Sample records for program early childhood

  1. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement (United States)

    Washington, Novella M.


    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  2. Creating Music Environments in Early Childhood Programs. (United States)

    Achilles, Elayne


    Describes how teachers and caregivers can create music environments in early childhood settings that connect to other areas of development. Discusses how music environments can accommodate free-choice participation, describes the caregiver's role, and suggests music activities. Includes definitions of musical concepts for young children, also tips…

  3. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.


    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  4. The Cost of Inequality: The Importance of Investing in High Quality Early Childhood Education Programs (United States)

    Keith, Rebecca S.


    The focus of this dissertation was to explore the importance of high quality early education in later secondary education development, quantifying quality in early childhood education programs, and examining how teacher education contributes to quality of early childhood education programs. For phase I, early childhood education positively…

  5. Cost Study of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program. Technical Report (United States)

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.


    In 2008, the Minnesota Early Learning Foundation created the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program, a pilot program to provide families with scholarships to cover the cost of high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs. Although there is a large body of research about the benefits of preschool specifically and early learning…

  6. The Current State of Early Childhood Education Programs: How Early Childhood Center Directors Manage Their Human Resources (United States)

    Arend, Lauren E.


    Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…

  7. Examining the Association between the "Imagination Library" Early Childhood Literacy Program and Kindergarten Readiness (United States)

    Samiei, Shahin; Bush, Andrew J.; Sell, Marie; Imig, Doug


    This study evaluated participation in the "Imagination Library" early childhood literacy enrichment program and children's pre-literacy and pre-numeracy skills at kindergarten entry in an urban school district. Previous studies have demonstrated that program participation is associated with greater early childhood reading practices.…

  8. Launching Intergenerational Programs in Early Childhood Settings: A Comparison of Explicit Intervention with an Emergent Approach (United States)

    Kaplan, Matthew; Larkin, Elizabeth


    What began as a case study of intergenerational initiatives in university-based early childhood programs evolved into a comparative study of two different program implementation processes. Despite operating with the same goals, university partners, and resources, two early childhood centers pursued fundamentally different strategies for launching…

  9. 76 FR 71979 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation... (United States)


    ... status, school readiness, and domestic violence); (b) the effectiveness of such programs on different... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Health Resources and Services Administration...) The effect of early childhood home visiting programs on outcomes for parents, children, and...

  10. Sensitive Situations. The DLM Early Childhood Program Professional Library. (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario…

  11. The Importance of Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs (United States)

    Ancell, Katherine S.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Chitiyo, Jonathan


    Active family involvement in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) is regarded as a beneficial factor in young children's learning and development. One definition of family involvement is the active role parents take in their child's development and the knowledge and participation they share with professionals who are part of the child's daily…

  12. Quality and best practices in early childhood programs: perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Definitions of quality in early childhood education (ECE) has predominantly adopted a developmental perspective, where quality care is that which promotes optimal child outcomes in all domains of development. This study investigates Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP), an approach designed to promote young ...

  13. Steps to Implementing Technology in Inclusive Early Childhood Programs (United States)

    Lyons, Catherine D.; Tredwell, Claire T.


    Twenty-first-century preschool children, with and without disabilities, may be found using technology, including assistive technologies, on a daily basis in their homes, schools, and communities. Early childhood educators are exploring opportunities to integrate technology and interactive media into the present-day curriculum. The authors suggest…

  14. Supporting Parents and Young Children: Minnesota Early Childhood Family Education Program. (United States)

    Kristensen, Nancy; Billman, Jean


    Describes the Minnesota Early Childhood Family Education Program, which is designed to offer support and information for all parents and their children from birth to kindergarten-enrollment age, and to provide a good early childhood education experience for young children. (Author/PCB)

  15. Early Childhood Educators and the FIS Grant Program: An Interview with Naomi Karp. (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    Naomi Karp is the Director of the National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education (ECI) in the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) in the U.S. Department of Education. This interview concerns funding for early childhood education research through OERI's Field-Initiated Studies (FIS) Grant Program. Questions…

  16. Current Research in Early Childhood Education: A Compilation and Analysis for Program Planners. (United States)

    Butler, Annie L.

    This publication is particularly concerned with research and writing performed on the outcomes of early childhood education programs during the last five years. The chapters in this research review discuss the following: 1. The Current Scene--Conflicting Philosophy in Early Childhood Education; Difficulties in Analyzing the Research on Values in…

  17. Perinatal programming of childhood asthma: early fetal size, growth trajectory during infancy, and childhood asthma outcomes. (United States)

    Turner, Steve


    The "fetal origins hypothesis" or concept of "developmental programming" suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  18. Put Your Robot In, Put Your Robot Out: Sequencing through Programming Robots in Early Childhood (United States)

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Bers, Marina Umaschi


    This article examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability in early childhood. Thirty-four children (ages 4.5-6.5 years) participated in computer programming activities with a developmentally appropriate tool, CHERP, specifically designed to program a robot's behaviors. The children learned to build and program robots over three…

  19. Shifting Views: Exploring the Potential for Technology Integration in Early Childhood Education Programs (United States)

    Dietze, Beverlie; Kashin, Diane


    Using technology with children in play-based early learning programs creates questions for some within the Early Childhood Education (ECE) community. This paper presents how two faculty who teach in ECE-related degree programs integrated educational technology into their teaching pedagogy as a way to model to their students how it can be used to…

  20. Do Master Early Childhood Teacher Education Programs Provide Adequate Coverage of Infants and Toddlers?: A Review of Content (United States)

    Garvis, Susanne; Manning, Matthew


    In Australia, growth in the demand of early childhood services for young children aged birth to three years has placed increased pressure on the early childhood education sector as new policy stipulates the need for qualified teachers. The new policy has resulted in a growth in Master of Early Childhood Education programs in Australian…

  1. Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.


    This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

  2. Evaluation of Effects of the Clovis - Portales Bilingual Early Childhood Program: Final Report, 1972-73. (United States)

    Askins, Billy E.; Alford, Gay

    Initiated in 1972, the Bilingual Early Childhood Program (BECP) serves as early intervention for 3- and 4-year-old children in Clovis and Portales, New Mexico (40 children at each site). Target group children were predominantly from Spanish-speaking backgrounds and were selected as participants using guideline requirements of language, background,…

  3. The Impact of Structural Barriers and Facilitators on Early Childhood Literacy Programs in Elementary Charter Schools (United States)

    Ross, Denise; Pinder, Glen; Coles-White, D'Jaris


    Elementary charter schools increasingly serve students who are at-risk for reading challenges, giving them a critical role in establishing literacy for young children. This article examines the complexities of starting early childhood literacy programs in charter schools. Specifically, the first year of K-3 literacy programs in a new and a…

  4. Pilot-Testing CATCH Early Childhood: A Preschool-Based Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Program (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie


    Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…

  5. The "I" in QRIS Survey: Collecting Data on Quality Improvement Activities for Early Childhood Education Programs. REL 2017-221 (United States)

    Faria, Ann-Marie; Hawkinson, Laura; Metzger, Ivan; Bouacha, Nora; Cantave, Michelle


    A quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) is a voluntary state assessment system that uses multidimensional data on early childhood education programs to rate program quality, support quality improvement efforts, and provide information to families about the quality of available early childhood education programs. QRISs have two components:…

  6. Timing Issues with Early Childhood Education Programs: How Effect Sizes Vary by Starting Age, Program Duration and Persistence of Effects (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro


    The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…

  7. A Qualitative Case Study Exploring an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Program Linking Teacher Efficacy, Engagement, and Retention (United States)

    Guerrant, Lisa Y.


    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eleven early childhood educators who participated in a professional development program. The study was guided by the central research question, "What are the perceptions of early childhood educators on the professional development program as it relates to teacher efficacy, engagement,…

  8. Resolving Paradoxical Criteria for the Expansion and Replication of Early Childhood Care and Education Programs. (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Rosman, Elisa Altman; Hsueh, JoAnn


    Identifies underlying paradoxical bases for expansion and replication of early childhood care and education (ECCE) programs. Presents history of ECCE in the United States. Proposes typology of expansion and replication processes, and considers paradoxes associated with replication process. Offers recommendations for funders, policymakers, and…

  9. Reducing Early Childhood Tooth Decay: Strategies for State Medicaid and CHIP Dental Program Managers


    Colin Reusch; Meg Booth; Leslie Foster


    Young children who are enrolled in Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) can be at risk for developing early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is a chronic bacterial infection that causes severe tooth decay and can begin to develop before baby teeth erupt.

  10. Making It Real: A Practice-Based Early Childhood Teacher Education Program (United States)

    Vartuli, Sue; Snider, Karrie; Holley, Maggie


    In early childhood teacher education programs, the reality of educational systems must be understood and teacher candidates must be ready to deal with the current challenges schools face. The rationale and application of the principles of practice based teacher education are presented in this article. Practice-based teacher education programs…

  11. The Impact of the Shifting Knowledge Base, from Development to Achievement, on Early Childhood Education Programs (United States)

    Tyler, Kathleen P.


    Interest in child development as a knowledge base for early childhood education programs flourished in the 1970s as a result of the theories and philosophies of Jean Piaget and other cognitive developmentalists. During subsequent decades in America, reform movements emphasizing accountability and achievement became a political and social…

  12. Strengthening Families in Illinois: Increasing Family Engagement in Early Childhood Programs (United States)

    Jor'dan, Jamilah R.; Wolf, Kathy Goetz; Douglass, Anne


    Strengthening Families is a relationship-based child abuse and neglect prevention initiative started nationally in 2001 through a partnership between the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation and the Center for the Study of Social Policy (CSSP) in Washington, DC. Thirty-five states and several thousand early childhood programs nationwide implement…

  13. The Better Early Childhood Development Program: An Innovative Brazilian Public Policy (United States)

    Schneider, Alessandra; Ramires, Vera Regina; Paiva, Maria da Graca Gomes; Almeida, Leila


    This paper presents the pioneering experience of the Programa Primeira Infancia Melhor (the Better Early Childhood Development Program), also known as "PIM" that has been developed since 2003 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PIM's goal is to "provide guidance to families, based on their own culture and experiences, to…

  14. South Korean Early Childhood Education Teachers' Perceptions of Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support (United States)

    Noh, Jina; Steed, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Kyungmin


    The authors conducted a survey of 169 South Korean early childhood education teachers regarding the importance and implementation of strategies associated with the Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support (PWPBS) framework (L. Fox & M. L. Hemmeter, 2009) to support social competence and prevent young children's challenging behavior. Analyses…

  15. Home Visiting Family Support Programs: Benefits of the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program. Fact Sheet (United States)

    Home Visiting Campaign, 2015


    The federally funded, locally administered Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program sponsors family support programs that are often called "home visiting" because they take place in the homes of at-risk families. These families often lack support, experience, and knowledge of basic parenting skills. Because children…

  16. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner


    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  17. Early Care and Education--What It Costs. Volume 2. Budget Series: Full-Day, Year-Round Early Childhood Program (United States)

    Child Care, Inc., 2007


    The research on early childhood education is clear: Programs must be of high quality to produce positive outcomes for children. This policy brief is the second in our series aimed at identifying the core components of successful early childhood programs and the costs associated with each component. In this case, we examine the costs of full-day,…

  18. Impact of a community-based program on early childhood development. (United States)

    Kotchabhakdi, N J


    To determine the impact of an integrated community-based program in rural villages on early childhood development, a controlled trial was conducted in the Nakhon Sawan province of Thailand. The program involved the cooperation of governmental agencies, nongovernmental agencies, academic institutions, and community organizations. At baseline, 3 control and 3 program villages were similar in terms of nutritional status, developmental performance and parental care. After 2 years of intervention in the program villages, improvements were noted in nutritional status, developmental performance, and intelligence quotient scores, as well as overall utilization of health care resources and parental attitude and involvement.

  19. Effective Early Childhood Education Programs: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Slavin, Robert E.; Smith, Dewi; Laurenzano, Mary


    This report systematically reviews research on the outcomes of programs that teach young children in a group setting before they begin kindergarten. Study inclusion criteria included the use of randomized or matched control groups, evidence of initial equality, and study duration of at least 12 weeks. Studies included valid measures of language,…

  20. Move to Learn, Learn to Move: Prioritizing Physical Activity in Early Childhood Education Programming (United States)

    Lu, Chunlei; Montague, Brandi


    The global childhood trend towards obesity and unhealthy lifestyles is a growing concern. Childcare settings have been identified as the most influential factors for children's physical activity, and physical activity habits are better formed and maintained if started in early childhood. As a result, early childhood education environments are in…

  1. An impact evaluation of Plan Indonesia's early childhood program. (United States)

    Aboud, Frances E; Proulx, Kerrie; Asrilla, Zaitu


    High-quality preschools are known to prepare children for success in primary school. Over half of Indonesia's children now pass through preschools whose quality and effectiveness are unknown. Our goal was to evaluate two government preschool models, namely kindergarten (TK) and the less formal health-post (PAUD), with and without capacity-building efforts of a non-governmental organization (NGO-Plan), on children's language and math skills. Thirteen TK and 17 PAUD Plan-supported and the same number of government-supported preschools were randomly selected from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Five children from each (n = 292) and five who had graduated from each and were now in first grade (n = 241) were randomly selected and tested on language and math measures. The Plan-supported preschools were assessed for quality. Mothers reported on their family's socio-demographic situation and their child's preventive health practices, illnesses and diet over the previous two weeks. Analyses of covariance adjusting for clusters indicated that children attending Plan-supported preschools performed better overall, and especially those in TK preschools. Plan-supported TKs were observed to have higher quality than Plan-supported PAUDs. First graders who graduated from Plan-supported preschools, both TK and PAUD, achieved higher scores on language and math tests than government-supported graduates. Preventive health practices were better in the Plan group, though diet and height-for-age were poor overall. Upgrades to the government preschool program are needed to raise its quality and effectiveness, specifically by introducing a mix of instructional and indoor free-choice play, resources and teacher training to support children's learning.

  2. Cost-effective early childhood development programs from preschool to third grade. (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A


    Although findings on the positive effects of early childhood development programs have been widely disseminated, less attention has been given to program impacts across the entire period of early childhood. This review summarizes evidence on the effects and cost-effectiveness of programs and services from ages 3 to 9. The major focus is preschool programs for 3- and 4-year-olds, full-day kindergarten, school-age programs including reduced class sizes, and preschool-to-third-grade interventions. Participation in preschool programs was found to have relatively large and enduring effects on school achievement and child well-being. High-quality programs for children at risk produce strong economic returns ranging from about $4 per dollar invested to over $10 per dollar invested. Relative to half-day kindergarten, the positive effects of full-day kindergarten have been found to be relatively small and generally do not last for more than a year. Although no formal economic analyses have been conducted, the economic return per dollar invested would be expected to be close to zero. Among early-school-age programs, preschool plus school-age interventions (PK-3) for children at risk are linked to higher levels of school performance into adolescence. The Child-Parent Center PK-3 Program shows a return of $6 to $9 per dollar invested. Class-size reductions show evidence of positive effects, with economic returns of roughly $3 per dollar invested. The causal mechanisms of long-term effects are discussed. Key principles to promote intervention effectiveness are offered.

  3. Planning early childhood audiologic intervention programs on a regional scale: introduction to an Italian study. (United States)

    Orzan, E; Ciciriello, E


    Non-uniform, late, or inappropriate care of childhood with permanent hearing impairment (PHI) predisposes many children to develop communicative- behaviour problems and impaired psychosocial adjustment that can persist in adolescence and adulthood.In March 2014, the CCM (Centro Controllo Malattie or Disease Control Centre) of the Italian Ministry of Health funded a project entitled " Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for Early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children". The project involved 5 tertiary centres with UNHS programs formally approved by the Region. The main purpose of the project is to define and launch an integrated regionally-based public health model for identification, diagnosis and intervention of childhood PHI. The first phase of the project investigated the state of art and produced recommendations for positive changes in identification, diagnosis, therapy and care of childhood PHI in Italy, taking into account diagnostic and treatment innovations, family empowerment, treatment alliance and an interdisciplinary approach. Recommendations drawn from this initial phase will represent the basis for a regional system for early intervention that is validated, integrated and shared between the five regions. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  4. [Advances in early childhood development: from neurons to big scale programs]. (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Alonso-Cuevas, Aranzazú; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    Early childhood development (ECD) is the basis of countries' economic and social development and their ability to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Gestation and the first three years of life are critical for children to have adequate physical, psychosocial, emotional and cognitive development for the rest of their lives. Nurturing care and protection of children during gestation and early childhood are necessary for the development of trillions of neurons and trillions of synapses necessary for development. ECD requires access to good nutrition and health services from gestation, responsive caregiving according to the child's developmental stage, social protection and child welfare, and early stimulation and learning opportunities. Six actions are recommended to improve national ECD programs: expand political will and funding; create a supportive, evidence-based policy environment; build capacity through inter-sectoral coordination; ensure fair and transparent governance of programs and services; increase support for multidisciplinary research; and promote the development of leaders. Mexico has made significant progress under the leadership of the Health Ministry, but still faces significant challenges. The recent creation of a national inter-sectoral framework to enable ECD with support of international organizations and the participation of civil society organizations can help overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Influences of Childhood Experiences on Early Childhood Education Students


    Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin


    This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...

  6. The Effect of a Classroom-Based Intensive Robotics and Programming Workshop on Sequencing Ability in Early Childhood (United States)

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina U.


    This paper examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability during a 1-week intensive robotics workshop at an early childhood STEM magnet school in the Harlem area of New York City. Children participated in computer programming activities using a developmentally appropriate tangible programming language CHERP, specifically designed…

  7. Healthy Children, Healthy Lives: The Wellness Guide for Early Childhood Programs (United States)

    Bergen, Sharon; Robertson, Rachel


    Early childhood is a critical time in human development. Understanding and supporting children's wellness early on can make the greatest impact on physical, social and emotional, and cognitive health throughout childhood and adulthood. "Healthy Children, Healthy Lives" provides a comprehensive collection of checklists and research ­based…

  8. Leadership in Early Childhood Special Education (United States)

    Arora, Samita Berry


    With the demands of high quality early childhood special education programs within public school settings, there is a need to place emphasis on research and training regarding early childhood leaders and managers in this complex and diverse field. The focus of this research is to examine what early childhood special education (ECSE) leadership…

  9. Impact of North Carolina's Early Childhood Programs and Policies on Educational Outcomes in Elementary School. (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A; Bai, Yu; Ladd, Helen F; Muschkin, Clara G


    North Carolina's Smart Start and More at Four (MAF) early childhood programs were evaluated through the end of elementary school (age 11) by estimating the impact of state funding allocations to programs in each of 100 counties across 13 consecutive years on outcomes for all children in each county-year group (n = 1,004,571; 49% female; 61% non-Latinx White, 30% African American, 4% Latinx, 5% other). Student-level regression models with county and year fixed effects indicated significant positive impacts of each program on reading and math test scores and reductions in special education and grade retention in each grade. Effect sizes grew or held steady across years. Positive effects held for both high- and low-poverty families, suggesting spillover of effects to nonparticipating peers. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.


    Priddis, Lynn E; Matacz, Rochelle; Weatherston, Deborah


    This article describes findings from a project conducted in Western Australia (Mental Health Commission WA, 2015) that investigated the education and training needs of the Infant/Early Childhood Mental Health (I/ECMH) workforce. We examined international training programs and models of delivery in infant mental health, including a review of the current training available in Australia. Data collected from over 60 interviews were analyzed, and a staged delivery model for I/ECMH training and supervision that aligned with the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) Competency Guidelines was recommended. These findings led to the purchase of the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) for use in Western Australia. In a very short time, use of the Michigan Competency Framework by the Australian Association for Infant Mental Health West Australian Branch Incorporated has begun to change the training and education opportunities for upskilling the infant and early childhood workforce in Western Australia. It has resulted in a map to guide and develop training in the I/ECMH field for individual practitioners and professionals as well as for workplaces that will ultimately benefit Western Australian infants, young children, and their families during the perinatal period and in the early years. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program. (United States)

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice


    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers.

  12. Quality Improvement Efforts among Early Childhood Education Programs Participating in Iowa's Quality Rating System. REL 2017-244 (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Faria, Ann-Marie; Bouacha, Nora; Lee, Dong Hoon; Metzger, Ivan


    This report describes the quality improvement efforts of early childhood education programs participating in Iowa's Quality Rating System (QRS). It identifies supports and barriers to quality improvement and examines how quality improvement supports and activities relate to changes in program quality ratings across time. The study team developed…

  13. Cost-effectiveness of a disease management program for early childhood caries. (United States)

    Samnaliev, Mihail; Wijeratne, Rashmi; Kwon, Eunhae Grace; Ohiomoba, Henry; Ng, Man Wai


    To assess the cost-effectiveness of a pilot disease management (DM) program aimed at preventing early childhood caries among children younger than 5 years. The DM program was implemented in the Boston Children's Hospital-based dental practice in 2008. Health care costs were obtained from the hospital finance department and non-health care costs were estimated through a parent survey. The measure of effectiveness was avoided hospital-based visits for restorative treatment or extractions. Incremental costs (2011 US$) and effectiveness were estimated from a health care system, societal, and public payer perspectives over 3, 6, and 12 months, by comparing DM participants (n = 395) to a historical comparison group (n = 123) using generalized linear models. Bootstrapping and other sensitivity analyses were used to incorporate uncertainty in the analyses. The DM program was associated with a reduction in societal costs of $20 (p = 0.85), $215 (p = 0.24), and $669 (p costly and more effective was 61.5 percent, 81.9 percent, and 98.6 percent over 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Consistent results were observed from a health care system and public payer perspectives. The DM program appears cost-effective and has the potential to reduce health care costs. Our results justify a multicenter trial to evaluate the DM program on a larger scale. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  14. Tooth decay - early childhood (United States)

    Bottle mouth; Bottle carries; Baby bottle tooth decay; Early childhood caries (ECC) ... inside of your baby's mouth healthy and prevents tooth decay. If you are bottle-feeding your baby: Give babies, ages newborn to ...

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of a micronutrient supplementation and early childhood stimulation program in Nicaragua. (United States)

    Lopez Boo, Florencia; Palloni, Giordano; Urzua, Sergio


    This paper estimates the cost-benefit ratio for an integrated early childhood development program in Nicaragua (PAININ). Using longitudinal data, we estimate the average treatment effects of PAININ including micronutrient sprinkles on the prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin levels among disadvantaged children aged 6-36 months. We also estimate the effects of PAININ excluding sprinkles on cognitive outcomes among children aged 2.5-5 years. In the younger age group the program reduced anemia by 4 percentage points after 8 months and nearly 6 percentage points after 1 year; the latter is a 26% decrease in anemia. In the older age group, the program improved verbal and numeric memory after a year and a half, but the effects were modest (0.13 SD). When analyzing its potential impact on earnings, we conclude that the discounted annual costs of the program per child are less than the discounted annual increase in beneficiary earnings. Specifically, we estimate a cost-benefit ratio of 1.50 from the PAININ plus sprinkles package. Our sensitivity analysis suggests a range for this ratio between 1.30 and 2.30. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Exploring Options in Early Childhood Care in Singapore: Programs and Roles (United States)

    Zhang, Kaili C.


    Early childhood care options and practices differ around the world, as influenced by societal perspectives and needs. As early educators and policymakers around the world work to improve education and care services to better serve young children and their families, we must consider context-specific values and standards of quality to ensure early…

  17. Creating Positive Contexts of Reception: The Value of Immigrant Teachers in U.S. Early Childhood Education Programs (United States)

    Adai, Jennifer Keys


    Young children of immigrants are increasingly part of early childhood programs in the United States but teachers have mixed approaches and attitudes about the immigrant families that they work with. This article details an analysis of 50 preschool teachers in five US cities using data from the Children Crossing Borders video-cued ethnographic…

  18. Data Collection and Use in Early Childhood Education Programs: Evidence from the Northeast Region. Stated Briefly. REL 2015-085 (United States)

    Zweig, Jacqueline; Irwin, Clare W.; Kook, Janna Fuccillo; Cox, Josh


    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. This study explores how seven early childhood education programs in a mid-sized city in the Northeast region are collecting and using data, how they would like to use data, how they could use the data that they have, and the…

  19. A pilot feasibility evaluation of the CALM Program for anxiety disorders in early childhood (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Puliafico, Anthony C.; Aschenbrand, Sasha G.; McKnight, Kate; Robin, Joanna A.; Goldfine, Matthew E.; Albano, Anne Marie


    As many as 9% of preschoolers suffer from an anxiety disorder, and earlier onset of disorder is associated with more intractable forms of psychopathology in later life. At present there is a relative dearth of empirical work examining the development of evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders presenting in early childhood. Building on previous work supporting extensions of PCIT for separation anxiety disorder, the present study examines the preliminary feasibility and efficacy of an anxiety-based modification of PCIT (The CALM Program; Coaching Approach behavior and Leading by Modeling) for the treatment of youth between the ages of three and eight presenting with separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and/or specific phobias (N=9; Mage=5.4 years, ranging 4–8 years; 55.6% of families endorsing racial or ethnic minority status). Intent-to-treat (ITT; N=9) and treatment completer (N=7) analyses were conducted to evaluate diagnostic and functional response across participants. Pre- and posttreatment structured diagnostic interviews were conducted (ADIS-C/P), and clinical impression measures were completed (e.g., CGI, CGAS). Roughly 80% of the sample completed all treatment sessions. All treatment completers were categorized as global treatment responders by independent evaluators, with all but one showing full diagnostic improvements, and all but one showing meaningful functional improvements. These findings lend preliminary support for the promising role of live parent coaching for the treatment of a range of anxiety disorders that present in early childhood. Future work is needed to replicate the present findings in larger samples utilizing randomized controlled comparisons. PMID:21917417

  20. Home visitation programs: An untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Galama, Titus; Goran, Michael I.


    Background Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: 1) short duration and low intensity; 2) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; 3) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and 4) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. Objective This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. Conclusion The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (1) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health due to socio-economic and structural conditions; (2) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (3) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. PMID:27911984

  1. Childhood Immunization: A Key Component of Early Childhood Development (United States)

    Messonnier, Nancy


    Physical health is a key component of early childhood development and school readiness. By keeping children healthy and decreasing the chances of disease outbreaks, immunizations help early childhood programs create a safe environment for children. While overall vaccination rates are high nationally for most vaccines routinely recommended for…

  2. Long-term effectiveness of a nutritional program in reducing early childhood caries: a randomized trial. (United States)

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Vítolo, Márcia Regina


    To investigate the effectiveness of home visits advising mothers about healthy feeding practices during the first year of life on the occurrence of early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries at 4 years of age. We conducted a parallel randomized trial of mothers of single, full-term children with birthweight > or = 2500g in São Leopoldo, Brazil. The intervention group received monthly advice up to 6 months and then at 8, 10 and 12 months by undergraduate nutrition students, based on the "Ten Steps for Healthy Feeding'', a Brazilian national health policy for primary care based on World Health Organization guidelines. The primary outcome was the occurrence of early childhood caries at age four. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe early childhood caries and the number of affected teeth: decayed (white spots and cavities), missing and filled teeth (d(1+)mft). Blinded observers ascertained feeding habits in the home and one blinded dentist performed dental examinations in a municipal clinic. This study is registered with, number NCT00629629. Of 500 mother-child pairs (200 intervention, 300 control) enrolled, 340 (141 intervention, 199 control) completed 4 year follow-up. As 138 (69.3%) controls but only 76 (53.9%) intervention children had early childhood caries, home counseling reduced incidence by 22% (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.65-0.93). Severe early childhood caries incidence was reduced by 32% (RR 0.68; 95% CI 050-0.92). The mean number of affected teeth was lower for the intervention group (3.25) compared with the control group (4.15) (Mann Whitney U-test; p=0.023). No adverse effects were noted. Home nutritional advice during the first year of life decreases caries incidence and severity at four years of age in a low income community.

  3. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale Ruby


    . Discussion Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity during the first years of life, this period may represent the best opportunity for obesity prevention. Findings from this investigation will inform both the fields of childhood obesity prevention and early childhood research about the effects of an obesity prevention program housed in the childcare setting. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT01722032

  4. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting. (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah, Sarah E; Schrack, Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan


    during the first years of life, this period may represent the best opportunity for obesity prevention. Findings from this investigation will inform both the fields of childhood obesity prevention and early childhood research about the effects of an obesity prevention program housed in the childcare setting. NCT01722032.

  5. Coaching Conversations in Early Childhood Programs: The Contributions of Coach and Coachee (United States)

    Jayaraman, Gayatri; Marvin, Christine; Knoche, Lisa; Bainter, Sue


    Studies to date have linked early childhood (EC) coaching to child, family, and teacher outcomes but have not investigated "what" is happening in a coaching conversation. This exploratory study specifically unpacks nuances associated with the coaching conversation process and associations between the EC coaches' behaviors and coachees'…

  6. Early Childhood Teachers' Empowerment and Implementation of Teaching Method Programs for Child Development in Science Education (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Yoeun


    This article explores the research participants' changing attitude as early childhood teachers for attention to children, and how taking risks in science education get along with their teaching actions. Researcher views these as potentially positive aspects of attitude toward science teaching and belief on empowerment of teachers. Therefore,…

  7. Music in Early Childhood. (United States)

    Feierabend, John


    Argues that music activities in early childhood education foster a variety of developmental skills. Analyzes Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, contending that music intelligence is a separate intelligence. Provides ways to identify and promote musical intelligence. Suggests methods for encouraging musical development. Using songs…

  8. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes


    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  9. Early Childhood Trauma (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010


    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…



    Sayid Habiburrahman


    Public awareness of the importance of early childhood education is getting better with the emergence of various forms of diverse early childhood institutions. This phenomenon is very interesting to continue to develop early childhood education program. This consciousness departs from understanding the purpose of early childhood education programs that facilitate the optimal growth and development of children in accordance with the norms and values. Through proper educational programs, the chi...

  11. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting


    Natale Ruby; Scott Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah Sarah E; Schrack Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn Susan B; Delamater Alan


    Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomi...


    Dirani, Julien; Raad, Hala; Akoury-Dirani, Leyla


    Early childhood mental health programs are vital for the current and future mental health and brain development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Founded in 2014, Safe Start is the only early childhood mental health program in Beirut, Lebanon. It aims at being the prototype of such services at the national level. A retrospective analysis of the outcomes of the first year of operations has resulted in important findings about the age of the participants, their diagnoses, previous therapies that the participants have undergone, types of referrals recommended, and the number of participants who were lost to follow-up. This first analysis pointed at the need for more in-depth research to encompass the gaps and benefits of such services. It shows the pivotal importance of designing awareness strategies about the importance of early childhood mental health services and care; to move from a diagnostic seeking behavior to commitment to psychotherapy and follow-up interventions. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood


    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER


    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  14. Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Home Visiting (United States)

    Korfmacher, Jon; Green, Beth; Staerkel, Fredi; Peterson, Carla; Cook, Gina; Roggman, Lori; Faldowski, Richard A.; Schiffman, Rachel


    This review provides an overview of an important aspect of early childhood home visiting research: understanding how parents are involved in program services and activities. Involvement is defined as the process of the parent connecting with and using the services of a program to the best of the client's and the program's ability. The term…

  15. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema


    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  16. Physical Science in Constructivist Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra


    Teachers at the Freeburg Early Childhood Program know that experimentation with physical science is of great interest to young children, and can begin as early as the age of 3. The constructivist teachers at this experimental school at the University of Northern Iowa worked for six years to develop a center-based approach to physical science with…

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Class Sizes and Ratios in Early Childhood Education Programs: Are Thresholds of Quality Associated with Greater Impacts on Cognitive, Achievement, and Socioemotional Outcomes? (United States)

    Bowne, Jocelyn Bonnes; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Schindler, Holly S.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu


    This study uses data from a comprehensive database of U.S. early childhood education program evaluations published between 1960 and 2007 to evaluate the relationship between class size, child-teacher ratio, and program effect sizes for cognitive, achievement, and socioemotional outcomes. Both class size and child-teacher ratio showed nonlinear…

  18. A randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity - Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yingting


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Design and methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse. The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. Discussion The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy

  19. Oral health promotion in early childhood: age of joining preventive program and behavioral aspects. (United States)

    Lemos, Letícia Vargas Freire Martins; Myaki, Silvio Issáo; Walter, Luiz Reynaldo de Figueiredo; Zuanon, Angela Cristina Cilense


    To analyze the interference of age in the entrance into a public dental care program for infants as well as family behavioral aspects about tooth decay experience in children 0 to 4 years old. Cross-sectional study involving 465 children who were divided into 3 groups: infants whose mothers joined the program during pregnancy (n=50); infants enrolled in the program during the first year of life (n=230); and infants enrolled in the program between 13 and 18 months old (n=185). The χ(2) and Kruskal-Walis tests (95% confidence interval) were used to assess the relationship among variables. There was an association between the age of entrance in the programs and dental caries (p0.05) and daily oral care (p=0.214) were common variables in the groups with 99% of occurrence. Commitment to attend follow-up visits, nighttime oral care and parents' educational level (p>0.05) were considered protective factors for dental caries. Cariogenic diet and night feeding were determinant factors to the appearance of dental caries. To promote children oral health it is essential to enroll children in oral health programs and adopt healthy habits as early as possible, besides the adherence of the child to their parents' advice.

  20. Promoting School and Life Success through Early Childhood Family Literacy (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.


    Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.

  1. "I Have a Hippopotamus!": Preparing Effective Early Childhood Environmental Educators (United States)

    Torquati, Julia; Leeper-Miller, Jennifer; Hamel, Erin; Hong, Soo-Young; Sarver, Susan; Rupiper, Michelle


    This article describes an early childhood teacher-preparation program that infuses environmental education and nature experiences into courses, practicum, and student-teaching experiences. Program philosophy, pedagogy, materials, and methods are described and linked to the Early Childhood Environmental Education Programs: Guidelines for…

  2. Interventions aimed at reducing obesity in early childhood: a meta-analysis of programs that involve parents. (United States)

    Yavuz, H Melis; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Mesman, Judi; van der Veek, Shelley


    Obesity is a growing problem even in very young childhood, resulting in high costs for individuals and society. As a response, numerous obesity prevention and intervention programs have been developed. Previous research has shown that early intervention programs are more effective when parents are involved, but the effectiveness of specific aspects of programs with parental involvement has not been investigated. This meta-analysis aims to investigate the features related to the effectiveness of different types of obesity intervention programs involving parents and targeting young children (0-6-year-olds). The Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and ERIC databases were searched for childhood obesity prevention and intervention programs involving parents. Data were analyzed using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis (CMA) software. Fifty studies with effect sizes measured at short-term follow-up (within 3 months from the end of the intervention) and 26 studies with effect sizes measured at long-term follow-up (all reported in a total of 49 publications) were identified. The combined effect size of interventions was small but significant at short-term follow-up (d = .08, p interventions were not effective at long-term follow-up. Multivariate meta-regression analyses showed that interventions were more effective when including either interactive sessions or educational materials as opposed to those including both interactive sessions and noninteractive educational materials. No other moderators regarding sample characteristics, study design, or methodological quality were significant. Interventions targeting young children that require parental involvement are effective at short-term follow-up, specifically when interventions include one mode of intervention rather than two. However, results were not retained in the long run. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Quality and equity in early childhood care in Peru (United States)

    Izu, Regina Moromizato


    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The study concludes with a reference to the importance of monitoring quality and equity in early childhood care.

  4. Early intervention program reduces stress in parents of preterms during childhood, a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Landsem, Inger Pauline; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Tunby, Jorunn; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Rønning, John A


    It is well documented that heightened levels of parenting stress have a negative influence on children's socio-emotional and behavioral development. Parenting stress may therefore be regarded as an outcome variable in its own right. This study investigated whether a sensitizing intervention influences stress reported by parents of prematurely born children until the children were age nine. Preterm infants (N = 146, birth weight Parents reported on the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) when the children were 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 years old and on the PSI-Short Form (PSI-SF) at age 9. Main outcomes were the mother's and father's reports of total, child and parent-related stress. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed using linear mixed models (LMM), taking dependency in the data caused by twin pairs and repeated measures into account. Response rates were high across all follow-ups, and still reached 85% from mothers and 72% from fathers at 9 years. Mothers in the intervention group reported better longitudinal development of child-related stress than mothers of preterm controls, as they perceived their children as being more adaptable and less moody throughout childhood until the age of seven. Less stress in the intervention group was revealed by cross-sectional analysis of maternal reports at all ages, while fathers reported similar differences at ages three and five. Parents in the intervention group reported stronger agreement on several stress scores on several occasions. Fathers with high interventional participation (mean 54%) reported significantly less stress at age nine than those who participated less. Both parents in the intervention group reported levels of stress similar to those experienced by the term reference group at all follow-ups, while differences between the preterm control and term reference groups increased. This early intervention reduces stress among parents of prematurely born children to a level reported by parents of term

  5. Do the Effects of Early Childhood Programs on Academic Outcomes Vary by Gender? A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Kelchen, Robert; Magnuson, Katherine; Duncan, Greg; Schindler, Holly; Shager, Hilary; Yoshikawa, Hiro


    It has become typical for children to attend some type of early childhood education (ECE) before entering kindergarten. A recent reanalysis of Perry Preschool and two other prominent experimental ECE studies (Abecedarian and the Early Training Project) by Anderson (2008) comes to a provocative conclusion, finding that female participants gained…

  6. The Influence of a Short Intervention Program on Early Childhood and Physical Education Teachers' Ability to Identify Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (United States)

    Kourtessis, Thomas; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Maheridou, Maria; Ellinoudis, Theodoros; Kiparissis, Michael; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis


    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a short intervention program designed to enhance the educators' ability to identify children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Twenty early childhood and 20 physical education teachers (n = 40) participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned into an…

  7. State Department Early Childhood Education Program Specialists' Review of the Content and Technical Quality of AEL's "Around the Bend" Pilot Tapes. Technical Report No. 30. (United States)

    Shively, Joe E.

    In order to determine whether Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL) had the capacity to produce a TV series of technical quality and whose content meets criteria designed for the selection of children's television programs, two pilot tapes were produced by AEL and submitted for rating to seven early childhood education specialists from seven…

  8. Impacts of an In-Service Education Program on Promoting Language Development in Young Children: A Pilot Study with Early Childhood Educators (United States)

    Scarinci, Nerina; Rose, Tanya; Pee, Jerrine; Webb, Kylie


    Early childhood educators (ECEs) play an important role in fostering language development in young children. In-service education, led by speech-language pathologists (SLPs), has a potential role in educating ECEs about language development. In this pilot study, 42 ECEs attended an in-service education program and completed pre- and…

  9. Rowing the Weaves of Community Participation: Good Practices in Early Childhood Development (ECD) Program in Rural Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara (United States)

    Abdillah, Ali


    This paper describes the rural community participation within the context of an integrated early childhood development program initiated by the government of Indonesia in partnership with UNICEF and AusAID in Central Lombok (2008-2010). Based on purposive interviews with relevant stakeholders, as well as an analysis of past documents, researchers'…

  10. Family and Professional Priorities for Inclusive Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Hurley, Jennifer J.; Horn, Eva M.


    The purpose of this study was to provide information about what characteristics from the variety of inclusive early childhood programs are most valued and least valued by families and professionals. Participants were 10 family members of young children with disabilities being served in inclusive programs and 10 early childhood professionals…

  11. Constructivism and Jewish Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Muller, Meir


    Having an educational theory as a school's foundation is a key component in successful educational endeavors. However, many Jewish early childhood programs do not commonly use educational theory to support methods of instruction. In this study 14 children from a constructivist-based Jewish kindergarten class are interviewed to determine how they…

  12. Emotional Intersections in Early Childhood Leadership (United States)

    Baldwin, Nikki A.


    The purpose of this study was to use qualitative research methods to explore the emotional experiences of three early childhood education leaders directing diverse programs in the Rocky Mountain Region. Application of a poststructural theoretical framework was completed to better understand how leaders' emotion was performed within social and…

  13. Prevention of early childhood caries. (United States)

    Ismail, A I


    This paper reviews the methods used for the prevention of early childhood caries (ECC). The education of mothers or caregivers to promote healthy dietary habits in infants has been the main strategy used for the prevention of ECC. This review found that education has a modest impact on the development of ECC. While education should be promoted especially in high risk communities and population groups (low-income families and native populations), it should not be the only preventive strategy of ECC. Early screening for signs of caries development, starting from the first year of life, could identify infants and toddlers who are at risk of developing ECC and assist in providing information to parents about how to promote oral health and prevent the development of tooth decay. High risk children include those with early signs of ECC, poor oral hygiene, limited exposure to fluorides, and frequent exposure to sugary snacks and drinks. These children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes fluoride varnish application, fluoridated dentifrices, fluoride supplements, sealants, diet counseling, and chlorhexidine. Prevention of ECC also requires addressing the social and economic factors that face many families where ECC is endemic.

  14. Design Application Early Childhood Education Based Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study aims to make learning media for Early Childhood Education in the form especially its mobile applications for Android-based smartphones. In the process of teaching and learning for Early Childhood Education is still often found constraints experienced teaching force is limited props so that learners are less eager to learn. In addition, parents also have difficulty returning to guide or teach the learning materials at home because it has no alternative instructional media. In compiling this research report author uses the Android-based Mobile Devices Applications created using the Java programming language through the Eclipse editor. Based on the results of the research, concluded that these applications can be applied in the latest version of the Android platform to its current platform version of Jellybean. Application of Learning can be used as an alternative way of learning for Early Childhood Education so as to overcome the lack of props in institutions of Early Childhood Education, can be used to be taught at home, and provide new teaching methods to early childhood so that a form of learning that is obtained is not the monotony of one form of learning how.

  15. A review of a community program aimed at preventing early childhood caries among Jerusalem infants--a brief communication. (United States)

    Livny, Alon; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D


    Early childhood caries (ECC) has not been adequately investigated in Israel. A previous Jerusalem study has demonstrated a potential effect on toothbrushing among infants. The present study was initiated in order to examine caries prevalence and the potential effect of a community intervention program. This study aims to review an intervention program and assess ECC distribution and associated variables. The study sample included 1,500 infants in matched "intervention" and "control" Mother and Child Health centers. The 2-year program, initially including all children at the age of 6 months, focused on the free distribution of toothbrushes and toothpastes. ECC prevalence was determined in a cross-sectional study. At 2.5 years, 596 children were examined (40 percent compliance). About half of the parents reported that they had participated once or not at all over the 2-year period, which demonstrated low program participation. Among the examined children, ECC prevalence was 15.3 percent. No difference in caries levels was found between the program and control groups. The reported level of brushing twice daily was 13.9 percent, while 26.8 percent reported not brushing at all. Eighty-one percent reported going to bed at night with a bottle. Children who drank sugar-sweetened beverages had ECC levels significantly higher than those who drank milk or natural juice (18.8 percent versus 8.9 percent). The dental health and behavior and lack of intervention success emphasized the need to seek a more effective strategy. Emphasis on toothbrushing might not be the only nor optimal solution for this serious public health problem.

  16. A Primary Care-Based Early Childhood Nutrition Intervention: Evaluation of a Pilot Program Serving Low-Income Hispanic Women. (United States)

    Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Lopez, Veronica; Flores, Bianca; Lawhon, Brittany


    Nutrition in early childhood can significantly impact physical and mental health outcomes for children. However, research on broadly defined pre/postnatal nutrition interventions is sparse. The present study is a process and outcome evaluation of a primary care-based nutrition intervention targeting low-income Hispanic women. Pregnant women enrolled in the program were in their first trimester and received services through their 6-month well child check. The program provided vouchers for fruits and vegetables from the local farmers' market, nutrition classes, cooking classes, and lactation counseling. We conducted a prospective study of program participants (n = 32) and a comparable group of women for whom the program was not available (n = 29). Panel survey data measured maternal diet, exercise, stress, depression, social support, infant feeding practices, and demographics. Outcome measures obtained from medical records included pregnancy weight gain, infant weight at 6 and 12 months, and infant development at 9 months. Findings reveal that the program was not associated with infant weights. However, despite similar profiles at baseline, women in the intervention group were more likely than women in the comparison group to have significant improvements in diet, exercise, and depression (p ≤ .05). In addition, participants were more likely to breastfeed (p = .07) and their infants were more likely to pass the ages and stages developmental screen (p = .06) than women in the comparison group. The study was limited by a lack of random assignment and small samples. However, the breadth and size of the effects suggest pre/postnatal nutrition interventions integrated into primary care warrant additional investigation.

  17. Creating Supportive Breastfeeding Policies in Early Childhood Education Programs: A Qualitative Study from a Multi-Site Intervention. (United States)

    Calloway, Eric E; Stern, Katie L; Schober, Daniel J; Yaroch, Amy L


    Objectives To understand the process by which early childhood education (ECE) providers effectively used an existing intervention to facilitate the creation or strengthening of a written breastfeeding policy, understand the factors important to this process, and present a logic model to guide future intervention design and evaluation. Methods A purposive sample of interviewees who recently completed an ECE nutrition and physical activity intervention and reported positive pre-post scores for breastfeeding support were recruited to complete semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded, following a Grounded Theory approach. Results The ECE programs (n = 23) had a written breastfeeding policy and were located across six states in the United States. The most common aspects of breastfeeding support covered in the policies were handling and storing of breastmilk, pieces of equipment to be provided (e.g., breast pump), and the creation of a space or room designated for breastfeeding and pumping. Many factors important to the policy creation process were identified such as motivation, education, technical assistance, perceptions of parental indifference, staff buy-in, and time and administrative constraints. Once motivated to create a policy, ECE providers described actions, such as gathering background information and model policies, discussing policy needs with stakeholders, utilizing technical assistance, and overcoming barriers. Conclusions for Practice From these findings, a logic model was created to guide future intervention design and evaluation, and several recommendations were made to help guide subsequent interventions in promoting the development and implementation of written breastfeeding policies at ECE programs.

  18. 34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program. (United States)


    ... complete academic year, or its equivalent. (5) In order to qualify for cancellation, the borrower's salary... of qualifying service, for each complete academic year, or its equivalent, of full-time teaching... addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social...

  19. Constructing the ScratchJr Programming Language in the Early Childhood Classroom (United States)

    Portelance, Dylan J.; Strawhacker, Amanda L.; Bers, Marina Umaschi


    This paper seeks to contribute to the growing literature on children and computer programming by focusing on a programming language for children in Kindergarten through second grade. Sixty-two students were exposed to a 6-week curriculum using ScartchJr. They learned foundational programming concepts and applied those concepts to create personally…

  20. The early childhood oral health program: a qualitative study of the perceptions of child and family health nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia. (United States)

    Veale, Maxine; Ajwani, Shilpi; Johnson, Maree; Nash, Linda; Patterson, Tiffany; George, Ajesh


    Early childhood caries affects nearly half the population of Australian children aged 5 years and has the potential to negatively impact their growth and development. To address this issue, an Early Childhood Oral Health (ECOH) program, facilitated by Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs), commenced in 2007 in New South Wales, Australia. This study builds on the previous evaluation of the program. It aims to explore the perceptions of CFHNs regarding the implementation of the ECOH program in South Western Sydney and the challenges and barriers related to its sustainability. A descriptive qualitative design was used in this study. Two focus groups were conducted with 22 CFHNs who were sampled from two Community Health Centres in South Western Sydney, Australia. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. Most CFHNs acknowledged the importance of early childhood oral health promotion and were providing education, oral assessments and referrals during child health checks. Many stressed the need for collaboration with other health professionals to help broaden the scope of the program. Some barriers to implementing the program included confusion regarding the correct referral process, limited feedback from dental services and the lack of oral health awareness among parents. The study findings suggest that the ECOH program is being sustained and effectively implemented into practice by CFHNs. Improvement in the referral and feedback process as well as enhancing parental knowledge of the importance of infant and child oral health could further strengthen the effectiveness of the program. Expanding oral health education opportunities into general practice is advocated, while regular on-line training for CFHNs is preferred. Future research should include strategies to reduce non-attendances, and an assessment of the impact on the prevalence of childhood caries of the ECOH program.

  1. Programas de Educacion Inicial en America Latina y los Curriculos Nacionales en el siglo XXI. [Latin American Early Childhood Educational Programs and National Curriculum in the 21st Century. (United States)

    Peralta, Maria Victoria


    Describes the history of early childhood education in Chile and recent educational reforms. Offers an overview of the Chilean Early Childhood Education program and discusses the new national curriculum and issues arising from its implementation. Describes methods taken to help implement the new curriculum nationwide and to assist teachers in…

  2. Promoting Positive Family Interactions: Evaluating a Free Early Childhood Book Distribution Program (United States)

    Funge, Simon P.; Sullivan, Dana J.; Tarter, Kirsten


    The Dolly Parton Imagination Library (DPIL) program encourages reading among families of preschool children by mailing age-appropriate books, once per month, until the child reaches the age of five. An evaluation of a DPIL program in a southern state in the U.S. was conducted to assess the impact on enrolled children. Focus groups were conducted…

  3. Scientifically Based Reading Research Strategies in the Preschool Classroom: An Investigation into Quality Early Childhood Reading Practices and Literacy Acquisition in One Northern Michigan Early Reading First Program (United States)

    McCool, Yvonne Donohoe


    A growing body of research has emerged to support the concept of providing early childhood education as a quality investment for our children, unlocking early potential and creating lasting impacts related to school success and beyond. Several landmark studies indicated that a quality education targeted at our youngest learners has the ability to…

  4. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka


    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  5. Physical Education in Early Childhood (United States)

    Stork, Steve; Sanders, Stephen W.


    This article examines the incidence and quality of physical activity instruction during early childhood. Although the positive effect of physical activity on the cognitive, social, and physical development of young children is generally acknowledged, there is little emphasis nationally on ensuring appropriate physical educational experiences…

  6. SEL Interventions in Early Childhood (United States)

    McClelland, Megan M.; Tominey, Shauna L.; Schmitt, Sara A.; Duncan, Robert


    Young children who enter school without sufficient social and emotional learning (SEL) skills may have a hard time learning. Yet early childhood educators say they do not get enough training to effectively help children develop such skills. In this article, Megan McClelland, Shauna Tominey, Sara Schmitt, and Robert Duncan examine the theory and…

  7. Early Childhood Intervention in China (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane


    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  8. International research in early childhood education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    "The journal of International Research in Early Childhood Education (IRECE) is an electronic peer-reviewed journal designed to provide an international forum for scholarship and research within the field of early childhood education...

  9. Rethinking evidence-based practice and two-generation programs to create the future of early childhood policy. (United States)

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Fisher, Philip A


    Half a century of research and program evaluation has fueled a diverse landscape of early childhood policies and practices that produce a range of positive effects on the life prospects of children who face the burdens of significant adversity. Drawing on advances in neurobiology, developmental psychology, developmental psychopathology, and prevention science, this paper presents a framework for elucidating underlying causal mechanisms that explain differences in outcomes, formulating enhanced theories of change about how to shift developmental trajectories, designing creative interventions and rethinking the concept of a two-generation strategy to produce breakthrough impacts, and launching a new era of investment in young children and their families that will achieve greater reductions in intergenerational disparities in learning, behavior, and health than those produced by current best practices. Particular attention is focused on the hypothesis that substantially better outcomes for vulnerable, young children could be achieved by greater attention to strengthening the resources and capabilities of the adults who care for them rather than by continuing to focus primarily on the provision of child-focused enrichment, parenting education, and informal support. Central to achieving this goal is the need to establish an innovation-friendly environment that embraces fast-cycle sharing, supports risk taking, and celebrates learning from failure.

  10. Home literacy experiences and early childhood disability: a descriptive study using the National Household Education Surveys (NHES) program database. (United States)

    Breit-Smith, Allison; Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M


    The present article illustrates how the National Household Education Surveys (NHES; U.S. Department of Education, 2009) database might be used to address questions of relevance to researchers who are concerned with literacy development among young children. Following a general description of the NHES database, a study is provided that examines the extent to which parent-reported home literacy activities and child emergent literacy skills differ for children with (a) developmental disabilities versus those who are developing typically, (b) single disability versus multiple disabilities, and (c) speech-language disability only versus other types of disabilities. Four hundred and seventy-eight preschool-age children with disabilities and a typically developing matched sample (based on parent report) were identified in the 2005 administration of the Early Childhood Program Participation (ECPP) Survey in the NHES database. Parent responses to survey items were then compared between groups. After controlling for age and socioeconomic status, no significant differences were found in the frequency of home literacy activities for children with and without disabilities. Parents reported higher levels of emergent literacy skills for typically developing children relative to children with disabilities. These findings suggest the importance of considering the home literacy experiences and emergent literacy skills of young children with disabilities when making clinical recommendations.

  11. Using Online Psychological Consultation in Early Childhood Student Teacher Preparation (United States)

    Epstein, Ann; Dygdon, Judith A.


    This paper describes the incorporation of online psychological consultation regarding child behavior in an early childhood teacher education program. The authors discuss psychological consultation in terms of current theory and philosophy in early childhood teacher education in general, and in terms of the professional objectives of this specific…

  12. Early Childhood Racial Identity--The Potential Powerful Role for Museum Programing (United States)

    Hindley, Anna Forgerson; Olsen Edwards, Julie


    This article examines how the National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) approaches conversations on race with young children and their families and teachers. Based on our current understanding of the development of racial identity and race in children between birth and age eight, NMAAHC has developed an Early Childhood…

  13. The extended Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend Program: a cluster-randomized controlled trial of an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Campbell


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how we can prevent childhood obesity in scalable and sustainable ways is imperative. Early RCT interventions focused on the first two years of life have shown promise however, differences in Body Mass Index between intervention and control groups diminish once the interventions cease. Innovative and cost-effective strategies seeking to continue to support parents to engender appropriate energy balance behaviours in young children need to be explored. Methods/Design The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend Program builds on the early outcomes of the Melbourne InFANT Program. This cluster randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an extended (33 versus 15 month and enhanced (use of web-based materials, and Facebook® engagement, version of the original Melbourne InFANT Program intervention in a new cohort. Outcomes at 36 months of age will be compared against the control group. Discussion This trial will provide important information regarding capacity and opportunities to maximize early childhood intervention effectiveness over the first three years of life. This study continues to build the evidence base regarding the design of cost-effective, scalable interventions to promote protective energy balance behaviors in early childhood, and in turn, promote improved child weight and health across the life course. Trial registration ACTRN12611000386932 . Registered 13 April 2011.

  14. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin


    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  15. Effectiveness of a parenting program in Bangladesh to address early childhood health, growth and development. (United States)

    Aboud, Frances E; Singla, Daisy R; Nahil, Md Imam; Borisova, Ivelina


    A stratified cluster design was used to evaluate a 10-month parenting program delivered to mothers of children in rural Bangladesh. Intervention mothers through a combination of group meetings and home visits received messages along with an illustrative card concerning hygiene, responsive feeding, play, communication, gentle discipline, and nutritious foods. Control mothers received the standard government care. Three months prior, 463 children between 4 and 14 months in a subdistrict of western Bangladesh were administered the cognitive, receptive language and expressive language Bayley III subtests, their length was taken and past week illness recorded. Gross motor milestones were reported by the mother and verified through observation. Mothers were interviewed concerning their practices: preventive health practices, dietary diversity, home stimulation, and knowledge about development milestones. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed as a measure of emotional availability. Family sociodemographic variables included maternal education, family assets, decision-making and mobility autonomy. One month after the end of the program, mothers and their children were again assessed. Comparisons were made between intervention and control children who were under-12 months vs. 12 months and older at the start of the program. This may be a critical age, when children begin to be upright and mobile enough to explore on their own and be less dependent on parenting stimulation. Analyses yielded strong intervention effects on the three Bayley subtests and on parenting practices related to stimulation and knowledge of development milestones. Age effects were found only for dietary diversity in that younger children in the program benefited more than older ones. However, all children became more stunted. Findings are discussed in terms of theories of behaviour change and parenting, critical ages for parenting programs, and implications for program delivery. Copyright © 2013

  16. Changing Personal Epistemologies in Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers Using an Integrated Teaching Program (United States)

    Brownlee, Jo; Petriwskyj, Anne; Thorpe, Karen; Stacey, Phillip; Gibson, Megan


    This study investigated changes in pre-service teachers' personal epistemologies as they engaged in an integrated teaching program. Personal epistemology refers to individual beliefs about the nature of knowing and knowledge and has been shown to influence teaching practice. An integrated approach to teaching, based on both an "implicit"…

  17. 76 FR 22713 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation... (United States)


    ... status, school readiness, and domestic violence, among others); (b) the effectiveness of such programs on... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Administration for Children and Families... Administration for Children and Families. The meeting will be open to the public. This notice is being published...

  18. Early childhood intervention : rationale, timing, and efficacy


    Orla Doyle; Richard E. Tremblay; Colm Harmon; James J. Heckman


    This paper provides a brief review of the economic rationale for investing in early childhood. It discusses the optimal timing of intervention, with reference to recent work in developmental neuroscience, and asks how early is early? It motivates the need for early intervention by providing an overview of the impact of adverse factors during the antenatal and early childhood period on outcomes later in life. Early childhood interventions, even poorly designed ones, are costly to implement,...

  19. Using Skype to support remote clinical supervision for health professionals delivering a sustained maternal early childhood program: a phenomenographical study. (United States)

    Bruce, Tracey; Byrne, Fiona; Kemp, Lynn


    Skype technology was implemented by the Australian Maternal Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting (MECSH) Support Service as a tool for the remote provision of clinical supervision and case review processes for clinicians working in the MECSH program in Seoul, South Korea. Clinical supervision and case review are core components of MECSH-based programs to enhance critical thinking and support child and family health nurses to provide services for challenging and complex families within a sustained home visiting context. To gain a better understanding of the processes underpinning sustainable delivery of remote clinical supervision using digital technologies. A phenomenographical study was undertaken to understand the MECSH Support Service Nurse Consultant's experience as a supervisor facilitating the clinical supervision sessions. Recorded notes and reflections on each supervision session, noting exemplars and characteristics of the experience were read and re-read to derive the characterisations of the experience. The experience has provided learnings in three domains: 1) the processes in using Skype, including management of technology, meeting structure and privacy; 2) supervisory processes, including maximising visual capacity for shared understanding and managing emotions; and 3) language translation, including managing clarity of, and time for translation. This study suggests Skype has potential for use in remote provision of clinical supervision and case review, and also to support delivery of supervision and clinical services where translation is required. However, further research evaluating the benefit of telesupervision from the perspectives of both the supervisor and supervisee is necessary to determine if it is a sustainable process for practitioners servicing families with complex needs. Impact statement: Skype has potential as an effective technology for supporting availability of high quality supervision by distance and in cross

  20. Early Childhood--Love (United States)

    Jackson, Sylvia


    If children are to love themselves and others, they must experience love early. And they need to be taught the value of love, since it tends to fall victim to other lesser emotions. Provides suggestions for helping young children to grow in love. (Author/RK)

  1. Penatalaksanaan early childhood caries Management of early childhood caries


    Fajriani Fajriani; Hendrastuty Handayani


    Early childhood caries (ECC), also known as milk bottle caries is a syndrome of severe tooth decay, occurs in infants and children, is an infectious disease that develops rapidly and lead to health problems in children. This syndrome can be caused by inappropriate use of bottles. Most cases of untreated ECC to children aged 20 months. At this stage many children need serious treatment, because this will result in trauma to both the children and parents. The most common treatment E...

  2. Early Childhood Caries and the Impact of Current U.S. Medicaid Program: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussma Ahmed Bugis


    Full Text Available Pediatric dental caries is the most common chronic disease among children. Above 40% of the U.S. children aged 2–11 years have dental caries; more than 50% of them come from low-income families. Under dental services of the Medicaid program, children enrolled in Medicaid must receive preventive dental services. However, only 1/5 of them utilize preventive dental services. The purpose of this overview is to measure the impact of Medicaid dental benefits on reducing oral health disparities among Medicaid-eligible children. This paper explains the importance of preventive dental care, children at high risk of dental caries, Medicaid dental benefits, utilization of dental preventive services by Medicaid-eligible children, dental utilization influencing factors, and outcome evaluation of Medicaid in preventing dental caries among children. In conclusion, despite the recent increase of children enrolled in Medicaid, utilizing preventive dental care is still a real challenge that faces Medicaid.

  3. Scaling up Integrated Early Childhood Development programs: lessons from four countries. (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Cavallera, V; Tomlinson, M; Dua, T


    There is still limited knowledge regarding the translation of early child development (ECD) knowledge into effective policies and large-scale programmes. A variety of frameworks that outline the key steps in scaling up exist, but we argue that taking a complex adaptive systems (CAS) approach assists in understanding the complex, dynamic processes that result in programmes being taken to scale. The objective of this study is to examine the process of scaling up four major country-level ECD programmes through the application of a CAS framework. Nine key informants with a deep knowledge of how each ECD programme was established and brought to scale were interviewed via Skype or phone by using open-ended interviews. The interviews were tape recorded and then transcribed verbatim for subsequent coding by using CAS domains. The coding and integration of the results to identify unique and common CAS scaling up features across the case studies involved an iterative process of reaching consensus. The scaling up of all four programmes behaved as a CAS including as follows: (i) positive feedback loops (five themes) and negative feedback loops (two themes); (ii) scale-free networks (two themes); (iii) phase transitions (four themes); (iv) path dependence (two themes); and (v) emergent behaviour (six themes). Five additional themes were identified for sustainability, which was repeatedly mentioned as an important consideration when deciding how to scale up programmes. CAS analysis is likely to improve our understanding of how effective ECD programmes become scaled up. Prospective CAS implementation research is needed to continue advancing the knowledge in the field. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Improving early childhood literacy and school readiness through Reach Out and Read (ROR) program. (United States)

    Thakur, Kripa; Sudhanthar, Sathyanarayan; Sigal, Yakov; Mattarella, Nina


    Reach out and Read program (ROR) prepares young children to succeed in school by partnering with physicians and training them in handing out age appropriate books and to counsel parents about the importance of reading aloud to their children. Children served by ROR enter kindergarten with stronger vocabulary and language skills. The aim of this project was to improve the rate of distribution of books and physician advice about reading, to the families at each well child visit in the age range of six months to five years. This Quality Improvement (QI) project was conducted in a large inner-city pediatric residency clinic serving a lower socio-economic status under-served population. After reviewing the data from the past two years, we noticed that there was a tremendous drop in the percentage of books handed out at well visits and advice given to parents about benefits of reading aloud and self-reporting of parents reading to their child for four or more days in a week. Two goals were established: 1. To increase the rate of distributing books at every well child visit (WCV) from six months to five years of age by at least 80%. 2. To improve the rate of counseling given by the resident physicians to the families by at least 75%. A workflow was created to efficiently distribute books at well visits. A presentation about the ROR program was attended by all the physicians and residents. Reading tips in each exam room were posted to serve as a reminder for all providers and for the parents. A three question survey was collected from the families at the end of their well visit. A total of 210 surveys were collected from parents over a six month period. The percentage of handing out books at all well child visits increased from 30% to 96%. The rate of providers giving advice about the benefits of reading increased from 26% to 87%. The percentage of parents reading to their child greater than four days per week increased from 56% to 80%. Reading aloud is widely recognized

  5. We Are Your Children: The Kushanda Early Childhood Education and Care Dissemination Programme, Zimbabwe 1985-1993. Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections, Number 7. (United States)

    Booker, Salih

    Part of the series "Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections," this report details the Kushanda Project, an early childhood education program in Zimbabwe. The Kushanda Project is a 16-person organization that has helped parents in rural Zimbabwe communities to understand the value of early childhood education and…

  6. The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Ann


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency and include responses (eg coercion to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal. There is correlational evidence linking parenting style and early feeding practices to child eating behaviour and weight status. A focus on early feeding is consistent with the national focus on early childhood as the foundation for life-long health and well being. The NOURISH trial aims to implement and evaluate a community-based intervention to promote early feeding practices that will foster healthy food preferences and intake and preserve the innate capacity to self-regulate food intake in young children. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT aims to recruit 820 first-time mothers and their healthy term infants. A consecutive sample of eligible mothers will be approached postnatally at major maternity hospitals in Brisbane and Adelaide. Initial consent will be for re-contact for full enrolment when the infants are 4-7 months old. Individual mother- infant dyads will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will provide anticipatory guidance via two modules of six fortnightly parent education and peer support group sessions, each followed by six months of regular maintenance contact. The modules will commence when the infants are aged 4-7 and 13-16 months to coincide with establishment of solid feeding, and autonomy and independence, respectively. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, with follow up at nine and 18 months. These will include infant intake (type and amount of foods, food preferences, feeding behaviour and growth and self

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn


    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  8. Participation in the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children is not associated with early childhood socioemotional development: Results from a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Arons, MPAff


    Full Text Available Socioemotional development in early childhood has long-term impacts on health status and social outcomes, and racial and socioeconomic disparities in socioemotional skills emerge early in life. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC is an early childhood nutrition intervention with the potential to ameliorate these disparities. Our objective was to assess the impact of WIC on early socioemotional development in a longitudinal study. We examined the association between WIC participation and scores on the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA in 327 predominantly African American mother–child dyads who were participants in the longitudinal Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development in Early Life (CANDLE Study (Memphis, TN. To account for selection bias, we used within-child fixed effects to model the variability in each child's BITSEA scores over two measurement occasions (ages 12 and 24 months. Final models were adjusted for time-varying characteristics including child age, maternal stress, mental health, child abuse potential, marital status, and food stamp participation. In fully adjusted models, we found no statistically significant effect of WIC on change in socioemotional development (β = 0.22 [SD = 0.39] and β = −0.58 [SD = 0.79] for BITSEA Competence and Problem subdomains, respectively. Using rigorous methods and a longitudinal study design, we found no significant association between WIC and socioemotional development in a high needs population. This finding suggests that early childhood interventions that more specifically target socioemotional development are necessary if we are to reduce racial disparities in socioemotional skills and prevent poor social and health outcomes across the life course.

  9. Shaping the “Habits of mind” of diverse learners in early childhood teacher education programs through powerpoint: An illustrative case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirova Anna


    Full Text Available This study examines the use of PowerPoint as a teaching tool in a workplace- embedded program aimed at bridging immigrant/refugee early childhood educators into post-secondary studies, and how, in the process, it shapes students’ “habits of mind” (Turkle, 2004. The premise of the study is that it is not only the bodies of knowledge shaping teacher education programs which must be interrogated, but also the ways in which instructors and programs choose to represent and impart these understandings to students. The use of PowerPoint to advance an authoritative western, linear, rule-governed form of logic is analyzed based on McLuhan and McLuhan’s (1988 and Adams’ (2006 tetrads. The findings demonstrate that Power- Point enhances western authoritative ways of being through its modes of communication and representation, means of organizing information, forms of representing content and pedagogical approaches, thus obsolescing or displacing immigrant/refugee students’ own indigenous ways of knowing. Since learning always involves the development, integration, and reorganization of tools, and the medium is an extension of the self (McLuhan, 2003, the students should have multimodal opportunities to engage with and represent knowledge. When such opportunities are not provided, the life experiences and cultural knowledges of immigrant/refugee students are silenced. Expanding communicative and representative forms in early childhood teacher education programs is necessary to promote a more inclusive environment.

  10. Exploring the Quality of Early Childhood Education in China: Implications for Early Childhood Teacher Education (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Szente, Judit


    The following article introduces an exploratory study that was designed to measure the quality of early childhood education within its ever changing sociocultural context utilizing the Early Childhood Learning Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) in 40 classrooms in Beijing, China. Implications for early childhood teacher education,…

  11. Fostering Connections to Nature -- Strategies for Community College Early Childhood Teachers (United States)

    Murphy, Debra


    How can early childhood teacher educators at the community college level create opportunities for their students to explore and relate to the natural world? This article discusses three learning opportunities in an early childhood associate-degree program that foster connections between preservice and inservice early childhood teachers and nature…

  12. Differentiating Instruction in Early Childhood Care Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Early childhood education is recognized by the Federal Government of Nigeria and is the foundation of education for ... addition to keeping the physical space, social and emotional environment of all classroom appropriate, to .... practice in differentiating instruction at the early childhood care education in Owerri educational ...

  13. Good practices in early childhood education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Lise; Gregoriadis, Athanasis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    Good practices in early childhood education er en undersøgelse fortaget efter Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale - R (ECERS-R). I undersøgelsen deltog Akademikere, pædagoger og kommunalt personale fra de 6 partnerlande bestående af Grækenland, Portugal, Finland, Danmark, Rumænien og Cypern...

  14. Pretend Play in the Early Childhood Classroom (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy


    This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…

  15. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano


    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  16. Framing Early Childhood Development: Strategic Communications and Public Preferences (United States)

    Gilliam, Franklin D.; Bales, Susan Nall


    This brief focuses on the potential role that strategic communications can play in helping state (Maternal Child Health) MCH programs and their collaborating partners frame their message to enhance the public's understanding of the importance of early child development and the need for a comprehensive and integrated early childhood system. The…

  17. Developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini


    Full Text Available The study was to uncover the concept of quality improvement, the supporting and the inhibiting factors within the quality improve and the quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten. The study was a qualitative research. The subjects in the study were kindergarten principals, kindergarten teachers and parents. The data were gathered by means of observation, interview and documentation. For the data analysis, the researcher selected the qualitative descriptive data analysis method. The results of the study were as follows. First, the concept of educational quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/ kindergarten has been improveed from the vision, the mission and the objectives and the concept includes the aspects of planning, process and output which has synergy from one to another. The planning has been formulated in the curriculum, the syllabus and the daily activity plan. Second, the approach, the strategy and the technique of quality improvement has maximized the well-qualified schools’ resources, have been supported by the sufficient facilities and have been funded by the sufficient budget. Third, the supporting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten have been the increasing awareness within the society toward the significance of early childhood mentoring institutions, the massive socialization conducted by the Office of Education through the provision of training programs in relation to the early childhood mentoring institution/kindergarten management and the human resources empowerment toward developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions. Fourth, the inhibiting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions have been the lack of society care and participation, the less quality human resources that early childhood mentoring institutions have, the fund limitation, the

  18. The effect of an early childhood obesity intervention on father's obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne InFANT Program. (United States)

    Walsh, Adam D; Lioret, Sandrine; Cameron, Adrian J; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J


    To investigate the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention, incorporating a parent modelling component, on fathers' obesity risk-related behaviours. Cluster randomized-controlled trial in the setting of pre-existing first-time parents groups organised by Maternal and Child Health Nurses in Victoria, Australia. Participants were 460 first-time fathers mean age = 34.2 (s.d.4.90) years. Dietary pattern scores of fathers were derived using principal component analysis, total physical activity and total television viewing time were assessed at baseline (infant aged three to four months) and after 15 months. No significant beneficial intervention effect was observed on fathers' dietary pattern scores, total physical activity or total television viewing time. Despite a strong focus on parent modelling (targeting parents own diet, physical activity and television viewing behaviours), and beneficial impact on mothers' obesity risk behaviours, this intervention, with mothers as the point of contact, had no effect on fathers' obesity risk-related behaviours. Based on the established links between children's obesity risk-related behaviors and that of their fathers, a need exists for research testing the effectiveness of interventions with a stronger engagement of fathers.

  19. Bridging Music and the Early Childhood Curriculum in Listening and Spoken Language Programs for Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing


    Wright, Whitney


    Music is an integral aspect of human life. Its impact weaves through arts, culture, communication, recreation, and education. In addition to benefits of enjoyment and entertainment, music is a vital component of early childhood educational settings. Educators routinely utilize music as an embedded component of instruction to meet both group and individual needs of young children in early childhood classrooms. In fact, specialized musical instruction can be particularly beneficial for children...

  20. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program: How Three Schools Integrated Early Childhood Strategies into School Turnaround Efforts to Improve Instruction for All Students (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas


    A significant body of research shows that achievement gaps evident in persistently low-performing schools, in many instances, manifest prior to children entering kindergarten. High-quality early learning programs have proven to demonstrate positive effects on closing academic gaps both for individual children and in the aggregate for the school.…

  1. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World-wide there are more than 200 000 new cases of childhood cancer per year and more than 70% of these occur in the developing world. In the First World more than 70% of these children will become long-term survivors. For some childhood cancers 5-year survival rates approach 95% . In England only 0.5% of all ...

  2. Teen Parents in Early Childhood Interventions (United States)

    Korfmacher, Jon


    This article reviews five large national studies that include significant findings about the effects of early care and intervention on the children of teens. Five large-scale, national early childhood intervention research trials have included teen parents: Early Head Start, Nurse Family Partnership, Parents as Teachers, Healthy Start/Healthy…

  3. Early childhood caries in indigenous communities. (United States)


    The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) and the United States (American Indian, Alaska Native) is a major child health issue: there is a high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and resulting adverse health effects in this community, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. This statement includes recommendations for preventive oral health and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health-promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride-varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management, and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial.

  4. Examining Changes to Michigan's Early Childhood Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS). REL 2015-029 (United States)

    Faria, Ann-Marie; Hawkinson, Laura E.; Greenberg, Ariela C.; Howard, Eboni C.; Brown, Leah


    Documenting and improving early childhood program quality is a national priority, leading to a rapid expansion of Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRISs). QRISs document and improve the quality of early childhood education programs and provide clear information to families about their child care choices. The current study described how…

  5. Replication and Extension of the Early Childhood Friendship Project: Effects on Physical and Relational Bullying (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper-DeMarco, Kimberly E.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.; Celenza, Lauren


    A replication of a preventive early childhood intervention study for reducing relational and physical aggression and peer victimization was conducted (Ostrov et al., 2009). The present study expanded on the original 6-week program, and the revised Early Childhood Friendship Project (ECFP) 8-week program consisted of developmentally appropriate…

  6. Integrating Computer Technology in Early Childhood Education Environments: Issues Raised by Early Childhood Educators (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Specht, Jacqueline; Willoughby, Teena; Mueller, Julie


    The purpose of this study was to assess the educators' perspectives on the introduction of computer technology in the early childhood education environment. Fifty early childhood educators completed a survey and participated in focus groups. Parallels existed between the individually completed survey data and the focus group discussions. The…

  7. Violence prevention and early childhood development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the intersection between early childhood development services and primary violence prevention interventions. It encourages a developmental approach to violence prevention by promoting healthy physical and social development and preventing direct and indirect exposure to violence during early ...

  8. Preservice Early Childhood Educators' Pedagogical Beliefs (United States)

    Di Santo, Aurelia; Timmons, Kristy; Lenis, Angelike


    Preservice early childhood educators begin postsecondary programs with established beliefs about children, children's learning, and their roles as future educators. The present study examined 26 first-year students' beliefs about children, classroom practice, and guiding children's behavior. Participants completed the Teacher Beliefs Q-Sort…

  9. Writing in Early Childhood Classrooms: Guidance for Best Practices (United States)

    Gerde, Hope K.; Bingham, Gary E.; Wasik, Barbara A.


    Writing is a critical emergent literacy skill that lays the foundation for children's later literacy skills and reading achievement. Recent work indicates that many early childhood programs offer children materials and tools for engaging in writing activities but teachers rarely are seen modeling writing for children or scaffolding children's…

  10. Early Childhood Education: Curriculum Organization and Classroom Management. (United States)

    Day, Barbara; Drake, Kay

    Designed to accompany four filmstrips, this manual was developed to help early childhood educators--including curriculum specialists, administrators, teachers, and university faculty--implement a developmental program for young children. Filmstrip 1 introduces six components of curriculum organization and classroom mangement underlying a…

  11. The Art of Leadership: Managing Early Childhood Organizations. Volume 2. (United States)

    Neugebauer, Bonnie, Ed.; Neugebauer, Roger, Ed.

    The second of two volumes intended for directors of early childhood organizations, this volume compiles selected articles for center directors from the first 20 years of the journal "Child Care Information Exchange." The articles cover personnel management, program development, and community relations. The articles are grouped into…

  12. Beginning Together: Reforming Schools by Investing in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Kaufman, Michael J.; Kaufman, Sherelyn R.; Nelson, Elizabeth C.


    The most productive way to reform education would be to invest in effective early childhood education programs. Such an investment would produce remarkable educational, social, and economic benefits. It would also transcend the current divisive debates about education reform by uniting advocates with different perspectives on issues of funding,…

  13. A Comprehensive Approach to Technology Training for Early Childhood Teachers (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Qi; Chang, Charles


    This study describes the development and implementation of a comprehensive approach to computer technology training for early childhood teachers. Departing from the singular goal of conveying skills and knowledge, a comprehensive program targets the development of teachers' attitudes and practices as well as knowledge and skills. All 3 areas are…

  14. Integrating emotional competences in the Early Childhood Education curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Guil


    Full Text Available The current Spanish education legislation has started to highlight the need to work on emotional education since early childhood Education. The Spanish Education Law 2/2006 May 3rd (known as LOE, and all decrees and orders currently regulating the curriculum and teaching in Early Childhood Education include contents and objectives related to the Emotional Intelligence framework developed by Mayer & Salovey (1997. Because all these laws and regulations give teachers autonomy for both designing and programming the curriculum in Early Childhood Education and because important relationships have been established between social and emotional competence and school adaptation, we argue in this paper that the training of future teachers in Early Childhood Education should include the development of emotional intelligence abilities and skills.This article presents an emotional education proposal for its integration in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education (children aged 3 to 6 years old. This proposal is based on Mayer and Salovey’s model (1997 of emotional intelligence. This model is the only one in which emotional abilities are considered cognitive-emotional capacities which can be developed and it matches the general goal of this educational stage and also the general aims and curricular contents included in the abovementioned legislation.

  15. Early Practicum Experiences: Preservice Early Childhood Students' Perceptions and Sense of Efficacy (United States)

    Van Schagen Johnson, Amy; La Paro, Karen M.; Crosby, Danielle A.


    The current study explored early practicum experiences (those occurring before student teaching) in an early childhood birth to kindergarten teacher education program. Undergraduates enrolled in practicum courses completed questionnaires about their overall practicum experience including: socio-emotional components (their perceived fit with their…

  16. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach K


    Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

  17. Early Childhood Special Education and Early Intervention Personnel Preparation Standards of the Division for Early Childhood: Field Validation (United States)

    Cochran, Deborah C.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Christensen, Kimberly A.


    Results of the field validation survey of the revised initial and new advanced Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Division for Early Childhood (DEC) early childhood special education (ECSE)/early intervention (EI) personnel standards are presented. Personnel standards are used as part of educational accountability systems and in teacher…

  18. An Upsurge in early childhood mortality in Kenya: A search for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Upsurge in early childhood mortality in Kenya: A search for explanations. Lawrence ... economic hardships and cost recovery programs associated with structural adjustment programs ..... balance and internal management has been poor,.

  19. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinkhorn Fiona


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808

  20. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries (United States)


    Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808 PMID:22909327

  1. Quality versus Quantity: The Use of Observation by Early Childhood Educators in Improving the Performance of Children Enrolled in Preschool Programs in Ghana (United States)

    Tackie-Ofosu, Vivian; Bentum, Kwesi


    In the current study, the authors explored how early childhood educators used observation to support children in the learning environment. The objectives set were to find out the observation methods teachers used, ascertain their understanding of child observation, find out activities children undertook, and how teachers documented what children…

  2. The Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program (ECHO): an ecologically-based intervention delivered by home visitors for newborns and their mothers. (United States)

    Cloutier, Michelle M; Wiley, James; Wang, Zhu; Grant, Autherene; Gorin, Amy A


    Obesity is a major problem in the United States, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged Latino and Black children. Effective interventions that can be disseminated to large numbers of at-risk children and their families are needed. The goals of the Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program (ECHO) are to examine the 12-month efficacy of a primary obesity prevention program targeting the first year of life that is delivered by home visitors and that engages mothers as agents of change to modify their own behavior and their infant's behavior through education and skill-building around nutrition, physical activity, and wellness, and then "echoes" her training with linkages to neighborhood programs and resources. Six family centers located in low-income neighborhoods in Hartford, CT were randomized into control and intervention neighborhoods. Fifty-seven mothers were recruited either prenatally or shortly after delivery into the Nurturing Families Network home visitation program; 27 lived in a control neighborhood and received the standard home visitation program and 30 lived in an intervention neighborhood and received both the standard home visitation program and the ECHO intervention. The intervention increases maternal skills in goal-setting, stimulus control and problem-solving, engages family members to support changes, links mothers to neighborhood resources and is embedded in the standard home visitation program. ECHO targets include breastfeeding, solids, juice and sugar-sweetened beverages, routines for sleep and responding to infant cues, television/screen time, and maternal diet and physical activity. We hypothesize that infants in ECHO will have been breastfed longer and exclusively, will have delayed introduction of solids and juice, have longer sleep duration, decreased television/screen time and a lower weight for length z-score at 12 months, and their mothers will have greater fruit and vegetable consumption and higher levels of physical

  3. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development. (United States)

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine


    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Determination of preservice special education teachers’ views on early childhood intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Baglama


    Full Text Available Abstract Experiences in early childhood have a great influence on a child's physical and mental development. Early childhood interventions are widely accepted as an effective way to prevent learning difficulties and to promote healthy development for children with special needs. For this reason, it is important for teachers who will work with children with special needs or children who are at risk to have sufficient knowledge about early childhood intervention and be competent in this area. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the views of preservice special education teachers about early childhood intervention. This study used quantitative research method and a questionnaire form was used to collect the data. The results are discussed in detail with reference to relevant literature. Implications and recommendations for further research are also provided in order to improve the quality of education policies, programs and practices related with early childhood intervention and increase awareness and knowledge related with early childhood interventions among teacher candidates.

  5. Assessing Preschools Using the Eco-Schools Program in Terms of Educating for Sustainable Development in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Korkmaz, Aysel; Guler Yildiz, Tulin


    This study assesses the practices and environmental properties of preschools implementing the Eco-Schools program, targeting education for sustainable development (ESD) in terms of the program's environmental, sociocultural, and economic pillars. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The sample group, determined through criterion…

  6. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland (United States)

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós


    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  7. Early Childhood Education in China: Political Implications. (United States)

    Chiaromonte, Tom

    This paper reviews the history of early childhood education in China between 1949 and 1990. After the Communist revolution in 1949, China's educational policy was modeled after the Soviet Union's. Preschool pedagogy emphasized conditioning children's behavior and providing a comfortable environment for children. The number of nurseries and…

  8. Measurement Practices in Early Childhood Education. (United States)

    Evans, Ellis D.

    This overview of measurement practices in early childhood education discusses some of the basic issues and concerns of both researchers and practitioners. Although techniques for the measurement of young children's behavior received primary attention, procedures for measuring parent and teacher behavior are also discussed. Trends in measurement…

  9. Transforming Early Childhood Education through Critical Reflection (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.


    There is tension growing in early childhood education between an emphasis on higher learning standards, teacher-directed activities, and evidence-based instructional methods and maintaining active, dynamic and integrated learning experiences for young children. This short essay highlights the ways in which our existing values and beliefs,…

  10. Early Childhood in the New China: Suzhou (United States)

    Kalinowski, Michael


    Suzhou is one hour to the West of Shanghai, and one of China's most interesting cities, famous for its silks, canals, and scholar gardens. According to a popular legend, Marco Polo is reputed to have said, "In heaven there is paradise, and on earth, Hangzhou and Suzhou." As the city rapidly expands, the issue of early childhood education…

  11. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs | Stones | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 7 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs. DK Stones. Abstract.

  12. Schematising activities in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poland, M.; van Oers, H.J.M.; Terwel, J.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of introducing schematising to children in early childhood and to determine whether schematising can be taught to children. This was done using a longitudinal, quantitative study with a quasi-experimental design (N = 133). In this study, the

  13. Trajectories of Autism Severity in Early Childhood (United States)

    Venker, Courtney E.; Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis


    Relatively little is known about trajectories of autism severity using calibrated severity scores (CSS) from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, but characterizing these trajectories has important theoretical and clinical implications. This study examined CSS trajectories during early childhood. Participants were 129 children with autism…

  14. Early Childhood Music Education Research: An Overview (United States)

    Young, Susan


    This article offers a short commentary on the "state of play" in early childhood music education research to accompany the articles published in this special issue. It provides an international overview of recent research trends in this field, with examples drawn from Europe, the Americas, Asia, the Middle East, East and South Africa and…

  15. Art Books for Early Childhood Classroom Communication (United States)

    Pitri, Eliza


    The purpose of this article is to explore the relationships among art, language, and communication through the use of children's art books in early childhood teaching. By children's art books, meaning books for children that serve as contexts for reproductions of artworks, are stunning works of art themselves, engage the curiosity and thinking of…

  16. Inclusive Discourses in Early Childhood Education? (United States)

    Warming, Hanne


    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis worldwide on "initiatives by governments", this…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 7, 2010 ... Early childhood caries (ECC) and periodontal diseases are the common enemies of children's oral health. ECC is described as an experience of dental caries on at least one primary tooth in a child under six years of age (1). ECC is considered a major personal and public health problem in the developing ...

  18. Bullying Prevention Strategies in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.


    Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…

  19. Honoring Diversity in Early Childhood Education Materials. (United States)

    Corso, Robert M.; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Roof, Virginia


    This article summarizes guidelines developed by the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services Early Childhood Research Institute for selecting and adapting materials for young children and their families. Recommendations are provided that community teams should consider in collecting, selecting, and reflecting on materials. Tips are also…

  20. Integrating Computer Technology within Early Childhood Classrooms. (United States)

    Judge, Sharon Lesar


    This article discusses how professionals can integrate computer technology into early childhood classrooms. Strategies are provided for using computers to facilitate learning, selecting developmentally appropriate software, setting up a computer center, and integrating computer technology across the curriculum. A chart pairs level of interactivity…

  1. Turkish Early Childhood Educators on Parental Involvement (United States)

    Hakyemez, Sevcan


    Research conducted over recent decades show that parental involvement plays a significant role in children's academic achievement as well as their cognitive, social and emotional development. For effective parental involvement, understanding the conceptualization of early childhood educators should be significant. This research investigated the…

  2. Understanding Early Childhood: Issues and Controversies (United States)

    Penn, Helen


    Drawing on research evidence from across the world, this book offers a wide-ranging perspective on the ways in which we understand and study young children. The book summarizes current debates in child development, and looks at different ways of understanding early childhood and the various methods used to gain understanding, featuring: (1)…

  3. Against the Unchallenged Discourse of Homelessness: Examining the Views of Early Childhood Preservice Teachers (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee


    This study investigated views about children experiencing homelessness held by preservice teachers in an early childhood education program. Thirteen early childhood preservice teachers were actively involved in class discussion, reading, doing class assignments, and visiting homeless shelters as community-based field experience. They were asked to…

  4. Early Childhood Sexuality Education: Future Educators' Attitudes and Considerations (United States)

    Brouskeli, Vasiliki; Sapountzis, Antonis


    Sexuality education is one of the most disputable health education programs as far as its inclusion in Early Childhood Education is concerned. This study was conducted in order to investigate early childhood future educators' attitudes and considerations about introducing sexuality education to their future pupils. We used a qualitative research…

  5. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education? (United States)

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram


    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  6. Early Childhood Practitioner Judgments of the Social Validity of Performance Checklists and Parent Practice Guides (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.


    Findings from three field tests evaluations of early childhood intervention practitioner performance checklists and three parent practice guides are reported. Forty-two practitioners from three early childhood intervention programs reviewed the checklists and practice guides and made (1) social validity judgments of both products, (2) judgments of…

  7. Early Childhood Teacher Candidates' Perception of Their Support and Readiness for a Teacher Performance Assessment (United States)

    Brown, Carmen Sherry


    Comprehensive early childhood teacher preparation programs offer courses and curricula that are aligned with current research on best practices and related to the knowledge and skills that early childhood teacher candidates are expected to demonstrate on certification exams and teacher performance assessments. To support the alignment of early…

  8. Second-Language Learning in Early Childhood: Some Thoughts for Practitioners. (United States)

    McLaughlin, Barry

    There is much that can be done in early childhood education programs to foster second language learning in young children. The research literature on early childhood bilingualism clearly indicates that children can learn two languages simultaneously without apparent effort, without cognitive strain or interference in learning either language…

  9. Building the Leadership Capacity of Early Childhood Directors: An Evaluation of a Leadership Development Model (United States)

    Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula J.; Kelton, Robyn E.


    While there is consensus among policymakers and practitioners about the importance of strong leadership in early childhood education, there is scant research on effective models of leadership development for administrators of early childhood programs, particularly those working in the child care sector. This is cause for concern because the…

  10. Whose Expertise?: An Analysis of Advice Giving in Early Childhood Parent-Teacher Conferences (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.


    Early childhood and early childhood special education programs have a focus on parent-educator partnerships. Parent-teacher conferences are a context for these partnerships, and advice giving is one type of exchange occurring within conferences. Parent-teacher conference advice was investigated through participant interviews and the methodology of…

  11. TESOL and Early Childhood Collaborative Inquiry: Joining Forces and Crossing Boundaries (United States)

    Baecher, Laura; Jewkes, Abigail M.


    Preparing early childhood educators to support effective instruction of English language learners (ELLs) is an important dimension of teacher preparation programs, yet often difficult to enact. This article reports on a collaboration between early childhood education (ECE) faculty and teachers of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL)…

  12. Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System (EC-TIIS): Phase 3. Final Report (United States)

    Robinson, Linda; Schneider, Carol; Daytner, Gary; Johanson, Joyce; Hutinger, Patricia


    The Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System 3 (EC-TIIS 3), housed in the Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood (the Center) within the College of Education and Human Services at Western Illinois University (WIU), was funded in 2004 by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) as a…

  13. Understanding Standards-Based Reform in Early Childhood Education: An Exploratory Study of Implementation (United States)

    Rader, Shannon Natasha


    Standards-based reform has traditionally focused on K-12 educational systems, but there is growing evidence that it is now affecting early childhood programs. While it is increasingly apparent that standards-based reform has arrived in early childhood, there is a significant gap in our understanding of how these policies are being implemented in…

  14. Blind Babies Play Program: A Model for Affordable, Sustainable Early Childhood Literacy Intervention through Play and Socialization (United States)

    Jacko, Virginia A.; Mayros, Roxann; Brady-Simmons, Carol; Chica, Isabel; Moore, J. Elton


    The Miami Lighthouse, in its 81 years of service to persons who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), has adapted to meet the ever-changing needs of clients of all ages. To meet the significant needs of visually impaired children--more than 80% of early learning is visual (Blind Babies Foundation, 2012)--the…

  15. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education and early childhood development. 1304.21... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.21 Education and early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  16. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve


    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  17. Need for Specialist Teachers in Early Childhood Education (ECE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Specialist Teachers, Early childhood, Sustainable. Development. Introduction. Early childhood is one of the major stages .... The relationship at this stage between the teacher and children tends to be closer that the teacher becomes a surrogate parent. Need for Specialist Teachers in Early Childhood Education ...

  18. The Development and Implementation of a Staff Development Program for Uncertified Teachers in the Field of Early Childhood Education. (United States)

    Hill, Bettye Jane

    This practicum report describes the development and implementation of an inservice program for four teachers who, in order to meet Federal integration guidelines, were given kindergarten assignments for which they were not certified. Comparison of test scores of disadvantaged kindergarten children taught by trained and untrained teachers revealed…

  19. Building Parental Capacity to Improve Child Development: Impact Evaluation of an Early Childhood Stimulation Program in Bangladesh (United States)

    Chinen, Marjorie; Bos, Hans; Murray, Matthew; Hamadani, Jena; Hossain, Najmul; Mahmud, Minhaj


    Globally, at least 200 million children younger than five years old are falling short of their potential for development and growth. There is some evidence that improvements to children's health, nutrition, and development outcomes can be made through programs that provide direct learning experiences to children and families; are targeted toward…

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.


    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  1. The effect of an early childhood obesity intervention on father’s obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne InFANT Program


    Walsh, Adam D; Lioret, Sandrine; Cameron, Adrian J.; Kylie D Hesketh; Sarah A. McNaughton; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J


    Background To investigate the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention, incorporating a parent modelling component, on fathers’ obesity risk-related behaviours. Methods Cluster randomized-controlled trial in the setting of pre-existing first-time parents groups organised by Maternal and Child Health Nurses in Victoria, Australia. Participants were 460 first-time fathers mean age = 34.2 (s.d.4.90) years. Dietary pattern scores of fathers were derived using principal compone...

  2. Early intervention as a catalyst for effective early childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early childhood intervention is an essential contributor and catalyst for the development of a culture of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. ... This would provide mutual benefits for children with disabilities, parents and families, educators and professionals and the society at large.

  3. Reducing Early Childhood Tooth Decay: Leading Steps for State Policymakers


    Leslie Foster; Meg Booth; Colin Reusch


    Young children who are enrolled in Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) can be at risk for developing early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is a chronic bacterial infection that causes severe tooth decay and can begin to develop before baby teeth erupt. Children with ECC may experience pain, difficulty eating, developmental complications, and loss of days in day care or preschool. ECC is expensive to treat and untreated ECC can lead to other serious infections.

  4. Parent and Teacher Expectations for Early Childhood Education in Oman


    Al-Lawati, Fatma Anwar Khamis


    The purpose of this study was to examine parent and teacher expectations for early childhood educational programs in Muscat, the capital city of Oman. Questionnaires were distributed in three private schools in Muscat; these schools differed from one another in terms of their socioeconomic (SES) levels. Parent and teacher expectations were assessed, as reflected in their educational levels and socioeconomic status, in jobs and income level, and by the c hi !d 's level in kindergarten. Partici...

  5. Early childhood tooth decay. Pediatric interventions. (United States)

    Schulte, J R; Druyan, M E; Hagen, J C


    Pediatricians in the greater Chicago area were surveyed to probe their awareness and approaches to management of dental caries in early childhood. A total of 298 pediatricians (21% of those surveyed) responded to the questionnaire. Ninety-five percent of the respondents stated they examined their patients' teeth; 85% considered dental examinations part of their responsibility for children under 3 years of age. However, our data suggest that many pediatricians are unaware of the decay and the dietary patterns associated with tooth decay in early childhood. Although 96% of the respondents referred patients to a dentist when decay was diagnosed, analysis of diet and dietary counseling were performed by only 61% and 65% of the respondents, respectively. Recommendations for preventive measures that can be adopted by pediatricians are offered.

  6. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage in e...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...

  7. The Relationship between Early Childhood Education and Early Childhood Special Education: Healthy Marriage or Family Feud? (United States)

    Bredekamp, Sue


    This paper describes (1) common misconceptions about developmentally appropriate practices; (2) areas in which convergence between general and special early childhood education can be achieved; and (3) current collaborative efforts between the two disciplines (e.g., individually appropriate practices, emphasis on early intervention,…

  8. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development. (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A


    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Status of Early Childhood Care and Development in Aboadze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the unavailability of facilities to promote quality childhood care, government's and community's poor involvement in preschool education and lack of training of the. Kindergarten teachers. Keywords: Early Childhood Care and Development, Early Childhood Care Education, Pre-School. International Journal of Educational ...

  10. Clarifying parent-child reciprocities during early childhood: the early childhood coercion model. (United States)

    Scaramella, Laura V; Leve, Leslie D


    Consistent with existing theory, the quality of parent-child interactions during early childhood affects children's social relationships and behavioral adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence. Harsh parenting and a propensity toward emotional overarousal interact very early in life to affect risk for later conduct problems. Less empirical work has evaluated the emergence of early childhood coercive parent-child reciprocities. The proposed early childhood coercion model describes the processes by which coercive parent-child reciprocities emerge. Specifically, the interaction between parenting and infants' propensities toward reactivity influences the development of emotion regulation in children and disciplinary styles in parents. Highly reactive children are expected to experience more difficulty learning to regulate emotions and to evoke harsher parenting. Through a process of mutual reinforcement, harsh parenting, negative emotional reactivity, and poor emotion regulation become coercive parent-child reciprocities during early childhood. The emergence of coercive parent-child interactions further diminishes children's emotional regulatory capacities and affects the formation of peer relationships during kindergarten.

  11. Practices for Parent Participation in Early Intervention/ Early Childhood Special Education


    Acar, Serra; Akamoğlu, Yusuf


    The authors examined the extent to which practices for parent participation in early intervention/ early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) programs. The role of parents in the EI/ECSE is important and supported through the literature. The changing traditional family picture in the classrooms, the importance of evolving laws and regulations and recommended practices regarding parent participation are highlighted. The conceptual framework is based on the children, parents, and practitioners...

  12. Multi-Site Expansion of an Early Childhood Intervention and School Readiness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Richardson, Brandt A; Hayakawa, Momoko; Englund, Michelle M; Ou, Suh-Ruu


    To evaluate the impacts of the expansion of an evidence-based full- and part-day early childhood development program on multiple indicators of school readiness, attendance, and parental involvement...

  13. Multi-Site Expansion of an Early Childhood Intervention and School Readiness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur J Reynolds; Brandt A Richardson; Momoko Hayakawa; Michelle M Englund; Suh-Ruu Ou


      To evaluate the impacts of the expansion of an evidence-based full- and part-day early childhood development program on multiple indicators of school readiness, attendance, and parental involvement...

  14. Waterford Early Reading Program. (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of the Waterford Early Reading Program (WERP), which is designed to shift teaching and learning away from remediation and failure to prevention, early achievement, and sustained growth for every student. WERP includes three levels of instruction: emergent, beginning, and fluent readers. It targets pre-K through…

  15. Prevention Starts in Early Childhood (United States)

    Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.


    Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  16. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (United States)

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen


    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  17. [Clinical and therapeutic aspects of early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries--clinical cases]. (United States)

    Maxim, Dana; Danilă, I; Balcoş, Carina


    ECC (early childhood caries) and SECC(severe early childhood caries), as a particularization of the dental caries during the early childhood (0-3 years) and the middle childhood (3-6 years), generate important oro-dental problems, with long-term impact, psycho-somatic, psycho-aesthetic, and social-behaviour, in little children as in adults. 35 subjects (20 girls and 15 boys), were evaluated, aged between 3-6 years old, diagnosticated with ECC and SECC. The children were evaluated clinical, paraclinical and psycho-sociological in the Clinic of Paediatric Dentistry, Iasi, Romania. In this article, we present 3 clinical cases that show the implication of the socio-emotional factors that produce the early childhood caries, pacient C.L., 6 years old, pacient C.F., 5, 6 years old, and pacient A.D., 6 years old. In this study we have evaluated a heterogen structure with major impact on caries risk, clinical variability of the carioactivity in decidual dentition. It is known that more than 64% non-cavitary lesions that appear in a 2 year-old child develop to cavitary lesions in less than a year.

  18. Early childhood leukemia incidence trends in Brazil. (United States)

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S


    Incidence rates of childhood leukemia vary between different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to test possible trends in incidence rate of early childhood leukemia (children AAIR) of overall early childhood leukemia was 61 per million. The AAIR for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was 44 per million and nonlymphoid acute leukemia (NLAL) was 14 per million. The median ALL/NLAL ratio was 3.0, suggesting higher incidence rate of NLAL in these settings. The joinpoint analysis demonstrated increased leukemia incidence rate in João Pessoa (AAPC = 20; 95% CI: 3.5, 39.4) and Salvador (AAPC = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.9), respectively, whereas incidence rate in São Paulo PBCR decreased (AAPC = -4.02%; 95% CI: -6.1%, -1.9%). Correlation between ALL AAIR and selected variables of socioeconomic (SES) factors was not observed. Increased AAIR regionally overtime was observed. However, the interpretation for such phenomenon should be cautious because it might reflect the access to health care, diagnosis procedures, and improvement of PBCR´s quality. The observed trend supports the necessity of further ecological studies.

  19. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Samir Kabil


    Full Text Available Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to three or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother’s caries experience, two siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, one sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency, and no night brushing.

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Attitudes of Early Childhood Pre- service Teachers towards Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Aydın


    Full Text Available As in many countries, early childhood teachers introduce mathematics content in kindergartens in Turkey. Therefore, early childhood teachers should master a certain level of mathematics knowledge and are offered a mathematics methods course in faculties of education. Teacher training programs are also expected to improve early childhood preservice teachers (PSTs attitudes towards mathematics (ATM. In this context, it seems important to investigate whether and how much early childhood PSTs’ attitude towards mathematics changed throughout their university lives. Our study was conducted with a sampling of 43 participants studying at a state university in the north of Turkey, in the Black Sea Region. The data was collected from early childhood PSTs using the same attitude scale in their 1st and 3rd years of study. The quantitative analysis of the data in SPSS 22 using t-test for paired samples demonstrated that the early childhood PSTs’ attitudes towards mathematics have improved from the 1st to the 3rd year. In our sampling, one-way ANOVA and t-test for independent samples revealed that the ATM of the early childhood PSTs were not associated with variables such as gender, the type of completed high school, total family income, and parents’ level of education. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the mathematics methods course offered to early childhood PSTs in their 2nd year might be effective in improving the attitudes towards mathematics.

  1. Tracing Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... in families with a non-western ethnic minority background and with low socioeconomic status. In families who participated in interventions, other social problems and a sense of insecurity caused by precarious living conditions of different kinds influenced the parents’ readiness to restrict children in order...... in the Danish health care system, which was found to be insufficient to initiate and facilitate early interventions. In addition, cultural stereotypes were found to affect the health care practitioners who are performing early interventions, and this can create reluctance to address overweight problems...

  2. Socioeconomic Gaps in Early Childhood Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Bassok


    Full Text Available This study compares the early life experiences of kindergarteners in 1998 and 2010 using two nationally representative data sets. We find that (a young children in the later period are exposed to more books and reading in the home, (b they have more access to educational games on computers, and (c they engage with their parents more, inside and outside the home. Although these increases occurred among low- and high-income children, in many cases the biggest changes were seen among the lowest-income children. Our results indicate narrowing but still large early childhood parental investment gaps. In addition, socioeconomic gaps in preschool participation grew over this period, despite substantial investments in public preschool. Implications for early socioeconomic achievement gaps are discussed.

  3. [Early stimulation > programs evaluation]. (United States)

    Bonnier, C


    Early intervention include educational and neuroprotection strategies. Early educational strategies are based on the cerebral plasticity concept. Neuroprotection, initially reserved for molecules preventing cell death phenomena, can be extended now to all actions promoting harmonious development and preventing handicaps, and include organisational, therapeutic and environmental aspects. Early stimulation programs have been first devised in United States for vulnerable children who belong to an unfavorable socio-economic category ; positive effects were recorded in school failure rates and social problems ; programs have also been launched in several countries for premature infants and infants with a low birth weight, population exposed to a high risk of deficiencies. The programs are targetted either to the child, or to the parents, or combined to provide assistance for both the child and the parents. The programs given the best evaluation are NIDCAP Program in Sweden (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program), intended for babies neonatal intensive care units, then a longitudinal, multisite program, known as IHDP (Infant Health and Development Program). It was launched in United States for infants stimulation is maintained and when mothers have a low level of education.

  4. Stories and narratives in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Fatima dos Santos Morais


    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of oral and written narrative for the maintenance of tradition and history of each one of us, in a society that seems to valorize the information more than the stories lived and told. It stresses the need, at school, of the teachers to read stories to children from early childhood education to boys and girls love to the world of literature. The text also contains situations en countered in schools that show the value of reading and the magic that literature provides in the lives of children.

  5. Predictors of shorter sleep in early childhood


    McDonald, Laura; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Fisher, Abigail


    Objective The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic and home environmental predictors of shorter sleep in early childhood, and to examine whether effects were mediated by the timing of bedtime or wake time. Methods Participants were from Gemini, a British birth cohort of twins, and included 1702 children; one randomly selected from each twin pair. Parents reported night-time sleep duration at an average age of 15.8 months (range 14–27 months) using a modified version of the Brie...

  6. Inclusive discourses in early childhood education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne


    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis...... worldwide on 'initiatives by governments', this interest has centred on the school environment and institutions of higher education. Thus, despite increasing recognition of the significance of preschool and after-school-care, inclusion in these environments remains peripheral to the main debate....

  7. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, M.; Brinkman, S.A.; Beatty, A.; Maika, A.; Satriawan, E.; de Ree, J.; Hasan, A.


    Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program

  8. Repositioning Early Childhood Leadership as Action and Activism (United States)

    Woodrow, Christine; Busch, Gillian


    Robust leadership is increasingly recognised as a critical element of healthy professions, yet some research suggests that early childhood practitioners do not readily identify with the concept of leadership. This article explores some dimensions of leadership in early childhood and how it is understood and practised in Australian early childhood…

  9. Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3 (United States)

    Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci


    The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

  10. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood. (United States)

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  11. Early Childhood Trends Worldwide--First Annual World Early Childhood Report. (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger


    Presents information on trends in early childhood education in various countries, focusing on educational policy and the role of government. Summarizes trends from Armenia, Canada, Finland, Iceland, India, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Moldova, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and Uruguay. (KB)

  12. [Child psychiatric viewpoint towards early childhood feading disorders]. (United States)

    Mäntymaa, Mirjami; Luoma, Ilona; Puura, Kaija


    Early childhood feading disorders are estimated to occur in 20% to 40% of normally developing young children. In most severe cases, troubles associated with feading interfere with the child's growth and development and may continue until adulthood. Early childhood feading disorders are discernible into different types of disorder, such as early childhood anorexia, sensory food aversion and posttraumatic feading disorder. Early childhood feading disorders are often associated with problems in parent-child interaction either primarily or secondarily as factors maintaining the disorder. Interactive therapy is often beneficial regardless of the etiology of the disorder.

  13. The Politics of Technology in Early Childhood in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Fitting Early Childhood Educators in the ICT Grid (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew Neil


    This article identifies contemporary issues for educators regarding the integration of new technologies in the early childhood education centre, through critical analysis of discourse associated with the integration of new technologies in early childhood services in Aotearoa/New Zealand. A culture of critique is revealed as an early childhood…

  14. Early childhood feeding practices in northern Cameroon. (United States)

    Einterz, E M; Bates, M E


    Following the identification of differences in disease patterns among infants from households of different social groups (Moslem and non-Moslem) in northern Cameroon, 534 mothers and their children 0-23 months old were studied to determine early childhood feeding practices in the 2 groups. Several significant differences were revealed. Compared with non-Moslem infants, Moslems were more likely to be given animal milk instead of breast milk before the age of 3 d. On average, millet pap was introduced to Moslem babies between their 1st and 2nd months and to non-Moslem babies between their 3rd and 4th months. Moslem mothers more commonly prepared pap with oil or cow butter as an ingredient. Moslem mothers also planned to wean their children at an earlier age than non-Moslems and were less likely to report boiling their children's drinking water. Moslem mothers of infants less than 5 months old were likely to believe their breast milk was insufficient. The implications of these findings on the higher incidence of infant diarrhoea, stunting and early childhood death among Moslems are discussed.

  15. Cranial thickness changes in early childhood (United States)

    Gajawelli, Niharika; Deoni, Sean; Shi, Jie; Dirks, Holly; Linguraru, Marius George; Nelson, Marvin D.; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha


    The neurocranium changes rapidly in early childhood to accommodate the developing brain. However, developmental disorders may cause abnormal growth of the neurocranium, the most common one being craniosynostosis, affecting about 1 in 2000 children. It is important to understand how the brain and neurocranium develop together to understand the role of the neurocranium in neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the neurocranium is not as well studied as the human brain in early childhood, due to a lack of imaging data. CT is typically employed to investigate the cranium, but, due to ionizing radiation, may only be used for clinical cases. However, the neurocranium is also visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we used a large dataset of MRI images from healthy children in the age range of 1 to 2 years old and extracted the neurocranium. A conformal geometry based analysis pipeline is implemented to determine a set of statistical atlases of the neurocranium. A growth model of the neurocranium will help us understand cranial bone and suture development with respect to the brain, which will in turn inform better treatment strategies for neurocranial disorders.

  16. [Eating disorders in childhood and early adolescence]. (United States)

    Doyen, Catherine; Asch, Muriel


    During childhood and early adolescence, eating disorders are mainly of the restrictive type and general practitioner plays a central role in treatment. Parental counseling and medical care should be administered to selective and restrictive children without growth retardation. When growth and puberty are delayed a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. Somaticians, psychiatrists and psychotherapists will work together in the fight against the eating disorder. Family approaches yielded the best results in the management of these disorders for the younger subjects but individual therapies are also recommended. If vitamin and calcium supplements are necessary, it is not the case for psychotropic medications, which can have a dangerous impact if nutritional status is not stabilized. Outcome of selective and restrictive disorders in childhood is good however picky eaters need special care because of the risk of anorexia nervosa in later adolescence. Outcomes of prepubertal anorexic patients seem to be better than those of pubertal anorexic subjects but it is not the case for subjects affected by very-early-onset anorexia nervosa.

  17. Redistributional consequences of early childhood intervention. (United States)

    Lohse, Tim; Lutz, Peter F; Thomann, Christian


    Recently, early investment in the human capital of children from socially disadvantaged environments has attracted a great deal of attention. Programs of such early intervention, aimed at children's health and well-being, are spreading considerably in the US and are currently being tested in several European countries. In a discrete version of the Mirrlees model with a parents' and a children's generation, we model the intra-generational and the inter-generational redistributional consequences of such intervention programs. It turns out that the parents' generation loses whenever such intervention programs are implemented. Furthermore, the rich part of the children's generation always benefits. Despite the expectation that early intervention puts the poor descendants in a better position, our analysis reveals that the poor among the children's generation may even be worse off, if the effect of early intervention on their productivity is not large enough.

  18. Translating an early childhood obesity prevention program for local community implementation: a case study of the Melbourne InFANT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laws


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is a growing interest in the field of research translation, there are few published examples of public health interventions that have been effectively scaled up and implemented in the community. This paper provides a case study of the community-wide implementation of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT, an obesity prevention program for parents with infants aged 3–18 months. The study explored key factors influencing the translation of the Program into routine practice and the respective role of policy makers, researchers and implementers. Methods Case studies were conducted of five of the eight prevention areas in Victoria, Australia who implemented the Program. Cases were selected on the basis of having implemented the Program for 6 months or more. Data were collected from January to June 2015 and included 18 individual interviews, one focus group and observation of two meetings. A total of 28 individuals, including research staff (n = 4, policy makers (n = 2 and implementers (n = 22, contributed to the data collected. Thematic analysis was conducted using cross case comparisons and key themes were verified through member checking. Results Key facilitators of implementation included availability of a pre-packaged evidence based program addressing a community need, along with support and training provided by research staff to local implementers. Partnerships between researchers and policy makers facilitated initial program adoption, while local partnerships supported community implementation. Community partnerships were facilitated by local coordinators through alignment of program goals with existing policies and services. Workforce capacity for program delivery and administration was a challenge, largely overcome by embedding the Program into existing roles. Adapting the Program to fit local circumstance was critical for feasible and sustainable delivery, however

  19. [Early endocrine complications in childhood cancer survivors]. (United States)

    Sánchez González, Cristina; Andrades Toledo, Mónica; Cárdeno Morales, Álvaro; Gutiérrez Carrasco, Ignacio; Ramírez Villar, Gema Lucía; Pérez Hurtado, José María; García García, Emilio


    The treatment of childhood cancers has increased survival rates, but also the risk of sequelae, such as endocrine complications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood malignant tumors within the first years after treatment and analyze the variables related to their appearance. A retrospective medical record review of patients referred to pediatric endocrinology after treatment of malignancy. Outcome measures were frequency and types of endocrine dysfunction and new-onset obesity. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed every 6 months. Statistics tests were: chi square and multiple logistic regression. Fifty five patients (26 women) were included with an age at diagnosis of tumour (mean±standard deviation) 6.0±4.4 years and followed up for 6.8±3.6 years. Thirty endocrine disorders were diagnosed in 26 patients (47.3%), 17 women (P=.01). Eleven adolescents had primary hypogonadism (26.2% to 0.6±0.5 years of follow-up) in relation to local irradiation (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.99, P=.005). Eleven patients had a pituitary disorder (20.0%) 5.2±2.4 years after diagnosis in relation to brain irradiation (OR 1.54, P=.039). Six children (10.9%) had primary hypothyroidism from 3.2±1.0 years of follow-up. Two children developed obesity. Endocrine disorders are frequently seen within the first years after diagnosis of a childhood cancer, so hormonal evaluation should start early and be repeated periodically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment Practices and Training Needs of Early Childhood Professionals (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.


    Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…

  1. Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education: Issues, Challenges, Solutions (United States)

    McLachlan, Claire; Nicholson, Tom; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Mercer, Louise; Ohi, Sarah


    Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education provides a comprehensive introduction to literacy teaching and learning. The book explores the continuum of literacy learning and children's transitions from early childhood settings to junior primary classrooms and then to senior primary and beyond. Reader-friendly and accessible, this book equips…

  2. Early Childhood Music Education in Taiwan: An Ecological Systems Perspective (United States)

    Leu, Jennifer Chau-Ying


    The author examines early childhood music education in Taiwan through Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Factors in the microsystem level that influenced the musical development of children included adult perception of children, child-adult interactions, Taiwanese family structure, and the existing early childhood education system. The…

  3. Classroom Effects of an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Partnership (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly


    We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…

  4. A Cognitive Approach to Stress Reduction for Early Childhood Professionals. (United States)

    Smith, Doris O.

    For early childhood educators a cognitive approach to stress therapy is a valuable supplement to other approaches. Early childhood educators, like others, may develop psychological vulnerabilities that contribute to stress and depression. An exaggerated need for approval or an unhealthy demand for perfectionism may contribute to their experience…

  5. Praxis in Early Childhood Research with Infants and Educators (United States)

    Salamon, Andi


    As emerging literature reflects, "praxis" is an important and useful concept for thinking about the many aspects of early childhood education (ECE) and early childhood research. In this article, I seek to contribute to discussions about praxis in ECE as a valuable concept for meeting the ethical challenges that arise in participatory…

  6. Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Teacher Change among Early Childhood Teachers (United States)

    Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia


    This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…

  7. Parents, Participation, Partnership: Problematising New Zealand Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Ritchie, Jenny


    This article interrogates notions of teacher "partnership with parents" within early childhood care and education settings in the context of Aotearoa (New Zealand). "Te Whariki," the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, clearly positions children's learning and development as being fostered when their families' cultures and…

  8. The effect of early childhood education on social and emotional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This causal comparitive study examined the effect of early childhood education on social and emotional development in children ages 3-6 years old in Kwara State of Nigeria. Sixty children who were exposed to early childhood education were selected through cluster sampling from six different schools, that is, 30 boys and ...

  9. Early Childhood caries in Moshi, Tanzania | Rwakatema | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early Childhood caries in Moshi, Tanzania. ... Abstract. Objective: To determine the prevalence, severity and pattern of early childhood caries (ECC) in Moshi Municipality, Tanzania. Design: Cross-sectional ... The severe form of ECC that attacks primary maxillary incisors occurred in 21.2% of the children. The mean dmft ...

  10. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice. Second Edition (United States)

    Morgan, Harry


    Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…

  11. Family Strategies to Support and Develop Resilience in Early Childhood (United States)

    Taket, A. R.; Nolan, A.; Stagnitti, K.


    Early childhood is an important time for the development of resilience. A recently completed study has followed three cohorts of resilient children and young people living in disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia, through different transitions in their educational careers. This paper focuses on the early childhood cohort, where we have…

  12. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd


    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  13. Making the Case for Early Childhood Investments: Three Arguments (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger


    Tamar Manuelyan Atinc, vice president of The World Bank, introduces a World Bank report, "Investing in Young Children: An Early Childhood Development Guide for Policy Dialogue and Project Preparation". This report, which is a must for inclusion in every advocate's make the case for investing in early childhood services. It defines three arguments…

  14. "It's More than Care": Early Childhood Educators' Concepts of Professionalism (United States)

    Harwood, Debra; Klopper, Audrey; Osanyin, Ajike; Vanderlee, Mary-Louise


    This article reports on the findings from a small-scale study of early childhood educators' perceptions of their roles, responsibilities and ideas related to professionalism. Twenty-five early childhood educators from Canada (Ontario), Nigeria and South Africa participated in qualitative interviews to address the following questions: (1) In what…

  15. Renovating Early Childhood Education Pedagogy: A Case Study in Vietnam (United States)

    Thao, Dang Phuong; Boyd, Wendy Anne


    Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to…

  16. Early Childhood Training in New Mexico. 1991 Status Report. (United States)

    New Mexico State Office of Child Development, Santa Fe.

    This report describes a study of the training of early childhood educators in the state of New Mexico, undertaken during the summer of 1991. The study sought to: (1) determine the scope and content of training used by a variety of early childhood educators; (2) develop a profile of both agencies and individuals who provide training; (3) identify…

  17. Early childhood pre-service teachers' concerns and solutions to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to determine early childhood pre-service teachers' concerns and solutions. One hundred early childhood pre-service teachers who were enrolled at Pamukkale University, Turkey, answered two open-ended questions by e-mail. In addition, six of these participants were interviewed for ...

  18. Multicultural Teaching Competence of Korean Early Childhood Educators (United States)

    Park, Sungok R.


    Discourse among early childhood education researchers increasingly emphasizes the need for teachers to better understand and support diversity in their classrooms. As part of a larger mixed-method study, this qualitative research illuminates Korean early childhood educators' multicultural teaching competence. While Korean classrooms are in…

  19. Writing Research Articles for Publication in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.


    Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…

  20. The Role of Staff in Quality Improvement in Early Childhood (United States)

    Sims, Margaret; Waniganayake, Manjula


    There is international recognition of the importance of high quality services for young children with a consensus that three pillars contribute to quality improvement: adult: child ratios, staff qualifications and group size. In Australia over the past 5 years, early childhood policy has attempted to drive improvements in early childhood service…

  1. Shared-Reading Volume in Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms (United States)

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.


    This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…

  2. Investigating Reported Data Practices in Early Childhood: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Brawley, Susan; Stormont, Melissa A.


    The importance of collecting and using data for educational decision making is clear. However, little information has been gathered about the systematic collection and use of data in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of data collection practices in early childhood. Participants included 137 early…

  3. Parental Conceptions of Quality in Greek Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki


    The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers' parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the…

  4. Learning with Technology for Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers (United States)

    Campbell, Anne; Scotellaro, Grazia


    This paper describes an innovative pilot project at the University of Canberra aimed at providing pre-service early childhood teachers with the skills, confidence and ideological change required to include technology-enhanced learning as part of the early childhood curriculum. The impact of the project was evaluated through participant…

  5. Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation: Common Questions and Answers (United States)

    Hughes, Mary-alayne; Spence, Christine M.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.


    As the field of early childhood mental health continues to expand and evolve, the evidence base is growing, and early childhood mental health consultation is viewed as a promising practice. However, there continues to be a need for further research, with particular attention given to the utility and effectiveness of this approach with infants and…

  6. Perspectives from the field of early childhood special education. (United States)

    Kaderavek, Joan N


    Positive academic outcomes for young children with special education needs can best be facilitated when a combination of professionals including speech-language pathologists (SLPs), general education teachers, occupational and physical therapists, and early childhood special educators (ECSEs) work together. However, it can be challenging to read across disciplines to maintain expertise within the domain of early childhood education because each profession has specialized intradisciplinary terminology. This clinical forum provides an up-to-date summary of the field of early childhood special education, with articles from experts from related professions describing current issues and trends in the field. This prologue introduces the concepts of universal design, differentiated instruction, and embedded learning opportunities. The prologue also outlines the roles, responsibilities, and accountability of professionals who work in early childhood special education. SLPs can work toward strategic alliances with ECSEs when they understand the field from the perspective of related professions in early childhood special education.

  7. Mindful awareness in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Nieminen


    Full Text Available This study is a literature review, drawing mainly on the nine significant and good quality studies (i.e. published in peer-reviewed journals that make up the evidence base for mindful awareness practices in early childhood. Mindful awareness practices in this context means an individual’s awareness of her own body and her inner emotions or tensions. Increased awareness can decrease if individuals tend to impulsiveness or excessive stress. Self-regulation and mindful awareness skills are associated not only with stress regulation but also peer relationships and social skills. This systematic review attempts to look at the research of mindful awareness activities, programmes or interventions used as routine everyday activities. The second aim of this review is to examine the research design that has been used. The third aim of this study is to analyse the main themes and methods of these pieces of research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Miloserdova


    Full Text Available The probability of the caries development largely depends on the oral microflora imbalance. This imbalance can be corrected with probiotics. The article analyzes the results of studies on the use of adapted milk formulas with probiotics to prevent caries in early childhood. It shows that the use of adapted formulas with probiotics is accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of releasing cariogenic streptococci and actinomycetes with a simultaneous increase in the frequency of detecting bacterial antagonists of the cariogenic flora, normalization of sIgA concentration in saliva, and decrease in the severity of the caries process. The survey results will contribute to the development of effective approaches to prevention of dental caries in children.

  9. Parenting and sleep in early childhood. (United States)

    Tikotzky, Liat


    The development of sleep is influenced by complex interactions between biologically driven forces and diverse socio-environmental factors. Among those factors, parents have a critical role. The present review focuses on new studies regarding the links between parenting and the development of sleep in early childhood in the context of a transactional model. Recent findings from longitudinal studies and large cohort studies highlight the contribution of various parenting factors, such as parental bedtime behaviors, parental cognitions, cry tolerance, maternal mood, stress, and the parents' couple relationship, to the development of child sleep. Recent research also demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral sleep interventions in which parents are the main agents of change in the behavioral aspects of child sleep. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dyssomnias and parasomnias in early childhood. (United States)

    Petit, Dominique; Touchette, Evelyne; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel; Montplaisir, Jacques


    Our aim for this study was to determine the prevalence of dyssomnias and various parasomnias in early childhood and to describe their temporal evolution, gender differences, and correlates. This research is part of a longitudinal study of child development. A randomized, 3-level, stratified survey design was used to study a representative sample of infants who were born in 1997-1998 in the province of Quebec (Canada). When the children were 2.5 years of age, 1997 families agreed to be interviewed. The presence of dyssomnias or parasomnias was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire that was completed by the mother at each round of measures. The percentage of children with frequent night wakings decreased steadily from 36.3% at age 2.5 to 13.2% at age 6. Similarly, the percentage of children who had difficulty falling asleep at night decreased significantly from 16.0% at ages 3.5 and 4 to 10% at age 5 and to 7.4% at age 6. The overall prevalence of each parasomnia for the period studied was as follows: somnambulism, 14.5%; sleep terrors, 39.8%; somniloquy, 84.4%; enuresis, 25.0%; bruxism, 45.6%; and rhythmic movements, 9.2%. Persistent somnambulism at age 6 was significantly correlated with sleep terrors and somniloquy. Persistent sleep terrors at age 6 were also correlated with somniloquy. Finally, persistent sleep terrors at age 6 were correlated with frequent night wakings. Separation anxiety was associated with persistent night wakings and with somnambulism, bruxism, sleep terrors, and somniloquy. There is a high prevalence of night wakings and sleep-onset difficulties in preschool children. Parasomnias are highly prevalent in early childhood and are associated with separation anxiety. However, they have little impact on sleep duration.

  11. Frequency of Six Early Childhood Education Approaches: A 10-Year Content Analysis of Early Childhood Education Journal (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Petty, Karen


    The frequency of early childhood education approaches spanning 10 years of publications was investigated. A content analysis of publications (N = 492) from "Early Childhood Education Journal" was conducted. From a previous content analysis six approaches or search words were identified: Bank Street, Head Start, High/Scope, Montessori, Reggio…

  12. Experienced iPad-Using Early Childhood Teachers: Practices in the One-to-One iPad Classroom (United States)

    Lu, Ya-Huei; Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Anne T.; Ding, Ai-Chu; Glazewski, Krista


    Although many elementary schools have adopted one-to-one programs, we still lack information on how teachers integrate iPads or other tablets into their daily instruction, especially in early childhood settings. The purpose of this case study was to present how four experienced iPad-using early childhood teachers integrated one-to-one iPads into…

  13. Playing at School: An Inquiry Approach to Using an Experiential Play Lab in an Early Childhood Teacher Education Course (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Oh, Ji Hyun; Porter, Daniella


    Play is considered an important activity of the early childhood years. Research supports the contribution of play to children's development, learning, and well-being. In spite of this, time for play is being pushed out in many early childhood programs by greater time allotted to formal instruction in narrow academic skills to be tested eventually…

  14. Making Sense of a Day in the Woods: Outdoor Adventure Experiences and Early Childhood Teacher Education Students (United States)

    Lamorey, Suzanne


    Less than one third of early childhood educators have a bachelor's degree, yet national indicators of high-quality early childhood program standards emphasize the importance of higher education for these practitioners. In order to adequately serve and retain these nontraditional learners as they strive to earn their degrees, teacher education…

  15. 77 FR 27781 - Non-Competitive One-Year Extension With Funds for State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems... (United States)


    ... service systems. The State team activities associated with these plans, and the comprehensive systems they... systems-building activities with HRSA's Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV...-building activities with early childhood investments within HRSA, including the MIECHV program, and with...

  16. Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement. (United States)

    Jackson, Margot I


    For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. African Early Childhood Development Curriculum and Pedagogy for Turkana Nomadic Pastoralist Communities of Kenya (United States)

    Ng'asike, John T.


    Western conceptions of child development and the models of early education they engender predominantly shape services for young children in the first eight years of life all over Africa. This chapter brings a reconceptualist perspective to the critique of Kenya's continuing failure to ground early childhood programs and services in local cultural…

  18. Early Childhood Intervention: Shaping the Future for Children with Special Needs and Their Families (United States)

    Eidelman, Steven, Ed.; Kaczmarek, Louise A., Ed.; Maude, Susan P., Ed.


    This eye-opening set looks at young children with special needs, their families, and the laws, policies, programs, and services designed to help them. It is scientifically known that early childhood is a time of significant brain development. That makes it especially crucial that children with special needs be recognized early so that appropriate…

  19. Sustaining the Benefits of Early Childhood Education Experiences: A Research Overview (United States)

    Gomez, Rebecca E.


    Over the past decade, there has been increased recognition of the short- and long-term benefits of high-quality early childhood education programs, but the systems needed to sustain these benefits throughout early learning transitions (and beyond) have not yet been fully implemented. In this article, the author discusses the importance of early…

  20. The Introduction of New Technologies: New Possibilities for Early Childhood Pedagogy (United States)

    O'Rourke, Maureen; Harrison, Cathie


    In 2000, IBM invited the Australian National Schools Network to assist in the implementation of the international KidSmart Early Learning Program in Australia. By the end of 2003, more than 300 Young Explorer Units will have been donated to designated early childhood settings serving low socio-economic communities across Australia. This paper will…

  1. Childhood intelligence and early tooth wear patterns. (United States)

    Heikkinen, Tuomo; Rusanen, Jaana; Sato, Koshi; Pesonen, Paula; Harila, Virpi; Alvesalo, Lassi


    The aim of this study is to explore the relationships between early dental wear patterns and preschool IQ (Intelligence Quotient, by Stanford-Binet) of the child to illuminate the historic relationship of mental queries and bruxism. The dental study participants were 864 Euro-American preschool and school children whose IQs were tested for school maturity purposes at the age of 4 years, followed by dental data in a cross-sectional manner at the mean age of 7.8 years. Worn dentitions were classified as "symmetric" or "right-" and "left-sided," based on the faceting of the teeth. In general, the relationships of tooth wear and intelligence were scarce, reflecting social background factors. Statistically significant results between asymmetric wear and gender groups suggest that direction of jaw function has a role in the regulation of processes responsible for individual mental performance in childhood. Increased left-side tooth wear and early advantage in the intelligence test in girls is intriguing due to the fact that they reach maturity earlier than boys in verbal articulation, controlled in most cases by the limited area on the left side of the brain.

  2. Sleep and energy intake in early childhood. (United States)

    Fisher, A; McDonald, L; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Llewellyn, C; Fildes, A; Schrempft, S; Wardle, J


    Shorter sleep is associated with higher weight in children, but little is known about the mechanisms. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that shorter sleep was associated with higher energy intake in early childhood. Participants were 1303 families from the Gemini twin birth cohort. Sleep duration was measured using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire when the children were 16 months old. Total energy intake (kcal per day) and grams per day of fat, carbohydrate and protein were derived from 3-day diet diaries completed by parents when children were 21 months old. Shorter nighttime sleep was associated with higher total energy intake (P for linear trend=0.005). Children sleeping sleeping 11-sleep duration for children of this age). Differences in energy intake were maintained after adjustment for confounders. As a percentage of total energy intake, there were no significant differences in macronutrient intake by sleep duration. The association between sleep and weight was not significant at this age (P=0.13). This study provides the first evidence that shorter nighttime sleep duration has a linear association with higher energy intake early in life. That the effect is observed before emergence of associations between sleep and weight indicates that differences in energy intake may be a mechanism through which sleep influences weight gain.

  3. Predictors of shorter sleep in early childhood. (United States)

    McDonald, Laura; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Fisher, Abigail


    The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic and home environmental predictors of shorter sleep in early childhood, and to examine whether effects were mediated by the timing of bedtime or wake time. Participants were from Gemini, a British birth cohort of twins, and included 1702 children; one randomly selected from each twin pair. Parents reported night-time sleep duration at an average age of 15.8 months (range 14-27 months) using a modified version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of shorter sleep for this study. Using a cut-off of education, non-white ethnic background, being male, low birth weight, living in a home with >1 older child and watching >1 h of TV in the evening were independently associated with shorter sleep. Mediation analyses showed that associations between education, ethnicity, evening TV viewing and sleep were driven predominantly by later bedtimes, while sex differences were driven predominantly by earlier wake times in boys. In this sample, multiple environmental factors were associated with shorter sleep in young children, with several operating predominantly through later bedtime. An emphasis on the importance of an early and consistent bedtime could help promote healthy sleep and reduce inequalities in child health. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of an early childhood obesity intervention on father’s obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne InFANT Program (United States)


    Background To investigate the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention, incorporating a parent modelling component, on fathers’ obesity risk-related behaviours. Methods Cluster randomized-controlled trial in the setting of pre-existing first-time parents groups organised by Maternal and Child Health Nurses in Victoria, Australia. Participants were 460 first-time fathers mean age = 34.2 (s.d.4.90) years. Dietary pattern scores of fathers were derived using principal component analysis, total physical activity and total television viewing time were assessed at baseline (infant aged three to four months) and after 15 months. Results No significant beneficial intervention effect was observed on fathers’ dietary pattern scores, total physical activity or total television viewing time. Conclusion Despite a strong focus on parent modelling (targeting parents own diet, physical activity and television viewing behaviours), and beneficial impact on mothers’ obesity risk behaviours, this intervention, with mothers as the point of contact, had no effect on fathers’ obesity risk-related behaviours. Based on the established links between children’s obesity risk-related behaviors and that of their fathers, a need exists for research testing the effectiveness of interventions with a stronger engagement of fathers. PMID:24524293

  5. Child Development Laboratory Schools as Generators of Knowledge in Early Childhood Education: New Models and Approaches (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan


    Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…

  6. The Effects of Early Childhood Classroom Size and Duration on Development of Children (United States)

    Canbeldek, Merve; Isikoglu Erdogan, Nesrin


    Purpose: The numbers of early childhood education programs are dramatically increasing throughout Turkey, and the regulations to ensure quality are frequently changing. A very limited number of studies have examined the quality of Turkish ECE programs on children's development. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the effects of…

  7. Community and Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Development: The South African Experience. (United States)

    Atmore, Eric; And Others

    Noting that disadvantaged communities in South Africa can be empowered by involving parents and communities in the development of preschool education programs, this report presents the achievements of South Africa's Early Childhood Education and Care (educare) programs. Educare aims to develop the young child's potential to be a meaningful part of…

  8. Early Childhood Development: Missouri's Approach: More of the Same Is No Answer (United States)

    Mallory, Arthur L.


    Describes Missouri's programs for early childhood education. Programs range from day care in the inner-city schools of Kansas City to classrooms on wheels that carry teachers and materials to children and their families in rural areas. Heavy stress is placed on helping parents. (Author/JF)

  9. Can Early Childhood Interventions Decrease Inequality of Economic Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Magnuson


    Full Text Available This paper considers whether expanding access to center-based early childhood education (ECE will reduce economic inequality later in life. A strong evidence base indicates that ECE is effective at improving young children's academic skills and human capital development. We review evidence that children from low-income families have lower rates of preschool enrollment than their more affluent peers. Our analysis indicates that increasing enrollments for preschoolers in the year before school entry is likely to be a worthy investment that will yield economic payoffs in the form of increased adult earnings. The benefits of even a moderately effective ECE program are likely to be sufficient to offset the costs of program expansion, and increased enrollment among low-income children may reduce later economic inequality.

  10. Early Childhood Educators' Perceived and Actual Metalinguistic Knowledge, Beliefs and Enacted Practice about Teaching Early Reading (United States)

    Hammond, Lorraine


    Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…

  11. Early childhood numeracy in a multiage setting (United States)

    Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra


    This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social interactions coding system designed by MacMillan (1998), while the running records and reflection notes contributed to descriptions of the children's interactions with each other and with the teachers. Teachers used an `assisted performance' approach to instruction that supported problem solving and inquiry processes in mathematics activities, and this, combined with a child-centred pedagogy and specific values about community learning, created a learning environment designed to stimulate and foster learning. The mathematics discourse analysis showed a use of explanatory language in mathematics discourse, and this language supported scaffolding among children for new mathematics concepts. These and other interactions related to peer sharing, tutoring and regulation also emerged as key aspects of students' learning practices. However, the findings indicated that multiage grouping alone did not support learning. Rather, effective learning was dependent upon the teacher's capacities to develop productive discussion among children, as well as implement developmentally appropriate curricula that addressed the needs of the different children.

  12. Height and calories in early childhood. (United States)

    Griffen, Andrew S


    This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Child temperament and risk factors for early childhood caries. (United States)

    Spitz, Amanda Seiser; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Kanellis, Michael J; Qian, Fang


    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between a mother's perception of her child's temperament and the child's risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). Data was collected from 629 records of children ages 0 to 4 who were patients of the University of Iowa's Infant Oral Health Program. Data included: (1) maternal report of child's temperament; (2) knowledge of ECC; (3) dietary and oral hygiene habits; and (4) clinical evidence of cavitated and noncavitated lesions and visible plaque on maxillary incisors. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Bivariate analyses showed that children reported as "easy" were more likely to: (1) be younger (P=.001); (2) be breast-fed to sleep (P=.046); (3) be breast-fed throughout the night (P=.012); and (4) have their teeth brushed twice daily (P=.006). Children reported as "difficult" were more likely to: (1) be bottle-fed to sleep (P=.002); and (2) have noncavitated lesions (P=.044). Final logistic regression analysis indicated that children perceived as "easy" were more likely to breast-fed throughout the night (odds ratio [OR]= 1.77; P=.016), while those perceived as "difficult" were more likely to be bottle-fed to sleep (OR=1.74; P=.016). Maternal reported child temperament may be related to important early childhood caries risk factors.

  14. Early childhood stunting and later fine motor abilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Susan M; Walker, Susan P; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A


    .... A cohort of stunted children who had participated in a randomized trial of psychosocial stimulation and/or nutritional supplementation in early childhood was compared with a group of non-stunted children...

  15. Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood (United States)

    ... htm Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood To use the sharing features on this page, ... on problems, such as drug abuse or family violence. Social Services should follow the family to make ...

  16. Providing Foundations for Social Studies in Early Childhood (United States)

    Pagano, Alicia L.


    Recommends the introduction of social studies/social science content into early childhood and elementary grade curricula. Gives examples of activities based on simple concepts in history, psychology, and geography. (AV)

  17. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Research on Early Childhood Education


    Burger, Kaspar


    There is much debate on early childhood education in research, politics, and society at large. Furthermore, early childhood education research and policy have become increasingly complex and multidimensional. Nonetheless, transdisciplinary research frameworks are still scarce. This report gives insights into a project that used a transdisciplinary approach, outlining its conceptualization and its potential for the definition and analysis of issues that transcend traditional boundaries between...

  18. The role of parents in early childhood education in Cameroon


    Ashu, F. (Felix)


    This research aims to provide some suggestions for the role of parents in early childhood education in Cameroon. It also tries to create an awareness of the current state of educational structures and institutions that are available for early childhood education and to identify gaps where urgent attention is needed. Data for this study was collected through interview with the use of Skype. A stratified random sampling method was used and the focus groups were parents who live both in cities a...

  19. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus


    is limited. One limiting step for research is the large heterogeneity of atopic diseases, especially in early childhood. The diseases are likely to represent several underlying subtypes, and identifying these is essential for improved treatment and prevention. A hallmark of atopic disease is sensitization...... and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...... a subtype of disease where skin barrier dysfunction leads to early eczema, early asthma symptoms and later sensitization. Future FLG-targeted research has the potential of improving understanding prevention and treatment of atopic diseases in childhood....

  20. Greek In-Service and Preservice Teachers' Views about Bullying in Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Psalti, Anastasia


    Despite the plethora of studies regarding bullying worldwide, there are limited studies at the early childhood level. This article presents the results of a pilot study aiming at exploring preservice and in-service early childhood teachers' views on bullying in Greek early childhood settings. A total of 192 early childhood teachers completed a…


    Shaw, Daniel S; Gilliam, Mary


    Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys' early starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current article reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Supplement centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood and a smaller cohort of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, and court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in healthcare settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Early Childhood Caries with the Perspective of Pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bucak


    Full Text Available Aim: Early childhood caries are characterized by the presence of at least one or more decayed, missing or filled teeth surfaces in any primary tooth of a child 24-72 months of age. The prevalance of early childhood caries is variable among the world because of wide range of contributing aetiological factors. Aim of this study to determine the prevalance and aetiologic factors of early childhood caries, in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey and evaluated as a pediatrician view. Material and Method: Patients admitted to pediatric polyclinics for any reason, aging between 24 to 72 months, were enrolled in this study. The children who had dental caries and who had not were examined by a dentist. Families were requested to voluntarily answer questions asked by our staff who follow a questionnaire. This questionnaire contains breastfeeding, usage of vitamin D, multivitamin formulations, iron supplements, baby bottle and pacifier, as well as consumpion of yogurt, acidic drinks, in addition to health habits of brushing teeth, check up by the dentist, cigarette usage of parents (mother, father or both. Results: 553 patients were included the study. Early childhood caries was determined to be 33,1 %. As a result of this study, we found that pacifier usage, multiviamin supplements and acidic drinks were significantly contributing to early childhood caries. Discussion: We advise refrainment from pacifier usage and unnecesary consumption of multivitamin supplemantation, acidic drinks or at least brushing of teeth rightafter consumption of these foods in childhood.

  3. Love-Based leadership in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Uusiautti


    Full Text Available A day care center is not just any place where children can spend their day while parents are at work. How to ensure that children have good childhood experiences and how to support their positive development from the very beginning of their educational career? In this study, we introduce the concept of love-based leadership and discuss its role and implementation in early education. Love-based leadership in early education is a method that renews teachers’ professional skills. The Finnish early childhood education system offers favorable premises for love-based leadership in early education. The method should also be included in the curriculum of future early childhood education teachers.

  4. Socioeconomic gradients in early childhood health: evidence from Bangladesh and Nepal. (United States)

    Devkota, Satis; Panda, Bibhudutta


    early childhood in Bangladesh and Nepal. This has important implications for targeted policy interventions in the form of food security and nutrition supplement programs, free provision of health care, and maternal education in both countries.

  5. Early Childhood Socioeconomic Status Is Associated With Circulating Interleukin-6 Among Mid-Life Adults (United States)

    Carroll, Judith E.; Cohen, Sheldon; Marsland, Anna L.


    It is proposed that socioeconomic conditions in early childhood effect immune programming, with poorer conditions resulting in adult phenotypes that are prone to inflammation. Recent evidence supports this possibility, showing an inverse association of childhood SES with adult markers of systemic inflammation. In this study, we further investigate this association, extending prior studies to include an examination of multiple indices of SES across distinct periods of childhood. Subjects were 112 men and women, 40–60 years of age (88.6% Caucasian). Childhood SES was indexed by a composite of three indicators of parental wealth (parental home and vehicle ownership, and number of bedrooms per child in the family home) averaged across 2-year periods of childhood between 1 and 18 years old. Higher adult serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 were associated with lower SES in early childhood (years 1–2) (β = −.05, p < .05), associations that were independent of adult age, personal income, educational attainment, gender, race, body mass index, and physical activity. These associations support recent suggestions that the early environment may program immune phenotypes that contribute to disease risk. PMID:21672624

  6. Prenatal exposure to diurnal temperature variation and early childhood pneumonia. (United States)

    Zeng, Ji; Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong


    Childhood pneumonia is one of the leading single causes of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. We investigate the association between childhood pneumonia and exposure to diurnal temperature variation (DTV) in different timing windows. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2,598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed by a questionnaire administered by the parents. Individual exposure to DTV during both prenatal and postnatal periods was estimated. Logic regression models was used to examine the association between childhood pneumonia and DTV exposure in terms of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Lifetime prevalence of childhood pneumonia in preschool children in Changsha was high up to 38.6%. We found that childhood pneumonia was significantly associated with prenatal DTV exposure, with adjusted OR (95%CI) =1.19 (1.02-1.38), particularly during the second trimester. However, childhood pneumonia not associated with postnatal DTV exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that boys are more susceptible to the pneumonia risk of diurnal temperature variation than girls. We further observed that the prevalence of childhood pneumonia was decreased in recent years as DTV shrinked. Early childhood pneumonia was associated with prenatal exposure to the diurnal temperature variation (DTV) during pregnancy, particularly in the second trimester, which suggests fetal origin of childhood pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response to intervention: implications for early childhood professionals. (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna; Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Romani, Jeanne M


    The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of building strong early childhood communities of interdisciplinary practice in the application of a comprehensive curriculum framework. A curriculum framework is proposed as a means of applying and extending the principles of response to intervention (RtI) to early childhood education providers working with young children, including speech-language pathologists (SLPs). The article presents information regarding the elements of a curriculum framework and suggestions for practice. Literature related to RtI was reviewed to identify common principles of practice. The resulting principles were then aligned to early childhood education recommended practices in order to illustrate the overlapping beliefs. Rationale and support for a curriculum framework as an early childhood education RtI model was then gathered to identify appropriate practices for working with young children who are served in a variety of early childhood settings. SLPs are important members of early educational teams, particularly when applying the principles of RtI using a curriculum framework. SLPs bring the expertise needed to ensure that children achieve critical outcomes. Implementation of the curriculum framework is made possible when everyone involved in supporting young children understands how to apply the elements of a curriculum framework.

  8. Oral manifestations of systemic alterations in early childhood. (United States)

    Padovani, Maria Cristina Ramos Lima; Barbosa, Patricia Silva; Baeder, Fernando; de Sant'Anna, Giselle Rodrigues; Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Guaré, Renata Oliveira


    This study aimed to describe certain common oral manifestations during early childhood that should be known by the pediatric dental surgeon. The correct diagnosis and treatment of oral manifestations during early childhood is important for children's development. The pediatric dentist is responsible for maintaining oral health in children, since they change constantly during their development and growth. Four cases of oral lesions are described, in which the diagnosis and related approach for each one is reported. The first was an acute primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, the second, pseudomembranous candidiasis, the third, chickenpox and the last was molluscum. Professionals who treat children in this age group must be able to diagnose and treat common oral manifestations when necessary and should refer the child to a pediatrician for effective treatment if the presence of any systemic alteration is suspected. Pathognomonic signs of the most common oral manifestations in early childhood should be known by dentists to improve early diagnosis and proper management.

  9. Long-term outcome of early childhood wheezing : Population data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strachan, D; Gerritsen, J

    The adult prognosis of early childhood wheezing is reviewed using data from three studies (in Melbourne, Tasmania and Britain) which have followed population-based samples of 7 year old children with a history of asthma or wheezing illness into their early thirties. About one quarter of these wheezy

  10. The Critique of the Implementation of Early Childhood Education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is a truism that the importance and value of education in the early years of life have been acknowledged for more than 2000 years ago. Relatively, recent factors have brought early childhood education to the forefront of public awareness. Fundamental changes in the economy, family life, public awareness, and public ...

  11. Setting the Stage for Lifetime Physical Activity in Early Childhood (United States)

    Schneider, Holly; Lounsbery, Monica


    The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale and suggestions for emphasizing health-related physical education in preschool settings. In order to accomplish this, it will examine what is currently known about early childhood physical activity, as well as the existing professional preparation and accreditation standards for early childhood…

  12. Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca


    The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

  13. A Study of Early Childhood Education Programmes in Delhi, India (United States)

    Chopra, Neelima


    Early years is the period of rapid physical and mental growth wherein the foundation for the child's development is laid and therefore, these years are considered extremely critical for the overall development of the child. Given the critical significance of these early childhood years, it is imperative for every child to get the opportunity to…

  14. Selecting "Just Right" Electronic Books for the Early Childhood Classroom (United States)

    McNelly, Tracy A.


    The effective use of e-books--now common in school libraries and classrooms--begins when teachers understand how to choose e-books that help to support emergent and early literacy skills for students in their early childhood classrooms.

  15. Culture and the Early Childhood Curriculum in Iceland. (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Tryggvadottir, Jonina


    Presents the relationship between Iceland's early childhood curriculum and important elements of its culture, such as population size, weather, terrain, language, literature, and cultural celebrations. Discusses the influence of foreign ideas on Icelandic educational thought and provides information on college curriculum for early childhood…

  16. Shifting Pedagogies through Distributed Leadership: Mentoring Chilean Early Childhood Educators in Literacy Teaching (United States)

    Singh, Michael; Han, Jinghe; Woodrow, Christine


    The potential of a sociocultural approach for empowering early childhood educators cannot be presumed, and its impact on leadership strategies and literacy teaching may be open to question. This paper reports on research into a professional learning program, the "Programa Futuro Infantil Hoy", developed and implemented by a team of…

  17. iPads as a Literacy Teaching Tool in Early Childhood (United States)

    Beschorner, Beth; Hutchison, Amy


    Considering the increased influence of digital technologies on daily life (Fallows, 2004) and young children's increased use of interactive technologies (Children Now, 2007), early childhood educators are beginning to think about the role of technology in their classrooms. Many preschool programs are beginning to purchase iPads, or similar…

  18. Evaluating the Adequacy of Social-Emotional Measures in Early Childhood (United States)

    Gokiert, Rebecca J.; Georgis, Rebecca; Tremblay, Melissa; Krishnan, Vijaya; Vandenberghe, Christine; Lee, Clara


    Technical adequacy and usability are important considerations in selecting early childhood social-emotional (SE) screening and assessment measures. As identification of difficulties can be tied to programming, intervention, accountability, and funding, it is imperative that practitioners and decision makers select appropriate and quality measures…

  19. Literacy Workshops: School Social Workers Enhancing Educational Connections between Educators, Early Childhood Students, and Families (United States)

    Hunter, William C.; Elswick, Susan E.; Perkins, J. Helen; Heroux, JoDell R.; Harte, Helene


    Parents and family members play an essential role in the literacy development of their children. Research indicates that children with disabilities enrolled in early childhood programs are likely to experience marginalization in terms of receiving educational services. This research emphasizes the importance of exposing students with disabilities…

  20. The Relations among Cumulative Risk, Parenting, and Behavior Problems during Early Childhood (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin


    Background: This study examined relations among cumulative risk, nurturant and involved parenting, and behavior problems across early childhood. Methods: Cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems were measured in a sample of low-income toddlers participating in a family-centered program to prevent conduct problems. Results: Path analysis…

  1. Effective Early Childhood Care and Education: Successful Approaches and Didactic Strategies for Fostering Child Development (United States)

    Burger, Kaspar


    This research article attempts to determine strategies that can be used to support children's cognitive and social-emotional development in early childhood care and education programs. By synthesizing empirical evidence about pedagogical techniques that promote children's competencies, the article aims to identify those characteristics of programs…

  2. Perspectives in Early Childhood Education: Belize, Brazil, Mexico, El Salvador and Peru (United States)

    McConnell-Farmer, Judith Lynne; Cook, Pamela R.; Farmer, M. W.


    Early childhood education (ECE) provision is becoming a growing priority. During the past twenty years, Latin America has shown a growing recognition in the provision of educational programs for young children, birth to age eight, is essential. Urban and rural populations intimated in 2009, that many countries utilizing equitable access to…

  3. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine


    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…

  4. Factors Influencing Overall Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Early Childhood Work Environments. (United States)

    Jorde-Bloom, Paula


    A fairly stable set of job clusters was identified as contributing sources of satisfaction and frustration to early childhood edcators in center-based programs. These job clusters were: co-worker relations; supervisor relations; the nature of the work; pay and opportunities for promotion; and general working conditions. Related findings are…

  5. Working for Quality Child Care: An Early Childhood Education Text from the Child Care Employee Project. (United States)

    Whitebook, Marcy, Comp.; And Others

    This early childhood education text was designed to help students and child care staff become effective advocates for the improvement of quality, salaries, and working conditions in child care programs. Unit I provides literature on the issues affecting the child care field and focuses on strategies to improve salaries and working conditions.…

  6. Myths and Facts Regarding Second Language Acquisition in Early Childhood: Recommendations for Policymakers, Administrators, and Teachers (United States)

    Kim, Soonhyang; Plotka, Raquel


    Early childhood teachers play a key role in addressing the needs of young English Language Learners, and a vast body of research is dedicated to assessing best practices for teachers. However, less research addressing the role of policymakers, program directors and administrators is available. Although teachers can make a difference in the lives…

  7. Homophobia, Sexism, and Early Childhood Education: A Review of the Literature (United States)

    Duke, Thomas Scott; McCarthy, Kathrin W.


    We reviewed 31 articles that explored issues related to gender and sexuality in early childhood education (ECE) settings. This body of literature suggests that ECE programs and elementary schools often reinforce the homophobia, heterosexism, and sexism that characterize contemporary U.S. society. A number of the articles described strategies that…

  8. Home-based and institutional early childhood education and care services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukkink, R.; Blok, H.; Peterson, P.; Baker, E.; McGaw, B.


    Early-childhood education and care is oriented toward stimulating the development of young children in preparation for the primary-school period. The various programs can be divided into three types, according to the chosen manner of entry into the ecological system of the young child. Home-based

  9. Early Childhood: Language and Bullying in an English-Medium School in China (United States)

    Lehman, Clayton Wayne


    The purpose of this small-scale study was to examine whether language is a factor in the reporting of bullying behavior by young English language learners enrolled in an early childhood program of an English-medium school in China. Further investigated was whether an English-only language policy affects the reporting of bullying behavior.…

  10. iPads as a Literacy Teaching Tool in Early Childhood (United States)

    Beschorner, Beth; Hutchison, Amy


    Considering the increased influence of digital technologies on daily life (Fallows, 2004) and young children's increased use of interactive technologies ("Children Now," 2007), early childhood educators are beginning to think about the role of technology in their classrooms. Many preschool programs are beginning to purchase iPads, or…

  11. Healthy Sexuality Development: A Guide for Early Childhood Educators and Families. (United States)

    Chrisman, Kent; Couchenour, Donna

    Although families are children's primary teachers about sexuality development, early childhood teachers and administrators also support children's healthy sexuality development as they interact with children, work with families, and plan programs. This book provides key information to educators and families about what is typical in young children…

  12. Contributions of School-Based Parenting and Family Literacy Centres in an Early Childhood Service System (United States)

    Underwood, Kathryn; Trent-Kratz, Marion


    Increasingly, governments are seeking ways to integrate early childhood education and care services as a social policy strategy to maximize child and family outcomes. This study examines the role of a school-based parenting and family literacy program to a system of services in one community in Ontario, Canada. Using an appreciative inquiry…

  13. Health Consequences of Nutrition in Childhood and Early Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzee-Chung Wu


    Full Text Available Medical and scientific studies have proven that the body's metabolic programming can be influenced by diet and nutrition from early infancy. As a result, the incidence and outcome of several metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders have been found to be associated with birth weight, growth and feeding patterns, and the body composition in early childhood. Exclusive or partial breast feeding for at least 6 months is recommended by the World Health Organization, while the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recommends the introduction of complementary foods at 4–6 months of age. The fat content of the diet should not be below 25% of the energy intake in order to maintain ideal growth while dietary proteins above 15% of the energy intake is related to future obesity. Long term benefits of breast feeding include a more ideal serum lipid profile and blood pressure, improved neuro-cognitive scores, and a decreased incidence for atopic dermatitis in children who have family members with atopic diseases. Several studies have also acknowledged the long term benefits for neuro-cognitive development from certain nutrients including long-chain polyunstaturated fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid. Meat intake has proved to be beneficial to psychomotor development. It is suggested that early introduction for complementary foods before 4 months of age is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis; while no strong evidence showed delaying weaning foods can decrease the risk for allergic diseases.

  14. INHABITED SPACES: childhoods and plays in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Corrêa Fernandes


    Full Text Available n this article, we socialize reflexions whose theme is the relation between the spaces there are appropriate for the children and the construction of their childhoods, their childhood’s conception, in the day-by-day of a kindergarten’s institution. Our interest is, in special, to comprehend how children develop ideas about spaces with the influence of their own experiences. The act of playing is crucial in this investigation, as a former of the human being that dialogues with the place, which is the affective link between people and the spaces. During the challenge of understanding this theme, some topics have been teasing us: what is particular of the children, of their childhoods, in the process of the perception of space? In which ways our places as kindergarten’s teachers, interferes in the perceptions of space and in the constitution of their own childhoods? Some episodes, experienced and watched with the children, are shared as encouragements for the reflexions that were anchored in the Geography of Childhoods. We give a pause in the dialogue, showing that our quotidian, close to the children, have been giving us the opportunity of comprehending that there is a relation between democratic relationships and the relevance of playing, as an affirmation of “place-life”. In this way, our investigations reveal that children act lively in their capacities of transforming the spaces, since we, adults, don’t subdue them, permitting the conditions for it to happen. Neste trabalho socializamos reflexões cuja temática é a relação dos espaços destinados às infâncias e a constituição dessas, suas emergências, no cotidiano de uma instituição de Educação Infantil. Interessa-nos, em especial, compreender como as crianças constituem ideias sobre os espaços a partir de suas vivências. O brincar como estruturante do humano dialoga com lugar, elo afetivo entre pessoas e espaços, ganhando relevância nessa investigação. No

  15. The Importance of Early Childhood Poverty (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen


    Most poor children achieve less, exhibit more problem behaviors and are less healthy than children reared in more affluent families. We look beyond correlations such as these to a recent set of studies that attempt to assess the causal impact of childhood poverty on adult well-being. We pay particular attention to the potentially harmful effects…

  16. Department of Early Childhood and Primary Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY DESCRIPTORS: Attention Deficit, Hyperactivity Disorder, Childhood Be- haviour Problems, Emotional disorders, Educational Psychology. ' INTRODUCTION. Attentionodeficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) refers to a set of behaviours such as excessive restlessness and short attention span: that are quantitatively ...

  17. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories? (United States)

    Smith, Wyverne


    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  18. Evaluation of possible associated factors for early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries: a multicenter cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.


    Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,

  19. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus


    and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...... is limited. One limiting step for research is the large heterogeneity of atopic diseases, especially in early childhood. The diseases are likely to represent several underlying subtypes, and identifying these is essential for improved treatment and prevention. A hallmark of atopic disease is sensitization...... with production of specific IgE-antibodies against allergens. Sensitization may cause allergic symptoms, and sensitization early in life is a strong risk factor for later disease. Fetal and early postnatal life seems to be a critical period for development of atopic disease and may be an important “window...

  20. Jump-Starting Early Childhood Education at Home: Early Learning, Parent Motivation, and Public Policy. (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Converse, Benjamin A; Gibbs, Chloe R; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L


    By the time children begin formal schooling, their experiences at home have already contributed to large variations in their math and language development, and once school begins, academic achievement continues to depend strongly on influences outside of school. It is thus essential that educational reform strategies involve primary caregivers. Specifically, programs and policies should promote and support aspects of caregiver-child interaction that have been empirically demonstrated to boost early learning and should seek to impede "motivational sinkholes" that threaten to undermine caregivers' desires to engage their children effectively. This article draws on cognitive and behavioral science to detail simple, low-cost, and effective tools caregivers can employ to prepare their children for educational success and then describes conditions that can protect and facilitate caregivers' motivation to use those tools. Policy recommendations throughout focus on using existing infrastructure to more deeply engage caregivers in effective early childhood education at home. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Maximizing the potential of early childhood education to prevent externalizing behavior problems: A meta-analysis


    Schindler, HS; Kholoptseva, J; Oh, SS; Yoshikawa, H.; Duncan, GJ; Magnuson, KA; Shonkoff, JP


    © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Early childhood education (ECE) programs offer a promising mechanism for preventing early externalizing behavior problems and later antisocial behavior; yet, questions remain about how to best maximize ECE's potential. Using a meta-analytic database of 31 studies, we examined the overall effect of ECE on externalizing behavior problems and the differential effects of 3 levels of practice, each with increasing specificity and intensity aimed a...

  2. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Early Childhood Obesity. (United States)

    Isong, Inyang A; Rao, Sowmya R; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Avendaño, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro; Richmond, Tracy K


    The prevalence of childhood obesity is significantly higher among racial and/or ethnic minority children in the United States. It is unclear to what extent well-established obesity risk factors in infancy and preschool explain these disparities. Our objective was to decompose racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's weight status according to contributing socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors. We used nationally representative data from ∼10 700 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort who were followed from age 9 months through kindergarten entry. We assessed the contribution of socioeconomic factors and maternal, infancy, and early childhood obesity risk factors to racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's BMI z scores by using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analyses. The prevalence of risk factors varied significantly by race and/or ethnicity. African American children had the highest prevalence of risk factors, whereas Asian children had the lowest prevalence. The major contributor to the BMI z score gap was the rate of infant weight gain during the first 9 months of life, which was a strong predictor of BMI z score at kindergarten entry. The rate of infant weight gain accounted for between 14.9% and 70.5% of explained disparities between white children and their racial and/or ethnic minority peers. Gaps in socioeconomic status were another important contributor that explained disparities, especially those between white and Hispanic children. Early childhood risk factors, such as fruit and vegetable consumption and television viewing, played less important roles in explaining racial and/or ethnic differences in children's BMI z scores. Differences in rapid infant weight gain contribute substantially to racial and/or ethnic disparities in obesity during early childhood. Interventions implemented early in life to target this risk factor could help curb widening racial and/or ethnic disparities in early childhood obesity

  3. Genital abnormalities in early childhood in sexual homicide perpetrators. (United States)

    Rettenberger, Martin; Hill, Andreas; Dekker, Arne; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer


    INTRODUCTION.: The present study investigates the relevance of genital abnormalities (GA) like cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phimosis usually diagnosed in early childhood for the development of psychosexual problems and deficits in a sample of N = 163 convicted sexual homicide perpetrators. AIMS.: The first aim was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood GA in a sample of sexual homicide perpetrators. The second was to explore differences in the psychosexual development of participants with GA in early childhood compared with those without GA. It was expected that offenders with GA show specific problems in their psychosexual development compared with offenders without GA. METHODS.: The data for the present study were obtained by reanalyzing an existing database derived from a large-scale research project about sexual homicide. Using a predominantly exploratory design we, therefore, divided the total sample into two subgroups (with vs. without indicators of GA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Main outcome measures were the number of sexual homicide perpetrators showing GA in early childhood and the differences of subjects with and without GA with regard to their psychosexual development (i.e., according to sexual deviant interests or sexual dysfunctions). RESULTS.: The prevalence of GA is substantially higher in this sample than epidemiological studies indicated in the normal population. This result provided first support for the importance of GA in the population of sexual homicide perpetrators. Further analyses indicate significant differences between both subgroups: Offenders with GA in early childhood showed indicators for more sexual dysfunctions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) in adulthood and a distinct tendency of more masochistic sexual interests. CONCLUSION.: Even if the exploratory design of the present investigation allows no causal conclusions between GA and sexual homicide offenses, the result provided support for the relevance of early

  4. Nomadic Research Practices in Early Childhood: Interrupting Racisms and Colonialisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Pacini-Ketchabaw


    Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.

  5. Breastfeeding knowledge and education needs of early childhood centre staff. (United States)

    Manhire, Kathleen Mary; Horrocks, Glenn; Tangiora, Angeline


    This survey investigated the breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes beliefs and education needs of supervisors and staff at 32 early childhood centres in New Zealand. This study explored numbers of mothers who breastfed at or supplied expressed breastmilk to the centres, and how breastfeeding education might enhance an increase in breastfeeding rates and child nutrition. Statistical analysis and open-ended questions revealed a positive attitude towards breastfeeding among staff. All centres recognised a need for breastfeeding education sessions and greater support for breastfeeding mothers. With increasing numbers of children attending early childhood centres, understanding the importance of and implementing support for mothers to continue to breastfeed is crucial.

  6. Gender and teacher training in Early Childhood Education studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Romero Díaz


    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a research study funded by the European Union that aims to improve early childhood teacher training in gender-related topics. Spain has made considerable headway with the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in the political agenda. However, as we point out in this paper, this issue is still not a priority in vocational training for early childhood education. A series of qualitative interviews and a quantitative questionnaire revealed a lack of training, materials and sensitivity, all needed for the introduction of gender and sexual diversity issues.

  7. Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course. (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally


    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NASA Early Career Fellowship Program (United States)

    Smith, H. D.


    The Early Career Fellowship program was established in 2005 to facilitate the integration of outstanding early career planetary science researchers into established research funding programs by providing tools and experience useful to maintain a successful research program. Executing a successful research program requires a few key elements such as: successful proposal writing; adequate (paid) research time; management of a laboratory; collaboration and networking; frequent and high-quality publications; and adequate start-up equipment funds. These elements may be particularly critical for early career researchers searching for a tenure- track or equivalent position. The Early Career Fellowship program recognizes the importance of these skills and provides extra funding and resources to begin a successful research program. For consideration into The Early Career Fellowship program, the candidate needs to be the P. I. or Science P.I. of a funded research proposal from one of the participating R&A program areas, be within 7 years of earning a PhD, hold a non-tenure track position, and indicate the early career candidacy when submitting the research proposal. If the research proposal is funded and the discipline scientist nominates the candidate as an early career fellow, the candidate is then considered a Fellow and eligible to propose for Step 2. Upon obtaining a tenure-track equivalent position the Fellow submits a Step 2 proposal for up to one hundred thousand dollars in start-up funds. Start-up funds may be used for salary; undergraduate and/or graduate research assistants; supplies and instrument upgrades; travel to conferences, meetings, and advisory groups; time and travel for learning new skills; publication page charges; books and journal subscriptions; computer time and/or specialized software; and other justified research-specific needs. The early career fellowship program provides resources that a more established scientist would have acquired allowing

  9. Early Retiree Reinsurance Program Reports (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) was established by section 1102 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) enacted on...

  10. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Developing Prevention Programs and Mobilizing Resources. (United States)

    Rochow, K. W. James

    The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook describes in detail the program requirements for effective childhood lead poisoning prevention programs at the local level based on the…

  11. Adverse childhood experiences and child health in early adolescence. (United States)

    Flaherty, Emalee G; Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; Harvey, Elizabeth M; English, Diana J; Proctor, Laura J; Runyan, Desmond K


    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences, especially when recent and ongoing, affect adolescent health. Efforts to intervene and prevent adverse childhood exposures should begin early in life but continue throughout childhood and adolescence. To examine the relationship between previous adverse childhood experiences and somatic concerns and health problems in early adolescence, as well as the role of the timing of adverse exposures. Prospective analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect interview and questionnaire data when target children were 4, 6, 8, 12, and 14 years old. Children with reported or at risk for maltreatment in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect sites. A total of 933 children who completed an interview at age 14 years, including health outcomes. Eight categories of adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, caregiver's substance use/alcohol abuse, caregiver's depressive symptoms, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior in the household) experienced during the first 6 years of life, the second 6 years of life, the most recent 2 years, and overall adversity. Child health problems including poor health, illness requiring a doctor, somatic concerns, and any health problem at age 14 years. More than 90% of the youth had experienced an adverse childhood event by age 14 years. There was a graded relationship between adverse childhood exposures and any health problem, while 2 and 3 or more adverse exposures were associated with somatic concerns. Recent adversity appeared to uniquely predict poor health, somatic concerns, and any health problem. Childhood adversities, particularly recent adversities, already show an impact on health outcomes by early adolescence. Increased efforts to prevent and mitigate these experiences may improve the health outcome for adolescents and adults.

  12. Risk analysis of early childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Hinge, Rikke


    assessments included filaggrin loss-of-function mutation; parent's atopic disease; sex; social status; previous deliveries; third trimester complications and exposures; anthropometrics at birth; month of birth; duration solely breast-fed; introduction of egg, cow's milk, and fish; time spent in day care; cat......: The Copenhagen Study on Asthma in Childhood is a prospective clinical study of a birth cohort of 411 children born of mothers with asthma. Eczema was diagnosed, treated, and monitored at the clinical research unit, and complete follow-up for the first 3 years of life was available for 356 children. Risk...

  13. Emotional education in Early Childhood Education teachers: a key aspect in teaching performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Camino Escolar Llamazares


    Full Text Available Based on the importance of emotional education in Early Childhood students it is equally important that these skills are also present in the training of teachers. The objective is to analyze the training offered by the CFIEs of Burgos and Miranda de Ebro to Early Childhood teachers about emotional education. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. In relation to the results, the analysis focuses on the study of frequencies using the SPPS statistical program v. 22. Results: We obtain that 69.9% of the courses taken include in the title a term related to emotional education or emotional intelligence, that such courses has tripled in recent years, public schools being mostly what carried them. The main beneficiaries are the teachers of the Early Childhood and primary education. In conclusion, the emotional education in the performance of teachers of Early Childhood it is a key aspect so that they can implement active methodologies that facilitate the overall development of students, so despite the continuing education program related to these aspects is increasing in recent years, it would require that responsible for CFIEs establish an action plan to develop in all areas of the province of Burgos.

  14. A Comparative Evaluation of Bifidobacteria Levels in Early Childhood Caries and Severe Early Childhood Caries. (United States)

    Nair, Suraj; Kumar, V Suresh; Krishnan, Ramesh; Rajan, Pooja


    Bifidobacteria levels in saliva were found to be significantly correlated in adults with dental caries but less information available in the literature regarding its role in children. The aim is to compare the salivary levels of Bifidobacteria in children who are caries free with that of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC). Saliva was collected using the tongue-loop method from a total of 60 children between the age group of 3-5 years and they were further divided into 3 groups. In addition, the age and gender of the children, sugar amount in diet, sugar frequency in diet, were recorded. Bifidobacteria was isolated from all the three groups, but more were from S-ECC, followed by ECC and very few cases of caries-free children and was found to statistically significant (P < 0.001). Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly correlated with amount of sugar in the diet and frequency of sugar consumption. Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly associated with S-ECC and ECC, followed by caries free group. In future, it can be used as a salivary marker for caries risk assesment.

  15. A comparative evaluation of bifidobacteria levels in early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Nair


    Full Text Available Background: Bifidobacteria levels in saliva were found to be significantly correlated in adults with dental caries but less information available in the literature regarding its role in children. Aim: The aim is to compare the salivary levels of Bifidobacteria in children who are caries free with that of early childhood caries (ECC and severe ECC (S-ECC. Materials and Methods: Saliva was collected using the tongue-loop method from a total of 60 children between the age group of 3–5 years and they were further divided into 3 groups. In addition, the age and gender of the children, sugar amount in diet, sugar frequency in diet, were recorded. Results: Bifidobacteria was isolated from all the three groups, but more were from S-ECC, followed by ECC and very few cases of caries-free children and was found to statistically significant (P < 0.001. Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly correlated with amount of sugar in the diet and frequency of sugar consumption. Conclusions: Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly associated with S-ECC and ECC, followed by caries free group. In future, it can be used as a salivary marker for caries risk assesment.

  16. Transforming Early Childhood Systems for Future Generations: Obligations and Opportunities (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Roth, Jessica L.


    In a rapidly shifting twenty-first century context, early childhood education and care (ECEC) must consider contextual, scientific, and policy realities in order to realize its social obligations to young children. The current status of ECEC globally bears both good and bad news; many countries are paying attention to the importance of the early…

  17. Early Childhood Directors as Socializers of Emotional Climate (United States)

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel


    Early childhood centres are vibrant social communities where child and adult emotions are integral to learning. Previous research has focused on teaching practices that support children's social-emotional learning; fewer studies have attended to relevant centre-level factors, such as the emotional leadership practices of the centre director. The…

  18. Creativity in the Early Childhood Classroom: Perspectives of Preservice Teachers (United States)

    Eckhoff, Angela


    This study examined how preservice teachers view the nature and role of creativity in light of the complexities of contemporary early childhood classrooms. A multiple methods approach was utilized and data were collected with the Questionnaire Examining Student Teachers' Beliefs about Creativity (Diakidoy & Kanari, 1999) survey instrument and…

  19. The Emotionally Intelligent Early Childhood Educator: Self-Reflective Journaling (United States)

    Kremenitzer, Janet Pickard


    A current interest in education is the growing awareness that the development of social and emotional skills in children is critical for the foundation of academic knowledge in the classroom. The early childhood educator is in a position to be a powerful nurturer of the social emotional development in young children. It is important, therefore, to…

  20. Early Childhood Education in Neoliberal, Religiously Conservative Times in Turkey (United States)

    Aksoy, Naciye; Eren Deniz, Ebru


    This article provides an analysis and discussion of the impacts of neoliberal, religiously conservative educational policies on early childhood education (ECE) in Turkey. After an introduction, the article is presented in four sections. The first section provides an overview of neoliberal, religiously conservative policies in the Turkish…

  1. Critical perspectives on danish early childhood education and care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver; Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik


    This paper discusses trends in contemporary Danish early childhood education and care (ECEC). Data are sourced from various policy documents, along with material from ongoing research projects in which the authors are involved. It is claimed that contemporary policy on Danish day care services ha...

  2. Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: The OMEP World Project (United States)

    Engdahl, Ingrid


    At the closure of the UNESCO decade on Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), this article reports on large research projects on sustainability conducted within the World Organisation for Early Childhood Education (OMEP) through 2009-2014. The overall aim of the projects within OMEP was to enhance awareness of Education for Sustainable…

  3. More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala (United States)

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina


    This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

  4. Management Strategies for Funding and Sustaining Early Childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the existing management strategies for funding Early Childhood Education (ECE) in Nigeria with a view towards its better funding and sustenance. It recognised the commitment of the Nigerian Governments and the support of the community, individuals and foreign sponsors in funding ECE ...

  5. Talking Early Childhood Education: Fictional Enquiry with Historical Figures (United States)

    Selbie, Philip; Clough, Peter


    The use of fictional writing, and in particular fictional dialogue, has gained increasing credibility and popularity within the field of qualitative social science research (Clough, 2002; Denzin, 1997; Tierney, 1998) but research in early childhood education has yet to exploit such methodologies. This article asks: what is meant by the term…

  6. Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Practices and Challenges in Malaysia (United States)

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina


    Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…

  7. Blushing in early childhood: Feeling coy or socially anxious?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolić, M.; Colonnesi, C.; de Vente, W.; Bögels, S.M.


    Blushing has adaptive social functions. However, blushing is also assumed to be a hallmark of social anxiety and shyness. For the first time, blushing and its relation to the expressions of shyness and social anxiety was examined in early childhood. Four-and-a-half-year-old children (N = 102) were

  8. Processes of Early Childhood Interventions to Adult Well-Being (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F.; Hayakawa, Momoko


    This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions…

  9. Inclusion of Technology Resources in Early Childhood Music Education (United States)

    Kersten, Fred


    The article discusses the inclusion of technology resources in early childhood music education. Successful technology inclusion in music for young children depends on the physical, mental, and social readiness of each individual child. Learning providers involved with young children should constantly review the child's capabilities and …

  10. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities (United States)

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.


    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  11. Building Leadership Capacity in Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers (United States)

    Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Stamopoulos, Elizabeth; Maloney, Carmel


    Building leadership capacity has emerged as a key concern within the early childhood profession in Australia as the sector responds to recent national reforms focusing on raising standards and improving quality provision of services. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion around these reforms and to make a case for changes…

  12. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge? (United States)

    Vist, Torill


    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  13. Risk Factors of Early Childhood Caries among Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) describes caries experience on at least one primary tooth in children under six years of age. It is among the most common chronic diseases in young children and may develop as soon as the teeth erupt. Thus it presents a serious problem in pediatric dentistry not only because of ...

  14. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.


    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  15. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann


    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  16. Music's Representation in Early Childhood Education Journals: A Literature Review (United States)

    Bond, Vanessa L.


    In this review of literature, the author explored the representation of music in early childhood education researcher and practitioner journal articles. Thirty-eight pertinent journal articles were identified in a keyword search for "music" in eight journals. The search was limited to a 5-year period, 2005-2010. Article summaries were categorized…

  17. Early Parental Adjustment and Bereavement after Childhood Cancer Death (United States)

    Barrera, Maru; O'connor, Kathleen; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Spencer, Lynlee; Nicholas, David; Jovcevska, Vesna; Tallet, Susan; Schneiderman, Gerald


    This study comprehensively explored parental bereavement and adjustment at 6 months post-loss due to childhood cancer. Interviews were conducted with 18 mothers and 13 fathers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed based on qualitative methodology. A model describing early parental bereavement and adaptation emerged with 3 domains:…

  18. The Art of Leadership: Managing Early Childhood Organizations. Volume 1. (United States)

    Neugebauer, Bonnie, Ed.; Neugebauer, Roger, Ed.

    The first of two volumes intended for directors of early childhood organizations, this volume compiles selected articles for center directors from the first 20 years of the journal "Child Care Information Exchange." The articles cover leadership, organizational management, and financial management. The articles are grouped into…

  19. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan (United States)

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah


    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  20. Worms, Shadows and Whirlpools: Science in the Early Childhood Classroom. (United States)

    Worth, Karen; Grollman, Sharon

    Young children develop science knowledge as they observe and act on the world, asking questions, making predictions, testing those predictions, and reflecting on their experiences. This book offers guidance in integrating inquiry-based science into the early childhood curriculum, focusing on content and providing examples of the work of children…

  1. Research in Early Childhood Music and Movement Education. (United States)

    Stellaccio, Cherie K.; McCarthy, Marie

    Because intuitive aptitude for music stabilizes at about age 9 years, the early childhood years are critical to the development of children's potential for comprehending and producing music. This literature review centers on studies that have expanded knowledge of how young children perform, perceive, and create music and thus develop their…

  2. Montessori Early Childhood Teacher Perceptions of Family Priorities and Stressors (United States)

    Epstein, Ann


    Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers' understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori Early Childhood (ages three through six) teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.…

  3. Career Perspectives of Male Students in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Anliak, Sakire; Beyazkurk, Derya Sahin


    While, in some professions, the gender balance seems to be changing in the direction of equality, the participation of males in early childhood education has not expanded because of stereotypical perceptions of this occupation, low salaries and status, and fear of being accused of sexual abuse. Males may make important contributions to the field…

  4. Intraneural perineurioma of the sciatic nerve in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John R; Smith, Torben; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian


    , peroneal neuropathy was suspected. The case illustrates that sciatic intraneural perineuriomas do occur in early childhood, and that traction on the sciatic nerve may result in earlier damage to the peroneal nerve than to the tibial nerve, thus mimicking a more peripheral lesion....

  5. Tracking Club Sport Participation from Childhood to Early Adulthood (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Williams, Sheila; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I.


    This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally…

  6. Prevalence and awareness of early childhood caries among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and awareness of early childhood caries (ECC) among attendees of a Reproductive and Child Health clinic at Mnazi Mmoja dispensary in Dar es Salaam. The parents or guardians were aged 16-55 years old, while the children were aged 6-36 months. Caries was ...

  7. Urban Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Hsieh, Chang-Ming


    This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n = 130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were…

  8. Time and Temporality in Early Childhood Educators' Work (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise


    This article reports on the persistence and significance of notions of time and temporality in interviews with early childhood educators in Victoria and Queensland, Australia, in two studies designed to explore the concept of "pedagogical leadership". Interpretive analysis of the interview transcripts of the 19 participants identified…

  9. Early Childhood Special Educators and the Hospital Ethics Committee. (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara


    The paper discusses issues of concern to early childhood special educators serving on hospital ethics committees to assist families with seriously ill and handicapped infants in neonatal intensive care units. Issues include infant euthanasia and the right to life, child abuse legislation, and possible effects on families. (Author/JDD)

  10. Napping Reduces Emotional Attention Bias during Early Childhood (United States)

    Cremone, Amanda; Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Fraticelli-Torres, Ada; McDermott, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.


    Sleep loss alters processing of emotional stimuli in preschool-aged children. However, the mechanism by which sleep modifies emotional processing in early childhood is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a nap, compared to an equivalent time spent awake, reduces biases in attention allocation to affective information. Children (n = 43;…

  11. Knowledge, Practice, and the Shaping of Early Childhood Professionalism (United States)

    Hordern, Jim


    This article argues for an early childhood professionalism based upon notions of professional community and professional knowledge. Professionalism is conceived here as shaped by the relation between the social and the epistemic, with certain types of professional knowledge given precedence in accordance with the involvement of different…

  12. The Challenges of Creativity in Norwegian Early Childhood Teacher Education (United States)

    Meyer, Grete Skjeggestad; Eilifsen, Margareth


    Based on many years' work designing introductory, immersive, aesthetic experiences that lead to problem-based learning (PBL) tasks for student teachers (called "INTRO"), we problematize the concept of creativity and playfulness in Early Childhood Teacher Education (ECTE). The article reports on our analysis of students' experiences of…

  13. Visits to Cultural Learning Places in the Early Childhood (United States)

    Mudiappa, Michael; Kluczniok, Katharina


    Studies show the important role of the home learning environment in early childhood for later school success. This article focuses on a particular aspect of the home learning environment: visits to cultural learning places (e.g. museums) as a component of the quality of the home learning environment. Therefore the educational concept of…

  14. Mainstream Early Childhood Education Teacher Preparation for Inclusion in Zimbabwe (United States)

    Majoko, Tawanda


    This study examined mainstream teachers' preparation for inclusion in Early Childhood Education (ECE). Embedded within the "core expertise" of inclusive pedagogy, this descriptive study drew on a sample of 23 mainstream teachers purposively drawn from the Midlands educational province of Zimbabwe. A constant comparative approach of…

  15. Early Childhood Policy-Making: Inputs, Processes, and Legislative Outputs. (United States)

    Forgione, Pascal D., Jr.


    Reports on rationales that states have used to support recent early childhood education (ECE) initiatives and describes how reform policies were made in 1971-73 in West Virginia, California, Georgia, New Mexico, and Ohio. Outlines background and initiation of reform, building of support for ECE, opposition, and resulting legislation. (Author/GC)

  16. A Long-Term Investment in Pakistan: Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar


    Despite the enormous demand for early childhood education care and education, it remains a privilege for young children in most of the world's nine high population countries, known as the E-9 group (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan), according to a report published by UNESCO (2003). The World…

  17. Integrating Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives in Early Childhood Mathematics (United States)

    Rosen, Dina; Hoffman, Jo


    Early childhood teachers around the country and the world guide children's mathematical learning through the use of manipulatives--pattern blocks, base blocks, geoboards, Unifx cubes, Cuisenaire rods, coins, clocks, and so on. Manipulatives allow concrete, hands-on exploration and representation of mathematical concepts. In the past few years,…

  18. Psychological Burnout in Early Childhood Teachers: Levels and Reasons (United States)

    Al-Adwan, Fatima Eid Zaid; Al-Khayat, Majed Mohammad


    The primary education plays an important role in the life of an individual as well as the nation as a whole. This study aims at investigating the level of psychological burnout in early childhood female teachers at public and private kindergarten schools. It also aims to prove whether these burnout levels differ according to the type of school,…

  19. The Matter of Silence in Early Childhood Bilingual Education (United States)

    Martín-Bylund, Anna


    The relationship between silence as non-speech and bilingualism in early childhood education is intricate. This article maps this relationship with the help of diverse theoretical entrances to a video-recorded everyday episode from a bilingual (Spanish-Swedish) preschool in Sweden. Though this, three alternative readings of silence are produced.…

  20. Male Teachers in Early Childhood Education: Self & Social Perceptions. (United States)

    Shaham, Dan

    Noting that men make up only a small percentage of early childhood and day care educators, a study was conducted to assess male teachers' points of view and attitudes. The self- and social-perceptions of 5 male preschool teachers between the ages of 22 and 50 were determined through ethnographic interviews. It was found that, as a group, the male…

  1. Early Childhood Professionalism in Serbia: Current Issues and Developments (United States)

    Bankovic, Ivana


    This article explores early childhood professionalism in the Republic of Serbia. The concept of professionalism in this context is examined in light of current international debates about professionalism. More specifically, how the use of specific nomenclature, the existence of multi-professional teams of practitioners and state-regulated but…

  2. Diagnostic Transitions from Childhood to Adolescence to Early Adulthood (United States)

    Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian


    Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…

  3. Early Childhood Care and Education and School Readiness in Zambia (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Fink, Günther


    Despite increased investment in early childhood care and education (ECCE) globally, little is known about its effectiveness in low-income countries. Using kernel exact matching within a national sample of 1,623 Zambian 6-year-olds, we test the associations between ECCE participation and seven domains of children's school readiness. We find ECCE…

  4. Home-School Communication in the Early Childhood Development Phase (United States)

    Bridgemohan, Radhike; van Wyk, Noleen; van Staden, Christie


    This article examines the practices of home-school communication in the Early Childhood Development (ECD) phase in South Africa. The aims of this qualitative investigation were to determine the nature and effectiveness of home-school communication practices and to make recommendations on how communication can be improved to facilitate better…

  5. Early Childhood Intervention in China from the Families' Perspective (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Merritts, Ashley


    Research highlights the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI) for children with disabilities, and there is an increasing interest in China with respect to research on ECI. However, little research exists exploring the experience of families of young children with disabilities receiving ECI services and supports in China. The purpose of…

  6. Child Care and Cortisol across Early Childhood: Context Matters (United States)

    Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.


    A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…

  7. Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping (United States)

    Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.


    Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

  8. The Importance of Play in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the study leading to this paper, the task was to determine the possibility of the Department of Technical Education at the University of Zimbabwe in-servicing Early Childhood Development (ECD) teachers in Design and Technology (D&T) through short and long-term courses. Such courses would specifically relate to the ...

  9. Delivery of Early Childhood Education in Urban Areas of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work reported here is a case study analysis on provision of early childhood education, its challenges and suggestions for improvement in Tanzania; basing on experience of Dar es Salaam. It was thought to be appropriate to conduct a study in institutionalized childcare settings like nursery and pre-primary schools and ...

  10. A New Tool to Facilitate Learning Reading for Early Childhood (United States)

    Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto


    This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…

  11. Identifying Leadership Roles for Quality in Early Childhood Education Programmes (United States)

    Ho, Dora Choi Wa


    This article aims to identify leadership roles for quality in early childhood programmes in the local settings of a sample of Hong Kong preschools. Two schools were selected for the study, both of which were rated as excellent in the quality assurance inspections of a local education authority. Effective leadership was explored from the multiple…

  12. Early childhood adversities and risk of eating disorders in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bulik, Cynthia M


    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies evaluating the association between early childhood adversities and eating disorders have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between a range of adversities and risk of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating...

  13. Implementation of Attachment Theory into Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Shirvanian, Natalia; Michael, Tony


    Because numerous studies show that early child-adult attachment significantly affects a child's socio-emotional and cognitive development, we propose that establishing attachment-based child care can contribute to a healthy and happy childhood. This proposition is part of a new theoretical and experimental field and, thus, research is limited.…

  14. Narrative Skills Following Early Confirmation of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (United States)

    Worsfold, Sarah; Mahon, Merle; Yuen, Ho Ming; Kennedy, Colin


    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare spoken language production in children with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) whose PCHI was confirmed either early or late. Method: Audio-taped spoken narrative was assessed for syntax, phonology, morphology, and narrative in transcripts from a population-based sample of 89 children (49 males,…

  15. Early Childhood Leadership through the Lens of Distributed Leadership (United States)

    Heikka, Johanna; Hujala, Eeva


    This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education (ECE) context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how ECE stakeholders, e.g. teachers, ECE centre directors and administrative ECE leaders in municipalities perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus…

  16. Turkish Teachers' Accounts of Moral Dilemmas in Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Koc, Kevser; Buzzelli, Cary A.


    In all, 26 Turkish early childhood educators were asked to describe a moral dilemma they faced in their classroom, the circumstances that made the situation a dilemma, and why it was a moral dilemma. The dilemmas described arose from conflicts between teachers and children, teachers and parents, and teachers and administrators. Dilemmas described…

  17. Parent Participation in Early Childhood Education in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 17, 2012 ... teachers, administrators, NGOs, and government) value parents' resources and create new ways for parent participation in the extractive model of schooling in place, the ECE cannot be enhanced and advanced. Key Words: Early childhood education; school-parents relations; parent ethnotheories.

  18. The Use of Email to Coach Preservice Early Childhood Teachers (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Fuller, Elizabeth A.; Schnitz, Alana


    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of performance feedback on preservice teachers' use of recommended practices within inclusive early childhood classrooms. A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine the relation between performance feedback delivered via email and practicum students' use of target-recommended…

  19. How Do They Manage? An Investigation of Early Childhood Leadership (United States)

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Harris, Alma


    Early childhood (EC) leadership literature indicates few theoretically based studies identifying and testing different models and characteristics of leadership. Objectives were thus to identify, describe and analyse what leadership meant to key EC participants; to consider roles, responsibilities and characteristics; to investigate core…

  20. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children. (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  1. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix


    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  2. International Early Childhood Resources from Educational Research Abstracts (ERA) Online (United States)

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 2011


    This annotated bibliography provides abstracts for 17 resources relating to early childhood around the world. Each annotation contains: title; author name(s); source (name of journal in which the resource was published); ISSN of the journal in which the resource was published; and issue (journal citation information for the resource within the…

  3. Inclusion in Early Childhood Education: Pre-Service Teachers Voices (United States)

    Majoko, Tawanda


    This study examined pre-service teachers' understanding, attitudes, preparation and concerns regarding inclusion in early childhood education (ECE) in Zimbabwe. Entrenched within inclusive pedagogy, this descriptive study draws on a sample of 24 pre-service teachers purposively selected from the largest teachers' college with the oldest…

  4. The Use of Personal Data Assistants in Early Childhood Assessment (United States)

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Yoder, Noreen N.; Hanes, Barbara


    Four early childhood education teachers, two veteran and two newer teachers, were asked to pilot the use of handheld Personal Data Assistants loaded with Childchart assessment software. The participants were observed in their use of the electronic devices for monitoring student performance and interviewed regarding the use of the devices and their…

  5. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.


    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  6. Technology and Early Childhood Professional Development: A Policy Discussion. (United States)

    McMaken, Jessica; Kauerz, Kristie; DeCesare, Dale; Hale, Genevieve

    In July 2002, Knowledge Works Foundation and the Education Commission of the States assembled key stakeholders to focus on the policy opportunities, needs, and challenges of utilizing technology for coordinated early childhood professional development across the nation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions held at the meeting…

  7. Assistive Technology User Group Perspectives of Early Childhood Professionals (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Stoner, Julia B.; Watts, Emily H.


    With the increasing usage of assistive technology (AT) usage in early childhood education settings serving children who are at-risk or who have developmental disabilities, there is a corresponding need for effective professional development experiences such as user groups to develop skills in using AT. Using a collective case study approach, 10…

  8. Developmentally Appropriate Technology Use and Early Childhood Teacher Education (United States)

    Rosen, Dina B.; Jaruszewicz, Candace


    Early childhood teacher education methods classes often emphasize the application of developmentally appropriate practices (DAP). In today's digital age, it is important for teacher educators and their students to think about how to extend DAP to technology use. In this article, two contrasting classroom scenarios are provided to illustrate…

  9. Information and Communication Technologies in Finnish Early Childhood Environments. (United States)

    Kankaanranta, Marja; Kangassalo, Marjatta


    Describes the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in Finnish early childhood environments from three perspectives. Examines Finnish national policies on the use of ICT; indicates the prevailing state of ICT use, according to results of international and national surveys; and presents some innovative practices involving the use…

  10. Using Technology in Early Childhood Environments to Strengthen Cultural Connections (United States)

    Meadows, Mikki


    This article will discuss the use of technology with young children to strengthen cultural connections. A brief discussion of the use of technology in the field of Early Childhood Education and a brief discussion of diversity and cultural issues is followed by specific ways in which technology can be utilized to help young children understand…

  11. An Early Childhood Educator's Guide to Prosocial Development. (United States)

    Floody, Dale R.

    This paper reviews research findings that are related to fostering prosocial behavior in the early childhood and elementary classroom. A collection of "experimental best bets" for increasing prosocial behavior in young children is outlined. This collection covers the role of reinforcement and modeling or imitation, the importance of group norms,…

  12. Being Maori: Culturally Relevant Assessment in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Rameka, Lesley Kay


    Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…

  13. The Paradox of Power in Leadership in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Ho, Dora


    Western frameworks for school improvement, including the stakeholder model and the model of decentralized leadership, have recently been promoted as solutions for school improvement. Using early childhood education in Hong Kong as an illustrative case, this article focuses on the power and authority of leadership in school decision making. The…

  14. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model. (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W


    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  15. Using Parent and Teacher Voices in the Creation of a Western-Based Early Childhood English-Language Program in China (United States)

    Shimpi, Priya M.; Paik, Jae H.; Wanerman, Todd; Johnson, Rebecca; Li, Hui; Duh, Shinchieh


    The current English-language research and educational program was driven by an initiative to create a more interactive, theme-based bilingual language education model for preschools in Chengdu, China. During a 2-week teacher education program centered at the Experimental Kindergarten of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Chengdu, China, a team of…

  16. La participacion de padres y madres en programas de desarrollo infantil temprano (Participation of Fathers and Mothers in Early Childhood Development Programs). (United States)

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.


    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin presents articles covering child development programs with varying degrees of parent involvement. As explained in the bulletin's opening editorial, the articles focus on the keys to good parenting, influences such as the programs environmental context, goals and methods on the degree and manner of…

  17. Early childhood precursors for eating problems in adolescence: a 15-year longitudinal community study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hafstad, Gertrud Sofie; von Soest, Tilmann; Torgersen, Leila


    .... Mother-rated early childhood sleep problems (assessed before the age of five) predicted self-rated eating problems in adolescents, with gender, birth weight, and a number of early childhood internal and environmental factors controlled...

  18. [Types of child rearing behavior of parents during early childhood: Q-methodological approach]. (United States)

    Park, Sun-Jung; Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong


    The purpose of this study was to identify the awareness of child rearing among parents of children in early childhood and to provide fundamental data for parent education programs according to child rearing type. Q-methodology which provides a method of analyzing the subjectivity of each item was used. Forty Q items which were derived from a literature review and interviews with nurturing mothers were classified into a normal distribution using a 9-point scale. Collected data were analyzed using the QUANAL PC Program. Four types of parents' child rearing were identified. Type I was named 'affection-respect type', type II, 'concern-rule compliant type', type III, 'solicitude-model type', and type IV, 'geniality-encouragement type'. For proper growth and development during early childhood, parents should have rational information and awareness of their child rearing type. Results of this study can be used as essential data to develop child rearing education programs according to parents' child rearing attitude.

  19. Advancing family health through the Garden of Eatin': on-site food gardens in early childhood education. (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia; Yeh, Jarmin; Sigal, Byron


    Nutritional practices develop over the life course. Developing healthy habits at an early age can contribute to combating increasing child obesity rates. Through a range of activities that rely on the presence of an on-site food garden, North Bay Children's Center (NBCC), an early childhood education program, has enacted a "culture of health" into all aspects of the curriculum to promote healthy eating practices among children, families, teachers and staff. NBCC's garden program serves as a model in early childhood education and as a community-based intervention to improve family health and prevent child obesity.

  20. Association of parental stress and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar


    Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.

  1. Evaluation of bronchial asthma as risk factor for early childhood caries. (United States)

    Lindemeyer, Rochelle G; Satpute, Neel S; Katz, Solomon H


    Asthma and dental caries are common chronic health conditions of childhood. The aim of this study was to determine if severity of bronchial asthma is a risk factor for early childhood caries. Asthmatic children aged 71 months or younger were examined for their plaque and caries status and were compared with controls matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status. The results showed that asthmatics as a group had a lower DMFT score than the control group. New asthma management and educational programs may be having a positive spillover effect to the dental arena.

  2. An Analysis of New Zealand's Changing History, Policies and Approaches to Early Childhood Education (United States)

    McLachlan, Claire


    New Zealand has an internationally unique approach to early childhood education, which includes a bicultural early childhood curriculum, a robust infrastructure of organisation and management overseen by the New Zealand Ministry of Education, and a growing reputation for innovation in early childhood teaching and learning. This paper examines how…

  3. An Experimental Test of Parenting Practices as a Mediator of Early Childhood Physical Aggression (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; O'Neal, Colleen R.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Shrout, Patrick E.


    Background: Parenting practices predict early childhood physical aggression. Preventive interventions that alter parenting practices and aggression during early childhood provide the opportunity to test causal models of early childhood psychopathology. Although there have been several informative preventive intervention studies that test mediation…

  4. Early Childhood Educators' Experiences and Perceptions of Professionalism and Professionalisation in the Asian Context (United States)

    Monk, Hilary; Phillipson, Sivanes


    Increasingly early childhood educators are referred to as "professionals," but how do they view themselves in terms of professionalism? What does it mean to be an early childhood professional? This study explored the views of 78 Asian early childhood educators who were upgrading their qualifications to degree level. In groups of five to…

  5. Teacher Understandings of and Commitment to Gender Equity in the Early Childhood Setting (United States)

    Lee-Thomas, Kerrin; Sumsion, Jennifer; Roberts, Susan


    Despite considerable examination of gender and gender equity within early childhood education, gender inequity remains problematic in many early childhood settings. Using qualitative methods, the study reported in this article investigated four early childhood teachers' understandings about gender and their commitment to promoting gender equity.…

  6. Equal Access to Early Childhood Education in South Korea Using the Geographic Information System (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Jang, Youn Joo


    While the importance of early childhood education is well documented, scant attention is afforded to the access to institutions for early childhood education. Uneven distribution of institutions for early childhood education in segregated metropolitan areas can cause inequality of educational opportunity. By using the Geographic Information System…

  7. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.


    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  8. Does preterm period sleep development predict early childhood growth trajectories? (United States)

    Winkler, M R; Park, J; Pan, W; Brandon, D H; Scher, M; Holditch-Davis, D


    The current study examined the relationship between sleep state development across the preterm and early post-term periods and subsequent growth trajectories from 1 to 27 months corrected age. Retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively from 111 preterm infants (⩽34 weeks gestation) who participated in a multi-site longitudinal study. Separate longitudinal parallel process models were calculated for each sleep state (active and quiet sleep) and growth (weight, length and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores) variable to estimate the associations between their developmental trajectories. Significant associations were identified between the trajectories of quiet sleep and weight, active sleep and weight, quiet sleep and BMI, and active sleep and BMI. No statistically meaningful associations were identified between the trajectories of early childhood length and the preterm sleep states. Faster preterm period sleep development appears to predict more favorable early childhood growth trajectories, particularly for weight, indicating preterm sleep may be an important biomarker for subsequent growth outcomes.

  9. The Impact of a Professional Development Program Integrating Informal Science Education on Early Childhood Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Beliefs about Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (United States)

    Duran, Emilio; Ballone-Duran, Lena; Haney, Jodi; Beltyukova, Svetlana


    This report aimed to measure the impact of a unique professional development program entitled Project ASTER III (Active Science Teaching Encourages Reform) on teachers' self-efficacy and perceptions about inquiry-based science teaching. Project ASTER III enabled teachers to explore inquiry-based science teaching through exhibit-based…

  10. Preparing Early Childhood Educators to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Development and Challenging Behavior: A Survey of Higher Education Programs in Nine States (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.


    This article presents results from a survey of faculty members from 2- and 4-year higher education programs in nine states that prepare teachers to work with preschool children. The purpose of the study was to determine how professors address content related to social-emotional development and challenging behaviors, how well prepared they believe…

  11. Socioeconomic status, infant feeding practices and early childhood obesity. (United States)

    Gibbs, B G; Forste, R


    Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n = 8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Sharing Alphabet Books in Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Jones, Jennifer


    To achieve academically, young children need a strong foundation in literacy. Alphabet knowledge is one aspect of early literacy. This article presents the importance of and the components of alphabet knowledge. An exploratory study in which prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers read aloud three different alphabet books to their students in a…

  13. Cultural Constructions of Childhood and Early Literacy. (United States)

    David, T.; Goouch, K.; Jago, M.


    Adopts a cross-cultural approach to understand contexts in which young children become familiar with literacy. Notes that early years practitioners in Singapore, Australia, France, and England responded to questionnaires, were observed in action and interviewed. Finds that learning experiences practitioners provided for children were influenced by…

  14. Literacy and Music in Early Childhood


    Michelle M. Tomlinson


    This review of literature examines relevant research that supports new ways of viewing children as active transmitters of culture in situated learning contexts, where case studies explore children’s redesign of semiotic modes of music and verbal linguistics. Some recent research discussed in this article supports the premise that cognitive abilities of children in early learning settings may be transformed through embo...

  15. Early Childhood Lead Exposure and Academic Achievement: Evidence From Detroit Public Schools, 2008–2010 (United States)

    Baker, Harolyn W.; Tufts, Margaret; Raymond, Randall E.; Salihu, Hamisu; Elliott, Michael R.


    Objectives. We assessed the long-term effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement in mathematics, science, and reading among elementary and junior high school children. Methods. We linked early childhood blood lead testing surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion to educational testing data from the Detroit, Michigan, public schools. We used the linked data to investigate the effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among school-aged children, both marginally and adjusted for grade level, gender, race, language, maternal education, and socioeconomic status. Results. High blood lead levels before age 6 years were strongly associated with poor academic achievement in grades 3, 5, and 8. The odds of scoring less than proficient for those whose blood lead levels were greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter were more than twice the odds for those whose blood lead levels were less than 1 micrograms per deciliter after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions. Early childhood lead exposure was negatively associated with academic achievement in elementary and junior high school, after adjusting for key potential confounders. The control of lead poisoning should focus on primary prevention of lead exposure in children and development of special education programs for students with lead poisoning. PMID:23327265

  16. Early childhood lead exposure and academic achievement: evidence from Detroit public schools, 2008-2010. (United States)

    Zhang, Nanhua; Baker, Harolyn W; Tufts, Margaret; Raymond, Randall E; Salihu, Hamisu; Elliott, Michael R


    We assessed the long-term effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement in mathematics, science, and reading among elementary and junior high school children. We linked early childhood blood lead testing surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion to educational testing data from the Detroit, Michigan, public schools. We used the linked data to investigate the effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among school-aged children, both marginally and adjusted for grade level, gender, race, language, maternal education, and socioeconomic status. High blood lead levels before age 6 years were strongly associated with poor academic achievement in grades 3, 5, and 8. The odds of scoring less than proficient for those whose blood lead levels were greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter were more than twice the odds for those whose blood lead levels were less than 1 micrograms per deciliter after adjustment for potential confounders. Early childhood lead exposure was negatively associated with academic achievement in elementary and junior high school, after adjusting for key potential confounders. The control of lead poisoning should focus on primary prevention of lead exposure in children and development of special education programs for students with lead poisoning.

  17. Early Childhood Depression and Alterations in the Trajectory of Gray Matter Maturation in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Jackson, Joshua J; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Harms, Michael P; Tillman, Rebecca; Botteron, Kelly; Whalen, Diana; Barch, Deanna M


    The trajectory of cortical gray matter development in childhood has been characterized by early neurogenesis and volume increase, peaking at puberty followed by selective elimination and myelination, resulting in volume loss and thinning. This inverted U-shaped trajectory, as well as cortical thickness, has been associated with cognitive and emotional function. Synaptic pruning-based volume decline has been related to experience-dependent plasticity in animals. To date, there have been no data to inform whether and how childhood depression might be associated with this trajectory. To examine the effects of early childhood depression, from the preschool age to the school age period, on cortical gray matter development measured across 3 waves of neuroimaging from late school age to early adolescence. Data were collected in an academic research setting from September 22, 2003, to December 13, 2014, on 193 children aged 3 to 6 years from the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were observed for up to 11 years in a longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging study of childhood depression. Multilevel modeling was applied to explore the association between the number of childhood depression symptoms and prior diagnosis of major depressive disorder and the trajectory of gray matter change across 3 scan waves. Data analysis was conducted from October 29, 2014, to September 28, 2015. Volume, thickness, and surface area of cortical gray matter measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 scan waves. Of the 193 children, 90 had a diagnosis of major depressive disorder; 116 children had 3 full waves of neuroimaging scans. Findings demonstrated marked alterations in cortical gray matter volume loss (slope estimate, -0.93 cm³; 95% CI, -1.75 to -0.10 cm³ per scan wave) and thinning (slope estimate, -0.0044 mm; 95% CI, -0.0077 to -0.0012 mm per scan wave) associated with experiencing an episode of major depressive disorder before the first magnetic resonance

  18. An Intervention to Increase Early Childhood Staff Capacity for Promoting Children's Social-Emotional Development in Preschool Settings (United States)

    Green, Beth L.; Malsch, Anna M.; Kothari, Brianne Hood; Busse, Jessica; Brennan, Eileen


    This article describes the development, implementation, and outcomes of a pilot intervention designed to enhance preschool programs' ability to support children's social-emotional development. Working with two Head Start programs, the intervention included (1) restructuring existing early childhood mental health consultation services; (2) engaging…

  19. A Comprehensive Review of the Status of Early Childhood Development in the Middle East and North Africa. (United States)

    Khattab, Mohammad Salih

    This report reviews the status of early childhood education (ECE) programs in UNICEF's Middle East and North Africa region. The report compiles information about ECE programs in 18 countries based on a questionnaire sent to UNICEF country offices and other sources. The introduction sets out the economic and social rationales for investing in early…

  20. Developing a Statewide Childhood Body Mass Index Surveillance Program (United States)

    Paul, David R.; Scruggs, Philip W.; Goc Karp, Grace; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Robinson, Clay; Lester, Michael J.; Gao, Yong; Petranek, Laura J.; Brown, Helen; Shimon, Jane M.


    Background: Several states have implemented childhood obesity surveillance programs supported by legislation. Representatives from Idaho wished to develop a model for childhood obesity surveillance without the support of state legislation, and subsequently report predictors of overweight and obesity in the state. Methods: A coalition comprised of…

  1. Overdiagnosis in early detection programs. (United States)

    Davidov, Ori; Zelen, Marvin


    Overdiagnosis refers to the situation where a screening exam detects a disease that would have otherwise been undetected in a person's lifetime. The disease would have not have been diagnosed because the individual would have died of other causes prior to its clinical onset. Although the probability of overdiagnosis is an important quantity for understanding early detection programs it has not been rigorously studied. We analyze an idealized early detection program and derive the mathematical expression for the probability of overdiagnosis. The results are studied numerically for prostate cancer and applied to a variety of screening schedules. Our investigation indicates that the probability of overdiagnosis is remarkably high.

  2. Physical aggression during early childhood: trajectories and predictors. (United States)

    Tremblay, Richard E; Nagin, Daniel S; Séguin, Jean R; Zoccolillo, Mark; Zelazo, Philip D; Boivin, Michel; Pérusse, Daniel; Japel, Christa


    , estimated to comprise approximately 14% of the sample, followed a rising trajectory of high physical aggression. Best predictors before or at birth of the high physical aggression trajectory group, controlling for the levels of the other risk factors, were having young siblings (odds ratio [OR]: 4.00; confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-7.4), mothers with high levels of antisocial behavior before the end of high school (OR: 3.1; CI: 1.1-8.6), mothers who started having children early (OR: 3.1; CI: 1.4-6.8), families with low income (OR: 2.6; CI: 1.3-5.2), and mothers who smoked during pregnancy (OR: 2.2; CI: 1.1-4.1). Best predictors at 5 months of age were mothers' coercive parenting behavior (OR: 2.3; CI: 1.1-4.7) and family dysfunction (OR: 2.2; CI: 1.2-4.1). The OR for a high-aggression trajectory was 10.9 for children whose mother reported both high levels of antisocial behavior and early childbearing. Most children have initiated the use of physical aggression during infancy, and most will learn to use alternatives in the following years before they enter primary school. Humans seem to learn to regulate the use of physical aggression during the preschool years. Those who do not, seem to be at highest risk of serious violent behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Results from the present study indicate that children who are at highest risk of not learning to regulate physical aggression in early childhood have mothers with a history of antisocial behavior during their school years, mothers who start childbearing early and who smoke during pregnancy, and parents who have low income and have serious problems living together. All of these variables are relatively easy to measure during pregnancy. Preventive interventions should target families with high-risk profiles on these variables. Experiments with such programs have shown long-term impacts on child abuse and child antisocial behavior. However, these impacts were not observed in families with physical violence. The

  3. Physical Aggression During Early Childhood: Trajectories and Predictors (United States)

    Tremblay, Richard E.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Séguin, Jean R.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Zelazo, Philip D.; Boivin, Michel; Pérusse, Daniel; Japel, Christa


    , estimated to comprise ~14% of the sample, followed a rising trajectory of high physical aggression. Best predictors before or at birth of the high physical aggression trajectory group, controlling for the levels of the other risk factors, were having young siblings (odds ratio [OR]: 4.00; confidence interval [CI]: 2.2–7.4), mothers with high levels of antisocial behavior before the end of high school (OR: 3.1; CI: 1.1–8.6), mothers who started having children early (OR: 3.1; CI: 1.4–6.8), families with low income (OR: 2.6; CI: 1.3–5.2), and mothers who smoked during pregnancy (OR: 2.2; CI: 1.1–4.1). Best predictors at 5 months of age were mothers’ coercive parenting behavior (OR: 2.3; CI: 1.1–4.7) and family dysfunction (OR: 2.2; CI: 1.2–4.1). The OR for a high-aggression trajectory was 10.9 for children whose mother reported both high levels of antisocial behavior and early childbearing. Conclusions Most children have initiated the use of physical aggression during infancy, and most will learn to use alternatives in the following years before they enter primary school. Humans seem to learn to regulate the use of physical aggression during the preschool years. Those who do not, seem to be at highest risk of serious violent behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Results from the present study indicate that children who are at highest risk of not learning to regulate physical aggression in early childhood have mothers with a history of antisocial behavior during their school years, mothers who start childbearing early and who smoke during pregnancy, and parents who have low income and have serious problems living together. All of these variables are relatively easy to measure during pregnancy. Preventive interventions should target families with high-risk profiles on these variables. Experiments with such programs have shown long-term impacts on child abuse and child antisocial behavior. However, these impacts were not observed in families with physical

  4. Early childhood identity: ethnicity and acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dan


    Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.

  5. When Do Socioeconomic Resources Matter Most in Early Childhood? (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Fomby, Paula


    Research has established the importance of early socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage for understanding later life outcomes, but less is known about change in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and child development within the period of early childhood. Competing hypotheses drawn from the literature posited: (1) a stable SES-development relationship, (2) a stronger relationship in infancy than at older ages, and (3) a stronger relationship at school entry than at younger ages. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007), we followed 8600 children from infancy through kindergarten entry to model change over time in the relationship between socioeconomic status and cognitive and behavioral development. The unexpected main finding was that the relationships between three socioeconomic measures (household income, assets, and maternal educational attainment) strengthened from infancy through age 4 or 4½, then weakened slightly until the start of kindergarten. Indirect evidence suggested preschool education as one possible explanation. We argue for researchers to expand the school transition concept to include the now widespread prekindergarten year, as well as for attention to psychological and physiological developmental factors that may shape the relationship between SES and cognitive and behavioral development throughout early childhood.

  6. Growing Fit: Georgia's model for engaging early care environments in preventing childhood obesity. (United States)

    McDavid, Kelsey; Piedrahita, Catalina; Hashima, Patricia; Vall, Emily Anne; Kay, Christi; O'Connor, Jean


    In the United States, one in three children is overweight or obese by their fifth birthday. In Georgia, 35 percent of children are overweight or obese. Contrary to popular belief, children who are overweight or obese are likely to be the same weight status as adults, making early childhood an essential time to address weight status. An estimated 380,000 Georgia children attend early care and education environments, such as licensed child care centers, Head Start, and pre-kindergarten programs, which provide an opportunity to reach large numbers of children, including those at risk for obesity and overweight. To address this opportunity, the Georgia Department of Public Health, Georgia Shape - the Governor's Initiative to prevent childhood obesity, and HealthMPowers, Inc., created the Growing Fit training and toolkit to assist early childhood educators in creating policy, systems, and environmental changes that support good nutrition and physical activity. This report, the first related to this project, describes the training and its dissemination between January and December 2015. A total of 103 early childcare educators from 39 early childcare education centers (22 individual childcare systems) from 19 counties in Georgia were trained. Fifteen systems completed a pre and post-test assessment of their system, demonstrating slight improvements. Training for an additional 125 early childcare education centers is planned for 2016. Lessons learned from the first year of the training include the need for more robust assessment of adoption and implementation of policy, systems, and environmental changes in trained centers.

  7. Integrating Vygotsky's theory of relational ontology into early childhood science education (United States)

    Kirch, Susan A.


    In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.

  8. The Economic Returns to Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Karoly, Lynn A.


    One way to assess the value of preschool education programs is to compare their upfront costs with the economic benefits they produce, measured by such outcomes as less need for special education services, improved high school graduation rates, higher earnings and less criminal activity in adulthood, and so on. What do such benefit-cost analyses…

  9. Computer Integration into the Early Childhood Curriculum (United States)

    Mohammad, Mona; Mohammad, Heyam


    Navin and Mark are playing at the computer in their preschool classroom. Like the rest of their classmates, these four-year-old children fearlessly experiment with computer as they navigate through the art program they are using. As they draw and paint on the computer screen, Mark and Navin talk about their creation. "Let's try the stamps" insists…

  10. A Model of Clinical Supervision for Preservice Professionals in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education (United States)

    Clifford, Jantina R.; Macy, Marisa G.; Albi, Linda D.; Bricker, Diane D.; Rahn, Naomi L.


    The authors present a model of clinical supervision to guide preservice professionals embarking on a career in early intervention and early childhood special education. Established models of clinical supervision in the general education field are described, followed by a description of the clinical supervision model used by the University of…

  11. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric


    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  12. Early childhood caries in preschool children of Kosovo - a serious public health problem


    Begzati, Agim; Berisha, Merita; Meqa, Kastriot


    Abstract Background Even though it has been widely studied, early childhood caries (ECC) remains a serious public health problem, especially in countries where there is no national program of oral health assessment and no genuine primary oral health care, such as in Kosovo. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of ECC and analyze caries risk factors. Methods The subjects were 1,008 preschool children, selected by stratified random cluster sampling, in the municipality of Pris...

  13. Home Visits and Telephone Contacts for Preventing Early Childhood Caries could be Cost Effective. (United States)

    Griffin, Susan O; Griffin, Paul M


    Relative cost-effectiveness of home visits and telephone contacts in preventing early childhood caries. Koh R, Kularantna S, Gordon LG, Barnett AG, Walsh LJ, Seow WK. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2015;43:560-8. National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (government) and Australian Centre for Health Services Innovation (nonprofit). Markov model and Monte Carlo simulation where parameters are obtained from longitudinal intervention study, program data, and published data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. iPads as a Literacy Teaching Tool in Early Childhood


    Beschorner, Beth; Hutchison, Amy


    Considering the increased influence of digital technologies on daily life and young children’s increased use of interactive technologies, early childhood educators are beginning to think about the role of technology in their classrooms. Many preschool programs are beginning to purchase iPads, or similar tablets, for classroom use. Thus, it is important to consider how iPads, or similar tablets, can be used in a developmentally appropriate manner with young children. To this end, this articl...

  15. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Early Childhood Interventions on the Development of Children in the Netherlands: An Inconvenient Truth? (United States)

    Fukkink, Ruben; Jilink, Lisanne; Oostdam, Ron


    Following on from successful early intervention programs abroad, the Netherlands also introduced a number of different programs to tackle educational disadvantage in preschool and early years education. Studies that investigate the effects of Dutch early childhood interventions have been published since 2000. This meta-analytic review study…

  16. Should Science be Taught in Early Childhood? (United States)

    Eshach, Haim; Fried, Michael N.


    This essay considers the question of why we should teach science to K-2. After initial consideration of two traditional reasons for studying science, six assertions supporting the idea that even small children should be exposed to science are given. These are, in order: (1) Children naturally enjoy observing and thinking about nature. (2) Exposing students to science develops positive attitudes towards science. (3) Early exposure to scientific phenomena leads to better understanding of the scientific concepts studied later in a formal way. (4) The use of scientifically informed language at an early age influences the eventual development of scientific concepts. (5) Children can understand scientific concepts and reason scientifically. (6) Science is an efficient means for developing scientific thinking. Concrete illustrations of some of the ideas discussed in this essay, particularly, how language and prior knowledge may influence the development of scientific concepts, are then provided. The essay concludes by emphasizing that there is a window of opportunity that educators should exploit by presenting science as part of the curriculum in both kindergarten and the first years of primary school.

  17. Shifting Views: Exploring the Potential for Technology Integration in Early Childhood Education Programs / Changement d’opinion: Exploration du potentiel d’intégration de la technologie dans les programmes d’éducation de la petite enfance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverlie Dietze


    Full Text Available Using technology with children in play-based early learning programs creates questions for some within the Early Childhood Education (ECE community. This paper presents how two faculty who teach in ECE-related degree programs integrated educational technology into their teaching pedagogy as a way to model to their students how it can be used to support children’s play and learning opportunities. The authors identify how collegial dialogue helped them to use various technologies and social media in their teaching, which transformed their curriculum and pedagogical philosophy. The paper argues that if technology creates connections between learning in the college or university classroom and is effective practice, it is worthy of further exploration. L’utilisation de la technologie avec des enfants dans des programmes préscolaires d’apprentissage basé sur le jeu suscite des questions pour plusieurs au sein de la communauté de l’Éducation de la petite enfance (EPE. Cet article présente la façon dont deux professeurs enseignant dans des programmes d’études liés à l’EPE ont intégré la technologie éducative dans leur pédagogie d’enseignement comme un moyen de démontrer à leurs étudiants comment elle peut être utilisée pour soutenir le jeu des enfants et les possibilités d’apprentissage. Les auteurs montrent comment un dialogue collégial les a aidés à utiliser diverses technologies et médias sociaux dans leur enseignement, ce qui a eu pour effet de transformer leur programme et leur philosophie pédagogiques. L’article fait valoir que si la technologie crée des liens entre l’apprentissage en milieu postsecondaire et une pratique efficace, elle est par conséquent digne d’une exploration plus poussée.

  18. Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer E.


    Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

  19. A function of social institutions of early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Acires Candal Rocha


    Full Text Available Try to explain this text, in my view, essential aspects of the social function of institutions for children's education. The principles and general guidelines for early childhood education that we presents the results of a discussion process to coordinate with the Municipal Department of Education Florianópolis (Division of Child Education between 2000 and 2001. The aim of the debate was to subsidize the movement of defining guidelines for action for childcare and educational Neise (Centers for Children's Education of the municipal network. As a starting point, were recovered documents previously produced a guidance curriculum. The idea was to get a deeper understanding to help rewrite the curriculum guidelines of the city, both in the light of experience by educators of the network as a function of the definitions given for early childhood education by more current legislation.

  20. Building teaching in early childhood education: from observation to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Martinez


    Full Text Available This work is the result of teaching practice period in early childhood education , curriculum component of the Bachelor's Degree in Education from the Federal University of Pampa, campus Jaguarão/RS . In this sense , the main objective of this study is to contextualize how you can build meaningful themes to work on teaching practice in kindergarten under the stage but also in the context of professional practice. From a Freire's concept of education , what is proposed is to find themes that emerge from the reality, because think of Paulo Freire in early childhood education is to understand that education is permanent life, not just preparing to live, but to educate in life, in a continuous reading of the world , more and more critical

  1. A longitudinal intergenerational analysis of executive functions during early childhood. (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Wang, Zhe; Morasch, Katherine C; Bell, Martha Ann


    Despite the importance of executive function (EF) in both clinical and educational contexts, the aetiology of individual differences in early childhood EF remains poorly understood. This study provides the first longitudinal intergenerational analysis of mother-child EF associations during early childhood. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Mother and child EFs were modestly correlated by 24 months of age, and this association was stable through 48 months. Importantly, maternal-child EF associations were still robust after controlling for verbal ability (potential indicator of verbal/crystallized intelligence) and maternal education (correlate of socio-economic status and verbal intelligence). Potential implications of these findings as well as underlying mechanisms of the maternal-child EF association (gene-environment interplay) are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  2. New Zealand early childhood curriculum: The politics of collaboration


    Farquhar Sandy


    The New Zealand early childhood curriculum, Te Whāriki (Ministry of Education [MoE],1996), is frequently hailed as a community inspired curriculum, praised nationally and internationally for its collaborative development, emancipatory spirit and bicultural approach. In its best form community can be collaborative, consultative, democratic, responsive and inclusive. But community and collaboration can also be about exclusion, alienation and loss. This paper engages with Te Whāriki as a contest...

  3. Multicultural Education in Early Childhood : Issues and Challenges


    Abdullah, Anna Christina


    The writer is proposing that multicultural education be made an important component in early childhood education. The current trend in demography in most countries is one of increasing heterogeneity which gives rise to racial tensions and cultural conflicts. People need to come to terms with the fact that we need to co-exist in harmony, and this can only happen if there is genuine respect and acceptance of differences. Attitudinal and value systems can change only with knowledge and understan...

  4. Leadership in Early Childhood Education:cross-cultural perspectives


    Nivala, V. (Veijo); Hujala, E. (Eeva)


    Abstract The book consists of presentations given at the Open Forum at the University of Oulu on March 2001. It highlights the contextual approach in leadership in early childhood. The studies introduced in this volume provide strong evidence that leadership is not only a leader's matter — it is a matter of concern for the whole leadership community. Different methods, like focus group — discussion, self study report and shared data will be introduced in the articles. The articles are ...

  5. Closing the Opportunity Gap in Early Childhood Education. (United States)

    Solano, Isaac S; Weyer, Matt


    (1) Nineteen percent of low-income families enroll in high-quality early childhood education, while 29 percent of high income families do. (2) African-American, Hispanic/Latino and low-income children enter kindergarten, on average, significantly behind in reading and math skills. (3) Gaps in math and reading achievement generally persist in fourth grade and are even larger by eighth grade.

  6. Review of Studies of Peer Relationships in Early Childhood


    高櫻, 綾子


    This paper reviews studies of peer relationships in early childhood and examines the relation between play in young children and peer relationships. First, it focuses on playgroup entry and intimacy with peers to examine the influence of peer relationships on play. Second, it considers the influence of play on peer relationships. The results show that there is a reciprocal relationship between the two : the success of a child entering a playgroup depends on the quality of peer relationships, ...

  7. Site Development and Teaching of Motor Skills in Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gil Madrona


    Full Text Available In the stage of Early Childhood Education children continue a progressive discovery of their body itself as a source of feelings and sensations, exploring the different possibilities of action and body functions, will constitute the necessary experiences upon which children’s thought is being built. Besides, affective relationships established in situations of psychomotor education, and particularly through game, will be essential for children’s emotional development. In this sense, this article is focused on justifying the necessary presence of Psychomotor education in Early Childhood Education as well as on showing a pedagogical proposal based on an attractive and entertaining motor intervention for children at this stage. This article contains concepts and assumptions about the psychomotor development, movement contents, motor game and the methodological approach where psychomotor storytelling, learning corners, workshops and projects based on action and adventure spaces shine in their own right. Moreover, a didactic design based on programming motor skills at this stage of Early Childhood Education in a funny and lively way also plays a relevant role in this article. We argue that professionals working in the field of Early Childhood psychomotor skills may know and recognize the value of the proposals shown here so that they can teach us to be more critical regarding our professional practice, increasing our concern about the development of motor skills – physical education in Early Childhood Education in its systematic form – which without any doubt will result in children’s higher levels of welfare and health with regards to their own construction of the reality which surrounds them.

  8. Neighborhood Deprivation during Early Childhood and Conduct Problems in Middle Childhood: Mediation by Aggressive Response Generation. (United States)

    Galán, Chardée A; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N


    The tremendous negative impact of conduct problems to the individual and society has provided the impetus for identifying risk factors, particularly in early childhood. Exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early childhood is a robust predictor of conduct problems in middle childhood. Efforts to identify and test mediating mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation confers increased risk for behavioral problems have predominantly focused on peer relationships and community-level social processes. Less attention has been dedicated to potential cognitive mediators of this relationship, such as aggressive response generation, which refers to the tendency to generate aggressive solutions to ambiguous social stimuli with negative outcomes. In this study, we examined aggressive response generation, a salient component of social information processing, as a mediating process linking neighborhood deprivation to later conduct problems at age 10.5. Participants (N = 731; 50.5 % male) were drawn from a multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse and low-income sample of male and female children and their primary caregivers followed prospectively from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Results indicated that aggressive response generation partially mediated the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and parent- and teacher-report of conduct problems, but not youth-report. Results suggest that the detrimental effects of neighborhood deprivation on youth adjustment may occur by altering the manner in which children process social information.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for low-income depressed mothers participating in early childhood prevention programs. (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T; Mallow, Peter J; Rizzo, John A; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B


    To determine the cost-effectiveness of In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) for low-income mothers enrolled in a home visiting program. A cost-utility analysis was conducted using results from a clinical trial of IH-CBT and standard of care for depression derived from the literature. A probabilistic, patient-level Markov model was developed to determine Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Costs were determined using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A three-year time horizon and payer perspective were used. Sensitivity analyses were employed to determine robustness of the model. IH-CBT was cost-effective relative to standard of care. IH-CBT was expected to be cost-effective at a three-year time horizon 99.5%, 99.7%, and 99.9% of the time for willingness-to-pay thresholds of US$25,000, US$50,000, and US$100,000, respectively. Patterns were upheld at one-year and five-year time horizons. Over the three-year time horizon, mothers receiving IH-CBT were expected to have 345.6 fewer days of depression relative to those receiving standard home visiting and treatment in the community. IH-CBT is a more cost-effective treatment for low-income, depressed mothers than current standards of practice. These findings add to the growing literature demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of CBT for depression, and expand it to cover new mothers. From a payer perspective, IH-CBT is a sound option for treatment of depressed, low-income mothers. Limitations include a restricted time horizon and estimating of standard of care costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Play and learning in early childhood education in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Lohmander M.


    Full Text Available Learning through play is a common phrase in early childhood education worldwide. Play is often put forward as the overarching principle for working with young children (Johnson, Christie, & Wardle, 2005. However, if we go beyond the rhetorical level and explore how “learning through play” and a “play-based curriculum” are understood and transformed into practice, we may find differences both within and between countries (Karlsson Lohmander & Pramling Samuelsson, 2014a, 2014b; Pramling Samuelsson & Fleer, 2009. In this article we discuss the relationship between the concepts of play and learning and describe how they are enacted in everyday practice in early childhood education in Sweden. Starting with a brief presentation of the development of early childhood education, we then reflect on the challenges preschool teachers may encounter when trying to implement a new learning-oriented curriculum (National Agency for Education, 2011 and still trying to keep play as a central dimension in children’s everyday life in preschool.

  11. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management. (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K


    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.


    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  13. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood. (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M; Hart, Emily J; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J


    The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bidirectional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3 to 5 years old) were investigated in an integrated model. The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the United States. Using observations, research assistant report, and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress.

  14. Montessori Early Childhood Teacher Perceptions of Family Priorities and Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Epstein


    Full Text Available Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers’ understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori early childhood (ages three through six teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.  Eighty teachers (37% of those who received the survey and forty-nine family members (representing a 55% response rate completed the survey.  Significant differences were found between teachers’ perceptions of four (of seven family priorities and families’ actual responses. Teachers ranked “making academic progress” as the most important of seven possible family priorities. However, families stated that “developing kindness” is the most important priority for their young children. No significant differences were found when comparing teacher rankings of family stressors with actual family responses. Montessori early childhood teachers ranked “not having enough time” as the most stressful of six possible stressors. Families confirmed that time pressures cause them the most stress. Maria Montessori’s recommendations for teachers and families are summarized. Recommendations for building stronger family partnerships in the context of Montessori’s philosophy, for example on-going self-reflection, are provided.             Keywords: Montessori, teacher-family partnerships, early childhood teacher perceptions

  15. The national curriculum guidelines of early childhood education: In search of a job to educational quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Carvalho Faria


    childhood education. This paper intends to discuss the National Curriculum Guidelines for Early Childhood Education, which define how they should be organized teaching practice, and examine how the activities should be developed in early childhood education institutions, to objectify the holistic development of children in seeking quality care this stage of basic education.

  16. Literacy and Music in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Tomlinson


    Full Text Available This review of literature examines relevant research that supports new ways of viewing children as active transmitters of culture in situated learning contexts, where case studies explore children’s redesign of semiotic modes of music and verbal linguistics. Some recent research discussed in this article supports the premise that cognitive abilities of children in early learning settings may be transformed through embodied ways of representing prior knowledge. Young children have been observed enriching prior knowledge during interactions in music invention, using the gestural mode to interpret rhythmic and melodic motifs, structure and phrasing through movement to music, or extending these elements of music (audio mode in invented song or instrumental play. In engaging literacy tasks, they co-construct texts by drawing on semiotic resources of visual symbols and spatial design elements in written linguistic modes. This cognitive structuring is also revealed in the underlying patterns found in their embodied music invention. How knowledge is represented is crucial to children’s apprehension of knowledge through co-construction. It enables their selection of media and mode for redesign, to promote their understanding of concepts and facilitate problem solving. Multimodal redesign in young children’s music and verbal linguistics is explored as a rich source for communicating meaning and developing higher thinking.

  17. USBCALI Observatory in Early Childhood: Configuring horizons of meaning about childhood


    Aragón Holguín, Ana María


    The Faculty of Education USBCali from a tradition of work, training and social practice in issues that affect the quality of life of children and youth, families and communities in general, has developed a series of proposals for the understanding, explanation and transformation of existing conditions and complex educational and cultural policies of the country. One of the strategies that has been working lately is the positioning of the Observatory in Early Childhood, constituting it into a ...

  18. Emotional Self-Regulation, Peer Rejection, and Antisocial Behavior: Developmental Associations from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.


    This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self-regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task,…

  19. Sleep problems in early childhood and early onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence. (United States)

    Wong, Maria M; Brower, Kirk J; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Zucker, Robert A


    No prospective studies exist on the relationship between sleep problems early in life and subsequent alcohol use. Stimulated by the adult literature linking sleep problems to the subsequent onset of alcohol use disorders in some adults, we examined whether sleep problems in early childhood predicted the onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence and whether such a relationship was mediated by other known predictors of this relationship, namely, attention problems, anxiety/depression, and aggression in late childhood. This study is part of an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of risk for alcohol and other substance use disorders. Study participants were 257 boys from a community-recruited sample of high-risk families. Mothers' ratings of their children's sleep problems at ages 3 to 5 years significantly predicted an early onset of any use of alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drugs, as well as an early onset of occasional or regular use of cigarettes by age 12 to 14. Additionally, although sleep problems in early childhood also predicted attention problems and anxiety/depression in later childhood, these problems did not mediate the relationship between sleep problems and onset of alcohol and other drug use. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that prospectively examines the relationship between sleep problems and early onset of alcohol use, a marker of increased risk for later alcohol problems and alcohol use disorders. Moreover, early childhood sleep problems seem to be a robust marker for use of drugs other than alcohol. Implications for the prevention of early alcohol and other drug use are discussed.

  20. The PCDH1 gene and asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Li J; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Hakonarson, Hakon


    Previous studies have suggested that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, which is important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school children. Our aim was to associate common variants of the PCDH1 gene...... prospectively to the age of 7 years and asthma was categorised by temporal pattern: transient early respiratory symptoms, persistent symptoms and late-onset symptoms. Bronchial responsiveness was measured at age 6 years. We used additive genetic models. Kaplan-Meier plots revealed early onset in hetero...... for other symptom patterns or bronchial responsiveness. Significant association was observed for atopic dermatitis and rs11167761-A (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75, p=0.0026). Common variations in PCDH1 increase the risk of developing both transient early asthma and atopic dermatitis in early childhood....