with the result expected. Step wedge images

  16. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  17. Surface-electronic-state effects in electron emission from the Be(0001) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archubi, C. D.; Gravielle, M. S.; Silkin, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    We study the electron emission produced by swift protons impinging grazingly on a Be(0001) surface. The process is described within a collisional formalism using the band-structure-based (BSB) approximation to represent the electron-surface interaction. The BSB model provides an accurate description of the electronic band structure of the solid and the surface-induced potential. Within this approach we derive both bulk and surface electronic states, with these latter characterized by a strong localization at the crystal surface. We found that such surface electronic states play an important role in double-differential energy- and angle-resolved electron emission probabilities, producing noticeable structures in the electron emission spectra.

  18. Surface-electronic-state effects in electron emission from the Be(0001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archubi, C. D. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gravielle, M. S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Silkin, V. M. [Donostia International Physics Center, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 1072, E-20080 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    We study the electron emission produced by swift protons impinging grazingly on a Be(0001) surface. The process is described within a collisional formalism using the band-structure-based (BSB) approximation to represent the electron-surface interaction. The BSB model provides an accurate description of the electronic band structure of the solid and the surface-induced potential. Within this approach we derive both bulk and surface electronic states, with these latter characterized by a strong localization at the crystal surface. We found that such surface electronic states play an important role in double-differential energy- and angle-resolved electron emission probabilities, producing noticeable structures in the electron emission spectra.

  19. Effect of MeV Electron Radiation on Europa’s Surface Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy; Henderson, Bryana; Bateman, Fred

    2017-10-01

    MeV electrons that impact Europa’s trailing hemisphere and cause both physical and chemical alteration of the surface and near-surface. The trailing hemisphere receives far lower fluxes above 25 MeV as compared with lower energy particles, but can cause significant chemical and physical modifications at these energies. With NASA's planned Europa Clipper mission and a Europa Lander Concept on the horizon, it is critical to understand and quantify the effect of Europa’s radiation environment on the surface and near surface.Electrons penetrate through ice by far the deepest at any given energy compared to protons and ions, making the role of electrons very important to understand. In addition, secondary radiation - Bremsstrahlung, in X-ray wavelengths - is generated during high-energy particle penetration through solids. Secondary X-rays are equally lethal to life and penetrate even deeper than electrons, making the cumulative effect of radiation on damaging organic matter on the near surface of Europa a complex process that could have effects several meters below Europa’s surface. Other physical properties such as coloration could be caused by radiation.In order to quantify this effect under realistic Europa trailing hemisphere conditions, we devised, built, tested, and obtained preliminary results using our ICE-HEART instrument prototype totally funded by JPL’s internal competition funding for Research and Technology Development. Our Ice Chamber for Europa High-Energy Electron And Radiation-Environment Testing (ICE-HEART) operates at ~100 K. We have also implemented a magnet that is used to remove primary electrons subsequent to passing through an ice column, in order to determine the flux of secondary X-radiation and its penetration through ice.Some of the first results from these studies will be presented and their relevance to understand physical and chemical properties of Europa’s trailing hemisphere surface.This work has been carried out at Jet

  20. Atomic effects of electrons and protons at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippler, R.

    1985-01-01

    Some aspects of electronic and atomic collisions are discussed. Impact ionization by electrons and protons, and electron bremsstrahlung processes are considered in some detail. Emphasis is also given to (uncorrelated and correlated) many-electron processes, which are of particular importance in collisions of highly-charged ions with atoms. 84 refs., 15 figs

  1. Emergency management: Concepts and strategies for effective programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lucus, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    Review of Emergency Management: Concepts and Strategies for Effective Programs By Lucien G. Canton, CEM. By taking a different perspective on local government emergency management programs, this book presents the vision for a very different model--one that includes an independent emergency manager leading an enterprise-wide program focused on strategies that promote disaster resilient communities.

  2. Action Research: Effective Marketing Strategies for a Blended University Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This action research study investigated a marketing plan based on collaboration among a program faculty team and other organizational units for a graduate professional program. From its inception through the second year of operation, program enrollment increased due to the marketing plan based on an effective approach grounded in simple marketing…

  3. Effects of a pain program on nurses' pharmacological pain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, AL; Dingemans, WA; Borg, PAJ; Luiken, JB; Grypdonck, M; Abu-Saad, HH

    1999-01-01

    Surgical nurses from five Dutch general hospitals participated in a continuing education program on pain assessment and management. Effects of the program were measured in a pretest-post-test control group design, in which nursing wards were randomly allocated to the experimental condition (program)

  4. Effectiveness of the Size Matters Handwriting Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Beth; Rai, Gillian; Murray, Tammy; Brusilovskiy, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the research was to study changes in handwriting legibility among kindergarten, first- and second-grade students in response to the Size Matters curricular-based handwriting program. A two-group pre-post-test design was implemented at two public schools with half of the classrooms assigned to receive the Size Matters program and the other continuing to receive standard instruction. All participants completed two standardized handwriting measures at pre-test and after 40 instructional sessions were completed with the classes receiving the handwriting program. Results identified significant changes in legibility in the handwriting intervention group for all three grades when compared with the standard instruction group. The results of this study support the use of a curricular-embedded handwriting program and provide the foundation for future research examining the impact of handwriting legibility on learning outcomes.

  5. Electron correlation effects in the presence of non-symmetry dictated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We numerically study the effect of non-symmetry dictated nodes (NSDN) on electron ... the absence of NSDN, attractive interaction between electrons give such an ... and the violation of parity effect, we first explain what are symmetry dictated.

  6. Third version of a program for calculating the static interaction potential between an electron and a diatomic molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raseev, G.

    1980-01-01

    This program calculates the one-centre expansion of a two-centre wave function of a diatomic molecule and also the multipole expansion of its static interaction with a point charge. It is an extension to some classes of open-shell targets of the previous versions and it provides both the wave function and the potential in a form suitable for use in an electron-molecule scattering program. (orig./HSI)

  7. FY2007 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitchell [ORNL

    2007-10-01

    as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under this subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable the development of technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid and fuel-cell-powered automobiles that meet the goals of the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. A key element in making hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) practical is providing an affordable electric traction drive system. This will require attaining weight, volume, and cost targets for the power electronics and electrical machines subsystems of the traction drive system. Areas of development include these: (1) novel traction motor designs that result in increased power density and lower cost; (2) inverter technologies involving new topologies to achieve higher efficiency and the ability to accommodate higher-temperature environments; (3) converter concepts that employ means of reducing the component count and integrating functionality to decrease size, weight, and cost; (4) more effective thermal control and packaging technologies; and (5) integrated motor/inverter concepts. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center conducts fundamental research, evaluates hardware, and assists in the technical direction of the DOE Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, APEEM subprogram. In this role, ORNL serves on the FreedomCAR Electrical and Electronics Technical Team, evaluates proposals for DOE, and lends its technological expertise to the direction of projects and evaluation of developing technologies. ORNL also executes specific projects for DOE. The following report discusses those projects carried out in FY 2007 and conveys highlights of their accomplishments. Numerous project reviews, technical reports, and papers have been published for these efforts, if the reader is interested in

  8. Optimizing Violence Prevention Programs: An Examination of Program Effectiveness among Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompkins, Amanda C.; Chauveron, Lisa M.; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session…

  9. An experimental program for collective acceleration of ions using intense relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, T.; Raychowdhury, P.; Iyengar, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    A program of collective ion acceleration using intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) of 0.25-1MeV, 6-80kA, 60ns on the Kilo Ampere Linear Injector (KALI) systems to accelerate light and heavy ions to high energies approaching GeV with currents over tens of amperes, is envisaged in this report. The accelerator will make use of the intense space-charge field of electron beam in vacuum for accelerating ions which are injected into it. For ion injection, various alternatives, such as, localized gas puff, dielectric insert, laser plasma, etc. have been considered as present and long-term objectives. Among the variety of diagnostic methods chosen for characterizing the accelerated ions include range-energy in foil, CR-39 track detector, nuclear activation technique and time-of-flight for energy and species determination; ion Faraday cup for current measurement; and Thomson parabola analyzer for determining the post-acceleration charge-state. In the proposed MAHAKALI collective accelerator, protons of energy over 10 MeV and higher charge state metal ions around a GeV are predicted using a REB of 1MeV, 30kA, 60ns from KALI-5000. In present experiments using KALI-200 with REB parameters of 250keV, 60kA, 80ns, protons over a MeV and carbon and fluorine ions respectively for 12MeV and 16MeV in significant currents have been accelerated. (author). 35 refs., figs., tabs

  10. The adoption and effectiveness of loyalty programs in retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Leenheer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Loyalty programs have widely appeared in several sectors, with the aim of enhancing customer loyalty and profitability. This dissertation examines which role loyalty programs can play in the company's marketing-mix, with a special focus on retailing. The dissertation consists of three independent projects. The first project studies the determinants of retailers' decision to adopt loyalty programs and the effectiveness of loyalty programs by means of a retailer survey. The second project studi...

  11. Intrinsic and extrinsic spin Hall effects of Dirac electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takaaki; Kohno, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Junji

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the spin Hall effect (SHE) of electrons described by the Dirac equation, which is used as an effective model near the L-points in bismuth. By considering short-range nonmagnetic impurities, we calculate the extrinsic as well as intrinsic contributions on an equal footing. The vertex corrections are taken into account within the ladder type and the so-called skew-scattering type. The intrinsic SHE which we obtain is consistent with that of Fuseya et al. It is found that the extrinsic contribution dominates the intrinsic one when the system is metallic. The extrinsic SHE due to the skew scattering is proportional to Δ/n i u, where 2Δ is the band gap, n i is the impurity concentration, and u is the strength of the impurity potential. (author)

  12. Electronic Immunization Alerts and Spillover Effects on Other Preventive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Julia M; Rivera, Maria; Persing, Nichole; Bundy, David G; Psoter, Kevin J; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Miller, Marlene R; Solomon, Barry S

    2017-08-01

    The impact of electronic health record (EHR) immunization clinical alert systems on the delivery of other preventive services remains unknown. We assessed for spillover effects of an EHR immunization alert on delivery of 6 other preventive services, in children 18 to 30 months of age needing immunizations. We conducted a secondary data analysis, with additional primary data collection, of a randomized, historically controlled trial to improve immunization rates with EHR alerts, in an urban, primary care clinic. No significant differences were found in screening for anemia, lead, development, nutrition, and injury prevention counseling in children prompting EHR immunization alerts (n = 129), compared with controls (n = 135). Significant increases in oral health screening in patients prompting EHR alerts (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.8-13.0) were likely due to practice changes over time. An EHR clinical alert system targeting immunizations did not have a spillover effect on the delivery of other preventive services.

  13. Making quality improvement programs more effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Taylor, Yoku

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years, and as recent as 2011, all external evaluations of the Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) Program have found its impact to be small or difficult to discern. The QIO program costs about $200 million on average to administer each year to improve quality of healthcare for people of 65 years or older. The program was created to address questionable quality of care. QIOs review how care is provided based on performance measures. The paper aims to discuss these issues. In 2012, the author supported the production of quarterly reports and reviewed internal monitoring and evaluation protocols of the program. The task also required reviewing all previous program evaluations. The task involved many conversations about the complexities of the program, why impact is difficult to discern and possible ways for eventual improvement. Process flow charts were created to simulate the data life cycle and discrete event models were created based on the sequence of data collection and reporting to identify gaps in data flow. The internal evaluation uncovered data gaps within the program. The need for a system of specification rules for data conceptualization, collection, distribution, discovery, analysis and repurposing is clear. There were data inconsistencies and difficulty of integrating data from one instance of measurement to the next. The lack of good and reliable data makes it difficult to discern true impact. The prescription is for a formal data policy or data governance structure to integrate and document all aspects of the data life cycle. The specification rules for governance are exemplified by the Data Documentation Initiative and the requirements published by the Data Governance Institute. The elements are all in place for a solid foundation of the data governance structure. These recommendations will increase the value of program data. The model specifies which agency units must be included in the governance authority and the data team. The

  14. MRI Linear accelerators : impact of the electron return effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oborn, B.M.; Butson, M.J.; Metcalfe, P.E.; Rosenfeld, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Recently there has been much interest in the development of an MRI-Linac for providing live-time, superior quality, imag guided radiotherapy. In current prototypes the magnetic field is transverse to the beam direction [1,2]. This leads to some undesirable dosimetry changes. One important change is the electron return effect (ERE) acting on the skin: electrons which leave a patient surface are forced to return and deposit dose locally [3, 4, 5]. The objective of this study is to characterize the ERE using Monte Carlo methods so that it can be accounted for in patient dose planning. High-resolution Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to study the skin dose changes caused by the ERE. A Yarian 6 MY beam is modeled in transverse B-fields between 0-3 T. The effect of surface orientation is also studied, as well as the use of exit bolus for potentially lowering the effect of the ERE. The ERE causes significant skin dose increases on both the beam entry and exit surfaces. Surface orientation is also significant, leading to many arrangements with excessive skin dose due to the directional nature of the ERE. On the other hand this directional nature of the ERE can be combined with the surface orientation to minimize the skin dose changes. Conclusions The ERE gives rise to considerable skin dose increases in transverse-field MRI-linac designs. The results of this study how ever also show how these effects can be minimized if careful planning is performed as well as the use of exit bolus in some cases.

  15. Resonant spin Hall effect in two dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2005-03-01

    Remarkable phenomena have been observed in 2DEG over last two decades, most notably, the discovery of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. The study of spin transport provides a good opportunity to explore spin physics in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with spin-orbit coupling and other interaction. It is already known that the spin-orbit coupling leads to a zero-field spin splitting, and competes with the Zeeman spin splitting if the system is subjected to a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of 2DEG. The result can be detected as beating of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation. Very recently the speaker and his collaborators studied transport properties of a two-dimensional electron system with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a perpendicular magnetic field. The spin-orbit coupling competes with the Zeeman splitting to generate additional degeneracies between different Landau levels at certain magnetic fields. It is predicted theoretically that this degeneracy, if occurring at the Fermi level, gives rise to a resonant spin Hall conductance, whose height is divergent as 1/T and whose weight is divergent as -lnT at low temperatures. The charge Hall conductance changes by 2e^2/h instead of e^2/h as the magnetic field changes through the resonant point. The speaker will address the resonance condition, symmetries in the spin-orbit coupling, the singularity of magnetic susceptibility, nonlinear electric field effect, the edge effect and the disorder effect due to impurities. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong under Grant No.: HKU 7088/01P. *S. Q. Shen, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256603 (2004) *S. Q. Shen, Y. J. Bao, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, cond-mat/0410169

  16. Effective Practices for Evaluating Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Stephanie Baird Wilkerson, PhD Carol Haden EdD Magnolia Consulting,LLC Education and public outreach (EPO) program developers and providers seeking insights regarding effective practices for evaluating EPO activities programs benefit from understanding why evaluation is critical to the success of EPO activities and programs, what data collection methods are appropriate, and how to effectively communicate and report findings. Based on our extensive experience evaluating EPO programs, we will share lessons learned and examples of how these practices play out in actual evaluation studies. EPO program developers, providers, and evaluators must consider several factors that influence which evaluation designs and data collection methods will be most appropriate, given the nature of EPO programs. Effective evaluation practices of EPO programs take into account a program's phase of development, duration, and budget as well as a program's intended outcomes. EPO programs that are just beginning development will have different evaluation needs and priorities than will well-established programs. Effective evaluation practices consider the 'life' of a program with an evaluation design that supports a program's growth through various phases including development, revision and refinement, and completion. It would be premature and inappropriate to expect the attainment of longer-term outcomes of activities during program development phases or early stages of implementation. During program development, EPO providers should clearly define program outcomes that are feasible and appropriate given a program's scope and expected reach. In many respects, this directly relates to the amount of time, or duration, intended audiences participate in EPO programs. As program duration increases so does the likelihood that the program can achieve longer-term outcomes. When choosing which outcomes are reasonable to impact and measure, program duration should be considered. Effective evaluation

  17. An Electronic Wellness Program to Improve Diet and Exercise in College Students: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Amy L; Ross, Jamisha T; Klein, Catherine J; Lei, Kai Y; Mackey, Eleanor R

    2016-02-29

    In transitioning from adolescence to adulthood, college students are faced with significant challenges to their health habits. Independence, stress, and perceived lack of time by college students have been known to result in poor eating and exercise habits, which can lead to increased disease risk. To assess the feasibility and to determine preliminary efficacy of an electronic wellness program in improving diet and physical activity in college students. A 24-week diet and physical activity program was delivered via email to 148 college students. The intervention involved weekly, tailored, and interactive diet and physical activity goals. The control group received nondiet and nonexercise-related health fact sheets. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, as well as food frequency and physical activity surveys were conducted at baseline, week 12, and week 24. Students' choice of fruit as a snack was also monitored at study visits. Students were 18-20 years old, 69% female, and from a diverse college campus (46% Caucasian, 23% Asian, 20% African American, 11% other). At week 24, 84% of students reported reading at least half of all emails. Mean change (standard error [SE]) from baseline of saturated fat intake was marginally significant between the treatment groups at week 24, 0.7 (SE 0.42) % kcal for control and -0.3 (SE 0.30) % kcal for intervention (P=0.048). A significant difference in percent of snacks chosen that were fruit (χ(2)1, N=221 = 11.7, Pstudents and resulted in a decrease in saturated fat intake and an increase in observed fruit intake compared to a control group.

  18. Electronic document management system analysis report and system plan for the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappaolo, C.

    1995-09-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) has established and maintains Document Management Centers (DMCs) to support Environmental Restoration Program (ER) activities undertaken at three Oak Ridge facilities: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and two sister sites: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky. The role of the DMCs is to receive, store, retrieve, and properly dispose of records. In an effort to make the DMCs run more efficiently and to more proactively manage the records' life cycles from cradle to grave, ER has decided to investigate ways in which Electronic Document Management System (EDMS) technologies can be used to redefine the DMCs and their related processes. Specific goals of this study are tightening control over the ER documents, establishing and enforcing record creation and retention procedures, speeding up access to information, and increasing the accessibility of information. A working pilot of the solution is desired within the next six months. Based on a series of interviews conducted with personnel from each of the DMCs, key management, and individuals representing related projects, it is recommended that ER utilize document management, full-text retrieval, and workflow technologies to improve and automate records management for the ER program. A phased approach to solution implementation is suggested starting with the deployment of an automated storage and retrieval system at Portsmouth. This should be followed with a roll out of the system to the other DMCs, the deployment of a workflow-enabled authoring system at Portsmouth, and a subsequent roll out of this authoring system to the other sites

  19. MIXING THE SOLAR WIND PROTON AND ELECTRON SCALES: EFFECTS OF ELECTRON TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY ON THE OBLIQUE PROTON FIREHOSE INSTABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneva, Y.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Viñas, A., E-mail: yana.maneva@wis.kuleuven.be [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    The double adiabatic expansion of the nearly collisionless solar wind plasma creates conditions for the firehose instability to develop and efficiently prevent the further increase of the plasma temperature in the direction parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The conditions imposed by the firehose instability have been extensively studied using idealized approaches that ignore the mutual effects of electrons and protons. Recently, more realistic approaches have been proposed that take into account the interplay between electrons and protons, unveiling new regimes of the parallel oscillatory modes. However, for oblique wave propagation the instability develops distinct branches that grow much faster and may therefore be more efficient than the parallel firehose instability in constraining the temperature anisotropy of the plasma particles. This paper reports for the first time on the effects of electron plasma properties on the oblique proton firehose (PFH) instability and provides a comprehensive vision of the entire unstable wave-vector spectrum, unifying the proton and the smaller electron scales. The plasma β and temperature anisotropy regimes considered here are specific for the solar wind and magnetospheric conditions, and enable the electrons and protons to interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters, simultaneous electron and PFH instabilities can be observed with a dispersion spectrum of the electron firehose (EFH) extending toward the proton scales. Growth rates of the PFH instability are markedly boosted by the anisotropic electrons, especially in the oblique direction where the EFH growth rates are orders of magnitude higher.

  20. Mixing the Solar Wind Proton and Electron Scales: Effects of Electron Temperature Anisotropy on the Oblique Proton Firehose Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y.; Lazar, M.; Vinas, A.; Poedts, S.

    2016-01-01

    The double adiabatic expansion of the nearly collisionless solar wind plasma creates conditions for the firehose instability to develop and efficiently prevent the further increase of the plasma temperature in the direction parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The conditions imposed by the firehose instability have been extensively studied using idealized approaches that ignore the mutual effects of electrons and protons. Recently, more realistic approaches have been proposed that take into account the interplay between electrons and protons,? unveiling new regimes of the parallel oscillatory modes. However, for oblique wave propagation the instability develops distinct branches that grow much faster and may therefore be more efficient than the parallel firehose instability in constraining the temperature anisotropy of the plasma particles. This paper reports for the first time on the effects of electron plasma properties on the oblique proton firehose (PFH) instability and provides a comprehensive vision of the entire unstable wave-vector spectrum, unifying the proton and the smaller electron scales. The plasma ß and temperature anisotropy regimes considered here are specific for the solar wind and magnetospheric conditions, and enable the electrons and protons to interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters, simultaneous electron and PFH instabilities can be observed with a dispersion spectrum of the electron firehose (EFH) extending toward the proton scales. Growth rates of the PFH instability are markedly boosted by the anisotropic electrons, especially in the oblique direction where the EFH growth rates are orders of magnitude higher.

  1. Effect of electron irradiation on hatchability and broiler performance of hatching eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, S.M.P.; Tellez, I.G.; Sanchez, R.E.; Quintana, L.J.A.; Bustos, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The irradiation of foods employs the electromagnetic ionizing energy, and the gamma ray, the X ray and the electrons are used. The electrons are reduced mass particles and have negative electric charge. The difference between the gamma rays, X-ray and electron is the penetration level. The effective range on penetration of electron accelerator depends on the energy level, in practice the penetation of an electron beam in the foods is 5 mm for MeV. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of electron irradiation on the hatchability, and to evaluate the productive parameters of chicken hatching from egg irradiated with electrons. (author). 15 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Recoil effects in multiphoton electron-positron pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewska, K.; Kaminski, J. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Triply differential probability rates for electron-positron pair creation in laser-nucleus collisions, calculated within the S-matrix approach, are investigated as functions of the nuclear recoil. Pronounced enhancements of differential probability rates of multiphoton pair production are found for a nonzero momentum transfer from the colliding nucleus. The corresponding rates show a very dramatic dependence on the polarization of the laser field impinging on the nucleus; only for a linearly polarized light are the multiphoton rates for electron-positron pair production considerably large. We focus therefore on this case. Our numerical results for different geometries of the reaction particles demonstrate that, for the linearly polarized laser field of an infinite extent (which is a good approximation for femtosecond laser pulses), the pair creation is far more efficient if the nucleus is detected in the direction of the laser-field propagation. The corresponding angular distributions of the created particles show that the high-energy pairs are predominantly produced in the plane spanned by the polarization vector and the laser-field propagation direction, while the low-energy pairs are rather spread around the latter of the two directions. The enhancement of differential probability rates at each energy sector, defined by the four-momentum conservation relation, is observed with varying the energy of the produced particles. The total probability rates of pair production are also evaluated and compared with the corresponding results for the case when one disregards the recoil effect. A tremendous enhancement of the total probability rates of the electron-positron pair creation is observed if one takes into account the nuclear recoil.

  3. Temporal Talbot effect in propagation of attosecond electron waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varro, S.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The rapid development in extreme strong-field and extreme short-pulse laser physics provide us with many potentials to explore the dynamics of fundamental processes taking place in light-matter interactions and in propagation of electromagnetic or matter waves. The present paper discusses the propagation of above-threshold electron waves generated by (not necessary ultra-short) strong laser fields. Recently we have shown that - in analogy with the formation of attosecond light pulses by interference of high-order harmonics - the wave components of photoelectrons are naturally assembled in attosecond spikes, through the Fourier synthesis of these de Broglie waves. We would like to emphasize that the proposed scheme does not presupposes an a priori ultrashort excitation. Owing to the inherent dispersion of electron waves even in vacuum, the clean attosecond structure (emanating perpendicularly from a metal target surface) is gradually spoiled due to destructive interference. Fortunately the collapsed fine structure recovers itself at certain distances from the source within well-defined 'revival layers'. This is a temporal analogon of the optical Talbot effect representing the self-imaging of a grating, which is illuminated by stationary plane waves, in the near field. The 'collaps bands' and the 'revival layers' introduced in ref. 3 have been found merely on the basis of some attosecond layers turned out to show certain regularities. In the meantime we have derived approximate analytic formulae for the propagation characteristics, with the help of which we can keep track of the locations of the 'collaps bands' and the 'revival layers' on a larger scale. We shall report on these semiclassical results, and also discuss their possible connection with the recently found entropy remnants in multiphoton Compton scattering by electronic wave packets. Acknowledgement. This work has been supported by the Hungarian National Scientific

  4. Evaluation of the BEAM--BEAM effect in PEP using Myer's simulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1982-09-01

    The program BEAM BEAM written by Steve Myers for the LEP machine at CERN has given encouraging results in the simulation of the beam-beam effect in electron-positron storage rings. It therefore seemed worthwhile to apply the program to PEP with two main intentions. Firstly, to confirm the validity of the program by comparison with experimental data from previous PEP runs and secondly, to search for an improvement in the operating conditions of PEP. Clearly a successful prediction would also enhance the credibility of the program. The program itself has been extensively described in the literature and will not be repeated here, except for some comments of direct relevance to the present simulation. 14 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Transient state of electron transport in semiconductors: over velocity and ballistic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, S.

    1984-01-01

    As the dimensions of the active regions of electronic components are reduced, transient effects must be considered when electrons encounter a high electric field gradient. The electron velocity can overshoot its stationary value over a few tenths of a micron and during about one picosecond. This has been observed experimentally and permits to forecast new ultrafast electronic devices [fr

  6. 31 CFR 370.38 - What is the legal effect of an electronic signature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electronic signature? 370.38 Section 370.38 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Requests Through the Bureau of the Public Debt § 370.38 What is the legal effect of an electronic signature? An electronic signature and any electronic message to which it is affixed or attached may not be...

  7. Interaction of the Modulated Electron Beam with Plasma: Kinetic Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, I.O.; Kiyanchuk, M.J.; Soroka, S.V.; Velikanets', D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Evolution of the velocity distribution functions of plasma and beam electrons during modulated electron beam propagation in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas was studied numerically. Velocity distribution function of plasma electrons at the late time moments strongly differs from the initially Maxwellian one. In the regions of strong electric field plasma electrons' bunches are formed. Comparison of distribution functions of beam electrons for modulated and non-modulated beams shows that deep initial modulation suppresses resonant instability development. In the inhomogeneous plasma acceleration of electrons in the plasma resonance point can be observed

  8. Terra MODIS Band 27 Electronic Crosstalk Effect and Its Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December, 1999 on-board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, covering a wavelength range from 0.4 micron to 14.4 micron. MODIS band 27 (6.72 micron) is a water vapor band, which is designed to be insensitive to Earth surface features. In recent Earth View (EV) images of Terra band 27, surface feature contamination is clearly seen and striping has become very pronounced. In this paper, it is shown that band 27 is impacted by electronic crosstalk from bands 28-30. An algorithm using a linear approximation is developed to correct the crosstalk effect. The crosstalk coefficients are derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations. They show that the crosstalk is strongly detector dependent and the crosstalk pattern has changed dramatically since launch. The crosstalk contributions are positive to the instrument response of band 27 early in the mission but became negative and much larger in magnitude at later stages of the mission for most detectors of the band. The algorithm is applied to both Black Body (BB) calibration and MODIS L1B products. With the crosstalk effect removed, the calibration coefficients of Terra MODIS band 27 derived from the BB show that the detector differences become smaller. With the algorithm applied to MODIS L1B products, the Earth surface features are significantly removed and the striping is substantially reduced in the images of the band. The approach developed in this report for removal of the electronic crosstalk effect can be applied to other MODIS bands if similar crosstalk behaviors occur.

  9. Powderspec, a program for the efficient simulation of spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance of powders with orthorhombic symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez T, L.; Beltran L, V.

    1991-09-01

    In this report a FORTRAN source program which simulates the second order powder pattern and spectrum of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in crystal fields with orthorhombic symmetry using Gauss-Legendre quadratures is given. Also the commentaries which describe each step in detail are presented. (Author)

  10. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-31

    Passenger Screening Results 12. Scope of Civil Aviation Security Program 13. Basic Policies 14. Explosives Detection Dog Teams 15. Explosives Detection... policies guiding the program recognize airline responsibilities for the safety of passengers, baggage and cargo in their care as well as for the...U *i * (U U Los -7 .cn cf) 1-4 ~~LL _m e- Hf LMU 0- u,-C -oL -ccJLL LII -~ LLIOL 0 _ CL. LLJ cr-L LCnIJ C ~ ~ CnCD C. ) &j 2ic- nc r JL AJ -L JC C.- L

  11. Predicting changes in hypertension control using electronic health records from a chronic disease management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimeng; McNaughton, Candace D; Zhang, Ping; Perer, Adam; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris; Denny, Joshua C; Kirby, Jacqueline; Lasko, Thomas; Saip, Alexander; Malin, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Common chronic diseases such as hypertension are costly and difficult to manage. Our ultimate goal is to use data from electronic health records to predict the risk and timing of deterioration in hypertension control. Towards this goal, this work predicts the transition points at which hypertension is brought into, as well as pushed out of, control. Method In a cohort of 1294 patients with hypertension enrolled in a chronic disease management program at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, patients are modeled as an array of features derived from the clinical domain over time, which are distilled into a core set using an information gain criteria regarding their predictive performance. A model for transition point prediction was then computed using a random forest classifier. Results The most predictive features for transitions in hypertension control status included hypertension assessment patterns, comorbid diagnoses, procedures and medication history. The final random forest model achieved a c-statistic of 0.836 (95% CI 0.830 to 0.842) and an accuracy of 0.773 (95% CI 0.766 to 0.780). Conclusions This study achieved accurate prediction of transition points of hypertension control status, an important first step in the long-term goal of developing personalized hypertension management plans. PMID:24045907

  12. Predicting changes in hypertension control using electronic health records from a chronic disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimeng; McNaughton, Candace D; Zhang, Ping; Perer, Adam; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris; Denny, Joshua C; Kirby, Jacqueline; Lasko, Thomas; Saip, Alexander; Malin, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    Common chronic diseases such as hypertension are costly and difficult to manage. Our ultimate goal is to use data from electronic health records to predict the risk and timing of deterioration in hypertension control. Towards this goal, this work predicts the transition points at which hypertension is brought into, as well as pushed out of, control. In a cohort of 1294 patients with hypertension enrolled in a chronic disease management program at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, patients are modeled as an array of features derived from the clinical domain over time, which are distilled into a core set using an information gain criteria regarding their predictive performance. A model for transition point prediction was then computed using a random forest classifier. The most predictive features for transitions in hypertension control status included hypertension assessment patterns, comorbid diagnoses, procedures and medication history. The final random forest model achieved a c-statistic of 0.836 (95% CI 0.830 to 0.842) and an accuracy of 0.773 (95% CI 0.766 to 0.780). This study achieved accurate prediction of transition points of hypertension control status, an important first step in the long-term goal of developing personalized hypertension management plans.

  13. Edge effects on the electronic properties of phosphorene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xihong; Copple, Andrew; Wei, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Two dimensional few-layer black phosphorus crystal structures have recently been fabricated and have demonstrated great potential in electronic applications. In this work, we employed first principles density functional theory calculations to study the edge and quantum confinement effects on the electronic properties of the phosphorene nanoribbons (PNR). Different edge functionalization groups, such as H, F, Cl, OH, O, S, and Se, in addition to a pristine case were studied for a series of ribbon widths up to 3.5 nm. It was found that the armchair-PNRs (APNRs) are semiconductors for all edge groups considered in this work. However, the zigzag-PNRs (ZPNRs) show either semiconductor or metallic behavior in dependence on their edge chemical species. Family 1 edges (i.e., H, F, Cl, OH) form saturated bonds with P atoms in the APNRs and ZPNRs, and the edge states keep far away from the band gap. However, Family 2 edges (pristine, O, S, Se) form weak unsaturated bonds with the p z orbital of the phosphorus atoms and bring edge states within the band gap of the ribbons. For the ZPNRs, the edge states of Family 2 are present around the Fermi level within the band gap, which close up the band gap of the ZPNRs. For the APNRs, these edge states are located at the bottom of the conduction band and result in a reduced band gap.

  14. Microclump effects in magnetically-immersed electron diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetically-immersed electron diodes are being developed to produce needle-like, high-current, electron beams for radiography applications. An immersed diode consists of a needle cathode and a planar anode/bremmstrahlung converter which are both immersed in a strong solenoidal magnetic field (12--50 T); nominal parameters are 10 MV, 40 kA, 0.5 mm radius cathode, and 5--35 cm anode-cathode gaps. A physical picture of normal and abnormal diode behavior is emerging. Normal diode behavior occurs for times 0 ≤ t ≤ τ, where the transition time τ is typically 30 ns; during this time, bipolar space-charge limited flow occurs, which scales well to desired radiography parameters of high dose and small spot size. Abnormal diode behavior occurs for t ≥ τ, which results in substantial increases in spot size and current (impedance reduction). This abnormal behavior appears to be caused by an increase in ion charge in the gap, which may result from poor vacuum, impurity ions undergoing ion-ion stripping collisions during transit, or microclumps undergoing stripping collisions during transit. The potential effects of microclumps on diode behavior are reported here

  15. Edge effects on the electronic properties of phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Xihong, E-mail: xihong.peng@asu.edu [School of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States); Copple, Andrew [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Wei, Qun [School of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2014-10-14

    Two dimensional few-layer black phosphorus crystal structures have recently been fabricated and have demonstrated great potential in electronic applications. In this work, we employed first principles density functional theory calculations to study the edge and quantum confinement effects on the electronic properties of the phosphorene nanoribbons (PNR). Different edge functionalization groups, such as H, F, Cl, OH, O, S, and Se, in addition to a pristine case were studied for a series of ribbon widths up to 3.5 nm. It was found that the armchair-PNRs (APNRs) are semiconductors for all edge groups considered in this work. However, the zigzag-PNRs (ZPNRs) show either semiconductor or metallic behavior in dependence on their edge chemical species. Family 1 edges (i.e., H, F, Cl, OH) form saturated bonds with P atoms in the APNRs and ZPNRs, and the edge states keep far away from the band gap. However, Family 2 edges (pristine, O, S, Se) form weak unsaturated bonds with the p{sub z} orbital of the phosphorus atoms and bring edge states within the band gap of the ribbons. For the ZPNRs, the edge states of Family 2 are present around the Fermi level within the band gap, which close up the band gap of the ZPNRs. For the APNRs, these edge states are located at the bottom of the conduction band and result in a reduced band gap.

  16. Novel simulation method of space charge effects in electron optical systems including emission of electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelinka, Jiří; Oral, Martin; Radlička, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 184, JAN (2018), s. 66-76 ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : space charge * self-consistent simulation * aberration polynomial * electron emission Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  17. Effect of Secondary Electron Emission on Electron Cross-Field Current in E×B Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yevgeny Raitses, Igor D. Kaganovich, Alexander Khrabrov, Dmytro Sydorenko, Nathaniel J. Fisch and Andrei Smolyakov

    2011-02-10

    This paper reviews and discusses recent experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of plasma-wall interaction in a weakly collisional magnetized plasma bounded with channel walls made from different materials. A lowpressure ExB plasma discharge of the Hall thruster was used to characterize the electron current across the magnetic field and its dependence on the applied voltage and electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel wall. The presence of a depleted, anisotropic electron energy distribution function with beams of secondary electrons was predicted to explain the enhancement of the electron cross-field current observed in experiments. Without the SEE, the electron crossfield transport can be reduced from anomalously high to nearly classical collisional level. The suppression of SEE was achieved using an engineered carbon velvet material for the channel walls. Both theoretically and experimentally, it is shown that the electron emission from the walls can limit the maximum achievable electric field in the magnetized plasma. With nonemitting walls, the maximum electric field in the thruster can approach a fundamental limit for a quasineutral plasma.

  18. Effect of Secondary Electron Emission on Electron Cross-Field Current in E x B Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Khrabrov, Alexander; Sydorenko, Dmytro; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Smolyakov, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses recent experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of plasma-wall interaction in a weakly collisional magnetized plasma bounded with channel walls made from different materials. A lowpressure ExB plasma discharge of the Hall thruster was used to characterize the electron current across the magnetic field and its dependence on the applied voltage and electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel wall. The presence of a depleted, anisotropic electron energy distribution function with beams of secondary electrons was predicted to explain the enhancement of the electron cross-field current observed in experiments. Without the SEE, the electron crossfield transport can be reduced from anomalously high to nearly classical collisional level. The suppression of SEE was achieved using an engineered carbon velvet material for the channel walls. Both theoretically and experimentally, it is shown that the electron emission from the walls can limit the maximum achievable electric field in the magnetized plasma. With nonemitting walls, the maximum electric field in the thruster can approach a fundamental limit for a quasineutral plasma.

  19. Electron-vibron coupling effects on electron transport via a single-molecule magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCaskey, A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Warnock, M.; Burzuri, E.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Park, K.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the electron-vibron coupling influences electron transport via an anisotropic magnetic molecule, such as a single-molecule magnet (SMM) Fe4, by using a model Hamiltonian with parameter values obtained from density-functional theory (DFT). The magnetic anisotropy parameters,

  20. Effect of upflowing field-aligned electron beams on the electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The role of low density upflowing field-aligned electron beams (FEBs) on the growth rate of the electron cyclotron waves at the frequencies r < e, propagating downward in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field, has been analysed in the auroral region at e/e < 1 where e is the plasma frequency and e is the ...

  1. The Effectiveness of Parenting Programs: A Review of Campbell Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Coren, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Parenting practices predict important outcomes for children, and parenting programs are potentially effective means of supporting parents to promote optimal outcomes for children. This review summarizes findings of systematic reviews of parenting programs published in the Campbell Library. Six reviews evaluated the effectiveness of a range of…

  2. Effectiveness of Oregon's teen licensing program : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Significant changes in Oregons teen licensing laws went into effect on March 1, 2000. The new laws expanded the provisional driving license program which had been in effect since October 1989 and established a graduated driver licensing (GDL) prog...

  3. Effects of water on fingernail electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tengda; Zhao, Zhixin; Zhang, Haiying; Zhai, Hezheng; Ruan, Shuzhou; Jiao, Ling; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-09-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a promising biodosimetric method, and fingernails are sensitive biomaterials to ionizing radiation. Therefore, kinetic energy released per unit mass (kerma) can be estimated by measuring the level of free radicals within fingernails, using EPR. However, to date this dosimetry has been deficient and insufficiently accurate. In the sampling processes and measurements, water plays a significant role. This paper discusses many effects of water on fingernail EPR dosimetry, including disturbance to EPR measurements and two different effects on the production of free radicals. Water that is unable to contact free radicals can promote the production of free radicals due to indirect ionizing effects. Therefore, varying water content within fingernails can lead to varying growth rates in the free radical concentration after irradiation-these two variables have a linear relationship, with a slope of 1.8143. Thus, EPR dosimetry needs to be adjusted according to the water content of the fingernails of an individual. When the free radicals are exposed to water, the eliminating effect will appear. Therefore, soaking fingernail pieces in water before irradiation, as many researchers have previously done, can cause estimation errors. In addition, nails need to be dehydrated before making accurately quantitative EPR measurements. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  4. Pressure effects on electron reactions and mobility in nonpolar liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holroyd, R.A.; Nishikawa, Masaru

    2002-01-01

    High pressure studies have elucidated the mechanisms of both electron reactions and electron transport in nonpolar liquids and provided information about the partial molar volumes of ions and electrons. The very large volume changes associated with electron attachment reactions have been explained as due to electrostriction by the ions, calculated with a continuum model, but modified to include the formation of a glassy shell of solvent molecules around the ion. The mobilities of electrons in cases where the electron is trapped can now be understood by comparing the trap cavity volume with the volume of electrostriction of the solvent around the cavity. In cases where the electron is quasi-free the compressibility dependent potential fluctuations are shown to be important. The isothermal compressibility is concluded to be the single most important parameter determining the behavior of excess electrons in liquids

  5. Best practices: an electronic drug alert program to improve safety in an accountable care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, Sara; Lustig, Adam; Malsin, Luanne; Carley, Blake; Westrich, Kimberly D; Dubois, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    The accountable care organization (ACO), one of the most promising and talked about new models of care, focuses on improving communication and care transitions by tying potential shared savings to specific clinical and financial benchmarks. An important factor in meeting these benchmarks is an ACO's ability to manage medications in an environment where medical and pharmacy care has been integrated. The program described in this article highlights the critical components of Marshfield Clinic's Drug Safety Alert Program (DSAP), which focuses on prioritizing and communicating safety issues related to medications with the goal of reducing potential adverse drug events. Once the medication safety concern is identified, it is reviewed to evaluate whether an alert warrants sending prescribers a communication that identifies individual patients or a general communication to all physicians describing the safety concern. Instead of basing its decisions regarding clinician notification about drug alerts on subjective criteria, the Marshfield Clinic's DSAP uses an internally developed scoring system. The scoring system includes criteria developed from previous drug alerts, such as level of evidence, size of population affected, severity of adverse event identified or targeted, litigation risk, available alternatives, and potential for duration of medication use. Each of the 6 criteria is assigned a weight and is scored based upon the content and severity of the alert received.  In its first 12 months, the program targeted 6 medication safety concerns involving the following medications: topiramate, glyburide, simvastatin, citalopram, pioglitazone, and lovastatin. Baseline and follow-up prescribing data were gathered on the targeted medications. Follow-up review of prescribing data demonstrated that the DSAP provided quality up-to-date safety information that led to changes in drug therapy and to decreases in potential adverse drug events. In aggregate, nearly 10,000 total

  6. Electronic Toll And Traffic Management Systems, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION OR ETC AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT OR ETTM, AUTOMATIC VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION OR AVI : ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT (ETTM) SYSTEMS ARE NOT A FUTURISTIC DREAM, THEY ARE OPERATING OR ARE BEING TESTED TODAY I...

  7. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). Conclusions: In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings......Objective: This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Methods: Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars...... the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...

  8. Terrestrial effects on dark matter-electron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2017-01-01

    A well-studied possibility is that dark matter may reside in a sector secluded from the Standard Model, except for the so-called photon portal: kinetic mixing between the ordinary and dark photons. Such interactions can be probed in dark matter direct detection experiments, and new experimental...... techniques involving detection of dark matter-electron scattering offer new sensitivity to sub-GeV dark matter. Typically however it is implicitly assumed that the dark matter is not altered as it traverses the Earth to arrive at the detector. In this paper we study in detail the effects of terrestrial...... stopping on dark photon models of dark matter, and find that they significantly reduce the sensitivity of XENON10 and DAMIC. In particular we find that XENON10 only excludes masses in the range (5-3000) MeV while DAMIC only probes (20-50) MeV. Their corresponding cross section sensitivity is reduced...

  9. Channeling and coherent bremsstrahlung effects for relativistic positrons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Channeling of positrons in single crystals of silicon was observed in transmission and scattering measurements for incident energies from 16 to 28 MeV. In addition, the spectral dependence upon crystal orientation of the forward coherent bremsstrahlung produced by beams of 28-MeV positrons and electrons incident upon a 5 μm thick single crystal of silicon was measured with a NaI photon spectrometer. Effects of channeling and perhaps of the nonvalidity of the first Born approximation were observed for beam directions near the [111] axis of the crystal, and coherent peaks near 0.5 MeV were observed for a compound interference direction, in agreement with first-order theoretical calculations. 32 fig

  10. Effects of preionization by electron cyclotron heating in INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.C.; Eldridge, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    A model has been developed for the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) preionization and startup effects on the ISX-B tokamak. This model has satisfactory agreement with most of the observed phenomena on ISX-B. The model has been applied to INTOR under the assumption that sufficient power at a frequency commensurate with this device will be on hand. We have assumed the following parameters for INTOR: R = 5.3 m,a = 1.52 m, B/sub t/ = 6 T, and a maximum applied loop voltage of 35 V. The results suggest that moderate amounts of preionization will aid in the start up by allowing a reduction in the applied loop voltage, V/sub l/, will save some transformer flux, and will permit a more rapid current ramp. Massive preionization (greater than or equal to 1 MW) does not appear to be necessary

  11. Effect of doping on the electron transport in polyfluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, Manisha, E-mail: mansa83@gmail.com [Soft Materials Research Laboratory, Centre of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, 211002 (India); Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Srivastava, Ritu [Physics for Energy Harvesting Division, National Physical Laboratory (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Dhar, Ravindra [Soft Materials Research Laboratory, Centre of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, 211002 (India); Tiwari, R. S. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, electron transport of pure and DMC doped polyfluorne (PF) films have been studied at various doping concentrations. Pure films show space charge limited conduction with field and temperature dependent mobility. The J–V characteristics of doped PF were ohmic at low voltages due to thermally released carriers from dopant states. At higher voltages the current density increases nonlinearly due to field dependent mobility and carrier concentration thereby filling of tail states of HOMO of the host. The conductivity of doped films were analyzed using the Unified Gaussian Disorder Model (UGDM). The carrier concentration obtained from the fitting show a non-linear dependence on doping concentration which may be due to a combined effect of thermally activated carrier generation and increased carrier mobility.

  12. Influence of external effects on the electron silicon properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orazgulyev, B.; Bigozha, O.D.

    2005-01-01

    It is noted, that study of angular dependence of longitudinal piezo-resistance of n-type silicon presents the both scientific and practical interest because the obtained data could serve the ground for creating a high-sensitive piezo-sensors. Measurement of angular dependence allows objectively estimate the errors of anisotropy parameter determination, constant of deformation potential caused of mistakes in maintenance of crystallographic directions during the samples production process. In the case of X||J||[111] at one-axis deformation a new kind of piezo-effect in electron silicon is revealed. It is explained by transformation of iso-energy rotation ellipsoid into three-axis ellipsoid at presence of shear silicon crystal deformation

  13. Research on nonlinearity effect of secondary electron multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xingjian; Liao Junsheng; Deng Dachao; Yu Chunrong; Yuan Li

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinearity of secondary electron multiplier (SEM) of a thermal ionization mass spectrometer has been researched by using UTB-500 uranium isotope reference material and multi-collecting technique. The results show that the nonlinearity effect of SEM exists in the whole ion counting range, and there is an extreme point of the nonlinearity when the ion counting rate is about 20000 cps. The deviation between measured value of the extreme point and the reference value of the reference sample can be up to 3%, and the nonlinearity obeys logarithm linearity law on both sides of extreme point. A kind of mathematics model of nonlinearity calibration has been put forward. Using this model, the nonlinearity of SEM of TIMS can be calibrated. (authors)

  14. Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects' previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of 'real-world' use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects.

  15. Electron-vibron coupling effects on electron transport via a single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskey, Alexander; Yamamoto, Yoh; Warnock, Michael; Burzurí, Enrique; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Park, Kyungwha

    2015-03-01

    We investigate how the electron-vibron coupling influences electron transport via an anisotropic magnetic molecule, such as a single-molecule magnet (SMM) Fe4, by using a model Hamiltonian with parameter values obtained from density-functional theory (DFT). The magnetic anisotropy parameters, vibrational energies, and electron-vibron coupling strengths of the Fe4 are computed using DFT. A giant spin model is applied to the Fe4 with only two charge states, specifically a neutral state with a total spin S =5 and a singly charged state with S =9 /2 , which is consistent with our DFT result and experiments on Fe4 single-molecule transistors. In sequential electron tunneling, we find that the magnetic anisotropy gives rise to new features in the conductance peaks arising from vibrational excitations. In particular, the peak height shows a strong, unusual dependence on the direction as well as magnitude of applied B field. The magnetic anisotropy also introduces vibrational satellite peaks whose position and height are modified with the direction and magnitude of applied B field. Furthermore, when multiple vibrational modes with considerable electron-vibron coupling have energies close to one another, a low-bias current is suppressed, independently of gate voltage and applied B field, although that is not the case for a single mode with a similar electron-vibron coupling. In the former case, the conductance peaks reveal a stronger B -field dependence than in the latter case. The new features appear because the magnetic anisotropy barrier is of the same order of magnitude as the energies of vibrational modes with significant electron-vibron coupling. Our findings clearly show the interesting interplay between magnetic anisotropy and electron-vibron coupling in electron transport via the Fe4. Similar behavior can be observed in transport via other anisotropic magnetic molecules.

  16. The effects of electron spiraling on the anisotropy and polarization of photon emission from an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, D.W.; Gu, M.F.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    1998-01-01

    We present a theoretical formalism for calculating the anisotropy and polarization of photon emission due to a spiraling beam of electrons in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). We present measurements of the polarization for the Fe XXIV 4p 2 P 3/2 → 2s 2 S 1/2 X-ray transition due to electron impact excitation. We discuss these results, together with previously reported EBIT polarization measurements, in the light of electron spiraling. We find that spiraling effects cannot yet be discerned in these measurements. This is important for many EBIT measurements concerned with X-ray line intensity measurements. While the amount of spiraling is not accurately known, neglecting its effects introduces an error typically no larger than that given by counting statistics. (author)

  17. Effects of parallel electron dynamics on plasma blob transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Umansky, Maxim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The 3D effects on sheath connected plasma blobs that result from parallel electron dynamics are studied by allowing for the variation of blob density and potential along the magnetic field line and using collisional Ohm's law to model the parallel current density. The parallel current density from linear sheath theory, typically used in the 2D model, is implemented as parallel boundary conditions. This model includes electrostatic 3D effects, such as resistive drift waves and blob spinning, while retaining all of the fundamental 2D physics of sheath connected plasma blobs. If the growth time of unstable drift waves is comparable to the 2D advection time scale of the blob, then the blob's density gradient will be depleted resulting in a much more diffusive blob with little radial motion. Furthermore, blob profiles that are initially varying along the field line drive the potential to a Boltzmann relation that spins the blob and thereby acts as an addition sink of the 2D potential. Basic dimensionless parameters are presented to estimate the relative importance of these two 3D effects. The deviation of blob dynamics from that predicted by 2D theory in the appropriate limits of these parameters is demonstrated by a direct comparison of 2D and 3D seeded blob simulations.

  18. Irradiation Effects of Electron Beam on Optical Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Cho, Gyu Seong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Gu; Oh, Kyung Hwan [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Ho Jin [Nucron Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The surveillance or monitoring systems used in space station, nuclear power plant and nuclear waste repository, are often equipped with optical fibers to remotely locating expensive camera systems so as to protect them from direct irradiation. Especially in nuclear power plant and nuclear waste repository, irradiation by gamma-ray and beta-ray are most concerned. The effective life-time of such surveillance system may depend on the soundness of the optical fiber because it is the component to be exposed the high intensity of radiation field by purpose. Though the degradation of mechanical properties such as hardness and elasticity may occur but the degradation of the optical property such as spectral transmittance is the most possible cause of the effective life-time limitation. Generally 30 % reduction of light signal transmittance is considered as the life-time threshold point of such optical systems. In this paper, we studied irradiation effects on spectral transparency of various commonly-used optical fibers with high energy electron beam to conveniently simulate the both gamma-ray and beta-ray irradiation situation.

  19. Preservation effect of high energy electron beam on kyoho grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiufeng; Chen Zhaoliang; Qiao Yongjin; Wang Haihong; Qiao Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoho grapes were kept in cold storage of-0.5 degree C ∼ 0.5 degree C, RH 85% ∼ 95% after irradiation of 400, 700, 1000, 1500, 2500 Gy and SO 2 treatment, and the antiseptic effect and storage quality were studied. The result showed that high energy electron beam could control the growth of bacteria, mould, yeast, coliform, alleviate the deterioration of grapes during storage. Irradiation below the dose 1000 Gy can decrease the respiration intensity, prevent the decreasing of titratable acid, ascorbic acid content, and keep higher activity of SOD enzyme. The Vc content was 3.79 mg /100 g after 700 Gy irradiation 90 days, the titratable acid and total soluble sugar content were 0.348%, 11.44%, and the activity of SOD was 14.89 U /g, which was higher than the control significantly (P 2 bleaching spot. Integrate the effects on microorganism control and grape quality, treatment of 700 Gy had the best preservation effect in this study. After preserved for 98 d, the good fruit rate of 700 Gy treatment was 93.33% , significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05). (authors)

  20. Thermal effects on parallel-propagating electron cyclotron waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal effects on the dispersion of right-handed electron cyclotron waves propagating parallel to a uniform, ambient magnetic field are investigated in the strictly non-relativistic ('classical') and weakly relativistic approximations for real frequency and complex wave vector. In each approximation, the two branches of the RH mode reconnect near the cyclotron frequency as the plasma temperature is increased or the density is lowered. This reconnection occurs in a manner different from that previously assumed at parallel propagation and from that at perpendicular propagation, giving rise to a new mode near the cold plasma cut-off frequency ωsub(xC). For both parallel and perpendicular propagation, it is noted that reconnection occurs approximately when the cyclotron linewidth equals the width of the stop-band in the cold plasma dispersion relation. Inclusion of weakly relativistic effects is found to be necessary for quantitative calculations and for an accurate treatment of the new mode near ωsub(xC). Weakly relativistic effects also modify the analytic properties of the dispersion relation so as to introduce a new family of weakly damped and undamped solutions. (author)

  1. Electron inertia effects on the planar plasma sheath problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, V. N.; Clemente, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    The steady one-dimensional planar plasma sheath problem, originally considered by Tonks and Langmuir, is revisited. Assuming continuously generated free-falling ions and isothermal electrons and taking into account electron inertia, it is possible to describe the problem in terms of three coupled integro-differential equations that can be numerically integrated. The inclusion of electron inertia in the model allows us to obtain the value of the plasma floating potential as resulting from an electron density discontinuity at the walls, where the electrons attain sound velocity and the electric potential is continuous. Results from numerical computation are presented in terms of plots for densities, electric potential, and particles velocities. Comparison with results from literature, corresponding to electron Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (neglecting electron inertia), is also shown.

  2. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  3. How Effective is the Electronic Dictionary in Sense Discrimination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hua Tan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article compares the efficacy of the electronic dictionary with that of the print dictionary in helping learners differentiate senses of polysemous words in dictionaries. An adaptation of the mixed methodology proposed by Johnson and Christensen (2004, the research design in this article encompasses a qualitative phase and a quantitative phase in the overall research study along the dimensions of time order and paradigm emphasis. The element of 'comparison' is included resulting in a design of four paired com-parison groups: (1 Groupe-pre and Groupp-pre, (2 Groupe and Groupp, (3 Groupe-without and Groupe-with, and (4 Groupe-withoutLowMed and Groupe-withLowMed. Findings show that the electronic dictionary is effective in helping Low to Medium Proficient students (Groupe-LowMed in the electronic group after deliberate dictionary training in navigation and windows switching. This is indicated by improved scores regarding time taken (efficacy rate and a significant correlation between actual efficacy and self-perceived efficacy. The results imply that dictionary users need to be given dictionary training based on specific problems they face. As a whole, how-ever, the print dictionary group has higher efficacy than the electronic group but there was no discernible trend in the relationship between its actual efficacy and the self-perceived efficacy for both groups. This sug-gests that subjects' perceived efficacy beliefs are not good predictors of their performances.

    Keywords: EFFICACY, ACTUAL EFFICACY, SELF-PERCEIVED EFFICACY, ELECTRONIC DICTIONARIES, PRINTED DICTIONARIES, POLYSEMOUS WORDS

    Opsomming: Hoe doeltreffend is die elektroniese woordeboek by bete-kenisonderskeiding? Hierdie artikel vergelyk die doeltreffendheid van die elektroniese woordeboek met dié van die gedrukte woordeboek om aanleerders te help om die betekenisse van polisemiese woorde in woordeboeke te onderskei. Die navorsingsontwerp in hierdie artikel

  4. Measuring the Effects of Virtual Pair Programming in an Introductory Programming Java Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharis, N. Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of virtual pair programming (VPP) on student performance and satisfaction in an introductory Java course. Students used online tools that integrated desktop sharing and real-time communication, and the metrics examined showed that VPP is an acceptable alternative to individual programming experience.…

  5. Understanding Effective Higher Education Programs in Prisons: Considerations from the Incarcerated Individuals Program in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Allison Daniel; Noblit, George W.

    2011-01-01

    The North Carolina Workplace and Community Transition Youth Offender Program (YOP), recently renamed the Incarcerated Individuals Program (IPP), has proven to be effective in terms of its growth and expansion, the support of education directors across the correctional facilities, university collaboration, student evaluations, and a low recidivism…

  6. Effects of a Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program on Pediatric Obesity: The CEMHaVi Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jeremy; Mikulovic, Jacques; Fardy, Paul; Bui-Xuan, Gilles; Marchand, Frederic; Beghin, Laurent; Theunynck, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effects of the unique 1-year health-wellness program of exercise and health education for obese youth on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. The CEMHaVi program included 74 obese children. Participants, 19 girls and 18 boys, and controls, 17 girls and 20 boys, were assigned to treatment. The…

  7. Effect of upflowing field-aligned electron beams on the electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The role of low density upflowing field-aligned electron beams (FEBs) on the growth rate of the electron cyclotron waves at the frequencies ωr < Ωe, propagating downward in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field, has been analysed in the auroral region at ωe/Ωe < 1 where ωe is the plasma frequency and Ωe is ...

  8. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  9. Effective Analysis of C Programs by Rewriting Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosif-Lazar, Alexandru Florin; Melo, Jean; Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    and effective analysis and verification of real-world C program families. Importance. We report some interesting variability-related bugs that we discovered using various state-of-the-art single-program C verification tools, such as Frama-C, Clang, LLBMC.......Context. Variability-intensive programs (program families) appear in many application areas and for many reasons today. Different family members, called variants, are derived by switching statically configurable options (features) on and off, while reuse of the common code is maximized. Inquiry....... Verification of program families is challenging since the number of variants is exponential in the number of features. Existing single-program analysis and verification tools cannot be applied directly to program families, and designing and implementing the corresponding variability-aware versions is tedious...

  10. Meteorology Research in DOE's Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J.; Haupt, S. E.; Shaw, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    DOE's Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) program is performing cutting edge research to allow optimization of wind plants. This talk will summarize the atmospheric science portion of A2e, with an overview of recent and planned observation and modeling projects designed to bridge the terra incognita between the mesoscale and the microscales that affect wind plants. Introduction A2e is a major focus of the Wind Energy Technologies Office (WETO) within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) at the DOE. The overall objective of A2e is to optimize wind power production and integrates improved knowledge of atmospheric inflow (fuel), turbine and plant aerodynamics, and control systems. The atmospheric component of the work addresses both the need for improved forecasting of hub-height winds and the need for improved turbulence characterization for turbine inflows under realistic atmospheric conditions and terrain. Several projects will be discussed to address observations of meteorological variables in regions not typically observed. The modelling needs are addressed through major multi-institutional integrated studies comprising both theoretical and numerical advances to improve models and field observations for physical insight. Model improvements are subjected to formal verification and validation, and numerical and observational data are archived and disseminated to the public through the A2e Data Archive and Portal (DAP; http://a2e.energy.gov). The overall outcome of this work will be increased annual energy production from wind plants and improved turbine lifetimes through a better understanding of atmospheric loading. We will briefly describe major components of the atmospheric part of the A2e strategy and work being done and planned.

  11. Electron beam irradiation effects on carbon fiber reinforced PEEK composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, Tsuneo; Hagiwara, Miyuki; Odajima, Tosikazu; Sakai, Hideo; Nakakura, Toshiyuki; Masutani, Masahiro.

    1987-03-01

    Carbon fiber(CF) reinforced composites, using polyarylether-sulfone (PES) or polyarylether-ether-ketone (PEEK) as matrix material, were prepared and their electron beam irradiation effects were studied on the basis of changes in mechanical and dynamic viscoelastic properties and observation of fracture surfaces. The flexural strength of PES-CF composite decreased to 70 % of the initial strength after the irradiation of 3 MGy and 40 % after 15 MGy. The change in the profile of stress-strain (S-S) curves and fractographic observation by electron microscopy indicated that this composite irradiated with over 3 MGy was fractured by delamination caused by to the degradation of matrix polymer. The mechanical properties of PEEK-CF composite were scarcely decreased even after irradiated up to 180 MGy and this composite showed very high radiation resistance. The change in the profile of S-S curves and fractographic observation showed that this composite fractured due to destruction of fiber in the dose range less than 180 MGy, indicating that PEEK was excellent matrix material used in high radiation field. PEEK-PES-CF composite which was composed of the carbon fibers coated with PES solution showed less radiation resistance compared with PEEK-CF composite; the flexural strength decreased to 85 % of the initial value after the irradiation with 90 MGy. It was revealed from the changes in the profile of S-S curve that the specimen irradiated over 120 MGy was fractured due to not only fiber destruction but delamination. Deterioration mechanism of PEEK-PES-CF composite was studied by dynamic viscoelastic measurements in connection with the damage on matrix-fiber interface. It was suggested that the deterioration in mechanical properties of this composite was caused by the degradation of PES that coated on the surface of the carbon fibers. (author)

  12. The effects of commercial electronic variable message signs (CEVMS) on driver attention and distraction : an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The present report reviews research concerning the possible effects of Commercial Electronic Variable Message Signs (CEVMS) used for outdoor advertising on driver safety. Such CEVMS displays are alternatively known as Electronic Billboards (EBB) and ...

  13. A National Survey of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Participants on Environmental Effects, Wildlife Issues, and Vegetation Management on Program Lands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    A national survey of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contractees was completed to obtain information about environmental and social effects of the program on participants, farms, and communities...

  14. Evaluation of electronic stability control effectiveness in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Jim; Newstead, Stuart

    2008-11-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) is an in-vehicle technology aimed at improving primary safety by assisting the driver in avoiding loss of control of the vehicle. The aim of this study was to use available crash data from Australia and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing crash risk and to establish whether benefits estimated from overseas studies have translated to the Australian and New Zealand environments. The sample analysed included 7699 crashed vehicles fitted with ESC which comprised of 90 different models. Poisson regression was used to test whether the differences in the observed and expected crash counts for ESC fitted vehicles were significant, with exposure being induced from counts of rear end impacts. It was found that ESC reduced the risk of single vehicle crashes in which the driver was injured by 68% for 4WDs compared with 27% for passenger cars. The effect of ESC on multiple vehicle crashes in Australia and New Zealand was not clear. The long-term benefits of fitting ESC to all vehicles in Australia were also investigated based on the estimated single vehicle crash reductions.

  15. Ionization effects in electronic inner-shells of ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchornak, G.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the atomic physics of ionization atoms has been presented. Interaction and structure effects in atomic shells, correlated to the occurrence of vacancies in several subshells of the atom have been considered. The methods of calculations of atomic states and wave functions have been reviewed. The energy shift of characteristic X-rays is discussed as a function of the ionization stage of the atom. The influence of inner and outer-shell vacancies on the energy of the X-rays is shown in detail. The influence of chemical effects on the parameters of X-rays is also taken into account. Further on, the change of transition probabilities in radiative and non-radiative transitions by changing stage of ionization is discussed; and among them the leading part of Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions by the arearrangement of the atomic states is shown. The influence of non-radiative electronic transitions on ionization cross-sections for multiple ionization is discussed. Using these results, ionization cross-sections for direct and indirect processes for several ionization stages are given

  16. Physics program for a 2 GeV, 100% duty factor electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1983-11-01

    Electron beams are a powerful tool. In electron scattering the possibility of varying independently the energy transfer, the momentum transfer and the polarization of the virtual photon makes it possible to study systematically the different parts of the nuclear dynamics. The use of real or virtual photon beams is a very efficient way to look for very excited states and to study their form factors and their shapes. It is also possible to reach very high momentum transfers and to get rid of the multiple scattering of the probe (which always occurs for hadronic projectiles). This is the best way to study mechanisms which occur at short distances, and which lead to strongly correlated particles in the final state. But the corresponding experiments are also difficult, since they require the detection of several particles in coincidence, and correspond to small transition rates. An energy of 2 GeV and a duty factor close to 100% allow to achieve this goal. The high duty factor makes it possible to perform easily the coincidence experiment: they are the only way to disentangle the various reaction channels, and to single out the mechanisms which are sensitive to short range effects. The energy is high enough to make possible the separation between the longitudinal and the transverse part of the cross section, and to study the spatial behavior of the nuclear transitions at distance as small as .2 fm over the energy range where the Δ-resonance is created. This is the transition domain between two extreme pictures of the nuclear matter

  17. CREME96: A revision of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylka, A.J.; Adams, J.H. Jr.; Boberg, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    CREME96 is an update of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code, a widely-used suite of programs for creating numerical models of the ionizing-radiation environment in near-Earth orbits and for evaluating radiation effects in spacecraft. CREME96, which is now available over the World-Wide Web (WWW) at http://crsp3.nrl.navy.mil/creme96/, has many significant features, including (1) improved models of the galactic cosmic ray, anomalous cosmic ray, and solar energetic particle (flare) components of the near-Earth environment; (2) improved geomagnetic transmission calculations; (3) improved nuclear transport routines; (4) improved single-event upset (SEU) calculation techniques, for both proton-induced and direct-ionization-induced SEUs; and (5) an easy-to-use graphical interface, with extensive on-line tutorial information. In this paper the authors document some of these improvements

  18. Effect of electron emission on an ion sheath structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, M K; Phukan, A; Chakraborty, M

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the variations of ion sheath structures due to the emission of both hot and cold electrons in the target plasma region of a double plasma device. The ion sheath is produced in front of a negatively biased plate. The plasma is produced by hot filament discharge in the source region, and no discharge is created in the target region of the device. The plate is placed in the target (diffused plasma) region where cold electron emitting filaments are present. These cold electrons are free from maintenance of discharge, which is sustained in the source region. The hot ionizing electrons are present in the source region. Three important parameters are changed by both hot and cold electrons i.e. plasma density, plasma potential and electron temperature. The decrease in plasma potential and the increase in plasma density lead to the contraction of the sheath. (paper)

  19. Effect of electron temperature on small-amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves in non-planar geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sona; Aggarwal, Munish; Gill, Tarsem Singh

    2018-04-01

    Effects of electron temperature on the propagation of electron acoustic solitary waves in plasma with stationary ions, cold and superthermal hot electrons is investigated in non-planar geometry employing reductive perturbation method. Modified Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived in the small amplitude approximation limit. The analytical and numerical calculations of the KdV equation reveal that the phase velocity of the electron acoustic waves increases as one goes from planar to non planar geometry. It is shown that the electron temperature ratio changes the width and amplitude of the solitary waves and when electron temperature is not taken into account,our results completely agree with the results of Javidan & Pakzad (2012). It is found that at small values of τ , solitary wave structures behave differently in cylindrical ( {m} = 1), spherical ( {m} = 2) and planar geometry ( {m} = 0) but looks similar at large values of τ . These results may be useful to understand the solitary wave characteristics in laboratory and space environments where the plasma have multiple temperature electrons.

  20. Toward a muon-specific electronic structure theory: effective electronic Hartree-Fock equations for muonic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayka, Milad; Goli, Mohammad; Shahbazian, Shant

    2018-02-07

    An effective set of Hartree-Fock (HF) equations are derived for electrons of muonic systems, i.e., molecules containing a positively charged muon, conceiving the muon as a quantum oscillator, which are completely equivalent to the usual two-component HF equations used to derive stationary states of the muonic molecules. In these effective equations, a non-Coulombic potential is added to the orthodox coulomb and exchange potential energy terms, which describes the interaction of the muon and the electrons effectively and is optimized during the self-consistent field cycles. While in the two-component HF equations a muon is treated as a quantum particle, in the effective HF equations it is absorbed into the effective potential and practically transformed into an effective potential field experienced by electrons. The explicit form of the effective potential depends on the nature of muon's vibrations and is derivable from the basis set used to expand the muonic spatial orbital. The resulting effective Hartree-Fock equations are implemented computationally and used successfully, as a proof of concept, in a series of muonic molecules containing all atoms from the second and third rows of the Periodic Table. To solve the algebraic version of the equations muon-specific Gaussian basis sets are designed for both muon and surrounding electrons and it is demonstrated that the optimized exponents are quite distinct from those derived for the hydrogen isotopes. The developed effective HF theory is quite general and in principle can be used for any muonic system while it is the starting point for a general effective electronic structure theory that incorporates various types of quantum correlations into the muonic systems beyond the HF equations.

  1. The Electronic Data Methods (EDM) forum for comparative effectiveness research (CER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holve, Erin; Segal, Courtney; Lopez, Marianne Hamilton; Rein, Alison; Johnson, Beth H

    2012-07-01

    AcademyHealth convened the Electronic Data Methods (EDM) Forum to collect, synthesize, and share lessons from eleven projects that are building infrastructure and using electronic clinical data for comparative effectiveness research (CER) and patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). This paper provides a brief review of participating projects and provides a framework of common challenges. EDM Forum staff conducted a text review of relevant grant programs' funding opportunity announcements; projects' research plans; and available information on projects' websites. Additional information was obtained from presentations provided by each project; phone calls with project principal investigators, affiliated partners, and staff from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ); and six site visits. Projects participating in the EDM Forum are building infrastructure and developing innovative strategies to address a set of methodological, and data and informatics challenges, here identified in a common framework. The eleven networks represent more than 20 states and include a range of partnership models. Projects vary substantially in size, from 11,000 to more than 7.5 million individuals. Nearly all of the AHRQ priority populations and conditions are addressed. In partnership with the projects, the EDM Forum is focused on identifying and sharing lessons learned to advance the national dialogue on the use of electronic clinical data to conduct CER and PCOR. These efforts have the shared goal of addressing challenges in traditional research studies and data sources, and aim to build infrastructure and generate evidence to support a learning health care system that can improve patient outcomes.

  2. Angular momentum effects in electron scattering from atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J F; Cvejanovie, D; Samarin, S; Pravica, L; Napier, S; Sergeant, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns angular momentum-dependent phenomena in excited gas-phase atoms using incident photons or electrons in scattering experiments. A brief overview indicates the main capabilities of experimental techniques and the information which can be deduced about atomic structure and dynamics from conservation of momenta with measurement of polarization and detection of the number of emerging electrons, photons and ions. Maximum information may be obtained when the incident particles and the targets are state-selected both before and after scattering. The fundamental scattering amplitudes and their relative phases, and consequently derived quantities such as the parameters describing the electron charge cloud of the atomic target, have enabled significant advances of understanding of collision mechanisms. The angular momentum-dependent scattering probabilities change when, for example, the spin-orbit interaction for the target electrons becomes large compared with the Coulomb electron-electron interactions and also when electron exchange and the relative orientation of the electron spins change. Several examples are discussed to indicate significant principles and recent advances. Major contributions to this field from the technology associated with electron spin production and detection time, as well as time-coincidence detection, are discussed. New results from the authors' laboratory are presented

  3. Effect of nonthermal electrons on oblique electrostatic excitations in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinejad, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Babol University of Technology, Babol 47148-71167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The linear and nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves are investigated in a magnetized electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma with nonthermal electrons. In the linear regime, the propagation of two possible modes and their evolution are studied via a dispersion relation. In the cases of parallel and perpendicular propagation, it is shown that these two possible modes are always stable. Then, the Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the dynamics of ion-acoustic solitary waves is derived from a weakly nonlinear analysis. The influence on the solitary wave characteristics of relevant physical parameters such as nonthermal electrons, magnetic field, obliqueness, positron concentration, and temperature ratio is examined. It is observed that the increasing nonthermal electrons parameter makes the solitary structures much taller and narrower. Also, it is revealed that the magnetic field strength makes the solitary waves more spiky. The present investigation contributes to the physics of the nonlinear electrostatic ion-acoustic waves in space and laboratory e-p-i plasmas in which wave damping produces an electron tail.

  4. Actively station: Effects on global cognition of mature adults and healthy elderly program using eletronic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nascimento Ordonez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies show that aging is accompanied by decline in cognitive functions but also indicate that interventions, such as training on electronic games, can enhance performance and promote maintenance of cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Objective: To investigate the effects of an electronic game program, called Actively Station, on the performance of global cognition of adults aged over 50 years. Methods: 124 mature and elderly adults enrolled in the "Actively Station" cognitive stimulation program of São Caetano do Sul City, in the State of São Paulo, participated in training for learning of electronic games. Participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG n=102 and control group (CG n=22. Protocol: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R, the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q, the scale of frequency of forgetfulness, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI, the Global Satisfaction with Life Scale, and two scales on learning in the training. Results: The cognitive performance of the TG improved significantly after the program, particularly in the domains of language and memory, and there was a decrease on the anxiety index and frequency of memory complaints, when compared to the CG. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the acquisition of new knowledge and the use of new stimuli, such as electronic games, can promote improvements in cognition and mood and reduce the frequency of memory complaints.

  5. Effective Software Engineering Leadership for Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle West, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    Software is a critical component of systems ranging from simple consumer appliances to complex health, nuclear, and flight control systems. The development of quality, reliable, and effective software solutions requires the incorporation of effective software engineering processes and leadership. Processes, approaches, and methodologies for…

  6. Laying a Solid Foundation: Strategies for Effective Program Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, Geri

    2009-01-01

    The replication of proven social programs is a cost-effective and efficient way to achieve large-scale, positive social change. Yet there has been little guidance available about how to approach program replication and limited development of systems--at local, state or federal levels--to support replication efforts. "Laying a Solid Foundation:…

  7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Traditional and Alternative Principal Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Summer; Peltier-Glaze, Bernnell M.; Haynes, Ingrid; Davis, Delilah; Skelton, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effectiveness on increasing student achievement of principals trained in a traditional principal preparation program and those trained in an alternate route principal preparation program within the same Mississippi university. Sixty-six Mississippi principals and assistant principals participated in the study. Of…

  8. Effectiveness of Mentoring Program Practices. Research in Action. Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on mentoring program practices in relation to issues of effectiveness, while recognizing that implications for program quality conceptualized more broadly is a key concern in need of greater investigation. The author provides an overview of selected conceptual and methodological issues involved with identification of…

  9. Mentors' Perspectives on the Effectiveness of a Teacher Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant-Tierce, Tabatha

    2013-01-01

    Teacher retention is an issue in education, and the loss of teachers has a direct affect on student achievement. Schools are battling the attrition of beginning teachers by the use of mentoring programs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a mentoring program, according to teachers who have served as mentors,…

  10. Effects of ion and electron screening on thermonuclear reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, L.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of screening by ions and electrons on thermonuclear reaction rates in stellar plasmas are considered. The enhancement of the reaction rate ranges from negligible to extremely large (on the order of 10 26 or greater). In order to calculate these effects, the potential about a given reacting nucleus is determined. First, Boltzmann-Vlasov and Poisson-Boltzmann equations are solved to yield a Yukawa potential. A suitable approximation to this potential is integrated in the action integral to give the barrier penetration. The screened reaction rate is then found by the saddle-point method. In developing a general formalism to calculate the screened reaction rate and the screening factor, effects due to the finite size of the nucleus are considered and found to be negligible. An expression for the screening factor for resonant reaction rates is also derived. A different and relatively simple approach, based on work of Stewart and Pyatt (1966), is used to find the barrier penetration from the action integral in two approximations: a modified Coulomb potential and a constant-shift potential. Screening factors are calculated for carbon burning at T 6 = 100 and T 6 = 400 for a wide range of densities and also for several examples in late stellar evolution. These screening factors are, for the most part, greater than those given by most others by a few percent at low density to 4 or more orders of magnitude at T 6 = 100 and rho = 10 10 g/cm 3 . Near the edge of the crystalline lattice region, however, they are significantly lower than those of some others. The increase in reaction rates for carbon burning indicates that carbon ignition may occur at lower densities than previously thought and may affect the density at which a supernova shock may occur

  11. REINFORCEMENT ENHANCING EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE VIA ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Michael, Valerie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. Methods We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10 ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled “36 mg/ml”) or placebo (“0”) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one’s own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Results Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Conclusions Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. PMID:26070455

  12. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section characteristics. The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings. Furthermore, it is concluded that it is important to control for human factors (at a minimum age and gender) in analyses where evaluations of this type are performed.

  13. Reinforcement enhancing effects of acute nicotine via electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Michael, Valerie C

    2015-08-01

    Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled "36mg/ml") or placebo ("0″) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one's own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 308 - Medicare Program; Request for Information on Hospital and Vendor Readiness for Electronic Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... (PQRS), the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization... No. 93.773, Medicare--Hospital Insurance; and Program No. 93.774, Medicare-- Supplementary Medical...

  15. Many-beam effects in electron microscope images of lattice defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izui, Kazuhiko; Nishida, Takahiko; Furuno, Shigemi; Otsu, Hitoshi

    1974-01-01

    Multi-beam effects in electron microscopic images were investigated. A computation program was developed on the basis of a matrix theory of the multi-beam effects. The matrix theory for a perfect crystal and an imperfect crystal is described, and expression for absorption coefficient is presented. The amplitude of electron wave penetrating through lattice defects is expressed by using scattering matrices which correspond to crystal slices. Calculation of extinction distance was performed, and compared with experimental results. In case of systematic reflection, the difference between two beams and from four to eight beams approximation was small, while a large effect was seen in case of accidental reflection. The intensity profile of bend contour was calculated for silicon and copper-aluminum alloy. Distance between submaxima becomes short with increase of thickness. The change in stacking fault fringes with diffraction condition was investigated. Samples were copper-aluminum alloy. Systematic behavior of the fringes was obtained, and the calculated results reproduced experimental ones. (Kato, T.)

  16. Importance of Relativistic Effects and Electron Correlation in Structure Factors and Electron Density of Diphenyl Mercury and Triphenyl Bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučinský, Lukáš; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Grabowsky, Simon

    2016-08-25

    This study investigates the possibility of detecting relativistic effects and electron correlation in single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments using the examples of diphenyl mercury (HgPh2) and triphenyl bismuth (BiPh3). In detail, the importance of electron correlation (ECORR), relativistic effects (REL) [distinguishing between total, scalar and spin-orbit (SO) coupling relativistic effects] and picture change error (PCE) on the theoretical electron density, its topology and its Laplacian using infinite order two component (IOTC) wave functions is discussed. This is to develop an understanding of the order of magnitude and shape of these different effects as they manifest in the electron density. Subsequently, the same effects are considered for the theoretical structure factors. It becomes clear that SO and PCE are negligible, but ECORR and scalar REL are important in low- and medium-order reflections on absolute and relative scales-not in the high-order region. As a further step, Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) and subsequent X-ray constrained wavefunction (XCW) fitting have been performed for the compound HgPh2 with various relativistic and nonrelativistic wave functions against the experimental structure factors. IOTC calculations of theoretical structure factors and relativistic HAR as well as relativistic XCW fitting are presented for the first time, accounting for both scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects.

  17. Continuous CS Analysis of Using the SIEM to Introduction to Computer Programming Education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohi, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Osamu; Konno, Noriko

    In order to improve students’ motivation, the SIEM (School of Information Environment Method) which is the education method for the introduction of the computer programming education was developed. We focus on students’ motivation, and we have measured students’ motivation as the educational effects. After the SIEM was developed in the School of Information Environment, it applied to introduction to the computer programming education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. It is effective for the improvement of students’ motivation. By adding the Customer Satisfaction Analysis to the SIEM Analysis, it was able to clarify the priority level of the SIEM assessment item. In this paper, we describe results of the Customer Satisfaction Analysis.

  18. Building effective cybersecurity programs a security manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schreider, Tari

    2017-01-01

    You know by now that your company could not survive without the Internet. Not in today's market. You are either part of the digital economy or reliant upon it. With critical information assets at risk, your company requires a state-of-the-art cybersecurity program. But how do you achieve the best possible program? Tari Schreider, in Building Effective Cybersecurity Programs: A Security Manager's Handbook, lays out the step-by-step roadmap to follow as you build or enhance your cybersecurity program.

  19. Electronic Engineering Technology Program Exit Examination as an ABET and Self-Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; Darayan, Shahryar

    2018-01-01

    Every engineering, computing, and engineering technology program accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) has formulated many and varied self-assessment methods. Methods used to assess a program for ABET accreditation and continuous improvement are for keeping programs current with academic and industrial…

  20. Developing Argumentation Strategies in Electronic Dialogs: Is Modeling Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayweg-Paus, Elisabeth; Macagno, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    The study presented here examines how interacting with a more capable interlocutor influences use of argumentation strategies in electronic discourse. To address this question, 54 young adolescents participating in an intervention centered on electronic peer dialogs were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control condition. In both…

  1. Thermal effects of runaway electrons in an armoured divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stad, R.C.L. van der.

    1993-12-01

    This report describes the results of a numerical thermal analysis of the heat deposition of runaway electrons accompanying plasma disruptions in a armoured divertor. The divertor concepts studied are carbon on molybdenum and beryllium on copper. The conclusion is that the runaway electrons can cause melting of the armour as well as melting of the structure and can damage the divertor severely. (orig.)

  2. The Effects of Electronic Communication on American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erin; Kozak, L. Viola; Santiago, Roberto; Stephen, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Technological and language innovation often flow in concert with one another. Casual observation by researchers has shown that electronic communication memes, in the form of abbreviations, have found their way into spoken English. This study focuses on the current use of electronic modes of communication, such as cell smartphones, and e-mail, and…

  3. Using Effective Communication to Showcase Program Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentations and transcripts focus on how communities can effectively showcase the benefits and successes of a clean energy initiative to ensure additional funding opportunities, continued engagement, and sustained behavior change.

  4. Spin effects in strong-field laser-electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, S; Bauke, H; Müller, T-O; Villalba-Chávez, S; Müller, C

    2013-01-01

    The electron spin degree of freedom can play a significant role in relativistic scattering processes involving intense laser fields. In this contribution we discuss the influence of the electron spin on (i) Kapitza-Dirac scattering in an x-ray laser field of high intensity, (ii) photo-induced electron-positron pair production in a strong laser wave and (iii) multiphoton electron-positron pair production on an atomic nucleus. We show that in all cases under consideration the electron spin can have a characteristic impact on the process properties and their total probabilities. To this end, spin-resolved calculations based on the Dirac equation in the presence of an intense laser field are performed. The predictions from Dirac theory are also compared with the corresponding results from the Klein-Gordon equation.

  5. An interprofessional palliative care oncology rehabilitation program: effects on function and predictors of program completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, M R; Feldstain, A; Gravelle, D; Macdonald, N; Pereira, J

    2013-12-01

    After treatment, patients with active cancer face a considerable burden from the effects of both the disease and its treatment. The Palliative Rehabilitation Program (prp) is designed to ameliorate disease effects and to improve the patient's functioning. The present study evaluated predictors of program completion and changes in functioning, symptoms, and well-being after the program. The program received referrals for 173 patients who had finished anticancer therapy. Of those 173 patients, 116 with advanced cancer were eligible and enrolled in the 8-week interprofessional prp; 67 completed it. Measures of physical, nutritional, social, and psychological functioning were evaluated at entry to the program and at completion. Participants experienced significant improvements in physical performance (p program not challenging enough), death, and personal or unknown reasons. A normal level of C-reactive protein (program completion. Patients living with advanced cancers who underwent the interprofessional prp experienced significant improvement in functioning across several domains. Program completion can be predicted by a normal level of C-reactive protein.

  6. An Investigation into the Effects of the Hangar Queen Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    .... By consolidating the studies performed on cannibalizations (CANNs) and the HQ program, this paper attempts to provide an understanding of the rationale and effects/benefits of the different HQ thresholds...

  7. Effect of electron beam irradiation on fisheries water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarala Selambakkannu; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Jamaliah Shariff; Suhairi Alimon

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies about water obtained from fish pond of fisheries research centre. Usual water quality parameters such as pH, COD, Turbidity and Ammonia content were analyzed before and after irradiation. Electron beam irradiation was used to irradiate the water with the dose 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 300 kGy. Only high dose was applied on this water as only a limited amount of samples was supplied. All the parameters indicated a slight increase after irradiation except for the ammonia content, which showed a gradual decrease as irradiation dose increases. Sample condition was changed before irradiation in order to obtain more effective results in the following batch. The water sample from fisheries was diluted with distilled water to the ratio of 1:1.This was followed with irradiation at 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 300 kGy. The results still showed an increase in all parameters after irradiation except for ammonia content. For the following irradiation batch, the pH of the sample was adjusted to pH 4 and pH 8 before irradiation. For this sample the irradiation dose selected was only 100 kGy. A higher value of ammonia was observed for the sample with pH 4 after irradiation. Other parameters were almost the same as the first two batches. (author)

  8. Depletion region surface effects in electron beam induced current measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Paul M.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Yoon, Heayoung P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Gaury, Benoit [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is a powerful characterization technique which offers the high spatial resolution needed to study polycrystalline solar cells. Current models of EBIC assume that excitations in the p-n junction depletion region result in perfect charge collection efficiency. However, we find that in CdTe and Si samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, there is a reduced and nonuniform EBIC lineshape for excitations in the depletion region. Motivated by this, we present a model of the EBIC response for excitations in the depletion region which includes the effects of surface recombination from both charge-neutral and charged surfaces. For neutral surfaces, we present a simple analytical formula which describes the numerical data well, while the charged surface response depends qualitatively on the location of the surface Fermi level relative to the bulk Fermi level. We find that the experimental data on FIB-prepared Si solar cells are most consistent with a charged surface and discuss the implications for EBIC experiments on polycrystalline materials.

  9. Electron beam irradiation effects on xanthan gum. Rheological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, F.F.; Del Mastro, N.L.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the application of electron beam irradiation to xanthum gum as used as ingredient by the food or cosmetics industry in order to establish their radiosensitivity. The edible powder of xanthum gum samples were irradiated in 1mm thick layers of Petri dishes covered by a transparent PVC of films using an EB accelerator Dynamitron (Radiation Dynamics Inc.) model JOB 188, dose rate 11.17 kGy/s, 0.637 MeV, 1.78 mA, 5 kGy per passage, 3.36 m min -1 with doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50kGy. One % aqueous solutions from irradiated and non-irradiated xanthum gum were prepared and the radiation effects were measured following viscosity changes at 25 deg. C using a Brookfield viscometer; model DVIII, spindel L, with Rheocalc software. Viscosity measurements were performed according to our previous experience and the results are the mean of at least 3 experiments

  10. 16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information technology. 6.152 Section 6.152 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION... information technology. (a) When developing, procuring, maintaining, or using electronic and information... electronic and information technology allows, regardless of the type of medium of the technology: (1...

  11. Effect of the CTL proliferation program on virus dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2005-01-01

    Experiments have established that CTLs do not require continuous antigenic stimulation for expansion. Instead, responses develop by a process of programmed proliferation which involves approximately 7-10 antigen-independent cell divisions, the generation of effector cells and the differentiation...... virus loads and thus acute symptoms. The reason is that the programmed divisions are independent from antigenic stimulation, and an increase in virus load does not speed up the rate of CTL expansion. We hypothesize that the 7-10 programmed divisions observed in vivo represent an optimal solution...... into memory cells. The effect of this program on the infection dynamics and the advantages gained by the program have, however, not been explored yet. We investigate this with mathematical models. We find that more programmed divisions can make virus clearance more efficient because CTL division continues...

  12. FY 2005 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M

    2005-11-22

    appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subsystems work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the Vehicle Systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid and fuel-cell-powered automobiles that meet the goals of the FreedomCAR Program. A key element in making hybrid electric vehicles practical is providing an affordable electric traction drive system. This will require attaining weight, volume, and cost targets for the power electronics and electrical machines subsystems of the traction drive system. Areas of development include: (1) Novel traction motor designs that result in increased power density and lower cost; (2) Inverter technologies involving new topologies to achieve higher efficiency and the ability to accommodate higher-temperature environments; (3) Converter concepts that employ means of reducing the component count and integrating functionality to decrease size, weight, and cost; (4) More effective thermal control and packaging technologies; and (5) Integrated motor/inverter concepts. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center conducts fundamental research, evaluates hardware, and assists in the technical direction of the DOE Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program. In this role, ORNL serves on the FreedomCAR Electrical and Electronics Technical Team, evaluates proposals for DOE, and lends its

  13. Effectiveness of an intensive multidisciplinary headache treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunreben-Stempfle, Birgit; Griessinger, Norbert; Lang, Eberhard; Muehlhans, Barbara; Sittl, Reinhard; Ulrich, Kathrin

    2009-07-01

    To investigate if the effectiveness of a 96-hour multidisciplinary headache treatment program exceeds the effectiveness of a 20-hour program and primary care. When dealing with chronic back pain, low-intensity multidisciplinary treatment yields no significantly better results than standard care and monodisciplinary therapy; however, high-intensity treatment does. For multidisciplinary headache treatment, such comparisons are not yet available. In a previous study undertaken by our Pain Center, the outcome of a minimal multidisciplinary intervention model (20-hour) did not exceed primary care. Forty-two patients suffering from frequent headaches (20 +/- 9 headache days/month; range: 8-30) were treated and evaluated in a 96-hour group program. The results were compared with the outcomes of the previous study. Subjects who had undergone either the 20-hour multidisciplinary program or the primary care were used as historical control groups. A significant reduction in migraine days (P tension-type headache days (P tension-type headache days (P = .016), and frequency of migraine attacks (P = .016). In comparison with the 20-hour multidisciplinary program, the 96-hour program showed significantly better effects only in the reduction of migraine days (P = .037) and depression score (P = .003). The responder-rates (> or =50% improvement) in the 96-hour program were significantly higher than in the 20-hour program (migraine days, P = .008; tension-type headache days, P = .044) and primary care (migraine days, P = .007; tension-type headache days, P = .003; tension-type headache intensity, P = .037). The effect sizes were small to medium in the 96-hour program. Particularly with the reduction of migraine symptomatology, the 96-hour program performed better than the 20-hour program, which produced only negligible or small effects. Intensive multidisciplinary headache treatment is highly effective for patients with chronic headaches. Furthermore, migraine symptomatology

  14. Interactions between electrons, mesoscopic Josephson effect and asymmetric current fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huard, B.

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses three experiments on the properties of electronic transport at the mesoscopic scale. The first one allowed to measure the energy exchange rate between electrons in a metal contaminated by a very weak concentration of magnetic impurities. The role played by magnetic impurities in the Kondo regime on those energy exchanges is quantitatively investigated, and the global measured exchange rate is larger than expected. The second experiment is a measurement of the current-phase relation in a system made of two superconductors linked through a single atom. We thus provide quantitative support for the recent description of the mesoscopic Josephson effect. The last experiment is a measurement of the asymmetry of the current fluctuations in a mesoscopic conductor, using a Josephson junction as a threshold detector. Cet ouvrage décrit trois expériences portant sur les propriétés du transport électronique à l'échelle mésoscopique. La première a permis de mesurer le taux d'échange d'énergie entre électrons dans un métal contenant une très faible concentration d'impuretés magnétiques. Nous avons validé la description quantitative du rôle des impuretés magnétiques dans le régime Kondo sur ces échanges énergétiques et aussi montré que le taux global d'échange est plus fort que prévu. La seconde expérience est une mesure de la relation courant-phase dans un système constitué de deux supraconducteurs couplés par un seul atome. Elle nous a permis de conforter quantitativement la récente description de l'effet Josephson mésoscopique. La dernière expérience est unemesure de l'asymétrie des fluctuations du courant dans un conducteur mésoscopique en utilisant une Jonction Josephson comme détecteur de seuil.

  15. A study of effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some vitamins for electron, H, He and C ion interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükyıldız, M.

    2017-09-01

    The radiological properties of some vitamins such as Retinol, Beta-carotene, Riboflavin, Niacin, Niacinamide, Pantothenic acid, Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxal, Biotin, Folic acid, Ascorbic acid, Cholecalciferol, Alpha-tocopherol, Gamma-tocopherol, Phylloquinone have been investigated with respect to total electron interaction and some heavy charged particle interaction as means of effective atomic numbers (Z_{eff}) and electron densities (N_{eff}) for the first time. Calculations were performed for total electron interaction and heavy ions such as H, He and C ion interactions in the energy region 10keV-10MeV by using a logarithmic interpolation method. Variations in Z_{eff}'s and N_{eff}'s of given vitamins have been studied according to the energy of electron or heavy charged particles, and significant variations have been observed for all types of interaction in the given energy region. The maximum values of Z_{eff} have been found in the different energy regions for different interactions remarkably and variations in N_{eff} seem approximately to be the same with variation in Z_{eff} for the given vitamins as expected. Z_{eff} values of some vitamins were plotted together and compared with each other for electron, H, He and C interactions and the ratios of Z_{eff}/ have been changed in the range of 0.25-0.36, 0.20-0.36, 0.22-0.35 and 0.20-0.35 for electron, H, He and C interactions, respectively.

  16. Target electron collision effects on energy loss straggling of protons in an electron gas at any degeneracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to describe the effects of target electron collisions on proton energy loss straggling in plasmas at any degeneracy. Targets are considered fully ionized so electronic energy loss is only due to the free electrons. The analysis is focused on targets with electronic density around solid values n e ≅10 23 cm -3 and with temperature around T≅10 eV; these targets are in the limit of weakly coupled electron gases. These types of plasma targets have not been studied extensively, though they are very important for inertial confinement fusion. The energy loss straggling is obtained from an exact quantum-mechanical evaluation, which takes into account the degeneracy of the target plasma, and later it is compared with common classical and degenerate approximations. Then electron collisions in the exact quantum-mechanical straggling calculation are considered. Now the energy loss straggling is enhanced for energies smaller than the energy before the maximum, then decreases around this maximum, and finally tends to the same values with respect to noncollisional calculation. Differences with the same results but not taking into account these collisions are as far as 17% in the cases analyzed. As an example, proton range distributions have been calculated to show the importance of an accurate energy straggling calculation

  17. [PROFAMILIA studies the effectiveness of contraceptive marketing programs in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A recent study by PROFAMILIA, the private Colombian family planning organization, indicates that community based distribution programs and social marketing programs are not totally interchangeable forms of contraceptive distribution. Comparison of the efficacy of different systems in making contraceptives more accessible to the low income population led the researchers to conclude that social marketing programs work as well as community based distribution programs in rural areas which already have high rates of contraceptive usage. Community based distribution programs appear more effective than social marketing programs in areas where contraceptive usage is not yet well established. PROFAMILIA researchers conducted operational studies in 3 different states, each of which had a community based distribution program. In the first state the community based distribution program was suspended and a vender who had previously supplied only urban outlets added rural pharmacies to his route. The vender handled 3 kinds of pills, 2 types of spermicidal suppositories, and condoms. In a neighboring state, 3 instructors belonging to the community based distribution program were offered commissions of about 10% of the value of the products if the distributors they supervised met monthly sales quotas. The community based distribution program was left unchanged in the third state but a 2-member mobile team was trained to travel through the region by jeep, talking to community groups about the advantage of contraception. At the end of 18 months, sales of contraceptives had declined in the state where the community based distribution program was replaced by the social marketing program. The decline was believed to be related to unforeseen price increases for pills and devaluation of the Colombian peso. The social marketing project was however much more cost effective than the other 2, which continued to require PROFAMILIA subsidies. Contraceptive usage increased in the other 2 areas

  18. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: aartemyev@igpp.ucla.edu; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Vasko, I. Y. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  19. Electron cloud effects in SIS-18 and SIS-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Fedor; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF) (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF) (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Electron cloud build-up and associated instabilities are studied in simulations under conditions relevant to SIS-18 and to the projected SIS-100 heavy ion synchrotrons. In both rings coasting beams are foreseen during slow extraction of the beam. Trapped electrons could lead to a reduction of the extraction efficiency. We present the results of electron cloud studies for bunched and for coasting beams. In these two regimes the main production mechanisms are significantly different. For coasting beams the most important mechanism is residual gas ionization, for bunched beam the main source of electrons is secondary emission. In the case of coasting beams electrons are generated in the vicinity of the beam center and a two-stream instability may occur for the projected intensities.Electron clouds due to bunched beams are of concern in SIS-100 because no special coating of the stainless steel beam pipe is presently foreseen. Finally we also discuss experimental studies of electron cloud generation in SIS-18.

  20. Measuring learning, student engagement, and program effectiveness: a strategic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Julie; Austin, Connie

    2005-01-01

    What if there was an effective way to address the age-old question from students, "Why do we have to do this assignment?" And from faculty, "How do we know our students are really learning?" And from administrators, "How will we demonstrate to our peers, our accrediting agencies, and other program stakeholders that our programs are educationally effective?" As it undertook a curriculum redesign, faculty in a baccalaureate school of nursing developed a 9-step process for curriculum implementation. The authors discuss how they applied the 9 steps strategically, positioning the program for 2 successful accreditation self-studies and concurrently addressing, with greater confidence, some of these age-old questions.

  1. Joint Services Electronics Program: Basic Research in Electronics (JSEP) at the University of Texas at Austin. Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-31

    applications in tration on the temperature response, an effect also found the processing of Si and III-V compound semiconductors in silicon by Seidel et al. (5...Dannefaer, B. Hogg, and D. Kerr, "Defect Characterization in V. Ckil mo and Cofmment Gallium Arsenide By Positron Annihilation ," in Thirteenth We...unnecessary In "A ’I.I %’ S. 4 Brower et l. A schematic of the experimental arrangement emplSyed for application of the homodyne spectroscopy technique to

  2. Effective Inclusive Schools: Designing Successful Schoolwide Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehir, Thomas; Katzman, Lauren I.

    2012-01-01

    This book presents lessons learned from in-depth case studies of some of our most effective inclusive public schools. The authors conclusively demonstrate that schools can educate students with mild and severe disabilities in general education classrooms by providing special education services that link to and bolster general education…

  3. Effect of programmed circadian temperature fluctuations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to our knowledge of the effects of temperature on the population dynamics of freshwater snails and its bearing on their .... 28"C regime as reflected by the net reproduction rate recorded in Table 1. It was demonstrated by De Kock & .... ANDREW ARlHA, H.G. & BIRCH, L.C. 1954. The distribution and abundance of animals.

  4. Effectiveness and Successful Program Elements of SOAR’s Afterschool Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Johnson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Project SOAR provided after-school programs that afforded expanded learning opportunities to help students succeed in local public schools and to contribute to the general welfare of the community. Program components focused on building students’ academic skills and positive attitudes, aided by teachers, mentors, parent education, and local agencies. Instructional programs were conducted to help reduce drug use and violence. Activities included academic assistance, technology training, mentoring, service learning projects, and education in life skills and the arts. Parent involvement was encouraged. Behavioral and academic outcomes—especially at the high school level—were analyzed to determine program effectiveness regarding academic achievement, dropout rates, and rates and frequency of suspensions. Successful program elements and strategies are noted.

  5. The Effect of Reticence on College Students' Use of Electronic Mail To Communicate with Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lynne; Duran, Robert L.; Zolten, J. Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of reticence on college students' use of electronic mail to communication with faculty. Notes the difference in the frequency of using electronic mail by reticent and non-reticent students. Considers how reticent students prefer to use electronic mail over speaking to faculty at their offices. (SG)

  6. Cold cathode electron guns in the LASL high power short-pulse CO2 laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, S.; Ladish, J.S.; Nutter, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    The Electron Beam Controlled Discharge CO 2 Laser is now firmly established as the only high power short pulse laser amplifier that has been demonstrated to have scaling capabilities to large apertures and energies much greater than 100 J. These devices require a beam of energetic electrons to control the gas discharge that produces the required population inversion. Until recently, the electron source was usually a thermionic emitter, even for rather large lasers, whose heater requirements dwarfed the pulsed energies associated with the transient operation of the laser. With the advent of reliable cold-cathode electron guns, the operation of these lasers has been greatly simplified. At LASL, there are four electron beam controlled laser systems which are in operation, under construction, or in design: the 1 kJ system, now operational; the 2.5 kJ system; the 10 kJ system; and the 100 kJ system. Only the first uses thermionic-emitter electron guns; the remainder use or will use cold cathode sources. The operation of the 200 x 35 cm 2 two sided cold cathode electron gun used in the 2.5 kJ laser system and to be used in the 10 kJ laser is described

  7. Effects of the electron-phonon coupling activation in collision cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, Eva, E-mail: zarkadoulae@ornl.gov [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Samolyuk, German [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Weber, William J. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Using the two-temperature (2T-MD) model in molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the condition of switching the electronic stopping term off when the electron-phonon coupling is activated in the damage production due to 50 keV Ni ion cascades in Ni and equiatomic NiFe. Additionally, we investigate the effect of the electron-phonon coupling activation time in the damage production. We find that the switching condition has negligible effect in the produced damage, while the choice of the activation time of the electron-phonon coupling can affect the amount of surviving damage. - Highlights: •The electron-phonon interactions in irradiation affect the energy dissipation. •The resulting damage depends on the electron-phonon interaction activation time. •The electronic stopping acts on the ions before the electron-phonon interactions.

  8. Irregular Aharonov–Bohm effect for interacting electrons in a ZnO quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Tapash; Manaselyan, Aram; Barseghyan, Manuk

    2017-01-01

    The electronic states and optical transitions of a ZnO quantum ring containing few interacting electrons in an applied magnetic field are found to be very different from those in a conventional semiconductor system, such as a GaAs ring. The strong Zeeman interaction and the Coulomb interaction of the ZnO system, two important characteristics of the electron system in ZnO, exert a profound influence on the electron states and on the optical properties of the ring. In particular, our results indicate that the Aharonov–Bohm (AB) effect in a ZnO quantum ring strongly depends on the electron number. In fact, for two electrons in the ZnO ring, the AB oscillations become aperiodic, while for three electrons (interacting) the AB oscillations completely disappear. Therefore, unlike in conventional quantum ring topology, here the AB effect (and the resulting persistent current) can be controlled by varying the electron number. (paper)

  9. GGA+U investigations of impurity d-electrons effects on the electronic and magnetic properties of ZnO

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2014-08-01

    Stimulation of novel features in ZnO by impurity electrons has attracted a remarkable attention of researchers from the past decade. Consequently, ZnO has found several applications in the field of spintronics and optoelectronics. We report, the effect of 3d-(V, Ag) electrons on the properties of ZnO in stable wurtzite (WZ) and metastable zincblende (ZB) phase using the density functional theory. Introduction of V-3d electrons was found to induce a high magnetic moment value of 5.22 in WZ and 3.26 in the ZB phase, and moreover transform the semiconductor character of ZnO into a metallic nature. Ag-d electrons result in the p-type half-metallic nature of ZnO with a weak ferromagnetic background. Our calculations for ground-state magnetic ordering show that ZnO in the presence of impure 3d-(V, Ag) electrons favors ferromagnetic ordering, and obey the double exchange mechanism. However, impurity atoms have very marginal effect on the lattice parameters of ZnO, thereby exposing its potential to absorb the impurity atoms in high concentration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma density profiles and finite bandwidth effects on electron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, R.B.; Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Bollen, W.M.; Woo, W.

    1980-01-01

    Intense, p-polarized microwaves are incident on an inhomogeneous plasma in a cylindrical waveguide. Microwaves are mainly absorbed by resonant absorption near the critical surface (where the plasma frequency, ω/sub pe/, equals the microwave frequency, ω/sub o/). The localized plasma waves strongly modify the plasma density. Step-plateau density profiles or a cavity are created depending on the plasma flow speed. Hot electron production is strongly affected by the microwave bandwidth. The hot electron temperature varies as T/sub H/ is proportional to (Δ ω/ω) -0 25 . As the hot electron temperature decreases with increasing driver bandwidth, the hot electron density increases. This increase is such that the heat flux into the overdense region (Q is proportional to eta/sub H/T/sub H/ 3 2 ) is nearly constant

  11. Humidity evolution (breathing effect) in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Packaging and enclosures used for protecting power electronics operating outdoors are designed to withstand the local climatic and environmental changes. Hermetic enclosures are expensive and therefore other solutions for protecting the electronics from a harsh environment are required. One...... of the dangerous parameters is high humidity of air. Moisture can inevitable reach the electronics either due to diffusion through the wall of an enclosure or small holes, which are designed for electrical or other connections. A driving force for humid air movement is the temperature difference between...... the operating electronics and the surrounding environment. This temperature, thus, gives rise to a natural convection, which we also refer to as breathing. Robust and intelligent enclosure designs must account for this breathing as it can significantly change the humidity distribution in the enclosure...

  12. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  13. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu eFernandez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation.This paper presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services.The paper first describes the context and strategies of the program which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The paper analyses social, educational, economic, demographic and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  14. The effect of simultaneous electron and Kr+ irradiation on amorphization of CuTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, J.; Okamoto, P.R.; Rehn, L.E.; Meshii, M.

    1989-01-01

    CuTi was irradiated with 1-MeV electrons and Kr + ions simultaneously at temperatures from 10 to 423 K. Retardation of Kr + -induced amorphization was observed with simultaneous electron irradiation at 295 and 423 K. The retardation effect increased with increasing irradiation temperature and relative electron-to-Kr dose rate. In contrast, simultaneous irradiation below 100 K showed an additive effect of electron- and Kr + -induced amorphization. The results can be explained by the mobility point defects introduced by electron irradiation interacting with Kr + -induced displacement cascades. 6 refs., 6 figs

  15. Desorption by Femtosecond Laser Pulses : An Electron-Hole Effect?

    OpenAIRE

    D. M., NEWNS; T. F., HEINZ; J. A., MISEWICH; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center

    1992-01-01

    Desorption of molecules from metal surfaces induced by femtosecond visible laser pulses has been reported. Since the lattice temperature rise is insufficient to explain desorption, an electronic mechanism is clearly responsible. It is shown that a theory based on direct coupling between the center-of-mass degree of freedom of the adsorbate and the electron-hole excitations of the substrate provides a satisfactory explanation of the various experimental findings.

  16. Effects of electron beam irradiation on inorganic exchanger AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.L.N.; Mathew, C.; Deshpande, R.S.; Jadhav, A.V.; Pande, B.M.; Shukla, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The heteropolyacid salt inorganic exchanger ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) was subjected to an electron dose upto 2 MGy to assess any possible radiation damage. The breakthrough and total exchange capacity of AMP for Cs + from simulated fission product solutions were determined for both control and irradiated samples. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) were deployed to examine any marked microscopic changes taking place in this exchanger. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  17. Electron-cloud effects in high-luminosity colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1998-01-01

    Electron-cloud instabilities are expected to be important in most high-luminosity double-ring colliders. In this report, the author describes a few parameter regimes and some critical parameter dependences of this type of instability, and illustrate these with simulation results for the PEP-II and KEK B factories, the LHC, the VLHC, and DAPHNE. In addition, the author studies the possibility and the potential impact of an electron cloud in the interaction region.

  18. Market effects on electronic health record adoption by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Menachemi, Nir; Shewchuk, Richard M; Ginter, Peter M; Duncan, W Jack; Brooks, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    Despite the advantages of electronic health record (EHR) systems, the adoption of these systems has been slow among community-based physicians. Current studies have examined organizational and personal barriers to adoption; however, the influence of market characteristics has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of market characteristics on EHR adoption by physicians. Generalized hierarchal linear modeling was used to analyze EHR survey data from Florida which were combined with data from the Area Resource File and the Florida Office of Insurance Regulation. The main outcome variable was self-reported use of EHR by physicians. A total of 2,926 physicians from practice sizes of 20 or less were included in the sample. Twenty-one percent (n = 613) indicated that they personally and routinely use an EHR system in their practice. Physicians located in counties with higher physician concentration were found to be more likely to adopt EHRs. For every one-unit increase in nonfederal physicians per 10,000 in the county, there was a 2.0% increase in likelihood of EHR adoption by physicians (odds ratio = 1.02, confidence interval = 1.00-1.03). Health maintenance organization penetration rate and poverty level were not found to be significantly related to EHR adoption. However, practice size, years in practice, Medicare payer mix, and measures of technology readiness were found to independently influence physician adoption. Market factors play an important role in the diffusion of EHRs in small medical practices. Policy makers interested in furthering the adoption of EHRs must consider strategies that would enhance the confidence of users as well as provide financial support in areas with the highest concentration of small medical practices and Medicare beneficiaries. Health care leaders should be cognizant of the market forces that enable or constrain the adoption of EHR among their practices and those of their competitors.

  19. The Electronic CardioMetabolic Program (eCMP) for Patients With Cardiometabolic Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Kristen M J; Koliwad, Suneil; Poon, Tak; Xiao, Lan; Lv, Nan; Griggs, Robert; Ma, Jun

    2016-05-27

    Effective lifestyle interventions targeting high-risk adults that are both practical for use in ambulatory care settings and scalable at a population management level are needed. Our aim was to examine the potential effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of delivering an evidence-based Electronic Cardio-Metabolic Program (eCMP) for improving health-related quality of life, improving health behaviors, and reducing cardiometabolic risk factors in ambulatory care high-risk adults. We conducted a randomized, wait-list controlled trial with 74 adults aged ≥18 years recruited from a large multispecialty health care organization. Inclusion criteria were (1) BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) and prediabetes, previous gestational diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome, or (2) BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Participants had a mean age of 59.7 years (SD 11.2), BMI 37.1 kg/m(2) (SD 5.4) and were 59.5% female, 82.4% white. Participants were randomized to participate in eCMP immediately (n=37) or 3 months later (n=37). eCMP is a 6-month program utilizing video conferencing, online tools, and pre-recorded didactic videos to deliver evidence-based curricula. Blinded outcome assessments were conducted at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. Data were collected and analyzed between 2014 and 2015. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes included biometric cardiometabolic risk factors (eg, body weight), self-reported diet and physical activity, mental health status, retention, session attendance, and participant satisfaction. Change in quality of life was not significant in both immediate and delayed participants. Both groups significantly lost weight and reduced waist circumference at 6 months, with some cardiometabolic factors trending accordingly. Significant reduction in self-reported anxiety and perceived stress was seen in the immediate intervention group at 6 months. Retention rate was 93% at 3 months and 86% at 6 months

  20. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : roadside intervention effectiveness model FY 2013 : analysis brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Roadside Inspection and Traffic Enforcement programs are two of FMCSAs most powerful safety tools. By continually examining the results of these programs, FMCSA can ensure that they are being executed effectively and are producing the desired ...