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Sample records for program effectiveness electronic

  1. Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-30

    Compound Semiconductors." 4 ......... I-*. Univesity of California. Berkeley Electronics Research Laboratory Joint Services Electronics Program August 15...reduction techniques [SCH-66,MCG- 73,HAM-75], for essentially i educing the proportionality constant. A significant portion of the probabilistic literature

  2. The effectiveness of ESP (Electronic Stability Program) in reducing real life accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Krafft, Maria; Kullgren, Anders

    2004-03-01

    ESP (Electronic Stability Program) has recently been introduced onto the market in an effort to reduce the number and severity of loss-of-control automobile accidents. This reduction is expected to be particularly evident for accidents on roads with low friction (e.g., wet or icy conditions). This study aimed to evaluate the statistical effectiveness of ESP using data from accidents that occurred in Sweden during 2000 to 2002. To control for exposure, induced exposure methods were used, where ESP-sensitive to ESP-insensitive accidents and road conditions were matched in relation to cars equipped with and without ESP. Cars of similar, or in some cases identical, make and model were used to isolate the role of ESP. As predicted, the study showed a positive effect of ESP in circumstances where road surfaces have low friction. The overall effectiveness was 22.1 (+/-21) percent, while for accidents on wet roads, the effectiveness increased to 31.5 (+/-23.4) percent. On roads covered with ice and snow, the corresponding effectiveness was 38.2 (+/-26.1) percent. In addition, ESP was found to be effective for three different types of cars: small front-wheel drive; large front-wheel drive; and large rear-wheel drive.

  3. Effects of Curriculum and Nonacademic Factors on Undergraduate Electronic Engineering Program Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Munir

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs in higher education institutions, particularly engineering programs, face challenges related to recruitment, retention, and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are significant relationships among students' major preference, academic skills, nonacademic characteristics and perceptions, and retention to year 2 among students in electronic engineering, other STEM, and non STEM majors. The academic skills considered were study habits, intellectual interest, verbal and writing confidence, and academic assistance. The non-academic factors included academic support, family support, financial support, and student social integration into the campus environment. Tinto's theory of retention served as the theoretical framework. The research design was quantitative with a general linear method of analysis using responses to the College Student Inventory (CSI) survey as secondary data to determine the relationships among the independent variables (major and academic and non-academic factors) and dependent variable (retention). Participants were 3,575 first year undergraduate full-time students from three entering classes, 2012 to 2014. Findings suggested that student major and non-academic factors had no effect on student retention, but student study habits and seeking academic assistance were predictors of retention in each of the three groups of majors: engineering, other STEM majors, and nonSTEM majors. Strategies to help increase undergraduate students' study skills and help seeking behaviors may contribute to positive social change at HBCU institutions.

  4. Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    34 Int. J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. 2, pp. 883-904, 1981. 2. H. Shichijo, K. Hess and B.G. Streetman, "Real-Space Electron Transfer by...Huachuca, AZ 85613 Dr. Rudolf G. Buser Night Vision & Electro-Optics LabsU.S. Army Research, Development ATTN: DELNL-L and Standardization Group - CA Fort

  5. Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Dr. W. Paul Dr. P. Crouch Dr. P.S. Pershan Dr. H. Ehrenreich Dr. B. von Roedern Dr. P.N. Habbal Dr. B. Sandler Dr. 0. Hijab Dr. W.J. Skocpol Dr. Y.C...ELECTRONICS Personnel * Prof. H. Ehrenreich Mr. D.W. Abraham Prof. W. Paul Mr. J. Aponte Prof. P.S. Pershan Mr. G.E. Blonder Assoc. Prof. W.J. Skocpol ...Reference 1. W.J. Skocpol , M.R. Beasley, and M. Tinkham, "Phase-Slip Centers and Nonequilibrium Processes in Superconducting Tin Microbridges," J. Low Temp

  6. Joint Services Electronics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    quality I-V data, showing the "Coulomb blockade," the "Coulomb staircase," and "single-electron transistor action" in a double junction configuration. We...asymmetries in the I-V curves, and which also controls the " transistor action" by modulating the small signal conductance of the device from zero to a...consists of a 5 by 5 array of photodetectors. The photodetectors are implemented by using the parasitic bipolar junction transis- tors ( BJT ) available in

  7. Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    HgCdTe and Related No)ii-\\1:i m I HgZnTe, CdZnTe , K.C. Hass 5. Chemical Trends in Diluted Magnetic Sernicoridiitr- 11. I’lir, I Larson, and K.C. Hass...34 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 2, 367 (1985). 1.4 Electronic Structure of HgCdTe and Related Non-Magnetic I-VI Alloys: HgZnTe, CdZnTe . K.C. Hass, Contract

  8. Joint services electronics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leon, Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The transfer of the compact range and target identification technology initiated under JSEP support for time domain studies continues to make large advances. Using other sources of support, design for a mini-chamber has now been generated and has been constructed. This range is designed to study smaller targets at higher frequencies. The research has proven to be of intense interest to DoD and the aerospace industry and our compact range consortium represents a major cross section of the aerospace and electronic industries, including additional major support from several DoD agencies. In fact, the total support in these experimental studies substantially exceeds our JSEP support. This research is truly guiding a major portion of this technology in the USA and has been extremely important for stealth technology advances.

  9. Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    is violated when the two halves of a biconical antenna are separated to permit connection to a two- wire line, the conical antenna is most...rhombic antenna , the conductors of which, in effect, lie along the edges of a volume like that occupied by a wire-mesh or metal-plate simulator. Since...Integral Equation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Procrgat. (submitted for publication). t ll II , : ] II -. .. - : I7 ,7 111.5 111.5 Resource Allocation With

  10. The Effect of In-Service Training of Computer Science Teachers on Scratch Programming Language Skills Using an Electronic Learning Platform on Programming Skills and the Attitudes towards Teaching Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaria, Ahmed; Alhassan, Riyadh

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of in-service training of computer science teachers in Scratch language using an electronic learning platform on acquiring programming skills and attitudes towards teaching programming. The sample of this study consisted of 40 middle school computer science teachers. They were assigned into two…

  11. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  12. Measuring the Effectiveness of the Communications Electronics Life Cycle Management Command (CE-LCMC) Internship Pilot Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickson, Thomas; Oberdick, Jan; Hodge, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    .... In 2003, the Communications Electronics Life Cycle Management Command (CE-LCMC) established a pilot training program that was intended to accelerate the training and development of contracting interns...

  13. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  14. 75 FR 81885 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Correcting Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Correcting Amendment AGENCY: Centers for Medicare...; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program'' that appeared in the July 28, 2010 Federal Register. DATES... 44314) the final rule entitled ``Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive...

  15. Development of the electron cooling simulation program for JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Chen, Jie [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Huang, He [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Luo, Li-Shi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In the JLab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) project the traditional electron cooling technique is used to reduce the ion beam emittance at the booster ring, and to compensate the intrabeam scattering effect and maintain the ion beam emittance during collision at the collider ring. A new electron cooling process simulation program has been developed to fulfill the requirements of the JLEIC electron cooler design. The new program allows the users to calculate the electron cooling rate and simulate the cooling process with either DC or bunched electron beam to cool either coasting or bunched ion beam. It has been benchmarked with BETACOOL in aspect of accuracy and efficiency. In typical electron cooling process of JLEIC, the two programs agree very well and we have seen a significant improvement of computational speed using the new one. Being adaptive to the modern multicore hardware makes it possible to further enhance the efficiency for computationally intensive problems. The new program is being actively used in the electron cooling study and cooler design for JLEIC. We will present our models and some simulation results in this paper.

  16. Electronic automation of LRFD design programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The study provided electronic programs to WisDOT for designing pre-stressed girders and piers using the Load : Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) methodology. The software provided is intended to ease the transition to : LRFD for WisDOT design engineers...

  17. Effect of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy Program on the Symptoms of Burnout Syndrome Among Undergraduate Electronics Work Students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanya, Theresa C; Eseadi, Chiedu; Orji, Chibueze T; Omeje, Joachim C; Anyanwu, Joy I; Ugwoke, Samuel C; Edeh, Nkechinyere C

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effect that rational-emotive behavior therapy had on the symptoms of burnout among undergraduate electronics work students in Southeast Nigeria. This study utilized a pretest-posttest design involving a no-intervention group versus an intervention group. Participants were 124 undergraduate electronics work students who met the inclusion criteria of the study. The intervention consisted of 12 weeks of rational-emotive behavior therapy treatment and 2 weeks of follow-up meetings conducted at 6 months. Self-report questionnaire was used for data collection. Repeated measures analysis of variance and t test were used for data analysis. The results show that rational-emotive behavior therapy had a significant effect on the symptoms of burnout syndrome among the electronics work students in the treatment group compared to their counterparts in the no-intervention group. Finally, the positive gains were significantly maintained by the treatment group at the follow-up. The current study suggests that rational-emotive behavior therapy program can be effective for dealing with burnout syndrome among the population of undergraduates in Nigeria. Further clinical evaluation is needed.

  18. In-situ electron and ion measurements and observed gravity wave effects in the polar mesosphere during the MaCWAVE program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Croskey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Langmuir probe electron and ion measurements from four instrumented rockets flown during the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically program are reported. Two of the rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, in the summer of 2002. Electron scavenging by ice particulates produced reductions of the electron density in both sharp narrow (≈1–2 km layers and as a broad (≈13 km depletion. Small-scale irregularities were observed in the altitude regions of both types of electron depletion. The scale of the irregularities extended to wavelengths comparable to those used by ground-based radars in observing PMSE. In regions where ice particles were not present, analysis of the spectral signatures provided reasonable estimates of the energy deposition from breaking gravity waves.

    Two more instrumented rockets were flown from Esrange, Sweden, in January 2003. Little turbulence or energy deposition was observed during one flight, but relatively large values were observed during the other flight. The altitude distribution of the observed turbulence was consistent with observations of a semidiurnal tide and gravity wave instability effects as determined by ground-based lidar and radar measurements and by falling sphere measurements of the winds and temperatures (Goldberg et al., 2006; Williams et al., 2006.

  19. In-situ electron and ion measurements and observed gravity wave effects in the polar mesosphere during the MaCWAVE program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Croskey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Langmuir probe electron and ion measurements from four instrumented rockets flown during the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically program are reported. Two of the rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, in the summer of 2002. Electron scavenging by ice particulates produced reductions of the electron density in both sharp narrow (≈1–2 km layers and as a broad (≈13 km depletion. Small-scale irregularities were observed in the altitude regions of both types of electron depletion. The scale of the irregularities extended to wavelengths comparable to those used by ground-based radars in observing PMSE. In regions where ice particles were not present, analysis of the spectral signatures provided reasonable estimates of the energy deposition from breaking gravity waves. Two more instrumented rockets were flown from Esrange, Sweden, in January 2003. Little turbulence or energy deposition was observed during one flight, but relatively large values were observed during the other flight. The altitude distribution of the observed turbulence was consistent with observations of a semidiurnal tide and gravity wave instability effects as determined by ground-based lidar and radar measurements and by falling sphere measurements of the winds and temperatures (Goldberg et al., 2006; Williams et al., 2006.

  20. Joint Services Electronics Program Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-30

    Oldham Impact on Practical Performance SSD-83-2 Study of Effects Limiting T. Van Duzer Realization of Far- Submicron Superconductive Electronic...red Heterodyne Mixing S.E. Schwarz and Detection T. Van Duzer IV. INFORMATION SYSTEMS ISS-83-1 Large-Scale and Nonlinear L. 0. Chua Circuits Study...B. Basic Research in Solid Coordinator: Professor T. Van Duzer State Electronics - Devices General Since 1960 solid-state device research and

  1. Using electronic medical records analysis to investigate the effectiveness of lifestyle programs in real-world primary care is challenging: a case study in diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Spigt; Tjarco Koppenaal; Joris Linmans; Wolfgang Viechtbauer; J.A. Knottnerus

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The increasing prevalence of diabetes suggests a gap between real world and controlled trial effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, but real-world investigations are rare. Electronic medical registration facilitates research on real-world effectiveness, although such investigations may

  2. 78 FR 77121 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of New York AGENCY... State of New York's request to modify its State Operating Permit Programs EPA- authorized program to allow electronic reporting. DATES: EPA's approval is effective on December 20, 2013 for the State of New...

  3. Correlation of Chemisorption and Electronic Effects for Metal Oxide Interfaces: Transducing Principles for Temperature Programmed Gas Microsensors (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Semancik; R. E. Cavicchi; D. L. DeVoe; T. J. McAvoy [National Institute of Standards and Technology (US)]|[University of Maryland (US)

    2001-12-21

    This Final Report describes efforts and results for a 3-year DoE/OST-EMSP project centered at NIST. The multidisciplinary project investigated scientific and technical concepts critical for developing tunable, MEMS-based, gas and vapor microsensors that could be applied for monitoring the types of multiple analytes (and differing backgrounds) encountered at DoE waste sites. Micromachined ''microhotplate'' arrays were used as platforms for fabricating conductometric sensor prototypes, and as microscale research tools. Efficient microarray techniques were developed for locally depositing and then performance evaluating thin oxide films, in order to correlate gas sensing characteristics with properties including composition, microstructure, thickness and surface modification. This approach produced temperature-dependent databases on the sensitivities of sensing materials to varied analytes (in air) which enable application-specific tuning of microsensor arrays. Mechanistic studies on adsorb ate transient phenomena were conducted to better understand the ways in which rapid temperature programming schedules can be used to produce unique response signatures and increase information density in microsensor signals. Chemometric and neural network analyses were also employed in our studies for recognition and quantification of target analytes.

  4. EGUN: An electron optics and gun design program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-10-01

    The name EGUN has become commonly associated with the program also known as the SLAC Electron Trajectory Program. This document is an updated version of SLAC-226, published in 1979. The program itself has had substantial upgrading since then, but only a few new features are of much concern to the user. Most of the improvements are internal and are intended to improve speed or accuracy. EGUN is designed to compute trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic fields, including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes, as well as used specified initial conditions. Either rectangular or cylindrical symmetry may be used. In the new jargon, the program is a 2-1/2 dimension code meaning 2-D in all fields and 3-D in all particle motion. A Poisson's Equation Solver is used to find the electrostatic fields by using difference equations derived from the boundary conditions. Magnetic fields are to be specified externally, by the user, by using one of several methods including data from another program or arbitrary configurations of coils. This edition of the documentation also covers the program EGN87c, which is a recently developed version of EGUN designed to be used on the newer models of personal computers, small main frames, work stations, etc. The EGN87c program uses the programming language C which is very transportable so the program should operate on any system that supports C. Plotting routines for most common PC monitors are included, and the capability to make hard copy plots on dot-matrix printer-plotters is provided. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Basic Research in Electronics (JSEP): Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-30

    sol ,3 the second harmonic generation, of enhancement 10 4 , from metal surfaces chemically roughened to a depth...34 .--.’ .% .’, ’ ... .,. .. .. .... . . - .- ".".. . . .". .-.. . .-.-.. . .-.. . . . . . . . . ... " - . . -. ° SECTION II: SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS sonicated for 5 minutes. After this the entire sol was centrifuged to...Kuhn, J. Chem. Phys.- 53, 101 (1970). . 36. P. Chylek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 285 (1976). 37. S. Arnold and M. Lewittes , "Size Dependence of the

  6. EDUCATIONAL COMPLEX ON ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRONICS BASED ON MODELING IN PROGRAM TINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Alekhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The educational complex on the electrical engineering and electronics has been developed. It contains a course of lectures and lecture notes in the electronic form, a new computer laboratory practical work and practical training. All electronic manuals are based on modeling of electric and electronic circuits in the new effective program TINA. The educational complex is being successfully used in educational process on internal and distant learning. 

  7. ONR D&I Electronics Technology Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moon, Jeong

    2008-01-01

    Program Status: One of the D&I program goals is to develop greatly improved field-plated MMW GaN HEMT devices with high ft/fmax, which will improve gain/PAE and output power of GaN HEMT MMIC PAs simultaneously...

  8. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  9. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  10. Progress Report for the Joint Services Electronics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    design of algorithmi- cally specified systolic arrays," in Computer Architecture: Concepts and Systems. V . M. Milu - tinovic, Ed. Elsevier, 1988. (NSF) [13... V COORDINATED SCIENCE LABORATORY c0 00 PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE JOINT SERVICES ELECTRONICS PROGRAM FOR THE PERIOD APRIL 1, 1987, THROUGH MARCH 31...Heterostructure Electronic Devices by Metalorganic Chemical V apor Deposition (M OCV D

  11. Developing Effective Instructional Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Barbara; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing effective instructional programs, is presented in this document. The first paper, entitled "The Organization--A Viable Instrument for Progress" (Barbara Sizemore), addresses the subject of high-achieving, predominantly black elementary schools. Routines in these schools not present in…

  12. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    2012-11-30

    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  13. Using electronic medical records analysis to investigate the effectiveness of lifestyle programs in real-world primary care is challenging: a case study in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linmans, Joris J; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Koppenaal, Tjarco; Spigt, Mark; Knottnerus, J André

    2012-07-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes suggests a gap between real world and controlled trial effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, but real-world investigations are rare. Electronic medical registration facilitates research on real-world effectiveness, although such investigations may require specific methodology and statistics. We investigated the effects of real-world primary care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We used medical records of patients (n=2,549) with T2DM from 10 primary health care centers. A mixed-effects regression model for repeated measurements was used to evaluate the changes in weight and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over time. There was no statistically significant change in weight (+0.07 kg, P=0.832) and HbA1c (+0.03%, P=0.657) during the observation period of 972 days. Most patients maintained their physical activity level (70%), and 54 % had an insufficient activity level. The variability in the course of weight and HbA1c was because of differences between patients and not between health care providers. Despite effective lifestyle interventions in controlled trial settings, we found that real-world primary care is only able to stabilize weight and HbA1c in patients with T2DM over time. Medical registration can be used to monitor the actual effectiveness of interventions in primary care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Introduction and NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation includes an introduction to the space radiation environment, the effects on electronics, the environment in action, flight projects, mission needs, and radiation hardness assurance (RHA).

  15. Effective electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the Hubbard-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprea, G. [INFM-CNR SMC Center, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Di Castro, C. [INFM-CNR SMC Center, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Grilli, M. [INFM-CNR SMC Center, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail marco.grilli@roma1.infn.it; Lorenzana, J. [INFM-CNR SMC Center, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2006-06-12

    We investigate the interplay between the electron-electron and the electron-phonon interaction in the Hubbard-Holstein model. We implement the flow-equation method to investigate within this model the effect of correlation on the electron-phonon effective coupling and, conversely, the effect of phonons in the effective electron-electron interaction. Using this technique we obtain analytical momentum-dependent expressions for the effective couplings and we study their behavior for different physical regimes. In agreement with other works on this subject, we find that the electron-electron attraction mediated by phonons in the presence of Hubbard repulsion is peaked at low transferred momenta. The role of the characteristic energies involved is also analyzed.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Fraiman, Joseph B

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular safety is an important consideration in the debate on the benefits versus the risks of electronic cigarette (EC) use. EC emissions that might have adverse effects on cardiovascular health include nicotine, oxidants, aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants. To date, most of the cardiovascular effects of ECs demonstrated in humans are consistent with the known effects of nicotine. Pharmacological and toxicological studies support the biological plausibility that nicotine contributes to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis. However, epidemiological studies assessing Swedish smokeless tobacco, which exposes users to nicotine without combustion products, generally have not found an increased risk of myocardial infarction or stroke among users, but suggest that nicotine might contribute to acute cardiovascular events, especially in those with underlying coronary heart disease. The effects of aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants derived from ECs on cardiovascular health have not been determined. Although ECs might pose some cardiovascular risk to users, particularly those with existing cardiovascular disease, the risk is thought to be less than that of cigarette smoking based on qualitative and quantitative comparisons of EC aerosol versus cigarette smoke constituents. The adoption of ECs rather than cigarette smoking might, therefore, result in an overall benefit for public health.

  17. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  18. CIF2Cell: Generating geometries for electronic structure programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Torbjörn

    2011-05-01

    The CIF2Cell program generates the geometrical setup for a number of electronic structure programs based on the crystallographic information in a Crystallographic Information Framework (CIF) file. The program will retrieve the space group number, Wyckoff positions and crystallographic parameters, make a sensible choice for Bravais lattice vectors (primitive or principal cell) and generate all atomic positions. Supercells can be generated and alloys are handled gracefully. The code currently has output interfaces to the electronic structure programs ABINIT, CASTEP, CPMD, Crystal, Elk, Exciting, EMTO, Fleur, RSPt, Siesta and VASP. Program summaryProgram title: CIF2Cell Catalogue identifier: AEIM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 691 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 74 933 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python (versions 2.4-2.7) Computer: Any computer that can run Python (versions 2.4-2.7) Operating system: Any operating system that can run Python (versions 2.4-2.7) Classification: 7.3, 7.8, 8 External routines: PyCIFRW [1] Nature of problem: Generate the geometrical setup of a crystallographic cell for a variety of electronic structure programs from data contained in a CIF file. Solution method: The CIF file is parsed using routines contained in the library PyCIFRW [1], and crystallographic as well as bibliographic information is extracted. The program then generates the principal cell from symmetry information, crystal parameters, space group number and Wyckoff sites. Reduction to a primitive cell is then performed, and the resulting cell is output to suitably named files along with documentation of the information source generated from any bibliographic information contained in the CIF

  19. Proximity effect of electron beam lithography on single-electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monly used technique in this field, and many researchers have been investigating its application to make nanopatterns. In electron beam lithography, the well-known proximity effect refers to .... electrodes are grounded. The charging effect, which blocks the injection/ejection of a single charge into/from a quantum dot, ...

  20. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: NEPP Overview - Automotive Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using U.S. Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Council's AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASA's procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  1. 77 FR 64755 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... public comments regarding 2011 Edition of EHR certification criteria, we made a grammatical error. On... document corrects technical errors and typographical errors in the final rule entitled ``Medicare and... Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program--Stage 2'' there were a number of technical errors and...

  2. Effects of electronic communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kam, WJ; Moorman, PW; Koppejan-Mulder, MJ

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To obtain insight into the effects of electronic communication on GPs by studying those publications in literature describing the effects of structured electronic clinical communication in general practice. Methods: We retrieved all publications in the English language indexed in MEDLINE

  3. Mode Interference Effect in Coherent Electron Focusing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, C.W.J.; Houten, H. van; Wees, B.J. van

    1988-01-01

    A novel quantum interference effect in ballistic transport is described: the interference of coherently excited magnetic edge states in a two-dimensional electron gas. The effect explains the characteristic features of the unexpected fine structure observed recently in an electron focusing

  4. Review of research under the Joint Services Electronics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. R.; Su, R.; Newman, T. G.; Emre, E.; Lombardi, F.

    1983-12-01

    This report represents the seventh year of research under the auspices of the Joint Services Electronics Program at Texas Tech University. The program is in the area of information electronics and includes faculty from Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, and Mathematics. Specific work units deal with nonlinear control, parametric and nonparametric identification, pattern recognition for imaging systems, parallel computation and scheduling theory, analysis and design of large scale computing systems. The following items are provided for each work unit; a summary of the research performed in 1983, a list of publications and activities, and abstracts of published and pending papers. This annual report also contains lists of all grants and contracts administered by JSEP personnel and of all grants and contracts in the Departments of Electrical Engineering/Computer Science and Mathematics.

  5. Switching Effects in Molecular Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zihao; Ren, Shizhao; Guo, Xuefeng

    2017-06-01

    The creation of molecular electronic switches by using smart molecules is of great importance to the field of molecular electronics. This requires a fundamental understanding of the intrinsic electron transport mechanisms, which depend on several factors including the charge transport pathway, the molecule-electrode coupling strength, the energy of the molecular frontier orbitals, and the electron spin state. On the basis of significant progresses achieved in both experiments and theory over the past decade, in this review article we focus on new insights into the design and fabrication of different molecular switches and the corresponding switching effects, which is crucial to the development of molecular electronics. We summarize the strategies developed for single-molecule device fabrication and the mechanism of these switching effects. These analyses should be valuable for deeply understanding the switching effects in molecular electronic devices.

  6. Involving the Visually Impaired in Your Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Donald R.

    1979-01-01

    The author describes several teaching aids and techniques to help blind and partially sighted students understand electronics, specifically devices (with availability) he has found effective in preparing a blind student for a ham radio license: an audital multimeter, raised line drawings, Opticon, braille texts, and Speech Pulse Calculator. (MF)

  7. Gateway effects and electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2017-08-07

    E-cigarettes are alleged to be a gateway to cigarette smoking in non-smokers. This study examines whether the gateway theory has value, whether the criteria to establish causality have been met and what type of evidence is required to test this theory. Experiments are impractical, and we may not be able to test properly the gateway effects via observational studies that simply adjust for confounders. Multivariate models cannot eliminate all the variance in propensity to smoke captured by the variable 'vaping' because of the proximity of these two behaviours. It may be difficult to prove that vaping precedes smoking when product use co-occurs and when, in fact, smoking usually precedes vaping. The gateway theory is not compatible with either (1) the decrease in smoking prevalence observed in adolescents in countries where vaping increased or (2) an increase in smoking among teenagers after age restrictions were imposed on e-cigarette purchases. A spurious gateway effect can be produced artificially by mathematical models in which a propensity to use substances is correlated with opportunities to use substances. Finally, neither nicotine medications nor smokeless tobacco produce gateway effects. Available data are compatible with a common liability model in which people who are liable to use nicotine are more likely to use both e-cigarettes and cigarettes. Despite its weaknesses and scant empirical support, the gateway theory of smoking initiation has had enormous political influence. Policies based on this theory will not have the intended effects if the association between vaping and smoking is explained by common liabilities. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. REEFER: a digital computer program for the simulation of high energy electron tubes. [Reefer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boers, J.E.

    1976-11-01

    A digital computer program for the simulation of very high-energy electron and ion beams is described. The program includes space-charge effects through the solution of Poisson's equation and magnetic effects (both induced and applied) through the relativistic trajectory equations. Relaxation techniques are employed while alternately computing electric fields and trajectories. Execution time is generally less than 15 minutes on a CDC 6600 digital computer. Either space-charge-limited or field-emission sources may be simulated. The input data is described in detail and an example data set is included.

  9. An Electronic Commerce Program for the Defence Finance and Accounting Service-Columbus Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    AD-A237 636 JU0 0 u5 11111 IN III III1 m11i AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PROGRAM FOR THE DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE - COLUMBUS CENTER Report...MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 91-04373 LMI Executive Summary AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PROGRAM FOR THE DEFENSE...some Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic data interchange and electronic funds transfer. We believe additional applications of those

  10. Use of Commercial Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts in NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalex, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew and Cargo Program (CCP) is stimulating efforts within the private sector to develop and demonstrate safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. One initiative involves investigating the use of commercial electronic parts. NASA's CCP asked the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to collect data to help frame the technical, cost, and schedule risk trades associated with electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts selection and specifically expressed desire of some of the CCP partners to employ EEE parts of a lower grade than traditionally used in most NASA safety-critical applications. This document contains the outcome from the NESC's review and analyses.

  11. Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 26; Issue 1. Many electron effects in ... Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit shell structures, very similar to atoms. Termed as 'artificial atoms' by some, ... Our calculations have been performed in a three-dimensional quantum dot. We have carried out a study of ...

  12. Effective approaches for managing electronic records and archives

    CERN Document Server

    Dearstyne, Bruce W

    2006-01-01

    This is a book of fresh insights, perspectives, strategies, and approaches for managing electronic records and archives. The authors draw on first-hand experience to present practical solutions, including recommendations for building and sustaining strong electronic records programs.

  13. Proximity effect of electron beam lithography on single-electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical characteristics of the single-electron transistor were observed to be consistent with the expected behavior of electron transport through gated quantum dots, up to 150 K. The dependence of the electrical characteristics on the dot size reveals that the d oscillation follows from the Coulomb blockade by poly-Si ...

  14. Tutorial: Radiation Effects in Electronic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    This tutorial presentation will give an overview of radiation effects in electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) components as it applies to civilian space systems of varying size and complexity. The natural space environment presents many unique threats to electronic systems regardless of where the systems operate from low-Earth orbit to interplanetary space. The presentation will cover several topics, including: an overview and introduction to the applicable space radiation environments common to a broad range of mission designs; definitions and impacts of effects due to impinging particles in the space environment e.g., total ionizing dose (TID), total non-ionizing dose (TNID), and single-event effects (SEE); and, testing for and evaluation of TID, TNID, and SEE in EEE components.

  15. Effective Communication and Neurolinguistic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Bashir (Corresponding Author

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Importance of effective communication can hardly be ignored in any sphere of life. This is achieved through various means. One such instrument is Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP which has now taken roots in various aspects of learning and education. Its potential spans education and learning, language teaching, business management and marketing, psychology, law, and several other fields. In our work, we will briefly explore various facets of NLP with special reference to effective communication.

  16. Overview of HPM Effects in Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    The following presentation contains an overview of HPM effects in modern electronics. HPM effects can be categorized into two basic level of effects, which are damaging and non-damaging. Damaging effects include junction breakdowns, dielectric breakdowns, and latch-up. These types of effects render a system inoperable until repaired. With non-damaging effects, HPM signals couple to into system components generating circuit responses that can overwhelm normal operation. Non-damaging effects can temporarily render a system inoperable or cause a system to lock and require a restart. Since modern systems are so complex, fundamental mechanisms of upset in circuit primitives are studied. All topics covered and all figured contained within are found in open literature. All data plots presented were obtained from experimental measurements conducted at the University of Maryland College Park and are also found in the open literature.

  17. Electron-electron interactions in the chemical bond:``1/3” Effect in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The prominent ``1/3” effect observed in the Hall effect plateaus of twodimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems has been postulated to indicating 1/3 fractional charge quasiparticle excitations arising from electron-electron interactions. Tunneling shot-noise experiments on 2DEF exhibiting fractional quantum Hall effect ...

  18. Integrating electron microscopy into nanoscience and materials engineering programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormia, Robert D.; Oye, Michael M.; Nguyen, Anh; Skiver, David; Shi, Meng; Torres, Yessica

    2014-10-01

    Preparing an effective workforce in high technology is the goal of both academic and industry training, and has been the engine that drives innovation and product development in the United States for over a century. During the last 50 years, technician training has comprised a combination of two-year academic programs, internships and apprentice training, and extensive On-the-Job Training (OJT). Recently, and especially in Silicon Valley, technicians have four-year college degrees, as well as relevant hands-on training. Characterization in general, and microscopy in particular, is an essential tool in process development, manufacturing and QA/QC, and failure analysis. Training for a broad range of skills and practice is challenging, especially for community colleges. Workforce studies (SRI/Boeing) suggest that even four year colleges often do not provide the relevant training and experience in laboratory skills, especially design of experiments and analysis of data. Companies in high-tech further report difficulty in finding skilled labor, especially with industry specific experience. Foothill College, in partnership with UCSC, SJSU, and NASA-Ames, has developed a microscopy training program embedded in a research laboratory, itself a partnership between university and government, providing hands-on experience in advanced instrumentation, experimental design and problem solving, with real-world context from small business innovators, in an environment called `the collaboratory'. The program builds on AFM-SEM training at Foothill, and provides affordable training in FE-SEM and TEM through a cost recovery model. In addition to instrument and engineering training, the collaboratory also supports academic and personal growth through a multiplayer social network of students, faculty, researchers, and innovators.

  19. [Quality and effectiveness of electronic fetal monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biringer, K; Danko, J

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of electronic fetal monitoring methods during labor. A case series study. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Martin, Slovak Republic. We followed 112 fetuses with simultaneous continuous monitoring (cardiotocography (CTG), intrapartal fetal pulse oxymetry (IFPO), and analysis of ST segment in fetal electrocardiogram (STAN)) during labor. We determined the effective time for every diagnostic tool. histograms, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman's coefficient; significance (alfa): p STAN > IFPO (94.8% +/- 15.1% vs. 90.4% +/- 18.3% vs. 87.4% +/- 21.2%). STAN was the most effective tool in the second stage of labor (91.3% +/- 9.4%). The most effective fetal monitoring tool is CTG. However STAN is the best diagnostic method in the second stage of labor, because of its bio-signal quality.

  20. New Jersey's electronic birth certificate program: variations in data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulian, J C; Ananth, C V; Hanley, M L; Knuppel, R A; Donlen, J; Kruse, L

    2001-05-01

    This study sought to determine primary sources of data for electronic birth certificates. A survey was administered from 1997 through 1998 to maternity facilities in New Jersey requesting information about what primary information sources were used for 53 electronic birth certificate variables. Potential information sources included the facilities' maternal and infant medical records, the prenatal record, and a parent-completed birth certificate worksheet. Among the 66 maternity facilities responding, there was significant variation in the choice of primary data sources for the electronic birth certificate variables examined. The variability of primary sources for electronic birth certificate data acquisition represents a potential cause of systematic error in reported vital statistics information.

  1. Nonadiabatic effects in electronic and nuclear dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Bircher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their very nature, ultrafast phenomena are often accompanied by the occurrence of nonadiabatic effects. From a theoretical perspective, the treatment of nonadiabatic processes makes it necessary to go beyond the (quasi static picture provided by the time-independent Schrödinger equation within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and to find ways to tackle instead the full time-dependent electronic and nuclear quantum problem. In this review, we give an overview of different nonadiabatic processes that manifest themselves in electronic and nuclear dynamics ranging from the nonadiabatic phenomena taking place during tunnel ionization of atoms in strong laser fields to the radiationless relaxation through conical intersections and the nonadiabatic coupling of vibrational modes and discuss the computational approaches that have been developed to describe such phenomena. These methods range from the full solution of the combined nuclear-electronic quantum problem to a hierarchy of semiclassical approaches and even purely classical frameworks. The power of these simulation tools is illustrated by representative applications and the direct confrontation with experimental measurements performed in the National Centre of Competence for Molecular Ultrafast Science and Technology.

  2. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  3. Are Electronic Books Effective in Teaching Young Children Reading and Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jamillah M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether electronic books, CD-ROM'S, or interactive media are beneficial in teaching reading should be determined on evidence that they aid reading comprehension. Reading is worthless unless one comprehends. In order to examine the effectiveness of electronic books in a reading program, the characteristics and attributes of how…

  4. Electron cooling for low-energy RHIC program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Chang, X.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Pendzick, A.; Satogata, T.

    2009-08-31

    Electron cooling was proposed to increase luminosity of the RHIC collider for heavy ion beam energies below 10 GeV/nucleon. Providing collisions at such energies, termed RHIC 'low-energy' operation, will help to answer one of the key questions in the field of QCD about existence and location of critical point on the QCD phase diagram. The electron cooling system should deliver electron beam of required good quality over energies of 0.9-5 MeV. Several approaches to provide such cooling were considered. The baseline approach was chosen and design work started. Here we describe the main features of the cooling system and its expected performance. We have started design work on a low-energy RHIC electron cooler which will operate with kinetic electron energy range 0.86-2.8 (4.9) MeV. Several approaches to an electron cooling system in this energy range are being investigated. At present, our preferred scheme is to transfer the Fermilab Pelletron to BNL after Tevatron shutdown, and to use it for DC non-magnetized cooling in RHIC. Such electron cooling system can significantly increase RHIC luminosities at low-energy operation.

  5. Sampling: Making Electronic Discovery More Cost Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luoma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the huge volumes of electronic data subject to discovery in virtually every instance of litigation, time and costs of conducting discovery have become exceedingly important when litigants plan their discovery strategies.  Rather than incurring the costs of having lawyers review every document produced in response to a discovery request in search of relevant evidence, a cost effective strategy for document review planning is to use statistical sampling of the database of documents to determine the likelihood of finding relevant evidence by reviewing additional documents.  This paper reviews and discusses how sampling can be used to make document review more cost effective by considering issues such as an appropriate sample size, how to develop a sampling strategy, and taking into account the potential value of the litigation in relation to the costs of additional discovery efforts. 

  6. Automatic joint tracking for CNC-programmed electron beam welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, M.J.; Powers, D.E.

    1985-08-01

    In an effort to provide a means for actively maintaining precise alignment during an entire welding procedure, various types of contact and non-contact joint sensing and tracking methods have been investigated over the years. A stylus riding in the groove or a cam follower running along a machined reference surface that parallels the groove, coupled to a transducer for producing a signal indicative of seam path runout, is one method that has been investigated. Another is the employment of light-sensitive devices, used in both a comparative and a discerning fashion to produce a signal indicative of beam-to-joint alignment. Also, electronic detectors that monitor the magnitude of either electron or x-ray emission coming back from a workpiece and produce a signal indicative of beam-to-joint alignment deviations have been investigated. Of the various methods tried, the one which has proved to be ideal for use in joint sensing and tracking during EB welding is that of monitoring the ''secondary'' electron backflow that results when a workpiece is bombarded with a beam of ''primary'' electrons. This is because the primary electron beam producing this secondary electron backflow is the welding beam itself. Since the welding beam becomes the means for measuring joint location, the technique of sensing secondary electron backflow automatically provides a direct correlation between the actual welding beam position and the joint location measured. Thus, any need for calibrating an auxiliary joint location device to actual welding beam position is eliminated. In addition, this method is least affected by the high amount of vapor and spatter generated during welding. In this article, a system employing Secondary Electron Emission Sensing (SEES) to provide an on-line (''realtime''), truly automatic joint tracking capability will be discussed.

  7. An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    AD-A264 299 SELECTE October 1992 S MAY1 4 1993U C An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program MT901R I N1. Augustine...NUMBERS An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program C MDA903-85-C -0139 M DA903-90-C-0006 PE 0902198D 6. AUTHOR(S) M...239-1L 299-01 LMI Executive Summary AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE STRATEGY FOR MTMC’S GUARANTEED TRAFFIC PROGRAM In 1979, the Military Traffic Management

  8. Electron Conditioning of Technical Aluminium Surfaces: Effect on the Secondary Electron Yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pimpec, F.

    2004-12-13

    The effect of electron conditioning on commercially aluminium alloys 1100 and 6063 were investigated. Contrary to the assumption that electron conditioning, if performed long enough, can reduce and stabilize the SEY to low values (< 1.3, value of many pure elements [1] ), the SEY of aluminium did not go lower than 1.8. In fact, it reincreases with continued electron exposure dose.

  9. An effective attractive electron-electron interaction and high-Tc superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howson, M.A.; Porter, J.; Morgan, G.J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Leeds (UK))

    1991-01-15

    The repulsive Coulomb interaction is usually seen as opposing the attractive phonon mediated interaction giving rise to superconductivity. Here we show how the vertex part for electron-electron scattering can lead to an effective attractive Coulomb interaction. We then solve the Eliashberg equations with this effective vertex correction and calculate Tc for a model density of states as we vary the strength of the interaction and the effective mass of the electrons. (orig.).

  10. Utility green pricing programs: A statistical analysis of program effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Olson, Scott; Bird, Lori; Swezey, Blair

    2004-02-01

    Development of renewable energy. Such programs have grown in number in recent years. The design features and effectiveness of these programs varies considerably, however, leading a variety of stakeholders to suggest specific marketing and program design features that might improve customer response and renewable energy sales. This report analyzes actual utility green pricing program data to provide further insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs. Statistical analysis is performed on both the residential and non-residential customer segments. Data comes from information gathered through a questionnaire completed for 66 utility green pricing programs in early 2003. The questionnaire specifically gathered data on residential and non-residential participation, amount of renewable energy sold, program length, the type of renewable supply used, program price/cost premiums, types of consumer research and program evaluation performed, different sign-up options available, program marketing efforts, and ancillary benefits offered to participants.

  11. The Navy’s Educational Programs in Electronic Warfare,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    Test & Evaluation 6 Training 8 Operational (Ship or A/C Sqdn). . 7 Operational (Staff or Support). . 48 Tota l 89 Grand Total: H + P/Q Billets 179 9...California 92055 31. Alfred B. Nejame , Training Director Naval Electronic Lab Center 271 Catalina Blvd - ~ San Diego , Californai 92152 32. William

  12. Electronic and Solid State Sciences, Program Summary FY 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    8217. AIt,-, ’a’ -v *ent -aneto-Ionospheric l1asma",P.I.-Dr. ’!.e .,.en Cis an ener , etic ion mass spectroneter an’ a multi- electron spectrometer which... emic (ndurters ," i.. - L:r. Fred Pollak, ,0,oo4-76-C-0481 An investigation of the stress-dependence of the op[t. ical lib rit-,r. wil be carried out in

  13. Sport Management Graduate Programs: Characteristics of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the characteristics that enable graduate sport management programs to achieve their objectives. Surveys of sport management educators found they agreed on 11 characteristics that indicated a sport management program's effectiveness. Respondents believed an effective program should produce sport managers, not…

  14. Community Needs Assessment for an Electronics and Computer Engineering Technology Program at Maui, Molokai, and Lanai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Jean A.

    In June 1992, Maui Community College (MCC), in Hawaii, conducted a survey of the communities of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and Hana to determine perceived needs for an associate degree and certificate program in electronics and computer engineering. Questionnaires were mailed to 500 firms utilizing electronic or computer services, seeking information…

  15. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Presentation to Korean Aerospace Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide basic information about NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP), for sharing with representatives of the South Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as part of a larger presentation by Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. The NEPP information includes mission and goals, history of the program, basic focus areas, strategies, deliverables and some examples of current tasks.

  16. 16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6.152 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL TRADE...

  17. Effects of Electronic Word - of - Mouth Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Hoon Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased usage of online technologies, there has been an escalation of Electronic Word - of –Mouth (eWOM messages related to sport products and services offered and consumed. Therefore, in this original investigation by applying eWOM to the sport industry, this study examined how the combination of the quality of the eWOM message and the provider of the eWOM message affects purchaseintentions depending on the expertise level of the consumer. This study – which involved the collection of data from 134 students at a large university situated in the Midwest of the United States – utilized repeated measures of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA with tripartite groups of expertise and experimental conditions as independent variables. Purchase intention was the dependent variables. The results indicated that the quality of the eWOM message moderated the effect of the provider of the eWOM message. The subject’s level of expertise also had a moderating role on purchase intention.

  18. Effects of emitted electron temperature on the plasma sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, J. P., E-mail: sheehanj@umich.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D.; Wang, H.; Raitses, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Sydorenko, D. [Physics Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9 (Canada); Hershkowitz, N. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    It has long been known that electron emission from a surface significantly affects the sheath surrounding that surface. Typical fluid theory of a planar sheath with emitted electrons assumes that the plasma electrons follow the Boltzmann relation and the emitted electrons are emitted with zero energy and predicts a potential drop of 1.03T{sub e}/e across the sheath in the floating condition. By considering the modified velocity distribution function caused by plasma electrons lost to the wall and the half-Maxwellian distribution of the emitted electrons, it is shown that ratio of plasma electron temperature to emitted electron temperature significantly affects the sheath potential when the plasma electron temperature is within an order of magnitude of the emitted electron temperature. When the plasma electron temperature equals the emitted electron temperature the emissive sheath potential goes to zero. One dimensional particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the predictions made by this theory. The effects of the addition of a monoenergetic electron beam to the Maxwellian plasma electrons were explored, showing that the emissive sheath potential is close to the beam energy only when the emitted electron flux is less than the beam flux.

  19. Effect of Electronic Monitoring on Social Welfare Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Andersen, Signe Hald

    2014-01-01

    Research Summary We studied the effect on unemployment social welfare dependence of serving a sentence under elec-tronic monitoring rather than in prison, using Danish registry data and two policy shifts that extended the use of electronic monitoring in Denmark. We found electronic monitoring...

  20. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. In this paper, the effects of electron beam irradiation on the gas sensing performance of tin dioxide thin films toward H2 are studied. The tin dioxide thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The results show that the sensitivity increased after electron beam irradiation. The electron beam irradiation.

  1. Electron irradiation damage effects in hydrothermal grown quartz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electron irradiation effects in synthetic quartz single crystals were investigated to determine the extent of damage of the crystals during transmission electron microscopy examination, as the rapid deterioration is of major concern. On exposure of the quartz crystals to electron flux of 3.0 x 108 e/cm2/s at 200 kV accelerating ...

  2. Effective Career Exploration Programs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Replicated findings of Wiggins and Moody (1981). Evaluated four types of high school career exploration programs: cluster (N=53), Career Maturity Inventory (N=52), Career Survey (N=57), and Self-Directed Search/Vocational Preference Inventory (N=55). Results favored latter three programs which allowed students to pursue their own interests instead…

  3. Electronic fetal monitoring as a public health screening program: the arithmetic of failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David A; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2010-12-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring has failed as a public health screening program. Nevertheless, most of the four million low-risk women giving birth in the United States each year continue to undergo this screening. The failure of this program should have been anticipated and thus avoided had the accepted principles of screening been considered before its introduction. All screening tests have poor positive predictive value when searching for rare conditions such as fetal death in labor or cerebral palsy. This problem is aggravated when the screening test does not have good validity as is the case with electronic fetal monitoring. Because of low-prevalence target conditions and mediocre validity, the positive predictive value of electronic fetal monitoring for fetal death in labor or cerebral palsy is near zero. Stated alternatively, almost every positive test result is wrong. To avoid such costly errors in the future, the prerequisites for any screening program must be fulfilled before the program is begun.

  4. Effective Interaction in Polarized Two-dimensional Electron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Takeshi; Takayanagi, Kazuo; Lipparini, Enrico

    2004-10-01

    Multiple scattering processes in two-dimensional electron systems with an arbitrary spin polarization are expressed as a spin-dependent effective interaction operator, which allows applications in various two-dimensional electron systems. Effects of the spin polarization on the correlation energy and the pair correlation function are discussed in detail in connection with the polarization-dependence of the effective interaction.

  5. More Abstracts on Effects of Radiation on Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1987-01-01

    Second volume of bibliography summarizes literature on radiation effects on new electronic devices. Includes those of protons, electrons, neutrons, gamma rays, and cosmic rays at energies up to about 20 GeV. Volume contains 219 abstracts from unclassified sources. Organized into four sections: dose-rate effects, new technology, post-irradiaton effects, and test environments.

  6. Modification of infant hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria screening program using electronic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Behjat; Haddadpoor, Asefeh; Mirkhalafzadeh, Mahmood; Mazroei, Fariba; Aghdak, Pezhman; Nasri, Mehran; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria (PKU) are the most common cause for preventable mental retardation in infants worldwide. Timely diagnosis and treatment of these disorders can have lasting effects on the mental development of newborns. However, there are several problems at different stages of screening programs that along with imposing heavy costs can reduce the precision of the screening, increasing the chance of undiagnosed cases which in turn can have damaging consequences for the society. Therefore, given these problems and the importance of information systems in facilitating the management and improving the quality of health care the aim of this study was to improve the screening process of hypothyroidism and PKU in infants with the help of electronic resources. The current study is a qualitative, action research designed to improve the quality of screening, services, performance, implementation effectiveness, and management of hypothyroidism and PKU screening program in Isfahan province. To this end, web-based software was designed. Programming was carried out using Delphi.net software and used SQL Server 2008 for database management. Given the weaknesses, problems, and limitations of hypothyroidism and PKU screening program, and the importance of these diseases in a national scale, this study resulted in design of hypothyroidism and PKU screening software for infants in Isfahan province. The inputs and outputs of the software were designed in three levels including Health Care Centers in charge of the screening program, provincial reference lab, and health and treatment network of Isfahan province. Immediate registration of sample data at the time and location of sampling, providing the provincial reference Laboratory and Health Centers of different eparchies with the ability to instantly observe, monitor, and follow-up on the samples at any moment, online verification of samples by reference lab, creating a daily schedule for reference lab

  7. Accomplishments of the heavy electron particle accelerator program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D. [Fermilab; Stratakis, D. [Fermilab; Palmer, M. [Brookhaven; Delahaye, J-P [SLAC; Summers, D. [Mississippi U.; Ryne, R. [LBNL, Berkeley; Cummings, M. A. [MUONS Inc.

    2016-10-18

    The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) has completed a four-year study on the feasibility of muon colliders and on using stored muon beams for neutrinos. That study was broadly successful in its goals, establishing the feasibility of heavy lepton colliders (HLCs) from the 125 GeV Higgs Factory to more than 10 TeV, as well as exploring using a μ storage ring (MSR) for neutrinos, and establishing that MSRs could provide factory-level intensities of νe ($\\bar{ve}$) and $\\bar{vμ}$ (νμ) beams. The key components of the collider and neutrino factory systems were identified. Feasible designs and detailed simulations of all of these components have been obtained, including some initial hardware component tests, setting the stage for future implementation where resources are available and the precise physics goals become apparent.

  8. Welfare and Child Support Program Knowledge Gaps Reduce Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel R.; Cancian, Maria; Nam, Kisun

    2007-01-01

    There is little research on knowledge of the policy rules that could affect individuals, either in general or in evaluations of new programs. The lack of research is surprising, given that knowledge gaps could limit the effectiveness of reforms or lead to incorrect inferences regarding the effects of a policy change. In this article, we use survey…

  9. Adverse Effects of Electronic Cigarette Use: A Concept Mapping Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Eric K; Nasim, Aashir; Rosas, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarette (ECIG) use has grown rapidly in popularity within a short period of time. As ECIG products continue to evolve and more individuals begin using ECIGs, it is important to understand the potential adverse effects that are associated with ECIG use. The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the acute adverse effects associated with ECIG use. This study used an integrated, mixed-method participatory approach called concept mapping (CM). Experienced ECIG users (n = 85) provided statements that answered the focus prompt "A specific negative or unpleasant effect (ie, physical or psychological) that I have experienced either during or immediately after using an electronic cigarette device is…" in an online program. Participants sorted these statements into piles of common themes and rated each statement. Using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis, a concept map of the adverse effects statements was created. Participants generated 79 statements that completed the focus prompt and were retained by researchers. Analysis generated a map containing five clusters that characterized perceived adverse effects of ECIG use: Stigma, Worry/Guilt, Addiction Signs, Physical Effects, and Device/Vapor Problems. ECIG use is associated with adverse effects that should be monitored as ECIGs continue to grow in popularity. If ECIGs are to be regulated, policies should be created that minimize the likelihood of user identified adverse effects. This article provides a list of adverse effects reported by experienced ECIG users. This article organizes these effects into a conceptual model that may be useful for better understanding the adverse outcomes associated with ECIG use. These identified adverse effects may be useful for health professionals and policy makers. Health professionals should be aware of potential negative health effects that may be associated with ECIG use and policy makers could design ECIG regulations that minimize the

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Electron-Ion Temperature Relaxation in Dense Hydrogen: Electronic Quantum Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Dai, Jiayu; Zhao, Zengxiu

    2016-10-01

    The electron-ion temperature relaxation is an important non-equilibrium process in the generation of dense plasmas, particularly in Inertial Confinement Fusion. Classical molecular dynamics considers electrons as point charges, ignoring important quantum processes. We use an Electron Force Field (EFF) method to study the temperature relaxation processes, considering the nuclei as semi-classical point charges and assume electrons as Gaussian wave packets which includes the influences of the size and the radial motion of electrons. At the same time, a Pauli potential is used to describe the electronic exchange effect. At this stage, quantum effects such as exchange, tunneling can be included in this model. We compare the results from EFF and classical molecular dynamics, and find that the relaxation time is much longer with including quantum effects, which can be explained directly by the deference of collision cross sections between quantum particles and classical particles. Further, the final thermal temperature of electron and ion is different compared with classical results that the electron quantum effects cannot be neglected.

  11. Microscopic effective interaction between electrons: Application to sodium clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipparini, E.; Serra, Ll.; Takayanagi, K.

    1994-06-01

    The effects of short-range electronic correlations on the properties of sodium clusters are studied using the Brueckner g matrix as an effective interaction which describes the scattering of two electrons in the presence of a many-electron medium. The associated cluster Hamiltonian is solved within the Hartree-Fock approximation for the ground state and the dipole plasmon resonance is studied using the self-consistent random-phase approximation. Effects due to ionic core electrons are considered within the pseudojellium model of metal cluster, which goes beyond jellium by using ionic pseudo-Hamiltonians.

  12. Effective interaction in two-dimensional electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Takeshi; Takayanagi, Kazuo; Lipparini, Enrico

    2004-03-01

    A fully microscopic derivation is proposed for an effective interaction operator between electrons in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), which represents multiple-scattering processes in the medium. The obtained interaction features short-range behaviors between electrons, and is presented in a simple form which allows applications in various systems. Short-range correlation in the 2DEG is discussed in detail in terms of the effective interaction with special emphasis on the nonlocal aspect of the correlation.

  13. Strontium clusters: electronic and geometry shell effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2008-01-01

    The optimized structure and electronic properties of neutral, singly and doubly charged strontium clusters have been investigated using it ab initio theoretical methods based on density-functional theory. We have systematically calculated the optimized geometries of neutral, singly and doubly...

  14. Electronic Model of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen; Russell, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A pair of electronic models has been developed of a Ferroelectric Field Effect transistor. These models can be used in standard electrical circuit simulation programs to simulate the main characteristics of the FFET. The models use the Schmitt trigger circuit as a basis for their design. One model uses bipolar junction transistors and one uses MOSFET's. Each model has the main characteristics of the FFET, which are the current hysterisis with different gate voltages and decay of the drain current when the gate voltage is off. The drain current from each model has similar values to an actual FFET that was measured experimentally. T'he input and o Output resistance in the models are also similar to that of the FFET. The models are valid for all frequencies below RF levels. No attempt was made to model the high frequency characteristics of the FFET. Each model can be used to design circuits using FFET's with standard electrical simulation packages. These circuits can be used in designing non-volatile memory circuits and logic circuits and is compatible with all SPICE based circuit analysis programs. The models consist of only standard electrical components, such as BJT's, MOSFET's, diodes, resistors, and capacitors. Each model is compared to the experimental data measured from an actual FFET.

  15. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  16. QPEL: Quantum Program and Effect Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Adams

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the syntax and rules of deduction of QPEL (Quantum Program and Effect Language, a language for describing both quantum programs, and properties of quantum programs - effects on the appropriate Hilbert space. We show how semantics may be given in terms of state-and-effect triangles, a categorical setting that allows semantics in terms of Hilbert spaces, C*-algebras, and other categories. We prove soundness and completeness results that show the derivable judgements are exactly those provable in all state-and-effect triangles.

  17. Dynamics of interacting electrons under effect of a Morse potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, J. L. L.; Sales, M. O.; Neto, A. Ranciaro; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    2017-05-01

    We consider interacting electrons moving in a nonlinear Morse lattice. We set the initial conditions as follows: electrons were initially localized at the center of the chain and a solitonic deformation was produced by an impulse excitation on the center of the chain. By solving quantum and classical equations for this system numerically, we found that a fraction of electronic wave function was trapped by the solitonic excitation, and trapping specificities depend on the degree of interaction among electrons. Also, there is evidence that the effective electron velocity depends on Coulomb interaction and electron-phonon coupling in a nontrivial way. This association is explained in detail along this work. In addition, we briefly discuss the dependence of our results with the type of initial condition we choose for the electrons and lattice.

  18. Glucocorticoids as mediators of developmental programming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulan, Batbayar; Drake, Amanda J

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to an adverse environment in early life is associated with an increased risk of cardio-metabolic and behavioral disorders in adulthood, a phenomenon termed 'early life programming'. One major hypothesis for early life programming is fetal glucocorticoid overexposure. In animal studies, prenatal glucocorticoid excess as a consequence of maternal stress or through exogenous administration to the mother or fetus is associated with programming effects on cardiovascular and metabolic systems and on the brain. These effects can be transmitted to subsequent generations. Studies in humans provide some evidence that prenatal glucocorticoid exposure may exert similar programming effects on glucose/insulin homeostasis, blood pressure and neurodevelopment. The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids mediate these effects are unclear but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. This review discusses the evidence for glucocorticoid programming in animal models and in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    2008-10-15

    system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under this subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable the development of technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEVs, and fuel-cell-powered automobiles that meet the goals of the Vehicle Technologies Program. A key element in making HEVs practical is providing an affordable electric traction drive system. This will require attaining weight, volume, and cost targets for the power electronics and electrical machines subsystems of the traction drive system. Areas of development include these: (1) novel traction motor designs that result in increased power density and lower cost; (2) inverter technologies involving new topologies to achieve higher efficiency and the ability to accommodate higher-temperature environments; (3) converter concepts that employ means of reducing the component count and integrating functionality to decrease size, weight, and cost; (4) more effective thermal control and packaging technologies; and (5) integrated motor/inverter concepts. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center conducts fundamental research, evaluates hardware, and assists in the technical direction of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program, APEEM subprogram. In this role, ORNL serves on the FreedomCAR Electrical and Electronics Technical Team, evaluates proposals for DOE, and lends its technological expertise to the direction of projects and evaluation of developing technologies.

  20. Electronic stability program - the new active safety system of Mercedes-Benz. Das neue Fahrsicherheitssytem ''Electronic Stability Program'' von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.; Achenbach, W.; Schindler, E.; Wohland, T.; Mohn, F.W.

    1994-11-01

    This paper deals with the Electronic Stability Program system ESP - the new active safety feature developed by Mercedes-Benz which will be installed in Mercedes-Benz vehicles as of 1995. The system constitutes a further development of the ABS (Anti-Lock Braking), ETS (Electronic Traction Control) and the familiar hydraulic system, control unit and wheel speed sensors have been thoroughly updated and supplemented by the yaw rate and pressure sensors. Once the impressive stabilising potential was confirmed by testing, Mercedes-benz decided in 1992 to develop an Electronic Stability Program system in cooperation with Bosch and to introduce it in the S and SSL-class with the objectives of - further improving directional stability in all driving modes up the critical limit; - achieving a high degree of hardware and software integration resulting in cost and weight savings; - reducing the development period by 30% with corresponding reductions in development costs and introduction into series production of the Mercedes-Benz S-class in march 1995. (orig.)

  1. Effect of Electron Seeding on Experimentally Measured Multipactor Discharge Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Jonathan; Graves, Timothy; Lemon, Colby; Looper, Mark; Farkas, Alex

    2012-10-01

    Multipactor is a vacuum phenomenon in which electrons, moving in resonance with an externally applied electric field, impact material surfaces. If the number of secondary electrons created per primary electron impact averages more than unity, the resonant interaction can lead to an electron avalanche. Multipactor is a generally undesirable phenomenon, as it can cause local heating, absorb power, or cause detuning of RF circuits. In order to increase the probability of multipactor initiation, test facilities often employ various seeding sources such as radioactive sources (Cesium 137, Strontium 90), electron guns, or photon sources. Even with these sources, the voltage for multipactor initiation is not certain as parameters such as material type, RF pulse length, and device wall thickness can all affect seed electron flux and energy in critical gap regions, and hence the measured voltage threshold. This study investigates the effects of seed electron source type (e.g., photons versus beta particles), material type, gap size, and RF pulse length variation on multipactor threshold. In addition to the experimental work, GEANT4 simulations will be used to estimate the production rate of low energy electrons (< 5 keV) by high energy electrons and photons. A comparison of the experimental fluxes to the typical energetic photon and particle fluxes experienced by spacecraft in various orbits will also be made. Initial results indicate that for a simple, parallel plate device made of aluminum, there is no threshold variation (with seed electrons versus with no seed electrons) under continuous-wave RF exposure.

  2. Mixing of Proton and Electron Scales - Effects of Proton Temperature Anisotropy on the Electron Firehose Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Lazar, M.; Vinas, A. F.; Poedts, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    We perform kinetic linear theory instability analysis in a non-drifting anisotropic electron-proton plasma to study the effects of proton temperature anisotropies on the electron firehose instability in the collisionless solar wind. We solve the Vlasov linear theory dispersion relation for hot highly anisotropic electron-proton plasma in high-beta regime to study the behavior of the solar wind plasma close to the instability thresholds as observed by different spacecraft at 1 AU. We consider temperature and anisotropy regimes for which the electrons and the protons can interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters simultaneous electron and proton firehose instabilities can be observed with the growth rate of the electron firehose instability extending towards the proton scales. The co-existance of the proton and the electron firehose and the mixing of scales for the electromagnetic fluctuations excited by the two instabilities depends on the initial temperatures, anisotropies and angle of propagation. In the case of parallel wave propagation both left and right-hand polarized waves are simultaneously excited. As we increase the angle of propagation the electron firehose starts to dominate with excitation of large-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations over a large range of wave-numbers, starting at the protons scales and extending up to the smaller electron scales. We calculate the maximum growth rate of the oblique electron firehose as a function of the proton temperature anisotropy and discuss the implications of the electron-proton scale mixing for the observed plasma properties and instability thresholds in the undisturbed solar wind.

  3. Effects of House Arrest with Electronic Monitoring on DUI Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Kevin E.; Berg, Bruce L.; Mutchick, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first 57 offenders who participated in an electronic monitoring (EM) program and compared them to offenders who went to jail. Analysis revealed no difference between the groups with respect to rearrest, revocations, and detainers filed. The overwhelming majority of EM offenders completed their period of supervision without incident.…

  4. Electronic laboratory quality assurance program: A method of enhancing the prosthodontic curriculum and addressing accreditation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Marjan; Jahangiri, Leila

    2015-08-01

    An electronic quality assurance (eQA) program was developed to replace a paper-based system and to address standards introduced by the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) and to improve educational outcomes. This eQA program provides feedback to predoctoral dental students on prosthodontic laboratory steps at New York University College of Dentistry. The purpose of this study was to compare the eQA program of performing laboratory quality assurance with the former paper-based format. Fourth-year predoctoral dental students (n=334) who experienced both the paper-based and the electronic version of the quality assurance program were surveyed about their experiences. Additionally, data extracted from the eQA program were analyzed to identify areas of weakness in the curriculum. The study findings revealed that 73.8% of the students preferred the eQA program to the paper-based version. The average number of treatments that did not pass quality assurance standards was 119.5 per month. This indicated a 6.34% laboratory failure rate. Further analysis of these data revealed that 62.1% of the errors were related to fixed prosthodontic treatment, 27.9% to partial removable dental prostheses, and 10% to complete removable dental prostheses in the first 18 months of program implementation. The eQA program was favored by dental students who have experienced both electronic and paper-based versions of the system. Error type analysis can yield the ability to create customized faculty standardization sessions and refine the didactic and clinical teaching of the predoctoral students. This program was also able to link patient care activity with the student's laboratory activities, thus addressing the latest requirements of the CODA regarding the competence of graduates in evaluating laboratory work related to their patient care. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vertical and Horizontal Integration of Laboratory Curricula and Course Projects across the Electronic Engineering Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wei; Goulart, Ana; Morgan, Joseph A.; Porter, Jay R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the details of the curricular development effort with a focus on the vertical and horizontal integration of laboratory curricula and course projects within the Electronic Engineering Technology (EET) program at Texas A&M University. Both software and hardware aspects are addressed. A common set of software tools are…

  6. Enhanced Semantic TV-Show Representation for Personalized Electronic Program Guides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musto, C.; Narducci, F.; Lops, P.; Semeraro, G.; Gemmis, M. de; Barbieri, M.; Korst, J.H.M.; Pronk, S.P.P.; Clout, R.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized electronic program guides help users overcome information overload in the TV and video domain by exploiting recommender systems that automatically compile lists of novel and diverse video assets, based on implicitly or explicitly defined user preferences. Inthis context, we assume that

  7. The effective density of randomly moving electrons and related characteristics of materials with degenerate electron gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Palenskis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of the conductivity of metals, of superconductors in the normal state and of semiconductors with highly degenerate electron gas remains a significant issue if consideration is based on the classical statistics. This study is addressed to the characterization of the effective density of randomly moving electrons and to the evaluation of carrier diffusion coefficient, mobility, and other parameters by generalization of the widely published experimental results. The generalized expressions have been derived for various kinetic parameters attributed to the non-degenerate and degenerate electron gas, by analyzing a random motion of the single type carriers in homogeneous materials. The values of the most important kinetic parameters for different metals are also systematized and discussed. It has been proved that Einstein's relation between the diffusion coefficient and the drift mobility of electrons is held for any level of degeneracy if the effective density of randomly moving carriers is properly taken into account.

  8. Effect of electron disruption in the energy recovery linac based electron ion collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Beam-beam effects present one of the major factors limiting the luminosity of colliders. In the energy recovery linac (ERL based eRHIC design, the electron beam, accelerated in a superconducting ERL, collides with the proton beam circulating in the RHIC ring. During such collisions the electron beam undergoes a very strong beam-beam interaction with the protons, which warrants careful examination. We evaluated transverse disruption and linear mismatch effects in the electron beam caused by collisions and considered several countermeasures to mitigate the emittance growth from these interactions. The minimum required aperture of transport lines is calculated that should allow the transport of the electron beam during the deceleration process.

  9. Effects of thickness on electronic structure of titanium thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effects of thickness on the electronic structure of e-beam evaporated thin titanium films were studied using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) technique at titanium 2,3 edge in total electron yield (TEY) mode and transmission yield mode. Thickness dependence of 2,3 branching ratio (BR) of titanium was ...

  10. Making USGS information effective in the electronic age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Debbie R.; Sanders, Rex; Faust, T.

    2003-01-01

    Executive Summary -- The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) held a workshop on 'Making USGS Information Effective in the Electronic Age' in Woods Hole, MA, on 6-8 February 2001. The workshop was designed to address broad issues of knowledge and communication, and to help develop the mission, vision, and goals of the National Knowledge Bank called for in the 1999 NRC review of the CMGP. Presentations led by historians and philosophers yield to a wide-ranging review and discussion of the role of USGS science in society: USGS science is important to government to understand certain complicated public policy issues (such as the environment), but we must participate in two-way public dialogs to increase our relevance and usefulness. Presentations led by USGS communications experts reviewed the principles of audience analysis and effective communications: this focused look at audiences, markets, and products provided an introduction to the behaviors, the tools, and the terminology that might be applied to public discourse. Presentations by several information technology experts showed the potential - and pitfalls - of current schemes for Web-based information access. Finally, several brainstorming sessions developed action items, vision, and characteristics of a knowledge bank. Based on the workshop discussions and results, the authors developed the National Knowledge Bank Mission, Vision, and Goals statements.

  11. The effect of electron bite-outs on artificial electron heating and the PMSE overshoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kassa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We have considered the effect that a local reduction in the electron density (an electron bite-out, caused by electron absorption on to dust particles, can have on the artificial electron heating in the height region between 80 to 90km, where noctilucent clouds (NLC and the radar phenomenon PMSE (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes are observed. With an electron density profile without bite-outs, the heated electron temperature Te,hot will generally decrease smoothly with height in the PMSE region or there may be no significant heating effect present. Within a bite-out Te,hot will decrease less rapidly and can even increase slightly with height if the bite-out is strong. We have looked at recent observations of PMSE which are affected by artificial electron heating, with a heater cycling producing the new overshoot effect. According to the theory for the PMSE overshoot the fractional increase in electron temperature Te,hot/Ti, where Ti is the unaffected ion temperature=neutral temperature, can be found from the reduction in PMSE intensity as the heater is switched on. We have looked at results from four days of observations with the EISCAT VHF radar (224 MHz, together with the EISCAT heating facility. We find support for the PMSE overshoot and heating model from a sequence of observations during one of the days where the heater transmitter power is varied from cycle to cycle and where the calculated Te,hot/Ti is found to vary in proportion to the transmitter power. We also looked for signatures of electron bite-outs by examining the variation of Te,hot/Ti with height for the three other days. We find that the height variation of Te,hot/Ti is very different on the three days. On one of the days we see typically that this ratio can increase with height, showing the presence of a bite-out, while on the next day the heating factor mainly decreases with height, indicating that the fractional amount of dust is low, so that the electron density is hardly

  12. Hot-electron effect in spin relaxation of electrically injected electrons in intrinsic Germanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T; Wu, M W

    2015-07-01

    The hot-electron effect in the spin relaxation of electrically injected electrons in intrinsic germanium is investigated by the kinetic spin Bloch equations both analytically and numerically. It is shown that in the weak-electric-field regime with E ≲ 0.5 kV cm(-1), our calculations have reasonable agreement with the recent transport experiment in the hot-electron spin-injection configuration (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 257204). We reveal that the spin relaxation is significantly enhanced at low temperature in the presence of weak electric field E ≲ 50 V cm(-1), which originates from the obvious center-of-mass drift effect due to the weak electron-phonon interaction, whereas the hot-electron effect is demonstrated to be less important. This can explain the discrepancy between the experimental observation and the previous theoretical calculation (2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 085202), which deviates from the experimental results by about two orders of magnitude at low temperature. It is further shown that in the strong-electric-field regime with 0.5 ≲ E ≲ 2 kV cm(-1), the spin relaxation is enhanced due to the hot-electron effect, whereas the drift effect is demonstrated to be marginal. Finally, we find that when 1.4 ≲ E ≲ 2 kV cm(-1) which lies in the strong-electric-field regime, a small fraction of electrons (≲5%) can be driven from the L to Γ valley, and the spin relaxation rates are the same for the Γ and L valleys in the intrinsic sample without impurity. With the negligible influence of the spin dynamics in the Γ valley to the whole system, the spin dynamics in the L valley can be measured from the Γ valley by the standard direct optical transition method.

  13. [Electronic fetal monitoring and management of adverse outcomes: how to perform and improve a training program for clinicians?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secourgeon, J-F

    2012-10-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring during labor is the most commonly used method to evaluate the fetal status, but it remains exposed to some criticism. By comparison with intermittent auscultation and in the light of the results of the great studies in the last 30 years, it may be accused its failure to improve the neonatal outcome and its responsibility in the increase on operative deliveries. Actually, the electronic fetal monitoring is a tool whose effectiveness is linked to the accuracy of the analysis developed by the clinician. Studies on assessment of the tracing interpretation indicate that there is always a lack of quality, which may be improved through training programs. It also reveals the benefit of the fetal blood sampling to reduce operative deliveries and the generalization of this method, in addition to electronic fetal monitoring, is recommended by referral agencies. More generally, the continuous monitoring is only a part of the patient safety strategy in the labour ward and we are currently observing, in some European countries and in the United States, the development of training programs concerning the management of the adverse outcomes in obstetrics. The good performances related to the quality of care are demonstrated by the findings of the studies performed in the centers that have implemented an active training policy. In France, the professionals directly involved in the field of the perinatology should benefit from such educational programs that could be organized within the care networks under the authority of referral agencies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 54953 - Medicare Program; Changes to the Electronic Prescribing (eRx) Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...) during the 2011 reporting period. In accordance with section 1848(a)(5)(A) of the Act, a PFS payment... Quality Measure In the CY 2011 PFS final rule with comment period entitled ``Medicare Program; Payment... of the CY 2011 reporting periods for the 2011 eRx incentive or the 2013 eRx payment adjustments that...

  15. 75 FR 1843 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... hospitals failing to meaningfully use certified EHR technology; and other program participation requirements... Technology 2. Incentive Payments for Hospitals a. Definition of Eligible Hospital for Medicare b. Incentive... certified EHR technology does not require EPs and eligible hospitals to perform functionalities for which...

  16. 77 FR 13697 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... hospitals, and CAHs failing to demonstrate meaningful use of certified EHR technology and other program... (certified EHR technology) CAH--Critical Access Hospital CAHPS--Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers... Clinical Quality Measures Using Certified EHRs Technology by Eligible Professionals, Eligible Hospitals...

  17. Terrestrial radiation effects in ULSI devices and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Eishi H

    2014-01-01

    A practical guide on how mathematical approaches can be used to analyze and control radiation effects in semiconductor devices within various environments Covers faults in ULSI devices to failures in electronic systems caused by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha -rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn the environmental radiation features at the ground or avionics altitude. Readers will also learn how to make numerical models from physical insight and what kind of mathematical approaches should be implemented to analyze the radiation effects. A wide variety of mitigation techniques against soft-errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them. The book provides the reader with the knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. It explains how electronic systems including servers and rout...

  18. Effects Of Radiation On Electronics-Additional References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Bibliography abstracts summarizing literature on effects of radiation on new electronic devices. This and second volume cover years 1984 and 1985. Third volume, covers 1982 and 1983 (previously published).

  19. Utility Green Pricing Programs: A Statistical Analysis of Program Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Olson, S.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2004-02-01

    This report analyzes actual utility green pricing program data to provide further insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs.

  20. Dissociative electron attachment to HBr: A temperature effect

    OpenAIRE

    Fedor, Juraj; Cingel, M.; Skalný, J. D.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T.D.; Čížek, M.; Kolorenč, P.; Horáček, J

    2007-01-01

    The effects of rovibrational temperature on dissociative electron attachment to hydrogen bromide has been investigated from the experimental and theoretical point of view. Theoretical calculations based on the nonlocal resonance model predict a strong temperature effect on the Br⁻ fragment ion yield due to population of higher vibrational and rotational states. A crossed beam experimental setup consisting of a temperature controlled effusive molecular beam and a trochoidal electron monochroma...

  1. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  2. Program Evaluation of a Distance Master's Degree Dental Hygiene Program: A Program Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensabaugh, Cynthia F; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando; Overman, Pamela R; Van Ness, Christopher J; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a program evaluation of the University of Missouri-Kansas City Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Education Program (MSDH). This evaluation examined long-term outcomes in the context of stakeholders (the profession, the student, and the degree-granting institution).Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to gather data from the 28 graduates from the MSDH program. An electronic questionnaire included both open- and closed-ended questions including demographic and practice data, and data related to alumni preparedness to reach their career goals. Virtual focus groups provided valuable insight into whether the program has achieved its goals, and prepared the graduates to meet their program competencies and future goals.Results: Out of a total of 28 individuals who have successfully completed the distance program (2001-2011), 19 participated in an online survey (67.8%). The majority of the participants (73.7%) participated in one of 3 focus groups. Sixty-three percent of the graduates are currently employed in dental hygiene education. Eighty-four percent of the respondents have published their research conducted while in the program, thereby contributing to the dental hygiene body of knowledge. Sixty-eight percent indicated that had the distance option not existed, they would not have been able to obtain their advanced degree in dental hygiene. Twenty-one percent of the respondents report either being currently enrolled in a doctoral program, or having completed a doctoral degree.Conclusion: These results suggest that the University of Missouri-Kansas City Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Education Program is meeting its goals from the perspective of all stakeholders and providing its graduates with access to education and educational resources to meet the program competencies and ultimately achieve their career goals. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  3. Effect of electronic media on children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, Munni; Jat, Kana Ram

    2010-01-01

    .... Considering the increasing exposure of children to newer forms of media, we decided to review the current literature on the effects of media on child health both in the Western countries and India...

  4. Effect of electronic media on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Jat, Kana Ram

    2010-07-01

    Radio, television (TV), movies, video games, cell phones, and computer networks have assumed central roles in our children's daily lives. The media has demonstrated potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on children's cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Considering the increasing exposure of children to newer forms of media, we decided to review the current literature on the effects of media on child health both in the Western countries and India. It is widely accepted that media has profound influence on child health, including violence, obesity, tobacco and alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Simultaneously, media may have some positive effects on child health. We need to find ways to optimize the role of media in our society, taking advantage of their positive attributes and minimizing their negative ones. We need to understand better how to reverse the negative impact of media and make it more positive.

  5. Evaluation of Arabic Language Learning Program for Non-Native Speakers in Saudi Electronic University According to Total Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alowaydhi, Wafa Hafez

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at standardizing the program of learning Arabic for non-native speakers in Saudi Electronic University according to certain standards of total quality. To achieve its purpose, the study adopted the descriptive analytical method. The author prepared a measurement tool for evaluating the electronic learning programs in light…

  6. The effects of electron beam rotation upon electron beam welded copper-304 couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysk, Kevin Tacy

    The United States Air Force, Arnold Engineering Development Center, has been using copper to 304 stainless steel couples made using the electron beam welding process during the fabrication of intrusive gas-path diagnostic probes for over five years. Only a limited physical analysis of the resulting welds had been done. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects that varying the rotation frequency of the electron beam had upon the mechanical characteristics of the copper to 304 stainless steel couples. All controllable weld process parameters were held constant with the exception of the electron beam rotation frequency; the rotation frequency was varied from 20 Hz to 180 Hz in steps of 20 Hz. Samples welded without electron beam rotation provided a baseline for comparison. Microhardness distributions showed that weld region homogeneity as evidenced by microhardness maps and optical microscopy was a function of the electron beam rotation frequency. There was no correlation between electron beam rotation frequency and weld tensile strength since each test coupon failed in the Cu base material outside of the weld region. The welds made at all electron beam rotation frequencies used for this study contained cracks within the weld region, heat affected zone (HAZ), or both. The relative number, length, and location of the individual cracks changed with electron beam rotation frequency. Cracking in the HAZ due to liquid metal embrittlement (LME) was not evident in those samples welded with the electron beam rotation frequencies below 100 Hz, Cracking due to LME outside of the weld region in the HAZ was observed to increase with the electron beam rotation frequency above 80 Hz. The relationship between weld region cracking and residual stress within the weld region was shown to be dependent on the electron beam rotation frequency. Cracking in the weld region was not observed in samples welded with the electron beam rotation frequency above 80 Hz

  7. 76 FR 5821 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for... Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct annual reviews of the program for...

  8. Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    model the QD by a square well potential with finite/ infinite barrier while studying band gap enhancement and excitonic effect (Singh et al 2000). On the other hand, researchers performing Coulomb blockade calculations routinely choose parabolic confinement (Macucci et al. 1995, 1997). There is no a priori justification for ...

  9. On the effect of runaway electrons in dense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, T.S.; Turekhanova, K.M. [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96, 480012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2003-10-01

    The effect of runaway electrons has been studied in this work. There were derived the conditions runaway electrons, the influence of electric field on the electron velocity distribution is considered for nonideal classical plasma models. The dependence of friction force on electrons on their velocities,electron-ion collision frequency as a function of the coupling parameter and the strength of critical electric field on particle density and temperature are determined. The results are compared with the asymptotic theory. It has been shown that for the definite density and temperature ranges the difference between critical electric field values is essential for various plasma models. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Paper to Electronic Questionnaires: Effects on Structured Questionnaire Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.

  11. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Overview and the New Tenets for Cost Conscious Mission Assurance on Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The NEPP Program focuses on the reliability aspects of electronic devices (integrated circuits such as a processor in a computer). There are three principal aspects of this reliability: 1) Lifetime, inherent failure and design issues related to the EEE parts technology and packaging; 2) Effects of space radiation and the space environment on these technologies, and; 3) Creation and maintenance of the assurance support infrastructure required for mission success. The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment, and to ensure that appropriate EEE parts research is performed to meet NASA mission assurance needs. NEPPs FY15 goals are to represent the NASA voice to the greater aerospace EEE parts community including supporting anti-counterfeit and trust, provide relevant guidance to cost-effective missions, aid insertion of advanced (and commercial) technologies, resolve unexpected parts issues, ensure access to appropriate radiation test facilities, and collaborate as widely as possible with external entities. In accordance with the changing mission profiles throughout NASA, the NEPP Program has developed a balanced portfolio of efforts to provide agency-wide assurance for not only traditional spacecraft developments, but also those in-line with the new philosophies emerging worldwide. In this presentation, we shall present an overview of this program and considerations for EEE parts assurance as applied to cost conscious missions.

  12. 78 FR 79201 - Medicare and State Health Care Programs: Fraud and Abuse; Electronic Health Records Safe Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... 1001 Medicare and State Health Care Programs: Fraud and Abuse; Electronic Health Records Safe Harbor...; Electronic Health Records Safe Harbor Under the Anti-Kickback Statute AGENCY: Office of Inspector General...) amends the safe harbor regulation concerning electronic health records items and services, which defines...

  13. 75 FR 1617 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of New...'s approval, under regulations for Cross-Media Electronic Reporting, of the State of New York's..., the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR...

  14. Electron-electron interaction, weak localization and spin valve effect in vertical-transport graphene devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Mingsheng; Gong, Youpin; Wei, Xiangfei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Jianbao; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yufen; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Liwei, E-mail: lwliu2007@sinano.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications-CAS and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Guangtong [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-14

    We fabricated a vertical structure device, in which graphene is sandwiched between two asymmetric ferromagnetic electrodes. The measurements of electron and spin transport were performed across the combined channels containing the vertical and horizontal components. The presence of electron-electron interaction (EEI) was found not only at low temperatures but also at moderate temperatures up to ∼120 K, and EEI dominates over weak localization (WL) with and without applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the sample plane. Moreover, spin valve effect was observed when magnetic filed is swept at the direction parallel to the sample surface. We attribute the EEI and WL surviving at a relatively high temperature to the effective suppress of phonon scattering in the vertical device structure. The findings open a way for studying quantum correlation at relatively high temperature.

  15. The Navy Supply Corps Newsletter. Contracting Innovations: Navy Electronic Commerce Online Navy Afloat Purchase Card Program. Volume 62, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    tf • lovy Electronic Commerce Online m Afloat Purchase Card Program4 % y5.ll ’ ’"’#K5&. ifekj 1IÜN AB iräri.1 . ■■-■ 11...Contracting Innovations NAVSUP Electronic Commerce in Contracting for Beginners 8 The Afloat Purchase Card Program: Decentralizing Purchasing for...there. J- May/June NAVSUP Electronic Commerce in Contracting for Beginners By Matt Nielsen, NECO Project Manager, Naval Supply Systems Command M he

  16. Convection electric field effects on outer radiation belt electron precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, C.; Benbrook, J. R.; Sheldon, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    A model is presented for the possible diurnal modulation of outer radiation belt electron precipitation by considering the effect of the convection electric field on geomagnetically trapped electrons. The modulation flux is the flux due to electrons in the drift loss cone, i.e., those which drift into the bounce loss cone. The electron flux in the drift loss cone is related to the time allowable for diffusion from the stably trapped population to the drift loss cone for precipitation at a specific geographic location. This time, which is termed the maximum L-shell lifetime, is obtained by computing electron trajectories, using a realistic magnetic field model and a simple model for the electric field. The maximum L-shell lifetimes are taken to be the times between successive entries into the bounce loss cone. Conservation of the first two adiabatic invariants, as electrons are slowly energized by the convection electric field, leads to variations in pitch angle, maximum L-shell lifetimes, and, consequently, to changes in the electron flux in the drift loss cone. These results are compared with observations of precipitating electrons made with sounding rocket payloads.

  17. Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jaihyunk; Bae, Seho; Bae, Changhyu [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy {approx} 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner.

  18. Nonlinear model for thermal effects in free-electron lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Eduardo Alcides; Endler, Antônio; Rizzato, Felipe Barbedo

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we extend results of a previous paper [Peter et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 12 3104 (2013)] and develop a semi-analytical model to account for thermal effects on the nonlinear dynamics of the electron beam in free-electron lasers. We relax the condition of a cold electron beam but still use the concept of compressibility, now associated with a warm beam model, to evaluate the time scale for saturation and the peak laser intensity in high-gain regimes. Although vanishing compre...

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    2006-10-31

    technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subsystems work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the Vehicle Systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable the development of technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid and fuel-cell-powered automobiles that meet the goals of the FreedomCAR Program. A key element in making hybrid electric vehicles practical is providing an affordable electric traction drive system. This will require attaining weight, volume, and cost targets for the power electronics and electrical machines subsystems of the traction drive system. Areas of development include these: (1) Novel traction motor designs that result in increased power density and lower cost; (2) Inverter technologies involving new topologies to achieve higher efficiency and the ability to accommodate higher-temperature environments; (3) Converter concepts that employ means of reducing the component count and integrating functionality to decrease size, weight, and cost; (4) More effective thermal control and packaging technologies; and (5) Integrated motor/inverter concepts. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center conducts fundamental research, evaluates hardware, and assists in the technical direction of the DOE Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program. In this role, ORNL serves on the FreedomCAR Electrical and Electronics Technical Team, evaluates proposals for DOE

  20. Recollections on Sixty Years of NBS Ionizing Radiation Programs for Energetic X Rays and Electrons1

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, H. William

    2006-01-01

    These recollections are on ionizing radiation programs at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) that started in 1928 and ended in 1988 when NBS became the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The independent Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards (CIRMS) was formed in 1992. This article focuses on how measurements and standards for x rays, gamma rays, and electrons with energies above 1 MeV began at NBS and how they progressed. It also suggests how the rad...

  1. Fundamental edge broadening effects during focused electron beam induced nanosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Schmied

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores lateral broadening effects of 3D structures fabricated through focused electron beam induced deposition using MeCpPt(IVMe3 precursor. In particular, the scaling behavior of proximity effects as a function of the primary electron energy and the deposit height is investigated through experiments and validated through simulations. Correlated Kelvin force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy measurements identified conductive and non-conductive proximity regions. It was determined that the highest primary electron energies enable the highest edge sharpness while lower energies contain a complex convolution of broadening effects. Moreover, it is demonstrated that intermediate energies lead to even more complex proximity effects that significantly reduce lateral edge sharpness and thus should be avoided if desiring high lateral resolution.

  2. A Fortran program for calculating electron or hole mobility in disordered semiconductors from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang

    2011-12-01

    A Fortran program is developed to calculate charge carrier (electron or hole) mobility in disordered semiconductors from first-principles. The method is based on non-adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics and static master equation, treating dynamic and static disorder on the same footing. We have applied the method to calculate the hole mobility in disordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) conjugated polymers as a function of temperature and electric field and obtained excellent agreements with experimental results. The program could be used to explore structure-mobility relation in disordered semiconducting polymers/organic semiconductors and aid rational design of these materials. Program summaryProgram title: FPMu Catalogue identifier: AEJV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 788 580 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8 433 024 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler Operating system: Linux, Windows RAM: Proportional to the system size, in our example, 1.2 GB Classification: 7.9 Nature of problem: Determine carrier mobility from first-principles in disordered semiconductors as a function of temperature, electric field and carrier concentration. Solution method: Iteratively solve master equation with carrier state energy and transition rates determined from first-principles. Restrictions: Mobility for disordered semiconductors where the carrier wave-functions are localized and the carrier transport is due to phonon-assisted hopping mechanism. Running time: Depending on the system size (about an hour for the example here).

  3. Effects of electronic massager on patients with advanced cancer of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of our prostate cancer patients also were not left out in the craze for massagers. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the effects of the electronic massager on patients with advanced prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study done in our unit to find out any effects of using the ...

  4. Probing electron beam effects with chemoresistive nanosensors during in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, S.; Wang, Z.; Zhou, Z.; Krainer, J.; Köck, A.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F.; Grammatikopoulos, P.; Sowwan, M.

    2017-02-01

    We report in situ and ex situ fabrication approaches to construct p-type (CuO) and n-type (SnO2) metal oxide nanowire devices for operation inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (TEM). By taking advantage of their chemoresistive properties, the nanowire devices were employed as sensitive probes for detecting reactive species induced by the interactions of high-energy electrons with surrounding gas molecules, in particular, for the case of O2 gas pressures up to 20 mbar. In order to rationalize our experimental findings, a computational model based on the particle-in-cell method was implemented to calculate the spatial distributions of scattered electrons and ionized oxygen species in the environmental TEM. Our approach enables the a priori identification and qualitative measurement of undesirable beam effects, paving the way for future developments related to their mitigation.

  5. Effects of electrons on the shape of nanopores prepared by focused electron beam induced etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebes, Yael; Ashkenasy, Nurit [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Hadad, Binyamin, E-mail: nurita@bgu.ac.il [The Ilze Kaz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653 Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    The fabrication of nanometric pores with controlled size is important for applications such as single molecule detection. We have recently suggested the use of focused electron beam induced etching (FEBIE) for the preparation of such nanopores in silicon nitride membranes. The use of a scanning probe microscope as the electron beam source makes this technique comparably accessible, opening the way to widespread fabrication of nanopores. Since the shape of the nanopores is critically important for their performance, in this work we focus on its analysis and study the dependence of the nanopore shape on the electron beam acceleration voltage. We show that the nanopore adopts a funnel-like shape, with a central pore penetrating the entire membrane, surrounded by an extended shallow-etched region at the top of the membrane. While the internal nanopore size was found to depend on the electron acceleration voltage, the nanopore edges extended beyond the primary electron beam spot size due to long-range effects, such as radiolysis and diffusion. Moreover, the size of the peripheral-etched region was found to be less dependent on the acceleration voltage. We also found that chemical etching is the rate-limiting step of the process and is only slightly dependent on the acceleration voltage. Furthermore, due to the chemical etch process the chemical composition of the nanopore rims was found to maintain the bulk membrane composition.

  6. THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF THE STUDENTS’ ELECTRONIC PORTFOLIO FORMATION IN TERMS OF THE HIGHER EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Dementieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the description of the main problems of formation of the student’s electronic portfolio in the conditions of realization of Federal State Educational Standards of the Higher Education (FSES of HE.Methods.Theoretical analysis of scientific literature concerning the subject under discussion; monitoring of existing practices in modern Russian Universities procedures for the formation and maintenance of students electronic portfolio.Results. The author describes the main problems of the electronic students’ portfolio formation; some ways of solving described problems are offered.Scientific novelty concludes in the formation of key ideas of the electronic students’ portfolio based on the understanding of requirements of Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education for the results of mastering educational programs. They are the formation of general cultural, general professional and professional competences.Practical significance. The researching results will become the theoretical basis for the systematic organization of the process of creating and maintaining an electronic students’ portfolio during the whole period of their studying at the university; the researching results can become a basis for methodological developments.

  7. The Effect of Background Pressure on Electron Acceleration from Ultra-Intense Laser-Matter Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Manh; Ngirmang, Gregory; Orban, Chris; Morrison, John; Chowdhury, Enam; Roquemore, William

    2017-10-01

    We present two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations that investigate the role of background pressure on the acceleration of electrons from ultra intense laser interaction at normal incidence with liquid density ethylene glycol targets. The interaction was simulated at ten different pressures varying from 7.8 mTorr to 26 Torr. We calculated conversion efficiencies from the simulation results and plotted the efficiencies with respect to the background pressure. The results revealed that the laser to > 100 keV electron conversion efficiency remained flat around 0.35% from 7.8 mTorr to 1.2 Torr and increased exponentially from 1.2 Torr onward to about 1.47% at 26 Torr. Increasing the background pressure clearly has a dramatic effect on the acceleration of electrons from the target. We explain how electrostatic effects, in particular the neutralization of the target by the background plasma, allows electrons to escape more easily and that this effect is strengthened with higher densities. This work could facilitate the design of future experiments in increasing laser to electron conversion efficiency and generating substantial bursts of electrons with relativistic energies. This research is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under LRIR Project 17RQCOR504 under the management of Dr. Riq Parra and Dr. Jean-Luc Cambier. Support was also provided by the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  8. Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) test program is being lead by NASA Ames for Configuration Aerodynamics (CA). Representatives from CA, Technology Integration (TI), Inlet, and the Nozzle ITD's are working with Ames in defining and executing this test program. The objective of the CA 4-14 milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) and design variations using computational and experimental methods. The experimental aspect includes static calibrations, transonic and supersonic wind tunnel testing. The test program will generate a comprehensive database that will include all appropriate wind tunnel corrections, with emphasis placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the TCA.

  9. The effect of electron bite-outs on artificial electron heating and the PMSE overshoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kassa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We have considered the effect that a local reduction in the electron density (an electron bite-out, caused by electron absorption on to dust particles, can have on the artificial electron heating in the height region between 80 to 90km, where noctilucent clouds (NLC and the radar phenomenon PMSE (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes are observed. With an electron density profile without bite-outs, the heated electron temperature Te,hot will generally decrease smoothly with height in the PMSE region or there may be no significant heating effect present. Within a bite-out Te,hot will decrease less rapidly and can even increase slightly with height if the bite-out is strong. We have looked at recent observations of PMSE which are affected by artificial electron heating, with a heater cycling producing the new overshoot effect. According to the theory for the PMSE overshoot the fractional increase in electron temperature Te,hot/Ti, where Ti is the unaffected ion temperature=neutral temperature, can be found from the reduction in PMSE intensity as the heater is switched on. We have looked at results from four days of observations with the EISCAT VHF radar (224 MHz, together with the EISCAT heating facility. We find support for the PMSE overshoot and heating model from a sequence of observations during one of the days where the heater transmitter power is varied from cycle to cycle and where the calculated Te,hot/Ti is found to vary in proportion to the transmitter power. We also looked for signatures of electron bite-outs by examining the variation of Te,hot/Ti with height for the three other days. We find that the height variation of Te,hot/Ti is very different on the three days. On one of the days we see typically that this ratio can increase

  10. Thirty-first annual gaseous electronic conference. A topical conference of the American Physical Socity. Program and abstracts. [Buffalo, New York, October 17--20, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains the program and abstracts of the conference. The following topics are included: metal vapor molecular lasers, magnetohydrodynamics, rare gas halide and nuclear pumped lasers, transfer mechanisms in arcs, kinetic processes in rare gas halide lasers, arcs and flows, XeF kinetics and lasers, fundamental processes in excimer lasers, electrode effects and vacuum arcs, electron and ion transport, ion interactions and mobilities, glow discharges, diagnostics and afterglows, dissociative recombination, electron ionization and excitation, rare gas excimers and group VI lasers, breakdown, novel laser pumping techniques, electrode-related discharge phenomena, photon interactions, attachment, plasma chemistry and infrared lasers, electron scattering, and reactions of excited species. (RWR)

  11. Effect of programmed circadian temperature fluctuations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of programmed circadian temperature fluctuations on population dynamics of. Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss). K.N. de Kock and J.A. van Eeden. Snail Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education,. Potchefstroom. Until now all life-table studies on freshwater snails.

  12. The Programmed Instruction Era: When Effectiveness Mattered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Programmed instruction (PI) was devised to make the teaching-learning process more humane by making it more effective and customized to individual differences. B.F. Skinner's original prescription was modified by later innovators to incorporate more human interaction, social reinforcers and other forms of feedback, larger and more flexible chunks…

  13. Effectiveness of programs to prevent school bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.; Farrington, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Sixteen major evaluations of programs to prevent school bullying, conducted in 11 different countries, are reviewed in detail. Of these 16 evaluations, 8 produced desirable results, 2 produced mixed results, 4 produced small or negligible effects, and 2 produced undesirable results. These varying

  14. Inside Out: Program Integrity and Effectiveness of the Cognitive-Behavioural Program EQUIP for Incarcerated Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    In correctional facilities intervention programs are used to reduce behavioral problems and recidivism. Intervention programs can be effective when they contain effective ingredients and are implemented with high levels of program integrity. Program integrity is the degree to which programs are

  15. Spin effects on the semiclassical trajectories of Dirac electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Jáuregui, R.; Pérez-Pascual, R.; Jáuregui, R.

    2017-11-01

    The relativistic semiclassical evolution of the position of an electron in the presence of an external electromagnetic field is studied in terms of a Newton equation that incorporates spin effects directly. This equation emerges from the Dirac equation and allows the identification of scenarios where spin effects are necessary to understand the main characteristics of the electron trajectories. It involves the eigenvalues of the non-Hermitian operator Σμ νFμ ν , with Σμ ν and Fμ ν as the spin and electromagnetic tensors. The formalism allows a deeper understanding on the physics behind known analytical solutions of the Dirac equation when translational dynamics seem to decouple from spin evolution. As an illustrative example, it is applied to an electron immersed in an electromagnetic field which exhibits chiral symmetry and optical vortices. It is shown that the polarization of intense structured light beams can be used to suppress or enhance spin effects on the electron semiclassical trajectory; the latter configuration yields a realization of a Stern-Gerlach apparatus for an electron.

  16. Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for NASA space flight programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document establishes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for contractors providing and maintaining space flight and mission-essential or critical ground support equipment for NASA space flight programs. Although the text is worded 'the contractor shall,' the requirements are also to be used by NASA Headquarters and field installations for developing program/project parts management and control requirements for in-house and contracted efforts. This document places increased emphasis on parts programs to ensure that reliability and quality are considered through adequate consideration of the selection, control, and application of parts. It is the intent of this document to identify disciplines that can be implemented to obtain reliable parts which meet mission needs. The parts management and control requirements described in this document are to be selectively applied, based on equipment class and mission needs. Individual equipment needs should be evaluated to determine the extent to which each requirement should be implemented on a procurement. Utilization of this document does not preclude the usage of other documents. The entire process of developing and implementing requirements is referred to as 'tailoring' the program for a specific project. Some factors that should be considered in this tailoring process include program phase, equipment category and criticality, equipment complexity, and mission requirements. Parts management and control requirements advocated by this document directly support the concept of 'reliability by design' and are an integral part of system reliability and maintainability. Achieving the required availability and mission success objectives during operation depends on the attention given reliability and maintainability in the design phase. Consequently, it is intended that the requirements described in this document are consistent with those of NASA publications

  17. Electron energy distribution function, effective electron temperature, and dust charge in the temporal afterglow of a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denysenko, I. B.; Azarenkov, N. A. [School of Physics and Technology, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Svobody sq. 4, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Kersten, H. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Leibnizstr. 19, Kiel D-24098 (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Analytical expressions describing the variation of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an afterglow of a plasma are obtained. Especially, the case when the electron energy loss is mainly due to momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is considered. The study is carried out for different EEDFs in the steady state, including Maxwellian and Druyvesteyn distributions. The analytical results are not only obtained for the case when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy but also for the case when the collisions are a power function of electron energy. Using analytical expressions for the EEDF, the effective electron temperature and charge of the dust particles, which are assumed to be present in plasma, are calculated for different afterglow durations. An analytical expression for the rate describing collection of electrons by dust particles for the case when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy is also derived. The EEDF profile and, as a result, the effective electron temperature and dust charge are sufficiently different in the cases when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy and when the rate is a power function of electron energy.

  18. Effects of electron inertia in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrés, Nahuel, E-mail: nandres@iafe.uba.ar; Gómez, Daniel [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CC. 67, suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Univrsidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martin, Luis; Dmitruk, Pablo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Univrsidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-07-15

    We present a study of collisionless magnetic reconnection within the framework of full two-fluid MHD for a completely ionized hydrogen plasma, retaining the effects of the Hall current, electron pressure and electron inertia. We performed 2.5D simulations using a pseudo-spectral code with no dissipative effects. We check that the ideal invariants of the problem are conserved down to round-off errors. Our numerical results confirm that the change in the topology of the magnetic field lines is exclusively due to the presence of electron inertia. The computed reconnection rates remain a fair fraction of the Alfvén velocity, which therefore qualifies as fast reconnection.

  19. Robust electron pairing in the integer quantum hall effect regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. K.; Sivan, I.; Rosenblatt, A.; Heiblum, M.; Umansky, V.; Mahalu, D.

    2015-06-01

    Electron pairing is a rare phenomenon appearing only in a few unique physical systems; for example, superconductors and Kondo-correlated quantum dots. Here, we report on an unexpected electron pairing in the integer quantum Hall effect regime. The pairing takes place within an interfering edge channel in an electronic Fabry-Perot interferometer at a wide range of bulk filling factors, between 2 and 5. We report on three main observations: high-visibility Aharonov-Bohm conductance oscillations with magnetic flux periodicity equal to half the magnetic flux quantum; an interfering quasiparticle charge equal to twice the elementary electron charge as revealed by quantum shot noise measurements, and full dephasing of the pairs' interference by induced dephasing of the adjacent inner edge channel--a manifestation of inter-channel entanglement. Although this pairing phenomenon clearly results from inter-channel interaction, the exact mechanism that leads to electron-electron attraction within a single edge channel is not clear. We believe that substantial efforts are needed in order to clarify these intriguing and unexpected findings.

  20. Effects of electron irradiation on LDPE/MWCNT composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Xingji, E-mail: lxj0218@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Chaoming; Rui, Erming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Liqin [School of Mechatronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, mutiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were incorporated into low density polyethylene (LDPE) in different concentrations (2%, 4% and 8%) using a melt blending process. Structural, thermal stability and tensile property of the unirradiated/irradiated LDPE/MWCNT composites by 110 keV electrons were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Raman spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and uniaxial tensile techniques. Experimental results show that the addition of MWCNTs obviously increases the ultimate tensile strength of LDPE and decreases the elongation at break, which is attributed to the homogeneous distribution of the MWCNTs in LDPE and intense interaction between MWCNTs and LDPE matrix. Also, the electron irradiation further increases the ultimate tensile strength of LDPE/MWCNT composites, which can be ascribed to the more intense interaction between MWCNTs and LDPE matrix, and the formation of crosslinking sites in LDPE matrix induced by the electron irradiation. The addition of MWCNTs significantly enhances thermal stability of the LDPE due to the hindering effect and the scavenging free radicals, while the electron irradiation decreases thermal stability of the LDPE/MWCNT composites since the structure of the MWCNTs and LDPE matrix damages.

  1. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  2. Developing effective cancer pain education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michelle Y; Pisu, Maria; Kvale, Elizabeth A; Johns, Shelley A

    2012-08-01

    Pain is prevalent, burdensome, and undertreated in individuals with cancer across the disease trajectory. Providing patients and family caregivers with psychosocial support and education to manage cancer pain is a core component of quality care that can result in significant clinical benefit. In this review, we: (1) outline an approach for developing and assessing the effectiveness of education programs for adults with cancer pain; (2) discuss considerations for tailoring programs to the needs of diverse populations and those with limited health literacy skills; (3) describe the resource needs and costs of developing a program; (4) highlight innovative approaches to cancer pain education. We conclude with recommendations for future research and the next generation of educational interventions.

  3. Electron kinetic effects on optical diagnostics in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Parke, E. [University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Brower, D. L., E-mail: vvmirnov@wisc.edu; Ding, W. X. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2014-08-21

    At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on Thomson scattering (TS), toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP) and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be accurately treated. We calculate electron thermal corrections to the interferometric phase and polarization state of an EM wave propagating along tangential and poloidal chords (Faraday and Cotton-Mouton polarimetry) and perform analysis of the degree of polarization for incoherent TS. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in τ = T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2} model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with τ{sup 2}-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. The linear model is extended from Maxwellian to a more general class of anisotropic electron distributions that allows us to take into account distortions caused by equilibrium current, ECRH and RF current drive effects. The classical problem of degree of polarization of incoherent Thomson scattered radiation is solved analytically exactly without any approximations for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. The results are discussed in the context of the possible use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of T{sup e} measurement relevant to ITER operational scenarios.

  4. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the structure and optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This work reports the effect of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the structure and optical properties of nanocrystalline nickel oxide (NiO) cubes. NiO nanocubes were synthesized by the chemical precipitation method. The characterization was carried out by employing analytical techniques like X-ray diffraction, ...

  5. Effect of alloying on the electronic structure and magnetic properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. We use the self-consistent, augmented space recursion technique to study the electronic structure and magnetic properties of alloys of the transition metals, Fe, Co and Ni with the noble metals, Ag and Au. We analyse the effect of local environment and the hybridization between the constituent bands on the elec-.

  6. Effective atomic number, electron density and kerma of gamma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An attempt has been made to estimate the effective atomic number, electron density. (0.001 to 105 MeV) and kerma (0.001 to 20 MeV) of gamma radiation for a wide range of oxides of lanthanides using mass attenuation coefficient from WinXCom and mass energy absorption coef- ficient from Hubbell and Seltzer.

  7. Effects of Pictographs and Quoting on Flaming in Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompsen, Philip A.; Foulger, Davis A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the perception of flaming (hostile verbal behavior) in electronic mail by exploring, in the context of five escalating levels of socioemotional intensity, the effects of pictographs (typographic symbols used to express emotion) and quoting. Results suggest pictographs and quoting can vary in perceived intensity and meaning, depending on…

  8. Wave Chaos and HPM Effects on Electronic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    Final Report: 5/01/10 – 4/30/13 Wave Chaos and HPM Effects on Electronic Systems FA95501010106 By Thomas M. Antonsen Jr., Edward Ott, John Rodgers...Hamiltonian system has been claimed to be fully chaotic, namely, the anisotropic Kepler problem with zero angular momentum. 3 particularly easy to go

  9. Electronic spin drift in graphene field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozsa, C.; Popinciuc, M.; Tombros, N.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the drift of electron spins under an applied dc electric field in single layer graphene spin valves in a field-effect transport geometry at room temperature. In the metallic conduction regime (n similar or equal to 3.5x10(16) m(-2)), for dc fields of about +/- 70 kV/m applied between the

  10. Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Broekkamp, Hein; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Broekkamp, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(6), 557-574. doi: 0.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00418.x

  11. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structural, elastic and electronic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present the results obtained from first-principles calculations of the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the strucural, elastic and electronic properties of (B3) boron phosphide, using the pseudopotential plane-wave method (PP-PW) based on density functional theory within the Teter and Pade ...

  12. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structural, elastic and electronic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results showed a phase transition pressure from the zinc blende to rock-salt phase at around 1.56 Mbar, which is in good agreement with the theoretical data reported in the literature. Keywords. Hydrostatic pressure effect; structural, elastic and electronic properties; (B3) boron phosphide. PACS Nos 45.10.Ab; 62.20.

  13. Development and application of an internet electron microscopy system for the outreach program in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miyoko; Tameike, Akane; Ishikawa, Nobuhiro; Furuya, Kazuo

    2008-04-01

    The development of a remotely operated scanning electron microscopy (SEM) system and its use by high school students and the public as an outreach program are reported. The SEM and the server are located in the National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan, with client computers installed at a science museum and high schools. Using a secure virtual private network system and scheduling/management groupware, observation of SEM images and energy dispersive X-ray analysis are widely and frequently performed throughout Japan.

  14. Investigation of effect of electron beam on various polyethylene blends

    CERN Document Server

    Morshedian, J

    2003-01-01

    With regards to the expanding usage of electron beams irradiation in polymer industries such as sterilization of polymeric disposable medical products; cable manufacturing; pipes, heat shrinkable materials, etc. In this project the effect of electron beam on polyethylene used in manufacturing of pipe and heat shrinkable products was studied. Results showed that by increasing the applied dose on samples; the crosslink density would increase and polymers with tertiary carbon atoms in their backbone structure tend to crosslink more readily. The melting temperature and crystallinity percent decreased and degradation temperature increased. Density in low doses decreased and in high doses increased.

  15. Electron cloud and space charge effects in the Fermilab Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The stable region of the Fermilab Booster beam in the complex coherent-tune-shift plane appears to have been shifted far away from the origin by its intense space charge making Landau damping appear impossible. Simulations reveal a substantial buildup of electron cloud in the whole Booster ramping cycle, both inside the unshielded combined-function magnets and the beam pipes joining the magnets, whenever the secondary-emission yield (SEY) is larger than {approx}1.6. The implication of the electron-cloud effects on the space charge and collective instabilities of the beam is investigated.

  16. High-pressure effects on intramolecular electron transfer compounds

    CERN Document Server

    He Li Ming; Li Hong; Zhang Bao Wen; Li Yi; Yang Guo Qiang

    2002-01-01

    We explore the effect of pressure on the fluorescence spectra of the intramolecular electron transfer compound N-(1-pyrenylmethyl), N-methyl-4-methoxyaniline (Py-Am) and its model version, with poly(methyl methacrylate) blended in, at high pressure up to 7 GPa. The emission properties of Py-Am and pyrene show distinct difference with the increase of pressure. This difference indicates the strength of the charge transfer interaction resulting from the adjusting of the conformation of Py-Am with increase of pressure. The relationship between the electronic state of the molecule and pressure is discussed.

  17. Effects of energetic electrons on the electrodynamics in the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aksnes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available From the observations by the PIXIE and UVI cameras on board the Polar satellite, we derive global maps of the precipitating electron energy spectra from less than 1keV to 100keV. Based on the electron spectra, we generate instantaneous global maps of Hall and Pedersen conductances. The UVI camera provides good coverage of the lower electron energies contributing most to the Pedersen conductance, while PIXIE captures the high energy component of the precipitating electrons affecting the Hall conductance. By characterizing the energetic electrons from some tens of keV and up to about 100keV using PIXIE X-ray measurements, we will, in most cases, calculate a larger electron flux at higher energies than estimated from a simple extrapolation of derived electron spectra from UVI alone. Instantaneous global conductance maps derived with and without inclusion of PIXIE data have been implemented in the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE procedure, to study the effects of energetic electrons on electrodynamical parameters in the ionosphere. We find that the improved electron spectral characterization using PIXIE data most often results in a larger Hall conductance and a smaller inferred electric field. In some localized regions the increase in the Hall conductance can exceed 100%. On the contrary, the Pedersen conductance remains more or less unaffected by the inclusion of the PIXIE data. The calculated polar cap potential drop may decrease more than 10%, resulting in a reduction of the estimated Joule heating integrated over the Northern Hemisphere by up to 20%. Locally, Joule heating may decrease more than 50% in some regions. We also find that the calculated energy flux by precipitating electrons increases around 5% when including the PIXIE data. Combined with the reduction of Joule heating, this results in a decrease in the ratio between Joule heating and energy flux, sometimes exceeding 25%. An investigation of the relationship

  18. Strain effects in the electronic structure of CrN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Tomas; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    Chromium nitride (CrN) has a promising future for its resistance to corrosion and hardness, and fascinating magnetic and electronic properties. CrN presents a phase transition in which the crystal structure, magnetic ordering, and electronic properties change at a (Neel) temperature 280K. Thin films from different groups exhibit varied conductance behavior at low temperature. We have performed ab initio calculations using the LSDA+U method, and estimate the interaction between the Cr-3d and N-2p orbitals, by analyzing the band structure near the optical gap (0.2 eV). We also calculate effective masses and investigate the effect of strain fields on the electronic structure. Our results show that for compressive strain 1.3 % the band gap closes, suggesting that realistic strains could cause a significant change in the electronic structure and could contribute to explain under what experimental conditions the material has metallic behavior. The changes in the effective mass derived from our calculations show a large anisotropy, which would result in anisotropic charge carrier mobility. The mass anisotropy is found to be connected with the magnetic ordering in the lattice. Supported by NSF-DMR 1508325, and the Ohio Supercomputer Center.

  19. Program Evaluation for Sexually Transmitted Disease Programs: In Support of Effective Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marion W

    2016-02-01

    Program evaluation is a key tool for gathering evidence about the value and effectiveness of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs and interventions. Drawing from published literature, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evaluation framework, and program examples, this article lays out some of the key principles of program evaluation for STD program staff. The purpose is to offer STD program staff a stronger basis for talking about, planning, conducting, and advocating for evaluation within their respective program contexts.

  20. Magnetic field effects in electron systems with imperfect nesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sboychakov, A. O.; Rakhmanov, A. L.; Kugel, K. I.; Rozhkov, A. V.; Nori, Franco

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the effects of an applied magnetic field on the phase diagram of a weakly correlated electron system with imperfect nesting. The Hamiltonian under study describes two bands: electron and hole ones. Both bands have spherical Fermi surfaces, whose radii are slightly mismatched due to doping. These types of models are often used in the analysis of magnetic states in chromium and its alloys, superconducting iron pnictides, AA-type bilayer graphene, borides, etc. At zero magnetic field, the uniform ground state of the system turns out to be unstable against electronic phase separation. The applied magnetic field affects the phase diagram in several ways. In particular, the Zeeman term stabilizes new antiferromagnetic phases. It also significantly shifts the boundaries of inhomogeneous (phase-separated) states. At sufficiently high fields, the Landau quantization gives rise to oscillations of the order parameters and of the Néel temperature as a function of the magnetic field.

  1. Electronic collaboration: Some effects of telecommunication media and machine intelligence on team performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellens, A. Rodney

    1991-01-01

    Both NASA and DoD have had a long standing interest in teamwork, distributed decision making, and automation. While research on these topics has been pursued independently, it is becoming increasingly clear that the integration of social, cognitive, and human factors engineering principles will be necessary to meet the challenges of highly sophisticated scientific and military programs of the future. Images of human/intelligent-machine electronic collaboration were drawn from NASA and Air Force reports as well as from other sources. Here, areas of common concern are highlighted. A description of the author's research program testing a 'psychological distancing' model of electronic media effects and human/expert system collaboration is given.

  2. Information Business: Applying Infometry (Informational Geometry) in Cognitive Coordination and Genetic Programming for Electronic Information Packaging and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Bor-sheng

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of infometry, or informational geometry, to meet the challenges of information service businesses. Highlights include theoretical models for cognitive coordination and genetic programming; electronic information packaging; marketing electronic information products, including cost-benefit analyses; and recapitalization, including…

  3. Theory and measurement of the electron cloud effect

    CERN Document Server

    Harkay, K C

    1999-01-01

    Photoelectrons produced through the interaction of synchrotron radiation and the vacuum chamber walls can be accelerated by a charged particle beam, acquiring sufficient energy to produce secondary electrons (SEs) in collisions with the walls. If the secondary-electron yield (SEY) coefficient of the wall material is greater than one, a runaway condition can develop. In addition to the SEY, the degree of amplification depends on the beam intensity and temporal distribution. As the electron cloud builds up along a train of stored bunches, a transverse perturbation of the head bunch can be communicated to trailing bunches in a wakefield-like interaction with the cloud. The electron cloud effect is especially of concern for the high-intensity PEP-II (SLAC) and KEK B-factories and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. An initiative was undertaken at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring to characterize the electron cloud in order to provide realistic limits on critical input parameters in the models ...

  4. ePORT, NASA's Computer Database Program for System Safety Risk Management Oversight (Electronic Project Online Risk Tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    ePORT (electronic Project Online Risk Tool) provides a systematic approach to using an electronic database program to manage a program/project risk management processes. This presentation will briefly cover the standard risk management procedures, then thoroughly cover NASA's Risk Management tool called ePORT. This electronic Project Online Risk Tool (ePORT) is a web-based risk management program that provides a common framework to capture and manage risks, independent of a programs/projects size and budget. It is used to thoroughly cover the risk management paradigm providing standardized evaluation criterion for common management reporting, ePORT improves Product Line, Center and Corporate Management insight, simplifies program/project manager reporting, and maintains an archive of data for historical reference.

  5. Selection Effects and Prevention Program Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura G.; Rosenman, Robert; Tennekoon, Vidhura; Mandal, Bidisha

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of the paper is to provide an example of an evaluation design and analytic method that can be used to strengthen causal inference in nonexperimental prevention research. We used this method in a nonexperimental multisite study to evaluate short-term outcomes of a preventive intervention, and we accounted for effects of two types of selection bias: self-selection into the program and differential dropout. To provide context for our analytic approach, we present an overview of the counterfactual model (also known as Rubin’s causal model or the potential outcomes model) and several methods derived from that model, including propensity score matching, the Heckman two-step approach, and full information maximum likelihood based on a bivariate probit model and its trivariate generalization. We provide an example using evaluation data from a community-based family intervention and a nonexperimental control group constructed from the Washington state biennial Healthy Youth risk behavior survey data (HYS) (HYS n = 68,846; intervention n = 1502). We identified significant effects of participant, program, and community attributes in self-selection into the program and program completion. Identification of specific selection effects is useful for developing recruitment and retention strategies, and failure to identify selection may lead to inaccurate estimation of outcomes and their public health impact. Counterfactual models allow us to evaluate interventions in uncontrolled settings and still maintain some confidence in the internal validity of our inferences; their application holds great promise for the field of prevention science as we scale up to community dissemination of preventive interventions. PMID:23417667

  6. 77 FR 14568 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... review in investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of... Commerce to establish an Earned Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct...

  7. Student Services and Special Programs: A Report on Program Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Skillman, Thelma; And Others

    Student services and special programs within the California Community Colleges (CCC) are designed to enhance student equity, access, retention, persistence toward goal completion, and successful educational outcomes. The special programs and services within the CCC which serve targeted and diverse student populations are Extended Opportunity…

  8. The fetal heart rate collaborative practice project: situational awareness in electronic fetal monitoring-a Kaiser Permanente Perinatal Patient Safety Program Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachin, S Rachel; Lopez, Connie M; Powell, Kimberly J; Corbett, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring has historically been interpreted with wide variation between and within disciplines on the obstetric healthcare team. This leads to inconsistent decision making in response to tracing interpretation. To implement a multidisciplinary electronic fetal monitoring training program, utilizing the best evidence available, enabling standardization of fetal heart rate interpretation to promote patient safety. Local multidisciplinary expertise along with an outside consultant collaborated over a series of meetings to create a multimedia instructional electronic fetal monitoring training program. After production was complete, a series of conferences attended by nurses, certified nurse midwives, and physician champions, from each hospital, attended to learn how to facilitate training at their own perinatal units. All healthcare personnel across the Kaiser Permanente perinatal program were trained in NICHD nomenclature, emergency response, interpretation guidelines, and how to create local collaborative practice agreements. Metrics for program effectiveness were measured through program evaluations from attendees, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Program evaluations rendered very positive scores from both physicians and clinicians. Comparing baseline to 4 years later, the perception of safety from the staff has increased over 10% in 5 out of the 6 factors analyzed. Active participation from all disciplines in this training series has highlighted the importance of teamwork and communication. The Fetal Heart Rate Collaborative Practice Project continues to evolve utilizing other educational modalities, such as online EFM education and unit-based interdisciplinary tracing reviews.

  9. Electric field effects on electronic characteristics of arsenene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanwei; Li, Yuxiao; Wang, Fei; Guo, Peng; Jia, Yu

    2017-10-01

    By using the first-principles calculations, we investigate the effects of electric field on electronic structures of armchair and zigzag arsenene nanoribbons (AsNRs) with different widths. The results show that for each case, quantum size effects induce a smaller band gap in larger AsNRs. Moreover, electric field can reduce effectively the band gap of AsNRs. In addition, the electric field can induce only the transition of band structures in the A-AsNRs or Z-AsNRs with narrow size. The band gap decrease more rapidly and the threshold electric field induced metal becomes smaller in the wider AsNRs.

  10. Project based education as motivation factor in undergraduate program in Electronics at Copenhagen University College of Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the contents of our experience with project based courses and team work in the undergraduate program in Electronics. The main points of our program are described in this paper, where the leading idea is to combine theory with practical engineering projects. Our students work...

  11. Electronic excitation effects in ion-irradiated high- Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, N.; Chimi, Y.; Iwase, A.; Maeta, H.; Tsuru, K.; Michikami, O.; Kambara, T.; Mitamura, T.; Awaya, Y.; Terasawa, M.

    1998-02-01

    We have measured the fluence dependence of the c-axis lattice parameter in EuBa 2Cu 3O y (EBCO) irradiated with various ions from He to Au over the wide energy range from 0.85 MeV to 3.80 GeV. We have observed a linear increase of the c-axis lattice parameter with increasing fluence for all irradiations. The slope of c-axis lattice parameter against fluence, which corresponds to the defect production rate, is separated into two contributions; the effect via elastic displacement and the effect via electronic excitation. The former contribution exhibits a linear increase against the nuclear stopping power, Sn. The latter contribution is scaled by the primary ionization rate, d J/d x, rather than by the electronic stopping power, Se, and is nearly proportional to (d J/d x) 4.

  12. Emergent Gauge Fields and Their Nonperturbative Effects in Correlated Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Tanaka, Akihiro

    The history of modern condensed matter physics may be regarded as the competition and reconciliation between Stoner's and Anderson's physical pictures, where the former is based on momentum-space descriptions focusing on long wave-length fluctuations while the latter is based on real-space physics emphasizing emergent localized excitations. In particular, these two view points compete with each other in various nonperturbative phenomena, which range from the problem of high Tc superconductivity, quantum spin liquids in organic materials and frustrated spin systems, heavy-fermion quantum criticality, metal-insulator transitions in correlated electron systems such as doped silicons and two-dimensional electron systems, the fractional quantum Hall effect, to the recently discussed Fe-based superconductors. An approach to reconcile these competing frameworks is to introduce topologically nontrivial excitations into the Stoner's description, which appear to be localized in either space or time and sometimes both, where scattering between itinerant electrons and topological excitations such as skyrmions, vortices, various forms of instantons, emergent magnetic monopoles, and etc. may catch nonperturbative local physics beyond the Stoner's paradigm. In this review article we discuss nonperturbative effects of topological excitations on dynamics of correlated electrons. First, we focus on the problem of scattering between itinerant fermions and topological excitations in antiferromagnetic doped Mott insulators, expected to be relevant for the pseudogap phase of high Tc cuprates. We propose that nonperturbative effects of topological excitations can be incorporated within the perturbative framework, where an enhanced global symmetry with a topological term plays an essential role. In the second part, we go on to discuss the subject of symmetry protected topological states in a largely similar light. While we do not introduce itinerant fermions here, the nonperturbative

  13. Quantum effective potential, electron transport and conformons in biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandoloff, Rossen [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Balakrishnan, Radha [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2005-07-08

    In the Kirchhoff model of a biopolymer, conformation dynamics can be described in terms of solitary waves, for certain special cross-section asymmetries. Applying this to the problem of electron transport, we show that the quantum effective potential arising due to the bends and twists of the polymer enables us to formalize and quantify the concept of a conformon that has been hypothesized in biology. Its connection to the soliton solution of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation emerges in a natural fashion.

  14. Electron injection and scaffold effects in perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Miguel; Zhang, Wei; Hames, Bruno Clasen; Li, Yuelong; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Calvo, Mauricio E; Snaith, Henry J; Míguez, Hernán; Mora-Seró, Iván

    2017-01-21

    In spite of the impressive efficiencies reported for perovskite solar cells (PSCs), key aspects of their working principles, such as electron injection at the contacts or the suitability of the utilization of a specific scaffold layer, are not yet fully understood. Increasingly complex scaffolds attained by the sequential deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 mesoporous layers onto transparent conducting substrates are used to perform a systematic characterization of both the injection process at the electron selective contact and the scaffold effect in PSCs. By forcing multiple electron injection processes at a controlled sequence of perovskite-TiO2 interfaces before extraction, interfacial injection effects are magnified and hence characterized in detail. An anomalous injection behavior is observed, the fingerprint of which is the presence of significant inductive loops in the impedance spectra with a magnitude that correlates with the number of interfaces in the scaffold. Analysis of the resistive and capacitive behavior of the impedance spectra indicates that the scaffolds could hinder ion migration, with positive consequences such as lowering the recombination rate and implications for the current-potential curve hysteresis. Our results suggest that an appropriate balance between these advantageous effects and the unavoidable charge transport resistive losses introduced by the scaffolds will help in the optimization of PSC performance.

  15. Substituents' effect in electron attachment to epigenetic modifications of cytosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Fernanda B.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Sanchez, Sergio d'Almeida

    2017-06-01

    Epigenetic modifications of cytosine have been found to influence differently in many processes in biological systems. In order to investigate the differences in electron attachment to different epigenetic modifications of cytosine, we reported the A″ component of the integral cross section of electron scattering by cytosine (C) and its epigenetic modifications 5-methylcytosine (5mC), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Our results were obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials in the static-exchange (SE) and static-exchange plus polarization (SEP) approximations. In addition to the scattering results, we present electron attachment energies obtained through an empirical scaling relation for the five molecules. We observed three π* resonances for C, 5mC, and 5hmC and four for 5fC and 5caC, in both SE and SEP approximations. The cross sections show that the π* resonances of 5mC and 5hmC are located at higher energies than the resonances of C, while the resonances of 5fC and 5caC are located at lower energies. In order to investigate this shift in the resonances' positions, we analyzed the π* lowest-lying orbitals and the electronic density over the molecules. Using the inductive and mesomeric effects, we were able to analyze the influence of each substituent over the molecule and on the resonances' positions.

  16. Proceedings of the Santa Fe workshop on electron effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.S.; Jason, A. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The Workshop was held under the sponsorship of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project to further project understanding of the effects and cause of the presence of electrons in proton accelerators. In particular, the fast instability seen in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring was the major topic of discussion since it limits the particles/pulse to the LANSCE target and could have an impact on the SNS Ring. This instability is believed due to the interaction of trapped electrons in the accumulated beam, i.e., an electron-proton or e-p instability. The first day of the workshop was occupied by invited talks that included a review of e-p instability theory, an overview of PSR observations, observations at other laboratories, reviews of electron-production mechanisms, theoretical studies on the PSR instability, and design issues of the SNS ring. For the second day, the workshop was organized into three working groups: a theory and computation group, a past-experiences and proposed-experiments group, and the SNS-design-strategy group. Their charter was to summarize previous work in their respective areas and to originate a course for future progress. The results of the working groups and the workshop were summarized in a joint session during the morning of the third day. These proceedings are a simple collection of the viewgraphs used as submitted to a member of the LANL secretarial staff by speakers.

  17. Exploration Technology Developments Program's Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Darty, Ronald C.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Primary Objective: 1) A computational tool to accurately predict electronics performance in the presence of space radiation in support of spacecraft design: a) Total dose; b) Single Event Effects; and c) Mean Time Between Failure. (Developed as successor to CR ME96.) Secondary Objectives: 2) To provide a detailed description of the natural radiation environment in support of radiation health and instrument design: a) In deep space; b) Inside the magnetosphere; and c) Behind shielding.

  18. Use of Interactive Electronic Audience Response Tools (Clickers) to Evaluate Knowledge Gained in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Patrick; Loy, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effectively measuring short-term impact, particularly a change in knowledge resulting from Extension programming, can prove to be challenging. Clicker-based technology, when used properly, is one alternative that may allow educators to better evaluate this aspect of the logic model. While the potential interface between clicker technology and…

  19. Preparing Personnel with Expertise in Severe Disabilities in the Electronic Age: Innovative Programs and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; Agran, Martin; Spooner, Melba; Kiefer-O'Donnell, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This article describes two distance education programs in the area of severe disabilities, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte project and project UPLIFT, each of which uses a multi-university consortium. Technologies employed in each project are discussed and preliminary data are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of distance…

  20. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  1. Hall-Driven Effects in Electron-Magnetohydro- dynamic Z-Pinch-Like Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. S.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.; Mosher, D.; Ottinger, P. F.

    2017-10-01

    In previous work, it has been shown that density gradients give rise to Hall-driven magnetic field penetration in electron-magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD). Here, we examine the effect of geometry on this Hall-driven penetration. It is found that in z-pinch-like geometries, the implosion velocity of a Hall-driven magnetic pinch depends on its distance from the axis, moving faster as it approaches the axis. We compare analytical and numerical results for the z-pinch geometry to previous results for a rectangular slab geometry. Similar effects are found in both geometries, including electron-inertia driven nonlinearities, a Kelvin-Helmoltz like instability, and the generation of vortices. The electric field in the vortices is also examined, to determine how much charge separation occurs. If the electric field becomes large enough, it could accelerate the background ions to very high energies. This work was supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  2. Triboelectric effect: A new perspective on electron transfer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuaihang; Zhang, Zhinan

    2017-10-01

    As interest in the triboelectric effect increases in line with the development of tribo-electrification related devices, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon require more systematic review from the dual perspectives of developed classical insights and emerging quantum understanding. In this paper, the clear energy changing and transferring process of electrons have been proposed from the quantum point of view as the trigger for the charging initiation process in the triboelectric effect, and the phonon modes on the friction surfaces are believed to hold great importance as one of the main driving forces. Compatible with Maxwell Displacement Current theory, the complete consideration for charging steady state, i.e., the competition mechanisms between the breakdown process and the continuously charging process, and the balance mechanisms of phonon-electron interaction, built voltage, and induced polarization, are illustrated. In brief, the proposed theory emphasizes the fundamental role of electron transferring in tribo-electrical fields. By comparing certain experimental results from the previous studies, the theory is justified.

  3. Predicting effectiveness of the Home-Start parenting support program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, J.J.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Dekovic, M.; Reitz, E.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examines predictive effects of participant's characteristics, program characteristics, and their interaction, on changes in parenting behavior of mothers who participated in the Home-Start parenting support program. The results confirm previous findings that effects of

  4. Effects of electron beam irradiation on cut flowers and mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Kazuo [Yokohama Plant Protection Station (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KOCH were irradiated with electron beams (2.5MeV) to develop an alternative quarantine treatment for imported cut flowers. The tolerance of eggs increased with age (1-5-day-old). Immature stages (larva-teleiochrysalis) irradiated at 0.4-0.8kGy increased tolerance with their development. Mated mature females irradiated at 0.4kGy or higher did not produce viable eggs, although temporary recovery was observed at 0.2kGy. Adult males were sterilized at 0.4kGy because non-irradiated virgin females mated with yielded female progeny malformed and sterilized. Various effects of electron beam irradiation were observed when nine species of cut flowers were irradiated in 5MeV Dynamitron accelerator. Chrysanthemum and rose were most sensitive among cut flowers. (author).

  5. Steric-electronic effects in malarial peptides inducing sterile immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Vranich, Armando [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@mail.com [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is it evident that the residues position are relevant regarding of {phi} angular value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The geometry considered for detailing the alterations undergone by HABPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inter planar interactions ruled by clashes between the atoms making them up. -- Abstract: Conserved Plasmodium falciparum high activity binding peptides' (HABPs) most relevant proteins involved in malaria parasite invasion are immunologically silent; critical binding residues must therefore be specifically replaced to render them highly immunogenic and protection-inducing. Such changes have a tremendous impact on these peptides' steric-electronic effects, such as modifications to peptide length peptide bonds and electronic orbitals' disposition, to allow a better fit into immune system MHCII molecules and better interaction with the TCR which might account for the final immunological outcome.

  6. Threshold of auroral intensification reduced by electron precipitation effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hiraki, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that discrete aurora suddenly intensifies and deforms from an arc-like to a variety of wavy/vortex structures, especially during a substorm period. The instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves reflected from the ionosphere has been analyzed in order to comprehend the ignition process of auroral intensification. It was presented that the prime key is an enhancement of plasma convection, and the convection electric field has a threshold. This study examined effects of auroral electron precipitation, causing the ionization of neutral atmosphere, on the linear instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves. It was found that the threshold of convection electric fields is significantly reduced by increasing the ionization rate, the realistic range of which could be estimated from observed electron energy spectra.

  7. Thermoelectric effects in electron chiral tunneling in metallic carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parafilo, A. V.; Ilinskaya, O. A.; Krive, I. V.; Park, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    Thermoelectric effects in a metallic single-wall carbon nanotube in the presence of long-range electrostatic and pseudomagnetic potentials (produced by strain) are considered. It is shown that for strong scattering potentials (chiral tunneling) a pronounced energy "gap" appears in the energy dependence of electron transmission coefficient. This results in strong violation of Wiedemann-Franz law and in a peak-like behavior of thermopower as a function of chemical potential. The electronic figure-of-merit (ZT) is calculated and shown to be sensitive at low temperatures to nanotube chirality. By tuning chemical potential, ZT can reach high values (ZT≃5) that makes specially engineered nanotube-based thermocouple to be a promising nano-device with a high thermoelectric performance.

  8. 78 FR 16297 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... fourth annual review in investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the... an Earned Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct annual reviews of...

  9. The comparative effectiveness of 2 electronic prescribing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Rainu; Barron, Yolanda; Abramson, Erika L

    2011-12-01

    The increasingly widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is substantially changing the American healthcare delivery system. Differences in the actual effectiveness of EHRs and their component applications, including electronic prescribing (e-prescribing), is not well understood. We compared the effects of 2 types of e-prescribing systems on medication safety as an example of how comparative effectiveness research (CER) can be applied to the study of healthcare delivery. We previously conducted 2 non-randomized, prospective studies with pre-post controls comparing prescribing errors among: (1) providers who adopted a standalone e-prescribing system with robust technical and clinical decision support (CDS) and (2) providers who adopted an EHR with integrated e-prescribing with less robust available CDS and technical support. Both studies evaluated small groups of ambulatory care providers in the same New York community using identical methodology including prescription and chart reviews. We undertook this comparative effectiveness study to directly compare prescribing error rates among the 2 groups of e-prescribing adopters. The stand-alone system reduced error rates from 42.5 to 6.6 errors per 100 prescriptions (P application performed less well, likely due to differences in available CDS and technical resources. Results from this small study highlight the importance of CER that directly compares components of healthcare delivery.

  10. Effective atomic numbers and electron density of dosimetric material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaginelli S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for determination of mass attenuation coefficient of x-rays employing NaI (Tl detector system and radioactive sources is described.in this paper. A rigid geometry arrangement and gating of the spectrometer at FWHM position and selection of absorber foils are all done following detailed investigation, to minimize the effect of small angle scattering and multiple scattering on the mass attenuation coefficient, m/r, value. Firstly, for standardization purposes the mass attenuation coefficients of elemental foils such as Aluminum, Copper, Molybdenum, Tantalum and Lead are measured and then, this method is utilized for dosimetric interested material (sulfates. The experimental mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with the theoretical values to find good agreement between the theory and experiment within one to two per cent. The effective atomic numbers of the biological substitute material are calculated by sum rule and from the graph. The electron density of dosimetric material is calculated using the effective atomic number. The study has discussed in detail the attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of dosimetric material/biological substitutes.

  11. Surface electronic structure of fullerides : effects of correlation, electron-phonon coupling, and polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macovez, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenology of C60 both as isolated molecule and in condensed phases is reviewed. C60 compounds (fullerides) display a wide range of electronic ground states ranging from magnetic insulators to superconductors. The fundamental properties and interactions (electron correlation, electron-phonon

  12. The effects of incident electron current density and temperature on the total electron emission yield of polycrystalline CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M; Tondu, T; Inguimbert, V [ONERA/DESP 2, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse Cedex (France); Barroy, Pierre; Silva, Francois; Gicquel, Alix, E-mail: Mohamed.Belhaj@onera.f [LIMHP, Universite Paris 13, CNRS Institut Galilee, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2010-04-07

    The effects of temperature and incident electron current density on the total electron emission yield (TEEY) of polycrystalline diamond deposited by the chemical vapour deposition technique (CVD) were investigated at low electron beam fluence. It was found that the TEEY reversibly increases with the temperature and reversibly decreases with the current density. This behaviour is explained on the basis of a dynamic competition between the accumulation of holes (positive space charge), which internally reduces the secondary electron emission, and the thermally activated conductivity that tends to reduce the space charge formation.

  13. Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms Program for the Optimization of an OTA for Front-End Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Dendouga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of an interface to a specific sensor induces costs and design time mainly related to the analog part. So to reduce these costs, it should have been standardized like digital electronics. The aim of the present work is the elaboration of a method based on multiobjectives genetic algorithms (MOGAs to allow automated synthesis of analog and mixed systems. This proposed methodology is used to find the optimal dimensional transistor parameters (length and width in order to obtain operational amplifier performances for analog and mixed CMOS-(complementary metal oxide semiconductor- based circuit applications. Six performances are considered in this study, direct current (DC gain, unity-gain bandwidth (GBW, phase margin (PM, power consumption (P, area (A, and slew rate (SR. We used the Matlab optimization toolbox to implement the program. Also, by using variables obtained from genetic algorithms, the operational transconductance amplifier (OTA is simulated by using Cadence Virtuoso Spectre circuit simulator in standard TSMC (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company RF 0.18 μm CMOS technology. A good agreement is observed between the program optimization and electric simulation.

  14. The Medicare Electronic Health Record Incentive Program: provider performance on core and menu measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Feblowitz, Joshua; Samal, Lipika; McCoy, Allison B; Sittig, Dean F

    2014-02-01

    To measure performance by eligible health care providers on CMS's meaningful use measures. Medicare Electronic Health Record Incentive Program Eligible Professionals Public Use File (PUF), which contains data on meaningful use attestations by 237,267 eligible providers through May 31, 2013. Cross-sectional analysis of the 15 core and 10 menu measures pertaining to use of EHR functions reported in the PUF. Providers in the dataset performed strongly on all core measures, with the most frequent response for each of the 15 measures being 90-100 percent compliance, even when the threshold for a particular measure was lower (e.g., 30 percent). PCPs had higher scores than specialists for computerized order entry, maintaining an active medication list, and documenting vital signs, while specialists had higher scores for maintaining a problem list, recording patient demographics and smoking status, and for providing patients with an after-visit summary. In fact, 90.2 percent of eligible providers claimed at least one exclusion, and half claimed two or more. Providers are successfully attesting to CMS's requirements, and often exceeding the thresholds required by CMS; however, some troubling patterns in exclusions are present. CMS should raise program requirements in future years. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect in a Magnetized Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Benjamin; Grames, Joseph; CenterInjectors; Sources Team

    2016-09-01

    Magnetized electron sources have the potential to improve ion beam cooling efficiency. At the Gun Test Stand at Jefferson Lab, a solenoid magnet will be installed adjacent to the photogun to magnetize the electron beam. Due to the photocathode operating in a vacuum chamber, measuring and monitoring the magnetic field at the beam source location with conventional probes is impractical. The Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) describes the change on polarized light by reflection from a magnetized surface. The reflection from the surface may alter the polarization direction, ellipticity, or intensity, and depends linearly upon the surface magnetization of the sample. By replacing the photocathode with a magnetized sample and reflecting polarized light from the sample surface, the magnetic field at the beam source is inferred. A controlled MOKE system has been assembled to test the magnetic field. Calibration of the solenoid magnet is performed by comparing the MOKE signal with magnetic field measurements. The apparatus will provide a description of the field at electron beam source. The report summarizes the method and results of controlled tests and calibration of the MOKE sample with the solenoid magnet field measurements. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, Research Experience for Undergraduates Award 1359026 and the Department of Energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  16. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of different exercise programs for patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, Yvonne M; Allen, Kelli D; Caine, Dennis J

    2012-11-01

    Exercise is recommended as a first-line conservative intervention approach for osteoarthritis (OA). A wide range of exercise programs are available and scientific evidence is necessary for choosing the optimal strategy of treatment for each patient. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effectiveness of different types of exercise programs for OA based on trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses in the literature. Publications from January 1997 to July 2012 were searched in 4 electronic databases using the terms osteoarthritis, exercise, exercise program, effectiveness, and treatment outcome. Strong evidence supports that aerobic and strengthening exercise programs, both land- and water-based, are beneficial for improving pain and physical function in adults with mild-to-moderate knee and hip OA. Areas that require further research include examination of the long-term effects of exercise programs for OA, balance training for OA, exercise programs for severe OA, the effect of exercise programs on progression of OA, the effectiveness of exercise for joint sites other than the knee or hip, and the effectiveness of exercise for OA by such factors as age, sex, and obesity. Efforts to improve adherence to evidence-based exercise programs for OA and to promote the dissemination and implementation of these programs are crucial.

  17. Do Loyalty Programs Enhance Behavioral Loyalty : An Empirical Analysis Accounting for Program Design and Competitive Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Smidts, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of loyalty programs on share-of-wallet using market-wide household panel data on supermarket purchases.We find that loyalty programs relate positively to share-of-wallet, but the programs differ in effectiveness and some are ineffective.Both a saving component and a

  18. Surface-electronic-state effects in electron emission from the Be(0001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archubi, C. D. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gravielle, M. S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Silkin, V. M. [Donostia International Physics Center, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 1072, E-20080 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    We study the electron emission produced by swift protons impinging grazingly on a Be(0001) surface. The process is described within a collisional formalism using the band-structure-based (BSB) approximation to represent the electron-surface interaction. The BSB model provides an accurate description of the electronic band structure of the solid and the surface-induced potential. Within this approach we derive both bulk and surface electronic states, with these latter characterized by a strong localization at the crystal surface. We found that such surface electronic states play an important role in double-differential energy- and angle-resolved electron emission probabilities, producing noticeable structures in the electron emission spectra.

  19. Simulation and Digitization of a Gas Electron Multiplier Detector Using Geant4 and an Object-Oriented Digitization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Timothy; Liyanage, Nilanga; Xiong, Weizhi; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Our research has focused on simulating the response of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector using computational methods. GEM detectors provide a cost effective solution for radiation detection in high rate environments. A detailed simulation of GEM detector response to radiation is essential for the successful adaption of these detectors to different applications. Using Geant4 Monte Carlo (GEMC), a wrapper around Geant4 which has been successfully used to simulate the Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID) at Jefferson Lab, we are developing a simulation of a GEM chamber similar to the detectors currently used in our lab. We are also refining an object-oriented digitization program, which translates energy deposition information from GEMC into electronic readout which resembles the readout from our physical detectors. We have run the simulation with beta particles produced by the simulated decay of a 90Sr source, as well as with a simulated bremsstrahlung spectrum. Comparing the simulation data with real GEM data taken under similar conditions is used to refine the simulation parameters. Comparisons between results from the simulations and results from detector tests will be presented.

  20. Terrestrial effects on dark matter-electron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2017-01-01

    techniques involving detection of dark matter-electron scattering offer new sensitivity to sub-GeV dark matter. Typically however it is implicitly assumed that the dark matter is not altered as it traverses the Earth to arrive at the detector. In this paper we study in detail the effects of terrestrial...... stopping on dark photon models of dark matter, and find that they significantly reduce the sensitivity of XENON10 and DAMIC. In particular we find that XENON10 only excludes masses in the range (5-3000) MeV while DAMIC only probes (20-50) MeV. Their corresponding cross section sensitivity is reduced...

  1. Europium Effect on the Electron Transport in Graphene Ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobadilla, Alfredo D.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Kaminski, Michael; Kumar, Narendra; Seminario, Jorge M.

    2015-10-01

    We report in this complementary theoretical-experimental work the effect of gating on the election transport of grapheme ribbons when exposed to very low concentration of europium in an aqueous solution. We find a direct correlation between the level of concentration of europium ions in the solvent and the change in electron transport in graphene, observing a change of up to 3 orders of magnitude at the lowest level of concentration tested (0.1 mM), suggesting a possibility that graphene ribbons can be used for detecting very low concentrations of europium in liquid solutions.

  2. Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauber, T [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Peres, N M R [Center of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Minho, P-4710-057, Braga (Portugal)

    2008-02-06

    We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of 1%. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach, which does not include inter-band transitions and can thus not treat optical phonons due to their high energy of {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub 0} {approx} 0.1-0.2 eV, remains valid.

  3. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  4. Effectiveness of a Dental Students Stress Management Program

    OpenAIRE

    Alzahem, Abdullah M; Van Der Molen, Henk T.; De Boer, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    The dental education stress effects and sources were explored thoroughly in the literature, but the effectiveness of stress management programs received less attention. This study introduced a new stress management program, named Dental Education Stress Management (DESM) program. It showed its effectiveness in a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest-follow-up-control group design. The new program was based on the principle of psychoeducation and consisted of three 90-min sessions, to teach dent...

  5. Human reliability program: Components and effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baley-Downes, S.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''Human Reliability Program'' (HRP) is defined as a series of selective controls which are implemented and integrated to identify the ''insider threat'' from current and prospective employees who are dishonest, disloyal and unreliable. The HRP, although not a prediction of human behaviour, is an excellent tool for decision making and should compliment security and improve employee quality. The HRP consists of several component applications such as management evaluation; appropriate background investigative requirements; occupational health examination and laboratory testing; drug/alcohol screening; psychological testing and interviews; polygraph examination; job related aberrant behaviour recognition; on-going education and training; document control; drug/alcohol rehabilitation; periodic HRP audit; and implementation of an onsite central clearing house. The components and effects of HRP are discussed in further detail in this paper.

  6. Incremental resistance programming of programmable metallization cells for use as electronic synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalanabis, D.; Barnaby, H. J.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Kozicki, M. N.; Vrudhula, S.; Dandamudi, P.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we investigate the resistance switching behavior of Ag-Ge-Se based resistive memory (ReRAM) devices, otherwise known as programmable metallization cells (PMC). The devices studied are switched between high and low resistive states under externally applied electrical bias. The presence of multiple resistive states observed under both dc and pulse voltage application makes these devices promising candidates for use as electronic synapses in neuromorphic hardware implementations. Finally, the effect of varying pulse voltage magnitude and width on the change in resistance is observed through measurement.

  7. Effect of MeV Electron Radiation on Europa’s Surface Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy; Henderson, Bryana; Bateman, Fred

    2017-10-01

    MeV electrons that impact Europa’s trailing hemisphere and cause both physical and chemical alteration of the surface and near-surface. The trailing hemisphere receives far lower fluxes above 25 MeV as compared with lower energy particles, but can cause significant chemical and physical modifications at these energies. With NASA's planned Europa Clipper mission and a Europa Lander Concept on the horizon, it is critical to understand and quantify the effect of Europa’s radiation environment on the surface and near surface.Electrons penetrate through ice by far the deepest at any given energy compared to protons and ions, making the role of electrons very important to understand. In addition, secondary radiation - Bremsstrahlung, in X-ray wavelengths - is generated during high-energy particle penetration through solids. Secondary X-rays are equally lethal to life and penetrate even deeper than electrons, making the cumulative effect of radiation on damaging organic matter on the near surface of Europa a complex process that could have effects several meters below Europa’s surface. Other physical properties such as coloration could be caused by radiation.In order to quantify this effect under realistic Europa trailing hemisphere conditions, we devised, built, tested, and obtained preliminary results using our ICE-HEART instrument prototype totally funded by JPL’s internal competition funding for Research and Technology Development. Our Ice Chamber for Europa High-Energy Electron And Radiation-Environment Testing (ICE-HEART) operates at ~100 K. We have also implemented a magnet that is used to remove primary electrons subsequent to passing through an ice column, in order to determine the flux of secondary X-radiation and its penetration through ice.Some of the first results from these studies will be presented and their relevance to understand physical and chemical properties of Europa’s trailing hemisphere surface.This work has been carried out at Jet

  8. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  9. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  10. Effective Preparation Program Features: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Gary M.; Whiteman, Rodney S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a summary of a report prepared for the University Council for Educational Administration Program Improvement Project for the Wallace Foundation. This explores the research base for educational leadership preparation programs, specifically examining literature on program features. The review covers context, candidates, faculty,…

  11. FY2007 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitchell [ORNL

    2007-10-01

    as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under this subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable the development of technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid and fuel-cell-powered automobiles that meet the goals of the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. A key element in making hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) practical is providing an affordable electric traction drive system. This will require attaining weight, volume, and cost targets for the power electronics and electrical machines subsystems of the traction drive system. Areas of development include these: (1) novel traction motor designs that result in increased power density and lower cost; (2) inverter technologies involving new topologies to achieve higher efficiency and the ability to accommodate higher-temperature environments; (3) converter concepts that employ means of reducing the component count and integrating functionality to decrease size, weight, and cost; (4) more effective thermal control and packaging technologies; and (5) integrated motor/inverter concepts. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center conducts fundamental research, evaluates hardware, and assists in the technical direction of the DOE Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, APEEM subprogram. In this role, ORNL serves on the FreedomCAR Electrical and Electronics Technical Team, evaluates proposals for DOE, and lends its technological expertise to the direction of projects and evaluation of developing technologies. ORNL also executes specific projects for DOE. The following report discusses those projects carried out in FY 2007 and conveys highlights of their accomplishments. Numerous project reviews, technical reports, and papers have been published for these efforts, if the reader is interested in

  12. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Spin Hall Effects of Dirac Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Takaaki; Kohno, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Junji

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the spin Hall effect (SHE) of electrons described by the Dirac equation, which is used as an effective model near the L-points in bismuth. By considering short-range nonmagnetic impurities, we calculate the extrinsic as well as intrinsic contributions on an equal footing. The vertex corrections are taken into account within the ladder type and the so-called skew-scattering type. The intrinsic SHE which we obtain is consistent with that of Fuseya et al. [https://doi.org/10.1143/JPSJ.81.093704" xlink:type="simple">J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81, 093704 (2012)]. It is found that the extrinsic contribution dominates the intrinsic one when the system is metallic. The extrinsic SHE due to the skew scattering is proportional to Δ/niu, where 2Δ is the band gap, ni is the impurity concentration, and u is the strength of the impurity potential.

  13. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Methods: Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars...... the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...... characteristics. Results: The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across...

  14. An Electronic Wellness Program to Improve Diet and Exercise in College Students: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Amy L; Ross, Jamisha T; Klein, Catherine J; Lei, Kai Y; Mackey, Eleanor R

    2016-02-29

    In transitioning from adolescence to adulthood, college students are faced with significant challenges to their health habits. Independence, stress, and perceived lack of time by college students have been known to result in poor eating and exercise habits, which can lead to increased disease risk. To assess the feasibility and to determine preliminary efficacy of an electronic wellness program in improving diet and physical activity in college students. A 24-week diet and physical activity program was delivered via email to 148 college students. The intervention involved weekly, tailored, and interactive diet and physical activity goals. The control group received nondiet and nonexercise-related health fact sheets. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, as well as food frequency and physical activity surveys were conducted at baseline, week 12, and week 24. Students' choice of fruit as a snack was also monitored at study visits. Students were 18-20 years old, 69% female, and from a diverse college campus (46% Caucasian, 23% Asian, 20% African American, 11% other). At week 24, 84% of students reported reading at least half of all emails. Mean change (standard error [SE]) from baseline of saturated fat intake was marginally significant between the treatment groups at week 24, 0.7 (SE 0.42) % kcal for control and -0.3 (SE 0.30) % kcal for intervention (P=0.048). A significant difference in percent of snacks chosen that were fruit (χ(2)1, N=221 = 11.7, Pstudents and resulted in a decrease in saturated fat intake and an increase in observed fruit intake compared to a control group.

  15. Space charge effects in intense electron beams related to electron cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Korotaev, Yu V; Petrov, A; Sidorin, A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M

    2000-01-01

    The review of researches performed by JINR-CERN-ITEP collaboration in 1994-1995 and by JINR group in 1996-1998 years is presented. The research has the goal to study theoretically and experimentally a possibility of electron beam space neutralization and formation of a stable and intense neutralized electron beam (NEB). (4 refs).

  16. Effects of beam quality in a free-electron laser oscillator with two electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soon-Kwon

    2017-11-01

    We have studied the electron beam quality in a free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator by using two electron beams of different harmonically related energies in the FEL facility, which is operated in the infrared and far-infrared regions. The electron beam quality, such as emittance, energy spread, and higher-order modes were studied using an extended three-dimensional (3D) FEL code for two electron beams that we have developed. The variations in the radiation amplitude of the electron beam's emittances, and energy spread were also calculated for a tapered wiggler for the multiparticle and multi-pass number using a new 3D code. The evolution of the radiation field intensity for higher-order modes of the wiggler with beam emittance and energy spread was studied for the two-electron beam's FEL performance. We found that the radiation intensity was degraded due to the energy spread and the emittance of the electron beam. We minimized the degradation of the radiation intensity by optimizing the tapered wiggler for the coupled two-beam FEL oscillator.

  17. Effect of Secondary Electron Emission on Electron Cross-Field Current in E×B Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yevgeny Raitses, Igor D. Kaganovich, Alexander Khrabrov, Dmytro Sydorenko, Nathaniel J. Fisch and Andrei Smolyakov

    2011-02-10

    This paper reviews and discusses recent experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of plasma-wall interaction in a weakly collisional magnetized plasma bounded with channel walls made from different materials. A lowpressure ExB plasma discharge of the Hall thruster was used to characterize the electron current across the magnetic field and its dependence on the applied voltage and electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel wall. The presence of a depleted, anisotropic electron energy distribution function with beams of secondary electrons was predicted to explain the enhancement of the electron cross-field current observed in experiments. Without the SEE, the electron crossfield transport can be reduced from anomalously high to nearly classical collisional level. The suppression of SEE was achieved using an engineered carbon velvet material for the channel walls. Both theoretically and experimentally, it is shown that the electron emission from the walls can limit the maximum achievable electric field in the magnetized plasma. With nonemitting walls, the maximum electric field in the thruster can approach a fundamental limit for a quasineutral plasma.

  18. Effect of upflowing field-aligned electron beams on the electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dispersion relation D(ω, k) for electron cyclotron waves propagating parallel to Bo in the presence of upflowing FEBs could be taken as the sum of dispersion relations due to the main body of plasma Dm(ω, k) and upflowing. FEBs, Db(ω ..... into auroral zone increasing the population of energetic electrons which provide.

  19. Terra MODIS Band 27 Electronic Crosstalk Effect and Its Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December, 1999 on-board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, covering a wavelength range from 0.4 micron to 14.4 micron. MODIS band 27 (6.72 micron) is a water vapor band, which is designed to be insensitive to Earth surface features. In recent Earth View (EV) images of Terra band 27, surface feature contamination is clearly seen and striping has become very pronounced. In this paper, it is shown that band 27 is impacted by electronic crosstalk from bands 28-30. An algorithm using a linear approximation is developed to correct the crosstalk effect. The crosstalk coefficients are derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations. They show that the crosstalk is strongly detector dependent and the crosstalk pattern has changed dramatically since launch. The crosstalk contributions are positive to the instrument response of band 27 early in the mission but became negative and much larger in magnitude at later stages of the mission for most detectors of the band. The algorithm is applied to both Black Body (BB) calibration and MODIS L1B products. With the crosstalk effect removed, the calibration coefficients of Terra MODIS band 27 derived from the BB show that the detector differences become smaller. With the algorithm applied to MODIS L1B products, the Earth surface features are significantly removed and the striping is substantially reduced in the images of the band. The approach developed in this report for removal of the electronic crosstalk effect can be applied to other MODIS bands if similar crosstalk behaviors occur.

  20. 78 FR 21314 - Medicare and State Health Care Programs: Fraud and Abuse; Electronic Health Records Safe Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Programs: Fraud and Abuse; Electronic Health Records Safe Harbor Under the Anti-Kickback Statute AGENCY...). Additionally, we considered whether removing this condition would increase the risk of fraud or abuse posed by... Committee on Science and Technology, available at http://science.house.gov/sites/republicans.science.house...

  1. The Physiologic Effects of Multiple Simultaneous Electronic Control Device Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Donald M.; Ho, Jeffrey D.; Reardon, Robert F.; Sweeney, James D.; Miner, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Law enforcement and military personnel use electronic control devices to control non-compliant and actively resistive subjects. The TASER® Shockwave is a new electronic control device designed specifically as an area denial device capable of delivering multiple simultaneous discharges. This is the first study to examine the effects of multiple simultaneous device discharges in humans. Methods: Volunteers were exposed to multiple (two to three), simultaneous 5-second discharges from the Shockwave device to the chest, back, chest to abdomen, or thighs. Blood was analyzed before and after discharge for pH, lactate, potassium, creatine kinase (CK), and troponin. Continuous spirometry was performed before, during, and after the discharge. In addition, electrocardiograms (ECGs) before and after discharge were recorded, and echocardiography was used to determine the rhythm during discharge. Results: Small elevations of lactate occurred. Moderate increases in CK at 24 hours occurred and appeared to be related to the number of simultaneous discharges. There was a trend to a decrease in minute ventilation in the volunteers exposed to two simultaneous discharges, but it did not reach statistical significance. ECG changes only reflected an increase in vagal tone, and there was no evidence of capture by echocardiography. Five-second, simultaneous, multiple exposures to the TASER Shockwave device were reasonably tolerated by our human volunteers. Conclusion: Our study suggests that this device may have a reasonable risk/benefit ratio when used to protect an area from a threat. PMID:20411076

  2. Electron scattering from neon via effective range theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedus, Kamil, E-mail: kamil@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Elastic cross-sections for electron scattering on neon from 0 energy up to 16 eV are analyzed by an analytical approach to the modified effective range theory (MERT). It is shown that energy and angular variations of elastic differential, integral and momentum transfer cross sections can be accurately parameterized by six MERT coefficients up to the energy threshold for the first Feshbach resonance. MERT parameters are determined empirically by numerical comparison with large collection of available experimental data of elastic total (integral) cross-sections. The present analysis is validated against numerous electron beams and swarm experiments. The comparison of derived MERT parameters with those found for other noble gases, helium, argon and krypton, is done. The derived scattering length (for the s-partial wave) in neon, 0.227a0, agrees well with recent theories; it is small but, differently from Ar and Kr, still positive. Analogue parameters for the p-wave and the d-wave are negative and positive respectively for all the four gases compared. (author)

  3. Evaluating Effectiveness of Pair Programming as a Teaching Tool in Programming Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faja, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of pair programming on student learning and satisfaction in introductory programming courses. Pair programming, used in the industry as a practice of an agile development method, can be adopted in classroom settings to encourage peer learning, increase students' social skills, and enhance student…

  4. Positive effects of electronic patient records on three clinical activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2008-01-01

     Purpose: To investigate the effects of a fully functional electronic patient record (EPR) system on clinicians' work during team conferences, ward rounds, and nursing handovers. Method: In collaboration with clinicians an EPR system was configured for a stroke unit and in trial use for five days......, 24 hours a day. During the trial period the EPR system was used by all clinicians at the stroke unit and it replaced all paper records. The EPR system simulated a fully integrated clinical process EPR where the clinicians experienced the system as if all transactions were IT supported. Such systems...... records prior to the trial period. The data comprise measurements from 11 team conferences, 7 ward rounds, and 10 nursing handovers. Results: During team conferences the clinicians experienced a reduction on five of six subscales of mental workload, and the physicians experienced an overall reduction...

  5. Profiles of Effective Corporate Giving Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauft, E. B.

    A research study of 48 United States corporate giving programs is described. The companies are generally large or mid-range in size and represent 15 different business and industry classifications. The size of their contributions programs ranged from $98,000 to $53 million in annual grants, with a median of $4.3 million. About three-fourths of the…

  6. Effective Teaching in Accelerated Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Drick

    2004-01-01

    According to Wlodkowski (2003), "accelerated learning programs are one of the fastest growing transformations in higher education" (p. 5). The Center for the Study of Accelerated Learning at Regis University has documented at least 250 colleges or universities that offer accelerated learning programs for working adults. By definition, accelerated…

  7. Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Methods Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. Results A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects’ previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Conclusions Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of ‘real-world’ use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects. PMID:24732159

  8. Model Guided Design and Development Process for an Electronic Health Record Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ze; Marquard, Jenna; Henneman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Effective user training is important to ensure electronic health record (EHR) implementation success. Though many previous studies report best practice principles and success and failure stories, current EHR training is largely empirically-based and often lacks theoretical guidance. In addition, the process of training development is underemphasized and underreported. A white paper by the American Medical Informatics Association called for models of user training for clinical information system implementation; existing instructional development models from learning theory provide a basis to meet this call. We describe in this paper our experiences and lessons learned as we adapted several instructional development models to guide our development of EHR user training. Specifically, we focus on two key aspects of this training development: training content and training process.

  9. Destructive effects induced by the electron beam in scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M. C.; Bita, B. I.; Banu, M. A.; Tomescu, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscopy has been validated by its impressive imaging and reliable measuring as an essential characterization tool for a variety of applications and research fields. This paper is a comprehensive study dedicated to the undesirable influence of the accelerated electron beam associated with the dielectric materials, sensitive structures or inappropriate sample manipulation. Depending on the scanning conditions, the electron beam may deteriorate the investigated sample due to the extended focusing or excessive high voltage and probe current applied on vulnerable configurations. Our aim is to elaborate an instructive material for improved SEM visualization capabilities by overcoming the specific limitations of the technique. Particular examination and measuring methods are depicted along with essential preparation and manipulation procedures in order to protect the integrity of the sample. Various examples are mentioned and practical solutions are described in respect to the general use of the electron microscope.

  10. Effective Electron Mass in Low-Dimensional Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Sitangshu

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with the Effective Electron Mass (EEM) in low dimensional semiconductors. The materials considered are quantum confined non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, GaP, Ge, PtSb2, zero-gap, stressed, Bismuth, carbon nanotubes, GaSb, IV-VI, Te, II-V, Bi2Te3, Sb, III-V, II-VI, IV-VI semiconductors and quantized III-V, II-VI, IV-VI and HgTe/CdTe superlattices with graded interfaces and effective mass superlattices. The presence of intense electric field and the light waves change the band structure of optoelectronic semiconductors in fundamental ways, which have also been incorporated in the study of the EEM in quantized structures of optoelectronic compounds that control the studies of the quantum effect devices under strong fields. The importance of measurement of band gap in optoelectronic materials under strong electric field and external photo excitation has also been discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the EEM and the EEM in heavily doped sem...

  11. Electron correlation effects in the presence of non-symmetry dictated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We numerically study the effect of non-symmetry dictated nodes (NSDN) on electron correlation effects for spinless electrons. We find that repulsive interaction between electrons can enhance the overlap between nearest neighbors in the tight binding Hamiltonian, in the presence of NSDN. Normally, in the absence of ...

  12. An Intensive Training Program for Effective Teaching Assistants in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragisich, Vera; Keller, Valerie; Zhao, Meishan

    2016-01-01

    We report an intensive graduate teaching assistant (GTA) training program developed at The University of Chicago. The program has been assessed and has been successful in preparing GTAs for effective discussion and laboratory teaching for both general and organic chemistry. We believe that this training program can provide insightful information…

  13. Effectiveness of an Undergraduate Program in Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirnan, Jean P.; Reilly, Maura; Decker, William

    2000-01-01

    Reports on an evaluation of an undergraduate program in industrial/organizational psychology (College of New Jersey) five years after its implementation in order to assess the effectiveness of the program and identify areas in need of change. Describes the program and makes recommendations for future directions. (CMK)

  14. Action Research: Effective Marketing Strategies for a Blended University Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This action research study investigated a marketing plan based on collaboration among a program faculty team and other organizational units for a graduate professional program. From its inception through the second year of operation, program enrollment increased due to the marketing plan based on an effective approach grounded in simple marketing…

  15. Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalfano, M.; Kanjilal, A.; Al-Ajlony, A.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Rice, B.

    2012-03-01

    We investigated Ru mirror contamination and subsequent EUV reflectivity loss using the IMPACT facility at Purdue University. Because Ru can either be used as a grazing mirror or as a capping layer for multilayer normal mirror, we examined the angular dependency of XPS peak area intensity at the O 1s and Ru 3d regions as well as the effects of sputtering. Although no change in intensity has been observed at lower take-off angles from the target surface, the peak area intensity starts changing with increasing θ (i.e., emission observation angle, representing the angle between the target surface plane and detector entrance). Among different components, the effect of water and oxidized carbon are found to be most notable when viewed at lower θ, and primarily responsible for degrading the reflectivity of the Ru layer. On the other hand, the effect of OH becomes dominant with increasing observation angle θ, and thus plays a key role to suppress optical transmission. Moreover, atomic carbon effect is found to peak when observed at 30°, and most likely plays an important role in degrading both reflectivity and transmission. This is also because of the total photon path length in the Ru film at different angles. During the contamination process, the EUV reflectivity of the Ru film is found to significantly degrade in the presence of additional secondary electrons from the focusing Ru mirror of the EUV setup. This effect could be explained in the light of a competition between oxidation and carbonization processes on Ru surface.

  16. Effects of television programs about Family Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is an observational study, which sought to reflect on the impact of television programs on family health. Thus, from February to July 2011, a Family Health Unit of Barra do Garças - Mato Grosso, the researcher observed the behavior of customers, through spontaneous expressions which referred to the materials or articles about health programs. At the end of the study, it wasfound that such programs stimulated and generated new behaviors, especially in women. But to do so, health professionals must engage with this media education and participate in the conduct of learned information in accordance with the need of the viewer.

  17. Gate induced superconductivity in layered material based electronic double layer field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, J. T.; Inoue, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kasahara, Y.; Yuan, H. T.; Shimotani, H.; Iwasa, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Applying the principle of field effect transistor to layered materials provides new opportunities to manipulate their electronic properties for interesting sciences and applications. Novel gate dielectrics like electronic double layer (EDL) formed by ionic liquids are demonstrated to achieve an

  18. Substrate Effects on Electronic Properties of Atomic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When the device size is reduced down to 0.07 micrometers, the number of dopant atoms in the channel will no longer be macroscopic, typically less than a hundred. A spatial distribution of these dopant atoms will fluctuate statistically from device to device even in identically designed devices, and this places a serious limitation for integration. It is, however, impractical to control dopant positions within atomic dimension. One fundamental solution to this problem is to create electronics with atomically precise, but preferably simple structures. Atomic chains, precise structures of adatoms created on an atomically regulated surface, are candidates for constituent components in future electronics. All the adatoms will be placed at designated positions on the substrate, and all the device structures will be precise, free from any deviations. It was predicted using the tight-binding calculation with universal parameters that silicon chains were metallic and magnesium chains were semiconducting regardless of the lattice spacing, and a possible doping method was also proposed. In these treatments, the substrate was assumed to serve as a non-interacting template holding the adatoms without a formation of chemical bonding with substrate atoms. However, this scheme may not be easy to implement experimentally. Adatoms will have to be fixed with a van der Waals force on the substrate, but the force is generally weak and an extremely low temperature environment has to be prepared to suppress their unwanted thermal displacement. It may be logical to seek a scheme to allow the adatoms to form chemical bonding with the substrate atoms and secure their positions. The substrate effects are studied in detail.

  19. The Physiologic Effects of Multiple Simultaneous Electronic Control Device Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawes, Donald M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Law enforcement and military personnel use electronic control devices to control non-compliant and actively resistive subjects. The TASER® Shockwave is a new electronic control device designed specifically as an area denial device capable of delivering multiple simultaneous discharges. This is the first study to examine the effects of multiple simultaneous device discharges in humans.Methods: Volunteers were exposed to multiple (two to three, simultaneous 5-second discharges from the Shockwave device to the chest, back, chest to abdomen, or thighs. Blood was analyzed before and after discharge for pH, lactate, potassium, creatine kinase (CK, and troponin. Continuous spirometry was performed before, during, and after the discharge. In addition, electrocardiograms (ECGs before and after discharge were recorded, and echocardiography was used to determine the rhythm during discharge.Results: Small elevations of lactate occurred. Moderate increases in CK at 24 hours occurred and appeared to be related to the number of simultaneous discharges. There was a trend to a decrease in minute ventilation in the volunteers exposed to two simultaneous discharges, but it did not reach statistical significance. ECG changes only reflected an increase in vagal tone, and there was no evidence of capture by echocardiography. Five-second, simultaneous, multiple exposures to the TASER Shockwave device were reasonably tolerated by our human volunteers.Conclusion: Our study suggests that this device may have a reasonable risk/benefit ratio when used to protect an area from a threat. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:49-56].

  20. Electron transfer reactions in condensed phase: effect of reversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhole, Kajal; Jena, Naresh K; Samanta, Alok; Ghosh, Swapan K

    2012-02-01

    We propose a generalized one-dimensional kinetic equation for multidimensional reversible electron transfer (ET) reaction with a nonequilibrium situation as the initial condition. The rate constant for the forward reversible ET reaction obtained here consists of the rate for the corresponding irreversible ET reaction, and an extra term due to reversibility of the ET process which includes the rates of diffusion dynamics in the reactant and product wells. In order to understand the effect of reversibility, we consider back ET reaction in a system consisting of an electron donor-acceptor pair in a solvent modeled through low frequency solvent collective coordinates (multidimensional) characterized by the orientational polarization and slowly relaxing one-dimensional vibrational mode. We propose here a new generalized polarization energy functional corresponding to the extension of the continuum version for the same, which has opened up the possibility of inclusion of molecular nature of the solvent into the solvent reorganization energy. We then derive an exact expression for the ET rate for this model system. The numerical results calculated by using the proposed one-dimensional approach are shown to be in good agreement with the available experimental results. Non-Marcus free energy gap dependence of the rates observed here for the reversible and irreversible ET reactions are very close to each other in the barrierless region, while for other situations, the rate for the former process is found to be less than the latter. The extra term, which makes the difference between the rate constants for irreversible and reversible ET reactions, is found to be contributed by the diffusion dynamics from both reactant and product wells but the dominating contribution is provided mainly by the product well.

  1. Toward a muon-specific electronic structure theory: effective electronic Hartree-Fock equations for muonic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayka, Milad; Goli, Mohammad; Shahbazian, Shant

    2018-02-07

    An effective set of Hartree-Fock (HF) equations are derived for electrons of muonic systems, i.e., molecules containing a positively charged muon, conceiving the muon as a quantum oscillator, which are completely equivalent to the usual two-component HF equations used to derive stationary states of the muonic molecules. In these effective equations, a non-Coulombic potential is added to the orthodox coulomb and exchange potential energy terms, which describes the interaction of the muon and the electrons effectively and is optimized during the self-consistent field cycles. While in the two-component HF equations a muon is treated as a quantum particle, in the effective HF equations it is absorbed into the effective potential and practically transformed into an effective potential field experienced by electrons. The explicit form of the effective potential depends on the nature of muon's vibrations and is derivable from the basis set used to expand the muonic spatial orbital. The resulting effective Hartree-Fock equations are implemented computationally and used successfully, as a proof of concept, in a series of muonic molecules containing all atoms from the second and third rows of the Periodic Table. To solve the algebraic version of the equations muon-specific Gaussian basis sets are designed for both muon and surrounding electrons and it is demonstrated that the optimized exponents are quite distinct from those derived for the hydrogen isotopes. The developed effective HF theory is quite general and in principle can be used for any muonic system while it is the starting point for a general effective electronic structure theory that incorporates various types of quantum correlations into the muonic systems beyond the HF equations.

  2. Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the impurity binding energy in a quantum wire

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yueh-Nan; Chuu, Der-San; Lin, Yuh-Kae

    2003-01-01

    The effect of electron-optical phonon interaction on the hydrogenic impurity binding energy in a cylindrical quantum wire is studied. By using Landau and Pekar variational method, the hamiltonian is separated into two parts which contain phonon variable and electron variable respectively. A perturbative-variational technique is then employed to construct the trial wavefunction for the electron part. The effect of confined electron-optical phonon interaction on the binding energies of the grou...

  3. The age-related positivity effect in electronic gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phoebe E; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Maiuolo, Michelle; Leon, Tarren; Benedek, Gülten

    2018-01-01

    Older adults are increasingly spending time and money playing electronic gambling machines (EGMs). The current study assessed whether the age-related positivity effect influences responding to various EGM outcomes, including wins and losses of equivalent magnitude and frequency. We also explored cognitive mechanisms potentially underpinning the positivity effect. We recorded the skin conductance response (SCR) of healthy older and younger adults while they played for wins, losses, and fake wins (losses disguised as wins). After every win and fake win, participants were forced to choose red or black to either double their win or lose it. They also provided ratings of enjoyment and excitement, estimated number of wins and losses, and completed measures of cognitive function. Young and older adults demonstrated larger SCRs to wins relative to losses. When these wins and losses were of equivalent magnitude and frequency following a double-or-nothing scenario, only older adults responded more to a win than a loss. There were no age group differences in excitement and enjoyment, but older adults were more accurate than young adults in their recall of wins and losses. During EGM play, young and older adults demonstrate similar patterns on autonomic arousal. However, young adults' responding suggests generalized excitement, whereas older adults respond more to the prospect of financial gain.

  4. Photoacoustic microscopy of electronic acupuncture (EA) effect in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinge; Wu, Dan; Tang, Yong; Jiang, Huabei

    2017-02-01

    Acupuncture has been an effective treatment for various pain in China for several thousand years. However, the mechanisms underlying this mysterious ancient healing are still largely unknown. Here we applied photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to investigate brain hemodynamic changes in response to electronic acupuncture (EA) at ST36 (Zusanli). Due to the high optical absorption of blood at 532 nm, PAM could sensitively probe changes in hemoglobin concentration (HbT, i.e., cerebral blood volume [CBV]) of cortical regions in high resolution. Six healthy mice were stimulated at the acupoint and three healthy mice were stimulated at sham points. Remarkable CBV changes in sensorimotor and retrosplenial agranular cortex were observed. Results showed the potential of PAM as a visualization tool to study the acupuncture effect on brain hemodynamics in animal models. (a) Schematic showing the stimulation points. (b) B-scan images overlaid with mouse atlas. (c) & (d) Statistical results of CBV changes from cortical regions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effectiveness of electronic dental anesthesia for restorative care in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S Y; Drummond, B K; Anderson, M H; Williams, S

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of electronic dental anesthesia (EDA) for pain control during restorative procedures was compared with local anesthetic injection (LA) in 32 children aged 6 to 12 years. Each child selected had two antimere primary or permanent molars requiring similar-sized Class I or Class II restorations. The pain levels during restorative treatment were assessed using a visual analogue scale. Heart rates and behavior were also recorded. A crossover design was used with each child acting as his/her own control. The results showed that overall, EDA was less effective than LA for cavity preparation. The reported pain scores for EDA were higher in permanent teeth for the deeper cavities, and with one of the operators. The pre- or post-treatment anxiety scores were not found to differ significantly between the two restorative appointments. However, children with the highest pretreatment scores were more likely to report higher pain scores with EDA. Despite this, 63% of the children preferred EDA to LA. Dental anxiety, cavity depth, the tooth being treated, and operator attitude may also be important factors in determining the success of EDA.

  6. Shape and Current Profile Effects on Runaway Electron Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, V. A.; James, A. N.; Humphreys, D. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Whyte, D. G.; Olynyk, G. M.

    2011-10-01

    The potential for several MA of current carried by multi-MeV runaway electrons (REs) during ITER disruptions has motivated a variety of experiments in present-day tokamaks studying RE generation, confinement, and control. In both DIII-D and Alcator C Mod, different RE behavior is seen in limited vs. diverted plasmas, suggesting better RE confinement for limited shapes. NIMROD simulations of rapid shutdowns in both devices support this finding, and show reduced stochasticity in limited plasma shapes. Integration of RE drift-orbits also shows differences in RE strike-points that are consistent with experimental observations. In DIII-D a wide variation in RE confinement results for diverted discharges may also point to current density profile effects on RE confinement. Several DIII-D diverted discharges are modeled with NIMROD. Confined RE fractions found in NIMROD are mostly consistent with observed RE currents in DIII-D, although other effects, such as seed generation and avalanching may contribute to the experimental variation. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-06ER54861, DE-FG02-05ER54809, DE-FG02-07ER54917, DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54762.

  7. Electron Radiation Effects on Candidate Solar Sail Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Hollerman, William A.; Hubbs, Whitney S.; Gray, Perry A.; Wertz, George E.; Hoppe, David T.; Nehls, Mary K.; Semmel, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. Solar sails are not limited by reaction mass and provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Once thought to be difficult or impossible, solar sailing has come out of science fiction and into the realm of possibility. Any spacecraft using this propulsion method would need to deploy a thin sail that could be as large as many kilometers in extent. The availability of strong, ultra lightweight, and radiation resistant materials will determine the future of solar sailing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is concentrating research into the utilization of ultra lightweight materials for spacecraft propulsion. The Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC is actively characterizing candidate solar sail material to evaluate the thermo-optical and mechanical properties after exposure to space environmental effects. This paper will describe the irradiation of candidate solar sail materials to energetic electrons, in vacuum, to determine the hardness of several candidate sail materials.

  8. Evaluation of electronic stability control effectiveness in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Jim; Newstead, Stuart

    2008-11-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) is an in-vehicle technology aimed at improving primary safety by assisting the driver in avoiding loss of control of the vehicle. The aim of this study was to use available crash data from Australia and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing crash risk and to establish whether benefits estimated from overseas studies have translated to the Australian and New Zealand environments. The sample analysed included 7699 crashed vehicles fitted with ESC which comprised of 90 different models. Poisson regression was used to test whether the differences in the observed and expected crash counts for ESC fitted vehicles were significant, with exposure being induced from counts of rear end impacts. It was found that ESC reduced the risk of single vehicle crashes in which the driver was injured by 68% for 4WDs compared with 27% for passenger cars. The effect of ESC on multiple vehicle crashes in Australia and New Zealand was not clear. The long-term benefits of fitting ESC to all vehicles in Australia were also investigated based on the estimated single vehicle crash reductions.

  9. Failure modes and effects analysis of total skin electron irradiation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez-Rosello, B; Bautista, J A; Bonaque, J; Perez-Calatayud, J; Gonzalez-Sanchis, A; Lopez-Torrecilla, J; Brualla-Gonzalez, L; Garcia-Hernandez, T; Vicedo-Gonzalez, A; Granero, D; Serrano, A; Borderia, B; Solera, C; Rosello, J

    2017-08-04

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a radiotherapy technique which consists of an homogeneous body surface irradiation by electrons. This treatment requires very strict technical and dosimetric conditions, requiring the implementation of multiple controls. Recently, the Task Group 100 report of the AAPM has recommended adapting the quality assurance program of the facility to the risks of their processes. A multidisciplinary team evaluated the potential failure modes (FMs) of every process step, regardless of the management tools applied in the installation. For every FM, occurrence (O), severity (S) and detectability (D) by consensus was evaluated, which resulted in the risk priority number (RPN), which permitted the ranking of the FMs. Subsequently, all the management tools used, related to the TSEI process, were examined and the FMs were reevaluated, to analyze the effectiveness of these tools and to propose new management tools to cover the greater risk FMs. 361 FMs were identified, 103 of which had RPN ≥80, initially, and 41 had S ≥ 8. Taking this into account the quality management tools FMs were reevaluated and only 30 FMs had RPN ≥80. The study of these 30 FMs emphasized that the FMs that involved greater risk were related to the diffuser screen placement and the patient's position during treatment. The quality assurance program of the facility has been adapted to the risk of this treatment process, following the guidelines proposed by the TG-100. However, clinical experience continually reveals new FMs, so the need for periodic risk analysis is required.

  10. Effective Practices for Evaluating Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Stephanie Baird Wilkerson, PhD Carol Haden EdD Magnolia Consulting,LLC Education and public outreach (EPO) program developers and providers seeking insights regarding effective practices for evaluating EPO activities programs benefit from understanding why evaluation is critical to the success of EPO activities and programs, what data collection methods are appropriate, and how to effectively communicate and report findings. Based on our extensive experience evaluating EPO programs, we will share lessons learned and examples of how these practices play out in actual evaluation studies. EPO program developers, providers, and evaluators must consider several factors that influence which evaluation designs and data collection methods will be most appropriate, given the nature of EPO programs. Effective evaluation practices of EPO programs take into account a program's phase of development, duration, and budget as well as a program's intended outcomes. EPO programs that are just beginning development will have different evaluation needs and priorities than will well-established programs. Effective evaluation practices consider the 'life' of a program with an evaluation design that supports a program's growth through various phases including development, revision and refinement, and completion. It would be premature and inappropriate to expect the attainment of longer-term outcomes of activities during program development phases or early stages of implementation. During program development, EPO providers should clearly define program outcomes that are feasible and appropriate given a program's scope and expected reach. In many respects, this directly relates to the amount of time, or duration, intended audiences participate in EPO programs. As program duration increases so does the likelihood that the program can achieve longer-term outcomes. When choosing which outcomes are reasonable to impact and measure, program duration should be considered. Effective evaluation

  11. Effect of secondary ions on the electron beam optics in the Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A.; Prost, L.; Saewert, G.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Antiprotons in Fermilab's Recycler ring are cooled by a 4.3 MeV, 0.1-0.5 A DC electron beam (as well as by a stochastic cooling system). The unique combination of the relativistic energy ({gamma} = 9.49), an Ampere-range DC beam, and a relatively weak focusing makes the cooling efficiency particularly sensitive to ion neutralization. A capability to clear ions was recently implemented by way of interrupting the electron beam for 1-30 {micro}s with a repetition rate of up to 40 Hz. The cooling properties of the electron beam were analyzed with drag rate measurements and showed that accumulated ions significantly affect the beam optics. For a beam current of 0.3 A, the longitudinal cooling rate was increased by factor of {approx}2 when ions were removed.

  12. The static Jahn-Teller effect with regard for electron-electron repulsion in the anions of fullerene C sub 6 sub 0

    CERN Document Server

    Kupryijevich, V A

    2003-01-01

    Fullerene anions C sub 6 sub 0 sup N sup - (N = 1, ....,4) are calculated in the framework of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model completed by the electron-electron interaction with different potentials. Electron wave functions are determined in the single-configuration approximation or when the electron correlation is taken into account. Contrary to the case of short-range electron repulsion, long-range electron correlation can essentially change the features of the Jahn-Teller splitting. The correlation damps effectively the electron-lattice interaction by favoring the electron delocalization and, thus, destabilizing deformations.

  13. Free-electron-like Hall effect and deviations from free-electron behavior in Ca-Al amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeya, F. M.; Hickey, B. J.; Howson, M. A.

    1995-06-01

    The Hall coefficients of Ca-Al amorphous alloys have been measured at 4.2 K over a wide range of compositions. It is shown that the magnitude of the Hall coefficients are close to the nearly-free-electron (NFE) prediction for low Ca concentrations but deviate significantly from the NFE values for Ca concentration greater than 45 at. %. The deviations from the free-electron values have previously been attributed to the effects of s-d hybridization, while a reduction in magnitude by Au doping has been argued to result from the side-jump effect.

  14. Effects of low-energy electrons on DNA constituents: effective cross sections for condensed thymidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panajotovic, Radmila

    2009-05-01

    Since the first experiments of low-energy electron scattering from condensed DNA [1] have been performed, the interest in studying low-energy electron-biomolecule interactions has been increasing. Knowledge of effective cross sections for single- and double-strand breaks of DNA and for vibrational and electronic excitation of nucleic bases and nucleosides are opening the door to better understanding of effects of radiation on live tissue and possibly indicating interaction pathways leading to gene mutations and cancer. The strong variation of effective cross sections for DNA single-strand breaks with incident electron energy and the resonant enhancement at 1 eV suggested that considerable damage is inflicted by very low-energy electrons to DNA, and indicates the important role of π* shape resonances in the bond-breaking process. However, the complexity of DNA, even if studied as a short single-strand chain, imposes a need to perform measurements on its isolated constituents, such as nucleic bases and nucleosides. Thymidine is one of the most important nucleosides of DNA and an important component of antiviral compounds. In the condensed phase, thymidine's 2'-deoxyribose ring is in the pentose sugar ring form, which is a true conformation of this nucleoside in DNA. Results from High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss [2] study of monomolecular films of thymidine will be discussed and the presence of resonances in the effective cross sections at incident energy below 5 eV will be commented as a possible indication of the dissociative electron attachment. In addition, results on the resonance structures in the effective cross sections for electronic excitations for the incident electron energy from 1.5 to 12 eV will be discussed as a possible pathway for strand brakes in DNA. [4pt] [1] Boudaiffa B, Cloutier P, Hunting D, Huels M A and Sanche L 2002 Rad. Res. 157 227-234[0pt] [2] Panajotovic R, Martin F, Cloutier P, Hunting, D, and Sanche L, 2006 Rad.Res. 165 452

  15. REINFORCEMENT ENHANCING EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE VIA ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Michael, Valerie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. Methods We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10 ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled “36 mg/ml”) or placebo (“0”) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one’s own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Results Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Conclusions Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. PMID:26070455

  16. Reinforcement enhancing effects of acute nicotine via electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Michael, Valerie C

    2015-08-01

    Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled "36mg/ml") or placebo ("0″) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one's own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic shear effect on confinement and electron heat transport in dominant electron heating experiments in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, G.T.; Saoutic, B.; Guiziou, L.; Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Clairet, F.; Colas, L.; Devynck, P.; Gil, C.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Segui, J.L.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Zou, X.L. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Budny, R.V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, New Jersey (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Various steady-state non-inductive plasmas, with strong electron heating and significant modification of the current density profile, have been routinely obtained on Tore Supra in either Lower Hybrid Current Drive or Fast Ware Heating experiments. In those dominant electron heating discharges, the dependence of electron heat diffusivity({chi}{sub e}) on the electron temperature gradient, the magnetic shear (s) and the safety factor (q) has been investigated. The increase of {chi}{sub e} with {nabla}T{sub e} indicates the existence of a critical temperature gradient. Moreover, the current density profile effect on the global confinement and the local transport is clearly observed. The electron heat flux (q{sub e}) is found to be roughly proportional to q{sup 2}. The effect of magnetic shear on {chi}{sub e} is studied in the improved confinement discharges obtained by modifying of the current profile. {chi}{sub e} decreases when the magnetic shear increases in the confinement zone and/or when it vanishes in the plasma center. When s becomes negative a decrease in {chi}{sub e} by two orders of magnitude is observed. The effect of the current profile is also observed in the saturated ohmic regime. Comparisons between experimental {chi}{sub e} and well known local transport models (Taroni, and Rebut - Lallia -Watkins) are reported. (authors). 31 refs.

  18. Symmetry-broken effects on electron momentum spectroscopy caused by adiabatic vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinghao; Ma, Xiaoguang; Lou, Wenhua; Wang, Meishan; Yang, Chuanlu

    2017-11-01

    The vibronic coupling effect is usually studied by invoking the breakdown of Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The present study shows that the symmetry-broken effect induced by nuclei vibrations can also lead strong impact on the electronic states under the framework of Born-Oppenheimer approximation. This adiabatic-invoking vibrational effect on electron momentum spectroscopy of ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H6) and methanol (CH3OH) was studied with quantum mechanical method. The results show that electron momentum spectroscopy of localized electrons, especially core electrons in axial symmetric geometry molecules can be affected unusually and strongly by several asymmetric vibrational modes.

  19. Modeling the effects of study abroad programs on college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin H. Yu; Garry E. Chick; Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of modeling the effects of a study abroad program on students from a university in the northeastern United States. A program effect model was proposed after conducting an extensive literature review and empirically examining a sample of 265 participants in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA),...

  20. The Effectiveness of Parenting Programs: A Review of Campbell Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Coren, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Parenting practices predict important outcomes for children, and parenting programs are potentially effective means of supporting parents to promote optimal outcomes for children. This review summarizes findings of systematic reviews of parenting programs published in the Campbell Library. Six reviews evaluated the effectiveness of a range of…

  1. Developing Argumentation Strategies in Electronic Dialogs: Is Modeling Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayweg-Paus, Elisabeth; Macagno, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    The study presented here examines how interacting with a more capable interlocutor influences use of argumentation strategies in electronic discourse. To address this question, 54 young adolescents participating in an intervention centered on electronic peer dialogs were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control condition. In both…

  2. Phonon frequency shift and effect of correlation on the electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of phonon to thef-electrons), anisotropic Fermi surface, Kondo volume collapse etc and the manifestation of the deformation potential. (the coupling of phonons to the conduction electrons), have persuaded many to emphasize the role of the electron–phonon interaction [2,5] to explain some of the low temperature. 305 ...

  3. The Effects of Electronic Communication on American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erin; Kozak, L. Viola; Santiago, Roberto; Stephen, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Technological and language innovation often flow in concert with one another. Casual observation by researchers has shown that electronic communication memes, in the form of abbreviations, have found their way into spoken English. This study focuses on the current use of electronic modes of communication, such as cell smartphones, and e-mail, and…

  4. A guide to highly effective quality programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, John; Fifer, Joe

    2010-01-01

    To dramatically improve quality while decreasing costs, hospitals should: ensure all executives are vocal and visible supporters of quality improvement; focus the board of directors on quality as a strategic priority; strategically target quality resources to improve care for the majority of patients; use the finance system as the foundation for automated quality reporting; form a strong alliance between the CFO and chief quality officer, with each playing a leadership role in the quality program; rely on a well-executed quality program to improve efficiency and decrease the cost of care.

  5. Incoherent Effect of Space Charge and Electron Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Franchetti, G; Fischer, W; Zimmermann, F

    2009-01-01

    Trapping by resonances or scattering off resonances induced by space charge (SC) or electron cloud (EC) in conjunction with synchrotron motion can explain observations of slow beam loss and emittance growth, which are often accompanied by changes in the longitudinal beam profile. In this paper we review the recent progress in understanding and modeling of the underlying mechanisms, highlight the differences and similarities between space charge and electron cloud, and discuss simulation results in the light of experimental observations, e.g., at GSI, CERN, and BNL. In particular, we address the role of the pinched electrons and describe in detail the complexity of the electron pinch formation. We present simulation results within a dipole or in a field-free region of the beam pipe, which reveal the morphology and main features of this phenomenon, explain the physical origin of the complex electron structures like stripe in either field configuration, and discuss the dependence on some key parameters.

  6. A study of effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some vitamins for electron, H, He and C ion interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükyıldız, M.

    2017-09-01

    The radiological properties of some vitamins such as Retinol, Beta-carotene, Riboflavin, Niacin, Niacinamide, Pantothenic acid, Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxal, Biotin, Folic acid, Ascorbic acid, Cholecalciferol, Alpha-tocopherol, Gamma-tocopherol, Phylloquinone have been investigated with respect to total electron interaction and some heavy charged particle interaction as means of effective atomic numbers (Z_{eff}) and electron densities (N_{eff}) for the first time. Calculations were performed for total electron interaction and heavy ions such as H, He and C ion interactions in the energy region 10keV-10MeV by using a logarithmic interpolation method. Variations in Z_{eff}'s and N_{eff}'s of given vitamins have been studied according to the energy of electron or heavy charged particles, and significant variations have been observed for all types of interaction in the given energy region. The maximum values of Z_{eff} have been found in the different energy regions for different interactions remarkably and variations in N_{eff} seem approximately to be the same with variation in Z_{eff} for the given vitamins as expected. Z_{eff} values of some vitamins were plotted together and compared with each other for electron, H, He and C interactions and the ratios of Z_{eff}/ have been changed in the range of 0.25-0.36, 0.20-0.36, 0.22-0.35 and 0.20-0.35 for electron, H, He and C interactions, respectively.

  7. National Guard State Partnership Program: Measuring Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    future development of partnerships. To use an idiomatic expression , gone are the days when we could pick our players and practice before the game. In the...Director, Graduate Degree Programs Robert F. Baumann, Ph.D. The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student

  8. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Hall Effect Studies of the Effects of Low Energy Electron Irradiation on Gallium Nitride

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    .... Samples produced via molecular beam epitaxy and hydride vapor phase epitaxy, both silicon doped and nominally undoped, were subjected to Van de Graff generator produced monoenergtic electron beams...

  9. Conceptual Design of a 50--100 MW Electron Beam Accelerator System for the National Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHNEIDER,LARRY X.

    2000-06-01

    The National Hypersonic Wind Tunnel program requires an unprecedented electron beam source capable of 1--2 MeV at a beam power level of 50--100 MW. Direct-current electron accelerator technology can readily generate high average power beams to approximately 5 MeV at output efficiencies greater than 90%. However, due to the nature of research and industrial applications, there has never been a requirement for a single module with an output power exceeding approximately 500 kW. Although a 50--100 MW module is a two-order extrapolation from demonstrated power levels, the scaling of accelerator components appears reasonable. This paper presents an evaluation of component and system issues involved in the design of a 50--100 MW electron beam accelerator system with precision beam transport into a high pressure flowing air environment.

  10. Strain effect on electronic structure of two-dimensional γ-InSe nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lixiu; Cheng, Xiangrong; Tao, Junguang

    2017-12-01

    We use density functional theory to calculate the electronic structure of monolayer and bilayer InSe nanosheets. The interlayer interaction is found to have a large effect on the s orbital distribution of In and Se atoms. The electronic properties of InSe change substantially under in-plane bi-axial strain, including the semiconductor-to-metal transition. Both van der Waals forces and the electron wave function overlap affect the electronic structure tunability in a delicate way. Aside from the band-nature change, the electron-transport ability is expected to be altered, which is important for InSe-based electronic devices.

  11. FY 2005 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M

    2005-11-22

    appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subsystems work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the Vehicle Systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid and fuel-cell-powered automobiles that meet the goals of the FreedomCAR Program. A key element in making hybrid electric vehicles practical is providing an affordable electric traction drive system. This will require attaining weight, volume, and cost targets for the power electronics and electrical machines subsystems of the traction drive system. Areas of development include: (1) Novel traction motor designs that result in increased power density and lower cost; (2) Inverter technologies involving new topologies to achieve higher efficiency and the ability to accommodate higher-temperature environments; (3) Converter concepts that employ means of reducing the component count and integrating functionality to decrease size, weight, and cost; (4) More effective thermal control and packaging technologies; and (5) Integrated motor/inverter concepts. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center conducts fundamental research, evaluates hardware, and assists in the technical direction of the DOE Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program. In this role, ORNL serves on the FreedomCAR Electrical and Electronics Technical Team, evaluates proposals for DOE, and lends its

  12. Effectiveness of smoking cessation programs for seriously mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Linde, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have supported the significant association between mental illness and smoking habit, with relative independence of socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to review effective strategies for smoking cessation of adults with major depression, schizophrenia and psychosis. An extensive literature search was performed in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Center for Reviews and Dissemination, ECRI, clinicaltrials.gov, UK National Research Register, Current Controlled Trials, Trip Database, NLM Gateway, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs)), TESEO, Dialnet, Lilacs, SciELO, EMI, Doyma, and Catalogue et Index des Sites Medical Francophones. We selected all systematic reviews, comprehensive reports, clinical trials, observational studies and recommendations, which had evaluated smoking cessation programs in patients with severe mental illness. Few studies focusing on smoking cessation in severe mental illness were found. In the treatment of smokers who suffer these mental disorders, it is recommended to increase and prolong the treatment period, to implement joint psychoeducation techniques, cognitive-behavioral techniques and the use of any drug treatment that helps to control and / or reduce the occurrence of relapses in tobacco consumption or baseline psychiatric symptoms. However, there is great heterogeneity in the recommendations given by the studies. It remains unclear whether people with severe mental illness could benefit from access to smoking cessation treatments. In the best of the scenarios, it was seen that drug therapy and psychosocial interventions have indicated abstinence at 6 months for a few patients.

  13. GGA+U investigations of impurity d-electrons effects on the electronic and magnetic properties of ZnO

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2014-08-01

    Stimulation of novel features in ZnO by impurity electrons has attracted a remarkable attention of researchers from the past decade. Consequently, ZnO has found several applications in the field of spintronics and optoelectronics. We report, the effect of 3d-(V, Ag) electrons on the properties of ZnO in stable wurtzite (WZ) and metastable zincblende (ZB) phase using the density functional theory. Introduction of V-3d electrons was found to induce a high magnetic moment value of 5.22 in WZ and 3.26 in the ZB phase, and moreover transform the semiconductor character of ZnO into a metallic nature. Ag-d electrons result in the p-type half-metallic nature of ZnO with a weak ferromagnetic background. Our calculations for ground-state magnetic ordering show that ZnO in the presence of impure 3d-(V, Ag) electrons favors ferromagnetic ordering, and obey the double exchange mechanism. However, impurity atoms have very marginal effect on the lattice parameters of ZnO, thereby exposing its potential to absorb the impurity atoms in high concentration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of the Electron Tunneling on the Photoelectric Hot Electrons Generation in Metallic-Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharif, Asma M.

    2018-01-01

    Semiconductor photonic crystals (MSPhC) were used to convert solar energy into hot electrons. An experimental model was designed by using metallic semiconductor photonic crystals (MSPhC). The designed MSPhC is based on TiO2/Au schottky contact. The model has similar nanocavity structure for broad gold absorption, but the materials on top of the cavity were changed to a metal and a semiconductor in order to collect the hot electrons. Detailed design steps and characterization have shown a broadband sub-bandgap photoresponse at a wavelength of 590 nm. This is due to the surface plasmon absorption by the wafer-scale Au/TiO2 metallic-semiconductor photonic crystal. Analytical calculation of the hot electron transport from the Au thin layer to the TiO2 conduction band is discussed. This theoretical study is based on the quantum tunneling effect. The photo generation of the hot electrons was undertaken at different wavelengths in Au absorber followed by tunneling through a schottky barrier into a TiO2 collector. The presence of a tunnel current from the absorber to the collector under illumination, offers a method to extract carriers from a hot-electron distribution at few bias voltages is presented in this study. The effects of doping different concentrations of the semiconductor on the evolution of the current characteristics were also investigated and discussed. The electrical characteristics were found to be sensitive to any change in the thickness of the barrier.

  15. Electron-scale reduced fluid models with gyroviscous effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Tassi, E.

    2017-08-01

    Reduced fluid models for collisionless plasmas including electron inertia and finite Larmor radius corrections are derived for scales ranging from the ion to the electron gyroradii. Based either on pressure balance or on the incompressibility of the electron fluid, they respectively capture kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) or whistler waves (WWs), and can provide suitable tools for reconnection and turbulence studies. Both isothermal regimes and Landau fluid closures permitting anisotropic pressure fluctuations are considered. For small values of the electron beta parameter e$ , a perturbative computation of the gyroviscous force valid at scales comparable to the electron inertial length is performed at order e)$ , which requires second-order contributions in a scale expansion. Comparisons with kinetic theory are performed in the linear regime. The spectrum of transverse magnetic fluctuations for strong and weak turbulence energy cascades is also phenomenologically predicted for both types of waves. In the case of moderate ion to electron temperature ratio, a new regime of KAW turbulence at scales smaller than the electron inertial length is obtained, where the magnetic energy spectrum decays like \\bot -13/3$ , thus faster than the \\bot -11/3$ spectrum of WW turbulence.

  16. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: aartemyev@igpp.ucla.edu; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Vasko, I. Y. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  17. Hot-electron effect in PdAu thin-film resistors with attached cooling fins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pleikies, J.; Usenko, O.; Stolz, R.; Fritzsch, L.; Frossati, G.; Flokstra, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of superconducting electronics operated in the sub-Kelvin temperature range is usually limited by the hot-electron effect. Here, an increased thermal resistance due to a weakened electron–phonon coupling leads to a higher temperature of the electrons in the thin-film shunt resistors

  18. Effect of electron-electron interactions in thermoelectric power in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Fereshte; Zuev, Yuri; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kim, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) of graphene is previously measured in the disorder limited transport regime where the semiclassical Mott relation agrees with experimental data. In this presentation, we report the TEP measurement on graphene samples deposited on hexa boron nitride substrates where drastic suppression of disorder is achieved. Our results show that at high temperatures where the inelastic scattering rate due to electron-electron (e-e) interactions is higher than the elastic scattering rate by disorders, the measured TEP exhibit a large enhancement compared to the expected TEP from the Mott relation. We also investigated TEP in the quantum Hall regime at a high magnetic fields, where we observed symmetry broken integer quantum Hall and fractional quantum Hall states due to the strong e-e interactions.

  19. Finite Gyroradius Effects in the Electron Outflow of Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgren, C.; Graham, D. B.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Andre, M.; Vaivads, A.; Chen, Li-Jen; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Marklund, G. T.; Ergun, R. E.; Magnes, W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of asymmetric magnetic reconnection showing evidence of electron demagnetization in the electron outflow. The observations were made at the magnetopause by the four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft, separated by approximately 15 km. The reconnecting current sheet has negligible guide field, and all four spacecraft likely pass close to the electron diffusion region just south of the X line. In the electron outflow near the X line, all four spacecraft observe highly structured electron distributions in a region comparable to a few electron gyroradii. The distributions consist of a core with T(sub parallel) greater than T(sub perpendicular) and a nongyrotropic crescent perpendicular to the magnetic field. The crescents are associated with finite gyroradius effects of partly demagnetized electrons. These observations clearly demonstrate the manifestation of finite gyroradius effects in an electron-scale reconnection current sheet.

  20. Suppression effects of Weibel instability for fast electron divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakagami H.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-static magnetic fields, which are induced by the Weibel instability and grow to more than hundred Megagauss, lead to large divergence angle of fast electrons, hence lower energy coupling. To suppress the divergence, two different structures, namely density trough and punched out holes, are introduced to targets. In the density trough target, the Weibel instability is enhanced and the divergence is getting worse. On the other hand, the divergence angle is improved but the number of electrons is degraded for fast electrons (<3 MeV in the punched out target.

  1. Development of Effective Teacher Program: Teamwork Building Program for Thailand's Municipal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantathai, Pimpka; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn

    2015-01-01

    This research is aimed to formulate the effective teacher teamwork program in municipal schools in Thailand. Primary survey on current situation and problem was conducted to develop the plan to suggest potential programs. Samples were randomly selected from municipal schools by using multi-stage sampling method in order to investigate their…

  2. Effects of a Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program on Pediatric Obesity: The CEMHaVi Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jeremy; Mikulovic, Jacques; Fardy, Paul; Bui-Xuan, Gilles; Marchand, Frederic; Beghin, Laurent; Theunynck, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effects of the unique 1-year health-wellness program of exercise and health education for obese youth on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. The CEMHaVi program included 74 obese children. Participants, 19 girls and 18 boys, and controls, 17 girls and 20 boys, were assigned to treatment. The…

  3. Understanding Effective Higher Education Programs in Prisons: Considerations from the Incarcerated Individuals Program in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Allison Daniel; Noblit, George W.

    2011-01-01

    The North Carolina Workplace and Community Transition Youth Offender Program (YOP), recently renamed the Incarcerated Individuals Program (IPP), has proven to be effective in terms of its growth and expansion, the support of education directors across the correctional facilities, university collaboration, student evaluations, and a low recidivism…

  4. Measuring the Effects of Virtual Pair Programming in an Introductory Programming Java Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharis, N. Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of virtual pair programming (VPP) on student performance and satisfaction in an introductory Java course. Students used online tools that integrated desktop sharing and real-time communication, and the metrics examined showed that VPP is an acceptable alternative to individual programming experience.…

  5. A decomposition of the number of effectively unpaired electrons and its physical meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lain, Luis; Torre, Alicia; Alcoba, Diego R.; Bochicchio, Roberto C.

    2009-07-01

    We report a procedure which allows one to decompose the number of effectively unpaired electrons corresponding to an N -electron system into two components with well-defined physical meaning. One of these terms represents the number of net unpaired electrons arising from the spin. The second one accounts for the partial split of electron pairs that appears when multideterminantal correlated wave functions are used.

  6. Energy efficiency in nonprofit agencies: Creating effective program models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Prindle, B.; Scherr, M.I.; White, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    Nonprofit agencies are a critical component of the health and human services system in the US. It has been clearly demonstrated by programs that offer energy efficiency services to nonprofits that, with minimal investment, they can educe their energy consumption by ten to thirty percent. This energy conservation potential motivated the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to conceive a project to help states develop energy efficiency programs for nonprofits. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (1) to analyze existing programs to determine which design and delivery mechanisms are particularly effective, and (2) to create model programs for states to follow in tailoring their own plans for helping nonprofits with energy efficiency programs. Twelve existing programs were reviewed, and three model programs were devised and put into operation. The model programs provide various forms of financial assistance to nonprofits and serve as a source of information on energy efficiency as well. After examining the results from the model programs (which are still on-going) and from the existing programs, several replicability factors'' were developed for use in the implementation of programs by other states. These factors -- some concrete and practical, others more generalized -- serve as guidelines for states devising program based on their own particular needs and resources.

  7. Study on the effectiveness of QPS electronics shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Versaci, R

    2012-01-01

    About 30% of the 2011 LHC downtime is due to failures of the Quench Protection System (QPS) induced by the radiation affecting the electronics located below the LHC main dipoles (MB). In the view of LHC technical stop foreseen for December 2011, we have investigated, by means of FLUKA simulations, the efficiency of an iron shielding to reduce the radiation affecting the QPS electronics. These are situated in the Dispersion Suppressors where the use of radiation resistant hardware is not immediately possible.

  8. Desorption by Femtosecond Laser Pulses : An Electron-Hole Effect?

    OpenAIRE

    D. M., NEWNS; T. F., HEINZ; J. A., MISEWICH; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center

    1992-01-01

    Desorption of molecules from metal surfaces induced by femtosecond visible laser pulses has been reported. Since the lattice temperature rise is insufficient to explain desorption, an electronic mechanism is clearly responsible. It is shown that a theory based on direct coupling between the center-of-mass degree of freedom of the adsorbate and the electron-hole excitations of the substrate provides a satisfactory explanation of the various experimental findings.

  9. Electron-cloud effects in high-luminosity colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1998-01-01

    Electron-cloud instabilities are expected to be important in most high-luminosity double-ring colliders. In this report, the author describes a few parameter regimes and some critical parameter dependences of this type of instability, and illustrate these with simulation results for the PEP-II and KEK B factories, the LHC, the VLHC, and DAPHNE. In addition, the author studies the possibility and the potential impact of an electron cloud in the interaction region.

  10. Pressure effect on electron localization in solid lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Silvi, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    International audience; External pressure applied to a solid material causes modifications of the bonding which can provide a chemical explanations of phase transitions. The behaviour of the Electron Localization Function (ELF) has been examined for the body centred cubic, face centred cubic and I ¯ 43d − 16 phase of lithium for a series of cell volumes accounting for external hydrostatic pressures in the 0-60 GPa range. It is shown that the ELF signatures of electron localization increase wi...

  11. Electron irradiation effects on 4-amino-5-mercapto- 3-[1-(4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in the technology of photonics. In all materials, nonlinear effects of various ... study the effect of high-energy electron irradiation on the crystal and to characterize by different techniques. The 1,2,4-triazole .... tive or negative due to the combination of damage, ionization diffusion effects and electronic polarization change. 4.

  12. Actively station: Effects on global cognition of mature adults and healthy elderly program using eletronic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nascimento Ordonez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies show that aging is accompanied by decline in cognitive functions but also indicate that interventions, such as training on electronic games, can enhance performance and promote maintenance of cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Objective: To investigate the effects of an electronic game program, called Actively Station, on the performance of global cognition of adults aged over 50 years. Methods: 124 mature and elderly adults enrolled in the "Actively Station" cognitive stimulation program of São Caetano do Sul City, in the State of São Paulo, participated in training for learning of electronic games. Participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG n=102 and control group (CG n=22. Protocol: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R, the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q, the scale of frequency of forgetfulness, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI, the Global Satisfaction with Life Scale, and two scales on learning in the training. Results: The cognitive performance of the TG improved significantly after the program, particularly in the domains of language and memory, and there was a decrease on the anxiety index and frequency of memory complaints, when compared to the CG. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the acquisition of new knowledge and the use of new stimuli, such as electronic games, can promote improvements in cognition and mood and reduce the frequency of memory complaints.

  13. Effective object planes for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, R., E-mail: ryu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lentzen, M. [Institute of Solid State Research and Ernst Ruska Centre, Research Centre Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Zhu, J. [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-01-15

    In aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, the image contrast depends sensitively on the focus value. With the point resolution extended to an information limit of below 0.1 nm, even a focus change of as small as one nanometer could give a significant change in image contrast. Therefore, it is necessary to consider in detail the optimum focus condition in order to take full advantage of aberration-correction. In this study, the thickness dependence of the minimum contrast focus has been investigated by dynamical image simulations for amorphous model structures of carbon, germanium, and tungsten, which were constructed by molecular dynamics simulations. The calculation results show that the minimum contrast focus varies with the object thickness, supporting the use of an effective object plane close to the midplane instead of the exit plane of a sample, as suggested by Bonhomme and Beorchia [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 16, 705 (1983)] and Lentzen [Microscopy and Microanalysis 12, 191 (2006)]. Thus supported particles and wedge-shaped crystals with symmetrical top and bottom surfaces could be imaged at a focus condition independent of the uneven bottom face. Image simulations of crystalline samples as a function of focus and thickness show: for an object thickness of less than 10 nm, the optimum focus condition is matched better if the midplane of the object, instead of the exit plane, is chosen as reference plane. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stringent focus condition is required for aberration-corrected TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum focus should be set with respect to the midplane of a sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The focus condition could be independent of the lateral position on a wedged sample.

  14. 78 FR 308 - Medicare Program; Request for Information on Hospital and Vendor Readiness for Electronic Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting (IQR) Program using the Quality Reporting Document Architecture (QRDA...) hospitals report quality measures of process, structure, outcomes, patient perspectives on care, and...

  15. Effect of electron-electron interaction on cyclotron resonance in high-mobility InAs/AlSb quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishtopenko, S. S., E-mail: sergey.krishtopenko@mail.ru; Gavrilenko, V. I. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, GSP-105 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, 23 Prospekt Gagarina, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ikonnikov, A. V. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, GSP-105 (Russian Federation); Orlita, M. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses (LNCMI-G), CNRS, 25 rue des Martyrs, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Sadofyev, Yu. G. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, GSP-1, 53 Leninskiy Prospect (Russian Federation); Goiran, M. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses (LNCMI-T), CNRS, 143 Avenue de Rangueil, 31400 Toulouse (France); Teppe, F.; Knap, W. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR CNRS 5221, GIS-TERALAB, Universite Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-21

    We report observation of electron-electron (e-e) interaction effect on cyclotron resonance (CR) in InAs/AlSb quantum well heterostructures. High mobility values allow us to observe strongly pronounced triple splitting of CR line at noninteger filling factors of Landau levels ν. At magnetic fields, corresponding to ν > 4, experimental values of CR energies are in good agreement with single-electron calculations on the basis of eight-band k ⋅ p Hamiltonian. In the range of filling factors 3 < ν < 4 pronounced, splitting of CR line, exceeding significantly the difference in single-electron CR energies, is discovered. The strength of the splitting increases when occupation of the partially filled Landau level tends to a half, being in qualitative agreement with previous prediction by MacDonald and Kallin [Phys. Rev. B 40, 5795 (1989)]. We demonstrate that such behaviour of CR modes can be quantitatively described if one takes into account both electron correlations and the mixing between conduction and valence bands in the calculations of matrix elements of e-e interaction.

  16. 77 FR 10373 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program GWP global warming... principle to including high global warming potential (GWP) HTFs in subpart I irrespective of their vapor... INFORMATION CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs (MC-6207J...

  17. Cost effectiveness of two army physical fitness programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A; Metter, E Jeffrey; Fleg, Jerome L; Weinstein, Ali A; Frick, Kevin D

    2013-12-01

    Repeated failure in the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is associated with lower fitness level, premature discharge, and significant career disruption, at high economic and health costs to the individual soldier and the U.S. Army. We used cost-effectiveness analysis to estimate the health and economic implications of two exercise interventions for Army National Guard (ARNG) soldiers who had failed the APFT, a traditional remediation program and a new pedometer-based program called Fitness for Life, involving individual counseling and follow-up telephone calls. Effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed in terms of APFT pass rates and calculated 10-year coronary heart disease risk. Costs were calculated based on tracking of resources used in the programs. APFT pass rates were 54.3% and 47.9%, respectively, for traditional and Fitness for Life programs, p = not significant. Neither program affected 10-year coronary heart disease risk. For assumed APFT pass rates up to 40% without any formal remediation, both the traditional remediation program and the ARNG Fitness for Life intervention had cost savings without significant group differences. Depending on the ARNG unit and personnel preference, although the Fitness for Life Program was more expensive and thus less cost-effective, either program could be cost-effective and of benefit to the military. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Effects on Early Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Douglas G.; And Others

    The number of child sexual abuse prevention programs incorporated into school curricula has increased steadily in the past decade. This longitudinal study evaluated the effects of a school-based, child sexual abuse prevention program on child abuse reports in nine school districts over a five-year period. Districts had been randomly assigned to…

  19. Training programs in research into the effectiveness of teacher behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article contends that studies into the effectiveness of teacher behavior should give more attention both to a systematic design of training programs as well as to the collection of implementation data concerning teacher behavior, before incorporating the training program into an experimental

  20. 2012 Report Card on the Effectiveness of Teacher Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Tennessee General Assembly passed legislation in 2007 requiring that the State Board of Education produce an assessment on the effectiveness of teacher training programs. The law requires that the report include data on the performance of each program's graduates in the following areas: placement and retention rates, Praxis II results, and…

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Military Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Seth L; Smith, Kenneth J; Palmer, Catherine

    2018-02-07

    Occupational noise threatens U.S. worker health and safety and commands a significant financial burden on state and federal government worker compensation programs. Previous studies suggest that hearing conservation programs have contributed to reduced occupational hearing loss for noise-exposed workers. Many military personnel are overexposed to noise and are provided hearing conservation services. Select military branches require all active duty personnel to follow hearing conservation program guidelines, regardless of individual noise exposure. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a military hearing conservation program, relative to no intervention, in relation to cases of hearing loss prevented. We employed cost-effectiveness analytic methods to compare the costs and effectiveness, in terms of hearing loss cases prevented, of a military hearing conservation program relative to no program. We used costs and probability estimates available in the literature and publicly available sources. The effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed based on whether hearing loss occurred over a 20-yr time frame. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention was $10,657 per case of hearing loss prevented. Workers were 28% less likely to sustain hearing loss in our model when they received the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention, which reflected the greater effectiveness of the hearing conservation program. Cost-effectiveness results were sensitive to estimated values for the probability of acquiring hearing loss from both interventions and the cost of hearing protection. We performed a Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis where we simultaneously varied all the model parameters to their extreme plausible bounds. When we ran 10,000 Monte Carlo iterations, we observed that the hearing conservation program was more cost-effective in 99% of cases when decision makers were willing to

  2. Reduction of Electronic Wavefunctions to Kohn-Sham Effective Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Staroverov, Viktor N

    2015-01-01

    A method for calculating the Kohn--Sham exchange-correlation potential, $v_\\text{XC}(\\mathbf{r})$, from a given electronic wavefunction is devised and implemented. It requires on input one- and two-electron density matrices and involves construction of the generalized Fock matrix. The method is free from numerical limitations and basis-set artifacts of conventional schemes for constructing $v_\\text{XC}(\\mathbf{r})$ in which the potential is recovered from a given electron density, and is simpler than various many-body techniques. The chief significance of this development is that it allows one to directly probe the functional derivative of the true exchange-correlation energy functional and to rigorously test and improve various density-functional approximations.

  3. Effects of Spatial Gradients on Electron Runaway Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeice, Peter; Ljepojevic, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    The runaway process is known to accelerate electrons in many laboratory plasmas and has been suggested as an acceleration mechanism in some astrophysical plasmas, including solar flares. Current calculations of the electron velocity distributions resulting from the runaway process are greatly restricted because they impose spatial homogeneity on the distribution. We have computed runaway distributions which include consistent development of spatial gradients in the energetic tail. Our solution for the electron velocity distribution is presented as a function of distance along a finite length acceleration region, and is compared with the equivalent distribution for the infinitely long homogenous system (i.e., no spatial gradients), as considered in the existing literature. All these results are for the weak field regime. We also discuss the severe restrictiveness of this weak field assumption.

  4. Effective Software Engineering Leadership for Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle West, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    Software is a critical component of systems ranging from simple consumer appliances to complex health, nuclear, and flight control systems. The development of quality, reliable, and effective software solutions requires the incorporation of effective software engineering processes and leadership. Processes, approaches, and methodologies for…

  5. Building effective cybersecurity programs a security manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schreider, Tari

    2017-01-01

    You know by now that your company could not survive without the Internet. Not in today's market. You are either part of the digital economy or reliant upon it. With critical information assets at risk, your company requires a state-of-the-art cybersecurity program. But how do you achieve the best possible program? Tari Schreider, in Building Effective Cybersecurity Programs: A Security Manager's Handbook, lays out the step-by-step roadmap to follow as you build or enhance your cybersecurity program.

  6. An interprofessional palliative care oncology rehabilitation program: effects on function and predictors of program completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, M R; Feldstain, A; Gravelle, D; Macdonald, N; Pereira, J

    2013-12-01

    After treatment, patients with active cancer face a considerable burden from the effects of both the disease and its treatment. The Palliative Rehabilitation Program (prp) is designed to ameliorate disease effects and to improve the patient's functioning. The present study evaluated predictors of program completion and changes in functioning, symptoms, and well-being after the program. The program received referrals for 173 patients who had finished anticancer therapy. Of those 173 patients, 116 with advanced cancer were eligible and enrolled in the 8-week interprofessional prp; 67 completed it. Measures of physical, nutritional, social, and psychological functioning were evaluated at entry to the program and at completion. Participants experienced significant improvements in physical performance (p mobility, and balance or function (p = 0.001 to 0.001). Reasons that participants did not complete the prp were disease progression, geographic inaccessibility, being too well (program not challenging enough), death, and personal or unknown reasons. A normal level of C-reactive protein (<10 mg/L, p = 0.029) was a predictor of program completion. Patients living with advanced cancers who underwent the interprofessional prp experienced significant improvement in functioning across several domains. Program completion can be predicted by a normal level of C-reactive protein.

  7. 13 CFR 126.102 - What is the effect of the HUBZone program on the section 8(d) subcontracting program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... program on the section 8(d) subcontracting program? 126.102 Section 126.102 Business Credit and Assistance... effect of the HUBZone program on the section 8(d) subcontracting program? The HUBZone Act of 1997 amended the section 8(d) subcontracting program to include qualified HUBZone SBCs in the formal subcontracting...

  8. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Intergenerational Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garc?a-S?nchez, Jes?S-Nicasio; Canedo-Garc?a, Alejandro; Pacheco-Sanz, Deilis-Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    .... Of these, just 50 studies met the inclusion criteria of being an empirical investigation of the effectiveness of intergenerational programs that contain appropriate elaboration on theoretical constructs and methods.Results...

  9. Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lançon, F.

    2011-06-01

    The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit softkill effectiveness analysis for anti-ship missile defence. NEWS tool generates virtual environment for missile-ship engagement and counter-measure simulator over a wide spectrum: RF, IR, EO. It integrates EW Command & Control (EWC2) process which is implemented in decoy launcher system and performs Monte-Carlo batch processing to evaluate softkill effectiveness in different engagement situations. NEWS is designed to allow immediate EWC2 process integration from simulation to real decoy launcher system. By design, it allows the final operator to be able to program, test and integrate its own EWC2 module and EW library onboard, so intelligence of each user is protected and evolution of threat can be taken into account through EW library update. The objectives of NEWS tool are also to define a methodology for trial definition and trial data reduction. Growth potential would permit to design new concept for EWC2 programmability and real time effectiveness estimation in EW system. This tool can also be used for operator training purpose. This paper presents the architecture design, the softkill programmability facility concept and the flexibility for onboard integration on ship. The concept of this operationally focused simulation, which is to use only one tool for design, development, trial validation and operational use, will be demonstrated.

  10. Development of a highly-sensitive Penning ionization electron spectrometer using the magnetic bottle effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Yuki; Nakajima, Yutaro; Miyauchi, Naoya; Yamakita, Yoshihiro, E-mail: yamakita@uec.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Science, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering The University of Electro-Communications 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on a highly-sensitive retarding-type electron spectrometer for a continuous source of electrons, in which the electron collection efficiency is increased by utilizing the magnetic bottle effect. This study demonstrates an application to Penning ionization electron spectroscopy using collisional ionization with metastable He*(2{sup 3}S) atoms. Technical details and performances of the instrument are presented. This spectrometer can be used for studies of functional molecules and assemblies, and exterior electron densities are expected to be selectively observed by the Penning ionization.

  11. The effect of atoms excited by electron beam on metal evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Xie Guo Feng; Ying Chun Tong

    2002-01-01

    In atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), the metal is heated to melt by electron beams. The vapor atoms may be excited by electrons when flying through the electron beam. The excited atoms may be deexcited by inelastic collision during expansion. The electronic energy transfers translational energy. In order to analyse the effect of reaction between atoms and electron beams on vapor physical parameters, such as density, velocity and temperature, direct-simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC) is used to simulate the 2-D gadolinium evaporation from long and narrow crucible. The simulation results show that the velocity and temperature of vapor increase, and the density decreases

  12. Oil and gas program: cumulative effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Horn, W; Melancon, A; Sun, J

    1985-01-01

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA) requires the Secretary of the Department of the Interior to submit an annual report to Congress assessing the cumulative environmental effects of mineral leasing and operations under the OCSLA...

  13. Effect of nonthermal distributed electrons and temperature on phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Interaction of nonplanar ion-acoustic solitary waves is an important source of infor- mation for studying the nature and characteristics of ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs). The head-on collision between two cylindrical/spherical IASWs in un-magnetized plasmas compris- ing of nonthermal distributed electrons ...

  14. Effect of nonthermal distributed electrons and temperature on phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interaction of nonplanar ion-acoustic solitary waves is an important source of information for studying the nature and characteristics of ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs). The head-on collision between two cylindrical/spherical IASWs in un-magnetized plasmas comprising of nonthermal distributed electrons and warm ions ...

  15. Effects of overheating in a single-electron transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korotkov, A. N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Vasenko, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Heating of a single-electron transistor (SET) caused by the current flowing through it is considered. The current and the temperature increase should be calculated self-consistently taking into account various paths of the heat drain. Even if there is no heat drain from the central electrode...

  16. Effect of strong coupling on interfacial electron transfer dynamics in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transient absorption studies on TPP-cat/TiO2 system exciting both the Soret band at 400 nm and the Q-band at 800 nm have been carried out to determine excitation wavelength-dependence on ET dynamics. The reaction channel for the electron-injection process has been found to be different for both the excitation ...

  17. The effect of composition, electron irradiation and quenching on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrolyte samples were also quenched at liquid nitrogen temperature and conductivity measurements were made. The ionic conductivity at room temperature exhibits a characteristic double peak for the composition = 20 and 70. Both electron beam irradiation and quenching at low temperature have resulted in an ...

  18. Review Article: Toxic Effects of Some Reagents Used in Electron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrathin sections prepared for electron microscopy and histochemistry are indispensable in cytological, histological and histochemical studies. The paper discusses the various reagents used in these fields of study. Unfortunately, these reagents and chemicals are hazardous to health. There is wisdom in informing the ...

  19. FY2011 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitchell [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    's recommendations and requirements and then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component R&D activities; (2) develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including EMs and PE; and (3) determine how well the components and subsystems work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under this subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable the development of technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), battery electric vehicles, and fuel-cell-powered automobiles that meet the goals of the VTP. A key element in making these advanced vehicles practical is providing an affordable electric traction drive system. This will require attaining weight, volume, efficiency, and cost targets for the PE and EM subsystems of the traction drive system. Areas of development include: (1) novel traction motor designs that result in increased power density and lower cost; (2) inverter technologies involving new topologies to achieve higher efficiency with the ability to accommodate higher temperature environments while achieving high reliability; (3) converter concepts that use methods of reducing the component count and integrating functionality to decrease size, weight, and cost; (4) new onboard battery charging concepts that result in decreased cost and size; (5) more effective thermal control through innovative packaging technologies; and (6) integrated motor-inverter traction drive system concepts. ORNL's PEEM research program conducts fundamental research, evaluates hardware, and assists in the technical direction of the VTP Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) program. In this role, ORNL serves on the U.S. DRIVE Electrical and Electronics Technical Team, evaluates proposals for DOE, and lends its technological

  20. Electron–electron interactions in the chemical bond: “1/3” Effect in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The prominent “1/3” effect observed in the Hall effect plateaus of two- dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems has been postulated to indicating 1/3 fractional charge quasiparticle excitations arising from electron–electron interactions. Tunneling shot-noise experiments on 2DEF exhibiting fractional quantum Hall ...

  1. Electron correlation effects on the d-d excitations in NiO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, C; Broer, R.; Nieuwpoort, WC

    1996-01-01

    The partly filled 3d shell in solid transition metal compounds is quite localized on the transition metal ion and gives rise to large electron correlation effects. With the recently developed CASSCF/CASPT2 approach electron correlation effects can be accounted for efficiently. The CASSCF step

  2. A numerical investigation of the effect of ambient conditions on natural convection cooling of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2017-01-01

    Thermal management is a serious concern in electronic industry. It is important to understand the effects of ambient conditions on cooling of electronics. In this work, the effect of ambient conditions on the thermophysical properties of humid air is estimated in five cities (Copenhagen, Mashhad,...

  3. Spin current swapping and Hanle spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, K.; Raimondi, R.; Vignale, G.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the effect known as “spin current swapping” (SCS) due to electron-impurity scattering in a uniform spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas. In this effect a primary spin current Jai (lower index for spatial direction, upper index for spin direction) generates a secondary spin current

  4. Social/Electronic Media Use of Children and Adolescents Who Attend the Pediatric Weight Management Programs of the COMPASS Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert; Fals, Angela; Mirza, Nazrat; Datto, George; Stratbucker, William; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Christison, Amy; Wang, Yu; Woolford, Susan J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a major healthcare problem in youth and their social/electronic media (SEM) use has been described as a risk factor. Though much is known about the newer technologies youth use to communicate, little is known about what is used by those in weight management programs. The aim of this study was to determine what types of SEM, including sedentary and active video games, youth in weight management programs use and which they prefer for communicating with healthcare providers. This was a multisite study using a 24-question online SurveyMonkey® questionnaire. Youth, 12-17 years old, attending pediatric weight management programs at seven participating centers in the Childhood Obesity Multi Program Analysis and Study System network were eligible. There were 292 responders with a mean age of 14.2 years. Fifty-four percent were female, 36% Caucasian, 35% African American, and 33% were Hispanic. Ninety-four percent had access to a computer, 71% had Internet access, and 63% had smartphones. Whereas 87% had at least one gaming system at home, 50% reported they never played sedentary video games (71% of females vs. 25% males; p social media (6%). Face-to-face communication with healthcare providers is the preferred method for youth in pediatric weight management programs. They self-reported video game use less than previously described.

  5. CMS Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Program, Electronic Health Record Products Used for Attestation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data set merges information about the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs attestations with the Office of the...

  6. Electronic Health Record Vendors Reported by Health Care Providers Participating in Federal EHR Incentive Programs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This public use file combines registration data compiled from two federal programs that are on-going since February 2009 – the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid...

  7. Cavity-photon contribution to the effective interaction of electrons in parallel quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, Vidar [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Sitek, Anna [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology (Poland); Abdullah, Nzar Rauf [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Science Education, School of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region (Iraq); Tang, Chi-Shung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National United University, Miaoli (China); Manolescu, Andrei [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University (Iceland)

    2016-05-15

    A single cavity photon mode is expected to modify the Coulomb interaction of an electron system in the cavity. Here we investigate this phenomena in a parallel double quantum dot system. We explore properties of the closed system and the system after it has been opened up for electron transport. We show how results for both cases support the idea that the effective electron-electron interaction becomes more repulsive in the presence of a cavity photon field. This can be understood in terms of the cavity photons dressing the polarization terms in the effective mutual electron interaction leading to nontrivial delocalization or polarization of the charge in the double parallel dot potential. In addition, we find that the effective repulsion of the electrons can be reduced by quadrupolar collective oscillations excited by an external classical dipole electric field. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. [PROFAMILIA studies the effectiveness of contraceptive marketing programs in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A recent study by PROFAMILIA, the private Colombian family planning organization, indicates that community based distribution programs and social marketing programs are not totally interchangeable forms of contraceptive distribution. Comparison of the efficacy of different systems in making contraceptives more accessible to the low income population led the researchers to conclude that social marketing programs work as well as community based distribution programs in rural areas which already have high rates of contraceptive usage. Community based distribution programs appear more effective than social marketing programs in areas where contraceptive usage is not yet well established. PROFAMILIA researchers conducted operational studies in 3 different states, each of which had a community based distribution program. In the first state the community based distribution program was suspended and a vender who had previously supplied only urban outlets added rural pharmacies to his route. The vender handled 3 kinds of pills, 2 types of spermicidal suppositories, and condoms. In a neighboring state, 3 instructors belonging to the community based distribution program were offered commissions of about 10% of the value of the products if the distributors they supervised met monthly sales quotas. The community based distribution program was left unchanged in the third state but a 2-member mobile team was trained to travel through the region by jeep, talking to community groups about the advantage of contraception. At the end of 18 months, sales of contraceptives had declined in the state where the community based distribution program was replaced by the social marketing program. The decline was believed to be related to unforeseen price increases for pills and devaluation of the Colombian peso. The social marketing project was however much more cost effective than the other 2, which continued to require PROFAMILIA subsidies. Contraceptive usage increased in the other 2 areas

  9. Effectiveness and Successful Program Elements of SOAR’s Afterschool Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Johnson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Project SOAR provided after-school programs that afforded expanded learning opportunities to help students succeed in local public schools and to contribute to the general welfare of the community. Program components focused on building students’ academic skills and positive attitudes, aided by teachers, mentors, parent education, and local agencies. Instructional programs were conducted to help reduce drug use and violence. Activities included academic assistance, technology training, mentoring, service learning projects, and education in life skills and the arts. Parent involvement was encouraged. Behavioral and academic outcomes—especially at the high school level—were analyzed to determine program effectiveness regarding academic achievement, dropout rates, and rates and frequency of suspensions. Successful program elements and strategies are noted.

  10. Implementing Electronic Portfolios for Performance Assessment: A Pilot Program Involving a College Writing Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, Ben A.; Magruder, Sarah C.

    2004-01-01

    In December 2001, as part of a Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology grant, the St. Mary's College writing center dedicated space, software, and trained personnel to assist students and teachers in the writing and development of electronic portfolios. They created a unified space for faculty and student development across disciplines.…

  11. An Active Reading Intervention for the Electronic Career Development Course (eCDC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isreal, Kenith R.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic books have rapidly moved through the entertainment community and are rapidly making their way into the academic environment. Public and private schools, libraries and training organizations use eBooks for research and instruction. This study sought to enhance the learning habits of students taking self-paced correspondence courses…

  12. Electron transport in acceptor-sensitized polymer-oxide solar cells: the importance of surface dipoles and electron cascade effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, Seare A; Zhou, Joy Y; Haynes, Keith M; Rodriguez, Marco T; Youngblood, W Justin

    2012-06-27

    Fullerene and acenequinone compounds have been examined as electron mediators between a p-type semiconductive polymer and two n-type oxide semiconductors. Composite interlayer materials and photovoltaic test cells were assembled and studied for their fluorescence quenching, current-voltage, and quantum efficiency behavior to characterize the efficacy of the acceptor-sensitizers as electron-selective interlayers. The sensitizers are generally more effective with titanium dioxide than with zinc oxide, due to the difference in magnitude of dipole-induced vacuum level shifts at the respective oxide interfaces. In titanium dioxide-based solar cells, where dipole effects are weak, photovoltage and fill factor increase in a trend that matches the increase in the first reduction potential of the acceptor-sensitizers. Photosensitization of the oxide semiconductor by the acceptor-sensitizers is observed to operate either in parallel with the polymer as an alternate photosensitizer or in series with the polymer in a two-photon process, according to an acceptor-sensitizer's first reduction potential. In zinc oxide-based solar cells, where dipole effects are stronger, the acceptor-sensitizers impaired most devices, which is attributed to an upward shift of the oxide's conduction band edge caused by dipole-induced vacuum level shifts. These results have broad implications for designing electron-selective interlayers and solid-state photocells using sensitized oxide semiconductors.

  13. Effective Inclusive Schools: Designing Successful Schoolwide Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehir, Thomas; Katzman, Lauren I.

    2012-01-01

    This book presents lessons learned from in-depth case studies of some of our most effective inclusive public schools. The authors conclusively demonstrate that schools can educate students with mild and severe disabilities in general education classrooms by providing special education services that link to and bolster general education…

  14. The Usage of Programming Software “The Library of Electronic Visual Aids “Algebra 7-9” During Algebra Learning in 7-9 Forms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V.A. Kreknin; M. S. Lvov

    2008-01-01

    The Programming software “The Library of Electronic Visual Aids “Algebra 7-9” for secondary institutions was developed for the computer support of algebra classes in 7-9 forms of secondary school...

  15. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  16. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  17. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu eFernandez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation.This paper presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services.The paper first describes the context and strategies of the program which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The paper analyses social, educational, economic, demographic and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  18. Humidity evolution (breathing effect) in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    of the dangerous parameters is high humidity of air. Moisture can inevitable reach the electronics either due to diffusion through the wall of an enclosure or small holes, which are designed for electrical or other connections. A driving force for humid air movement is the temperature difference between...... the operating electronics and the surrounding environment. This temperature, thus, gives rise to a natural convection, which we also refer to as breathing. Robust and intelligent enclosure designs must account for this breathing as it can significantly change the humidity distribution in the enclosure....... The approach is verified by measuring the temperature and humidity profiles in a test setup (container) while also considering the moisture flux outside the container. The test setup is a vertical cylinder enabling to simplify the modeling to 2D case. The experimental measurements are compared to simulations...

  19. Electronic structure, transport, and collective effects in molecular layered systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Hahn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The great potential of organic heterostructures for organic device applications is exemplified by the targeted engineering of the electronic properties of phthalocyanine-based systems. The transport properties of two different phthalocyanine systems, a pure copper phthalocyanine (CoPc and a flourinated copper phthalocyanine–manganese phthalocyanine (F16CoPc/MnPc heterostructure, are investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT and the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF approach. Furthermore, a master-equation-based approach is used to include electronic correlations beyond the mean-field-type approximation of DFT. We describe the essential theoretical tools to obtain the parameters needed for the master equation from DFT results. Finally, an interacting molecular monolayer is considered within a master-equation approach.

  20. Effects of strain on mechanical and electronic properties of borophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Li; Li, Yan; Yuan, Qingxin; Li, Mingyu; Du, Yinxiao; Zeng, Fanguang; Ding, Pei; Ye, Honggang

    2017-04-01

    We reported a first-principles study on the geometric, mechanical, and electronic properties of two structures of borophene (B1 and B2) under three types of strain. Our results show that the mechanical and electronic properties of B1 and B2 are both highly anisotropic. The Young’s modulus are calculated to be 354 and 145 N m-1 (147 and 123 N m-1) along two different directions for B1 (B2). Although B1 under different strains has similar metallic band structures, its pseudogaps at Γ point decrease linearly with compressive and tensile strain. The pseudogaps of B2 are non-monotonic when both uniaxial compressive strain along b direction and biaxial compressive strain increase from  -0.05 to  -0.08 for the deformation of the lattice structure in the c direction.

  1. The effective synthesis of Insoluble sulfur using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daejin; Yu, Kookhyun [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Vulcanization is process that formed crosslinking by Insoluble sulfur between linear structure of rubber polymer. Recently, Synthesis of Insoluble sulfur is used Thermal polymerization using about 250 {approx} 300 .deg. C and extraction process is used carbon disulfide(CS2) for separation between soluble sulfur and insoluble sulfur. But this process isn't environmental, economical and safety. This research was focus on developing of insoluble sulfur synthesis process using electron beam. This new process is using under the 140 .deg. C. Because of that, explosion risk is decrease, environmental and economical factor is increased. The sulfur can be melt by increase temperature or made solution using carbon disulfide. And electron beam is irradiated melting sulfur or sulfur solution. After irradiation, The high purity insoluble sulfur can be obtained by separation with carbon disulfide.

  2. MO-D-BRD-01: Clinical Implementation of An Electronic Brachytherapy Program for the Skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouhib, Z. [Lynn Regional Cancer Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Electronic brachytherapy (eBT) has seen an insurgence of manufacturers entering the US market for use in radiation therapy. In addition to the established interstitial, intraluminary, and intracavitary applications of eBT, many centers are now using eBT to treat skin lesions. It is important for medical physicists working with electronic brachytherapy sources to understand the basic physics principles of the sources themselves as well as the variety of applications for which they are being used. The calibration of the sources is different from vendor to vendor and the traceability of calibrations has evolved as new sources came to market. In 2014, a new air-kerma based standard was introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to measure the output of an eBT source. Eventually commercial treatment planning systems should accommodate this new standard and provide NIST traceability to the end user. The calibration and commissioning of an eBT system is unique to its application and typically entails a list of procedural recommendations by the manufacturer. Commissioning measurements are performed using a variety of methods, some of which are modifications of existing AAPM Task Group protocols. A medical physicist should be familiar with the different AAPM Task Group recommendations for applicability to eBT and how to properly adapt them to their needs. In addition to the physical characteristics of an eBT source, the photon energy is substantially lower than from HDR Ir-192 sources. Consequently, tissue-specific dosimetry and radiobiological considerations are necessary when comparing these brachytherapy modalities and when making clinical decisions as a radiation therapy team. In this session, the physical characteristics and calibration methodologies of eBt sources will be presented as well as radiobiology considerations and other important clinical considerations. Learning Objectives: To understand the basic principles of electronic

  3. Effects of electron beam irradiation on bovine pericardium tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polak, Roberta; Pitombo, Ronaldo N.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica], e-mail: robertaplk@gmail.com, e-mail: pitombo@usp.br; Rodas, Andrea C.D.; Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia], e-mail: andrea.ipen@gmail.com, e-mail: ozhiga@ipen.br; Kodama, Yasko; Machado, Luci D.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: ykodama@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    In this work, electron beam irradiation was studied as a way for bovine pericardium (BP) tissue crosslinking. BP samples were irradiated in an electron beam accelerator at different doses (12.5 and 25 kGy), at three different dose ratios (4.67, 9.34 kGy/s), in the presence and absence of oxygen. Irradiated samples were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and swelling degree. DSC analysis showed a decrease in shrinkage temperature. However, for all irradiated samples, the energy required in the process was higher than the non irradiated BP. The TGA analysis showed that the thermal behavior, both the control and the irradiated samples, was characterized by three stages concerned in the loss of mass. The BP structure was characterized by swelling degree and SEM. The structure of the BP tissue suffered alteration, becoming looser, or more compact. By swelling degree, when the BP was irradiated in the presence of oxygen, the swelling degree value was higher than non irradiated BP, in the other hand the swelling degree value of BP irradiated in oxygen absence were lower than the non irradiated BP. Those results indicate that the BP irradiated in absence of oxygen could predominantly crosslinks. The BP degradation when it was irradiated in presence of oxygen was confirmed by SEM. (author)

  4. Effective Spend Management Through Electronic Reverse Auction Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmír Prídavok

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyz wide range of possible auction strategies and configurations of eRA, with respect to the ever changing market conditions. Electronic reverse auction (eRA represents an electronic sourcing method of competitive bidding among a number of qualified suppliers. Theory assumes that eRA represents pure market environment with information perfectly distributed between both buyers and suppliers. Although initial eRA cost savings in B2B could be as high as 40%, without deeper knowledge of different auctions strategies and configurations, additional cost reductions are not possible. To identify crucial determinant, the statistical (correlation analysis on the data set of more than 18.000 auction items with different configuration parameters was conducted. Findings suggest that the more bidders are invited to the eRA, the better results could be expected. Additionally, the complexity of the eRA parameterization does not seem to influent the success of the eRA. These results can influence usage and SW development of eRA application in real environment. This research extends already realized studies in the field of electronic auctions for the B2B processes

  5. Effects of metallic contacts on electron transport through graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Lopez, Salvador; Vanevic, Mihajlo; Kindermann, Markus; Chou, Mei-Yin

    2010-03-01

    Despite their undoubted importance in eventual graphene electronics, theoretical studies of the specific features of electron transport through graphene between metal contacts are in their first stages. In order to bridge this gap we perform a first-principles based, non-equilibrium Green's functions study of the conductance through graphene junctions suspended between noncovalent aluminum contacts as a function of the distance L between metal leads and the width W (up to 100 nm) of the junction. Electron-hole asymmetry is obtained as a consequence of doping at the leads. Furthermore, the doping in graphene originated by charge transfer from metals at the leads results in two conductance minima at the energies of the crossing of the linear bands in suspended and clamped graphene, for sufficiently large L. We present a tight-binding model that accounts for the first-principles results and can be employed for larger lengths and widths of the junctions up to experimental accessible values and for arbitrary noncovalent-bonding metal leads.

  6. Medicare and Medicaid programs: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; electronic reporting pilot; Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities Quality Reporting Program; revision to Quality Improvement Organization regulations. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2013 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program, the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program, and the Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility (IRF) Quality Reporting Program. We are continuing the electronic reporting pilot for the Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program, and revising the various regulations governing Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs), including the secure transmittal of electronic medical information, beneficiary complaint resolution and notification processes, and technical changes. The technical changes to the QIO regulations reflect CMS' commitment to the general principles of the President's Executive Order on Regulatory Reform, Executive Order 13563 (January 18, 2011).

  7. Collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms II. Low-energy program using the method of the exterior complex scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Jakub; Houfek, Karel

    2014-11-01

    While collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms pose a well studied and in some sense closed problem, there is still no free computer code ready for ;production use;, that would enable applied researchers to generate necessary data for arbitrary impact energies and scattering transitions directly if absent in on-line scattering databases. This is the second article on the Hex program package, which describes a new computer code that is, with a little setup, capable of solving the scattering equations for energies ranging from a fraction of the ionization threshold to approximately 100 eV or more, depending on the available computational resources. The program implements the exterior complex scaling method in the B-spline basis.

  8. Quantitative Detection of Trace Explosive Vapors by Programmed Temperature Desorption Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher R.; Lubrano, Adam; Woytowitz, Morgan; Giordano, Braden C.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The direct liquid deposition of solution standards onto sorbent-filled thermal desorption tubes is used for the quantitative analysis of trace explosive vapor samples. The direct liquid deposition method yields a higher fidelity between the analysis of vapor samples and the analysis of solution standards than using separate injection methods for vapors and solutions, i.e., samples collected on vapor collection tubes and standards prepared in solution vials. Additionally, the method can account for instrumentation losses, which makes it ideal for minimizing variability and quantitative trace chemical detection. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector is an instrumentation configuration sensitive to nitro-energetics, such as TNT and RDX, due to their relatively high electron affinity. However, vapor quantitation of these compounds is difficult without viable vapor standards. Thus, we eliminate the requirement for vapor standards by combining the sensitivity of the instrumentation with a direct liquid deposition protocol to analyze trace explosive vapor samples. PMID:25145416

  9. Electron pitch-angle diffusion: resonant scattering by waves vs. nonadiabatic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Artemyev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the electron pitch-angle diffusion coefficients in the night-side inner magnetosphere around the geostationary orbit (L ~ 7 due to magnetic field deformation. We compare the effects of resonant wave–particle scattering by lower band chorus waves and the adiabaticity violation of electron motion due to the strong curvature of field lines in the vicinity of the equator. For a realistic magnetic field configuration, the nonadiabatic effects are more important than the wave–particle interactions for high energy (> 1 MeV electrons. For smaller energy, the scattering by waves is more effective than nonadiabatic one. Moreover, the role of nonadiabatic effects increases with particle energy. Therefore, to model electron scattering and transport in the night-side inner magnetosphere, it is important to take into account the peculiarities of high-energy electron dynamics.

  10. Study on Effects of Electron Donors on Phosphine Production from Anaerobic Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different types and concentrations of electron donors (glucose, starch, methanol and sodium acetate on the formation of phosphine from anaerobic activated sludge that has been domesticated for a prolonged period were studied in small batch experiments. The results show that types and concentrations of electron donor have significant effects on the production of phosphine from anaerobic activated sludge. Among them, glucose was the most favourable electron donor, whereas sodium acetate was the least favourable electron donor for the removal of phosphorus and the production of phosphine. Higher concentrations of electron donors were more favourable for the reduction of phosphate into phosphine, and supplying more than nine times the amount of electron donor as theoretically required for the reduction of phosphate into phosphine was favourable for the production of phosphine.

  11. Factors influencing nursing students' acceptance of electronic health records for nursing education (EHRNE) software program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Chan, Sally Wai Chi; Pulcini, Joyce; Wang, Wenru

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Health Information Technology Act (2009) in America had recommended that electronic health records (EHRs) should be fully adopted by 2014. This has urged educational institutions to prepare healthcare professionals to be competent in using electronic health records (EHRs) while they are in schools. To equip nursing students with competency in using EHRs, an electronic health record for nursing education (EHRNE) has been developed and integrated it into nursing curricula. The purposes of the study were to investigate the factors influencing nursing students' acceptance of the EHRs in nursing education using the extended Technology Acceptance Model with self-efficacy as a conceptual framework. The study is a descriptive study design using self-reported questionnaires with 212 student participants. The IBM SPSS and AMOS 22.0 were used to analyze the data. The results showed that attitude toward using the EHRNE was the most influential factor on students' acceptance. The preliminary findings suggested that to enhance the students' acceptance of the EHRNE, cultivation of a positive attitude toward using this EHR as well as increasing the perceived usefulness is very important. Also, the study's framework could be used in guiding learning health informatics and be applied to nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of Implementation of Electronic Malaria Information System as the National Malaria Surveillance System in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background In moving toward malaria elimination, one strategy is to implement an active surveillance system for effective case management. Thailand has developed and implemented the electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) capturing individualized electronic records of suspected or confirmed malaria cases. Objective The main purpose of this study was to determine how well the eMIS improves the quality of Thailand’s malaria surveillance system. In particular, the focus of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the eMIS in terms of the system users’ perception and the system outcomes (ie, quality of data) regarding the management of malaria patients. Methods A mixed-methods technique was used with the framework based on system effectiveness attributes: data quality, timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, flexibility, stability, and usefulness. Three methods were utilized: data records review, survey of system users, and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. From the two highest endemic provinces, paper forms matching electronic records of 4455 noninfected and 784 malaria-infected cases were reviewed. Web-based anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all 129 eMIS data entry staff throughout Thailand, and semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 management-level officers. Results The eMIS is well accepted by system users at both management and operational levels. The data quality has enabled malaria personnel to perform more effective prevention and control activities. There is evidence of practices resulting in inconsistencies and logical errors in data reporting. Critical data elements were mostly completed, except for a few related to certain dates and area classifications. Timeliness in reporting a case to the system was acceptable with a delay of 3-4 days. The evaluation of quantitative and qualitative data confirmed that the eMIS has high levels of simplicity, acceptability, stability, and flexibility. Conclusions Overall, the

  13. FY2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitchell [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    , subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors and PE; and (3) determine how well the components and subsystems work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under this subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable the development of technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), battery electric vehicles, and fuel-cell-powered automobiles that meet the goals of the VTP. A key element in making these advanced vehicles practical is providing an affordable electric traction drive system. This will require attaining weight, volume, and cost targets for the PE and electrical machines subsystems of the traction drive system. Areas of development include: (1) novel traction motor designs that result in increased power density and lower cost; (2) inverter technologies involving new topologies to achieve higher efficiency, with the ability to accommodate higher temperature environments while achieving high reliability; (3) converter concepts that use methods of reducing the component count and integrating functionality to decrease size, weight, and cost; (4) new onboard battery charging concepts that result in decreased cost and size; (5) more effective thermal control through innovative packaging technologies; and (6) integrated motor/inverter concepts. ORNL's Power Electronics and Electric Machines Research Program conducts fundamental research, evaluates hardware, and assists in the technical direction of the VTP APEEM subprogram. In this role, ORNL serves on the FreedomCAR Electrical and Electronics Technical Team, evaluates proposals for DOE, and lends its technological expertise to the direction of projects and evaluation of developing technologies. ORNL

  14. Program coordinators' perceptions of effective national citizen science programs and their impacts: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The increasing desire to engage the public in science and research has advanced citizen science as a valuable and popular means to this end. Citizen science, a process by which concerned individuals, agencies, industries or community groups collaborate to monitor, track, and respond to issues of common community concerns, has evolved and grown over the past decade. Much of the citizen science research thus far has primarily focused on the public participants (citizen scientists) and/or organizations themselves. This study looks instead at the people, the coordinators, implementing or coordinating citizen science programs and activities, specifically in the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network (CoCoRaHS), and their perceptions for program effectiveness. CoCoRaHS is a national program in which citizens monitor, record, and report precipitation conditions from backyard observations. Semi-structured interviews and an online survey completed by the program's coordinators in the state of Colorado found that the effectiveness of CoCoRaHS depends less on the interactions of the coordinators with each other or funding impacts on program activities, but rather on the interactions between coordinators and citizen scientists. The effectiveness of CoCoRaHS was perceived to depend more significantly on the connections coordinators have with the community of program users and citizen scientists, and a supportive culture within the program. The next step therefore is to explore these interactions between the coordinators and citizen scientists to develop a better understanding of their nature of participation in the citizen science program, and to describe the characteristics of all participants.

  15. 78 FR 38989 - New Policies and Procedural Requirements for Electronic Submission of State Plans, and Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Expenditures and Obligations. Refugee Social Services Form SF-425: Federal Financial Report (FFR). Refugee... Enforcement--Tribes...... Form SF-425: Federal Financial Report (FFR). Child Welfare Social Services Form SF...). Native Employment Works Program........ Form SF-425: Federal Financial Report (FFR). Promoting Safe and...

  16. Electronic Fraud Detection in the U.S. Medicaid Healthcare Program: Lessons Learned from other Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travaille, Peter; Mueller, Roland; Thornton, Dallas; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that between $600 and $850 billion annually is lost to fraud, waste, and abuse in the US healthcare system,with $125 to $175 billion of this due to fraudulent activity (Kelley 2009). Medicaid, a state-run, federally-matchedgovernment program which accounts for roughly one-quarter of

  17. Managing Communication and Professional Development in Online Graduate Programs with Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Craig E.; Bolliger, Doris U.

    2014-01-01

    Four years ago, two online graduate programs at a mid-size university in the western United States implemented ePortfolios to foster communication and connectedness among students and faculty, develop community that extends beyond course boundaries, and promote professional goal formation and achievement among students. This article describes…

  18. A systematic review of health effects of electronic cigarettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Døssing, Martin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a systematic review of the existing literature on health consequences of vaporing of electronic cigarettes (ECs). METHODS: Search in: PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Original publications describing a health-related topic, published before 14 August 2014. PRISMA...... concern are compounds not found in conventional cigarettes, e.g. propylene glycol. Experimental studies found increased airway resistance after short-term exposure. Reports on short-term adverse events were often flawed by selection bias. CONCLUSIONS: Due to many methodological problems, severe conflicts...

  19. Effect of Streptomycin and irradiation on Rhinoscleroma. (Electron microscopic study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppozada, H.H.; Gaafar, H.A.

    1986-07-01

    Twenty-seven patients with bacteriologically investigated rhinoscleroma in the granulomatous stage received intramuscular Streptomycin sulfate, one gram daily for six weeks, with a two-week free interval in the middle of the course. Another eight patients were subjected to irradiation with a linear accelerator reaching a total dose of 3000-3500 rads, divided in daily doses for 3 weeks, until a state of apparent clinical cure was achieved. Punch biopsies were taken from the nasal lesions without local anaesthesia or adrenalization, and the specimens were processed for electron microscopic examination. A combination of both treatments seemed indicated to arrest the pathological process.

  20. Alloying effect on the electronic structures of hydrogen storage compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, H.; Moringa, M.; Takahashi, Y. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

    1997-05-20

    The electronic structures of hydrogenated LaNi{sub 5} containing various 3d transition elements were investigated by the DV-X{alpha} molecular orbital method. The hydrogen atom was found to form a strong chemical bond with the Ni rather than the La atoms. The alloying modified the chemical bond strengths between atoms in a small metal octahedron containing a hydrogen atom at the center, resulting in the change in the hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics of LaNi{sub 5} with alloying. (orig.) 7 refs.

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of a multimedia program on home safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary Anne; Chiriboga, David A

    2003-06-01

    This study was designed to test the effectiveness and acceptance of multimedia home safety programming by community-dwelling seniors. A prototype CD-ROM was produced that required no reading or computer skills because the program included an audio narration of content and directions for operating the program on a touchscreen computer monitor. Volunteers (N = 126) from a senior center aged 55 and older were randomly assigned to (1) a multimedia group that used the interactive program to learn about home safety, (2) a traditional learning group that read well-established booklets on home safety, and (3) a control group that received no instruction on safety between the pre- and posttests. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that the multimedia group was the only group to improve in knowledge. The group was also very satisfied with the approach. Multimedia formats can effectively and economically provide information to older clients.

  2. Evaluation of effectiveness for MC&A programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkey, D. D. (David Dennis); DeMuth, S. F. (Scott F.); Longmire, V. L. (Victoria L.); Sinkule, B. J. (Barbara J.); Strittmatter, R. B. (Richard B.); Stevens, R. S. (Rebecca S.); Dawson, P. (Pamela); Preston, L. (Lynne)

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a progress report on a joint Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories effort to develop tools to evaluate MC&A system effectiveness and perform vulnerability assessments based on the system effectiveness metrics. It summarizes the work that the two labs have completed to date and provides an overview of the work remaining. The Department of Energy Office of Technology Development, SO-20.3, is presently considering whether it is possible to model MC&A programs at DOE facilities in order to better determine the need for and prioritize potential technology development projects. The intent is to develop an objective method of evaluating MC&A programs, to model the effect of changes to the systems used by the programs, and to quantify the extent to which these changes improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the programs. Project milestones include a review of the risk analysis tool developed at Sandia, ATLAS, to determine how MC&A system elements could be incorporated, identification of MC&A system elements and activities for which effectiveness metrics can be developed, and developing the metrics for these system elements. In addition, the milestones include validation of the system elements and effectiveness metrics by potential users. Upon completion of the development of MC&A system effectiveness metrics, we will determine the feasibility of integrating the data elements and process required for evaluation of MC&A effectiveness metrics into ATLAS.

  3. Measuring the effectiveness of an audiological counseling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kris; Archbold, Sue

    2014-02-01

    Audiologists routinely observe patients struggle with psycho-emotional difficulties associated with hearing loss, yet are often underprepared to manage this vital aspect of patient care. For this reason, a workshop was developed for audiologists interested in expanding their counselling skills. Since one-time workshops typically do not result in changes in practice, this program adopted a distributed-over-time learning model, consisting of 20 hours of participation across six weeks. The extended nature of the program provided multiple opportunities to learn several counselling strategies, and apply and evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies in clinical settings. Learning objectives were assessed throughout the six-week program. However, at the conclusion of each program, it was unknown whether new knowledge carried over into sustained new skills. Therefore, we surveyed attendees six months after their program, to determine if the program had affected changes in their practice. Twenty clinicians (response rate = 91%) participated in the survey. All respondents made some, and often many, changes in patient communication. They applied several counseling concepts to their work settings and reported positive changes in patient-clinician dynamics. Results suggest that a six-week program is effective in helping clinicians change their counseling skills within their practice.

  4. Antibullying programs in schools: how effective are evaluation practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Wendy; Smith, J David

    2009-09-01

    Bullying is a problem for schools around the world, and is an important topic for research because it has been associated with negative outcomes on numerous social, psychological, and academic measures. Antibullying prevention and intervention programs have varied greatly in their outcomes, with some studies reporting positive results while others have reported little or no positive impacts. Prompted by accountability demands, many agencies have developed standards with which to assess whether social programs are effective. Antibullying program evaluations have not been systematically reviewed to determine whether these types of standards are being applied. The purpose of this study was to assess the rigor of recent peer-reviewed antibullying program evaluations. Thirty-one peer-reviewed evaluations of antibullying programs, published within the last 10 years, were identified and coded for study characteristics. Shortcomings were identified in many of these program evaluations. In order to improve evaluation practices, researchers should consider using more rigorous designs to identify cause-effect relationships, including control conditions and random assignment, using more appropriate pre-post intervals, using more advanced methods of analyses such as hierarchical linear modeling, and systematically verifying program integrity to obtain dosage data that can be used in the outcome analyses.

  5. Effective poultry programming in the next century. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynnells, R D

    1999-05-01

    The symposium, coordinated by the PSA Extension Committee, is intended to stimulate productive discussions regarding the future, and component roles, of the land grant university system. To retain a strong infrastructure for our agricultural system, we must effectively meet challenges to the entire system, and recognize that the land grant university system has been, and will be, basic to the success of agriculture. Topics to be discussed include user fees for outreach and extension programs, balancing applied and basic research programs, and distance education opportunities. Many other topics are of great importance, such as recruitment, youth programs, the tenure system, personnel and program evaluation, and the capacity to inform the public regarding controversial issues. Societal changes have resulted in confusion between the role of stakeholders and shareholders in determining the proper focus of university programs. Although basic research is essential, it appears to many persons to be the idol of the land grant university system. Extension, applied research, and teaching programs are perceived to be a drag on such a system because little or no revenue is realized from this work. It is essential that we create respect and equality for research, teaching, extension, and youth programs, and recognize the importance of integrating all aspects of the land grant university system into aggressive and timely programs that address the needs of commodity and societal clientele.

  6. Effectiveness of a Danish early year preschool program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Holm, Anders; Bremberg, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of studies indicate that early year preschool programs lead to positive long-term effects. Systematic quality improvement of early year preschool may enhance these outcomes. The ASP Program was built on this principle. In this program preschool staff are supported...... in their efforts to critically reflect on current practices and to change these. A randomized controlled study was carried out in Denmark from September 2006 to May 2008. The study encompassed 2323 children in 59 preschools in two municipalities. Children were assessed using the Strength and Difficulties...

  7. Board Level Proton Testing Book of Knowledge for NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    This book of knowledge (BoK) provides a critical review of the benefits and difficulties associated with using proton irradiation as a means of exploring the radiation hardness of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) systems. This work was developed for the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Board Level Testing for the COTS task. The fundamental findings of this BoK are the following. The board-level test method can reduce the worst case estimate for a board's single-event effect (SEE) sensitivity compared to the case of no test data, but only by a factor of ten. The estimated worst case rate of failure for untested boards is about 0.1 SEE/board-day. By employing the use of protons with energies near or above 200 MeV, this rate can be safely reduced to 0.01 SEE/board-day, with only those SEEs with deep charge collection mechanisms rising this high. For general SEEs, such as static random-access memory (SRAM) upsets, single-event transients (SETs), single-event gate ruptures (SEGRs), and similar cases where the relevant charge collection depth is less than 10 µm, the worst case rate for SEE is below 0.001 SEE/board-day. Note that these bounds assume that no SEEs are observed during testing. When SEEs are observed during testing, the board-level test method can establish a reliable event rate in some orbits, though all established rates will be at or above 0.001 SEE/board-day. The board-level test approach we explore has picked up support as a radiation hardness assurance technique over the last twenty years. The approach originally was used to provide a very limited verification of the suitability of low cost assemblies to be used in the very benign environment of the International Space Station (ISS), in limited reliability applications. Recently the method has been gaining popularity as a way to establish a minimum level of SEE performance of systems that require somewhat higher reliability performance than previous applications. This sort of application of

  8. Effectiveness of oral health education programs: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakre, Priya Devadas; Harikiran, A G

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, attention has been drawn toward assessing the effectiveness of oral health education programs. This is in line with demand for evidence based research and will help to inform policy makers on how to allocate resources. (1) Collect and collate all information on oral health education programs. (2) Assess the programs based on various coding criteria. (3) Assess effectiveness of oral health education programs on oral health status and knowledge, attitude and practice. A search of all published articles in Medline was done using the keywords "oral health education, dental health education, oral health promotion". The resulting titles and abstracts provided the basis for initial decisions and selection of articles. Out of the primary list of articles, a total number of 40 articles were selected as they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (1). Articles on oral health programs with an oral health education component (2). Articles published after the year 1990 (3). Articles published in English. The full text of the articles was then obtained from either the internet or libraries of dental research colleges and hospitals in and around Bangalore. A set of important variables were identified and grouped under five headings to make them amenable for coding. The coding variables were then described under various subheadings to allow us to compare the chosen articles. Oral health education is effective in improving the knowledge attitude and practice of oral health and in reducing plaque, bleeding on probing of the gingiva and caries increment. This study identifies a few important variables which contribute to the effectiveness of the programs. There is an indication in this review that the most successful oral health programs are labor intensive, involve significant others and has received funding and additional support. A balance between inputs and outputs and health care resources available will determine if the program can be recommended for

  9. Thermal effects and beam parameter variations in electron guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V; Stepin, D L

    2001-01-01

    The paper described results of research on influence of electrode temperatures and manufacturing tolerance of an electron gun on parameters of an output beam. The Pierce's gun that provides an electron beam with a current of 1.2 A and energy of 25 keV for the S-band technological linac is considered as an example. Numerically calculated parameters of the beam and the temperature distribution in electrodes are presented.It is shown that the acceptable error in a position of electrodes is +- 0.1 mm. This value does not fall outside the limit of thermal deformations and technical abilities for manufacturing guns in a laboratory. The scaling to the area of injectors for compact X-band linacs leads to the tolerance of +-0.01 mm that requires introducing fixing and adjustment elements reducing a thermal insulation of the cathode. However, the calculation and experiment showed that such reducing is negligible even for the modern low temperature thermionic cathodes due to a dominant role of the radiation in the heat ...

  10. Scanning electron microscopic analyses of Ferrocyanide tank wastes for the Ferrocyanide safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, W.S.

    1995-09-01

    This is Fiscal Year 1995 Annual Report on the progress of activities relating to the application of scanning electron microscopy in addressing the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks. The status of the FY 1995 activities directed towards establishing facilities capable of providing SEM based micro-characterization of ferrocyanide tank wastes is described. A summary of key events in the SEM task over FY 1995 and target activities in FY 1996 are presented. A brief overview of the potential applications of computer controlled SEM analytical data in light of analyses of ferrocyanide simulants performed by an independent contractor is also presented

  11. 31 CFR 370.38 - What is the legal effect of an electronic signature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the legal effect of an electronic signature? 370.38 Section 370.38 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ELECTRONIC...

  12. A simple model for atomic layer doped field-effect transistor (ALD-FET) electronic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora R, M.E. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Unidad Aguascalientes. Juan de Montoro 207, Zona Centro, 20000 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Gaggero S, L.M. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Av. Preparatoria 301, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    We propose a simple potential model based on the Thomas-Fermi approximation to reproduce the main properties of the electronic structure of an atomic layer doped field effect transistor. Preliminary numerical results for a Si-based ALD-FET justify why bound electronic states are not observed in the experiment. (Author)

  13. Single Bunch Electron Cloud Effects in the NLC Beam Delivery System(LCC-0126)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D

    2003-12-08

    A positron beam passing through a linear collider beam delivery beam line is finely focused to desired specifications during collimation and especially in Final Focusing (FFS). Undesired additional focusing is generated by beam-electron cloud interactions, which typically leads to beam size increases at high cloud densities. This paper examines the severity of the electron cloud effects and assesses the critical cloud density.

  14. Cognition and the Media-ted Curriculum: Effects of Growing Up in an Electronic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelott, Leigh

    1984-01-01

    Examines forms of media in today's electronic environment including television, microcomputers, video games, and music television, and considers these media forms and their effects on cognitive processing. Implications for teachers and instructional designers in achieving curricular balance between print and electronic media are discussed. (MBR)

  15. Effect of electron-withdrawing power of the substituted group on OH ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of electron-withdrawing power of the substituted group on ... depending on the concentration of acid and electron-withdrawing power, solute .... reaction of. •. OH radical with PTA was determined by formation kinetic studies at 330 and. 360 nm. The pseudo-first order rate increased linearly with solute concentration and ...

  16. ANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN ELECTRON-CAPTURE BY O6+ FROM ALIGNED NA-ASTERISK(3P)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHLATMANN, AR; WIERSEMA, WP; HOEKSTRA, R; MORGENSTERN, R; OLSON, RE; PASCALE, J

    1994-01-01

    We report results of one electron capture by highly charged ions colliding with laser excited aligned Na*(3p). The 0 vi(10-->8) photon emission cross section after electron capture by the O6+ projectile is measured in the collision energy range 2-8 keV/amu. Effects of the Na*(3p) orbital alignment

  17. Study of the electron irradiation effect on the structure of treatment systems biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesyrev, O. V.; Kupchishin, A. I.; Abdukhairova, A. T.; Nauryzbayev, M. K.; Khodarina, N. N.; Cherednichenko, V. C.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of pollution and electron irradiation on the structure of a number of treatment systems biomaterials of Sorbulak lake-storage were carried out. It was found that contamination with heavy metal and electron irradiation, respectively, affect the structure of biomaterials.

  18. The Screening Effect in Electromagnetic Production of Electron Positron Pairs in Relativistic Nucleus-Atom Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianshi; Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.; Strayer, M. R.

    1999-01-01

    We study the screening effects of the atomic electrons in the electromagnetic production of electron-positron pairs in relativistic nucleus-atom collisions for fixed target experiments. Our results are contrasted with those obtained in bare collisions, with particular attention given to its dependence on the beam energy and the target atom.

  19. Solvation effect on isomer stability and electronic structures of protonated serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyan, Reza; Amanollahi, Zohreh; Azimi, Gholamhassan

    2017-07-01

    Microsolvation effect on geometry and transition energies of protonated serotonin has been investigated by MP2 and CC2 quantum chemical methods. Also, conductor-like screening model, implemented recently in the MP2 and ADC(2) methods, was examined to address the bulk water environment's effect on the isomer stability and electronic transition energies of protonated serotonin. It has been predicted that the dipole moment of gas phase isomers plays the main role on the isomer stabilization in water solution and electronic transition shifts. Also, both red- and blue-shift effects have been predicted to take place on electronic transition energies, upon hydration.

  20. Study on the Effect of Energy Parameter of Electron on the Percentage Depth Dose of Electron Beam Using Monte Carlo Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In medical linear accelerator, the energy parameter of electron plays important role to produce electron beam. The percentage depth dose of electron beams takes account not only on the value of electron's energy, but also on the type of electron's energy. The aims of this work are to carry on the effect of energy parameter of electron on the percentage depth dose of electron beam. Monte Carlo method is chosen in this project, due to the superior of this method for simulating the random process such as the transport particle in matter. The DOSXYZnrc usercode was used to simulate the electron transport in water phantom. Two aspects of electron's energy parameter were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. In the first aspect, electron energy's value was varied also its spectrum. In the second aspect, the geometry of electron's energy was taken account on. The parallel beam and the point source were chosen as the geometry of The measurements of percentage depth dose were conducted to compare with its simulation. The ionization chamber was used in these measurements. Presentation of the results of this work is given not only based on the shape of the percentage depth dose from the simulation and measurement, but also on the other aspect in its curve. The result of comparison between the simulation and its measurement shows that the shape of its curve depends on the energy value of electron and the type of its energy. The energy value of electron affected the depth maximum of dose.

  1. Plasma scale-length effects on electron energy spectra in high-irradiance laser plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culfa, O; Tallents, G J; Rossall, A K; Wagenaars, E; Ridgers, C P; Murphy, C D; Dance, R J; Gray, R J; McKenna, P; Brown, C D R; James, S F; Hoarty, D J; Booth, N; Robinson, A P L; Lancaster, K L; Pikuz, S A; Faenov, A Ya; Kampfer, T; Schulze, K S; Uschmann, I; Woolsey, N C

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of an electron spectrometer used to characterize fast electrons generated by ultraintense (10^{20}Wcm^{-2}) laser interaction with a preformed plasma of scale length measured by shadowgraphy is presented. The effects of fringing magnetic fields on the electron spectral measurements and the accuracy of density scale-length measurements are evaluated. 2D EPOCH PIC code simulations are found to be in agreement with measurements of the electron energy spectra showing that laser filamentation in plasma preformed by a prepulse is important with longer plasma scale lengths (>8 μm).

  2. Electronic laboratory system reduces errors in National Tuberculosis Program: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, J A; Shin, S S; Yale, G; Suarez, C; Asencios, L; Contreras, C; Rodriguez, P; Kim, J; Cegielski, P; Fraser, H S F

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of the e-Chasqui laboratory information system in reducing reporting errors compared to the current paper system. Cluster randomized controlled trial in 76 health centers (HCs) between 2004 and 2008. Baseline data were collected every 4 months for 12 months. HCs were then randomly assigned to intervention (e-Chasqui) or control (paper). Further data were collected for the same months the following year. Comparisons were made between intervention and control HCs, and before and after the intervention. Intervention HCs had respectively 82% and 87% fewer errors in reporting results for drug susceptibility tests (2.1% vs. 11.9%, P = 0.001, OR 0.17, 95%CI 0.09-0.31) and cultures (2.0% vs. 15.1%, P Chasqui users sent on average three electronic error reports per week to the laboratories. e-Chasqui reduced the number of missing laboratory results at point-of-care health centers. Clinical users confirmed viewing electronic results not available on paper. Reporting errors to the laboratory using e-Chasqui promoted continuous quality improvement. The e-Chasqui laboratory information system is an important part of laboratory infrastructure improvements to support multidrug-resistant tuberculosis care in Peru.

  3. From design to implementation - The Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE program: A descriptive report of an electronic web-based diabetes management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomirsky Greg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE Program is a web-based program incorporating a comprehensive risk engine, care protocols, and clinical decision support to improve ambulatory diabetes care. Methods The JADE Program uses information technology to facilitate healthcare professionals to create a diabetes registry and to deliver an evidence-based care and education protocol tailored to patients' risk profiles. With written informed consent from participating patients and care providers, all data are anonymized and stored in a databank to establish an Asian Diabetes Database for research and publication purpose. Results The JADE electronic portal (e-portal: http://www.jade-adf.org is implemented as a Java application using the Apache web server, the mySQL database and the Cocoon framework. The JADE e-portal comprises a risk engine which predicts 5-year probability of major clinical events based on parameters collected during an annual comprehensive assessment. Based on this risk stratification, the JADE e-portal recommends a care protocol tailored to these risk levels with decision support triggered by various risk factors. Apart from establishing a registry for quality assurance and data tracking, the JADE e-portal also displays trends of risk factor control at each visit to promote doctor-patient dialogues and to empower both parties to make informed decisions. Conclusions The JADE Program is a prototype using information technology to facilitate implementation of a comprehensive care model, as recommended by the International Diabetes Federation. It also enables health care teams to record, manage, track and analyze the clinical course and outcomes of people with diabetes.

  4. From design to implementation--the Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) program: a descriptive report of an electronic web-based diabetes management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gary T; So, Wing-Yee; Tong, Peter C; Le Coguiec, Francois; Kerr, Debborah; Lyubomirsky, Greg; Tamesis, Beaver; Wolthers, Troels; Nan, Jennifer; Chan, Juliana

    2010-05-13

    The Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) Program is a web-based program incorporating a comprehensive risk engine, care protocols, and clinical decision support to improve ambulatory diabetes care. The JADE Program uses information technology to facilitate healthcare professionals to create a diabetes registry and to deliver an evidence-based care and education protocol tailored to patients' risk profiles. With written informed consent from participating patients and care providers, all data are anonymized and stored in a databank to establish an Asian Diabetes Database for research and publication purpose. The JADE electronic portal (e-portal: http://www.jade-adf.org) is implemented as a Java application using the Apache web server, the mySQL database and the Cocoon framework. The JADE e-portal comprises a risk engine which predicts 5-year probability of major clinical events based on parameters collected during an annual comprehensive assessment. Based on this risk stratification, the JADE e-portal recommends a care protocol tailored to these risk levels with decision support triggered by various risk factors. Apart from establishing a registry for quality assurance and data tracking, the JADE e-portal also displays trends of risk factor control at each visit to promote doctor-patient dialogues and to empower both parties to make informed decisions. The JADE Program is a prototype using information technology to facilitate implementation of a comprehensive care model, as recommended by the International Diabetes Federation. It also enables health care teams to record, manage, track and analyze the clinical course and outcomes of people with diabetes.

  5. Boosting program integrity and effectiveness of the cognitive behavioral program EQUIP for incarcerated youth in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether a "program integrity booster" could improve the low to moderate program integrity and effectiveness of the EQUIP program for incarcerated youth as practiced in The Netherlands. Program integrity was assessed in EQUIP groups before and after the booster. Youth residing in

  6. Effects of elastic and inelastic scattering in giving electrons tortuous paths in matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J E; Hamm, R N

    1995-09-01

    Heavy charged particles travel in essentially straight lines in matter, while electrons travel in tortuous paths. Frequent multiple elastic Coulomb scattering by atomic nuclei is often cited as the reason for this electron behavior. Heavy charged particles also undergo multiple Coulomb scattering. However, because they are massive, significant deflections occur only in rare, close encounters with nuclei. In contrast to heavy particles, the inelastic interaction of an electron with an atomic electron represents a collision with a particle of equal mass. In principle, therefore, repeated inelastic scattering of an electron can also produce large-angle deflections and thus contribute to the tortuous nature of an electron's track. To investigate the relative importance of elastic and inelastic scattering on determining the appearance of electron tracks, detailed Monte Carlo transport computations have been carried out for monoenergetic pencil beams of electrons normally incident on a water slab with initial energies from 1 keV to 1 MeV. The calculations have been performed with deflections due to (1) inelastic scattering only, (2) elastic scattering only, and (3) both types of scattering. Results are presented to show the spreading of the pencil beams with depth in the slab, the transmission through slabs of different thicknesses, and back-scattering from the slab. The results show that elastic nuclear scattering is indeed the principal physical process that causes electron paths to be tortuous; however, the smaller effect of inelastic electronic scattering is far from negligible.

  7. Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been challenged to be cost effective in their educational programming. The cost effectiveness ratio is a versatile evaluation indicator for Extension educators to compare the cost of achieving a unit of outcomes or educating a client in similar educational programs. This article describes the cost effectiveness ratio and…

  8. Determination of effective atomic number and electron density of heavy metal oxide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. M.; El-Khayatt, A. M.; Akkurt, I.

    2016-03-01

    The effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron density (Neff) of eight heavy metal oxide (HMO) glasses have been determined using the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNP for the energy range of 10 keV-10 MeV. The interpolation method was employed to extract Zeff and Neff values from the simulation and that calculated with the help of XCOM program. Comparisons are also made with predictions from the Auto-Zeff software in the same energy region. Wherever possible, the simulated values of Zeff and Neff are compared with experimental data. In general, a very good agreement was noticed. It was found that the Zeff and Neff vary with photon energy and do not have extended intermediate regions where Compton scattering is truly dominating; only dips slightly above ∼1.5 MeV were recorded. Zeff and Neff are found to increase with PbO and Bi2O3 contents. It was found that the Zeff value rather than the Neff value is a better indicator for PbO and/or Bi2O3 contents.

  9. Geometric phase and nonadiabatic effects in an electronic harmonic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, M; Berger, S; Abdumalikov, A A; Fink, J M; Mlynek, J A; Steffen, L; Wallraff, A; Filipp, S

    2012-04-27

    Steering a quantum harmonic oscillator state along cyclic trajectories leads to a path-dependent geometric phase. Here we describe its experimental observation in an electronic harmonic oscillator. We use a superconducting qubit as a nonlinear probe of the phase, which is otherwise unobservable due to the linearity of the oscillator. We show that the geometric phase is, for a variety of cyclic paths, proportional to the area enclosed in the quadrature plane. At the transition to the nonadiabatic regime, we study corrections to the phase and dephasing of the qubit caused by qubit-resonator entanglement. In particular, we identify parameters for which this dephasing mechanism is negligible even in the nonadiabatic regime. The demonstrated controllability makes our system a versatile tool to study geometric phases in open quantum systems and to investigate their potential for quantum information processing.

  10. Diffraction effects and inelastic electron transport in angle-resolved microscopic imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, A; Nolze, G; Vespucci, S; Naresh-Kumar, G; Trager-Cowan, C; Vilalta-Clemente, A; Wilkinson, A J; Vos, M

    2017-09-01

    We analyse the signal formation process for scanning electron microscopic imaging applications on crystalline specimens. In accordance with previous investigations, we find nontrivial effects of incident beam diffraction on the backscattered electron distribution in energy and momentum. Specifically, incident beam diffraction causes angular changes of the backscattered electron distribution which we identify as the dominant mechanism underlying pseudocolour orientation imaging using multiple, angle-resolving detectors. Consequently, diffraction effects of the incident beam and their impact on the subsequent coherent and incoherent electron transport need to be taken into account for an in-depth theoretical modelling of the energy- and momentum distribution of electrons backscattered from crystalline sample regions. Our findings have implications for the level of theoretical detail that can be necessary for the interpretation of complex imaging modalities such as electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI) of defects in crystals. If the solid angle of detection is limited to specific regions of the backscattered electron momentum distribution, the image contrast that is observed in ECCI and similar applications can be strongly affected by incident beam diffraction and topographic effects from the sample surface. As an application, we demonstrate characteristic changes in the resulting images if different properties of the backscattered electron distribution are used for the analysis of a GaN thin film sample containing dislocations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Effects of lifestyle modification programs on cardiac risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Moaven; Fournier, Stephen; Shepard, Donald S; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Stason, William B

    2014-01-01

    Medicare conducted a payment demonstration to evaluate the effectiveness of two intensive lifestyle modification programs in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: the Dr. Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish) and Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute. This report describes the changes in cardiac risk factors achieved by each program during the active intervention year and subsequent year of follow-up. The demonstration enrolled 580 participants who had had an acute myocardial infarction, had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 months, or had documented stable angina pectoris. Of these, 98% completed the intense 3-month intervention, 71% the 12-month intervention, and 56% an additional follow-up year. Most cardiac risk factors improved significantly during the intense intervention period in both programs. Favorable changes in cardiac risk factors and functional cardiac capacity were maintained or improved further at 12 and 24 months in participants with active follow-up. Multivariable regressions found that risk-factor improvements were positively associated with abnormal baseline values, Ornish program participation for body mass index and systolic blood pressure, and with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Expressed levels of motivation to lose weight and maintain weight loss were significant independent predictors of sustained weight loss (p = 0.006). Both lifestyle modification programs achieved well-sustained reductions in cardiac risk factors.

  12. Effects of lifestyle modification programs on cardiac risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaven Razavi

    Full Text Available Medicare conducted a payment demonstration to evaluate the effectiveness of two intensive lifestyle modification programs in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: the Dr. Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish and Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute. This report describes the changes in cardiac risk factors achieved by each program during the active intervention year and subsequent year of follow-up. The demonstration enrolled 580 participants who had had an acute myocardial infarction, had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 months, or had documented stable angina pectoris. Of these, 98% completed the intense 3-month intervention, 71% the 12-month intervention, and 56% an additional follow-up year. Most cardiac risk factors improved significantly during the intense intervention period in both programs. Favorable changes in cardiac risk factors and functional cardiac capacity were maintained or improved further at 12 and 24 months in participants with active follow-up. Multivariable regressions found that risk-factor improvements were positively associated with abnormal baseline values, Ornish program participation for body mass index and systolic blood pressure, and with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Expressed levels of motivation to lose weight and maintain weight loss were significant independent predictors of sustained weight loss (p = 0.006. Both lifestyle modification programs achieved well-sustained reductions in cardiac risk factors.

  13. On non-local electron heat conduction: effects of geometry and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboleva, T.K. [UNAM, Mexico D.F., Mexico and Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasheninnikov, S.I. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Catto, P.J. [PSFC, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Self-similar 3D solutions of electron kinetic equation are obtained that can be used for benchmarking both reduced models and codes. It is demonstrated that the geometry (e. g. slab vs spherical) can be an important ingredient in describing non-local electron heat transport. The self-similar variable approach is extended to include the effects of the magnetic field on the kinetics of electron transport. It is found that magnetic field is not as important for the far tail of electron distribution function as one might think. Therefore, suppression of electron heat flux by magnetic field effects in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) studies may need to be reconsidered. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Electron Beam Adjustment in PLATO RTS 2 Including the Effect of Air Gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, M C; Trindade, A; Rodrigues, P; Peralta, L

    2002-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Beam characterization for electron dose calculations in PLATO RTS 2 treatment planning system requires the tuning of two adjustment parameters: sqx (the initial angular spread) and FMCS (a "fudge" multiple Coulomb scattering parameter). This work provides a set of suggestions to optimise electron dose calculations with PLATO, taking into account the effect of air gaps between the electron applicator and the patient skin. Material and Methods: Two adjustment criteria have been followed: one which uses just one input data set corresponding to the standard (null) air gap and another one that takes into account the whole range of clinically used distances between the electron applicator and the patient surface. The adjusted values of sqx were compared with experimental data and GEANT3 Monte Carlo code results. A systematic study has been carried out of the effect of both adjustment parameters on electron dose calculations in water. Comparisons of dose distributions and point dose values ha...

  15. Non-stationary Effects In Space-charge Dominated Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonov, A V; Tarakanov, V P

    2004-01-01

    Problems of non-linear dynamics of space charge dominated electron beams in plane and in coaxial electron guns are discussed from the point of view of non-stationary behaviour of beams. The results of computer simulations of beam formation are presented for several simple plane diode geometries and for the gun with large compression of annular beam. Emphasised is non-stationary behaviour combined with edge and hysteresis effects. Non-stationary effects in crossed electron and magnetic field are considered from the point of view a development of schemes of intense electron beam formation for compact accelerators and RF-devices. The results of computer simulation of beam formation inside coaxial guns are described under condition of secondary self-sustaining emission. Possibilities of electron storage and capture due to transient processes are discussed. Work supported by RFBR under grant 03-02-17301.

  16. Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Leijten, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process. Paper presentation at ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  17. Effects of Metal Types on Residual Stress in Electron-Beam Welding Joints with Sheet Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagai, Takuya; Kasai, Ryu; Ueno, Kunika; Mochizuki, Masahito; Suga, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of metal types on the residual stresses has been researched through X-ray stress measurement for the electron-beam welding joints made of sheet metals with a thickness of approximately 10 mm...

  18. Space-charge effects in ultrahigh current electron bunches generated by laser-plasma accelerators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grüner, F. J; Schroeder, C. B; Maier, A. R; Becker, S; Mikhailova, J. M

    2009-01-01

    ...) generated in laser-plasma accelerators. At low electron energies such peak currents are expected to cause space-charge effects such as bunch expansion and induced energy variations along the bunch, potentially hindering the FEL process...

  19. Effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This literature review on the effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety is part of a research project sponsored by the Office of Behavioral Safety Research in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). An extensive literat...

  20. Electronic Learning-Spaced Education to Facilitate Resident Knowledge and Guide Program Didactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Manisha; Beasley, Anitra; Vinas, Emily; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Ramin, Susan M; Kilpatrick, Charlie C

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the use of mobile technology to facilitate resident learning, assess clinical knowledge, and guide curricular development in a busy clinical environment. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a large (N=48) urban obstetrics and gynecology residency program. Question sets were created in the following areas: office gynecology, general obstetrics, gynecologic surgery and urogynecology, maternal-fetal medicine and ultrasonography, reproductive endocrinology and pediatric gynecology, and gynecologic oncology. Using an educational mobile application (app), questions were sent monthly to resident smartphones with immediate feedback on answer accuracy along with answer explanation and references. Outcomes included app use, which was determined by how quickly participants answered questions (very active-active indicates questions answered within 7 days) and proficiency (mean percentage correct) calculated for individuals, resident class level, and by content area. All 48 residents participated and 77.4% were very active or active app users. On average, participants answered correctly 61.0% on the first attempt and improved to 78.3% on repeat attempt (P<.001). Proficiency was lowest for gynecologic surgery and highest for general obstetrics. A mobile app to support e-learning was successfully implemented in our program; its use was associated with knowledge retention and identification of low-proficiency topics to guide curriculum development.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Multidisciplinary Management Program and Exercise Training Program in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Weixiong; Yi, Anji; Jhamnani, Sunny; Wang, Shi-Yi

    2017-10-15

    Heart failure causes significant health and financial burdens for patients and society. Multidisciplinary management program (MMP) and exercise training program (ETP) have been reported as cost-effective in improving health outcomes, yet no study has compared the 2 programs. We constructed a Markov model to simulate life year (LY) gained and total costs in usual care (UC), MMP, and ETP. The probability of transitions between states and healthcare costs were extracted from previous literature. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) over a 10-year horizon. Model robustness was assessed through 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The expected LY for patients treated with UC, MMP, and ETP was 7.6, 8.2, and 8.4 years, respectively. From a societal perspective, the expected cost of MMP was $20,695, slightly higher than the cost of UC ($20,092). The cost of ETP was much higher ($48,378) because of its high implementation expense and the wage loss it incurred. The ICER of MMP versus UC was $976 per LY gained, and the ICER of ETP versus MMP was $165,702 per LY gained. The results indicated that, under current cost-effectiveness threshold, MMP is cost-effective compared with UC, and ETP is not cost-effective compared with MMP. However, ETP is cost-effective compared with MMP from a healthcare payer's perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Boron Suboxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of Boron Suboxide by Amol B Rahane, Jennifer S Dunn, and Vijay Kumar Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Laboratory Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Boron Suboxide by Amol B Rahane and Vijay Kumar Dr...SUBTITLE Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Boron Suboxide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  3. Effects of silver adatoms on the electronic structure of silicene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersan, F.; Arslanalp, Ö. [Department of Physics, Adnan Menderes University, 09100 Aydın (Turkey); Gökoğlu, G. [Department of Physics, Karabük University, 78050 Karabük (Turkey); Aktürk, E., E-mail: ethem.akturk@adu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Adnan Menderes University, 09100 Aydın (Turkey)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Silver adatoms form strong bonds with the silicene. • Semimetallic silicene can become either nonmagnetic metal or semiconductor depending on the number of adsorbed silver atoms. • Bonding and anti-bonding π bands crossing linearly at the Fermi level shift ∼0.35 eV below the Fermi level for both single and trimer Ag adsorption. • Ag dimer adsorbed silicene becomes a narrow gap semiconductor with E{sub g} = 0.112 eV. • The electronic structure is controlled by s and d-states of Ag atom. - Abstract: This paper presents the adsorption of Ag adatoms on silicene surface using first-principles plane wave calculations within density functional theory. It is obtained that silver adatoms form strong bonds with the silicene yielding significant binding energies. The bare silicene, which is a nonmagnetic semimetal, becomes either nonmagnetic metal or semiconductor depending on the number of adsorbed silver atoms. Because of the charge transfer from adatoms to silicene, bonding and antibonding π bands crossing linearly at the Fermi level shift 0.35 eV below the Fermi level for both single and trimer Ag adsorption. Ag dimer adsorbed silicene becomes a narrow gap semiconductor with E{sub g} = 0.112 eV.

  4. A systematic review of health effects of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Døssing, Martin

    2014-12-01

    To provide a systematic review of the existing literature on health consequences of vaporing of electronic cigarettes (ECs). Search in: PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL. Original publications describing a health-related topic, published before 14 August 2014. PRISMA recommendations were followed. We identified 1101 studies; 271 relevant after screening; 94 eligible. We included 76 studies investigating content of fluid/vapor of ECs, reports on adverse events and human and animal experimental studies. Serious methodological problems were identified. In 34% of the articles the authors had a conflict of interest. Studies found fine/ultrafine particles, harmful metals, carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines, volatile organic compounds, carcinogenic carbonyls (some in high but most in low/trace concentrations), cytotoxicity and changed gene expression. Of special concern are compounds not found in conventional cigarettes, e.g. propylene glycol. Experimental studies found increased airway resistance after short-term exposure. Reports on short-term adverse events were often flawed by selection bias. Due to many methodological problems, severe conflicts of interest, the relatively few and often small studies, the inconsistencies and contradictions in results, and the lack of long-term follow-up no firm conclusions can be drawn on the safety of ECs. However, they can hardly be considered harmless. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Improvement of electron beam properties by reducing back-bombardment effects in a thermionic RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, Toshiteru; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Tometaka, Isao; Yamane, Koshiro; Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    In the Free Electron Laser (FEL) experiment, where a long beam macro- pulse is required, energy shift caused by an increase of current density at the cathode surface due to heating by back-streaming electrons is quite serious. It was numerically found that the low- energy component of the back-streaming electrons causes a serious effect. It was also found that the effect can be decreased by applying a transverse magnetic field by calculating time evolution of the cathode surface temperature with a one-dimensional thermal conduction model.

  6. Bias dependence of synergistic radiation effects induced by electrons and protons on silicon bipolar junction transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoming; Li, Xingji; Yang, Jianqun; Ma, Guoliang; Xiao, Liyi

    2015-06-01

    Bias dependence on synergistic radiation effects caused by 110 keV electrons and 170 keV protons on the current gain of 3DG130 NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) is studied in this paper. Experimental results indicate that the influence induced by 170 keV protons is always enhancement effect during the sequential irradiation. However, the influence induced by 110 keV electrons on the BJT under various bias cases is different during the sequential irradiation. The transition fluence of 110 keV electrons is dependent on the bias case on the emitter-base junction of BJT.

  7. Intrinsic Carrier Concentration and Electron Effective Mass in Hg(1-x) Zn(x) Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yi-Gao; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    In this work, the intrinsic carrier concentration and electron effective mass in Hg(l-x)Zn(x)Te were numerically calculated. We adopt the procedures similar to those used by Su et. al. for calculating intrinsic carrier concentrations in Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te which solve the exact dispersion relation in Kane model for the calculation of the conduction band electron concentrations and the corresponding electron effective masses. No approximation beyond those inherent in the k centered dot p model was used here.

  8. Hollow Electron Beam Collimation for HL-LHC - Effects on the Beam Core

    CERN Document Server

    Fitterer, M; Valishev, A; Bruce, R; Papotti, G; Redaelli, S; Valentino, G; Valentino, G; Valuch, D; Xu, C

    2017-01-01

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is currently one of the most promising concepts for active halo control in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). To ensure the successful operation of the hollow beam collimator the unwanted effects on the beam core, which might arise from the operation with a pulsed electron beam, must be minimized. This paper gives a summary of the effect of hollow electron lenses on the beam core in terms of sources, provides estimates for HL-LHC and discusses the possible mitigation methods.

  9. Hollow Electron Beam Collimation for HL-LHC - Effects on the Beam Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, M. [Fermilab; Stancari, G. [Fermilab; Valishev, A. [Fermilab; Bruce, R. [CERN; Papotti, G [CERN; Redaelli, S. [CERN; Valentino, G. [Malta U.; Valentino, G. [CERN; Valuch, D. [CERN; Xu, C. [CERN

    2017-06-13

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is currently one of the most promising concepts for active halo control in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). To ensure the successful operation of the hollow beam collimator the unwanted effects on the beam core, which might arise from the operation with a pulsed electron beam, must be minimized. This paper gives a summary of the effect of hollow electron lenses on the beam core in terms of sources, provides estimates for HL-LHC and discusses the possible mitigation methods.

  10. Quantum Nuclear Extension of Electron Nuclear Dynamics on Folded Effective-Potential Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, B.; Deumens, E.; Ohrn, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A perennial problem in quantum scattering calculations is accurate theoretical treatment of low energy collisions. We propose a method of extracting a folded, nonadiabatic, effective potential energy surface from electron nuclear dynamics (END) trajectories; we then perform nuclear wave packet dy...... dynamics on that surface and calculate differential cross sections for two-center, one (active) electron systems.......A perennial problem in quantum scattering calculations is accurate theoretical treatment of low energy collisions. We propose a method of extracting a folded, nonadiabatic, effective potential energy surface from electron nuclear dynamics (END) trajectories; we then perform nuclear wave packet...

  11. Overview of space power electronic's technology under the CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    1994-01-01

    The Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a NASA Program targeted at the development of specific technologies in the areas of transportation, operations and science. Each of these three areas consists of major elements and one of the operation's elements is the High Capacity Power element. The goal of this element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA initiatives. The High Capacity Power element is broken down into several subelements that includes energy conversion in the areas of the free piston Stirling power converter and thermoelectrics, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental compatibility and system's lifetime. A recent overview of the CSTI High capacity Power element and a description of each of the program's subelements is given by Winter (1989). The goals of the Power Management subelement are twofold. The first is to develop, test, and demonstrate high temperature, radiation-resistant power and control components and circuits that will be needed in the Power Conditioning, Control and Transmission (PCCT) subsystem of a space nuclear power system. The results obtained under this goal will also be applicable to the instrumentation and control subsystem of a space nuclear reactor. These components and circuits must perform reliably for lifetimes of 7-10 years. The second goal is to develop analytical models for use in computer simulations of candidate PCCT subsystems. Circuits which will be required for a specific PCCT subsystem will be designed and built to demonstrate their performance and, also, to validate the analytical models and simulations. The tasks under the Power Management subelement will now be described in terms of objectives, approach and present status of work.

  12. Program WALKMAN: A code designed to perform electron single collision elastic scattering Monte Carlo calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1994-08-01

    The computer code WALKMAN performs electron single collision elastic scattering Monte Carlo calculations in spherical or planar geometry. It is intended as a research tool to obtain results that can be compared to the results of condensed history calculations. This code is designed to be self documenting, in the sense that the latest documentation is included as comment lines at the beginning of the code. Printed documentation, such as this document, is periodically published and consists mostly of a copy of the comment lines from the code. The user should be aware that the comment lines within the code are continually updated to reflect the most recent status of the code and these comments should always be considered to be the most recent documentation for the code and may supersede published documentation, such as this document. Therefore, the user is advised to always read the documentation within the actual code. The remainder of this report consists of example results and a listing of the documentation which appears at the beginning of the code.

  13. Radiobiological Effectiveness of Ultrashort Laser-Driven Electron Bunches: Micronucleus Frequency, Telomere Shortening and Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Borghini, Andrea; Pulignani, Silvia; Baffigi, Federica; Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Koester, Petra; Cresci, Monica; Vecoli, Cecilia; Lamia, Debora; Russo, Giorgio; Panetta, Daniele; Tripodi, Maria; Gizzi, Leonida A; Labate, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Laser-driven electron accelerators are capable of producing high-energy electron bunches in shorter distances than conventional radiofrequency accelerators. To date, our knowledge of the radiobiological effects in cells exposed to electrons using a laser-plasma accelerator is still very limited. In this study, we compared the dose-response curves for micronucleus (MN) frequency and telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to laser-driven electron pulse and X-ray radiations. Additionally, we evaluated the effects on cell survival of in vitro tumor cells after exposure to laser-driven electron pulse compared to electron beams produced by a conventional radiofrequency accelerator used for intraoperative radiation therapy. Blood samples from two different donors were exposed to six radiation doses ranging from 0 to 2 Gy. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for micronucleus induction was calculated from the alpha coefficients for electrons compared to X rays (RBE = alpha laser/alpha X rays). Cell viability was monitored in the OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell line using trypan blue exclusion assay at day 3, 5 and 7 postirradiation (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy). The RBE values obtained by comparing the alpha values were 1.3 and 1.2 for the two donors. Mean telomere length was also found to be reduced in a significant dose-dependent manner after irradiation with both electrons and X rays in both donors studied. Our findings showed a radiobiological response as mirrored by the induction of micronuclei and shortening of telomere as well as by the reduction of cell survival in blood samples and cancer cells exposed in vitro to laser-generated electron bunches. Additional studies are needed to improve preclinical validation of the radiobiological characteristics and efficacy of laser-driven electron accelerators in the future.

  14. H/D isotope effects on femtosecond electron reactivity in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauduel, Y.; Pommeret, S.; Migus, A.; Antonetti, A. (Ecole Polytechnique-ENS Techniques Avancees, Palaiseau (France))

    1991-01-24

    The effects of isotope substitution on the primary steps of electron reactivity in aqueous media have been investigated by using femtosecond near-infrared and visible spectroscopy. In neat deuterated water, a precursor of the hydrated electron has been identified. For both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O, this localized state (e{sub prehyd}{sup {minus}}) which absorbs in the infrared is distinct from the fully hydrated state (e{sub hyd}{sup {minus}}). In neat D{sub 2}O the dynamics of electron localization is slightly slower (9%) than in H{sub 2}O; however, the lifetime of this transient electronic state (250 fs) remains similar to the analogue in light water. The absence of an H/D isotope effect on the electron hydration dynamics is confirmed in ionic aqueous media and in organized assemblies by using an anionic species (chloride ion) and a chromophore (phenothiazine), respectively, as the electron donor. In pure aqueous solutions, the changes due to isotope substitution are mainly observed during the early electron-radical pair recombination (e{sub hyd}{sup {minus}} + X{sub 3}O{sub +}, e{sub hyd}{sup {minus}} + OX with X = H or D). The percentage of hydrated electrons involved in the fast recombination is increased in D{sub 2}O. This moderate H/D isotope effect can be linked to a change in the initial spatial distribution of the electron and prototropic radicals. The analysis of the femtosecond kinetics provides evidence that the primary electron-radical pairs (e{sub hyd}{sup {minus}}{hor ellipsis}X{sub 3}O{sup +}, e{sub hyd}{sup {minus}}{hor ellipsis}OX) execute a one-dimensional (1D) walk before undergoing recombination.

  15. StatSTEM: An efficient program for accurate and precise model-based quantification of atomic resolution electron microscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, A.; van den Bos, K. H. W.; Van den Broek, W.; Sijbers, J.; Van Aert, S.

    2017-09-01

    An efficient model-based estimation algorithm is introduced in order to quantify the atomic column positions and intensities from atomic resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) images. This algorithm uses the least squares estimator on image segments containing individual columns fully accounting for the overlap between neighbouring columns, enabling the analysis of a large field of view. For this algorithm, the accuracy and precision with which measurements for the atomic column positions and scattering cross-sections from annular dark field (ADF) STEM images can be estimated, is investigated. The highest attainable precision is reached even for low dose images. Furthermore, advantages of the model-based approach taking into account overlap between neighbouring columns are highlighted. To provide end-users this well-established quantification method, a user friendly program, StatSTEM, is developed which is freely available under a GNU public license.

  16. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a method that teachers can use to increase their communication effectiveness by matching their communication patterns with those of their students. The basic premise of NLP is that people operate and make sense of their experience through information received from the world around them. This information is…

  17. Implementation and Effectiveness of the Response to Intervention (RTI) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Jessica Elaine; McGahey, James Todd

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine whether or not student test scores on the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) were positively impacted by the implementation of the Response to Intervention (RTI) program. This paper will review the implementation and effectiveness of the RTI method.

  18. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... This study was carried out to determine the effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality parameters of eggplant under greenhouse conditions, using Class A pan evaporation calculations and different plant-pan coefficients. Irrigation water was applied through drip irrigation method twice a ...

  19. A career counseling program for dentists: effects on burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, R C; Eijkman, M A; Hoogstraten, J

    2001-04-01

    The effects on burnout of a career counseling program were measured among general dental practitioners. Out of a group of 171 dentists, identified with unfavorable scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Dutch version (MBI-NL), nineteen chose to participate in the program. It consisted of individual counseling and group sessions, using cognitive and behavioral intervention techniques, over a 6-month period. One month after the last session, both program participants (N=17) and invited, but not participating, dentists (N=66) again filled in the MBI-NL. Comparison of participants' pre- and post-test scores showed significant statistical improvement on the MBI-NL scales emotional exhaustion (EE), and personal accomplishment (PA). Among the control group, a distinction was made between dentists who had self-initiated preventive measures (N=35) and those who had not (N=31). Self-prevention also appeared to have an effect on EE and PA. Among dentists who reported not to have undertaken preventive action, no change in burnout levels was found. With reservations, it can be concluded that the prevention program does have a positive effect on burnout scores among dentists, while different forms of self-initiated prevention activities also appeared to be effective.

  20. Effect of Audio-Visual Intervention Program on Cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus the purpose of the study was to study the effectiveness of the audio-visual intervention program on the cognitive development of preschool children in relation to their socio economic status. The researcher employed experimental method to conduct the study. The sample consisted of 100 students from preschool of ...

  1. therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TRAINING. PROGRAM ON SERUM CREATININE CONCENTRATION IN MEN. WITH HYPERTENSION: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. L. SIKIRU1and G. C. OKOYE2. 1Biomedical Technology Dept., School of Health Technology, Federal ...

  2. Therapeutic effect of a moderate intensity interval training program ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic effect of a moderate intensity interval training program on the lipid profile in men with hypertension: A randomized controlled trial. S Lamina, GC Okoye. Abstract. Objective: Physical inactivity has been established as a major primary risk factor for the development of hypertension. Also, factors such as elevated ...

  3. Ripple Effect Mapping: A "Radiant" Way to Capture Program Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollock, Debra Hansen; Flage, Lynette; Chazdon, Scott; Paine, Nathan; Higgins, Lorie

    2012-01-01

    Learn more about a promising follow-up, participatory group process designed to document the results of Extension educational efforts within complex, real-life settings. The method, known as Ripple Effect Mapping, uses elements of Appreciative Inquiry, mind mapping, and qualitative data analysis to engage program participants and other community…

  4. Effects of the Missouri Career Ladder Program on Teacher Mobility.

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Booker; Steven Glazerman

    2009-01-01

    This report presents evidence suggesting that a school district’s participation in the Missouri Career Ladder Program would tend to increase retention in the district and the profession, especially for mid-career teachers. The report notes that small bonuses can affect behavior but not necessarily lead to large effects.

  5. How Effective is the Basic Skills Pull-Out Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Kathryn

    A study examined the effectiveness of a reading and math basic skills pull-out program. Subjects, 60 students in first through sixth grades enrolled at an upper middle class, suburban school with small class sizes, were identified as having deficiencies in basic skills by their scores on the California Achievement Test (CAT). The basic skills…

  6. Characteristics of Effective Interpreter Education Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Lisa Ann Boegner

    2010-01-01

    The general purpose of this study was to investigate effective practices of interpreting education programs in the United States as measured by the readiness to credential gap. The increasing demand for interpreters has created an environment with under-credentialed interpreters and this is compounded by the fact that the field of interpreter…

  7. Designing and Implementing Effective Adapted Physical Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.

    2011-01-01

    "Designing and Implementing Effective Adapted Physical Education Programs" was written to assist adapted and general physical educators who are dedicated to ensuring that the physical and motor needs of all their students are addressed in physical education. While it is anticipated that adapted physical educators, where available, will typically…

  8. Neuro-Linguistics Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    1983-01-01

    Students and teachers experience the world primarily through visual, kinesthetic, or auditory representational systems. If teachers are aware of their own favored system and those of their students, classroom communication will improve. Neurolinguistic programing can help teachers become more effective communicators. (PP)

  9. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality parameters of eggplant under greenhouse conditions, using Class A pan evaporation calculations and different plant-pan coefficients. Irrigation water was applied through drip irrigation method twice a week during the ...

  10. Keys to success: Ten case studies of effective weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kolb, J.O.; White, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F.; Wilson, T. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1990, DOE initiated a nationwide evaluation of its Weatherization Program, with assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an advisory group of 40 weatherization professionals, program managers, and researchers. The evaluation is comprised of three impact studies covering the Program`s major market segments: Single-family homes, mobile homes, and dwellings in small (2 to 4-unit) multifamily buildings (the Single-Family Study), Single-family homes heated primarily with fuel oil (the Fuel-Oil Study), and Dwellings in buildings with five or more units (the Multifamily Study). The Single-Family Study, the subject of this report, is a critical part of this coordinated evaluation effort. Its focus on single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and dwellings in small multifamily buildings covers 83% of the income-eligible population and 96% of the dwellings weatherized during Program Year 1989. The first phase of the Single-Family Study involved the analysis of a massive data base of information collected from 368 local weatherization agencies and 543 electric and gas utilities. This analysis resulted in energy-saving and cost-effectiveness estimates for the Weatherization Program and the identification of a set of ten high-performing agencies located throughout the country. The second phase, which is the subject of this report, involves a ``process`` evaluation of these ten high performers, aimed at identifying those weatherization practices that explain their documented success.

  11. On board electronic devices safety subject to high frequency electromagnetic radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V. F.; Smirnov, N. N.; Smirnova, M. N.; Tyurenkova, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Spacecraft on board electronic devices are subjected to the effects of Space environment, in particular, electromagnetic radiation. The weight limitations for spacecraft pose an important material and structures problem: developing effective protection for on board electronic devices from high frequency electromagnetic radiation. In the present paper the problem of the effect of external high frequency electromagnetic field on electronic devices shielding located on orbital platforms is investigated theoretically. It is demonstrated that the characteristic time for the unsteady stage of the process is negligibly small as compared with characteristic time of electromagnetic field diffusion into a conductor for the studied range of governing parameters. A system of governing material parameters is distinguished, which contribute to protecting electronic devices from induced electrical currents.

  12. Electron-molecule scattering in a strong laser field: Two-center interference effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakić, J.; Habibović, D.; Čerkić, A.; Busuladžić, M.; Milošević, D. B.

    2017-10-01

    Laser-assisted scattering of electrons on diatomic molecules is considered using the S -matrix theory within the second Born approximation. The first term of the expansion in powers of the scattering potential corresponds to the direct or single laser-assisted scattering of electrons on molecular targets, while the second term of this expansion corresponds to the laser-assisted rescattering or double scattering. The rescattered electrons may have considerably higher energies in the final state than those that scattered only once. For multicenter polyatomic molecules scattering and rescattering may happen at any center and in any order. All these cases contribute to the scattering amplitude and the interference of different contributions leads to an increase or a decrease of the differential cross section in particular electron energy regions. For diatomic molecules there are two such contributions for single scattering and four contributions for double scattering. Analyzing the spectra of the scattered electrons, we find two interesting effects. For certain molecular orientations, the plateaus in the electron energy spectrum, characteristic of laser-assisted electron-atom scattering, are replaced by a sequence of gradually declining maxima, caused by the two-center interference effects. The second effect is the appearance of symmetric U -shaped structures in the angle-resolved energy spectra, which are described very well by the analytical formulas we provide.

  13. Evaluating disease management program effectiveness: an introduction to survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L; Roberts, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the most widely used method in the disease management industry for evaluating program effectiveness is the "total population approach." This model is a pretest-posttest design, with the most basic limitation being that without a control group, there may be sources of bias and/or competing extraneous confounding factors that offer plausible rationale explaining the change from baseline. Survival analysis allows for the inclusion of data from censored cases, those subjects who either "survived" the program without experiencing the event (e.g., achievement of target clinical levels, hospitalization) or left the program prematurely, due to disenrollement from the health plan or program, or were lost to follow-up. Additionally, independent variables may be included in the model to help explain the variability in the outcome measure. In order to maximize the potential of this statistical method, validity of the model and research design must be assured. This paper reviews survival analysis as an alternative, and more appropriate, approach to evaluating DM program effectiveness than the current total population approach.

  14. A Study of Program Manager Effectiveness and Risk Taking Propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    search for organizational effectiveness: a. Scientific Management - Taylor (1911). b. Principles of Management - Fayol (1916/1925). c. Human Relations... leadership . Management outcomes refer to the accomplishments of the organization or project team. This methodology is similiar to the model developed...C) W(IcFR Fl mp,’ II ~OF 4 A STUDY OF PROGRAM MANAGER EFFECTIVENESS AND RISK TAKING PROPENSITY THESIS Timothy P. McIntyre Captain, USAF AFIT/GSM/LSY

  15. Effect of Doximity Residency Rankings on Residency Applicants’ Program Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee M. Rolston

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Choosing a residency program is a stressful and important decision. Doximity released residency program rankings by specialty in September 2014. This study sought to investigate the impact of those rankings on residency application choices made by fourth year medical students. Methods: A 12-item survey was administered in October 2014 to fourth year medical students at three schools. Students indicated their specialty, awareness of and perceived accuracy of the rankings, and the rankings’ impact on the programs to which they chose to apply. Descriptive statistics were reported for all students and those applying to Emergency Medicine (EM. Results: A total of 461 (75.8% students responded, with 425 applying in one of the 20 Doximity ranked specialties. Of the 425, 247 (58% were aware of the rankings and 177 looked at them. On a 1-100 scale (100=very accurate, students reported a mean ranking accuracy rating of 56.7 (SD 20.3. Forty-five percent of students who looked at the rankings modified the number of programs to which they applied. The majority added programs. Of the 47 students applying to EM, 18 looked at the rankings and 33% changed their application list with most adding programs. Conclusion: The Doximity rankings had real effects on students applying to residencies as almost half of students who looked at the rankings modified their program list. Additionally, students found the rankings to be moderately accurate. Graduating students might benefit from emphasis on more objective characterization of programs to assess in light of their own interests and personal/career goals

  16. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ion potential in warm dense matter: wake effects due to streaming degenerate electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldabekov, Zhandos; Ludwig, Patrick; Bonitz, Michael; Ramazanov, Tlekkabul

    2015-02-01

    The effective dynamically screened potential of a classical ion in a stationary flowing quantum plasma at finite temperature is investigated. This is a key quantity for thermodynamics and transport of dense plasmas in the warm-dense-matter regime. This potential has been studied before within hydrodynamic approaches or based on the zero temperature Lindhard dielectric function. Here we extend the kinetic analysis by including the effects of finite temperature and of collisions based on the Mermin dielectric function. The resulting ion potential exhibits an oscillatory structure with attractive minima (wakes) and, thus, strongly deviates from the static Yukawa potential of equilibrium plasmas. This potential is analyzed in detail for high-density plasmas with values of the Brueckner parameter in the range 0.1≤r(s)≤1 for a broad range of plasma temperature and electron streaming velocity. It is shown that wake effects become weaker with increasing temperature of the electrons. Finally, we obtain the minimal electron streaming velocity for which attraction between ions occurs. This velocity turns out to be less than the electron Fermi velocity. Our results allow for reliable predictions of the strength of wake effects in nonequilibrium quantum plasmas with fast streaming electrons showing that these effects are crucial for transport under warm-dense-matter conditions, in particular for laser-matter interaction, electron-ion temperature equilibration, and stopping power.

  18. Soot structure and reactivity analysis by Raman microspectroscopy, temperature-programmed oxidation, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauer, Markus; Schuster, Manfred E; Su, Dangsheng; Schlögl, Robert; Niessner, Reinhard; Ivleva, Natalia P

    2009-12-17

    Raman microspectroscopy (RM), temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were combined to get comprehensive information on the relationship between structure and reactivity of soot in samples of spark discharge (GfG), heavy duty engine diesel (EURO VI and IV) soot, and graphite powder upon oxidation by oxygen at increasing temperatures. GfG soot and graphite powder represent the higher and lower reactivity limits. Raman microspectroscopic analysis was conducted by determination of spectral parameters using a five band fitting procedure (G, D1-D4) as well as by evaluation of the dispersive character of the D mode. The analysis of spectral parameters shows a higher degree of disorder and a higher amount of molecular carbon for untreated GfG soot samples than for samples of untreated EURO VI and EURO IV soot. The structural analysis based on the dispersive character of the D mode revealed substantial differences in ordering descending from graphite powder, EURO IV, VI to GfG soot. HRTEM images and EELS analysis of EURO IV and VI samples indicated a different morphology and a higher structural order as compared to GfG soot in full agreement with the Raman analysis. These findings are also confirmed by the reactivity of soot during oxidation (TPO), where GfG soot was found to be the most reactive and EURO IV and VI soot samples exhibited a moderate reactivity.

  19. Integrating data from an online diabetes prevention program into an electronic health record and clinical workflow, a design phase usability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishuris, Rebecca Grochow; Yoder, Jordan; Wilson, Dan; Mann, Devin

    2016-07-11

    Health information is increasingly being digitally stored and exchanged. The public is regularly collecting and storing health-related data on their own electronic devices and in the cloud. Diabetes prevention is an increasingly important preventive health measure, and diet and exercise are key components of this. Patients are turning to online programs to help them lose weight. Despite primary care physicians being important in patients' weight loss success, there is no exchange of information between the primary care provider (PCP) and these online weight loss programs. There is an emerging opportunity to integrate this data directly into the electronic health record (EHR), but little is known about what information to share or how to share it most effectively. This study aims to characterize the preferences of providers concerning the integration of externally generated lifestyle modification data into a primary care EHR workflow. We performed a qualitative study using two rounds of semi-structured interviews with primary care providers. We used an iterative design process involving primary care providers, health information technology software developers and health services researchers to develop the interface. Using grounded-theory thematic analysis 4 themes emerged from the interviews: 1) barriers to establishing healthy lifestyles, 2) features of a lifestyle modification program, 3) reporting of outcomes to the primary care provider, and 4) integration with primary care. These themes guided the rapid-cycle agile design process of an interface of data from an online diabetes prevention program into the primary care EHR workflow. The integration of external health-related data into the EHR must be embedded into the provider workflow in order to be useful to the provider and beneficial for the patient. Accomplishing this requires evaluation of that clinical workflow during software design. The development of this novel interface used rapid cycle iterative

  20. Effect of optimized structure and electronic properties of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results show that these compounds get adsorbed on the mild steel surface following Temkin adsorption isotherm, and act as mixed-type inhibitors. The inhibition efficiencies are found to follow the order, BAEBI > BSAEBI > BAMBI > BSAMBI. This observation is explained in terms of chain length, relative effects of amido ...

  1. Relativistic effects on the modulational instability of electron plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    netosphere [2], Van Allen radiation belts [3] and laser–plasma interaction experiments. [4]. The relativistic motion in plasmas is assumed to exist during the early evolution of the Universe [5]. Studies on relativistic effects on ion-acoustic solitary waves are many. Das and Paul [6] first investigated the ion-acoustic solitary ...

  2. The Social Value Of Vaccination Programs: Beyond Cost-Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Jeroen; Beutels, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In the current global environment of increased strain on health care budgets, all medical interventions have to compete for funding. Cost-effectiveness analysis has become a standard method to use in estimating how much value an intervention offers relative to its costs, and it has become an influential element in decision making. However, the application of cost-effectiveness analysis to vaccination programs fails to capture the full contribution such a program offers to the community. Recent literature has highlighted how cost-effectiveness analysis can neglect the broader economic impact of vaccines. In this article we also argue that socioethical contributions such as effects on health equity, sustaining the public good of herd immunity, and social integration of minority groups are neglected in cost-effectiveness analysis. Evaluations of vaccination programs require broad and multidimensional perspectives that can account for their social, ethical, and economic impact as well as their cost-effectiveness. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Effective recruitment and retention strategies in community health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jennifer; Ridgers, Nicola D; Carver, Alison; Thornton, Lukar E; Teychenne, Megan

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this project was to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies used by health-promotion organisations that focus on increasing physical activity and improving nutrition within the local community. Semistructured telephone or face-to-face interviews with 25 key informants from stakeholder organisations were conducted. Key informants discussed strategies used by their organisation to effectively recruit and retain participants into community-based healthy eating and/or physical activity programs. Transcribed data were analysed with NVivo software. Effective recruitment strategies included word of mouth, links with organisations, dissemination of printed materials, media, referrals, cross-promotion of programs and face-to-face methods. Effective retention strategies included encouraging a sense of community ownership, social opportunities, recruiting a suitable leader and offering flexibility and support. Fees and support for recruiting and retaining participants was also identified. This study provides novel insights to a greatly under researched topic in the field of health promotion. There are two key take-home messages from the present study that are applicable to health practitioners as well as developers and deliverers of community health-promotion programs: (1) it is imperative that all community health organisations report on the effectiveness of their recruitment and retention, both successes and failures; and (2) there is a clear need to tailor the recruitment and retention approach to the target population and the setting the program is occurring in. SO WHAT? These findings provide important insights for the development of future community-based healthy eating and physical activity programs.

  4. Experimental Studies of Compensation of Beam-Beam Effects with Tevatron Electron Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab; Alexahin, Yu.; Bishofberger, Kip; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Reva, V.; Solyak, N.; Wildman, D.; Zhang, X.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; /Fermilab /Los Alamos /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN

    2008-02-01

    Applying the space-charge forces of a low-energy electron beam can lead to a significant improvement of the beam-particle lifetime limit arising from the beam-beam interaction in a high-energy collider [1]. In this article we present the results of various beam experiments with 'electron lenses', novel instruments developed for the beam-beam compensation at the Tevatron, which collides 980-GeV proton and antiproton beams. We study the dependencies of the particle betatron tunes on the electron beam current, energy and position; we explore the effects of electron-beam imperfections and noises; and we quantify the improvements of the high-energy beam intensity and the collider luminosity lifetime obtained by the action of the Tevatron Electron Lenses.

  5. Experimental studies of compensation of beam-beam effects with Tevatron electron lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V; Alexahin, Y; Kamerdzhiev, V; Solyak, N; Wildman, D; Zhang, X-L [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Bishofberger, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Parkhomchuk, V; Reva, V [Budker INP, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Zimmermann, F [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland)], E-mail: shiltsev@fnal.gov

    2008-04-15

    Applying the space-charge forces of a low-energy electron beam can lead to a significant improvement of the beam-particle lifetime limit arising from the beam-beam interaction in a high-energy collider. In this paper, we present the results of various beam experiments with 'electron lenses', novel instruments developed for the beam-beam compensation at the Tevatron, which collides 980 GeV proton and antiproton beams. We study the dependencies of the particle betatron tunes on the electron beam current, energy and position; we explore the effects of electron-beam imperfections and noises; and we quantify the improvements of the high-energy beam intensity and the collider luminosity lifetime obtained by the action of the Tevatron electron lenses.

  6. [Effectiveness of drinking plan and drinking diary in intervention program (HAPPY program) for heavy drinkers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toshiya; Muto, Takeo; Yoshimori, Chikako; Ishido, Koichi; Sunami, Takashi; Endo, Koichi; Yuzuriha, Takefumi

    2011-06-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a drinking plan (goal setting), and a drinking diary (self monitoring), in the intervention program (HAPPY program), for heavy drinkers in the workplace. 115 people participated, and 80 people were evaluated three months later and 31 people were evaluated one year later. We classified the drinking plans in the limitation of the quantity, non-drinking days, and the device of low risk drinking model. 75 people made the drinking diary for 12 weeks after brief intervention and studied three months later and 31 people were analyzed one year later. We evaluated on heavy drinking days of 28 days, and non-drinking days of 28 days and standard drinks of 7 days. The limitation of the quantity model is effective for low risk drinking. The non-drinking day model is easily achieved, but not effective for low risk drinking. The device of low risk drinking model improved drinking habits for a long-term. The drinking diary for 12 weeks after intervention improved drinking habits for a long-term. The drinking plan (goal setting), and drinking diary (self monitoring), in intervention program for heavy drinkers were effective for prevention of lifestyle-related disease and alcoholism.

  7. Feasibility study of an interactive multimedia electronic problem solving treatment program for depression: a preliminary uncontrolled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Margit I; Buckey, Jay C; Hull, Jay G; Linardatos, Eftihia; Song, Sueyoung L; McLellan, Robert K; Hegel, Mark T

    2014-05-01

    Computer-based depression interventions lacking live therapist support have difficulty engaging users. This study evaluated the usability, acceptability, credibility, therapeutic alliance and efficacy of a stand-alone multimedia, interactive, computer-based Problem Solving Treatment program (ePST™) for depression. The program simulated live treatment from an expert PST therapist, and delivered 6 ePST™ sessions over 9weeks. Twenty-nine participants with moderate-severe symptoms received the intervention; 23 completed a minimally adequate dose of ePST™ (at least 4 sessions). Program usability, acceptability, credibility, and therapeutic alliance were assessed at treatment midpoint and endpoint. Depressive symptoms and health-related functioning were assessed at baseline, treatment midpoint (4weeks), and study endpoint (10weeks). Depression outcomes and therapeutic alliance ratings were also compared to previously published research on live PST and computer-based depression therapy. Participants rated the program as highly usable, acceptable, and credible, and reported a therapeutic alliance with the program comparable to that observed in live therapy. Depressive symptoms improved significantly over time. These findings also provide preliminary evidence that ePST™ may be effective as a depression treatment. Larger clinical trials with diverse samples are indicated. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Characteristics and effects of suicide prevention programs: comparison between workplace and other settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Misato; Shima, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    The present study reviews the literature on suicide prevention programs conducted in the workplace and other settings, namely school, the community, medical facilities, jail, and the army, by conducting an electronic literature search of all articles published between 1967 and November 2007. From a total of 256 articles identified, various contents of suicide prevention programs were determined, and in 34 studies, the effect of programs was evaluated. A review of the literature reveals that the common contents of suicide prevention programs in the workplace and other settings are education and training of individuals, development of a support network, cooperation from internal and external resources, as well as education and training of managers and staff. Although the characteristic contents of suicide prevention programs at the workplace aimed at improving personnel management and health care, screening and care for high-risk individuals, as well as improvement of building structures, were not described. Although a reduction in undesirable attitudes and an increase in mental health knowledge and coping skills in the workplace are in agreement with findings in other settings, suicide rate, suicide-associated behavior, and depression, which were assessed in other settings, were not evaluated in the three studies targeting the workplace.

  9. Effectiveness and Evaluation of Crime Prevention Programs in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Beato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes previous studies evaluating the effectiveness of the crime prevention policies adopted by the Government of Minas Gerais (Brazil. In this work, greater emphasis is placed on studies evaluating outcomes than on studies dealing with the process of setting up and implementing programs and projects. In order to allow a more systematic discussion, the Maryland Scale, which categorizes research and evaluations according to the methodological strengths and weaknesses in five levels, is employed. Subsequently, the authors draw a parallel between Brazil and other settings. Finally, this essay lays out the implications of this discussion regarding the prevention programs

  10. Electrochemical migration in electronics: effect of contamination and bias conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    climate, contamination, and bias conditions. In this work, the effect of ionic contamination such as sodium chloride and weak organic acids, as they are used in no-clean fluxes, was studied under water droplet and humidity elevation at room temperature conditions. The effect of pH and tin ion dissolution...... droplet. Overall the tendency of increase in time to electrochemical migration with decrease of duty cycle was observed. The testing of the printed circuit boards under humid conditions showed a correlation between the hygroscopic property of contaminants and leakage current measured on the boards....... A significant increase of leakage current was observed at humidity levels close to the critical or deliquescence of the contaminants....

  11. Giant Nernst effect in heavy-electron metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnia, K. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique(CNRS), ESPCI, F-75231 Paris (France)]. E-mail: kamran.behnia@espci.fr; Bel, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique(CNRS), ESPCI, F-75231 Paris (France); Pourret, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique(CNRS), ESPCI, F-75231 Paris (France); Izawa, K. [DRFMC/SPSMS, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Flouquet, J. [DRFMC/SPSMS, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Nakajima, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Kyoto, Kyoto 608-8502 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Kyoto, Kyoto 608-8502 (Japan); Kikuchi, D. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Aoki, Y. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sugawara, H. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sato, H. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Recent studies of the Nernst effect in a number of heavy-fermion systems have led to a previously unsuspected result. In some circumstances, the Nernst signal of quasi-particles becomes very large and can easily overwhelm the well-known Nernst effect produced by the movement of the superconducting vortices under the influence of a thermal gradient. In particular, the Nernst coefficient attains an exceptionally large magnitude in the ordered states of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and PrFe{sub 4}P{sub 12}. In all these cases, the order of magnitude of the Nernst signal appears compatible with the Boltzmann picture which links the Nernst coefficient to the energy-dependence of the Hall angle.

  12. Biological roles of Cytochrome c: mitochondrial electron transport, programmed cell death and gain of peroxidatic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Colman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El citocromo c (cyt c es una pequeña proteína monomérica de 13,0 kDa, que posee carga neta positiva a pH fisiológico. En su estructura se destaca un grupo hemo hexa-coordinado siendo la His18 y la Met80 la quinta y sexta posición de coordinación, respectivamente. Es una molécula soluble que se asocia mediante interacciones electrostáticas a la parte externa de la membrana mitocondrial interna, donde cumple una importante función como transportador de electrones entre los complejos III y IV de la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial, formando parte de una de las rutas catabólicas principales que llevan a la generación de ATP. Además, el cyt c participa en otras dos funciones esenciales para la célula: la apoptosis y la peroxidación de la cardiolipina de membrana. La actividad peroxidasa del cyt c es esencial para el inicio de la apoptosis, debido a que provoca la oxigenación específica de la cardiolipina para producir hidroperóxidos de cardiolipina, necesarios para la liberación de otros factores pro-apoptóticos. Durante la apoptosis, el cyt c se libera desde el espacio intermembrana de la mitocondria hacia el citosol, formando un complejo con APAF-1 y ATP, modulando las vías dependientes de caspasas. Esta función del cyt c también es muy importante ya que la muerte celular programada es un proceso celular fundamental para la correcta eliminación de células dañadas, evitando la diseminación de los restos celulares. La presente monografía pretende reunir información sobre estas tres principales funciones del cyt c, que dejan en manifiesto su importancia para la vida celular.

  13. Evaluating a Web-Based Coaching Program Using Electronic Health Records for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in China: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; He, Lin; Tao, Yanxia; Sun, Li; Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Yashu; Shen, Yuehao; Liu, Suyan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Yaogang

    2017-07-21

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now the fourth leading cause of death in the world, and it continues to increase in developing countries. The World Health Organization expects COPD to be the third most common cause of death in the world by 2020. Effective and continuous postdischarge care can help patients to maintain good health. The use of electronic health records (EHRs) as an element of community health care is new technology in China. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a Web-based coaching program using EHRs for physical function and health-related quality of life for patients with COPD in China. A randomized controlled trial was conducted from 2008 to 2015 at two hospitals. The control group received routine care and the intervention group received routine care with the addition of the Web-based coaching program using EHRs. These were used to manage patients' demographic and clinical variables, publish relevant information, and have communication between patients and health care providers. Participants were not blinded to group assignment. The effects of the intervention were evaluated by lung function, including percent of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), percent of forced vital capacity (FVC%), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum midexpiratory flow; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ); Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MMRC); and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Data were collected before the program, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the program. Of the 130 participants, 120 (92.3%) completed the 12-month follow-up program. There were statistically significant differences in lung function (FEV1%: F1,4=5.47, P=.002; FVC%: F1,4=3.06, P=.02; PEF: F1,4=12.49, Pprogram using EHRs in China appears to be useful for patients with COPD when they are discharged from hospital into the community. It promotes the sharing of patients' medical information by hospital and community nurses, and achieves

  14. Focusing effects in laser-electron Thomson scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of laser pulse focusing on the spectral properties of Thomson scattered radiation. Modeling the laser as a paraxial beam we find that, in all but the most extreme cases of focusing, the temporal envelope has a much bigger effect on the spectrum than the focusing itself. For the case of ultrashort pulses, where the paraxial model is no longer valid, we adopt a subcycle vector beam description of the field. It is found that the emission harmonics are blue shifted and broaden out in frequency space as the pulse becomes shorter. Additionally the carrier envelope phase becomes important, resulting in an angular asymmetry in the spectrum. We then use the same model to study the effects of focusing beyond the limit where the paraxial expansion is valid. It is found that fields focussed to subwavelength spot sizes produce spectra that are qualitatively similar to those from subcycle pulses due to the shortening of the pulse with focusing. Finally, we study high-intensity fields and find that, in general, the focusing makes negligible difference to the spectra in the regime of radiation reaction.

  15. Focussing effects in laser-electron Thomson scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, C; Holkundkar, A R

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of laser pulse focussing on the spectral properties of Thomson scattered radiation. Modelling the laser as a paraxial beam we find that, in all but the most extreme cases of focussing, the temporal envelope has a much bigger effect on the spectrum than the focussing itself. For the case of ultra-short pulses where the paraxial model is no longer valid, we adopt a sub-cycle vector beam description of the field. It is found that the emission harmonics are blue shifted and broaden out in frequency space as the pulse becomes shorter. Additionally the carrier envelope phase becomes important, resulting in an angular asymmetry in the spectrum. We then use the same model to study the effects of focussing beyond the limit where the paraxial expansion is valid. It is found that fields focussed to sub-wavelength spot sizes produce spectra that are qualitatively similar to those from sub-cycle pulses due to the shortening of the pulse with focussing. Finally, we study high-intensity fields and find ...

  16. Immediate Effects of Different Trunk Exercise Programs on Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, A; Kaneoka, K; Okubo, Y; Shiraki, H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercise (SE) and conventional trunk exercise (CE) programs on jump performance. 13 adolescent male soccer players performed 2 kinds of jump testing before and immediate after 3 experimental conditions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). The SE program consisted of the elbow-toe, hand-knee, and back bridge, and the CE program consisted of the sit-up, sit-up with trunk rotation and back extension. Testing of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) were performed to assess jump performance. Jump height of the CMJ and RJ-index, contact time, and jump height of the RJ were analyzed. The RJ index was improved significantly only after SE (p=0.017). However, contact time and jump height did not improve significantly in the SE condition. Moreover, no significant interaction or main effects of time or group were observed in the CMJ. Consequently, this study showed the different immediate effect on the RJ between the SE and CE, and suggested the possibility that the SE used in this study is useful as a warm-up program to improve the explosive movements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effects of model approximations for electron, hole, and photon transport in swift heavy ion tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymzhanov, R. A.; Medvedev, N. A.; Volkov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The event-by-event Monte Carlo code, TREKIS, was recently developed to describe excitation of the electron subsystems of solids in the nanometric vicinity of a trajectory of a nonrelativistic swift heavy ion (SHI) decelerated in the electronic stopping regime. The complex dielectric function (CDF) formalism was applied in the used cross sections to account for collective response of a matter to excitation. Using this model we investigate effects of the basic assumptions on the modeled kinetics of the electronic subsystem which ultimately determine parameters of an excited material in an SHI track. In particular, (a) effects of different momentum dependencies of the CDF on scattering of projectiles on the electron subsystem are investigated. The 'effective one-band' approximation for target electrons produces good coincidence of the calculated electron mean free paths with those obtained in experiments in metals. (b) Effects of collective response of a lattice appeared to dominate in randomization of electron motion. We study how sensitive these effects are to the target temperature. We also compare results of applications of different model forms of (quasi-) elastic cross sections in simulations of the ion track kinetics, e.g. those calculated taking into account optical phonons in the CDF form vs. Mott's atomic cross sections. (c) It is demonstrated that the kinetics of valence holes significantly affects redistribution of the excess electronic energy in the vicinity of an SHI trajectory as well as its conversion into lattice excitation in dielectrics and semiconductors. (d) It is also shown that induced transport of photons originated from radiative decay of core holes brings the excess energy faster and farther away from the track core, however, the amount of this energy is relatively small.

  18. Electron kinetic effects in atmosphere breakdown by an intense electromagnetic pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyev, A A; Terekhin, V A; Tikhonchuk, V T; Altgilbers, L L

    1999-12-01

    A physical model is proposed for description of electron kinetics driven by a powerful electromagnetic pulse in the Earth's atmosphere. The model is based on a numerical solution to the Boltzmann kinetic equation for two groups of electrons. Slow electrons (with energies below a few keV) are described in a two-term approximation assuming a weak anisotropy of the electron distribution function. Fast electrons (with energies above a few keV) are described by a modified macroparticle method, taking into account the electron acceleration in the electric field, energy losses in the continuous deceleration approximation, and the multiple pitch angle scattering. The model is applied to a problem of the electric discharge in a nitrogen, which is preionized by an external gamma-ray source. It is shown that the runaway electrons have an important effect on the energy distribution of free electrons, and on the avalanche ionization rate. This mechanism might explain the observation of multiple lightning discharges observed in the Ivy-Mike thermonuclear test in the early 1950's.

  19. Effects of physics change in Monte Carlo code on electron pencil beam dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutaoui, Abdelkader, E-mail: toutaoui.aek@gmail.com [Departement de Physique Medicale, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Alger RP, Algiers (Algeria); Khelassi-Toutaoui, Nadia, E-mail: nadiakhelassi@yahoo.fr [Departement de Physique Medicale, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Alger RP, Algiers (Algeria); Brahimi, Zakia, E-mail: zsbrahimi@yahoo.fr [Departement de Physique Medicale, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Alger RP, Algiers (Algeria); Chami, Ahmed Chafik, E-mail: chafik_chami@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Sciences Nucleaires, Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumedienne, BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-01-15

    Pencil beam algorithms used in computerized electron beam dose planning are usually described using the small angle multiple scattering theory. Alternatively, the pencil beams can be generated by Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport. In a previous work, the 4th version of the Electron Gamma Shower (EGS) Monte Carlo code was used to obtain dose distributions from monoenergetic electron pencil beam, with incident energy between 1 MeV and 50 MeV, interacting at the surface of a large cylindrical homogeneous water phantom. In 2000, a new version of this Monte Carlo code has been made available by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), which includes various improvements in its electron-transport algorithms. In the present work, we were interested to see if the new physics in this version produces pencil beam dose distributions very different from those calculated with oldest one. The purpose of this study is to quantify as well as to understand these differences. We have compared a series of pencil beam dose distributions scored in cylindrical geometry, for electron energies between 1 MeV and 50 MeV calculated with two versions of the Electron Gamma Shower Monte Carlo Code. Data calculated and compared include isodose distributions, radial dose distributions and fractions of energy deposition. Our results for radial dose distributions show agreement within 10% between doses calculated by the two codes for voxels closer to the pencil beam central axis, while the differences are up to 30% for longer distances. For fractions of energy deposition, the results of the EGS4 are in good agreement (within 2%) with those calculated by EGSnrc at shallow depths for all energies, whereas a slightly worse agreement (15%) is observed at deeper distances. These differences may be mainly attributed to the different multiple scattering for electron transport adopted in these two codes and the inclusion of spin effect, which produces an increase of the effective range of

  20. Effectiveness of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoghi, Patrick; von Keudell, Arvind; Vavken, Patrick

    2012-05-02

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs and to perform a meta-analysis to address three questions: First, what is the effectiveness of ACL injury prevention programs? Second, is there evidence for a "best" program? Third, what is the quality of the current literature on ACL injury prevention? We conducted a systematic review with use of the online PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Search terms were anterior cruciate ligament, knee, injury, prevention, and control. Data on study design and clinical outcomes were extracted independently in triplicate. After assessment of between-study heterogeneity, DerSimonian-Laird random-effect models were used to calculate pooled risk ratios and risk differences. The risk difference was used to estimate the number needed to treat (the number of individuals who would need to be treated to avoid one ACL tear). The pooled risk ratio was 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.72), reflecting a significant reduction in the risk of ACL rupture in the prevention group (p = 0.003). The number needed to treat ranged from five to 187 in the individual studies. Stratified by sex, the pooled risk ratio was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.26 to 0.89) for female athletes and 0.15 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.28) for male athletes. Our study indicated strong evidence in support of a significant effect of ACL injury prevention programs. Our pooled estimates suggest a substantial beneficial effect of ACL injury prevention programs, with a risk reduction of 52% in the female athletes and 85% in the male athletes.

  1. The Effect of Traditional and Electronic Word-of-mouth on Purchase Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Sanger, Chintya Amelia Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Word-of-mouth (WOM) Marketing is widely considered the most influential source of information for consumer purchase decisions, and the explosion of social media has stirred interest in the communication.The relation of Traditional Word-of-Mouth and electronic word-of-mouth ( e-wom ) on purchase decision are positively influential. Research to 100 respondents of student in International Business Administration program, Economic and Business faculty in SamRatulangi university. The most of stude...

  2. Effectiveness of intervention programs in schools to reduce health risk factors in adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane de Fátima Guimarães

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to systematically review studies on intervention programs involving physical activity promotion and/or nutritional education to reduce health-related risk factors (overweight/obesity and metabolic profilealterations in Brazilian adolescent students. A search was performed in the following electronic databases: Medline (PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, Scielo and Capes Thesis Database. A total of 1,568 studies were identified, of which 21 full papers were analyzed and 5 were included in the systematic review. The majority of the studies involved physical activity practice combined with nutritional education in Brazilian adolescent students and all interventions showed positive effect on reducing health-related risk factors among Brazilian adolescents.It was concluded that all studies included in this review showed positive alterations in healthrelated risk factors after interventions, reinforcing the importance of intervention programs to promote a healthier lifestyle and reduce health-related risk factors in adolescents.

  3. Effect of sulfate on anaerobic reduction of nitrobenzene with acetate or propionate as an electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingang; Wen, Yue; Ding, Ning; Xu, Yue; Zhou, Qi

    2012-09-15

    Sulfate is frequently found in wastewaters that contain nitrobenzene. To reveal the effect of sulfate on the reductive transformation of nitrobenzene to aniline--with acetate or propionate as potential electron donors in anaerobic systems--an acetate series (R1-R5) and a propionate series (R6-R10) were set up. Each of these was comprised of five laboratory-scale sequence batch reactors. The two series were amended with the same amount of nitrobenzene and electron donor electron equivalents, whereas with increasing sulfate concentrations. Results indicated that the presence of sulfate could depress nitrobenzene reduction. Such depression is linked to the inhibition of nitroreductase activity and/or the shift of electron flow. In the acetate series, although sulfate did not strongly compete with nitrobenzene for electron donors, noncompetitive inhibition of specific nitrobenzene reduction rates by sulfate was observed, with an inhibition constant of 0.40 mM. Propionate, which can produce intermediate H₂ as preferred reducing equivalent, is a more effective primary electron donor for nitrobenzene reduction as compared to acetate. In the propionate series, sulfate was found to be a preferential electron acceptor as compared to nitrobenzene, resulting in a quick depletion of propionate and then a likely termination of H₂-releasing under higher sulfate concentrations (R9 and R10). In such a situation, nitrobenzene reduction slowed down, occurring two-stage zero-order kinetics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of magnetospheric processes on relativistic electron dynamics in the Earth's outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Su, Z. P.; Reeves, G. D.; Zhang, J.-C.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2017-10-01

    Using the electron phase space density (PSD) data measured by Van Allen Probe A from January 2013 to April 2015, we investigate the effects of magnetospheric processes on relativistic electron dynamics in the Earth's outer radiation belt during 50 geomagnetic storms. A statistical study shows that the maximum electron PSDs for various μ (μ = 630, 1096, 2290, and 3311 MeV/G) at L* 4.0 after the storm peak have good correlations with storm intensity (cc 0.70). This suggests that the occurrence and magnitude of geomagnetic storms are necessary for relativistic electron enhancements at the inner edge of the outer radiation belt (L* = 4.0). For moderate or weak storm events (SYM-Hmin > -100 nT) with weak substorm activity (AEmax 0.77). For storm events with intense substorms after the storm peak, relativistic electron enhancements at L* = 4.5 and 5.0 are observed. This shows that intense substorms during the storm recovery phase are crucial to relativistic electron enhancements in the heart of the outer radiation belt. Our statistics study suggests that magnetospheric processes during geomagnetic storms have a significant effect on relativistic electron dynamics.

  5. Effective intervention programming: improving maternal adjustment through parent education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jaelyn R; Bert, Shannon S Carothers; Nicholson, Jody S; Glass, Kerrie; Borkowski, John G

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed the secondary effects of a parent training intervention program on maternal adjustment, with a focus on understanding ways in which program efficacy differed for participants as a function of whether or not their children had behavior problems. Mothers (N = 99) of toddlers (2-3 years of age) were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of intervention: (1) informational booklet (2) booklet + face-to-face parent training sessions, or (3) booklet + web-based parent training sessions. Findings indicated that all levels of intervention were associated with increases in maternal well-being for participants with typically developing children. Mothers of toddlers with behavior problems, however, did not benefit from receiving only the booklet but significantly benefitted from receiving either the face-to-face or web-based interventions. Findings are discussed in terms of efficient and efficacious program dissemination and the resulting implications for public policy.

  6. Real-time visual effects for game programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Hun; Kim, Soo-Kyun; Kang, Shin-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the latest visual effects (VFX) techniques that can be applied to game programming. The usefulness of the physicality-based VFX techniques, such as water, fire, smoke, and wind, has been proven through active involvement and utilization in movies and images. However, they have yet to be extensively applied in the game industry, due to the high technical barriers. Readers of this book can learn not only the theories about the latest VFX techniques, but also the methodology of game programming, step by step. The practical VFX processing techniques introduced in this book will provide very helpful information to game programmers. Due to the lack of instructional books about VFX-related game programming, the demand for knowledge regarding these high-tech VFXs might be very high.

  7. The Effect of Electronic Devices Self-Efficacy, Electronic Devices Usage and Information Security Awareness on Identity-Theft Anxiety Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Identity-theft means stealing someone's personal information and using it without his or her permission. Each year, millions of Americans are becoming the victims of identity-theft, and this is one of the seriously growing and widespread issues in the U.S. This study examines the effect of electronic devices self-efficacy, electronic devices…

  8. The effect of electronic word of mouth communication and brand image on purchase intention: A case of consumer electronics in Haripur, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees Kazmi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to focus on the purchase intention of the consumer specifically the millennial age group with respect to the effect of Electronic word of mouth communication and brand image. The study is performed among the students of the University of Haripur. Study reveals that the effect of Electronic word of mouth and brand image for the purchase of consumer electronics products have positively correlated and the effect is significant, which means that the Word of mouth communication can positively respond to the purchase of the said products in case when the products are branded and have certain image in the mind of consumer.

  9. The effects of transverse magnetic field and local electronic interaction on thermoelectric properties of monolayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Hamed; Azizi, Farshad

    2018-02-01

    We study the effects of a transverse magnetic field and electron doping on the thermoelectric properties of monolayer graphene in the context of Hubbard model at the antiferromagnetic sector. In particular, the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient has been investigated. Mean field approximation has been employed in order to obtain the electronic spectrum of the system in the presence of local electron-electron interaction. Our results show the peak in thermal conductivity moves to higher temperatures with increase of both chemical potential and Hubbard parameter. Moreover the increase of magnetic field leads to shift of peak in temperature dependence of thermal conductivity to higher temperatures. Finally the behavior of Seebeck coefficient in terms of temperature has been studied and the effects of magnetic field and Hubbard parameter on this coefficient have been investigated in details.

  10. The effect of electron induced hydrogenation of graphene on its electrical transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sung Oh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Teizer, Winfried [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2013-07-22

    We report a deterioration of the electrical transport properties of a graphene field effect transistor due to energetic electron irradiation on a stack of Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) on graphene (PMMA/graphene bilayer). Prior to electron irradiation, we observed that the PMMA layer on graphene does not deteriorate the carrier transport of graphene but improves its electrical properties instead. As a result of the electron irradiation on the PMMA/graphene bilayer, the Raman “D” band appears after removal of PMMA. We argue that the degradation of the transport behavior originates from the binding of hydrogen generated during the PMMA backbone secession process.

  11. Effects of electronic structure on ion stopping cross section in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygoriev, V.G.; Neshov, F.G.; Puzanov, A.A.; Urmanov, A.R. (Ural' skij Politekhnicheskij Inst., Sverdlovsk (USSR))

    1984-06-16

    A model for the proton stopping cross section in solids is suggested, which treats stopping in collisions with electrons of different electronic structure subsystems as independent processes. A number of effects due to the influence of the electronic structure on energy losses of protons moving randomly are described. Good agreement between theoretical results and experimental data is obtained. A 'fine structure' for the maximum of the stopping cross section energy dependence is predicted. The reasons for the difference in stopping cross sections between protons moving randomly in diamond and graphite are discussed.

  12. Analysis of Proton Radiation Effects on Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Koschnick, J.-M. Spaeth, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Proton bombardment-induced electron traps in epitaxially grown n-gan,” Applied physics letters , vol...Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of gan high electron mobility transistors,” Applied Physics Letters , vol. 107, no. 15, p. 153504...heterostructure field-effect transistors,” Applied Physics Letters , vol. 98, no. 12, p. 123512, 2011. [30] L. Lv, X. Ma, J. Zhang, Z. Bi, L. Liu, H. Shan

  13. Effect of electron-phonon interaction on resistivity of some heavy fermion (HF) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, J., E-mail: jitendrasahoo2008@gmail.com [Assistant Director, Regional Office of Vocational Education, Sambalpur, Odisha-768004 (India); Shadangi, N. [Dept. of Physics, Silicon Institute of Technology, Sambalpur, Odisha-768200 (India); Nayak, P. [School of Physics, Sambalpur University, Sambalpur, Odisha-768019 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Here, we have analyzed the electron-phonon interaction in the Periodic Anderson Model (PAM) to describe the temperature dependence of resistivity in some heavy fermion (HF) systems for finite wave vector (q) and for finite temperature (T). Since the resistivity is related to the imaginary part of the electron self energy, the expression for the same is evaluated through double time temperature dependant Green function technique of the Zubarev type. The effect of different system parameters namely the position of 4f level, E{sub 0} and the electron - phonon coupling strengths on resistivity have been studied. The results obtained give satisfactory explanations to the experimental observations.

  14. Effect of increasing length on the electronic transport of an armchair graphene nano-ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Aghamiri Esfahani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we have investigated the effect of increasing length on the electronic transport of an armchair graphene nano-ribbons with nitrogen atom impurity and without impurity. The semi-infinite, one-dimensional molecular systems are connected to two electrodes and the electron-electron interaction is ignored. The system is described by a simple tight binding model. All calculations are based on the Green's function and Landauer–Buttiker approach, and the electrodes are described in a wide band approximation.

  15. On electron attachment effect on characteristics of the DBD in chlorine and its mixtures with xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtaeva, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The electron attachment effect on DBD characteristics in chlorine and its mixtures with xenon has been studied. Characteristics of the DBDs in pure chlorine and in xenon-chlorine mixtures with a chlorine fraction of 0.1-5% were modeled using the fluid model. It is shown that the electron attachment limits a magnitude of the DBD current, contributes to formation of multiple current spikes, appearance of a double layer near the dielectric surface and formation of XeCl* excimer molecules, and leads to a redistribution of the power deposited into the discharge: more power is deposited into ions and less power is deposited into electrons.

  16. Electron irradiation effects on optical properties of semiorganic antimony thiourea bromide monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahesha Upadhya, K., E-mail: mahesh.upadhya@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, P.O. Srinivasnagar, Karnataka 575025 (India); Udayashankar, N.K. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, P.O. Srinivasnagar, Karnataka 575025 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Antimony thiourea bromide monohydrate (ATBM) single crystals were grown by solution growth technique at room temperature for the first time. The UV-vis, FT-IR and fluorescence spectra were recorded and electron irradiation effects on these properties were studied. The optical absorption edge of the UV-vis spectrum shifts towards lower wavelength with the increase of irradiation. The fluorescence quantum yield is increased for electron irradiated ATBM crystals. The FT-IR analysis shows that the water of crystallization is weakly bonded in as-grown and electron irradiated ATBM crystals.

  17. The Effectiveness of the Tupiq Program for Inuit Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lynn A; Hamilton, Ellen; Wilton, Geoff; Cousineau, Colette; Varrette, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the Tupiq program, a culturally specific program for Inuit sex offenders that incorporates cognitive behavioural methods with traditional Inuit knowledge and culture led by Inuit healers and facilitators. Outcomes of 61 offenders who participated in the Tupiq program and were released were compared with outcomes of a cohort of 114 released Inuit sex offenders incarcerated during the same time period who had taken alternative sex offender treatment programs, or had not attended any sex offender program. On release, Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of general reoffending and violent reoffending than those in the combined comparison group. The hazard of reoffending for the comparison group was almost twice that of the Tupiq group. Although the sexual reoffending rate for the Tupiq participants was less than half of that of the comparison group, the difference between the two groups was not significant because of reduced statistical power. Survival analysis controlling for covariates confirmed significantly lower rates of general reoffending for the Tupiq group. Further analyses comparing the outcomes of the subgroup of offenders in the comparison group who participated in alternative sex offender treatment programs with those who participated in Tupiq indicated that Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of both general and sexual reoffending. These positive results for this culturally specific program suggest that similarly designed interventions have a probability of contributing to the reduction of sexual offending within Inuit communities and, potentially, other jurisdictions that work with cultural minority sex offender groups from relatively isolated communities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Effectiveness of School-based Drug Prevention Programs for Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Nancy S.; Lessard, Terri; Marshall, Diana; Ochshorn, Peter; Roona, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Synthesizes evaluation of drug use programs (N=37) in schools for grades 6-12 by coding program characteristics and calculating weighted effect sizes (WES) for marijuana use. Program type and sample size were found to be significant predictors of program effectiveness. The primary finding for prevention program planning is that interactive…

  19. The Impact of Electronic Mobility Devices for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: A Systematic Review of Effects and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roentgen, Uta R.; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; Soede, Mathijs; de Witte, Luc P.

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of the international literature was conducted to investigate the effects and effectiveness of electronic mobility devices. Of the 13 studies that were reviewed, all but one demonstrated effects of the use of these devices, and generally, users evaluated the devices' functionality as beneficial. (Contains 1 table.)

  20. Effect of a physiotherapy program in women with primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Mario I; Cortés-Márquez, Sandra Kristal; Romero-Quezada, Luis C; Murguía-Cánovas, Gabriela; Jaramillo-Díaz, Alfonso P

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a physiotherapy program for relieving symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea among Mexican women. This was a single-center, prospective, experimental, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Universidad Politécnica de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Female patients with primary dysmenorrhea, age of 18-22 years; pain intensity from 4 to 10cm on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); and sedentary lifestyle were included. The patients were then randomized to receive a physiotherapy program for three months or to no intervention program. The physiotherapy program consisted of overall stretching, specific stretches, Kegel exercises, jogging, and relaxation exercises. Patient evaluations of symptomatology and pain intensity were recorded basally and throughout for three menstrual periods. The data were entered into a computerized database for descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. A per-protocol population of eighty three women with a mean age of 20.2±1.8 years underwent the physiotherapy program, and seventy seven participants with a mean age of 20.4±1.2 years received no treatment. The participant assessments of pain on the VAS during the second and the third menstrual cycles demonstrated a significant reduction in the treatment group (p<0.05) compared with the control group. The results showed that strengthening, stretching and muscle relaxation techniques, in addition to jogging, are effective for reducing dysmenorrheic symptoms when they are regularly performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.