Sample records for program domestic crude

  1. Empowerment and programs designed to address domestic violence. (United States)

    Kasturirangan, Aarati


    Programs designed to address domestic violence often name empowerment of women as a major program goal. However, programs do not necessarily define what empowerment for survivors of domestic violence entails. This review examines the literature on empowerment, including characteristics of an empowerment process and critiques of empowerment. Diversity of goals for empowerment and differences in access to resources for women experiencing domestic violence are explored as two major factors that should inform program development. Recommendations are offered for developing programs to address domestic violence that support women engaged in an empowerment process.

  2. A Retrospective Program Evaluation of a Domestic Violence Curriculum (United States)

    Chakaryan, Hasmik


    Domestic Violence (DV) continues to be a worldwide public health problem. Research in the area indicates that domestic violence has damaging, long-term serious mental, emotional, as well as physiological consequences both for the partners of the perpetrators and for their children. Even though various programs focused on treatments of the damaging…

  3. An Innovative Program For Domestic Violence Victims: A University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also found that women students not eligible for welfare receipt needed program services, and those students using welfare had barriers interconnected with domestic violence issues. Several recommendations are made that will enable caseworkers / counselors working in universities and in the larger community ...

  4. Implementation of an integrity management program in a crude oil pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria; Tomasella, Marcelo [Oleoductos del Valle, General Roca (Argentina); Rossi, Juan; Pellicano, Adolfo [SINTEC S.A. , Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    The implementation of an Integrity Management Program (IMP) in a crude oil pipeline system is focused on the accomplishment of two primary corporative objectives: to increase safety operation margins and to optimize available resources. A proactive work philosophy ensures the safe and reliable operation of the pipeline in accordance with current legislation. The Integrity Management Program is accomplished by means of an interdisciplinary team that defines the strategic objectives that complement and are compatible with the corporative strategic business plan. The implementation of the program is based on the analysis of the risks due to external corrosion, third party damage, design and operations, and the definition of appropriate mitigation, inspection and monitoring actions, which will ensure long-term integrity of the assets. By means of a statistical propagation model of the external defects, reported by high-resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), together with the information provided by corrosion sensors, field repair interventions, close internal surveys and operation data, projected defect depth; remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established, including the inspection and repair plan, the internal inspection program and both corrosion monitoring and mitigation programs. (author)

  5. Substance abuse issues among women in domestic violence programs: findings from North Carolina. (United States)

    Martin, Sandra L; Moracco, Kathryn E; Chang, Judy C; Council, Carol L; Dulli, Lisa S


    This article discusses the results of a survey of North Carolina domestic violence programs that found that substance abuse problems are common among program clients, yet only half of the programs had policies concerning substance-abusing clients, and one fourth had memoranda of agreement with substance abuse treatment providers. Most programs with shelters asked clients about substance use; however, one third of the shelters would not admit women if they were noticeably under the influence of substances while seeking shelter residence, instead referring them to substance abuse programs. Approximately one tenth of the domestic violence programs did not have any staff or volunteers with training in substance abuse issues. Implications are discussed.

  6. Protecting prosecution : Exploring the powers of law in an intervention program for domestic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, R.


    This article critically analyzes how the criminal justice system centrally situates itself in an intervention program intended to protect victims of domestic abuse and stalking. Based on the first empirical, in-depth study in the Netherlands of an intervention program using electronic technology

  7. Longitudinal evaluation of a training program to promote routine antenatal enquiry for domestic violence by midwives. (United States)

    Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra K; Saito, Amornrat S; Eustace, Jennifer


    Routine enquiry about domestic violence during pregnancy is accepted best practice. Training is essential to improve knowledge and practice. Few studies have undertaken a comprehensive evaluation of training impact over time. To evaluate the longitudinal impact of a domestic violence training and support program to promote midwives' routine antenatal enquiry for domestic violence using a mixed methods design. Data sources included (1) surveys of midwives at 6 months post-training, (2) interviews with key stakeholders at 12 months, (3) chart audit data of screening, risk, and disclosure rates (for 16 months). Measures included midwives' knowledge, preparation for routine enquiry, knowledge of domestic violence and perceptions of impact of the training and support for practice change. Forty (out of 83) participant surveys could be matched and responses compared to baseline and post-training scores. Wilcoxon signed-rank test identified that all 6-month follow-up scores were significantly higher than those at baseline. Level of preparedness increased from 42.3 to 51.05 (Z=4.88, p90%) reported improved confidence to undertake routine inquiry. A chart audit of screening rates revealed that of the 6671 women presenting for antenatal care, nearly 90% were screened. Disclosure of domestic violence was low (violence declining referral. Training, support processes, and referral pathways, contributed to midwives' sustained preparedness and knowledge to conduct routine enquiry and support women disclosing domestic violence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. An approximation solution to refinery crude oil scheduling problem with demand uncertainty using joint constrained programming. (United States)

    Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Genke; Xu, Guanglin; Pan, Changchun


    This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand uncertainty is treated by specifying proximity level on the satisfaction of product demands. However, the joint chance constraints usually hold strong nonlinearity and consequently, it is still hard to handle it directly. In this paper, an approximation method combines a relax-and-tight technique to approximately transform the joint chance constraints to a serial of parameterized linear constraints so that the complicated problem can be attacked iteratively. The basic idea behind this approach is to approximate, as much as possible, nonlinear constraints by a lot of easily handled linear constraints which will lead to a well balance between the problem complexity and tractability. Case studies are conducted to demonstrate the proposed methods. Results show that the operation cost can be reduced effectively compared with the case without considering the demand correlation.

  9. Training Needs Assessment to Design Empowerment Programs for Preventing Domestic Violence Against Iranian Married Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kianfard


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The World Health Organization declared violence against women a top priority for health and emphasized the importance of the world's attention to the prevention and control programs. This study was conducted aimed to identify the training needs of married women referring to health centers in Ahvaz with the objective of enabling the design of a program to prevent violence. Methodology: This sectional study consisted of two qualitative and quantitative studies. In qualitative study, the opinions of 30 married women residing in Ahvaz were collected and analyzed in four focus group discussions. using a validated and reliable questionnaire, the knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and performance of 320 married women in area of domestic violence were identified Findings: 79% of the women surveyed had adequate awareness about violence against women. 34% of the target group in the field of domestic violence against women has had the right attitude and more than 80% of them stated that violence by men is considered inevitable and natural. 89% of the target group expressed lack of efficacy for the prevention of domestic violence against women. The findings also suggest that there is significant relationship between education and early marriage with violent behavior. Conclusion: providing proper education and awareness to women and group discussion and clarification in order to change attitudes and increase efficacy in abused women against domestic violence are the necessary strategies which result in changing attitudes of women and increasing empowerment of women against domestic violence.

  10. Effects Associated with Leadership Program Participation in International Students Compared to Domestic Students (United States)

    Collier, Daniel A.; Rosch, David M.


    International student enrollment in the U.S. higher education system has recently experienced profound growth. This research examines leadership-oriented differences between international and domestic students and focuses on their growth in capacity associated with participation in co-curricular leadership programs. Similarly-sized gains emerged…

  11. AED's HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care, and Support Programs: Domestic (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2008


    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is a nonprofit organization working globally to improve health, education, and economic opportunity--the foundation of thriving societies. With a global staff of more than 2,000 focusing on the underserved, AED implements more than 250 programs serving people in all 50 U.S. states and…

  12. Simulation Programs for Ph.D. Study of Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin


    The design of solar domestic hot water system is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. This report presents the detailed...... programs or units that were developed in the Ph.D study of " Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems"....

  13. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence. (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J


    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.

  14. Using a Domestic and Sexual Violence Prevention Advocate to Implement a Dating Violence Prevention Program with Athletes (United States)

    Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.


    "Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…

  15. Racial differences in treatment effect among men in a substance abuse and domestic violence program. (United States)

    Scott, Melanie C; Easton, Caroline J


    It is unclear whether racial differences in treatment effect exist for individuals in substance abuse and domestic violence programs. This study examined racial differences in treatment effect among substance dependent Caucasian and African-American male intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders court mandated to an integrated substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. From baseline to completion of treatment (week 12), 75 participants (39 Caucasian; 36 African-American) were assessed on demographics, substance use, legal characteristics, and use of violence (physical, verbal, and psychological). African-American men served more months incarcerated in their life than Caucasian men. Both groups showed decreases in their use of physical violence and alcohol abuse over treatment. Caucasian men also showed a decrease in their use of verbal abuse. At treatment completion, both groups showed a reduction in physical abuse and alcohol abuse. Caucasian men showed a reduction in their use of verbal abuse, but African-American men did not. Substance dependent African-American male IPV offenders may benefit from interventions that thoroughly target communication skills in addition to issues of substance abuse and IPV to reduce use of verbal abuse and improve treatment outcomes among African American men.

  16. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company... (United States)


    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing...) among the sugar beet processors and the cane sugar allotment of 4,316,778 STRV (45.65 percent of the OAQ... proportionate shares in Louisiana, the only State eligible for proportionate shares, in FY 2012. The cane sugar...

  18. "I Wish the Hitting Would Stop . . . " An Assessment of a Domestic Violence Education Program for Elementary Students. (United States)

    Dahle, Thorvald O; Archbold, Carol A


    School officials across the country have recognized that many of their students live in homes where domestic violence occurs. As a result, several elementary schools have implemented education-based programs focused on this issue. The current study evaluates the efficacy of the "I Wish the Hitting Would Stop . . . " program that was presented to elementary school children in two school districts in the Midwest. This study examines the level of knowledge retention by students who participated in the "I Wish the Hitting Would Stop . . . " program during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 academic years. Fourth- and fifth-grade students responded to open-ended questions regarding their understanding of domestic violence and their retention of the concepts presented in the "I Wish the Hitting Would Stop . . . " curriculum. While the results suggest that students retain the information presented in the program, there also appears to be a gender difference in knowledge retention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Bringing trauma-informed practice to domestic violence programs: A qualitative analysis of current approaches. (United States)

    Wilson, Joshua M; Fauci, Jenny E; Goodman, Lisa A


    Three out of 10 women and 1 out of 10 men in the United States experience violence at the hands of an intimate partner-often with devastating costs. In response, hundreds of residential and community-based organizations have sprung up to support survivors. Over the last decade, many of these organizations have joined other human service systems in adopting trauma-informed care (TIC), an approach to working with survivors that responds directly to the effects of trauma. Although there have been various efforts to describe TIC in domestic violence (DV) programs, there is a need to further synthesize this discourse on trauma-informed approaches to better understand specific applications and practices for DV programs. This study aimed to address this gap. The authors of this study systematically identified key documents that describe trauma-informed approaches in DV services and then conducted a qualitative content analysis to identify core themes. Results yielded 6 principles (Establishing emotional safety, Restoring choice and control, Facilitating connection, Supporting coping, Responding to identity and context, and Building strengths), each of which comprised a set of concrete practices. Despite the common themes articulated across descriptions of DV-specific trauma-informed practices (TIP), we also found critical differences, with some publications focusing narrowly on individual healing and others emphasizing the broader community and social contexts of violence and oppression. Implications for future research and evaluation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. "The Whole Is Greater Than the Sum of the Parts": Prison Staff Perceptions of Domestic Violence Rehabilitation Programs. (United States)

    Shoham, Efrat; Zelig, Anat; Hasisi, Badi; Weisburd, David; Haviv, Noam


    This qualitative study is part of a mixed methods research project that examined the effectiveness of the primary rehabilitation program for domestic violence offenders in the Israeli Prison Services-the "House of Hope." The quantitative part of the study showed that the "House of Hope" program was effective in reducing recidivism among participating inmates. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the rehabilitation program according to the perspectives of the program staff. For this purpose, semistructured interviews were conducted with the department staff during the study as well as with past directors. The qualitative findings suggested that the success of the program probably stemmed from a synergistic combination of several components, for example, identifying the characteristics of domestic violence offenders and adjusting treatment programs to their needs, along with exposure to psychological treatment in varied therapies (cognitive behavioral therapy, psychoeducational, and psychodynamic) and formats (group therapy and individual therapy) during a 1-year stay in a hierarchical therapeutic community. Other components mentioned are staff professionalism, stability, and the program's location in a therapeutic-oriented prison that is architecturally designed and built to create a less stressful environment for the inmates and the staff.

  1. Comparing salt tolerance of beet cultivars and their halophytic ancestor: consequences of domestication and breeding programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, J.; Cornelisse, D.; Zhang, Y.; Li, H.; Bruning, B.; Katschnig, D.; Broekman, R.A.; Ji, B.; van Bodegom, P.M.


    Salt tolerance of higher plants is determined by a complex set of traits, the timing and rate of evolution of which are largely unknown. We compared the salt tolerance of cultivars of sugar beet and their ancestor, sea beet, in hydroponic studies and evaluated whether traditional domestication and

  2. Going Domestic: Importing the Study Abroad Experience. The Development of a Multicultural New York City Study Away Program. (United States)

    Lane, Susan Hayes; Huffman, Carolyn; Brackney, Dana E; Cuddy, Alyssa


    Significant off-campus domestic study away experiences have been shown to be a transformative active learning environment for students and achieve similar learning outcomes as study abroad programs. This manuscript describes the conception, development, and pedagogical approach of a faculty-led domestic study away experience in New York City for pre-licensure and post-licensure nursing students as an active learning strategy for developing cultural competence. Students participated in service-learning activities that illuminated the realities and challenges persons from other cultures face as they interact with health care in a culture that is not their own. In partnership with New York Cares©, students were immersed in well-established ongoing sustainable community-based projects. These experiences fostered reflective conversations between community members, student participants, and faculty regarding social factors, cultural issues and needs, and global issues and trends. Through the New York study away program, students were able to broaden their perspectives about social factors and culture beyond geographic or ethnic boundaries and apply these service experiences to their nursing practice. Study away programs are an excellent strategy for nursing educators to prepare students for care of multicultural populations and for proficiency in cultural competency within the globalization of the United States. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Dental fluorosis prevalence in eight cohorts of Mexicans born during the implementation of the Fluoridated Domestic Salt National Program]. (United States)

    Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Maupomé, Gerardo


    to determine the effect of birth cohort on dental fluorosis in Mexican schoolchildren during the implementation of the national program to fluoridate domestic salt. in a cross-sectional study we examined 1,644 schoolchildren 6-13 years old born between 1985-1992 in Campeche, México; a community where there is negligible naturally available fluoride in water supplies. Dental fluorosis was assessed with the Dean’s index in the permanent dentition. Questionnaires were used to identify diverse socio-demographic and socio-economic variables. In the statistical analysis logistic regression was used. the prevalence of fluorosis was 15.5%. In the multivariate model,we observed fluorosis was associated with larger family sizes (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84-0.99) and female sex (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.57-0.98). Furthermore, using the cohort of 1985 as a comparison group, no significant dental fluorosis differences were found with those born between 1986-1987; in contrast, in the cohorts born between 1989-1992 the risk of dental fluorosis increased by almost four times (p fluorosis was low compared to other studies in Mexico. In this community with negligible fluoride in water supplies the likelihood of dental fluorosis increased as the windows of susceptibility in birth cohorts were closer to the chronologic beginning of the national domestic salt fluoridation program in 1991. This trend was more apparent after 1991.

  4. Motivations for intimate partner violence in men and women arrested for domestic violence and court referred to batterer intervention programs. (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Hamel, John; Shorey, Ryan C; Labrecque, Lindsay; Ninnemann, Andrew; Stuart, Gregory L


    Research has attempted to elucidate men and women's proximal motivations for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). However, previous research has yet to clarify and resolve contention regarding whether motives for IPV are gender-neutral or gender specific. Thus, the purpose of this present study was to compare motives for physical IPV perpetration among a sample of men (n =90) and women (n =87) arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to batterer intervention programs. Results demonstrated that the most frequently endorsed motives for IPV by both men and women were self-defense, expression of negative emotions, and communication difficulties. With the exception of expression of negative emotions and retaliation, with women endorsing these motives more often than men, there were no significant differences between men and women's self-reported reasons for perpetrating physical aggression. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention programs are discussed.

  5. Launching Latin America: International and Domestic Factors in National Space Programs (United States)


    HISTORY OF THE BRAZILIAN SPACE PROGRAM ..................22 1. From a Small Satellite Tracking Station to the MECB ..................22 2. From the...literature. 14 Darly Henriques da Silva, “ Brazilian Participation in the International Space Station ...ISS) Program: Commitment or Bargain Struck?,” Space Policy, Brazilian Participation in the International Space Station Program, 21, no. 1 (February

  6. 78 FR 39584 - Domestic Requests for Broadcasting Board of Governors Program Materials (United States)


    ... United States to promote freedom of opinion and expression and to open communication of information and... of opinion and expression and to open communication of information and ideas among the people of the... incorporated into final programs, including music, interviews, reports, and other program elements, will not be...

  7. 78 FR 67025 - Domestic Requests for Broadcasting Board of Governors Program Materials (United States)


    ...; and (b) The TV Marti Division of the Office of Cuba Broadcasting for broadcast-quality copies of TV or... for media and organization one-time requests for broadcast-quality agency program materials, and... as follows: Sec. 502.4 Media or organization one-time requests for broadcast quality agency program...

  8. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  9. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, D.L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Khwaja, S. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))


    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. The first 50 years: A review of the Department of Energy domestic safeguards and security program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmond, W.J.; Zack, N.R.; Tape, J.W.


    World War II not only brought the United States rapidly into the nuclear age, but it also brought a new term, {open_quotes}safeguards.{close_quotes} By that time, physical security was an already established activity that dealt with the protection of possessions such as property, vehicles, and other valuables. A secret nuclear project under a stadium at the University of Chicago would add a new dimension to physical security. Similarly, a community known only by its post office box at a location 27 miles from Santa Fe, New Mexico (PO Box 1663) would initiate new programs to protect information and technology while their programs changed the science and warfare around the world. The Manhattan Project and what was to become the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (now Los Alamos National Laboratory) would extend the applications of physical security and, soon to be implemented, safeguards to produce important technical advances for the protection, accounting, control, and nonproliferation of fissile nuclear materials. Security for nuclear materials and weapons information began as a foremost consideration with the start of the nuclear programs in the early 1940s. In the 1960s, the Atoms for Peace Program promoted the peaceful use of nuclear energy and made the US a supplier of nuclear materials and peaceful-use nuclear technology to other states. This program also changed the focus on nuclear materials from that of worldwide control to inspection by an independent agency, the proposed International Atomic Energy Agency. At this same time the nuclear weapons states increased from three to five. Other nations worked to obtain a nuclear weapons capability, resulting in increasing concerns about nuclear proliferation.

  11. Domestic Violence (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  12. Domestic Violence (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can I tell if my partner is abusive? • What is the ...

  13. Matching Shades of Forest Environment to sustain Crude Fibre and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five different types of shades were employed as experimental treatments using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The natural forest condition served as a control. Samples of the edible parts from the domesticated and wild Vegetables were harvested for laboratory analysis for calcium, zinc, iron and crude ...

  14. [Domestic violence against children and prospects for intervention of the Family Health Program: the experience of the Family Doctor Program/Niterói (RJ, Brazil)]. (United States)

    Rocha, Pedro Carlos Xavier da; Moraes, Claudia Leite


    This study seeks to estimate the prevalence of psychological and physical violence practiced against children in the family environment among clients of the Family Medical Program in Niterói (RJ). It also discloses some potential opportunities for action in the prevention, early detection and monitoring of families experiencing violence. This population-based survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews with parents or legal sponsors of 278 children registered in 27 teams of the Family Health Program. The population studied was randomly selected among children up to ten years of age. The Brazilian version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales - CTSPC was employed to assess the occurrence of this type of violence. Psychological aggression occurred in 96.7% (CI 95%: 94.7-98.8) of the households, and corporal punishment occurred in 93.8% (CI 95%: 92.0-96.7). Minor physical violence was reported by 51.4% (CI 95%: 45.5-57.3) of the respondents, and severe physical maltreatment by 19.8% (CI 95%: 15.1-24.5) of them. Although the mother was the foremost perpetrator of all kinds of maltreatment, most of the children were abused by both parents. In view of these results, domestic violence against children should be seen as a main concern for the Family Health Program.

  15. The Effectiveness of Empowerment Program on Increasing Self-Esteem, Learned Resourcefulness, and Coping Ways in Women Exposed to Domestic Violence. (United States)

    Bahadir-Yilmaz, Emel; Öz, Fatma


    This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of empowerment program on increasing self-esteem, learned resourcefulness, and coping ways in women exposed to domestic violence. This experimental study was conducted between October 2012 and June 2014 in the obstetrics and gynaecology departments of the Giresun Maternity Hospital, and at the Family Counseling Center (FCC) in Turkey. Sixty women who agreed to participate in the study were randomly assigned into two groups. Data were collected by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI), The Rosenbaum's Learned Resourcefulness Scale (RLRS), and the Ways of Coping Inventory (WCI). The assessment of the women before and after the empowerment program showed that women in the intervention group showed significant improvements in the SEI, RLRS, and WCI scores compared with controls. These results suggest that the empowerment program is an effective practice for increasing the levels of self-esteem, learned resourcefulness, and coping ways of women exposed to domestic violence.

  16. Modeling of constructed wetland performance in BOD5 removal for domestic wastewater under changes in relative humidity using genetic programming. (United States)

    Sankararajan, Vanitha; Neelakandhan, Nampoothiri; Chandrasekaran, Sivapragasam


    Despite the extensive use of constructed wetland (CW) as an effective method for domestic wastewater treatment, there is lack of clarity in arriving at well-defined design guidelines. This is particularly due to the fact that the design of CW is dependent on many inter-connected parameters which interact in a complex manner. Consequently, different researchers in the past have tried to address different aspects of this complexity. In this study, an attempt is made to model the influence of relative humidity (RH) in the effectiveness of BOD5 removal. Since it is an accepted fact that plants respond to change in humidity, it is necessary to take this parameter into consideration particularly when the CW is to be designed involving changes in relative humidity over a shorter time horizon (say a couple of months). This study reveals that BOD5out depends on the ratio of BOD5in and relative humidity. An attempt is also made to model the outlet BOD5 using genetic programming with inlet BOD5 and relative humidity as input parameters.

  17. Crude glycerin for monogastrics (United States)

    With the rapid expansion of the biodiesel industry there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of biodiesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of fat ...

  18. Crude glycerin in swine (United States)

    With the rapid expansion of the bio-diesel industry, there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of bio-diesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of f...

  19. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  20. Methods of analyzing crude oil (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.


    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  1. Crude oil desulfurization (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)


    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  2. Modelling and Simulation of Crude Oil Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai JIMOH


    Full Text Available This research work was carried out to develop a model equation for the dispersion of crude oil in water. Seven different crude oils (Bonny Light, Antan Terminal, Bonny Medium, Qua Iboe Light, Brass Light Mbede, Forcados Blend and Heavy H were used as the subject crude oils. The developed model equation in this project which is given as...It was developed starting from the equation for the oil dispersion rate in water which is given as...The developed equation was then simulated with the aid of MathCAD 2000 Professional software. The experimental and model results obtained from the simulation of the model equation were plotted on the same axis against time of dispersion. The model results revealed close fittings between the experimental and the model results because the correlation coefficients and the r-square values calculated using Spreadsheet Program were both found to be unity (1.00.

  3. Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu


    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem that affects the lives of many women both in urban and rural areas. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are the most prevalent mental health problems related with domestic violence. Children of battered women are also affected from the domestic violence. Children who grow up in families with intimate partner violence may suffer from a range of behavioral and emotional disturbances that can be associated with the perpetration or experiencing of violence later in life. The mental health care sector can have a significant impact on publicizing and addressing violence against women and children and on reducing the mental health problems related to abuse. This review focuses on domestic violence victims, most of whom are women and children victimized by their spouses or parents, along with the causes and cycle of domestic violence.

  4. Domestic violence (United States)

    Intimate partner violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... biting, slapping, choking, or attacking with a weapon. Sexual abuse, forcing someone to have any type of sexual ...

  5. Domestic Politics and Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The external security threat is known as the most important factor of nuclear weapons program, the domestic politics situation can also affect the nuclear proliferation decision of a country. For example, when a leader wants nuclear weapons as an ultimate weapon, the domestic politics situation can determine the effectiveness of the weapons program of a country. This study analyzes the current knowledge of the relationship between domestic politics and nuclear proliferation and suggests the main challenges of the quantitative models trying to calculate nuclear proliferation risk of countries. The domestic politics status is one of the most important indicators of nuclear program. However, some variables have never been used in quantitative analyses; for example, number of veto players and the public opinion on nuclear weapons; despite they are considered to be important in various qualitative studies. Future studies should focus on how should they be coded and how can they be linked with existing domestic politics variables.

  6. Buys-Ballot Modeling of Nigerian Domestic Crude Oil Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 1, 2013 ... descriptive approach of time series analysis. Buys-Ballot table procedure was used in assessing variance stability (transformation), choice of model and seasonal effect. Inverse square root transformation was carried to stabilize the variance, quadratic trend was fitted and the error component was found to ...

  7. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)


    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  8. Domestic violence. (United States)

    Furlow, Bryant


    Domestic violence is a neglected epidemic in the United States that affects millions of children and adults and leads to a sizable proportion of emergency department visits--and possibly the majority of nonfatal injuries among women. Health care encounters represent the most promising opportunities for identifying victims and intervening in patterns of abuse, and all health care professionals have an ethical obligation to help identify cases of abuse. In this Directed Reading, the epidemiology and outcomes of domestic violence are introduced, screening methods and reporting requirements are reviewed, and the roles of diagnostic imaging in detecting and characterizing frequently neglected but common domestic violence injuries are discussed. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your area of interest. For access to other quizzes, go to

  9. Economic evaluation of an oral rabies vaccination program for control of a domestic dog-coyote rabies epizootic: 1995-2006. (United States)

    Shwiff, Stephanie A; Kirkpatrick, Katy N; Sterner, Ray T


    To conduct a benefit-cost analysis of the results of the domestic dog and coyote (DDC) oral rabies vaccine (ORV) program in Texas from 1995 through 2006 by use of fiscal records and relevant public health data. Retrospective benefit-cost analysis. Procedures-Pertinent economic data were collected in 20 counties of south Texas affected by a DDC-variant rabies epizootic. The costs and benefits afforded by a DDC ORV program were then calculated. Costs were the total expenditures of the ORV program. Benefits were the savings associated with the number of potentially prevented human postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) treatments and animal rabies tests for the DDC-variant rabies virus in the epizootic area and an area of potential disease expansion. Total estimated benefits of the program approximately ranged from $89 million to $346 million, with total program costs of $26,358,221 for the study period. The estimated savings (ie, damages avoided) from extrapolated numbers of PEP treatments and animal rabies tests yielded benefit-cost ratios that ranged from 3.38 to 13.12 for various frequen-cies of PEP and animal testing. In Texas, the use of ORV stopped the northward spread and led to the progressive elimination of the DDC variant of rabies in coyotes (Canis latrans). The decision to implement an ORV program was cost-efficient, although many unknowns were involved in the original decision, and key economic variables were identified for consideration in future planning of ORV programs.

  10. Ham Petrol Fiyatlarındaki Volatilitenin Gayri Safi Yurtiçi Hasıla Büyümesi Üzerindeki Etkileri: Türkiye Örneği( The Effects on Gross Domestic Product Growth of Crude Oil Price Volatility: A Case Study for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif ÖZSAĞIR


    Full Text Available In this paper, the relationship between international crude oil prices and GDP growth in Turkey was studied for 1987-2007 period. Crude oil prices with reference to the study,. Include annual average data. GDP data was obtained from Central Bank of Turkish as US dolar. With a view to display cointegration relationship between the data, Angle Granger and Johansen methods were applied. Notwithstanding, the results were inquired with VAR method. In the meanwhile; Dickey Fuller, Unit Root and Modified Akaike tests were executed too. Crude oil prices volatility effects on GDP growth, and also affect in question has appeared especially as from the second period (1997-2007.

  11. A Comparison of the Structural Factors of the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale for Women and Men in a Domestic Violence Treatment Program. (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Maas, Carl D; Barber, Sara


    Court-mandated domestic violence (DV) treatment programs across the country have seen a marked increase in female clients. These programs use a variety of measurement tools to assess the needs of their clients. Increased numbers of women in treatment for DV reflect a need to address the measurement of intimate partner violence (IPV) for both males and females. Unfortunately, the reliability and validity of many of measures used to assess IPV and related constructs for women remains unknown. The current study focuses on a particular measure, the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale (PAS). The PAS is not a measure of abusive behavior per se; rather, it assesses risk factors for abuse, including affective lability, anger expression, trauma symptoms, and harsh parenting experienced by the respondent. Specifically, the current study compares the factor structure and the measurement properties of the PAS for males and females in a sample of 885 (647 female, 238 male) participants in a DV treatment program. Findings indicate that the PAS demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance between the female and male samples. These results suggest that it is appropriate for researchers and clinicians to make comparisons between women and men based on PAS factor scores. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Enbridge system : crude types, transportation and handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A. [Enbridge Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    The supply of crude oil from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is expected to increase by approximately 2.1 million barrels per day by 2015. The crudes that Enbridge handles range from 19 API to 40 API and 0.1 per cent sulphur to 4.7 per cent sulphur. The diverse supply of crude oil that the Enbridge system handles includes conventional heavy, synthetic heavy, heavy high tan, heavy low residual, medium, light sour, heavy sour, light sweet, light sweet synthetic, condensate and olefinic crudes. This presentation discussed Enbridge's plans for infrastructure expansion, crude types and quality assurance program. The company's infrastructure plans include the expansion of regional pipelines to bring more supplies to the mainline; expansion of the mainline capacity to existing markets; and providing pipeline access to new markets. Merchant storage terminals will be provided in some locations. The quality of various crude types will be maintained through judicious sequencing and tank bottoms crossings. tabs., figs.

  13. [A cooperative program for the prevention of domestic accidents in children at the department of the Doubs. II. Educative aspects and evaluation]. (United States)

    Baudier, F; Marchais, M; Ferry, B; Bourderont, D; Pinochet, C; Blum, D


    Effective prevention of domestic accidents in children includes regimental and/or legislative action, information for parents and education of the children. The latter two strategies have been applied in the deparment of the Doubs in a cooperative health promotion program. Preschool and kindergarten structures were chosen and the pedagogical project involved acquainting the children with the idea of danger by use of a kit prepared by the "Comité Français d'Education pour la Santé" (French Committee for health education). This study was set up in two stages: "experimental" in 2 schools (1983-1984) and "operational" in 40 schools (1984-1985). In order to evaluate it, the population was divided into a control group and an experimental group. A total of 5,720 tests were carried out among 520 children. 494 parents and 82 teachers answered the questionnaires sent to them. The teachers were generally very positive about the effectiveness of education about dangers and the teaching activities which could be employed: discovery of environment, awareness of body, a.s.o. The changes in attitude were real and enduring among children. The parents changed their behavior significantly concerning the storing of poisonous products (medicines and household cleaning products), which allows to feel that this program can be effective in terms of risk reduction.

  14. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.


    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  15. Proposed program for and present status of the Geological Survey's investigation of domestic resources of radioactive raw materials (United States)

    Bulter, A.P.; Killeen, P.L.; Page, G.B.; Rubey, W.W.


    This interim report is designed to show the present status of the Geological Survey's information and the parts of a comprehensive program necessary to improve our information about the raw material resources of uranium and thorium. Rarely in geologic work has it been necessary. to determine so completely a nation's resources of useful minerals in so brief a span of time. Ordinarily, information on mineral resources Is accumulated during a long period of years. However, uranium and thorium were suddenly thrust from a position of subsidiary economic interest into one of great strategic importance. Information concerning their occurrence must, therefore, be obtained as rapidly as reliable methods of investigation will permit. Accordingly the program must be at once comprehensive and carried out over an area more extensive than is usual in the search for and appraisal of most other mineral resources.

  16. What Are We Missing A Call for Red Teaming Within the Domestic Maritime Domain for Anti-Terrorism Programs (United States)


    is entrepreneurship . “Anyone who is creating a new product or business under conditions of extreme uncertainty is an entrepreneur whether he or she...and sustain the proposed set of red teaming programs, it will be important to have those working within, and customers of Coast Guard terrorism risk...Business (New York: Collins Business Essentials, 1997), 2. 54 of the organization. Failure to achieve and sustain these efforts would put considerable

  17. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States). ITT Research Institute; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G. [Bonner and Moore Management Science, Houston, TX (United States)


    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  18. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  19. Domestic Violence (United States)

    ... Stalking Grant Programs Training and Technical Assistance Gender Bias: Identify and Prevent Protecting Students Tribal Affairs Reports ... Privacy Policy Legal Policies & Disclaimers Right Column Social Media For Employees Office of the Inspector General Open ...

  20. Optimization of China Crude Oil Transportation Network with Genetic Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang


    Full Text Available Taking into consideration both shipping and pipeline transport, this paper first analysed the risk factors for different modes of crude oil import transportation. Then, based on the minimum of both transportation cost and overall risk, a multi-objective programming model was established to optimize the transportation network of crude oil import, and the genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm were employed to solve the problem. The optimized result shows that VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier is superior in long distance sea transportation, whereas pipeline transport is more secure than sea transport. Finally, this paper provides related safeguard suggestions on crude oil import transportation.

  1. Assessing the Importance of Domestic Vaccine Manufacturing Centers: An Overview of Immunization Programs, Vaccine Manufacture, and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rey-Jurado


    Full Text Available Vaccines have significantly reduced the detrimental effects of numerous human infectious diseases worldwide, helped to reduce drastically child mortality rates and even achieved eradication of major pathogens, such as smallpox. These achievements have been possible due to a dedicated effort for vaccine research and development, as well as an effective transfer of these vaccines to public health care systems globally. Either public or private institutions have committed to developing and manufacturing vaccines for local or international population supply. However, current vaccine manufacturers worldwide might not be able to guarantee sufficient vaccine supplies for all nations when epidemics or pandemics events could take place. Currently, different countries produce their own vaccine supplies under Good Manufacturing Practices, which include the USA, Canada, China, India, some nations in Europe and South America, such as Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, France, Argentina, and Brazil, respectively. Here, we discuss some of the vaccine programs and manufacturing capacities, comparing the current models of vaccine management between industrialized and developing countries. Because local vaccine production undoubtedly provides significant benefits for the respective population, the manufacture capacity of these prophylactic products should be included in every country as a matter of national safety.

  2. Assessing the Importance of Domestic Vaccine Manufacturing Centers: An Overview of Immunization Programs, Vaccine Manufacture, and Distribution. (United States)

    Rey-Jurado, Emma; Tapia, Felipe; Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Lay, Margarita K; Carreño, Leandro J; Riedel, Claudia A; Bueno, Susan M; Genzel, Yvonne; Kalergis, Alexis M


    Vaccines have significantly reduced the detrimental effects of numerous human infectious diseases worldwide, helped to reduce drastically child mortality rates and even achieved eradication of major pathogens, such as smallpox. These achievements have been possible due to a dedicated effort for vaccine research and development, as well as an effective transfer of these vaccines to public health care systems globally. Either public or private institutions have committed to developing and manufacturing vaccines for local or international population supply. However, current vaccine manufacturers worldwide might not be able to guarantee sufficient vaccine supplies for all nations when epidemics or pandemics events could take place. Currently, different countries produce their own vaccine supplies under Good Manufacturing Practices, which include the USA, Canada, China, India, some nations in Europe and South America, such as Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, France, Argentina, and Brazil, respectively. Here, we discuss some of the vaccine programs and manufacturing capacities, comparing the current models of vaccine management between industrialized and developing countries. Because local vaccine production undoubtedly provides significant benefits for the respective population, the manufacture capacity of these prophylactic products should be included in every country as a matter of national safety.

  3. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse. (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie


    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  4. [Challenges for dealing with cases of domestic violence against children and adolescents through the Family Health Program in a medium-sized city in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil]. (United States)

    Lobato, Geórgia Rosa; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Nascimento, Marilene Cabral do


    This qualitative case study aimed to analyze the challenges faced by the Family Health Program (FHP) teams in dealing with domestic violence against children and adolescents in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 25 professionals from three family health teams. Data were collected through face-to-face semi-structured thematic interviews and submitted to content analysis. Findings included the health professionals' detection of cases of domestic violence among families enrolled in the program, often associated with drug use and drug dealing, alcoholism, family breakdown, and poverty. Collaboration with the community and difficulty in inter-sector actions were identified as challenges for detecting, reporting, and monitoring cases. Most professionals felt insecure in dealing with such cases, due to lack of appropriate knowledge and skills. The study concludes that it is essential to managers, staff and community discuss the problem and means to approach it in the context of the territories.

  5. Russian economy in the face of the global decline of crude oil prices


    Michal Wilinski; Agnieszka Wilinska


    The purpose of this article is to present problem in which the Russia found after the imposition of her economic and political sanctions by the European Union. It also shows the impact of the global figure the crude oil price to change the size of gross domestic product and the country's budget revenues. The models were to confirm the existence of consistent relationship between the studied variables and indicate the strength of this relationship, between the crude oil price and the size of R...

  6. Medicolegal characteristics of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antović Aleksandra R.


    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the basis for future medical research in this field. Methods. A total of 4,593 records of forensic autopsy (n = 3,120 and clinical forensic medical examinations (n = 1,473 were analyzed in the 1996–2005 period in order to determine the cases of domestic violence. Results. The analysis encompassed 300 cases (6.5% of clinically examined (n = 211; 70.3% and autopsied (n = 89; 29.7% victims of domestic violence. A statistically significant increase in domestic violence cases (χ2 = 12.74; p = 0.00036 was determined in the observed period. The victims were mostly females (78%, with the mean age of 45.8 years (min = 0.3; max = 85; SD = 17.7, married (45%, with personal income (74.4%, and urban residence (66.3%. The majority of abusers were males (89.3%. Intimate partner violence was present in 58.3% of the cases. Physical abuse was the most common form of violence (97.7%, while sexual violence (2.3% and child abuse (4.3% were rarely recorded. Conclusion. The results of this research indicate that forensic medicine can be of great help in designing appropriate standards for conducting clinical medical examination, preventive programs, and strategies in fighting domestic violence.

  7. 7 CFR 1427.102 - Eligible domestic users. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible domestic users. 1427.102 Section 1427.102... of Upland Cotton § 1427.102 Eligible domestic users. (a) For purposes of this subpart, a person... with CCC to participate in the upland cotton user program, will be considered an eligible domestic user...

  8. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel plants. (United States)

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo


    Characterization of crude glycerol is very important to its value-added conversion. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of five biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were determined. Three methods, including iodometric-periodic acid method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC), were shown to be suitable for the determination of glycerol content in crude glycerol. The compositional analysis of crude glycerol was successfully achieved by crude glycerol fractionation and characterization of the obtained fractions (aqueous and organic) using titrimetric, HPLC, and GC analyses. The aqueous fraction consisted mainly of glycerol, methanol, and water, while the organic fraction contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerides. Despite the wide variations in the proportion of their components, all raw crude glycerol samples were shown to contain glycerol, soap, methanol, FAMEs, water, glycerides, FFAs, and ash.

  9. The Development and Validation of a Domestic Violence Scale Administered to GED Program Participants to Determine the Effect on Test Performance (United States)

    Muro, Andres


    Overwhelming evidence shows that domestic violence is a very serious problem affecting women in the United States. Black et al. (2010) report that approximately 34 million women in the United States, or approximately 30%, have experienced some form of violence including rape, physical, violence, and/or stalking in their lifetimes. Twenty-two…

  10. BPO crude oil analysis data base user`s guide: Methods, publications, computer access correlations, uses, availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, C.; Fox, B.; Paulz, J.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

  11. Considerations for Domestic Law Enforcement Implementation of a UAS Program in the Proposed FAA Regulatory Environment of Integration into the National Airspace System (United States)


    unmanned systems and robotics community, published a report in 2010 aimed toward its legislative objective of increasing airspace “access to ensure that...obstacles to advancing and fielding UAS and robotics are removed.”16 The report argues that “the U.S. economy would benefit enormously if UAS had...economic impacts from domestic commercial UAS use.”25 Customers in the petroleum and agriculture industry are among some of the first to receive

  12. 45 CFR 1370.4 - State domestic violence coalition grants. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State domestic violence coalition grants. 1370.4... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.4 State domestic violence coalition grants. Each...

  13. Domestic violence against children


    Mihić Biljana D.


    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  14. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L. (United States)

    Hashmi, Laila Salim Al; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser


    To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L (T. vulgaris) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of T. vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained. Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds. Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important. Further, the T. vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation. The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T. vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis. All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris are biologically active molecules. Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T. vulgaris might have some ecological role.

  15. De-domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou


    De-domestication is the deliberate establishment of a population of domesticated animals or plants in the wild. In time, the population should be able to reproduce, becoming self-sustainable and incorporating 'wild' animals. Often de-domestication is part of a larger nature restoration scheme...... as wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties...

  16. [Domestic violence: any progress?]. (United States)

    Henrion, Roger


    modified their behavior, as have the victims, although for a lesser extent. Perpetrators are increasingly subject to restraining orders, with an obligation to undergo treatment and to attend awareness sessions. Victims are also more likely to go to the police. Social workers, self-help groups and, since 2006, psychologists are now available for victim support in police stations. Management of perpetrators has improved. Finally, despite the continuing reluctance of many physicians, an encouraging trend is emerging among younger members of the profession. A recent survey of 1472 French medical students showed that, while 90 % of them said they had received no training in this area, 93 % considered that doctors should play a role and 95 % said they felt highly concerned. Specific university diplomas have been created and domestic violence is now included in the midwifery curriculum. The delicate question of prevention remains to be resolved; a program is currently being tested.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayoola Omojolaibi


    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of crude oil price changes on economic activity in an oil dependent economy-Nigeria. A small open economy structural vector autoregressive (SVAR technique is employed to study the macroeconomic dynamics of domestic price level, economic output, money supply and oil price in Nigeria. The sample covers the data from 1985:q1 to 2010:q4. The Impulse Response Functions (IRFs and the Forecast Error Variance Decompositions (FEVDs results suggest that domestic policies, instead of oil-boom should be blamed for inflation. Also, oil price variations are driven mostly by oil shocks, however, domestic shocks are responsible for a reasonable portion of oil price variations.

  18. Recent Dynamics of Crude Oil Prices


    Noureddine Krichene


    Crude oil prices have been on a run-up spree in recent years. Their dynamics were characterized by high volatility, high intensity jumps, and strong upward drift, indicating that oil markets were constantly out-of-equilibrium. An explanation of the oil price process in terms of the underlying fundamentals of oil markets and world economy was provided, viewing pressure on oil prices mainly as a result of rigid crude oil supply and an expanding world demand for crude oil. A change in the oil pr...

  19. Valorization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Sandra S.


    Full Text Available The increased production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel involves the simultaneous growth in production of crude glycerol as its main by-product. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of biodiesel production requires the effective utilization of crude glycerol. This review describes various uses of crude glycerol as a potential green solvent for chemical reactions, a starting raw material for chemical and biochemical conversions into value-added chemicals, a substrate or co-substrate in microbial fermentations for synthesis of valuable chemicals and production of biogas and biohydrogen as well as a feedstuff for animal feed. A special attention is paid to various uses of crude glycerol in biodiesel production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001

  20. Extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: new technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E. [Infrastructure and Upgrading Department PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela); Zacarias, L [Refining Department. PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela)


    Venezuela has reserves of heavy and extra heavy crude oil in the eastern part of the country. There is a need for lower capital cost extraction technologies. At the moment, heavy oil is diluted with light or medium crude oil before it is sold on the market. In order to remove this requirement, PDVSA Research Institute has been working on developing a new technology to convert heavy crude oil into upgraded crude oil. This paper presents the technology, named Aquaconversion, and its applications. The technology consists of a catalytic steam conversion process which converts heavy oil into transportable upgraded crude oil with a higher density and lower viscosity than can be achieved using other technologies. This technology can be used onsite to obtain transportable upgraded crude or to replace visbreaking units in refineries. This paper presents a new technology that makes the extraction of heavy oil in Venezuela economically feasible.

  1. Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products (United States)

    Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX


    A method for producing a crude product is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce one or more crude products. At least one of the crude products has a boiling range distribution from C. and C. as determined by ASTM Method D5307. The crude product having the boiling range distribution from C. and C. is catalytically cracked to produce one or more additional crude products. At least one of the additional crude products is a second gas stream. The second gas stream has a boiling point of at most C. at 0.101 MPa.

  2. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.


    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  3. State Support of Domestic Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Wright


    This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.

  4. College Students' Beliefs About Domestic Violence: A Replication and Extension. (United States)

    Wagers, Shelly M; Wareham, Jennifer; Boots, Denise Paquette


    In recent decades, significant effort and money have been spent to change social and legal responses to domestic violence and affect public perceptions. A small body of research has examined individuals' opinions about what behaviors are considered domestic violence. Using a sample of college students, the present study examined a modified version of a somewhat popular instrument used to measure beliefs about domestic violence, extending previous work done by Carlson and Worden. Results indicated beliefs about domestic violence are multidimensional, depending on the nature of the behavior and, in part, the gender of the perpetrator. Opinions about the lawfulness of these behaviors fit the same factor structure as beliefs about domestic violence. Demographic characteristics, current relationship status, secondhand experiences with domestic violence, and perceived prevalence of domestic violence in the community are generally not related to beliefs about domestic violence or the lawfulness of these behaviors. However, attributions of blame on the victim are negatively related to domestic violence beliefs and lawfulness. Moreover, lawfulness is a key covariate for domestic violence beliefs. In addition, results also indicate that the gender of the perpetrator is an important variable affecting student's beliefs about sexual assault behaviors. Results from this study support the prevailing ideas behind the Battered Women's Movement that enacting policies and educational programs deeming domestic violence socially, morally, and legally wrong could shift long-standing sociocultural beliefs about men's use of violence against women. Implications of this study for research and policy specific to college students are discussed.

  5. Narratives of Domestic Violence


    Hunter, Rosemary


    Second wave feminists in Australia brought the social issue of domestic violence out of the suburban shadows and into the activist and policy spotlight in the 1970s. Subsequent feminist-inspired law reforms around domestic violence included the introduction of state domestic violence order regimes in the 1980s, and amendments to the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) in 1995 to specify family violence as one of the matters to be taken into account by the Family Court in\\ud determining the best interes...

  6. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J


    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  7. Pengaruh Penambahan Kosubstrat pada Biodegradasi Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Juliani


    Full Text Available Kegiatan penambangan minyak bumi tidak hanya dilakukan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan besar, tetapi juga oleh masyarakat secara tradisional. Potensi pencemaran lingkungan yang ditimbulkan oleh kegiatan penambangan rakyat ini menjadi lebih tinggi karena pengelolaannya yang tradisional. Salah satu jenis pencemaran yang ditimbulkannya misalnya adalah tanah atau perairan yang tercemar oleh minyak bumi (crude oil pada saat berlangsungnya kegiatan penambangan. Salah satu upaya untuk dapat mengatasinya adalah dengan bioremediasi. Bioremediasi merupakan teknologi pengolahan pencemar dengan memanfaatkan aktivitas mikroba, terutama dari golongan bakteri. Bioremediasi tersebut harus melibatkan bakteri yang memiliki kapasitas metabolic untuk melakukan biodegradasi terhadap crude oil tersebut. Crude oil sendiri pada dasarnya merupakan senyawa hidrokarbon yang merupakan sumber karbon yang kaya bagi mikroba. Namun demikian, biodegradasi crude oil relative lebih sulit dilakukan karena karakteristiknya yang merupakan senyawa dengan berat molekul dan ukuran yang besar. Oleh karena itu penambahan kosubstrat yang lebih sederhana dapat dilakukan untuk membantu biodegradasi terutama pada tahap awal proses. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kosubstrat dalam hal ini glukosa terhadap biodegradasi crude oil. Penelitian dilakukan dalam media cair dengan bioaugmentasi melalui penambahan inoculum bakteri yang diisolasi dari tanah yang dikondisikan terhadap crude oil dalam beberapa variasi reactor. Indikasi terjadinya biodegradasi diperiksa melalui pengukuran terhadap parameter Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH dan Total Plate Count (TPC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kosubstrat glukosa memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap penurunan TPH. Penurunan TPH tertinggi setelah 28 hari adalah sebesar 25,3 % yang diberikan oleh reactor dengan penambahan kosubstrat serta konsentrasi crude oil awal sebesar 8.1 %. Sementara itu reactor tanpa

  8. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 17, 2008 ... The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians,.

  9. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians, Bacillus subtilis ...

  10. Antibiotic, cytotoxic and enzyme inhibitory activity of crude extracts from Brazilian marine invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna H. R. Seleghim

    Full Text Available Herein we present the results of a screening with 349 crude extracts of Brazilian marine sponges, ascidians, bryozoans and octocorals, against 16 strains of susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, one yeast (Candida albicans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, three cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast, B16 (murine melanoma and HCT8 (colon, and Leishmania tarentolae adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (L-APRT enzyme. Less than 15% of marine sponge crude extracts displayed antibacterial activity, both against susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Up to 40% of marine sponge crude extracts displayed antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Cytotoxicity was observed for 18% of marine sponge crude extracts. Finally, less than 3% of sponge extracts inhibited L-APRT. Less than 10% of ascidian crude extracts displayed antibacterial activity. More than 25% of ascidian crude extracts were active against M. tuberculosis and the three cancer cell lines. Only two crude extracts from the ascidian Polysyncraton sp. collected in different seasons (1995 and 1997 displayed activity against L-APRT. Less than 2% of bryozoan and octocoral crude extracts presented antibacterial activity, but a high percentage of crude extracts from bryozoan and octororal displayed cytotoxic (11% and 30%, respectively and antimycobacterial (60% activities. The extract of only one species of bryozoan, Bugula sp., presented inhibitory activity against L-APRT. Overall, the crude extracts of marine invertebrates herein investigated presented a high level of cytotoxic and antimycobacterial activities, a lower level of antibacterial activity and only a small number of crude extracts inhibited L-APRT. Taxonomic analysis of some of the more potently active crude extracts showed the occurrence of biological activity in taxa that have been previously chemically investigated. These include marine sponges belonging to genera Aaptos, Aplysina, Callyspongia, Haliclona

  11. Domestic Threat Intelligence Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Mark


    This thesis examines DTIM at the US Army installation level. It reviews the Army's view of domestic threat based on current doctrine, as well as the joint view of terrorism as the predominate threat...

  12. Offshoring domestic jobs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egger, Hartmut; Kreickemeier, Udo; Wrona, Jens


    .... In the presence of fixed costs for offshoring the most productive firms self-select into offshoring, which leads to a reallocation of domestic labor towards less productive uses if offshoring costs are high...

  13. Identifying Presidents' Domestic Agendas. (United States)

    Shull, Steven A.


    To ascertain the degree to which presidential rhetoric establishes the public agenda, presidential policy statements from 1953 through 1979 across six areas of domestic policy were examined. Results indicate that presidents exerted varied leadership in advocating their agendas. (RM)

  14. Domestic cooked cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin


    Full Text Available The research results of sensory properties, chemical and microbiological quality of domestic cooked cheese, which is produced around Bjelovar region, are presented in this paper.Domestic cooked cheese is Croatian autochthonous cheese produced in wider north-western region of Croatia (Bilogora, Lika, Banovina, Gorski Kotar and around Zagreb, and therefore should be registered as Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO and/or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. Sensory properties, chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on 16 samples (7 non-smoked and 9 smoked cheeses. All cheese samples were produced according to tradition. Significant unevenness was determined in sensory, chemical and microbiological quality. Domestic cooked cheese can be classified as soft cheese according to dry matter content, and as semi-hard cheese according to water content in non fat cheese matter. According to fat content in dry matter, domestic cooked cheese can be classified as fat cheese. Standardization elements are proposed.

  15. Crude Oil Spot Price Forecasting Based on Multiple Crude Oil Markets and Timeframes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangkun Deng


    Full Text Available This study proposes a multiple kernel learning (MKL-based regression model for crude oil spot price forecasting and trading. We used a well-known trend-following technical analysis indicator, the moving average convergence and divergence (MACD indicator, for extracting features from original spot prices. Additionally, we factored in the possibility that movements of target crude oil prices may be related to other important crude oil markets besides the target market for the prediction time horizon since traders may find price movement information within other relevant crude oil markets useful. We also considered multiple timeframes in this study since trends may differ across different timeframes and, in fact, traders may use their own timeframes. Therefore, for forecasting target crude oil prices, this study emphasizes on features pertaining to other important crude oil markets and different timeframes in addition to features of the target crude oil market and target timeframe. Moreover, the MKL framework has been used to fuse information extracted from different sources and timeframes of the same data source. Experimental results show that out-of-sample forecasting using the MKL method is superior to benchmark methods in terms of root mean square error (RMSE and average percentage profit (APP. They also show that the information from multiple timeframes is useful for prediction, but that from another crude oil market is not.

  16. Transportation of heavy crude by pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G.; Lachmann, J.


    The purpose of this work is to present a general summary of the operations which should be performed from the technical point of view, as well as the economic, for arriving at an optimum design for a pipeline and its utilization in the transportation of heavy crude oil. The characteristics are presented of the Boscan field crude which is one of the most difficult in the world to handle. Many of the different insulating coatings are named that have been used for covering piping or equipment which has to operate in a hot environment. Other parts of the study present some of the experiences which have occurred during the transport of heavy crude in cold water. The properties of the crude are listed as well as those of some of the interior coatings including polymers. Equations are given with which to calculate heat loss from heated lines and to determine pressure drop. Various insulation thicknesses are calculated with selection of the most economic value. In some pipelines of considerable length which transport heated heavy crude, it is necessary to provide reheating equipment at one or more locations prior to destination.

  17. Radiation for crude drugs contaminated with microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satake, Motoyoshi; Sekita, Setsuko; Kamakura, Hiroyuki [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)


    Recently, it became urgent to develop an effective method for repressing the microbials in a crude drug and its preparation. In some countries in Asia and Western countries, radiosterilization for natural drugs has been approved and the dose was within a range. 10-30 kGy. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the safety of such radiosterilization for crude drugs. Concerning bacterial contamination in the original materials for crude drugs, the proportion rates of materials containing less than 10{sup 3}, 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} and more than 10{sup 5} cells were 54, 27 and 19%, respectively. Since the previous study revealed that those microbials were almost diminished by exposure to 10 kGy, various crude drugs were exposed to 5 kGy and the amounts of remaining microbials were determined. The number of microbials remained after radiation at 5 kGy was 1 x 10{sup 3} for plantago seed, rhubarb and cyperus rhizome and less than 10{sup 2} for other samples tested. The effects of radiation on the respective active ingredients of each crude drug underwent using HPLC. (M.N.)

  18. Domestic cooked cheese


    Slavko Kirin


    The research results of sensory properties, chemical and microbiological quality of domestic cooked cheese, which is produced around Bjelovar region, are presented in this paper.Domestic cooked cheese is Croatian autochthonous cheese produced in wider north-western region of Croatia (Bilogora, Lika, Banovina, Gorski Kotar and around Zagreb), and therefore should be registered as Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) and/or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). Sensory properties, chemical...

  19. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. With modern equipment heavy crude is produced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Venezuela's Corporacion Venezolana del Petroleo (CVP) is handling heavy crude production at its Boscan Field, using modern facilities. For generating steam, the station has 2 boilers: one is direct fired and the other takes advantage of the waste heat from the turbines. To prevent plugging of the pipeline, when it is necessary to suspend operations, the crude is displaced with water. Delays are not frequent but can occur if problems arise due to difficulties with the boilers. The treating separators, one vertical and the other horizontal, have 2 heaters: one is in the upstream circuit and the other is in the downstream circuit. The crude is separated from naphtha and water in an expansion tower. Three compressors furnish gas to the gas turbines. The suction pressure is 80 psi and the discharge pressure is 150 psi. The waste from the turbines is taken advantage of by the steam generator in one of the station boilers.

  1. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)


    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  2. What Would They Do? Latino Church Leaders and Domestic Violence (United States)

    Behnke, Andrew O.; Ames, Natalie; Hancock, Tina U.


    Understanding what Latino church leaders believe about domestic violence, and what they do when they confront it, is a key step in developing programs to help them engage in domestic violence prevention and intervention activities in their congregations. This article presents the findings from an exploratory study of 28 Latino church leaders. The…

  3. Lifelong Learning To Reduce Domestic Violence. (United States)

    Miller, Clinton E.; Mullins, Barbara K.


    Domestic violence is a legal, social, and public health issue. Increased public awareness has improved laws and training. Educational programs for both offenders and public officials (police, social workers, and health care providers) are addressing the issue. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)

  4. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence (United States)

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.


    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  5. Price Linkage between International Price of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and Cooking Oil Price in Indonesia


    Rifin, Amzul


    Cooking oil in Indonesia is considered to be one of the staple food of Indonesian people. In the beginning of 2008, the price of cooking oil in Indonesia has increased significantly. One of the reasons is the increase of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) price in the international market. The objective of this research is to investigate the impacts of international price of CPO on the domestic price of CPO and cooking oil. Three specific objectives are included (1) To test whether international price of C...

  6. Reproductive isolation during domestication. (United States)

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Rummell, Sonja E; Ellstrand, Norman C; Rieseberg, Loren H


    It has been hypothesized that reproductive isolation should facilitate evolution under domestication. However, a systematic comparison of reproductive barrier strength between crops and their progenitors has not been conducted to test this hypothesis. Here, we present a systematic survey of reproductive barriers between 32 economically important crop species and their progenitors to better understand the role of reproductive isolation during the domestication process. We took a conservative approach, avoiding those types of reproductive isolation that are poorly known for these taxa (e.g., differences in flowering time). We show that the majority of crops surveyed are isolated from their progenitors by one or more reproductive barriers, despite the fact that the most important reproductive barrier in natural systems, geographical isolation, was absent, at least in the initial stages of domestication for most species. Thus, barriers to reproduction between crops and wild relatives are closely associated with domestication and may facilitate it, thereby raising the question whether reproductive isolation could be viewed as a long-overlooked "domestication trait." Some of the reproductive barriers observed (e.g., polyploidy and uniparental reproduction), however, may have been favored for reasons other than, or in addition to, their effects on gene flow.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence and Animal Abuse in an Immigrant-Rich Sample of Mother-Child Dyads Recruited From Domestic Violence Programs. (United States)

    Hartman, Christie A; Hageman, Tina; Williams, James Herbert; Ascione, Frank R


    We examined rates of animal abuse in pet-owning families experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). We also examined whether higher levels of IPV (as measured by subscales from the Conflict Tactics Scales) predicted increased risk for partner-perpetrated animal abuse. Our sample included 291 mother-child dyads, where the mothers sought services from domestic violence agencies. Nearly half the sample is comprised of Mexican immigrants. Mothers reported that 11.7% of partners threatened to harm a pet and 26.1% actually harmed a pet, the latter of which represents a lower rate than in similar studies. When examining animal abuse by "Hispanic status," follow-up analyses revealed significant omnibus differences between groups, in that non-Hispanic U.S.-born partners (mostly White) displayed higher rates of harming pets (41%) than either U.S.-born or Mexican-born Hispanic groups (27% and 12.5%, respectively). Differences in rates for only threatening (but not harming) pets were not significant, possibly due to a small number of partners (n = 32) in this group. When examining whether partners' IPV predicted only threatening to harm pets, no IPV subscale variables (Physical Assault, Psychological Aggression, Injury, or Sexual Coercion) were significant after controlling for income, education, and Hispanic status. When examining actual harm to pets, more Psychological Aggression and less Physical Assault significantly predicted slightly higher risk of harm. However, Mexican-born partners had nearly 4 times lower risk of harming a pet. Overall, these results suggest that Hispanic men who are perpetrators of IPV are less likely to harm pets than non-Hispanic perpetrators of IPV, particularly if Mexican-born. Considering that the United States has a significant proportion of Mexican immigrants, it may be worthwhile to explore the topics of IPV and animal abuse within this group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails:,; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:


    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  9. Biodegradation of chlorobenzene using immobilized crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 4, 2007 ... enzymes which will decompose chlorobenzene to non toxic substance. Crude cell extracts produced which contains ... environment with wastewater and exhaust, great num- bers are benzene derivatives and other non ... Although acute toxicity is uncommon, these substances cause sublethal damage, e.g., ...

  10. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial screening of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves, stem bark and root bark of Ekebergia senegalensis, which has some traditional medicinal applications were investigated. Phytochemical analysis gave positive results for carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins and alkaloids. The crude methanol extracts showed growth inhibitory effects on Salmonella ...

  11. Biodegradation of chlorobenzene using immobilized crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been identified as potential organism to decompose chlorobenzene by its crude extract through immobilization technique. P. aeruginosa was grown on chlorobenzene as sole source of carbon and energy. Chlorobenzene was used as an inducer to develop specific intracellular enzymes ...

  12. Utilization of crude glycerin in nonruminants (United States)

    Refined glycerin is a colorless, viscous liquid, containing approximately 99% glycerin; and a metabolizable energy per kilogram of approximately 3,850 and 3,700 kcal for swine and poultry, respectively. The crude glycerin co-product generated from biodiesel production facilities, in contrast, ranges...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ”An Artificial Neural. Network as a Valuable Tool for Petroleum. Engineers,” SPE 29220, unsolicited paper for Society of Petroleum Engineers. Obomanu, D. A. and Okpobiri, G. A., 1987. “Correlating the. PVT Properties of Nigerian Crudes,” Trans, ASME. 109: 214-24. Omar, M. I. and Todd, A. C., 1993. “Development of New.

  14. Transesterification of Crude Jatropha Curcaslinnaeus Oil Catalyzed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transesterification of crude jatropha oil with methanol was investigated using a heterogeneous catalyst derived from waste marble. The barium enhanced waste marble catalyst was prepared via precipitation/impregnation methods and showed high performance to methyl ester conversion when calcined at 830 oC for 4 h.

  15. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil. (United States)


    ..., Office of National Security and Technology Transfer Controls, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754... export of crude oil to all destinations, including Canada. See paragraph (h) of this section for a...

  16. Electrophoretic characterization of crude leaf proteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Crude protein electrophoresis of seeds of eight species of Crotalaria L. Nig. J. Botany 1:106 -110. Atkinson MD, Lyndsey A, MIA Simpson (1986). Characterization of. Cocoa germplasm using isoenzyme markers. 1. A preliminary survey of diversity using starch gel electrophoresis and standardization of procedure. Euphytica.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A A Essiett

    Seeds of mature fruits of ten species of Solanum were collected from the gardens near the screen house, Botany. Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Crude seed proteins were extracted from them and characterised using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Inter and intra specific ...

  18. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication (United States)

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim


    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future. PMID:21730145

  19. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication. (United States)

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim


    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future.

  20. Fatores potencialmente associados à negligência doméstica entre idosos atendidos em programa de assistência domiciliar Factors potentially associated to domestic negligence among elders assisted in home assistance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zally Pinto Vasconcellos de Queiroz


    Full Text Available A violência contra idosos é uma questão social cada vez mais presente em todas as sociedades, até nos países em desenvolvimento. Uma das formas de violência menos conhecidas e denunciadas é a negligência doméstica, especialmente contra idosos que apresentam comprometimento funcional. Este artigo apresenta resultados de um estudo transversal descritivo/analítico realizado com cuidadores familiares de idosos comprometidos atendidos pelo Programa de Assistência Domiciliar a Idosos, da disciplina de geriatria da Escola Paulista de Medicina (Unifesp, com o objetivo de identificar a existência de fatores potencialmente associados à negligência doméstica na situação de cuidados domésticos prestados por familiares. Foram entrevistados quarenta cuidadores, sendo aplicados os questionários de identificação de perfil de idoso e cuidador e o instrumento Caregiver Burden Scale. Os resultados encontrados mostraram a existência de fatores potencialmente associados à negligência doméstica no perfil de idosos e cuidadores e nas correlações significativas entre as variáveis comprometimento funcional do idoso, ações de cuidados e depressão do cuidador, nas dimensões tensão geral e isolamento.The cases of abuse against elderly people have been growing significantly throughout the entire world. Among the various forms of abuse, one of the less known and denounced is the domestic negligence. As it occurs mostly inside family and nursing homes, it is hardly identified. This article presents the results of a cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study that pointed out the existing factors potentially associated to domestic negligence towards elderly patients attended by the Elderly Home Care Program as part of the discipline of Geriatrics of the Paulista Medical School, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. Interviews were made with 40 familiar caregivers of these patients who had functional disability. The profiles of those

  1. Crude oil prices--the direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.L.


    Over the next 12 to 18 months, real crude prices should be flat to down, and thereafter increase at a rate equal to or less than inflation through 1985. This forecast is predicated on the assumption that free-world energy demand will be down by about 4% over the next five years to about 106 million BD crude oil equivalent. Assuming a compound annual growth rate in excess of 4% for non-oil supplies, to about 59 million BD crude oil equivalent, the free world's oil requirements are expected to total about 49 million BD in 1985, up about 7% from 1982's estimated level of about 46 million BD. If these assumptions are correct, they suggest that OPEC supplies will amount to about 76% of their productive capacity, or about 26 million BD, down 16% from 1979's peak level of 31 million BD. Thus, OPEC will have to exercise a self-discipline to prorate itself and thereby be able to maintain price controls over its supplies without seeing the crude price rupture to the mid-$20 per barrel level. During the 1973-1980 period, the demand for energy per $1,000 real GNP declined in excess of 14%, after the real price of energy advanced some 30% in 1973-1974, suggesting a negative price elasticity of 0.48 for the seven OCEP countries which consume about 68% of the world's energy supplies. The current uncertainties associated with conservation, substitution, efficiency and the general economic climate raise serious questions as to what the level of demand for petroleum products will be when the western world regains its economic momentum after the current recession. At that time, we may have a better handle on the price elasticity of energy and the ultimate market clearing price for crude.

  2. Domestic violence in Japan. (United States)

    Kozu, J


    Traditionally, domestic violence in Japan referred to children's physical and emotional violence against their parents. However, in recent years, the general public's awareness of and actions toward other types of domestic violence, especially violence against women and children, has increased. Following a brief description of filial violence and elderly abuse, both spousal abuse and child abuse are discussed in terms of their prevalence and cultural and historical backgrounds. The article concludes with current and future challenges in the intervention of violence, particularly against women and children, in the Japanese family.

  3. 24 CFR 982.53 - Equal opportunity requirements and protection for victims of domestic violence. (United States)


    ... protection for victims of domestic violence. 982.53 Section 982.53 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... requirements and protection for victims of domestic violence. (a) The tenant-based program requires compliance...) Protection for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking. The PHA must apply 24 CFR part 5...

  4. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.


    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  5. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...

  6. Application of Markov Model in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu Isah


    Full Text Available Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile. The fluctuation of crude oil prices has affected many related sectors and stock market indices. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid the future prices of the non-renewable natural resources to rise. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2 January to 29 May 2015. We used Markov Model (MM approach in forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using EViews and Maple software where the potential of this software in forecasting daily crude oil prices time series data was explored. Based on the study, we concluded that MM model is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  7. Know Your Rights: Domestic Violence (United States)

    ... YOUR RIGHTS Domestic Violence CONOZCA SUS DERECHOS La violencia doméstica For immediate help call National Domestic Violence ... must specifically request custody and visitation restrictions or “no contact” orders. You must call the police every ...

  8. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.


    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  9. Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated tea plantation soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil contamination of soil is a major concern for tea industry in Assam, India. Crude oil is a persistent organic contaminant which alters soil physical and biochemical characteristics and makes tea plants more susceptible against crude oil contamination. Therefore, two native bacterial strains designated as AS 03 and ...

  10. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  11. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry


    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  12. Multi-objective model of waste transportation management for crude palm oil industry (United States)

    Silalahi, Meslin; Mawengkang, Herman; Irsa Syahputri, Nenna


    The crude palm oil industry is an agro-industrial commodity. The global market of this industry has experienced rapid growth in recent years, such that it has a strategic value to be developed for Indonesian economy. Despite these economic benefits there are a number of environmental problems at the factories, such as high water consumption, the generation of a large amount of wastewater with a high organic content, and the generation of a large quantity of solid wastes and air pollution. In terms of waste transportation, we propose a multiobjective programming model for managing business environmental risk in a crude palm oil manufacture which gives the best possible configuration of waste management facilities and allocates wastes to these facilities. Then we develop an interactive approach for tackling logistics and environmental risk production planning problem for the crude palm oil industry.

  13. IMpact of international accreditation in the recognition of academic degrees in the domestic and foreign labor market. Case study: Civil engineering program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Barragan Codina


    Full Text Available In a globalized era it is not enough to have a professional qualification to ensure economic and professional success. The academic background of professionals must be adequate to face challenges and solve problems of a globalized and dynamic world. Civil engineers face many complications when seeking an international career. There are many differences within the profession globally such as: resources, workforce, climate, language, culture, philosophies, regulations, etc. which raise the entry barriers to fully practice as a civil engineer. The International accreditations play a major role as the first evidence of the civil engineer technical proficiency. These assure the quality of the higher education curricula and add value to the human capital on an international context. Despite the fact that many Mexican Universities have academic programs which have international accreditations, civil engineer graduates cannot easily work across borders. This paper describes the impact that international accreditation has for civil engineers when seeking an international career.

  14. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail:


    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  15. DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study, Task 2 Test Report on Evaluating Crude Oil Sampling and Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX (United States); Rudeen, David [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Crude Oil Characterization Research Study is designed to evaluate whether crude oils currently transported in North America, including those produced from "tight" formations, exhibit physical or chemical properties that are distinct from conventional crudes, and how these properties associate with combustion hazards with may be realized during transportation and handling.

  16. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.


    % of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 mu m) than droplets in the physically...

  17. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses. (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic


    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Apparent nutrient digestibility of two raw diets in domestic kittens. (United States)

    Hamper, Beth A; Kirk, Claudia A; Bartges, Joseph W


    The aim of the study was to evaluate overall dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fat and gross energy digestibility of a feline commercial raw diet and a homemade raw diet compared with a canned, heat-processed diet. Six domestic shorthair kittens (20-28 weeks old) were fed three different diets in a Latin square crossover design. Diet A was a commercially available, canned, heat-processed diet. Diet B was a complete commercial, prefrozen, raw diet (commercial raw), and diet C was a raw diet supplement mixed with ground raw meat obtained locally (homemade raw). Both diets A and B were formulated to meet nutritional profile levels for cats at all life stages. Kittens were given specific diet amounts to maintain a 2-4% weight increase per week. Food was measured before and after feedings to determine the amount eaten, and all feces were collected, weighed and frozen prior to submission. Composite food samples and all feces were submitted to a national laboratory for proximate analysis of crude protein, crude fiber, ash, crude fat, moisture and caloric density. Significantly higher digestibility of dry matter (P raw diets compared with the heat-processed diets. This difference resulted in significantly less fecal matter (P raw diets compared with a heat-processed diet. Digestibility differences could have been due to variance in dietary protein, fat and carbohydrate concentrations between the diets, variance in dietary ingredients or quality, alterations in protein structure secondary to heat processing, as well as alterations in gastrointestinal flora. Future research examining digestibility in diets with the same macronutrient proportions and ingredients, and mechanisms for any differences, is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)


    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  20. Dewatering of crude oil emulsions; Part 1: Rheological behavior of the crude oil-water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, R.A.; Bailey, A.I.; Luckham, P.F. (Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)); Taylor, S.E. (Surface and Colloid Science Group, BP Research Centre, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex (United Kingdom))


    Rheological properties of Buchan crude oil-water interfaces have been determined using a biconical bob rheometer. The effects of temperature and the presence of surface-active demulsifiers on film characteristics have been evaluated. Free oscillation and creep modes have been used, depending on the relative viscoelastic behaviour of the films. Film ageing is particularly significant, whilst temperature and the nature and concentration of any demulsification chemicals also contribute significantly. Further detailed understanding of interfacial film rheology is considered to be desirable for a complete appreciation of the stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions

  1. Buyer panic in crude oil seen easing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidawind, J.


    The crude oil spot market declined after events in Iran precipitated stockpiling, while Iranian production cutbacks were smaller than anticipated. A growing spot market is affecting world oil prices with spot prices of $40 to $50 a barrel recorded during early November 1979. Larger stockpiles, however, will compensate for the projected supply cuts and a glut of residual fuels has helped to push prices back down. Some analysts feel that increased Saudi Arabian production is the key supply factor, while others question whether the Iranian cutback was directly ordered by the Ayatollah Khomeini.

  2. Domestic Wind Energy Workforce; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne


    A robust workforce is essential to growing domestic wind manufacturing capabilities. NREL researchers conducted research to better understand today's domestic wind workforce, projected needs for the future, and how existing and new education and training programs can meet future needs. This presentation provides an overview of this research and the accompanying industry survey, as well as the Energy Department's Career Maps, Jobs & Economic Development Impacts models, and the Wind for Schools project.

  3. Crude oil to ethylene in one step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, R.O.


    Reports that the most important feature of the partial combustion cracking (PCC) process is its ability to convert heavy petroleum fractions to light olefins with minimum residue. Presents diagram of the PCC process; graph of feedstock cost vs. return on investment (ROI); and tables with average ethylene yields, cracking yields, and PCC vs. LPG and naphtha cracking. Finds that the 10% difference in capital between the PCC and the naphtha feed case is due mainly to the cost of the acid gas and sulfur handling sections required for the PCC, but not for a naphtha cracker. The very favorable ROI and ethylene costs are due to the relative difference in feedstock pricing. Sensitivity of ROI to changes in feedstock was also studied for the PCC cases. The ratio of cost of high-sulfur fuel oil (HSFO) to average crude price is used to indicate the substantial effect of feedstock price on the attractiveness of the project. Concludes that with HSFO at 85 to 100% of crude value, the PCC represents an excellent investment for future ethylene needs.

  4. Selection signature in domesticated animals. (United States)

    Pan, Zhang-yuan; He, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiang-yu; Guo, Xiao-fei; Cao, Xiao-han; Hu, Wen-ping; Di, Ran; Liu, Qiu-yue; Chu, Ming-xing


    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  5. Domestic and Domesticating Education in the Late Victorian City (United States)

    Heggie, Vanessa


    This article explores the various types of domestic education, particularly cookery, available in Manchester between 1870 and 1902. The work of the two local School Boards and the Manchester School of Domestic Economy are shown as part of a complicated network of provision--a mixed economy of welfare, including enthusiastic philanthropists and…

  6. Waxy crude oil production in the South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, W.R.; Gerber, E.J.; Simek, L.A.


    The Phillips Petroleum International Corporation Asia (PPICA) Xijiang Field Development Project is a unique project resulting in the production of a waxy crude oil. The crude oil is produced on two platforms feeding a final production unit located on an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Off-loading) vessel located between the platforms. The crude from these two fields contains a high concentration of wax and has a relatively high pour point temperature. The crude composition and oil properties are listed in two tables. Special consideration was needed with respect to operating temperatures, start-up and shutdown procedures.

  7. Optimal Scheduling of Domestic Appliances via MILP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Bradac


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a consumption scheduling mechanism for domestic appliances within a home area network. The aim of the proposed scheduling is to minimize the total energy price paid by the consumer and to reduce power peaks in order to achieve a balanced daily load schedule. An exact and computationally efficient mixed-integer linear programming (MILP formulation of the problem is presented. This model is verified by several problem instances. Realistic scenarios based on the real price tariffs commercially available in the Czech Republic are calculated. The results obtained by solving the optimization problem are compared with a simulation of the ripple control service currently used by many domestic consumers in the Czech Republic.

  8. Polymers in crude oil and products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonstrup, T.F.; Taillardat, J.; Turner, D.W.


    The work describes applications of polymers classified by petroleum end uses. Approximately 1200 literature references have been reviewed, 60% of which deal with applications in lubricants. Polymers are being used as additives for many phases of crude production, transportation, and processing. This includes improved drilling, flow behavior, recovery, desalting, and dehydration. For engine lubricants, the major use of polymers is still as viscosity modifiers. New types of viscosity index polymers are described. Most of the past 4 yr research effort in the lubricants area has dealt with the rheology of multigrade oils, particularly the temporary loss of viscosity under high shear rates and its effects on engine performance. In industrial lubricants, polymers increase load-carrying capacity; control wear, rust and foam; improve cold properties; reduce energy requirements and mist emissions; and modify surface active properties. Polymers are used in fuel products mainly to improve handling and stability debits. 253 references.

  9. "I Didn't Think He Remembered": Healing the Impact of Domestic Violence on Infants and Toddlers (United States)

    Ellison, James R.


    The First Steps Domestic Violence Program (First Steps) was developed to address the mental health needs of infants and toddlers entering a domestic violence shelter. When domestic violence occurs, the primary caregiver's ability to help restore a sense of safety for the infant--through regulation of the infant's emotions, sleep, arousal, and…

  10. 24 CFR 5.2005 - Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8... (United States)


    ... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence in Public and Section 8 Housing § 5.2005 Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8 housing. (a) Domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking. An incident or incidents of actual...

  11. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  12. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.


    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  13. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana


    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  14. The burden of domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Nørspang, Annika Patursson; Forkman, Björn


    The way in which domestic cats are kept and bred has changed dramatically over the last two centuries. Notably, a significant number of cats are kept indoors, most of them are neutered and many are selectively bred. This likely has consequences for their welfare. A few studies link housing, neuter...... status and breeding in cats to risks of welfare problems. However, the study presented here is the first to quantify the risks and document the prevalence of risk factors. It builds on results from a questionnaire sent to a representative sample of the Danish population. Using the responses from cat...... owners who keep cats in the home (n = 378), the paper aims to investigate how indoor confinement, neutering and selective breeding affect health, behaviour and other factors relating to cat welfare. The paper reports that confined cats had significantly more behavioural problems than free-roaming cats...

  15. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean


    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  16. [Healthcare aspects of domestic abuse]. (United States)

    Kórász, Krisztián


    The paper reviews the forms of domestic abuse, its causes, prevalence and possible consequences. British and Hungarian Law, guidelines and the roles and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to dealing with domestic abuse in their practice is also addressed within the paper.

  17. Women's Views About Domestic Violence: A Qualitative Study in Iran. (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Kianfard, Leila; Parhizkar, Saadat; Mousavizadeh, Ali


    Violence against women is an urgent health priority in Iran. Designing effective programs for preventing and controlling the problem necessitates a thorough understanding of Iranian women and their perspectives regarding domestic violence. This study was aimed at exploring the domestic violence-related views of married women who were referred to health care facilities in Ahvaz, Iran. In this qualitative research, data were collected through four focus group discussions with 30 married women. All the discussions were recorded and transcribed, after which the data were classified separately. The main themes and subthemes were then manually derived from the data and analyzed. The five main themes identified were domestic violence against women in Ahvaz, behavioral influencing factors, nonbehavioral influencing factors, the necessity to empower women to prevent domestic violence, and recommendations for developing special training programs for Ahvazi women. Most of the participants were aware that domestic violence against women is a common occurrence in Iran. They were well aware of the definition of violence and expressed a belief that behavioral factors exert an important effect on the occurrence of the problem. They recommended the development of appropriate training programs that empower women to prevent the problem, the use of mass media to educate citizens about domestic violence, and the involvement of opinion leaders in eliminating the taboo against considering such violence a crime against Iranian women. Considering the views and ideas of women as consumers of educational services is a principle used to develop effective programs for preventing and controlling domestic violence. As indicated by the findings, the participants believe that empowering women must be treated as a priority in the Iranian health care system. However, they recommended differing approaches and methods of empowerment on the basis of their individual views and concerns.

  18. Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children (United States)

    ... Domestic Violence Hotline, 1-800-799-7233Office on Women’s Health, Violence Against WomenThe United States Department of Justice, Domestic ViolenceU.S. National Library of Medicine, Domestic Violence Last ...

  19. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some physical and chemical properties of samples of light, medium and heavy Nigerian crude oils and petroleum products including gasoline, kerosene and engine oil have been measured and are reported in this paper. The crude oils and petroleum products have also been characterized by fractional distillation and ...

  20. Comparative Effect Of Crude Oil Products On Nitrogen Content Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effect of crude oil products was investigated using Clarias gariepinus uveniles. The fsh (average weight 100.20 ± 0.08g) was introduced inograded concentratons (2.00, 4.00, 6.00 and 8.00 ml -1) of Bonny light crude oil (BLCO), premium motor spirit (PMS) Dua purpose Kerosene (DPK) in toxic phase that ...

  1. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    these treatments had 21 - 89% more numbers of leaves compared to plants from the untreated seed tubers. Crude essential oils from dill weed at .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to filter paper ..... is a valid reference frame in postharvest ageing studies. Postharvest ...

  2. Effect of mushroom ( Pleurotus tuber-regium ) inoculums on crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution of soils by crude oil in Niger-Delta of Nigeria has brought untold hardship to the inhabitants of the region. This study was carried out in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to determine the effect of Pleurotus tuber-regium (mushroom) inoculums on crude oil polluted soil on stover and grain yields and as well as cob length ...

  3. Crude oil degradation by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Nair, S.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    adherence to undecane and hexadecane. The degradation of crude oil by these two isolates was 62% and 85%. Mixed cultures of the two isolates showed 91% degradation. It was evident from the gas chromatographic analysis that all fractions of crude oil were...

  4. Antidiabetic effect of crude glycoside of abrus precatorius in alloxan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antidiabetic effect of crude a glycoside from Abrus precatorius seed was studied in alloxan diabetic rabbits. Three groups of male alloxan diabetic rabbits were used. The three groups (n = 3) received oral injection of 50mg/kg body of crude glycoside (CG), chlorpropamide (CP)-a known synthetic antidiabetic drug and ...

  5. Anti-tuberculosis activities of the crude methanolic extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude extract was prepared using soxhlet extraction apparatus while the purified fractions were obtained by column chromatography. The two media were inoculated with M. tuberculosis strains, after which the crude and purified extracts were added. After 4-6 weeks incubation, colony forming units were counted and ...

  6. Anti-tuberculosis activities of the crude methanolic extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    petroleum ether, followed by methanol. The free methanol was allowed to evaporate using water- bath, a brown viscous solid was obtained, it was transferred into a clean dry bottle, weighed and labelled as crude methanolic extract. Preparation of purified fractions. The crude methanolic extract of the plant was purified by ...

  7. Molluscicidal activity of crude water leaf extracts of Alternanthera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 19, 2007 ... while the evaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 48.07 (42.81 – 54.28) for the dried leaf extract. For the fresh leaves the ... Key words: Alternanthera sesselis, crude water extract, molluscicidal activity, bioavailability, schistomiasis control. ... (Brown, 1980). Although the snails do not play an active.

  8. Crude aqueous extract of the root bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude aqueous extract of the root bark of zanthoxylumxanthoxyloides inhibits white blood cells migration in acute inflammation. ... Background: Crude aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum xanthozyloides is used locally to treat inflammatory conditions. Previous study confirmed that the ... response in inflammation. Objective: To ...

  9. Diuretic Activity of Trianthema portulacastrum Crude Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. ... aqueous extract of this plant in normal albino rats. ... diuretic activity and by oral route for acute toxicity. [6]. Phytochemical screening of crude plant extract. Preliminary screening of the crude aqueous extract for a variety of ...

  10. Some Neuropharmacological Effects of the Crude Venom Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports some neuropharmacological effects of the crude venom extract of Conus musicus (family Conidae) in mice using various experimental models. The crude venom was found to significantly increase tail flick reaction time in mice. The effects of the venom on the central nervous system were studied by ...

  11. Crude Oil Hedging Strategies Using Dynamic Multivariate GARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractThe paper examines the performance of four multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC and BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge

  12. Growth performance of cassava – Manihot esculenta crantz in crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance of cassava – Manihot esculenta crantz in crude oil contaminated soil amended with compost of Centrosema pubescens Benth and ... Studies on the performance of Manihot esculenta, Crantz (TMS 30572) in a crude oil polluted soil was investigated in the Botanic Garden of University of Port Harcourt.

  13. ( Paspalum vaginatum L ) in soil contaminated with crude petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth of seashore paspalum, ( Paspalum vaginatum L ) in soil contaminated with crude petroleum oil. ... Abstract. The effect of crude oil contaminated soil on the growth of seashore Paspalum ( Paspalum vaginatum .) ... The experiment demonstrated the potential of using Paspalum vaginatum for phytoremediation ...

  14. Enhancement of Crude Oil Polluted Soil by Applying Single and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: The study aimed at enhancing the remediationof crude oil polluted soil of the Niger Delta using cow dung and hydrogen peroxide in either single or combined forms. 5 kg of soil each was polluted with 200 ml of crude oil representing 4% w/v. Five amendment treatments labelledA- E were done in order of A ...

  15. Impact Of Crude Oil On Recruitment Of Epibenthic Organisms In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of crude oil on recruitment of epibenthic organisms in Cross River estuary were studied in February and March, 2007 on wooden Panels (15×15×1.5cm). The panels were immersed in Nigerian light crude oil and later suspended in the estuary for six weeks. Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum showed slight resistance to ...

  16. Comparative study of biodegradation of crude oil in soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation studies revealed that 56.3% of crude oil was degraded in the unamended soil while 75% and 87.5% of crude oil was degraded in soil amended with chicken droppings and fertilizer respectively after 10 wks. This indicates that chicken droppings and NPK fertilizer enhanced the biodegradation process.

  17. Biodegradability Of The Major Components Of Bonny Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the known 92 potential hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria and fungi isolated from crude oil polluted soil and water samples, only one soil bacterial isolate (SB17), identified as Bacillus subtilis, was found to efficiently degrade 72.23% of the Bonny light crude oil sample after 25 days of incubation, and thus was used for further ...

  18. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Release of crude oil and its products into the environment has resulted in many problems that are of global concern. The objective of this study was to determine effect of Composted Market Waste (CMW) on the degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crude oil-contaminated soil. Pot experiment was ...

  19. Acute Toxicity of Crude Euphorbia tirucalli Latex Extracts to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extracts to Oreochromis niloticus juveniles was investigated in the College of Agriculture, Lafia. A four day static acute toxicity test was performed to determine the LC50 value of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extract for the fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Various ...

  20. Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Release of crude oil and its products into the environment has resulted in many problems that are of global concern. The objective of this study was to determine effect of Composted Market Waste (CMW) on the degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crude oil-contaminated soil.

  1. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated from soil compost in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. The work was carried out with the aim of determining crude-oil biodegradation potentials of Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from the soil compost as well as the assessment of the applicability of ...

  2. Toxicity of crude oil products and detergent on serum alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effect of exposing Clarias gariepinus juveniles (100.20 + 0.8g) to diferent concentrations of crude oil products and detergent were studied. Bonny Light Crude oil (BLCO), Premium motor spirit (PMS), Dual purpose kerosene (DPK) and Ariel Enzymax Detergent (AED) were respectively applied at three ...

  3. Nitrogen metabolism of four raw meat diets in domestic cats. (United States)

    Kerr, Katherine R; Beloshapka, Alison N; Morris, Cheryl L; Swanson, Kelly S


    Little nutritional information has been collected from domestic cats fed raw meat diets. The objective of the present study was to evaluate differences in N metabolism of domestic cats fed raw beef-based diet (66 % crude protein (CP) and 20 % fat), bison-based diet (49 % CP and 39 % fat), elk-based diet (79 % CP and 6 % fat) and horse-based diet (60 % CP and 26 % fat). A total of eight intact adult female cats were fed to maintain body weight in a cross-over design. Daily food intake, faecal and urinary outputs, and N metabolism were measured. Dietary N was highly digestible (96.8 (SEM 0.7)) for all treatments. Urinary N accounted for a majority of total N excretion, and differences in total N excretion reflect differences in urinary N. Differences in N intake and N absorption were due to differences in CP levels among diets. N retention was similar to values reported in the literature for domestic cats fed purified and traditional extruded diets. Despite differences in protein concentrations and N intake, all raw meats tested maintained N metabolism.

  4. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  5. 77 FR 55817 - Delek Crude Logistics, LLC; Notice of Petition for Waiver (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Delek Crude Logistics, LLC; Notice of Petition for Waiver Take notice that on June 11, 2012, Delek Crude Logistics, LLC (``Delek Crude'') respectfully requests that the Federal... Commission's regulations with respect to the East Texas Crude Logistics crude oil pipeline system. Any person...

  6. 19 CFR 19.22 - Withdrawal of metal refined in part from imported crude metal and in part from crude metal... (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of metal refined in part from imported crude metal and in part from crude metal produced from imported materials. 19.22 Section 19.22 Customs... § 19.22 Withdrawal of metal refined in part from imported crude metal and in part from crude metal...

  7. Thermal biology of domestic animals. (United States)

    Collier, Robert J; Gebremedhin, Kifle G


    The thermal environment is the most important ecological factor determining the growth, development, and productivity of domestic animals. Routes of energy exchange (sensible heat and latent heat) between animals and their environment are greatly influenced by body weight, fat deposition, hair-coat properties, functional activity, and number of sweat glands, as well as the presence or absence of anatomical respiratory countercurrent heat exchange capability. Differences in these anatomical features across species have led to specialization of heat exchange. Thermal plasticity and degree of acclimation are critical factors determining the ability of animals to respond to environmental change. Increases in productive capability of domestic animals can compromise thermal acclimation and plasticity, requiring greater investments in housing systems that reduce variability of the thermal environment. The combination of steadily increasing metabolic heat production as domestic animal productivity increases and a rising world temperature poses ongoing and future challenges to maintaining health and well-being of domestic animals.

  8. The Effects of Commodities and Financial Markets on Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyfianakis Georgios


    Full Text Available Investigating crude oil price volatility is crucial, because crude oil price certainly affects the economy through many channels. This study applies a Vector Auto Regression (VAR model to examine the impact of crude oil market on basic commodities, financial markets and industrial production. We find that the production in the US economy has an important effect on the crude oil prices. In addition we noticed a higher increase in crude oil price volatility after a large negative shock, contrary to a large positive one. Also, it was found that, in the short-run, oil price volatility is not influenced by short-run interest rates or industrial production. An adverse linkage between crude oil prices and industrial production has been proved confirming the economic theorists claiming that there is a close linkage between oil price shocks and economic activity. Finally, our findings indicate that there is Granger causality between crude oil and the endogenous variables used in the Granger causality framework.

  9. Crude glycerin in diets for feedlot Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco van Cleef


    Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on feed intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and total digestibility of Nellore bulls. In experiment 1, cattle (n = 30 were fed a control diet without crude glycerin and diets containing 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin, for 103 d. Animals were harvested and data of carcass characteristics were collected. In experiment 2, a digestibility trial was performed using indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF as internal marker, and five rumen-cannulated steers. Both experiments were conducted as a randomized complete block design and data were analyzed using mixed procedures. In experiment 1 no differences were observed among treatments on dry matter intake, and performance variables. Regarding carcass characteristics, no effect was observed, except for carcass fat estimates, which were greater in treatments with crude glycerin. In experiment 2, crude glycerin promoted a decrease in digestibility of fibrous fractions NDF and HEM, and increased digestibility of crude protein by 6%. Although it caused negative effect on digestibility of fibrous fraction of diets, crude glycerin can be a good energy source for Nellore bulls, since no losses are observed on performance and carcass characteristics when animals are fed up to 30% of this by-product.

  10. Support groups for older victims of domestic violence. (United States)

    Wolf, R S


    A 1997 nationwide (US and Canada) search to identify support groups for older victims of domestic violence located 16 sponsored by domestic violence programs and 14 sponsored by aging services. Interviews with group leaders indicated more similarities than differences between the two types of sponsorship in group purpose, leadership, numbers served, content of support group sessions, and success in accomplishing goals. Resistance of elders to participate in a group experience was cited by leaders as a major barrier. Recommendations for future groups include insuring accessibility of meeting site; using a leader and co-leader, at least one of whom is older or familiar with aging issues; allocating resources for recruitment; and seeking a steady source of funding. A policy of collaboration among the state's domestic violence coalition, state unit on aging, adult protective services, and victim assistance program may help in promoting support group development and utilization.

  11. Domestic violence, poverty, and social services: does location matter? (United States)

    Hetling, Andrea; Zhang, Haiyan


    Objective. This study investigates whether or not domestic violence agencies are located in areas of need. Recent research indicates that community economic disadvantage is a risk factor for intimate partner violence, but related questions regarding the geographic location of social service agencies have not been investigated.Methods. Using Connecticut as a case study, we analyze the relationship of agency location and police-reported domestic violence incidents and assaults using OLS regression and correcting for spatial autocorrelation.Results. The presence of an agency within a town has no relationship with the rates of domestic violence. However, regional patterns are evident.Conclusion. Findings indicate that programs are not geographically mismatched with need, but neither are programs located in towns with higher rates of incidents or assaults. Future research and planning efforts should consider the geographic location of agencies.

  12. DNA fingerprinting in domestic animals. (United States)

    Buitkamp, J; Ammer, H; Geldermann, H


    DNAs of several species of domestic animals digested with the restriction endonucleases HinfI, AluI and HaeIII were hybridized with different synthetic probes. DNA fingerprint patterns were found in each investigated species by at least two of these probes. Furthermore, two probes gave sex-specific banding patterns in the chicken. Some applications of DNA fingerprinting in domestic animals are discussed.

  13. The evolutionary origin and genetic makeup of domestic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Pablo Librado; Fages, Antoine Alphonse; Gaunitz, Charleen


    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circ......The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude...... of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds...... of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped...

  14. Effect of solid paraffin's on crude oil rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šećerov-Sokolović Radmila M.


    Full Text Available Effect of solid paraffin on crude oil rheology was investigated. The experiments were carried out on model-crude oil at constant temperature 30°C. Medical paraffin malting point of 61 °C different concentration was dissolved in kerosene fraction. Concentration range of paraffin was from 1 to 32% weight. Shear stress strongly depends on paraffin's content only over high shear rate. Shear stress increases exponentially with increasing paraffin concentration for high shear rate. This dependence does not existed for real crude oil investigated in this paper.

  15. Excess crude protein for nongravid gilts. (United States)

    Fox, M C; Watkins, K L; Craig, W M; Stewart, T B; Clawson, A J; Southern, L L


    Twenty-five nongravid crossbred gilts (avg initial wt, 126 kg) were placed on either a high (38%) or a low (13%) crude protein (CP) diet and fed either at the rate of 1.82 kg/d or had ad libitum access to feed. In addition, a fifth group was pair-fed the 13% CP diet to the average intake of the gilts fed high CP ad libitum. The experimental period lasted 30 d. Corn-soybean meal diets were used and CP levels were varied by altering the corn:soybean meal ratio. Gain and gain/feed were reduced (P less than .01) in gilts fed 1.82 kg/d compared with the gilts fed ad libitum or pair-fed gilts. Gain (P less than .03) and feed intake (P less than .01) of gilts with ad libitum access to the 13% CP diet were higher than those of gilts with ad libitum access to the 38% CP diet. Gain/feed was not different (P greater than .10) between the two groups, however. Rate of gain and feed efficiency of gilts pair-fed the 13% CP diet were similar (P greater than .10) to those of gilts with ad libitum access to the 38% CP diet. Plasma total free amino acids, NH3 and total protein were not (P greater than .10) affected by treatment. Plasma urea-N and urinary total N, urea-N and orotic acid were increased (P less than .01) in gilts fed the high CP diet regardless of feed intake level. However, urinary NH3 was higher (P less than .01) in gilts fed the low-protein diet. These results indicate that excess dietary CP for nongravid gilts decreases gain and feed intake and has no effect on efficiency of feed utilization, but it increases plasma urea-N and urinary total N, urea-N and orotic acid.

  16. 37 CFR 3.61 - Domestic representative. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic representative. 3.61... COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Domestic Representative § 3.61 Domestic... is not domiciled in the United States, the assignee may designate a domestic representative in a...

  17. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535... § 535.320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United... Treasury may also authorize any other banking institution to be treated as a “domestic bank” for the...

  18. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515... § 515.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States... Secretary of the Treasury may also authorize any other banking institution to be treated as a “domestic bank...

  19. 31 CFR 500.320 - Domestic bank. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 500.320 Section 500... § 500.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States... Secretary of the Treasury may also authorize any other banking institution to be treated as a “domestic bank...

  20. 78 FR 64245 - AG Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence... (United States)


    ... Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or... notice. The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting the... Transitional Housing Assistance Program Grant for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or...

  1. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat. (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M


    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Therapeutic Efficacy of Domestic Violence Victim Interventions. (United States)

    Hackett, Shannon; McWhirter, Paula T; Lesher, Susan


    A meta-analysis on domestic violence interventions was conducted to determine overall effectiveness of mental health programs involving women and children in joint treatment. These interventions were further analyzed to determine whether outcomes are differentially affected based on the outcome measure employed. To date, no meta-analyses have been published on domestic violence victim intervention efficacy. The 17 investigations that met study criteria yielded findings indicating that domestic violence interventions have a large effect size (d = .812), which decreases to a medium effect size when compared to control groups (d = .518). Effect sizes were assessed to determine whether treatment differed according to the focus of the outcome measure employed: (a) external stress (behavioral problems, aggression, or alcohol use); (b) psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety, or happiness); (c) self-concept (self-esteem, perceived competence, or internal locus of control); (d) social adjustment (popularity, loneliness, or cooperativeness); (e) family relations (mother-child relations, affection, or quality of interaction); and (f) maltreatment events (reoccurrence of violence, return to partner). Results reveal that domestic violence interventions across all outcome categories yield effects in the medium to large range for both internalized and externalized symptomatology. Implications for greater awareness and support for domestic violence treatment and programming are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. he Effects of Child Domestic Labour on Girls Education Temes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    conclusion, the effects of child domestic labor on the education of girls' attending primary schools evening program in Jimma town found to be; low .... involving abuse, health risks and violence. All the available evidences are indicative of ...... (2005), in Chile, Mexico and Peru revealed a significant negative effect of child ...

  4. National imperative to establish a domestic medical intelligence center


    Natarajan, Nitin


    CHDS State/Local The United States does not have a centralized organization tasked with the oversight or implementation of a domestic medical intelligence program. Organizations throughout the nation have adopted a variety of definitions and operating procedures related to medical intelligence; however, they are inconsistent. Additionally, most jurisdictions limit medical intelligence to epidemiological surveillance. This thesis will propose the structure, governmental organization, d...

  5. Asthma Counselling Targeted to Removal of Domestic Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Hagan


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To create and evaluate the efficacy of a short individualized educational intervention program, based on Prochaska’s transtheoretical model, for a six-month period in a population of adult asthma patients living with domestic animals but sensitized to these pets.

  6. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  7. Some Neuropharmacological Effects of the Crude Venom Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Neuropharmacological Effects of the Crude Venom Extract of Conus musicus in Mice. Department of Pharmacy ... coordination and prolonged pentobarbitone-sleeping time. A liquid ..... Pharmacology, Academic Press, New. York and ...

  8. Dielectric characterization of crude oil extracts obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dielectric characterization of crude oil extracts obtained from different oil fields in Nigeria, intended for utility exploitation in electrical power transformers. J.O. Akinnifesi, F.M. Adebiyi, K.F. Olafisan ...

  9. Evaluation of crude flaxseed ( Linum usitatissimum L.) oil in burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of crude flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oil in burn wound healing in New Zealand rabbits. Katiba Beroual, Amir Agabou, Mohamed-Cherif Abdeldjelil, Naima Boutaghane, Saïd Haouam, Youcef Hamdi-Pacha ...

  10. Crude oil impairs cardiac excitation-contraction coupling in fish. (United States)

    Brette, Fabien; Machado, Ben; Cros, Caroline; Incardona, John P; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Block, Barbara A


    Crude oil is known to disrupt cardiac function in fish embryos. Large oil spills, such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster that occurred in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico, could severely affect fish at impacted spawning sites. The physiological mechanisms underlying such potential cardiotoxic effects remain unclear. Here, we show that crude oil samples collected from the DWH spill prolonged the action potential of isolated cardiomyocytes from juvenile bluefin and yellowfin tunas, through the blocking of the delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kr)). Crude oil exposure also decreased calcium current (I(Ca)) and calcium cycling, which disrupted excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. Our findings demonstrate a cardiotoxic mechanism by which crude oil affects the regulation of cellular excitability, with implications for life-threatening arrhythmias in vertebrates.

  11. Birds associated with the Atigun River crude oil spill (TAPS) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes observations of birds and bird habitats in relations to the Atigun River crude oil spill. (TAPS 10 June 1979). The purpose of this report is...

  12. The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Ashoori


    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation and deposition are drastic issues in the petroleum industry. Monitoring the asphaltene stability in crude oil is still a serious problem and has been subject of many studies. To investigate crude oil stability by saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA analysis seven types of crudes with different components were used. The applied methods for SARA quantification are IP-143 and ASTM D893-69 and the colloidal instability index (CII is computed from the SARA values as well. In comparison between CII results, the values of oil compositions demonstrated that the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils is a phenomenon that is related to all these components and it cannot be associated only with one of them, individually.

  13. High temperature corrosion control and monitoring for processing acidic crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, C. [Betz/GE Water and Process Technologies, Woodlands, TX (United States)


    The challenge of processing heavy crudes and bitumen in a reliable and economical way was discussed. Many refiners use a conservative approach regarding the rate at which they use discounted crudes or depend upon capital-intensive upgrades to equipment. New strategies based on data-driven decisions are needed in order to obtain the greatest benefit from heavy feedstock. The feasibility of successfully processing more challenging feed can be estimated more accurately by better understanding the interactions between a particular feed and a particular crude unit. This presentation reviewed newly developed techniques that refiners can use to determine the feeds corrosion potential and the probability for this potential to manifest itself in a given crude unit. tabs., figs.

  14. Efficacy of intervention strategies for bioremediation of crude oil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of intervention strategies for bioremediation of crude oil in polluted soil microcosm. ... of the aliphatic and aromatic components have been degraded in the augmented soil, higher than the natural attenuation control. Key words: Biodegradation, Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation, Microcosm, Attenuation, Metabolize.

  15. The effects of crude extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of crude extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii on the hematology of albino wistar rats. JN Egwurugwu, NN Obaji, CS Ufearo, OJ Olorunfemi, OM Adienbo, RC Uchefuna, S Iwuji, B Chinko, E Akpan ...

  16. Economic Evaluation of Crop Farms Acquired for Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Eweje, 2006; Ezeabasili, 2009). With distortions in the major livelihood activities of the people of Rivers. State due to crude oil production operations, the question this article asks is: what value of economic losses had crop ...

  17. Screening for antibacterial and antiprotozoal activities of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening for antibacterial and antiprotozoal activities of crude extracts derived from Mexican medicinal plants. ... Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas anti-protozoal activities of extracts were ...

  18. Biodegradation of Lagoma crude oil using pig dung | Yakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the soil amended with pig dung, 68.2% of the crude oil was degraded, whereas only 50.7% of same oil was degraded in the unamended soil. The pH of the amended soil rose from 6.2 to 7.2. Pig dung was found to contain 1.7 x 106 cfu g-1 crude oil degrading bacteria, and 1.8 x 108 cfu g-1 aerobic heterotrophs.

  19. Rate and extent of ruminal degradation of crude protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate constant for outflow was correlated with level of DM intake (r2 = 0.87). Lag phase prior to degrada- tion of crude ... at a level of 7% for the whole maize and 11% for the maize meal and flaked maize diets. Urea was .... have been affected by both the particle type and the math- ematical model we used. Crude protein ...

  20. Crude oil contamination of soil and groundwater in Kuwait


    II, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Masato; IWABUCHI, Masakazu; YABU, Shinobu


    [ABSTRACT] During the Gulf war seven hundreds of oil wells were destroyed by the retreating armies of Iraq. In particular, the Burgan oil field suffered heavy damage. Over 50millions of crude oil spilled out flooding the desert and as a result, extensive contamination of desert soils occurred. Field investigations indicated that crude oil penetrated the desert soils under the newly formed oil lakes to a depth of 150 cm for the 5 years following the Gulf war. The calculated penetration of this...

  1. Kurdistan crude oils as feedstock for production of aromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam R. Karim


    Full Text Available Crude oils from various locations in Iraqi Kurdistan were fully evaluated, so that enables refiners to improve their operation by selecting the best crude oil that yields high naphtha content to be used as a catalytic reforming feedstock after determination of total sulfur content and then de sulfurizing them, then cyclizing or reforming these sweet naphtha cuts to produce aromatic fractions which can be split into benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  2. Domestic violence shelter partnerships and veterinary student attitudes at North American veterinary schools and colleges. (United States)

    Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K


    Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.

  3. Aging Filipino Domestic Workers and the (In)Adequacy of Retirement Provisions in Canada. (United States)

    Ferrer, Ilyan


    Although domestic work scholarship in Canada has focused primarily on the immigration/migration and labour experiences of domestic workers under the Foreign Domestic Movement and the Live-in-Caregiver Program, research is scarce on how these workers retire and consequently age in Canadian society. This article focuses on the aging experiences of retired Filipino domestic workers who, upon entering retirement, find themselves working in the secondary and/or underground economy while providing and receiving care from spouses, grandchildren, and local/transnational family members. Data were drawn from six qualitative, in-depth interviews with older Filipina domestic workers who discussed experiences of immigration, caring labour, retirement, and aging. Findings underscore (1) the poverty that older Filipino domestic workers encounter as they approach their retirement; (2) the necessity but insufficiency of the state's retirement provisions; (3) the need to find work in the unreported labour market; and (4) how caring labour is provided intergenerationally as a survival strategy.

  4. The Middle East. Domestic sufficiency of fossil fuel resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, John A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kessinger, Samuel E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    In this paper, we’ve compared energy production and consumption across the broader Middle East, paying special attention to three different countries; Saudi Arabia, one of the world’s largest oil producers (second in the CIA World Factbook ranking of crude oil producing countries), with a growing population in the mid-range (47th in the world, according to the CIA World Factbook, and fifth among the nations in this region), a large GDP and GDP per capita (15th in the world, second in this region in GDP, and 21st in GDP per capita in the world, just behind the US at 19th); Qatar, the world’s fourth largest producer of natural gas, with a small native population (and a relatively large foreign labor contingent) that is very wealthy (with the world’s highest GDP per capita, more than twice that of the US); and Egypt, the most populous nation in the region (with the world’s 16th largest population), but relatively poor (with a GDP per capita of about a fifth that of the US and a twelfth that of Qatar); Egypt is a significant energy producer – 29th in the world in crude oil production and 17th in natural gas production – but production has stalled or declined in recent years, and domestic consumption has overtaken production.

  5. Effect of Crude Leaf Extracts on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapassorn Bussaman


    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc. is a fungus that causes anthracnose disease in tropical fruit plants, resulting in damages of the fruit plants and low yield and quality of fruits. The use of chemical fungicides is common for management of this disease, but it also results in the development of fungal resistance to the chemicals. Therefore, this study aims to in vitro evaluate the efficacy of 14 crude leaf extracts against C. gloeosporioides. The results showed that Piper sarmentosum leaf extracts, using 80% of ethanol, methanol, and chloroform as solvents, were found to have very high antifungal activities. Crude methanol extract of P. sarmentosum leaves could effectively inhibit the growth of fungal mycelium (100%, followed by crude chloroform extract (81.85% and 80% ethanol extract (45.50%. Maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides spore germination could be obtained after application with crude methanol extract of P. sarmentosum leaves and crude chloroform extract of Mentha cordifolia leaves at 1.25 and 2.5%, respectively. In conclusion, crude extracts of P. sarmentosum leaves were found to be highly effective for inhibiting both C. gloeosporioides mycelium growth and spore germination, and they have a potential as the new natural fungicides for management of anthracnose disease.

  6. Macondo crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disrupts specific developmental processes during zebrafish embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Soysa T Yvanka


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Deepwater Horizon disaster was the largest marine oil spill in history, and total vertical exposure of oil to the water column suggests it could impact an enormous diversity of ecosystems. The most vulnerable organisms are those encountering these pollutants during their early life stages. Water-soluble components of crude oil and specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been shown to cause defects in cardiovascular and craniofacial development in a variety of teleost species, but the developmental origins of these defects have yet to be determined. We have adopted zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model to test whether water accumulated fractions (WAF of the Deepwater Horizon oil could impact specific embryonic developmental processes. While not a native species to the Gulf waters, the developmental biology of zebrafish has been well characterized and makes it a powerful model system to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind Macondo crude toxicity. Results WAF of Macondo crude oil sampled during the oil spill was used to treat zebrafish throughout embryonic and larval development. Our results indicate that the Macondo crude oil causes a variety of significant defects in zebrafish embryogenesis, but these defects have specific developmental origins. WAF treatments caused defects in craniofacial development and circulatory function similar to previous reports, but we extend these results to show they are likely derived from an earlier defect in neural crest cell development. Moreover, we demonstrate that exposure to WAFs causes a variety of novel deformations in specific developmental processes, including programmed cell death, locomotor behavior, sensory and motor axon pathfinding, somitogenesis and muscle patterning. Interestingly, the severity of cell death and muscle phenotypes decreased over several months of repeated analysis, which was correlated with a rapid drop-off in the aromatic and alkane

  7. Macondo crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disrupts specific developmental processes during zebrafish embryogenesis. (United States)

    de Soysa, T Yvanka; Ulrich, Allison; Friedrich, Timo; Pite, Danielle; Compton, Shannon L; Ok, Deborah; Bernardos, Rebecca L; Downes, Gerald B; Hsieh, Shizuka; Stein, Rachael; Lagdameo, M Caterina; Halvorsen, Katherine; Kesich, Lydia-Rose; Barresi, Michael J F


    The Deepwater Horizon disaster was the largest marine oil spill in history, and total vertical exposure of oil to the water column suggests it could impact an enormous diversity of ecosystems. The most vulnerable organisms are those encountering these pollutants during their early life stages. Water-soluble components of crude oil and specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been shown to cause defects in cardiovascular and craniofacial development in a variety of teleost species, but the developmental origins of these defects have yet to be determined. We have adopted zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model to test whether water accumulated fractions (WAF) of the Deepwater Horizon oil could impact specific embryonic developmental processes. While not a native species to the Gulf waters, the developmental biology of zebrafish has been well characterized and makes it a powerful model system to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind Macondo crude toxicity. WAF of Macondo crude oil sampled during the oil spill was used to treat zebrafish throughout embryonic and larval development. Our results indicate that the Macondo crude oil causes a variety of significant defects in zebrafish embryogenesis, but these defects have specific developmental origins. WAF treatments caused defects in craniofacial development and circulatory function similar to previous reports, but we extend these results to show they are likely derived from an earlier defect in neural crest cell development. Moreover, we demonstrate that exposure to WAFs causes a variety of novel deformations in specific developmental processes, including programmed cell death, locomotor behavior, sensory and motor axon pathfinding, somitogenesis and muscle patterning. Interestingly, the severity of cell death and muscle phenotypes decreased over several months of repeated analysis, which was correlated with a rapid drop-off in the aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon components of the oil. Whether these

  8. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence. (United States)

    Salter, Michael


    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  9. Domestic connectivity: media, gender and the domestic sphere in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica


    This article explores how increased media access influences Kenyan women’s everyday life and alters the domestic space. The study, which is set in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, is based on 30 in-depth interviews with women. The article demonstrates that women have incorporated newly attained media...... into their daily lives and routines and that increased media access has opened up the home, turned the domestic space from a secluded place to a connected space, where women can get input from, connect and interact with the world beyond their immediate surrounding, while remaining at home concurrently fulfilling...

  10. Effects of crude oil and dispersed crude oil on the critical swimming speed of puffer fish, Takifugu rubripes. (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoming; Xu, Chuancai; Liu, Haiying; Xing, Binbin; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Guosheng


    In order to examine the effects of crude oil and dispersed crude oil (DCO) on the swimming ability of puffer fish, Takifugu rubripes, the critical swimming speeds (U crit) of fish exposed to different concentrations of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil and DCO solution were determined in a swimming flume. WSF and DCO significantly affected the U crit of puffer fish (p puffer fish exposed to 136 mg L(-1) WSF and 56.4 mg L(-1) DCO decreased 48.7 % and 43.4 %, respectively. DCO was more toxic to puffer fish than WSF. These results suggested that crude oil and chemically dispersed oil could weaken the swimming ability of puffer fish.

  11. [Horse, cow and reindeer were converted into arctic domestic animals]. (United States)

    Kantanen, Juha


    Domestic animal production in the arctic region is often thought to be based exclusively on reindeer herding. There are, however, regions in Northern Europe and Siberia having a long tradition in rearing breeds of cattle and horse adapted to the northers conditions also. The development of these arctic animal breeds has been largely founded on old tradition rather than on the programs of breeding organizations. As a result of the selection carried out by nature and man, the domestic animals of arctic regions express characteristics that are metabolic, structural, associated with reproductive physiology and conducive to the adaptation to arctic conditions.

  12. Domestic violence documentation project 2012. (United States)

    Nittis, Maria; Hughes, Rod; Gray, Cecile; Ashton, Mandy


    One in four women presenting to Emergency Departments in Australia have experienced domestic violence in their lives but there are no specialist services for victims of domestic violence in the state of New South Wales, population of 7.25 million. Fundamental forensic medical and nursing skills developed for the comprehensive assessment of complainants of sexual assault were utilised in the examination of victims of domestic violence in a trial project at Nepean Hospital, Sydney. The project was then reviewed via a series of qualitative patient and police interviews along with an analysis of court outcomes. Assessment by specialists in forensic documentation and interpretation of injuries with the provision of balanced expert opinions for court purposes can result in a number of benefits for the victims and the criminal justice system, including an increase in the rate of successful prosecutions. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of evaporative losses during storage of crude oil and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Marina A.


    Full Text Available Storage of crude oil and petroleum products inevitably leads to evaporative losses. Those losses are important for the industrial plants mass balances, as well as for the environmental protection. In this paper, estimation of evaporative losses was performed using software program TANKS 409d which was developed by the Agency for Environmental Protection of the United States - US EPA. Emissions were estimated for the following types of storage tanks: fixed conical roof tank, fixed dome roof tank, external floating roof tank, internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank. Obtained results show quantities of evaporated losses per tone of stored liquid. Crude oil fixed roof storage tank losses are cca 0.5 kg per tone of crude oil. For floating roof, crude oil losses are 0.001 kg/t. Fuel oil (diesel fuel and heating oil have the smallest evaporation losses, which are in order of magnitude 10-3 kg/tone. Liquids with higher Reid Vapour Pressure have very high evaporative losses for tanks with fixed roof, up to 2.07 kg/tone. In case of external floating roof tank, losses are 0.32 kg/tone. The smallest losses are for internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank: 0.072 and 0.044, respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that the liquid with low volatility of low BTEX amount can be stored in tanks with fixed roof. In this case, the prevailing economic aspect, because the total amount of evaporative loss does not significantly affect the environment. On the other hand, storage of volatile derivatives with high levels of BTEX is not justified from the economic point of view or from the standpoint of the environment protection.

  14. On human self-domestication, psychiatry, and eugenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brüne Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract The hypothesis that anatomically modern homo sapiens could have undergone changes akin to those observed in domesticated animals has been contemplated in the biological sciences for at least 150 years. The idea had already plagued philosophers such as Rousseau, who considered the civilisation of man as going against human nature, and eventually "sparked over" to the medical sciences in the late 19th and early 20th century. At that time, human "self-domestication" appealed to psychiatry, because it served as a causal explanation for the alleged degeneration of the "erbgut" (genetic material of entire populations and the presumed increase of mental disorders. Consequently, Social Darwinists emphasised preventing procreation by people of "lower genetic value" and positively selecting favourable traits in others. Both tendencies culminated in euthanasia and breeding programs ("Lebensborn" during the Nazi regime in Germany. Whether or not domestication actually plays a role in some anatomical changes since the late Pleistocene period is, from a biological standpoint, contentious, and the currently resurrected debate depends, in part, on the definitional criteria applied. However, the example of human self-domestication may illustrate that scientific ideas, especially when dealing with human biology, are prone to misuse, particularly if "is" is confused with "ought", i.e., if moral principles are deduced from biological facts. Although such naturalistic fallacies appear to be banned, modern genetics may, at least in theory, pose similar ethical problems to medicine, including psychiatry. In times during which studies into the genetics of psychiatric disorders are scientifically more valued than studies into environmental causation of disorders (which is currently the case, the prospects of genetic therapy may be tempting to alter the human genome in patients, probably at costs that no-one can foresee. In the case of "self-domestication", it

  15. The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Kathrine Lederballe; Ornbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Hetland, Merete Lund


    OBJECTIVES: The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Nine thousands eight hundred...... seventy-four patients from 34 countries, 16 with high GDP (>24.000 US dollars [USD] per capita) and 18 low-GDP countries (visual analogue scale...... [VAS] [10=worst]), disease activity in 28 joints (DAS28), and physical disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire score [HAQ]) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between fatigue and comorbidities, disease activity, disability...

  16. Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.


    Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be

  17. Domestic violence survivors and their experiences during legal process. (United States)

    Özçakar, Nilgün; Yeşiltepe, Gözde; Karaman, Gökçe; Ergönen, Akça Toprak


    Many victims of domestic violence do not seek recourse to the needed medical and legal services. The aim of this study was to determine the difficulties faced by and experiences of female survivors of domestic violence during their medical and legal proceedings. We designed our study using a qualitative approach to understand the experiences of survivors during the legal process as well as their feelings and attitudes towards domestic violence through in-depth interviews. The data obtained from the participants were analyzed and synthesized using a thematic analysis procedure. Most of our participants reported different types of domestic violence, citing feelings of fear and loneliness during these experiences. They reported feeling dissatisfied with their complaints being ignored by the police and the perpetrators remaining unpunished. They complained of the complex procedures and negligence of staff in health-care centers such as hospitals, and they reported being shifted to several different places. We believe that an assessment of such female survivors in terms of specific standards set by specialists will help make improvements to the legal process. Education programs should be organized for professionals dealing with survivors of domestic violence. Special health-care services with fast proceedings must be established in health-care centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Children Living with Domestic Violence. (United States)

    Mullender, Audrey


    Emphasizes the need for radical improvement in agencies' response to domestic violence, based on a general raising of sensitivity and awareness at both worker and agency level. Suggests an emphasis on safety planning with women's services as well as child care and child protection agencies, and the promotion of positive and healing work with…

  19. International Justice through Domestic Courts:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin


    of Human Rights immediately followed with an opposing view in the Araguaia case, declaring that the amnesty law lacks effect under the American Convention on Human Rights. Brazilian society now faces an unprecedented challenge: can it expect its domestic courts to implement such international obligations...

  20. Energy optimisation of domestic refrigerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.


    This paper describes the main results of a research project with the objective of reducing the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators by increasing the efficiency of the refrigeration system. The improvement of the system efficiency was to be obtained by:1) Introducing continuous operation...

  1. Design in Domestic Wastewater Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, F.P.; Raschid-Sally, L.


    When looking at the domestic wastewater streams, from freshwater source to destination in an agricultural field, we are confronted with a complexity of issues that need careful attention. Social and economic realities arise, along with technical, biological and institutional issues. Local realities

  2. Girl domestic workers in Kenya. (United States)

    Mzungu, M


    This article exposes the conditions among children who are forced by their poor families to assume domestic work in households in Kenya. It is an accepted practice for parents to place daughters in households to help with housework and baby-sitting. The Sinaga Women and Child Labor Resource Center in Nairobi finds this exploitative and part of a wider practice that institutionalizes violence against women. The Center was established in 1995 to challenge the practice of child domestic labor. The Center's research reveals that child domestic workers tend to come from large, poor, and rural families or from urban slums. Wages are low or exchanged for shoes, clothes, and food. The hours of work are long. Mistreatment may include sexual molestation by male household members, beatings, verbal abuse, and mistrust. There is little recourse. Complaints from child workers or others outside the household can result in further mistreatment. Action against mistreatment is complicated by the prevailing image of activists as frustrated women with vendettas against men. The Center focuses on rehabilitation, literacy training, marketable skill development, and awareness creation. Counseling includes parents, children, and employers. Public awareness campaigns have resulted in employer referrals of youth workers for training. Other groups are joining the effort to improve conditions for child domestic workers.

  3. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang


    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  4. The effect factors of the pour point of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Shuichang; Zhu, Guangyou; Su, Jin; Cui, Jie [Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina (China)], email:


    Crude oil does not freeze, but a freezing point is often used to describe the fluidness of crude oil, which is the highest temperature at which oil will stop flowing under specific test conditions. The freezing point of numerous samples of crude oil from the Tarim and the Junggar basins in China was measured. The freezing point is positively related to wax content for the Tarim basin samples, but negatively related to the content of resin and asphaltene. However, there are no obvious relationships between freezing point and wax, resin and asphaltene content for the Junggar samples. The results suggest that the freezing point of crude oil is mainly controlled by wax content if the wax content is not too low. Flow improvers affect the growth, modify the structure, and prevent the interlocking of wax crystals, thus enhancing the flow properties of crude oil. But when wax content is low, other factors will influence fluidness, such as the quantity and types of aromatics and heterocyclic compounds.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Crude Oil Developmental Toxicity in Fish. (United States)

    Incardona, John P


    With major oil spills in Korea, the United States, and China in the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of studies characterizing the developmental toxicity of crude oil and its associated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The use of model fish species with associated tools for genetic manipulation, combined with high throughput genomics techniques in nonmodel fish species, has led to significant advances in understanding the cellular and molecular bases of functional and morphological defects arising from embryonic exposure to crude oil. Following from the identification of the developing heart as the primary target of crude oil developmental toxicity, studies on individual PACs have revealed a diversity of cardiotoxic mechanisms. For some PACs that are strong agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), defects in heart development arise in an AHR-dependent manner, which has been shown for potent organochlorine agonists, such as dioxins. However, crude oil contains a much larger fraction of compounds that have been found to interfere directly with cardiomyocyte physiology in an AHR-independent manner. By comparing the cellular and molecular responses to AHR-independent and AHR-dependent toxicity, this review focuses on new insights into heart-specific pathways underlying both acute and secondary adverse outcomes to crude oil exposure during fish development.

  6. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  7. Digestible and metabolizable energy of crude glycerin for finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Silveira


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the values of apparent digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME for crude glycerin derived of biodiesel based on pork fat for finishing pigs. The diets consisted of a basal diet and four levels of crude glycerin (0, 5, 10 and 15%. Twelve pigs were housed individually in metabolic cages and after seven days of adaptation, total collections of urine and feces for four consecutive days were performed. Gross energy (GE of crude glycerin, diets, urine and fecal samples from each animal was determined. The crude glycerin used in this experiment presented 74.74% glycerin and 6,500 kcal kg-1 gross energy. The values of digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME were estimated by difference in the DE, and content of the basal diet was subtracted from the test diets containing the ingredient. The amount of GE, DE and ME for finishing pigs was 6,500, 5,839 and 5,509 kcal kg-1, respectively, with a coefficient of 91.0% of DE and 94.0% of ME. The energy of crude glycerin is based on the levels of fatty acids and GE depends on the concentration of fatty acids and glycerin, ME being a percentage of GE averaging is 84.75%.

  8. Domestic Violence against Men: Know the Signs (United States)

    ... Accessed Jan. 7, 2017. ... al. Cell phone location, privacy and intimate partner violence. Domestic Violence Report. 2013;18:1. Same-sex relationship ...

  9. Domestic Hypermedia: Mixed Media in the Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Petersen, Marianne Graves


    , domestic materials, such as photos, music, messages. become digitized. Based on the analyses we propose a Domestic Hypermedia infrastructure combining spatial, context-aware and physical hypermedia to support collaborative structuring and ambient presentation of materials in homes....

  10. Storytelling and story testing in domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbault, Pascale; Allaby, Robin G; Boivin, Nicole


    The domestication of plants and animals marks one of the most significant transitions in human, and indeed global, history. Traditionally, study of the domestication process was the exclusive domain of archaeologists and agricultural scientists; today it is an increasingly multidisciplinary...

  11. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...... on the bare surfaces, surfaces with an adsorbed oil layer, and surfaces after being exposed to aqueous salt solutions. This showed that the silica surface became more hydrophobic after oil adsorption, while the wettability of the calcium carbonate surface was not significantly changed by adsorption of an oil...... layer. A surface energy component analysis based on the acid base theory showed that oil adsorption on the surfaces depends upon apolar, acidic, and basic oil components of the crude oil and that the adsorbed oil components differ for adsorption to silica and calcium carbonate. Desorption of the crude...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Assis de Salles


    Full Text Available This paper examines the performance of bivariate volatility models for the crude oil spot and future returns of the WTI type barrel prices. Besides the volatility of spot and future crude oil barrel returns time series, the hedge ratio strategy is examined through the hedge effectiveness. Thus this study shows hedge strategies built using methodologies applied in the variance modelling of returns of crude oil prices in the spot and future markets, and covariance between these two market returns, which correspond to the inputs of the hedge strategy shown in this work. From the studied models the bivariate GARCH in a Diagonal VECH and BEKK representations was chosen, using three different models for the mean: a bivariate autoregressive, a vector autoregressive and a vector error correction. The methodologies used here take into consideration the denial of assumptions of homoscedasticity and normality for the return distributions making them more realistic.

  13. Biodiesel production in crude oil contaminated environment using Chlorella vulgaris. (United States)

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Mohammadi Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad; Movafeghi, Ali


    Biodiesel is a valuable alternative to fossil fuels and many countries choose biodiesel as an unconventional energy source. A large number of investigations have been done on microalgae as a source of oil production. In recent years, wastewater pollutions have caused many ecological problems, and therefore, wastewater phycoremediation has attracted the international attention. This paper studied the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a crude oil polluted environment for biodiesel production. Intended concentrations were 10 and 20gperliter (crude oil/water) at two times. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was improved in wastewater and the maximum amount of dry mass and oil was produced at the highest concentration of crude oil (0.41g and 0.15g/l, respectively). In addition, dry mass and oil yield of the microalga were significantly enhanced by increasing the experiment duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...... as oil spill response method. The parameters studied were the initial slick thickness of the oil, the vaporization order of burning crude oil, the ignition of fresh and weathered crude oils on water, the influence of the burning area, the effect of the water layer below the burning oil and the use...

  15. Bacterial Biodegradation of Crude Oil Using Local Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed S. Al-Wasify


    Full Text Available An experimental study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Acinetobacter lwoffi isolated from petroleum contaminated water and soil samples to degrade crude oil, separately and in a mixed bacterial consortium. Capillary gas chromatography was used for testing the effect of those bacterial species on the biodegradation of crude oil. Individual bacterial cultures showed less growth and degradation than did the mixed bacterial consortium. At temperature 22°C, the mixed bacterial consortium degraded a maximum of 88.5% of Egyptian crude oil after 28 days of incubation. This was followed by 77.8% by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 76.7% by Bacillus subtilis, and 74.3% by Acinetobacter lwoffi. The results demonstrated that the selected bacterial isolates could be effective in biodegradation of oil spills individually and showed better biodegradation abilities when they are used together in mixed consortium.

  16. Bacterial Biodegradation of Crude Oil Using Local Isolates. (United States)

    Al-Wasify, Raed S; Hamed, Shimaa R


    An experimental study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Acinetobacter lwoffi isolated from petroleum contaminated water and soil samples to degrade crude oil, separately and in a mixed bacterial consortium. Capillary gas chromatography was used for testing the effect of those bacterial species on the biodegradation of crude oil. Individual bacterial cultures showed less growth and degradation than did the mixed bacterial consortium. At temperature 22°C, the mixed bacterial consortium degraded a maximum of 88.5% of Egyptian crude oil after 28 days of incubation. This was followed by 77.8% by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 76.7% by Bacillus subtilis, and 74.3% by Acinetobacter lwoffi. The results demonstrated that the selected bacterial isolates could be effective in biodegradation of oil spills individually and showed better biodegradation abilities when they are used together in mixed consortium.

  17. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi


    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  18. Why a Domestic Workers Bill of Rights?


    Appelbaum, Lauren D


    In August 2010, the California State Legislature passed a Resolution for a Domestic Workers Bill of Rights. This resolution highlights the work done by domestic workers in the state and the labor violations faced by these workers. The resolution calls for the fair treatment of these workers, noting that domestic workers have a right to be treated with respect and dignity. On November 29, 2010, New York State enacted a new Domestic Workers Bill of Rights, which guarantees basic work standards ...

  19. Problems and perspectives of domestic violence prevention


    Kasperskis, Darius


    This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...

  20. Hypolipidemic effects of crude green tea polysaccharide on rats, and structural features of tea polysaccharides isolated from the crude polysaccharide. (United States)

    Nakamura, Michiko; Miura, Sayaka; Takagaki, Akiko; Nanjo, Fumio


    Crude tea polysaccharide (crude TPS) was prepared from instant green tea by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration membrane treatment and its effects on blood lipid, liver lipid, and fecal lipid levels were examined with Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet. Although crude TPS showed no effects on the serum lipid levels, it suppressed the liver lipid accumulation and increased the fecal excretion of dietary fat. Then, the structural features of crude TPS were investigated. After separation of crude TPS by DEAE-cellulose and gel-filtration column chromatography, two kinds of neutral tea polysaccharides (NTPS-LP and NTPS-HH) and an acidic polysaccharide (ATPS-MH) were obtained. According to monosaccharide composition, methylation, and NMR analyses, NTPS-LP, NPTS-HH, and ATPS-MH were presumed to be starch, arabinogalactan with β-1,3-linked galactosyl backbone blanched at position 6 and with 1,5-linked arabinofuranosyl residues, and α-1,4-linked galacturonic acid backbone with arabinogalactan region, respectively.

  1. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach (United States)

    Niere, H. M.


    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  2. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per


    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  3. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence by...

  4. Domestic competitiveness in secondary wood industries (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Albert Schuler; Rich Christianson


    As imports capture a substantial portion of the domestic wood furniture market, there is much speculation and concern as to the future of this and related industries. This study sought to obtain an industry perspective of trends in domestic manufacturing and importing, and to identify factors that might enhance domestic competitiveness. A mail survey was conducted...

  5. 19 CFR 146.43 - Domestic status. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic status. 146.43 Section 146.43 Customs... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Status of Merchandise in a Zone § 146.43 Domestic status. (a) General. Domestic status may be granted to merchandise: (1) The growth, product, or manufacture of the U.S. on which...

  6. 12 CFR 613.3100 - Domestic lending. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic lending. 613.3100 Section 613.3100... Financing for Banks Operating Under Title III of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3100 Domestic lending. (a... disposal facilities in rural areas. (e) Domestic lessors. A bank for cooperatives or agricultural credit...

  7. 7 CFR 993.21 - Domestic. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic. 993.21 Section 993.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.21 Domestic. Domestic means the United States, Canal Zone...

  8. 7 CFR 983.12 - Domestic shipments. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic shipments. 983.12 Section 983.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.12 Domestic shipments. Domestic shipments means shipments to the...

  9. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.


    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence

  10. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao (United States)

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.


    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  11. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar


    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield...... stress measurement and compared with the original crude oil. A complex asphaltene−wax interaction as a function of asphaltene concentration and degree of asphaltene dispersion under dynamic and static condition was observed. The crystallization and the wax network strength was strongly dependent...... influence the wax crystallization at static condition more significantly than the more flocculated....

  12. Background and Impact of Recent High Crude Oil Prices (Japanese)


    HASEGAWA Eiichi


    Crude oil prices on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) temporarily fell to $10 a barrel, reflecting the Asian financial crisis that took place in 1997 and 1998, but global oil prices subsequently began to climb from around 2004, given rising demand from China, the disruption caused by hurricanes in the United States, and supply problems in Russia. In early 2008, crude oil prices topped $100 a barrel. As the sub-prime loan problems of the United States began to impact the global economy,...

  13. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia


    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  14. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar... (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 120,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports; and an increase in the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. For further guidance...

  16. The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Kathrine Lederballe; Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Hetland, Merete Lund


    OBJECTIVES: The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Nine thousands eight hundred...... [VAS] [10=worst]), disease activity in 28 joints (DAS28), and physical disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire score [HAQ]) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between fatigue and comorbidities, disease activity, disability...... and GDP. RESULTS: Overall, patients reported a median of 2 comorbid conditions of which hypertension (31.5%), osteoporosis (17.6%), osteoarthritis (15.5%) and hyperlipidaemia (14.2%) were the most prevalent. The majority of comorbidities were more common in high-GDP countries. The median fatigue score...

  17. Domestic kraudfandinh: problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Mihalchuk


    Full Text Available The description kraudfandinh as an innovative tool to attract private investment in promising business projects as a special type of financing over the Internet. Powered its classification and kraud lists of successful projects, clearly illustrated by comparison of the normal business process to create a product and a similar process using kraudfandinh, given the differences between them and the main advantages. Based on the summaries of the literature and current practices of foreign companies and kraud platforms, defined the prospects of its application by domestic enterprises in various industries, proved its positive impact on the economy of Ukraine. The main problem of the use of this instrument in the domestic business, according to national circumstances, given their explanations. Described the prospects for its implementation at Ukrainian enterprises in terms of economic instability. The characteristic of the first Ukrainian kraudfandinh platforms by their future prospects in this direction

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Operation Giving Back Operation Giving Back About OGB Volunteer and Partner Portal Domestic Surgical Free Access Clinics ... Day Grant Program State Legislation Tracked by the College Maintenance of Certification Quality Quality Quality Electronic Health ...



    SAVCA Lucia


    Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a ...

  20. Abused domestic workers in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    This study analyses au pair arrangements in six EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain) through descriptions of national and international legal frameworks and practices of au pairing. The findings show different patterns of au pair migration and different ...... situations of au pairing as well as different strategies to protect the au pairs. The overall recommendation is to separate current au pair immigration into two programmes: one of cultural exchange and one of domestic and care work....

  1. Children's experiences of domestic violence


    Callaghan, Jane


    This paper describes the key findings of a two year project focused on children's experiences of domestic violence. It draws on 107 interviews with children in Greece, Italy, Spain and the UK. The paper explores children's capacity to articulate their experiences, and highlights that they are not 'witnesses' to intimate partner violence, but experience it directly and make meaning of it, as members of a family affected by violence. I argue that children need to be recognised as direct victims...

  2. International standards and domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.


    Full Text Available The majority states in the world, as well as Serbia and Montenegro, took over the obligations from international law documents with regards to prevention, protection and prosecution of domestic violence. Over the last several years, in Serbia and Montenegro, there have been some positive steps regarding more decisive reaction on domestic violence, in the first place thanks to NGOs advocacy. However, the state involvement and contribution is still symbolic in comparison with obligations that international documents require from it. Having that in mind, authors try to explain the role and significance of international law for improving social responses on family violence. They also give systematic review of the most important demands that international law set up before the state. The main aim of the text is the analysis of the role that international law has in making state strategies in the field of domestic violence, as well as systematic review of existing international standards in this area which have to be taken into consideration in legislative, institutionalized and other reforms which are on going in Serbia and Montenegro.

  3. Artificial cloning of domestic animals. (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L


    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  4. Neuropsychological correlates of domestic violence. (United States)

    Cohen, R A; Rosenbaum, A; Kane, R L; Warnken, W J; Benjamin, S


    Neuropsychological functioning was assessed in 39 males who had committed domestic violence (batterers) and compared to 63 nonviolent (both maritally discordant and satisfied) subjects recruited by advertisement. Subjects were subsequently divided into two groups (head injured, nonhead injured) and these groups were also contrasted as a function of batterer status. Tests were administered to assess for cognitive and behavioral functions, including executive dysfunction, hypothesized to be a factor contributing to propensity for violence. Questionnaires and structured clinical interviews were used to assess marital discord, emotional distress, and violent behaviors. Batterers differed from nonbatterers across several cognitive domains: executive, learning, memory, and verbal functioning. Batterers were reliably discriminated from nonbatterers based on three neuropsychological tasks: Digit Symbol, Recognition Memory Test-Words, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychological performance was the strongest correlate of domestic violence of all clinical variables measured. However, the inclusion of two other variables, severity of emotional distress and history of head injury, together with the neuropsychological indices provided the strongest correlation with batterers status. Among batterers, neuropsychological performance did not vary as a function of head injury status, indicating that while prior head injury was correlated with batterer status, it was not the sole basis for their impairments. The findings suggest that current cognitive status, prior brain injury, childhood academic problems, as well as psychosocial influences, contribute along with coexisting emotional distress to a propensity for domestic violence.

  5. The cardiotonic effect of the crude ethanolic extract of Nerium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cardiotonic effect of the crude ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander in the isolated guinea pig hearts. R O Adome, J W Gachihi, B Onegi, J Tamale, S O Apio. Abstract. Cardiovascular diseases are increasingly becoming one of the leading diseases causing morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Ethnographic evidence ...

  6. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. To define a basis of commercial operation of the plant, the process parameters obtained during the pilot plant testing were compared with the laboratory process parameters. The yield of refined oil ...

  7. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds ( Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the ...

  8. Effect of dietary crude protein level on the performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of increasing dietary levels of crude protein (CP) on growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and nutrient apparent digestibility on Iranian Saanen kids were studied. 24 Iranian Saanen weaned kids who were 86 ± 3 days old with live weight of 9 ± 03 kg were used in a completely randomized design. There were three ...

  9. Crude protein changes on grassland along a degradation gradient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim with this investigation was to quantify the impact of different veld condition classes, viz. poor, moderate and good on soil-water utilization (SWU: crude protein produced per unit of evapotranspiration), during four growing seasons (2000/01 – 2003/2004). Evapotranspiration was determined by quantifying the ...

  10. Determination of petroleum-degrading bacteria isolated from crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These bacterial isolates obtained in this study have catabolic capabilities for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Further study under soil conditions may be necessary to determine biodegradation potential of bacterial mixture tested in contaminated soil. Key words: Soil, crude oil, soil pollution, bacteria, ...

  11. In vitro anti-inflammatory and phytochemical properties of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc owner


    Sep 25, 2013 ... over a steam bath for 3 min. The mixture was filtered and 4 ml of the filtrate was shaken with 1 ml of dilute ammonia solution. A .... phytochemical properties of crude extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (smith). Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7(20): 3665-3670. Bhakuni DS, Dhar ML, Dhar MM, Dhawan BN, Gupta B, ...

  12. The phytoremediation of crude oil-polluted aquatic environment by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A phytoremediation experiment was carried out in the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to examine the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to detoxify crude oil-polluted aquatic environments. There were fifteen (15) experimental units; twelve (12) had water hyacinth ...

  13. Investigating Asphaltenes Composition in Crude Oil Samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Wolf and. Alfani, 1982). ... mixture of dichloromethane: methanol (97:3 v/v) for 3 minutes and oven dried for 90 seconds at. 65oC. .... Mexican crude oils, Energy and Fuel, 23,. 1603–1609. Crek, J.L. (2005). Freedom of action in ...

  14. Removal of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by heterotrophic bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 4, 2007 ... Lloyd GJ, Lau PCK (1997). Gluthion S – Transferase Encoding Gene as. Potential Probe for Environmental Bacterial Isolates Capable of. Degrading Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(8): 3286–3290. Murphy HF (1929). Some effects of crude petroleum on nitrate production.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of crude extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude extract of the stem bark of the plant exhibited antimicrobial activities at a concentration of 25 mg/ml against twenty-one of the bacterial isolates, (i.e. 72.41% of the tested isolates) comprising both Gram positive and Gram negative strains. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the extract against the test bacterial ...

  16. Performance evaluation of topical formulations of the crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana are traditionally used in the form of topical applications for the treatment of various skin disorders in Ethiopia. In view of their traditional uses and proven antimicrobial activities, the crude extracts of the two botanicals were incorporated into various formulation bases having different ...

  17. Measurement of crude protein requirement of cockerel finishers by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two empirical methods, namely the orthodox or traditional and diet dilution technique, were used to measure the responses of 96 14-week-old Black Olympian cockerel finishers to graded dietary crude protein (CP) levels of 16, 18, 20 and 22 per cent on airdry basis in a 6-week trial. The diets were isocaloric (ca 2600 kcal ...

  18. Toxicity Studies of the Crude Aqueous Root Extract of Albizzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity Studies of the Crude Aqueous Root Extract of Albizzia chevalieri Harms in Albino Rats. Y Saidu, FC Nwachukwu, LS Bilbis, UZ Faruk, AY Abbas. Abstract. Aqueous root extract of Albizzia chevalieri has been reported to possess hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects. The current work investigated the LD50 of ...

  19. In vitro time kill assessment of crude methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antibacterial activities and time kill regimes of crude methanol extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum was assessed using standard microbiological procedures. The experiment was conducted against a panel of bacterial species made up of clinical, environmental and reference strains. The extract was active ...

  20. Bioremediation of a crude oil polluted tropical rain forest soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combination of options including Biostimulation with agricultural fertilizers, Bioaugumentation and physical processes were evaluated in-situ in the clean-up of crude oil polluted tropical rain forest soil for a period of nine weeks. Soil physicochemical parameters such as moisture (19% to 13%), pH (6.34 to 4.5) and organic ...

  1. Bioactivities of crude extracts of the candlewood Zanthoxylum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of petroleum-ether crude extracts of the candlewood, Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides Lam. was assessed for their contact toxicity, feeding and oviposition deterrence to the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Walp). Percent mortality, number of progeny produced and damage caused to were dose– ...

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Crude Saponin Extracts from Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These plants were the whole plant of Schwenkia americana Linn (WSA), the rhizomes of Asparagus africanus Lam (RAA), the leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea Linn (LDC), the stem bark of Ficus iteophylla Miq (BFI) and the leaves of Indigofera pulchra Willd (LIP). A modify traditional method of crude saponins extraction was ...

  3. Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Niger delta, due to the large-scale exploration and exploitation of crude petroleum, hydrocarbon spills frequently occur. The adverse impacts of these occurrences have frequently been causes for concerns in the area. However, in open estuarine environments, minor spills have short-term effects due to washout by ...

  4. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    stock market performance (Adebiyi et al., 2009). This study contributed to the study of linkage between crude oil price movements, exchange rate behaviour and stock market performance of African oil-exporting countries. The increased integration of financial markets in the world today provides investors with new ways to ...

  5. Seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) as a bioindicator of crude oil exposure. (United States)

    Delunardo, Frederico Augusto Cariello; de Carvalho, Luciano Rodrigues; da Silva, Bruno Ferreira; Galão, Michel; Val, Adalberto Luís; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana R


    This study explored the suitability of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933) for assessing biomarkers of genotoxic effects and its use as a sentinel organism to detect the effects of acute exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. Fish were exposed to three concentrations of crude oil (10, 20 and 30 g/kg) for 96 h, and the activity of phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) was measured. In addition, we performed genotoxicity assays, such as comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and nuclear abnormalities (NA) induction, on the erythrocytes of the fish species. Our results revealed that the inhibition of hepatic GST activity in H. reidi was dependent on increasing crude oil concentrations. In contrast, an increase in the damage index (DI) and MN frequency were observed with increased crude oil concentrations. These results indicate that the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test were suitable and useful in the evaluation of the genotoxicity of crude oil, which could improve determinations of the impact of oil spills on fish populations. In addition, H. reidi is a promising "sentinel organism" to detect the genotoxic impact of petroleum hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the hydrolytic performance of locally sourced crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starches from cassava, potato and maize were hydrolysed by locally sourced crude amylases to assess and compare the performance of the enzymes in converting root and cereal starches to glucose syrup. Standard amylases (Sigma USA) served as the reference enzymes. Selected physical and sensory characteristics of ...

  7. Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Aqueous Extract of Pistia Stratiotes Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pistia stratiotes is a medicinal plant used traditionally to treat a various diseases such as skin infections, worm infections, tuberculosis, ulcer, diabetes etc. The present study was designed to investigate the effect this crude aqueous extract may have on body weight and renal cells function in albino rats. Twelve white Albino ...

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude ethanol, acetone and aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to screen for in vitro antibacterial activity of crude ethanol, acetone and aqueous seeds extract of Garcinia kola at different treatment regimes against some selected clinical bacterial isolates comprising of Gram positive and negative organisms namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and ...

  9. Comparative ovulation in clariidae using crude HCG from early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Members of Clariidae do not spawn in captivity. Culture of these species in captivity must necessitate induced spawning of the eggs. Synthetic hormones have been known to assist this process. This paper used purified crude HCG from early pregnancy urine to assay ovulation in three species of Clariidae. Purification and ...

  10. Effects of Ingested Crude Oil Contaminated Diets on Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the effect of orally administered crude oil contaminated diet on some biochemical parameters of wistar rat. Twenty ... accumulate in the body and induce toxic symptoms that sometimes result in death (Heintz et al., ... Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Formulation of diet: The contaminated diets ...

  11. (maize) to a crude oil polluted agricultural soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 4, 2007 ... Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, P. M. B.. 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Accepted 9 May, 2007. This research sought to investigate the tolerance level of Zea mays (maize) on a crude oil contaminated soil using indices of plant ...

  12. Growth performance traits of broilers exposed to crude oil flame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was a simulation of what obtains in the petroleum producing areas, where gas flaring and oil spill pollution effects are felt. The experimental design was a 2-factor factorial in a completely randomized design (CRD), with factor A as distances from the crude petroleum flame and factor B as the age of the birds in ...

  13. In vitro time kill assessment of crude methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 3, 2008 ... The extract was active against eleven of the twenty-one bacteria tested at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. Minimum Inhibitory ... rized in a mill (Christy Lab Mill, Christy and Norris Ltd; Process. Engineers, Chelmsford ... Determination of the rate of kill of the crude extract was done following the procedure ...

  14. Effects of crude humin and compost produced from selected waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste from oil palm plantations, paddy fields, sawn timber and poultries are substantial. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes can cause environmental problems such as air and land pollutions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of crude humin and compost produced from rice straw, rice husk, sawdust, ...

  15. Degradation of methylmercaptan by crude enzyme extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    To these vials were then added xml. (0.05 to 0.5ml) of the crude enzyme extract sample. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Influence of Tris/HCl Buffer: Figure 1 shows the calculated mg equivalents of protein per dL when standards in Tis/HCl are read against standards with. NaCl solution as blank. The values obtained show.

  16. Effect of crude glycerol from South African biodiesel production on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gilts had a higher dressing percentage and lower backfat thickness than boars. They also had shorter carcasses and a lower drip loss percentage than boars. There were no differences in thawing, drip, evaporation and total cooking losses of pork loin chops between treatments. It was concluded that crude glycerol can be ...

  17. effect of crude oil contamination on the compressive strength

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    EFFECT OF CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATION ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE. S. O. Osuji & E. Nwankwo. Nigerian Journal of Technology,. Vol. 34, No. 2, April 2015 260 drink and use for all their requirements. In April 1997, samples taken from water used for drinking and washing by local villagers were ...

  18. Diuretic Activity of Trianthema portulacastrum Crude Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diuretic effect and acute toxicity of the crude aqueous extract of Trianthema portulacastrum in a rat model. Method: Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses ...

  19. Diuretic Activity of Achyranthes aspera Linn Crude Aqueous Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control group received normal saline (10 ml/kg), the reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and the test groups were administered different doses of the crude aqueous extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. At the end of 6 h, urine was collected and total volume of urine excreted ...

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity of crude alkaloidal extracts of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro cytotoxicity of crude alkaloidal extracts of South African Menispermaceae against three cancer cell linese. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Extracts of ten of the thirteen species showed positive activity against all three cancer cell lines with significant inhibition of cellular growth at TGI (total growth inhibition) ...

  1. Crude extract of Nigella sativa inhibits proliferation and induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extract of Nigella sativa inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Cervical cancer is a major cause of morbidity in women worldwide and chemotherapy for this cancer seems unsatisfactory, which demands exploring new therapeutic ...

  2. Phytochemical and anti-fungal activity of crude extracts, fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extracts of F. thonningii demonstrated inhibitory activity on moulds and yeast but none against the dermatophytes (Trichophyton and Microsporium species). Hexane leaf extract was the most active inhibiting all the strains of Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Penicillum chrysogenum and Rhizopus nigricans with an ...

  3. An isolated bacterial consortium for crude oil biodegradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioremediation experiments were designed using DesignExpert 6.0.8 software by optimizing the amount of crude oil, microbial inoculum and sludge which are initially added to the autoclaved soil. Fifteen runs were carried out until no more microbial activity was noticed. The bioremediation results were compared with ...

  4. Molecular Identification of Bacteria Involved in Degradation of Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this present study, bacteria were isolated from soil obtained from oil contaminated mechanic site in Enugu. Out of the 206 forming colonies, 16 colonies were selected based on observable morphological differences and screened for crude oil degraders. Out of the 16 isolates, 11 isolates were assumed to be degraders ...

  5. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed a multivariate Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) that uses the Granger causality test and generalized variance decomposition analysis to study the relationship between crude oil prices, exchange rate and stock market performance in Nigeria from January 1995 to December 2014. As expected ...

  6. Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Post-Burn Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Niger delta, crude oil spilled soils are burned as a means of decontaminating the impacted soils. Gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GCFID) analyses were performed on oil residues extracted from burnt spilled oil soil samples to facilitate detailed chemical composition and characterization of petroleum ...

  7. Investigation of Heavy Organics Precipitation from Nigerian Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    JASEM ISSN 1119-8362. All rights reserved. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. October 2017. Vol. 21 (6) 1149-1152. Full-text Available Online at and Investigation of Heavy Organics Precipitation from Nigerian Crude Oil Residue Using. Binary Mixture of n-Alkane Solvents. *. 1. ANUCHI, SO;.

  8. In vitro anti-inflammatory and phytochemical properties of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc owner


    Sep 25, 2013 ... of crude ethyl acetate extract of Baliospermum montanum Leaf (Muell – Arg) .... The plants were collected from their natural habitats in Pondicherry,. India. The voucher specimen is available for .... yellow coloration was observed indicating a positive test for flavor- noids (Obianime and Uche, 2007). Test for ...

  9. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil (United States)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  10. Characteristics and dyes biodegradation potential of crude lignolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics and dyes biodegradation potential of crude lignolytic enzymes from white-rot fungus crepidotus variabilis isolated in coastal Tanzania. ... Also, they could remove up to 58% and 92% color from raw textile effluent and aromatic dyes, respectively, after 14 days of incubation at 30ºC and pH 4.5. Desalted and ...

  11. Pytotoxic activity of crude methanolic extract of Euphorbia prostrata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 30, 2011 ... plate studies, the extract showed inhibitory effect on the germination of the growth of root and shoot of the seedlings. The inhibition was found ... drugs, contains active ingredients plant materials in the crude state and certain ... harmful effects on the neighboring organism (Stamp,. 2003; Khan et al., 2011c).

  12. Antioxidant Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the crude extract, which on its own had little effect on basal serum phosphatase levels, followed by i.p administration of Cd, caused a reversal of the Cd-induced dose-response curves on the various phosphatase levels to negative values. These results may be due to the oxidative and the antioxidative biochemical ...

  13. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.


    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for

  14. Mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents in kale ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents at different harvesting stages in kale (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala). Three different harvest periods as first harvest stage (at the rosette stage), second harvest stage (at the budding stage) and third harvest stage (at the flowering/blooming stage) were ...

  15. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of stem and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and saponins were found to be present in the stem bark. Terpenoids only were found in the root bark. It is concluded that stem and root barks of A. digitata contain bioactive constituents which are responsible for antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts.

  16. Remediation trials of crude oil contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was also significant increase in the soil microbial counts in the amended soil as compared to the control. Therefore, detergent and sawdust in single or combinations can be used to restore crude oil polluted soil with the ability to reduce the toxic effect with treatment A (20 g detergent) and C (100 g sawdust) and D ...

  17. Assessment and bioremediation of heavy metals from crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of the levels of heavy metals present in crude oil contaminated soil and the application of the earthworm - Hyperiodrilus africanus with interest on the bioremediation of metals from the contaminated soil was investigated within a 90-days period under laboratory conditions. Selected heavy metals such as ...

  18. Antiviral activity of the crude extracts and phytochemical fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three fractions used contained the major peaks within which the main compounds had been identified as aloenin, aloin and an aloinoside derivatives. The crude Aloe extract at 400 mg/ml exhibited antiviral effects at 100%, While 200 mg/ml resulted to 30% reduction in viral multiplication. Fraction containing aloenin (4 ...

  19. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of petroleum pollution in a vulnerable Niger Delta ecosystem was investigated to assess interactions in a first-generation phytoremediation site of a crude oil freshly-spilled agricultural soil. Community-level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon-source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to ...

  20. Antifeedant and Toxic Effect of Crude Extract from Flourensia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botanical insecticides are one of the environmentally acceptable options for pest management. Extract of Flourensia oolepis (known as chilca), a plant endemic to the province of Córdoba, Argentina, has shown insecticidal activity. The aim of this work was to study the effect of crude extract of this F. oolepis on the nutritional ...

  1. Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Means were separated using LSD. Crude plant extracts exhibited fungitoxic activity against Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F. sp. phaseoli, with varying degree of efficacy. Nicotiana tobacum and Vinca rosea were not effective, Azadirachta indica and Tagetes minuta exhibited significant control over Fusarium. Azadirachta indica ...

  2. Crude oil degrading potential of Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These treatments were repeated in soil without seeds and the control had no crude oil pollution. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were determined for all soil samples using gas-liquid chromatography. Microbial count was carried out on soil rhizosphere using standard methods. The results show that percentage TPH ...

  3. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the crude petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 3, 2007 ... Antimicrobial screening of the crude petroleum spirit and methanol extracts showed activity against Klebsiella .... microorganisms which was visualized by the level of turbidity of the solution in the test ... MIC of the petroleum spirit extracts of the root, leaves and stem bark of Ficus thoningii. Concentrations ...

  4. Acute Toxicological Effects of Crude Oil On Haematological And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicological effects of Brass blend of crude oil on the haemoglobin concentration, and Liver functions in the Guinea pig were studied. 25 Guinea pigs divided into five animals per group were used for the study. They were divided into 5 groups. One group served as a control group, while the others received ...

  5. Pharmacological and toxicity studies of the crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory potency of the hydro-ethanol extract and fractions from Hedranthera barteri leaf. Column chromatography of the crude extracts, practical acute toxicity testing and fixed dose procedures were carried out. Effects of the extracts on nociception were assessed by ...

  6. The potential of crude okara for isoflavone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankowiak, L.; Trifunovic, O.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.


    This study describes the extraction of isoflavones from crude okara, a by-product from soymilk production, using industrially relevant conditions. Ethanol and water were chosen as environmentally friendly and non-toxic solvents. A wide range of ethanol concentrations was tested (0–90% ethanol) for

  7. effect of crude oil contamination on the compressive strength

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1, 2 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, P. M. B. 1154, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE. NIGERIA. E-mail Address: ..... of the machine. 4.2.1 0% Crude Oil Contaminated Fine Aggregate. (Control Mix). A good concrete is expected to have its compressive strength increased with age. Similar to those.

  8. Economic Evaluation of Crop Farms Acquired for Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that large areas of crop farms in the state were acquired for crude oil production activities. Due to the small scale nature of farms in Nigeria, a lot of crop farmers in Rivers State were negatively affected which had resulted into agitation for resource control, continuous violence, conflicts, protests and ...

  9. Bioremediation of a Crude Oil Polluted Tropical Mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combination of bioaugumentation with hydrocarbon utilizing indigenous bacteria, biostimulation with agricultural fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and tilling were employed as remedial options for 20 weeks in a crude oil polluted tidal plain dominated by mangrove (Rhizophora, Laguncularia and Avicenia) vegetation.

  10. Exposure to crude microcystins via intraperitoneal injection, but not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, large-scale cyanobacterial blooms have occurred in fishponds near the suburbs of Xinxiang City in China. The present study aimed to identify the cyanobacterial blooms in the fishpond and evaluate their toxicity on ducks via intraperitoneal injection or oral exposure (gavage) of crude microcystins obtained from ...

  11. Haematological changes associated with crude oil ingestion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Granulolytic leukocytes, which include neutrophils and eosinophils increased linearly (P<0.05). This increase is a physiological response to stress. Lymphocytes, antibody forming leukocytes decreased linearly, indicating a response to stress and susceptibility of the animal to infection. Crude oil fraction present in the diet ...

  12. Effect of Crude Aqueous Extract of the Leaf of Cissampellos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... outcome measure: Litter number Results: The extract significantly reduced the number of litters produced by the rat. Conclusion: Cissampellos Owriences has a deleterious effect on the reproductive system and caution must be exercised in its use in humans. Key Words: Crude aqueous extract, Cissampellos Owariences, ...

  13. Nitrogen fixing bacteria enhanced bioremediation of a crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of significance) The results indicated a higher bioremediation rate when nitrogen-fixing bacteria were used instead of when inorganic nutrient (fertilizer) were applied. Key words: - Nitrogen fixing bacteria, Bioremediation, Crude oil, Polluted soil, Fertilizer. (Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences: 2002 8(4): 455-470) ...

  14. hydrolysis of certain nigeria:\\ cereal starches using crude fundal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    enzyme preparations on an industrial scale would depend on the toxicological evaluation of the crude enzymes since some of the ... to fermentable sugars for subsequent alcoholic fermentation was vef) . ..... Aspergillus oryzea for ethanol production using sweet potato lpomttl baiauzs) and. Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum).

  15. Food Insecurity, Malnutrition and Crude Oil Spillage in a Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food Insecurity, Malnutrition and Crude Oil Spillage in a Rural Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria. B Ordinioha, W Sawyer. Abstract. Background: Oil is the main stay of Nigeria\\'s economy, but most residents in the oil producing communities still depend entirely on the environment for their sustenance; and so ...

  16. Removal of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by heterotrophic bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogenous fertilizer (NPK) plant effluents from NAFCON were used in amending plots of land experimentally polluted with crude oil. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria (THBC) and fungi (TF), and of petroleum utilizing bacteria (PUB) and fungi (PUF) were monitored during an 8 weeks period. Counts obtained showed that ...

  17. Optimum Temperature and Thermal Stability of Crude Polyphenol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bello & Sule: Optimum Temperature and Thermal Stability of Crude Polyphenol Oxidase from some Common Fruits. 30. DISCUSSION. Temperature is one of the factors that affect the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction (Martin, 2006). Optimum temperature is the temperature at which an enzyme shows its highest catalytic ...

  18. Biodegradation of Crude-oil by Fungi Isolated from Cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contaminated soils. The samples were collected aseptically from four different cow dung dumping sites with no history of crude-oil pollution in Akure metropolis. These samples were analyzed for fungal loads and oil-degrading fungi using potato ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crude aqueous extract of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina on blood glucose, serum albumin and cholesterol levels on alloxan induced diabetic albino rats was investigated. Blood glucose, serum albumin and cholesterol levels were significantly reduced. From 296.75 ± 9.0mg/dl to 179.0 ± 7.3mg/dl for blood glucose; ...

  20. Eco-physiological assessment of crude oil pollution using avocado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has demonstrated that soil treatment with crude oil has a highly significant effect of reducing the growth characters of P. americana and consequently, the yield. Based on the findings, the actual level at which oil may begin to damage plants especially P. americana may be 2% w/w contamination, although ...

  1. Effects of dietary crude protein and calcium/ phosphorus content on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of three levels of crude protein (CP) (NRC, 15% more than NRC and 15% less than NRC) and three levels of Ca and available P (Av. P) (NRC, 15% more than NRC ... There was an interactive effect of CP by Ca and Av. P on the retention of Ca, N and ash of tibia bone.

  2. Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 6, 2007 ... Full Length Research Paper. Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria exposed to nitrogenous ... 1981), inorganic wastes may provoke a different res- ponse. Inorganic wastes such as phosphates and nitro- genous materials that may be derived from fertilizer factory effluent discharges ...

  3. Antifeedant Activty Of Different Organic Solvent Crude Extracts Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifeedant activity of different organic solvents (acetone, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol) crude extracts of latex of Euphorbia hirta (family Euphobiaceae) against Limicolaria aurora was investigated, and compared with a control, using pawpaw, (Carica papaya) as bait, at a concentration ...

  4. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the crude petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ficus thoningii which has some traditional medicinal uses was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the stem bark, leaves and roots gave positive results for carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins and alkaloids. Antimicrobial screening of the crude petroleum spirit and methanol extracts showed activity against Klebsiella ...

  5. Turbidity removal from surface water using Tamarindus indica crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-based coagulants are potential alternatives to chemical coagulants used in drinking water treatment. This paper examined the turbidity removal efficiency of Tamarindus indica fruit crude pulp extract (CPE) towards evaluating a low-cost option for drinking-water treatment. Laboratory analysis was carried out on high ...

  6. Effects of Crude Oil Contaminated Water On Haematocrit and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were allowed access to rat feed and tap water ad libitum for two weeks acclimatization. Different concentrations of crude oil (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) were mixed with tap water and served to five experimental groups. The sixth group received 100% tap water and served as control. The study lasted for 28 days after which ...

  7. Immunological studies on albino rats against crude endotoxins of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Aeromonas comprises a group of organisms widely distributed in the environment, isolated from water, shallow tube wells, dug wells, piped water supply from sewage, children and adults with diarrhoea, and associated with disease in animals and man. The present work studied the effect of crude endotoxin ...

  8. Antibacterial activity assessment of different crude extracts obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4.5%), β-ocymene (31.6%), caryphyllene (7.5%) and geraniol (5.9%). The evaluation of antibacterial activity of different organic crude extracts, against the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus ...

  9. Amendment of crude oil contaminated soil with sawdust and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the effectiveness of sawdust and chromoleana leaves as soil restorative measures to optimize plant growth at two intensities of crude oil contamination showed that both restore parity on the growth parameters (leaf area, leaf ratio, relative leaf growth rate, relative growth rate, and net assimilation rate) of crops ...

  10. Bioconcentration of Water Soluble Fraction (WSF) of crude oil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioconcentration of water soluble fraction of Australian crude oil in 50 fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus was conducted under laboratory conditions for 28 days. An initial acute toxicity test was carried out using different concentrations (25ml/L, 50ml/L, 75ml/L, 100ml/L and a control) of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of ...

  11. Stabilization of Model Crude Oil Emulsion using Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of an ongoing research into the stability of oil-field emulsions, model oil samples have been utilized to probe the effects of asphaltene interactions on crude oil/water emulsion stability. Asphaltenes were precipitated from treated Ondo State oil sand bitumen with n-hexane in a 40:1 solvent to bitumen ratio which was ...

  12. Production of biodiesel from crude neem oil feedstock and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 15, 2012 ... Sodium methoxide, anhydrous Calcium chloride, sulphuric acid, sodium thiosulphate etc. were analytical grades. Two – step acid – base catalyzed transesterification. Crude neem oil when transesterified using NaOH catalyst produced a significant amount of soaps from saponification side reaction. This.

  13. Electrophoresis of crude protein of seeds of some genera of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of five genera of Annonaceae were collected from different latitudes and special ecological zones of Nigeria, the crude proteins were extracted and analysed by electrophoretic fractionation with a view to establishing whether they have evolutionary relationships and also to know the highest protein richness in them.

  14. Digestible energy of crude glycerol for pacu and silver catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ernesto Balen


    Full Text Available The increase in global biodiesel production is originating a glycerol surplus, which has no defined destination. An alternative to overcome this problem is its use as energy source in animal feeding. In Brazil, Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is one of the most farmed native fish species, whereas Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen is suitable for production in subtropical region. Considering little knowledge about crude glycerol utilization in feeds for Neotropical fish species, it was evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for energy of crude glycerol for P. mesopotamicus and R. quelen. The digestibility and digestible energy content of crude glycerol can be considered excellent even when compared to energy of common ingredients such as maize and wheat, presenting 0.97 and 0.89 of energy ADCs, and 15.2 and 13.95MJ kg-1 of digestible energy for Pacu and Silver catfish, respectively. In conclusion, crude glycerol is an energetic ingredient with good potential in Brazilian native fish diets.

  15. Antioxidant effects and phytochemical analysis of crude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus globulus is extremely used in traditional medicine in Algeria and its leaf extract is included as one of the antioxidant in the list of existing food additives in Japan. In the present study, the crude extract from bark of this plant and its fractions obtained by Sephadex LH-20 column were studied to quantify their levels ...

  16. Induced gene expression in wheat seedlings treated with a crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is also applied to a retrotransposon protein encoding gene whose expression was strongly induced following extract treatment. The induced expression of all these defence-related genes suggests that the crude A. africanus extract has the ability to prime the resistance response of wheat prior to leaf rust infection.

  17. Effects of crude polysaccharides from Purslane on fatigue induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study showed that PFP supplementation could extend the swimming time to exhaustion of the mice, as well as increase the hepatic glycogen contents, while decreasing the BLA and SUN contents. These indicated that PFP could alleviate fatigue induced by forced swimming in mice. Key words: Crude ...

  18. Carotenoid-cleavage activities of crude enzymes from Pandanous amryllifolius. (United States)

    Ningrum, Andriati; Schreiner, Matthias


    Carotenoid degradation products, known as norisoprenoids, are aroma-impact compounds in several plants. Pandan wangi is a common name of the shrub Pandanus amaryllifolius. The genus name 'Pandanus' is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In Indonesia, the leaves from the plant are used for several purposes, e.g., as natural colorants and flavor, and as traditional treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the cleavage of β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal by carotenoid-cleavage enzymes isolated from pandan leaves, to investigate dependencies of the enzymatic activities on temperature and pH, to determine the enzymatic reaction products by using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (HS-SPME GC/MS), and to investigate the influence of heat treatment and addition of crude enzyme on formation of norisoprenoids. Crude enzymes from pandan leaves showed higher activity against β-carotene than β-apo-8'-carotenal. The optimum temperature of crude enzymes was 70°, while the optimum pH value was 6. We identified β-ionone as the major volatile reaction product from the incubations of two different carotenoid substrates, β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal. Several treatments, e.g., heat treatment and addition of crude enzymes in pandan leaves contributed to the norisoprenoid content. Our findings revealed that the crude enzymes from pandan leaves with carotenoid-cleavage activity might provide a potential application, especially for biocatalysis, in natural-flavor industry. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. The Experiential Learning Impact of International and Domestic Study Tours: Class Excursions That Are More than Field Trips (United States)

    Gomez-Lanier, Lilia


    Experiential education programs, such as international and domestic study tours, bridge the limitations of formal learning classroom by allowing students to experience reality in a new learning dimension. This mixed-methods study explores experiential learning during a domestic interior design study tour to New York City and an international…

  20. Impulsivity and verbal deficits associated with domestic violence. (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald A; Brumm, Virdette; Zawacki, Tricia M; Paul, Robert; Sweet, Lawrence; Rosenbaum, Alan


    While neurobiological factors are known to play a role in human aggression, relatively few studies have examined neuropsychological contributions to propensity for violence. We previously demonstrated cognitive deficits among men who committed domestic violence (batterers) compared to non-violent controls. Batterers had deficits in verbal ability, learning and executive problem-solving ability. These findings led us to examine whether executive control problems involving impulsivity contribute to problems with behavioral control among batterers, and to further examine their deficits in verbal functioning. Batterers (n = 41) enrolled in a domestic violence program were compared to 20 non-violent men of similar age, education, and socioeconomic background on neuropsychological tests of executive functioning, including impulsivity. Questionnaires and structured clinical interviews were used to assess emotional distress, aggression and self-reported impulsivity. Batterers showed greater impulsivity compared to non-batterers on several neuropsychological measures. Yet, the severity of these deficits was relatively mild and not evident in all batterers. Consistent with our previous findings, significant verbal deficits were again observed among the batterers. These findings suggest that while impulsivity may be a factor associated with domestic violence, it probably is not the sole determinant of the strong relationship between cognitive functioning and batterer status that we previously observed. Both verbal expressive deficits and behavioral impulsivity appear to be relevant variables in predisposing men to domestic violence.

  1. Dealing with mentally ill domestic violence perpetrators: A therapeutic jurisprudence judicial model. (United States)

    Winick, Bruce J; Wiener, Richard; Castro, Anthony; Emmert, Aryn; Georges, Leah S


    People suffering from mental illness are increasingly referred to the domestic violence court. Yet the typical diversion programs available, including batterer's intervention programs, are inappropriate for those with serious mental illness. As a result, the Miami-Dade Domestic Violence Court has developed a new approach for dealing with this population that applies mental health court techniques in domestic violence court. This article will describe and discuss this pioneering model. It also will situate this model within the context of other problem-solving courts and discuss how the court uses principles and approaches of therapeutic jurisprudence. The paper presents some preliminary data that describe the social and legal characteristics of 20 defendants in the Domestic Violence Mental Health Court followed over a two year period between 2005 and 2007. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of crude glycerin on feed manufacturing, growth performance, plasma metabolites, and nutrient digestibility of growing-finishing pigs. (United States)

    Madrid, J; Villodre, C; Valera, L; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; López, M J; Megías, M D; Hernández, F


    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary addition of crude glycerin on pellet production efficiency and to evaluate its effect on growth performance and digestibility in growing-finishing pigs. Three dietary treatments were created by addition of 0, 2.5, or 5% crude glycerin to barley-soybean meal-based diet, and 4 batches of each dietary treatment (2 each for grower and finisher diets) were prepared. In the manufacturing process, crude glycerin supplementation linearly increased the feeder speed and production rate (P glycerin in feed increased. A growth experiment was performed with 240 barrows (30 ± 1 kg initial BW) using a 2-phase feeding program over a 12-wk period with 4 pens per treatment and 20 pigs per pen. On the last day of the growth experiment, blood samples were collected to determine circulating glucose, fructosamine, and IGF-1 concentrations. Overall growth performance was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatment, and there was no effect (P > 0.05) of dietary treatment on any plasma metabolite measured. A digestibility experiment involving 9 male pigs housed in metabolic cages was used to determine the coefficients of apparent fecal digestibility and N and mineral balances. Pigs were assigned to 1 of the 3 diets in each feeding period using a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement of treatments (43 ± 3 and 74 ± 3 kg initial BW in the growing and finishing periods, respectively). In both feeding periods, fecal digestibility of OM and ether extract were affected by dietary treatment, increasing linearly (P glycerin levels. However, neither CP digestibility nor N retention was affected by the glycerin content in either the growing or finishing period. Digestibilities and balance of Ca and P showed opposite tendencies with the variations in crude glycerin content, which either decreased or increased depending on the feeding period. In conclusion, adding crude glycerin to the diet before pelleting improved feed mill production

  3. Crude-oil vs coal-oil processing comparison study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This study evaluates three refinery schemes that have been developed for the processing of H-Coal liquids. The refinery processing employed for the naphtha and lighter components of the H-Coal liquid is essentially the same for all three schemes. It is in the processing of the H-Coal distillate product that refinery variations occur, and these differences are outlined: hydrotreating of the middle coal distillate to produce a No. 2 fuel oil equivalent product; hydrocracking of the total coal distillate to produce more gasoline and higher quality distillate fuel; and hydrotreating of the light coal distillate to a No. 2 fuel oil equivalent, and hydrogenating the heavy coal distillate to upgrade feedstock to a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. To provide a perspective of the value of coal liquid relative to petroleum, a parallel set of petroleum refinery schemes, processing a 65/35 Light/Heavy Arabian crude oil blend, was developed: reduced crude desulfurization with FCC processing of the desulfurized VGO; reduced crude desulfurization with hydrocracking of the desulfurized VGO; solvent demetallization of the vacuum pitch with desulfurization and FCC processing of VGO and demetallized oil; and solvent demetallization of the vacuum pitch with hydrocracking of the VGO and demetallized oil. Various gasoline to distillate ratios were set as parameters in developing the best possible processing schemes. Linear programming techniques were used to select the optimal schemes at various product ratios. Applying the same product prices to all cases and subtracting operating costs and the capital change, a comparative feedstock value is calculated. This method places the various refinery schemes on a common basis and gives an appraisal of the relative value of the H-Coal liquid charge stock, based on new refinery facilities.

  4. Breaking barriers: addressing structural obstacles to social service provision for Asian survivors of domestic violence. (United States)

    Lee, Mihan


    Many studies have attributed the disproportionately high rate of domestic violence in Asian communities to Asian patriarchal "cultural norms" and the psychological and behavioral traits that these norms produce in individuals. This article seeks to expand the scope of domestic violence analysis beyond these individual and cultural frameworks, arguing that Asian domestic violence is also a product of larger scale, social systems of inequality. By examining the funding criteria of the Family Violence Prevention Services Administration (FVPSA) and the Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) standard used by Robin Hood, my research shows how state and private organizations systematically devalue and underfund minority-targeted programs.

  5. Motives and characteristics of domestic violence homicides and suicides among women in India. (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Sanchez, Maria V; Campbell, Jacquelyn C


    Domestic violence homicides and suicides are significant causes of deaths among women in India. This study examined characteristics and motives of various types of domestic violence-related homicides and suicides (n = 100) in India using newspaper reports (2011-2012). The majority of victims were found to be young women, mostly killed by burning or strangulation methods. The most frequently reported motive was dowry demands followed by a history of domestic violence or harassment and family conflict. The findings highlight the need for stronger prevention/intervention programs in India to identify and intervene with women at high risk for being killed or committing suicide.

  6. Phytochemical and toxicological investigations of crude methanolic extracts, subsequent fractions and crude saponins of Isodon rugosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Zeb Abdul Sadiq


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isodon rugosus is used traditionally in the management of hypertension, rheumatism, tooth-ache and pyrexia. Present study was arranged to investigate I. rugosus for phytoconstituents, phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities to explore its toxicological, pharmacological potentials and to rationalize its ethnomedicinal uses. Briefly, qualitative phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were carried out for the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, oils, glycosides, anthraquinones, terpenoids, sterols and tannins. Plant crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr, its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ir.Hex, chloroform (Ir.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc, aqueous (Ir.Aq and saponins (Ir.Sp in different concentrations were tested for phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities using radish seeds and brine shrimps (Artemia salina respectively. The phytotoxic activity was determined by percent root length inhibition (RLI and percent seeds germination inhibition (SGI while the cytotoxicity was obtained with percent lethality of the brine shrimps. RESULTS: Ir.Cr was tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, oils, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones. Among different fractions Ir.Sp, Ir.Chf, Ir.EtAc, and Ir.Cr were most effective causing 93.55, 89.32, 81.32 and 58.68% inhibition of seeds in phytotoxicity assay, with IC50 values of 0.1, 0.1, 0.1 and 52 μg/ml respectively. Similarly, among all the tested samples, Ir.Sp exhibited the highest phytotoxic effect causing 91.33% root length inhibition with IC50 of 0.1 μg/ml. Ir.Sp and Ir.Chf were most effective against brine shrimps showing 92.23 and 76.67% lethality with LC50 values of 10 and 12 μg/ml respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It may be inferred from the current investigations that I. rugosus contains different secondary metabolites and is a potential source for the isolation of natural anticancer and herbicidal drug molecules. Different fractions exhibited phytotoxic and

  7. Evolutionary genomics of dog domestication. (United States)

    Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett M


    We review the underlying principles and tools used in genomic studies of domestic dogs aimed at understanding the genetic changes that have occurred during domestication. We show that there are two principle modes of evolution within dogs. One primary mode that accounts for much of the remarkable diversity of dog breeds is the fixation of discrete mutations of large effect in individual lineages that are then crossed to various breed groupings. This transfer of mutations across the dog evolutionary tree leads to the appearance of high phenotypic diversity that in actuality reflects a small number of major genes. A second mechanism causing diversification involves the selective breeding of dogs within distinct phenotypic or functional groups, which enhances specific group attributes such as heading or tracking. Such progressive selection leads to a distinct genetic structure in evolutionary trees such that functional and phenotypic groups cluster genetically. We trace the origin of the nuclear genome in dogs based on haplotype-sharing analyses between dogs and gray wolves and show that contrary to previous mtDNA analyses, the nuclear genome of dogs derives primarily from Middle Eastern or European wolves, a result more consistent with the archeological record. Sequencing analysis of the IGF1 gene, which has been the target of size selection in small breeds, further supports this conclusion. Finally, we discuss how a black coat color mutation that evolved in dogs has transformed North American gray wolf populations, providing a first example of a mutation that appeared under domestication and selectively swept through a wild relative.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVCA Lucia


    Full Text Available Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a few cases of sexual violence in the family literally

  9. Biodegradation of crude oil using marine Bacillus species from Vadinar coast, Gujarat, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mulani, N.; Fulke, A.B.; DeSouza, E.; Ram, A.; Maloo, A.; Sayed, F.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    , controlled burning and bioremediation. The present study aimed to isolate crude oil-degrading marine bacteria from Vadinar coastal area of Gujarat, India. Among seven isolates, three potential bacterial strains were chosen for crude oil and petroleum...

  10. The utilization of crude fish oil (CFO) to increase mudcrab (Scylla serrata) feed quality (United States)

    Lamid, Mirni; Agustono


    Crude fish oil is one of essential fatty acid sources, which is found in Sardinella lemuru. This research aims to study the quality improvement of mudcrab(Scylla serrata) feed. Four feed formulations were designed by using completely randomized design, including P0 = trash fish + 1% tapioca starch; P1=trash fish + 2.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch;, P2= trash fish +4.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P3=trash fish + 6.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P4=trash fish +8.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch, respectively, which were carried out in quadruplicate. This study showed that feed formulation significantly affected crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash, organic matter and nitrogen free extract and energy of mudcrab. The P2 feed was the best formulation but had a slight different from P3 formulation.

  11. Anti-diabetic activity of crude Pistacia lentiscus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats


    Muhammad Saad Ur Rehman; Sairah Hafeez Kamran; Mobasher Ahmad; Usman Akhtar


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of crude Pistacia lentiscus gum (mastic gum) in alloxan-treated diabetic rat model. The crude P. lentiscus (100 mg/kg) showed significant (p

  12. Toward understanding dog evolutionary and domestication history. (United States)

    Galibert, Francis; Quignon, Pascale; Hitte, Christophe; André, Catherine


    Dog domestication was probably started very early during the Upper paleolithic period (~35,000 BP), thus well before any other animal or plant domestication. This early process, probably unconscious, is called proto-domestication to distinguish it from the real domestication process that has been dated around 14,000 BC. Genomic DNA analyses have shown recently that domestication started in the Middle East and rapidly expanded into all human populations. Nowadays, the dog population is fragmented in several hundreds of breeds well characterized by their phenotypes that offer a unique spectrum of polymorphism. More recent studies detect genetic signatures that will be useful to highlight breed history as well as the impact of domestication at the DNA level. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    fakhrus radifan


    Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Crude Palm Oil merupakan salah satu komoditas perkebunan ekspor unggulan yang mampu memberikan kontribusi dan sebagai salah...

  14. Mitigating Environmental and Public-Safety Risks of United States Crude-by-Rail Transport


    Oke, Olufolajimi; Huppmann, Daniel; Marshall, Max; Poulton, Ricky; Siddiqui, Sauleh


    We present a medium-term market equilibrium model of the North American crude oil sector via which we develop a scenario analysis to investigate strategies to mitigate the environmental and public-safety risks from crude-by-rail transportation across the United States. The model captures crude oil movements across rail- roads, pipelines and waterways, while distinguishing between light and heavy crude qualities. We find that restricting rail loads or increasing pipeline capacity from areas dr...

  15. Benchmarking set for domestic smart grid management


    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria


    In this paper we propose a benchmark for domestic smart grid management. It consists of an in-depth description of a domestic smart grid, in which local energy consumers, producers and buffers can be controlled. First, from this description a general benchmark framework is derived, which can be used as a guideline to create benchmark sets to compare domestic smart grid management methodologies. Secondly, an implementation of such a benchmark set is discussed in full detail, to give an example...

  16. Domestic support and the Doha development agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zobbe, Henrik; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    Following the July 2004 Framework, this paper suggest that regardless of low or high level of reductions, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, the European Union, and United States have problems with both Total AMS and the overall base level of Total Trade Distorting Domestic Support. When recent policy...... low or moderate reductions in both Total AMS and Total Trade Distorting Domestic Support. In respect of high reductions, further domestic reforms would be needed for both the European Union and the United States....

  17. Bioconversion of crude glycerol feedstocks into ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Workman, Mhairi


    Glycerol, the by-product of biodiesel production, is considered as a waste by biodiesel producers. This study demonstrated the potential of utilising the glycerol surplus through conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus (CBS4044). This study demonstrates a robust bioprocess which...... was not sensitive to the batch variability in crude glycerol dependent on raw materials used for biodiesel production. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was a key factor for ethanol production, with lower OTR having a positive effect on ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was 17.5 g/L on 5% (v/v) crude...... glycerol, corresponding to 56% of the theoretical yield. A staged batch process achieved 28.1 g/L ethanol, the maximum achieved so far for conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a microbial bioprocess. The fermentation physiology has been investigated as a means to designing a competitive bioethanol...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przybyłowski


    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  19. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas


    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values-at-Risk are c......The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values......-at-Risk are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting out-of-sample forecasts based on the simulations suggests that the GARCH method with implied volatility as explanatory variable captures the risk structure well....

  20. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.


    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  1. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil. (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana


    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Compositional modification of crude oil during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yangming; Weng, Huanxin [Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Zulin; Chen, Qi [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, Hubei (China)


    Ten crude oils from two recovery stages spanning 5-10-year interval of five productive wells in the Tarim Basin, northwest China were analyzed for their compositional modification during production process. Significant compositional changes in polar and nonpolar fractions between the previous oil samples and the latter ones were noted at both bulk and molecular level. The latter oil samples appear to contain more aromatic fraction and less asphaltenes and resin, and their gas chromatography (GC) data for whole oil show reduced alkanes with low molecular weight and enhanced high homologue relative to the previous oil samples. Compared with the oils collected from the previous recovery stage, the concentration of basic type of nitrogen-containing compounds and organic acids in oils from the latter recovery stage have a reducing trend, suggesting the occurrence of interaction between crude oil and reservoir rock.

  3. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj


    -, HPO42-, and HCO3- (anions), were studied through gas chromatographic analysis. Crude oil from the North Sea was doped with various fractions of organic acids to mimic different polar behavior. Increased brine concentration showed up to 15% upsurge of polar fractions on the oil-water emulsion formation...... mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions....... During emulsion formation the relative interactions at the oil-water interface are proved to follow the Hofmeister series: K+

  4. Desulfurization of Saudi Arabian crudes by oxidation-extraction method. (United States)

    Al Otaibi, Raja L; Liu, Dong; Hou, Xulian; Song, Linhua; Li, Qingyin; Li, Mengfei; Almigrin, Hamid O; Yan, Zifeng

    The oxidation-extraction desulfurization of Saudi Arabian crudes was conducted with hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid oxidation system. The selection of extractant, the optimization of oxidation-extraction conditions, and the exploration of desulfurization mechanism were studied. As DMF was used as the extractant, the optimal desulfurization rate of 35.11 % and oil recovery of 95 % were obtained at 70 °C with the molar ratio of peracetic acid to sulfur of 8:1, the molar ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide of 2:1 and the volume ratio of extractant to oil of 1:1. The desulfurization effect of different fractions in the treated Saudi Arabian crudes was found to obey the following order: gasoline-diesel fraction >VGO fraction >VR fraction, due to different types and structures of sulfur compounds. The oil quality was less affected and most sulfides were mainly extracted via DMF.

  5. Wavelet regression model in forecasting crude oil price (United States)

    Hamid, Mohd Helmie; Shabri, Ani


    This study presents the performance of wavelet multiple linear regression (WMLR) technique in daily crude oil forecasting. WMLR model was developed by integrating the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The original time series was decomposed to sub-time series with different scales by wavelet theory. Correlation analysis was conducted to assist in the selection of optimal decomposed components as inputs for the WMLR model. The daily WTI crude oil price series has been used in this study to test the prediction capability of the proposed model. The forecasting performance of WMLR model were also compared with regular multiple linear regression (MLR), Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) using root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean absolute errors (MAE). Based on the experimental results, it appears that the WMLR model performs better than the other forecasting technique tested in this study.

  6. Cracking of crude oil in the molten metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat A. Glikin


    Full Text Available In this paper is investigated the process of crude oil and its individual fractions cracking in the molten metals medium to produce light petroleum products. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the possibility of using lead and tin including alloys thereof as the melt. The cracking of West Siberian crude oil is studied at temperatures 400-600 °C. It is detected that as the temperature increases there is increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins content in gasoline while naphthenes, n- and i-paraffins content reduces. Optimal temperature for cracking in molten metals is ~500 °C. The use of a submerged nozzle increases the yield of light petroleum products by ~2%. The research octane number of gasoline produced is 82-87 points. It is determined that the yield of light petroleum products depending on the experimental conditions is increased from 46.9 to 55.1-61.3% wt.   

  7. Process Considerations in the Biodesulfurization of Crude Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, A.P.; Kaufman, E.N.


    Biodesulfurization offers an attractive alternative to conventional hydrodesulfurization due to the mild operating conditions and reaction specificity afforded by the biocatalyst. The enzymatic pathway existing in Rhodococcus has been demonstrated to oxidatively desulfhrize the organic sulfbr occurring in dibenzothiophene while leaving the hydrocarbon intact. In order for biodesulfiization to realize commercial success, a variety of process considerations must be addressed including reaction rate, emulsion formation and breakage, biocatalyst recovery, and both gas and liquid mass transport. This study compares batch stirred to electro-spray bioreactors in the biodesulfurization of both model organics and actual crudes in terms of their operating costs, ability to make and break emulsions, ability to effect efficient reaction rates and enhance mass transport. Further, sulfim speciation in crude oil is assessed and compared to the sulfur specificity of currently available biocatalyst.

  8. Human trafficking in domestic legislature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skakavac Zdravko


    Full Text Available Human trafficking is an occurrence that, even in our time, is present in alarming proportions, in its actuality and consequences. It is a phenomenon with a long history and has been qualified as a serious international problem and is the object of interest for a large number of international subjects. However, the key international document that defines this phenomenon is the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime from Palermo 2000; specifically its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children. After its adoption, intensive actions were undertaken to regulate the phenomenon on the level of national legislature. It's done so in the local legislature too. According to the criminal law of the republic of Serbia, besides the concrete law against human trafficking, a number of other crimes are connected to human trafficking. This paper deals with the most important ones. The purpose of this paper is to review the legislature on the phenomenon in the domestic law, then the accordance of incrimination with international standards, as well as to indicate the need for further changes in domestic legislature.

  9. What is the role of health systems in responding to domestic violence? An evidence review. (United States)

    Spangaro, Jo


    Objective The aim of the present study was to review and analyse academic literature and program evaluations to identify promising evidence for health system responses to domestic violence in Australia and internationally. Methods English-language literature published between January 2005 and March 2016 was retrieved from search results using the terms 'domestic violence' or 'intimate partner violence' in different combinations with other relevant terms, resulting in 1671 documents, of which 59 were systematic reviews. Electronic databases (Medline (Ovid), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psycinfo, Social work Abstracts, Informit, Violence and Abuse Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews and EMBASE) were searched and narrative analysis undertaken. Results This review details the evidence base for the following interventions by health services responding to domestic violence: first-line responses, routine screening, risk assessment and safety planning, counselling with women, mother-child interventions, responses to perpetrators, child protection notifications, training and system-level responses. Conclusions There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of health service interventions to reduce the extent of harm caused by domestic violence. What is known about the topic? Domestic violence is a significant problem globally with enormous human, social and economic costs. Although women who have experienced abuse make extensive use of healthcare services, health services have lagged behind the policing, criminal justice and other human service domains in responding to domestic violence. What does this paper add? The present comprehensive review identifies best-practice health system responses to domestic violence. What are the implications for practitioners? Health systems can play a key role in identifying and responding to domestic violence for women who often do not access other services

  10. Electrolyte balance and crude protein requirement of laying Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Vargas Gonçalves Vieira


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two levels of crude protein and five levels of electrolyte balance on the performance and egg-quality of laying Japanese quail. Six hundred 45-day-oldquails were distributed in a randomized-block design with a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement comprising ten treatments, five replicates, and 12 birds per experimental unit. The electrolyte balance levels were 50, 125, 200, 275, and 350 mEq kg–1of diet, and crude protein (CP levels were 210 and 240 g kg-1. The performance and egg-quality variables assessed were: feed intake, feed conversion, egg-laying percentage, egg weight and mass, and albumin, yolk and shell weight. There were no interactions among the studied factors. The electrolyte balance and crude protein levels did not significantly affect the performance variables. However, increased shell weight of eggs stored for seven days was observed at an electrolyte balance level of 200 mEq kg–1. With regard to the CP levels, increased egg weight was observed at 28 days at a level of 210 g kg-1, whereas increased albumin weight was observed at 35 days of storage at a level of 240 g kg-1. A tendency toward an increase in egg albumin weight during the storage period of 14 days was observed. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the diet for Japanese quails in the laying phase be formulated with an electrolyte balance of 50 mEq kg–1and 240 g kg-1 of crude protein This diet did not have a negative effect on productive performance, and by increasing the weight of egg albumin, eggs can be stored for a longer duration, thus demonstrating an alternative method to increase the shelf life of eggs.

  11. Hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by Naja haje crude venom. (United States)

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mahamed A; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat


    Snake venoms are synthesized and stored in venom glands. Most venoms are complex mixtures of several proteins, peptides, enzymes, toxins and non-protein components. In the present study, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat liver cells provoked by Naja haje crude injection (LD50) after four hours. Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups, the control group was intraperitoneally injected with saline solution while LD50-dose envenomed group was intraperitoneally injected with venom at a dose of 0.025 μg/kg of body weight. Animals were killed four hours after the injection. Lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and glutathione levels were measured as oxidative markers in serum and liver homogenate. In addition, liver function parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined. N. haje crude venom (0.025 μg/kg of body weight) enhanced lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in both serum and liver with concomitant reduction in glutathione, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly increased in liver of envenomed rats. These findings were associated with apoptosis induction in the liver. In addition, N. haje crude venom caused hepatic injury as indicated by histopathological changes in the liver tissue with an elevation in total bilirubin, serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase. Based on the present results, it can hypothesized that N. haje crude venom is a potent inducer of toxin-mediated hepatotoxicity associated with apoptosis in the liver.

  12. Effects of fractionation on antibacterial activity of crude extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Column chromatographic fractionation of the crude ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Tamarindus indica yielded six fractions (TiA - TiF). Among these, TiB showed about five tracks: TiC, TiD and TiE, two tracks each, on thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fractions TiC, TiD and TiE were re-eluted with different solvent ...

  13. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  14. Hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by Naja haje crude venom


    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mahamed A; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat


    Background Snake venoms are synthesized and stored in venom glands. Most venoms are complex mixtures of several proteins, peptides, enzymes, toxins and non-protein components. In the present study, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat liver cells provoked by Naja haje crude injection (LD50) after four hours. Methods Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups, the control group was intraperitoneally injected with saline solution while LD50-dose envenomed group was i...

  15. Crude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott


    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and fossil fuel substitution. However, challenges to the use of crude glycerol as a boiler fuel include its low energy density, high viscosity, and high autoignition temperature. We have previously shown that a refractory-lined, high swirl burner can overcome challenges related to flame ignition and stability. However, critical issues related to ash behavior and the possible formation of acrolein remained. The work presented here indicates that the presence of dissolved catalysts used during the esterification and transesterification processes results in extremely large amounts of inorganic species in the crude glycerol. For the fuels examined here, the result is a submicron fly ash comprised primarily of sodium carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates. These particles report to a well-developed accumulation mode (0.3-0.7 μm diameter), indicating extensive ash vaporization and particle formation via nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Particle mass emissions were between 2 and 4 g/m3. These results indicate that glycerol containing soluble catalyst is not suitable as a boiler fuel. Fortunately, process improvements are currently addressing this issue. Additionally, acrolein is of concern due to its toxicity, and is known to be formed from the low temperature thermal decomposition of glycerol. Currently, there is no known reliable method for measuring acrolein in sources. Acrolein and emissions of other volatile organic compounds were characterized through the use of a SUMMA canister-based sampling method followed by GC-MS analysis designed for ambient measurements. Results indicate crude glycerol combustion produces relatively small amounts of acrolein (∼15 ppbv) and other volatile organic

  16. Superheroes and masterminds of plant domestication. (United States)

    Martínez-Ainsworth, Natalia E; Tenaillon, Maud I


    Domestication is one of the most fundamental changes in the evolution of human societies. The geographical origins of domesticated plants are inferred from archaeology, ecology and genetic data. Scenarios vary among species and include single, diffuse or multiple independent domestications. Cultivated plants present a panel of traits, the "domestication syndrome" that distinguish them from their wild relatives. It encompasses yield-, food usage-, and cultivation-related traits. Most genes underlying those traits are "masterminds" affecting the regulation of gene networks. Phenotypic convergence of domestication traits across species or within species between independently domesticated forms rarely coincides with convergence at the gene level. We review here current data/models that propose a protracted transition model for domestication and investigate the impact of mating system, life cycle and gene flow on the pace of domestication. Finally, we discuss the cost of domestication, pointing to the importance of characterizing adaptive functional variation in wild resources. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Germline modification of domestic animals. (United States)

    Tang, L; González, R; Dobrinski, I


    Genetically-modified domestic animal models are of increasing significance in biomedical research and agriculture. As authentic ES cells derived from domestic animals are not yet available, the prevailing approaches for engineering genetic modifications in those animals are pronuclear microinjection and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, also known as cloning). Both pronuclear microinjection and SCNT are inefficient, costly, and time-consuming. In animals produced by pronuclear microinjection, the exogenous transgene is usually inserted randomly into the genome, which results in highly variable expression patterns and levels in different founders. Therefore, significant efforts are required to generate and screen multiple founders to obtain animals with optimal transgene expression. For SCNT, specific genetic modifications (both gain-of-function and loss-of-function) can be engineered and carefully selected in the somatic cell nucleus before nuclear transfer. SCNT has been used to generate a variety of genetically modified animals such as goats, pigs, sheep and cattle; however, animals resulting from SCNT frequently suffer from developmental abnormalities associated with incomplete nuclear reprogramming. Other strategies to generate genetically-modified animals rely on the use of the spermatozoon as a natural vector to introduce genetic material into the female gamete. This sperm mediated DNA transfer (SMGT) combined with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has relatively high efficiency and allows the insertion of large DNA fragments, which, in turn, enhance proper gene expression. An approach currently being developed to complement SCNT for producing genetically modified animals is germ cell transplantation using genetically modified male germline stem cells (GSCs). This approach relies on the ability of GSCs that are genetically modified in vitro to colonize the recipient testis and produce donor derived sperm upon transplantation. As the genetic change

  18. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals. (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I


    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Child Domestic Labor on Girls' Education Focus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the effects of child domestic labor on education of girls' attending primary schools evening program in Jimma town. The study employed descriptive survey method. Girls attending primary schools evening program, teachers, directors, and school records were used as sources of ...

  20. Employment and the Risk of Domestic Abuse among Low-Income Women (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Magnuson, Katherine; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Duncan, Greg J.


    This paper uses data from 2 randomized evaluations of welfare-to-work programs--the Minnesota Family Investment Program and the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies--to estimate the effect of employment on domestic abuse among low-income single mothers. Unique to our analysis is the application of a 2-stage least squares method, in…

  1. 78 FR 54147 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, California; Decreased Assessment Rate (United States)


    ... industry plans to shift its marketing programs to the State marketing program, the California Date... / Tuesday, September 3, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 987 Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, California...

  2. Estimating the probability of arsenic occurrence in domestic wells in the United States (United States)

    Ayotte, J.; Medalie, L.; Qi, S.; Backer, L. F.; Nolan, B. T.


    Approximately 43 million people (about 14 percent of the U.S. population) rely on privately owned domestic wells as their source of drinking water. Unlike public water systems, which are regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act, there is no comprehensive national program to ensure that the water from domestic wells is routinely tested and that is it safe to drink. A study published in 2009 from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey assessed water-quality conditions from 2,100 domestic wells within 48 states and reported that more than one in five (23 percent) of the sampled wells contained one or more contaminants at a concentration greater than a human-health benchmark. In addition, there are many activities such as resource extraction, climate change-induced drought, and changes in land use patterns that could potentially affect the quality of the ground water source for domestic wells. The Health Studies Branch (HSB) of the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, created a Clean Water for Health Program to help address domestic well concerns. The goals of this program are to identify emerging public health issues associated with using domestic wells for drinking water and develop plans to address these issues. As part of this effort, HSB in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey has created probability models to estimate the probability of arsenic occurring at various concentrations in domestic wells in the U.S. We will present preliminary results of the project, including estimates of the population supplied by domestic wells that is likely to have arsenic greater than 10 micrograms per liter. Nationwide, we estimate this to be just over 2 million people. Logistic regression model results showing probabilities of arsenic greater than the Maximum Contaminant Level for public supply wells of 10 micrograms per liter in domestic wells in the U.S., based on data for arsenic

  3. Domestic water uses: Characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Cristina, E-mail: [ECT, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Apartado 1013, 5001801 Vila Real (Portugal); Teixeira, Carlos A. [CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real Portugal (Portugal); Duarte, A.A.L.S. [Civil Engineering Department, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Bentes, I. [ECT, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Apartado 1013, 5001801 Vila Real (Portugal)


    Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. - Highlights: • This paper presents a method to find out the pattern of water use in dwellings. • The number of uses per person a day, by domestic device, is presented. • The volume spent per type of use by domestic device is presented. • The daily cycles per domestic device are presented. • Sociodemographic characteristics seem to affect the daily cycles.

  4. Heavy crude oils - From Geology to Upgrading - An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huc, A.Y.


    Heavy oils, extra-heavy oils and tar sands are major players for the future of energy. They represent a massive world resource, at least the size of conventional oils. They are found all over the world but Canada and Venezuela together account, by themselves, for more than half of world deposits. They share the same origin as the lighter conventional oils, but their geological fate drove them into thick, viscous tar-like crude oils. Most of them result from alteration processes mediated by microbial degradation. They are characterized by a low content of lighter cuts and a high content of impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds and metals; so, their production is difficult and deployment of specific processes is required in order to enhance their transportability and to upgrade them into valuable products meeting market needs, and honouring environmental requirements. Although these resources are increasingly becoming commercially producible, less than 1% of total heavy crude oil deposits worldwide are under active development. The voluntarily wide scope of this volume encompasses geology, production, transportation, upgrading, economics and environmental issues of heavy oils. It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but to provide an authoritative view of this very important energy resource. Besides presenting the current status of knowledge and technology involved in exploiting heavy oils, the purpose is to provide an insight into technical, economic and environmental challenges that should be taken up in order to increase the efficiency of production and processing, and finally to give a prospective view of the emerging technologies which will contribute to releasing the immense potential reserves of heavy oil and tar deposits. Contents: Part 1. Heavy Crude Oils.1. Heavy Crude Oils in the Perspective of World Oil Demand. 2. Definitions and Specificities. 3. Geological Origin of Heavy Crude Oils. 4. Properties and composition. Part 2. Reservoir Engineering

  5. Evaluating shame transformation in group treatment of domestic violence offenders. (United States)

    Loeffler, Christopher H; Prelog, Andrew J; Unnithan, N Prabha; Pogrebin, Mark R


    Offender rehabilitation, pitting the rational ability of criminal justice against the seeming irrationality of criminal behavior, remains controversial. Psychology highlights the importance of emotions in mediating individual behavior. Borrowing from restorative justice as a more emotionally intelligent form of justice, this article examines the role of shame and guilt in a domestic violence offender treatment program. The emotions are differentiated and then activated, similar to the use of reintegrative shaming in restorative justice, to promote greater offender accountability and empathy. Using a two-group comparison of male domestic violence offenders, measurements were taken on three sets of scales in assessing the outcome of the shame transformation process. Statistically significant effects were found for self-esteem and empathetic concern. Findings and future research are discussed.

  6. Crude Oil Price, Monetary Policy and Output: The Case of Pakistan


    Afia Malik


    This paper has analysed the impact of rising crude oil prices on output. Crude oil prices and real output are found to be strongly related, and this relationship has a bellshape. That is, when crude oil prices are below the critical level (i.e., 22 $s/bbl), the relationship between crude oil prices and real output is positive; whereas when the crude oil price rises and exceeds that critical level the relationship becomes negative. Moreover, high debt-GDP ratio, high deficit spending, and high...

  7. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup


    . Results show a highly promising bio-crude quality, with a higher heating value of 40.4 MJ/kg, elemental oxygen content of 5.3 wt.%, a specific gravity of 0.97 and a distillation recovery of ∼53.4 wt.% at an atmospheric equivalent temperature (AET) of 375 °C, . Results show that only minor upgrading......-crude assays, adapted from conventional crude oil assays, have been obtained, including fractionation of the bio-crude through 15:5 vacuum distillation. The bio-crude and its fractions have been analyzed with respect to heating value, elemental composition, density and oxygen-containing functional groups...

  8. Domestic violence: a medicolegal review. (United States)

    Frazer, M


    This paper reviews the recent medical and legal literature in the field of spouse abuse. Domestic violence is a national phenomenon that directly affects victims of spouse abuse and indirectly conditions the children of the victims to accept violent behavior as normative. This paper characterizes the cycle of violence battered women encounter, describes their injury patterns, explores the dynamics of the abusive relationship, and discusses the factors that compel women to remain in such violent relationships. The second section describes many of the recent legislation designed to prevent spouse abuse. Next, this paper addresses the case law utilizing the "battered woman syndrome" as a defense for spousal homicide. The third section of the paper explores the often neglected topic of the battered husband.

  9. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.


    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  10. Familial Variables Related to Domestic Violence. (United States)

    Matlock, Tracy; And Others

    Domestic violence is the most frequent type of violent crime, thus children are likely to experience or witness violence at home. In this study, familial variables predictive of domestic violence were investigated. Data were collected from 64 intake forms at a battered women's shelter in the Mississippi Delta. Most clients were white and had…

  11. Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Nigerian Women | Ezegwui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context:Domestic violence against women is known to be common and violence against pregnant women can create an adverse outcome both for the mother and the ... The risk factors for being the victim of domestic abuse, in descending order of magnitude, were financial problems (17.7%), having only female children ...

  12. Transnational Communication and Domestic Environmental Policy Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, S.A.; Liefferink, J.D.


    This article seeks to provide patterns of how transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning. Existing theories of policy learning, policy diffusion and policy convergence assume that transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning and policy change, but do not

  13. The Effect of Divorce on Domestic Crime (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.


    Social scientists remain unsure as to whether divorce acts to alleviate domestic violence or whether ex-spouses become the targets of the displaced violence. Using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System and the Census, this study investigates the relationship between the divorce rate and the domestic crime rate. The study…

  14. Responding to Domestic Violence against Women. (United States)

    Stalans, Loretta J.; Lurigio, Arthur J.


    Gives an overview of issues related to domestic violence against women as a social problem: changing responses from the legal system and the community over the course of history, possible causes of domestic violence against women, current perspectives and trends, prevalence, seriousness, and our response as a society. (LKS)

  15. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  16. Domestic Violence during Pregnancy in India (United States)

    Mahapatro, Meerambika; Gupta, R. N.; Gupta, Vinay; Kundu, A. S.


    Domestic violence can result in many negative health consequences for women's health and well-being. Studies on domestic violence illustrate that abused women in various settings had increased health problems such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological signs including sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and…

  17. Dynamic Relationship Between Gross Domestic Product and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study uses a VAR model to analyse the dynamic relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and domestic investment (DI) in Rwanda for the period 1970 to 2011. Several selection lag criteria chose a maximum lag of one and a bivariate VAR(1) model specification in levels was adopted. Unit root tests show ...

  18. 48 CFR 29.401 - Domestic contracts. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Domestic contracts. 29.401 Section 29.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 29.401 Domestic contracts. ...

  19. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Domestic Violence and Children No. 109; Updated April 2013 As many as ... get the help they need. When there is domestic violence between partners, there is often child abuse as well. Sometimes children get hurt accidentally. ...

  20. Benchmarking set for domestic smart grid management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria


    In this paper we propose a benchmark for domestic smart grid management. It consists of an in-depth description of a domestic smart grid, in which local energy consumers, producers and buffers can be controlled. First, from this description a general benchmark framework is derived, which can be used

  1. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Edirne (United States)

    Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap


    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…

  2. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.


    We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

  3. Domestic Violence and Poverty: Some Women's Experiences (United States)

    Slabbert, Ilze


    Purpose: Domestic violence poses a major challenge to social workers. Low-income families are significantly more likely to have to contend with domestic violence, as poverty can act as a fuelling factor in this type of conflict. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of low-income abused women. Method: A…

  4. Empowering Women with Domestic Violence Experience (United States)

    Anczewska, Marta; Roszczynska-Michta, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Charzynska, Katarzyna; Czabala, Czeslaw


    It is generally held that it has been only recently that domestic violence gained appropriate attention as a major social problem. However several approaches, drawn from different theories are applicable in explaining the origin of this negative phenomenon. It is well recognized that trauma of domestic violence has destructive impact on somatic…

  5. Toward a Biopsychosocial Model of Domestic Violence. (United States)

    McKenry, Patrick C.; And Others


    Interviewed and physically assessed 102 married men in an attempt to develop a biopsychosocial model of male domestic violence. Used Tobit analysis to identify significant predictors. Analyzed separately, each domain was significantly related to male domestic violence. When considered together, only the biological and social domains yielded…

  6. Daily Crude Oil Price Forecasting Using Hybridizing Wavelet and Artificial Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Shabri


    Full Text Available A new method based on integrating discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural networks (WANN model for daily crude oil price forecasting is proposed. The discrete Mallat wavelet transform is used to decompose the crude price series into one approximation series and some details series (DS. The new series obtained by adding the effective one approximation series and DS component is then used as input into the ANN model to forecast crude oil price. The relative performance of WANN model was compared to regular ANN model for crude oil forecasting at lead times of 1 day for two main crude oil price series, West Texas Intermediate (WTI and Brent crude oil spot prices. In both cases, WANN model was found to provide more accurate crude oil prices forecasts than individual ANN model.

  7. The Biodiversity Changes in the Microbial Population of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil. (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi


    Crude oil spills resulting from excavation, transportation and downstream processes can cause intensive damage to living organisms and result in changes in the microbial population of that environment. In this study, we used a pyrosequencing analysis to investigate changes in the microbial population of soils contaminated with crude oil. Crude oil contamination in soil resulted in the creation of a more homogenous population of microorganisms dominated by members of the Actinomycetales, Clostridiales and Bacillales (all belonging to Gram-positive bacteria) as well as Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadales (all belonging to Gram-negative bacteria). These changes in the biodiversity decreased the ratios of chemoheterotrophic bacteria at higher concentrations of crude oil contamination, with these being replaced by photoheterotrophic bacteria, mainly Rhodospirillales. Several of the dominant microbial orders in the crude oil contaminated soils are able to degrade crude oil hydrocarbons and therefore are potentially useful for remediation of crude oil in contaminated sites.

  8. Hidden Markov Model and Forward-Backward Algorithm in Crude Oil Price Forecasting (United States)

    Talib Bon, Abdul; Isah, Nuhu


    In light of the importance of crude oil to the world's economy, it is not surprising that economists have devoted great efforts towards developing methods to forecast price and volatility levels. Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile such as economic, political and social. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid unforeseen circumstances towards economic activity. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2nd January to 29th May 2015. We used Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Forward-Backward Algorithm to forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using Maple software. Based on the study, we concluded that model (0 3 0) is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  9. Getting domestication straight: ramosa1 in maize. (United States)

    Dempewolf, Hannes


    Knowledge of the identities and characteristics of genes that govern the dramatic phenotypic differences between cultivated plants and their wild ancestors has greatly enhanced our understanding of the domestication process. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Sigmon & Vollbrecht report the discovery of a new maize domestication gene, ramosa1, which encodes a putative transcription factor in the ramosa developmental pathway. Ramosa1 appears to be instrumental in determining the straightness of kernel rows on the maize cob. The key domestication alleles at ramosa1 are prevalent in landraces of maize. These results reinforce findings from previous studies of crop evolution by highlighting the importance of standing genetic variation and changes in transcriptional regulators in domestication. The evolutionary genetics of domestication also provides a framework for predicting the evolutionary response of organisms to strong human-induced selection pressures over limited time intervals.

  10. The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L.; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E.; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H.; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Macdonald, David W.


    The world’s domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors—Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)—indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance. PMID:17600185

  11. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1T - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary). (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic... United States § 1.904(g)-1T Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary). (a) Overview of regulations. This section provides rules for determining a taxpayer's overall domestic losses...

  12. Domestication and Genetics of Papaya: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira


    Full Text Available A wealth of plant species used by humans for different purposes, but mainly as food, originated and domesticated in the Mesoamerican region. Papaya (Carica papaya is the third most cultivated tropical crop worldwide, and it has been hypothesized that Mesoamerica is the most likely center of its origin and domestication. In support of it, many wild populations of papaya occur throughout Mesoamerica and hence represent the gene pool of genetic variability for further evolution and future crop management. Despite its importance, a dearth of information exists regarding the status of wild populations of papaya, as compared to the extent of knowledge, and interest, on domesticated varieties. We review the evidence on the extant wild populations of papaya, as well as its origin and distribution. Also, we synthetize what is known on the domestication history of the species, including the domestication syndrome that distinguishes wild and domesticated papayas. Moreover, we make an account of the use of genetic markers to assess genetic diversity of wild and domesticated papaya, and discuss the importance of papaya as the first species with a transgenic cultivar to be released for human consumption, and one that has its complete genome sequenced. Evidence from different disciplines strongly suggest that papaya originated and was domesticated in Mesoamerica, and that wild populations in the region possess, still, high genetic diversity compared to the domesticated papaya. Finally, we outline papaya as an excellent model species for genomic studies that will help gain insight into the domestication process and improvement of papaya and other tropical crops.

  13. Domestic violence and child nutrition in Liberia. (United States)

    Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa


    Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying the location and population served by domestic wells in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D. Johnson


    New hydrological insights for the region: Aggregating the results indicates that three hydrogeologic provinces contain nearly 80% of all domestic wells and also have the highest density of domestic well users: Central Valley (31.6%, Sierra Nevada (31.5%, and Northern Coast Ranges (16.6%. Results were also aggregated into groundwater basins and highland areas, collectively called Groundwater Units (GUs. Twenty-eight of the 938 GUs contain more than 50% of the total population served by domestic wells, 70 GUs contain more than 75%, and 150 GUs contain 90%. The 28 GUs are mostly located in the eastern and southern San Joaquin Valley (11, the Sacramento Valley (7, and the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada province (5. Using the information presented in this research along with other information about domestic-well use, the US Geological Survey has begun sampling high-use GUs for the Shallow Aquifer Assessment component of the Groundwater Ambient Assessment (GAMA program.

  15. Understanding the role of culture in domestic violence: the Ahimsa Project for Safe Families. (United States)

    Pan, Amy; Daley, Sandra; Rivera, Lourdes M; Williams, Kara; Lingle, Danielle; Reznik, Vivian


    Domestic violence affects women across all racial, national, social, and economic groups. In particular, immigrant and refugee families are at risk for domestic violence because of their migration history and differences in cultural values and norms. The Ahimsa for Safe Families Project is an innovative collaborative project that addresses domestic violence in immigrant and refugee communities in San Diego. The project is designed to increase awareness of domestic violence among Latino, Somali, and Vietnamese communities and to develop and implement culturally specific programs aimed at each community. Here the authors describe the Project's needs assessment and community dialogues that guided the development of specific interventions; present the lessons learned; and describe replicable, culturally specific prevention strategies utilized by the Project.

  16. Parallel domestication, convergent evolution and duplicated gene recruitment in allopolyploid cotton. (United States)

    Hovav, Ran; Chaudhary, Bhupendra; Udall, Joshua A; Flagel, Lex; Wendel, Jonathan F


    A putative advantage of allopolyploidy is the possibility of differential selection of duplicated (homeologous) genes originating from two different progenitor genomes. In this note we explore this hypothesis using a high throughput, SNP-specific microarray technology applied to seed trichomes (cotton) harvested from three developmental time points in wild and modern accessions of two independently domesticated cotton species, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense. We show that homeolog expression ratios are dynamic both developmentally and over the several-thousand-year period encompassed by domestication and crop improvement, and that domestication increased the modulation of homeologous gene expression. In both species, D-genome expression was preferentially enhanced under human selection pressure, but for nonoverlapping sets of genes for the two independent domestication events. Our data suggest that human selection may have operated on different components of the fiber developmental genetic program in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, leading to convergent rather than parallel genetic alterations and resulting morphology.

  17. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond


    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  18. Domestic Violence against Women: Recognize Patterns, Seek Help (United States)

    ... this sounds familiar, you might be experiencing domestic violence. Domestic violence — also called intimate partner violence — occurs between ... Accessed Jan. 7, 2016. ...

  19. Genetic architecture of domestication-related traits in maize (United States)

    Strong directional selection occurred during the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte, reducing its genetic diversity, particularly at genes controlling domestication-related traits. Nevertheless, variability for some domestication-related traits is maintained in maize. The genet...

  20. Electrochemical removal of metals from crude oil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, K.; Salazar, E.; Balladores, Y.; Marquez, O.P.; Marquez, J.; Martinez, Y. (Laboratorio de Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101-Venezuela)


    Removal of vanadium from vanadyl (IV) meso-tetra-phenylporphyrin (VO-MTPP) and vanadyl (IV) octa-ethylporphyrin (VO-OEP) and metals removal from Ayacucho Venezuelan crude oil samples were performed using electrochemical techniques. According to cyclic voltammograms, a potential of - 2.3 V vs. Ag/AgNO{sub 3} (0.1 M), LiClO{sub 4} (0.1 M) in acetonitrile, was chosen for running electrolysis at platinum (Pt), graphite (G) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Qualitative analysis was done by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) while quantification was performed by AAS and inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). Three stages (best results) of the study are reported: (a) when using commercial porphyrins; the best conditions for electrolysis were: tetrahydrofuran (THF)/20% methanol (MeOH)/1% perchloric acid (HClO{sub 4}) on GC, producing 84% hydro-demetalation (HDM) for VO-MTPP, and 78% HDM for VO-OEP; (b) when using extracts of crude oil; demetalation percentages, after 90 min of electrolysis, on graphite, and after 120 min of electrolysis on platinum, were 66.44% and 64.10% HDM respectively, no discrimination of metals under these conditions (c) from electrolysis in whole crude oil, quantitative analysis gave: vanadium (V) 31.2 mg/kg, iron (Fe) 65, 0 mg/kg and nickel (Ni) 6, 3 mg/kg, with charge efficiencies of V (7.5%), Fe (79.6%) and Ni (8.2%). (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar


    Full Text Available A total of 1218 samples relating to compound poultry rations and feed ingredients were analysed for crude fibre content. The crude fibre contents ranged between 4.79 ± 0.75 and 5.69 ± 2.03 with CV ranged between 14.89 and 35.68 for six categories of commercial poultry rations including chick starter, grower mash, layer mash, broiler starter, broiler finisher and breeder mash. The crude protein contents estimated on 2679 feed samples of compound poultry feed and feed ingredients ranged between 15.86 ± 1.41 and 18.63 ± 1.67, while the CV ranged from 8.89 to 10.99. The crude fibre and crude protein contents in feed ingredients, agricultural and animal byproducts are specific to each item and the values are based on chemical analyses which are broadly within values prescribed by nutritional standards.

  2. Analgesic effects of crude extracts of Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae). (United States)

    Vasconcelos, M A Lemos; Ferreira, D da Silva; Andrade e Silva, M L; Veneziani, R Cassio Sola; Cunha, W R


    The present study describes the analgesic effects of the crude extracts (hexane, methylene chloride and ethanol) obtained from the aerial parts of Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae) using the writhing test and the hot plate models for pain in mice. The extracts in hexane and methylene chloride, given orally, produced significant antinociception in the writhing test. On the other hand, none of the extracts had a significant effect on the hot plate test, a fact suggesting that the substances present in the extracts may rather have peripheral analgesic activity.

  3. Crude fiber determination using ceramic fiber to replace asbestos. (United States)

    Knox, R L; Engvall, D S; Ginther, B E


    Crude fiber was determined in a wide range of feed products by a method which specifies ceramic fiber as a filter medium instead of the more hazardous and difficult to obtain asbestos. Results correlated well with those obtained by using AOAC official final action method 7.061-7.065 (correlation coefficient, 0.9994). For 8 samples, the coefficients of variation ranged from 0.74 to 4.80%. Compared with the AOAC method the proposed method showed a slight negative bias of 0.1%. Compared with asbestos, ceramic fiber was easier to prepare for use, filtering was faster, and samples bumped less.

  4. Preventing oil adhesion to pipe walls in heavy crude transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, M.; Guevara, E.; Joseph, D. [and others


    During the transportation of heavy, extra heavy, and bitumen with water in carbon steel pipelines, the crude sticks to the internal pipe wall, reducing the flow area and as a consequence increasing the pressure drop in time. The situation may become worse if an unplanned shut down occurs, due to the phase separation by gravity. The problem. is resolved using a cement lined pipeline, with a cement composition that creates a permanent oleophobic and hydrophilic surface. These surfaces repel oil when they are hydrated in water, avoiding the occurrence of fouling at stationary and restart conditions.

  5. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V


    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.



    Emiliana Rose Jusoh; Mohd Halim Shah Ismail,; Luqman Chuah Abdullah,; Robiah Yunus; Wan Aizan Wan Abdul Rahman


    Growing public concern about environment and potential risks to health in the polymer and plasticizer industry promises to increase the market for a safer alternative plasticizer such as a vegetable oil-based agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of crude palm oil as a bio-additive in polypropylene blown films. The polypropylene was blended with 1%, 3%, and 5% dosages of CPO using a twin screw extruder. The extruded samples were blown using the blown thin film tech...

  7. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure (United States)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.


    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  8. Radical scavenging activity of crude polysaccharides from Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan


    Full Text Available A preparation of crude polysaccharides (TPS was isolated from Camellia sinensis by precipitation and ultrafiltration. TPS1, TPS2, and TPS3 had molecular weights of 240, 21.4, and 2.46 kDa, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of TPS were evaluated by DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging. These results revealed that TPS exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner. TPS3 with lowest molecular weight showed a higher radical scavenging activity.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Table 3: Influence of dietary crude shea butter leaf extracts on nitrogen metabolism in the goats. Index/treatment. A. B. C. D. SEM. Nitrogen intake, g/day. 11.59a. 11.49a. 7.79b. 8.08b. 1.29. Faecal. Nitrogen, g/day. 3.91b. 4.32a. 4.39a. 4.75a. 0.18. Urinary nitrogen, g/day. 4.46a. 3.21b. 1.68c. 1.58c. 0.76. Nitrogen Digested,.

  10. Bacteriologic and nutritional evaluation of a commercial raw meat diet as part of a raw meat safety program. (United States)

    Singleton, Cora; Wack, Raymund; Larsen, R Scott


    This study evaluated selected bacteriologic and nutritional components of a commercially prepared ground raw horsemeat diet as part of a raw meat safety program. Six lots of meat were analyzed in triplicate. Frozen meat samples were thawed for 44 hr at 5°C. Meat samples were tested at three times during thawing (t = 0, 24, 44 hr) for selected bacteria. Samples were screened for Salmonella sp. using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria were quantified using a ready-made culture medium system. Proximate, energy, macro and trace mineral composition was determined at a reference laboratory. Salmonella sp. antigen was detected in one sample of meat at t = 0 hr. Frozen meat samples had low average maximum expected numbers of E. coli and coliforms. The average maximum number of E. coli did not change significantly at t = 24 or 44 hr, but the average maximum number of coliforms increased significantly by t = 44 hr. These bacteriologic tests were easily incorporated into a raw meat safety program. Median concentrations of moisture, dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash, calcium, and phosphorus conformed to the guaranteed analysis but median crude fiber exceeded the guaranteed maximum. Median magnesium, potassium, and sodium concentrations conformed to the approximate nutrient content. Median concentrations of copper exceeded, whereas iron, zinc, and manganese fell below, the approximate nutrient content. Median copper and manganese concentrations exceeded the National Research Council's recommendation for adult domestic cats, whereas iron and zinc were below the National Research Council's recommendations for adult cats. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Antifatigue and increasing exercise performance of Actinidia arguta crude alkaloids in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Liu


    Full Text Available Actinidia arguta (Siebold et Zucc. Planch. ex. Miq. is one of the most recently domesticated fruit species with increasing commercial production worldwide. It is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and is used to reduce blood glucose and treat atopic dermatitis. In addition, it possesses antioxidant, anticancer, and antiallergic properties. In this study, we investigated the physical antifatigue and exercise performance effects of A. arguta crude alkaloids (AACA extracted with 70% ethanol. Four groups of male Kunming mice (n = 16 were orally administered AACA at doses of 0 mg/kg/d (vehicle, 50 mg/kg/d (AACA-50, 100 mg/kg/d (AACA-100, or 200 mg/kg/d (AACA-200 for 28 days. The effect of AACA treatment on exercise performance was studied using the forelimb grip strength experiment and by the measurement of the weight-loaded swimming time. The antifatigue effect is evaluated based on fatigue-associated biochemical parameters, hepatic and muscular glycogen levels, and changes in the morphology of transverse and longitudinal sections of skeletal muscle. The results showed that AACA could elevate the endurance and grip strength in mice. The exhaustive swimming time of the AACA-50, AACA-100, and AACA-200 groups was significantly (p < 0.05 increased compared with the vehicle. The swimming time of the AACA-100 group was the longest among all groups studied. Mice in the AACA-treated groups had decreased levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase after a physical challenge compared with the vehicle group. The tissue glycogen, an important energy source during exercise, significantly increased with AACA. The morphology of transverse and longitudinal sections of skeletal muscle did not change in the vehicle group. Overall, these findings suggest that AACA possesses antifatigue effects and increases exercise performance in mice. Therefore, A. arguta may be developed as an antifatigue dietary supplement in the category of functional foods.

  12. Violência doméstica contra crianças e adolescentes: estudo de um programa de intervenção Domestic violence against children and adolescents: a supporting program study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria M. Brito


    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta características gerais de famílias nas quais houve a ocorrência de violência doméstica contra crianças, e avalia os resultados de seu acompanhamento pelo Centro Regional de Atenção aos Maus-Tratos na Infância (CRAMI-Rio Preto. Foram entrevistadas cinqüenta e cinco famílias, que responderam um questionário estruturado. A forma de violência mais prevalente foi a física, presente em 58% dos casos. Sessenta por cento das vítimas são do sexo feminino, e a mãe é agressora em 49% das situações analisadas. Os principais fatores desencadeantes da violência, identificados pelas famílias, são conflitos do casal (58%, características próprias da criança (51% e histórico de vida dos pais (49%. A maioria das famílias (80% acredita que a intervenção proporcionou interrupção ou diminuição na intensidade da violência e a forma de acompanhamento que mais houve adesão dos pais foi por meio das visitas domiciliares. Observa-se que a intervenção junto dessas famílias pode ter resultados satisfatórios, desde que a violência possa ser compreendida em seus vários aspectos, ou seja, um sintoma presente no grupo familiar modelado por dificuldades de diferentes naturezas: cultural, social, econômica e das relações interpessoais.This study presents general characteristcs of families in which there was the occurrence of violence against the child as well as to evaluate the results of a supporting program made by the Centro Regional de Atenção aos Maus-Tratos na Infância (CRAMI for these families. Fifty-five families were interviewed, and a structured questionnaire was used. Among the families, the most prevalent type of violence was physical (58%. Sixty percent of the victims were females, and the mother was the main batterer (49%. Some factors to start committing the violence included: conflicts between the couple (58%; the child's own characteristics (51% and the parent's life history (49%. The majority

  13. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta, cacao (Theobroma cacao, pineapple (Ananas comosus, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes and guaraná (Paullinia cupana, while hot peppers (Capsicum spp., inga (Inga edulis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene, origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.

  14. Resilience in Women who Experience Domestic Violence. (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna


    Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  15. Hydraulic fracturing near domestic groundwater wells. (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Perrone, Debra


    Hydraulic fracturing operations are generating considerable discussion about their potential to contaminate aquifers tapped by domestic groundwater wells. Groundwater wells located closer to hydraulically fractured wells are more likely to be exposed to contaminants derived from on-site spills and well-bore failures, should they occur. Nevertheless, the proximity of hydraulic fracturing operations to domestic groundwater wells is unknown. Here, we analyze the distance between domestic groundwater wells (public and self-supply) constructed between 2000 and 2014 and hydraulically fractured wells stimulated in 2014 in 14 states. We show that 37% of all recorded hydraulically fractured wells stimulated during 2014 exist within 2 km of at least one recently constructed (2000-2014) domestic groundwater well. Furthermore, we identify 11 counties where most ([Formula: see text]50%) recorded domestic groundwater wells exist within 2 km of one or more hydraulically fractured wells stimulated during 2014. Our findings suggest that understanding how frequently hydraulic fracturing operations impact groundwater quality is of widespread importance to drinking water safety in many areas where hydraulic fracturing is common. We also identify 236 counties where most recorded domestic groundwater wells exist within 2 km of one or more recorded oil and gas wells producing during 2014. Our analysis identifies hotspots where both conventional and unconventional oil and gas wells frequently exist near recorded domestic groundwater wells that may be targeted for further water-quality monitoring.

  16. Crude oil spilled water treatment with Vetiveria zizanioides in floating wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefni Effendi


    Full Text Available Floating wetlands on a container (25 L using Vetiveria zizanioides (L Nash was applied to remediate crude oil spill in water for four weeks. Three plants (height 10 cm were inserted in a pot containing rockwool, floated on crude oil spiked water. Treatment included 3 and 6 pot plants with 1% crude oil concentration. Six pot plants during 4 weeks of experiment could reduce the oil content of 91.39%, 84.60% COD, and 84.25% BOD. Meanwhile, 3 pot plants could decrease the oil content of 90.28%, 81.69% COD, and 81.10% BOD. DO at week 4 decreased. The BOD and COD did not show any significant reduction. Plants grew better in crude oil contaminated water. Those were indicated by 47.22% parent and 100% shoots could live until the study end in 1% crude oil spiked water. Meanwhile, in crude oil uncontaminated water, 30.56% parent and 40% shoots were able to live until the study end. Wet plant biomass (5.1070 g in the crude oil contaminated water was greater than the plant biomass (4.8362 g in crude oil uncontaminated water. RGR of V. zizanioides in crude oil contaminated water was 5.10 g/week and 4.83 g/week in uncontaminated water. Keywords: Phytoremediation, Crude oil, Floating wetland, Vetiveria zizanioides

  17. Crude oil price analysis and forecasting based on variational mode decomposition and independent component analysis (United States)

    E, Jianwei; Bao, Yanling; Ye, Jimin


    As one of the most vital energy resources in the world, crude oil plays a significant role in international economic market. The fluctuation of crude oil price has attracted academic and commercial attention. There exist many methods in forecasting the trend of crude oil price. However, traditional models failed in predicting accurately. Based on this, a hybrid method will be proposed in this paper, which combines variational mode decomposition (VMD), independent component analysis (ICA) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), called VMD-ICA-ARIMA. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence factors of crude oil price and predict the future crude oil price. Major steps can be concluded as follows: Firstly, applying the VMD model on the original signal (crude oil price), the modes function can be decomposed adaptively. Secondly, independent components are separated by the ICA, and how the independent components affect the crude oil price is analyzed. Finally, forecasting the price of crude oil price by the ARIMA model, the forecasting trend demonstrates that crude oil price declines periodically. Comparing with benchmark ARIMA and EEMD-ICA-ARIMA, VMD-ICA-ARIMA can forecast the crude oil price more accurately.

  18. The Genetic Structure of Domestic Rabbits (United States)

    Carneiro, Miguel; Afonso, Sandra; Geraldes, Armando; Garreau, Hervé; Bolet, Gerard; Boucher, Samuel; Tircazes, Aurélie; Queney, Guillaume; Nachman, Michael W.; Ferrand, Nuno


    Understanding the genetic structure of domestic species provides a window into the process of domestication and motivates the design of studies aimed at making links between genotype and phenotype. Rabbits exhibit exceptional phenotypic diversity, are of great commercial value, and serve as important animal models in biomedical research. Here, we provide the first comprehensive survey of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) within and among rabbit breeds. We resequenced 16 genomic regions in population samples of both wild and domestic rabbits and additional 35 fragments in 150 rabbits representing six commonly used breeds. Patterns of genetic variation suggest a single origin of domestication in wild populations from France, supporting historical records that place rabbit domestication in French monasteries. Levels of nucleotide diversity both within and among breeds were ∼0.2%, but only 60% of the diversity present in wild populations from France was captured by domestic rabbits. Despite the recent origin of most breeds, levels of population differentiation were high (FST = 17.9%), but the majority of polymorphisms were shared and thus transferable among breeds. Coalescent simulations suggest that domestication began with a small founding population of less than 1,200 individuals. Taking into account the complex demographic history of domestication with two successive bottlenecks, two loci showed deviations that were consistent with artificial selection, including GPC4, which is known to be associated with growth rates in humans. Levels of diversity were not significantly different between autosomal and X-linked loci, providing no evidence for differential contributions of males and females to the domesticated gene pool. The structure of LD differed substantially within and among breeds. Within breeds, LD extends over large genomic distances. Markers separated by 400 kb typically showed r2 higher than 0.2, and some LD extended up to 3,200 kb

  19. Crude oil pricing in Asia and future problems; Asia no gen`yu pricing to kongo no kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes pricing factors of crude oil for Asia and future problems. Price of the Middle East crude oil for Asia is determined by linking the spot price of Dubayy crude oil using as a marker. Factors affecting the pricing of marker crude oil include the information dispatching functions for prices of spot market and paper market of marker crude oil, the presence of competitive crude oil, and the correlation between market of oil products and price of crude oil. The paper market of Dubayy crude oil with a small scale of trading provides poor impact and transparency. In Asia, there is no strong competitive crude oil except the Middle East crude oil. There is only a weak price linking between crude oil and products. These are the background that the price of Middle East crude oil stays at the high level and the price adjusting functions are hard to work. The marker crude oil should be changed to another except Dubayy crude oil, and information should be dispatched from purchasers based on the stable standard crude oil. The real paper market should be created, and the force of speaking to oil producing countries should be enhanced by concentrating forces of major oil consuming countries in Asia. It is necessary to find out competitive crude oils. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Endogenous Retroviruses in Domestic Animals (United States)

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Sistiaga-Poveda, Maialen; Jugo, Begoña Marina


    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements that are present in a wide range of vertebrates. Although the study of ERVs has been carried out mainly in humans and model organisms, recently, domestic animals have become important, and some species have begun to be analyzed to gain further insight into ERVs. Due to the availability of complete genomes and the development of new computer tools, ERVs can now be analyzed from a genome-wide viewpoint. In addition, more experimental work is being carried out to analyze the distribution, expression and interplay of ERVs within a host genome. Cats, cattle, chicken, dogs, horses, pigs and sheep have been scrutinized in this manner, all of which are interesting species in health and economic terms. Furthermore, several studies have noted differences in the number of endogenous retroviruses and in the variability of these elements among different breeds, as well as their expression in different tissues and the effects of their locations, which, in some cases, are near genes. These findings suggest a complex, intriguing relationship between ERVs and host genomes. In this review, we summarize the most important in silico and experimental findings, discuss their implications and attempt to predict future directions for the study of these genomic elements. PMID:25132796

  1. Characteristics and consequences of psychopathic domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danka M.


    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem to which more attention is paid today. However, in its theoretical consideration, as well as in practical reaction, one must not lose sight of characteristics of domestic violence of one, rather numerous category of perpetrators who have psychopathic structure of personality. Domestic violence which offenders are psychopaths must be treated very carefully, because each mistake in intervention can cause much bigger damage to the victim than absence of reaction at all. Due to that, before any intervention, it would be necessary to make a diagnosis on whether the perpetrator has psychopathic structure of personality or not.

  2. How fast was wild wheat domesticated? (United States)

    Tanno, Ken-Ichi; Willcox, George


    Prehistoric cultivation of wild wheat in the Fertile Crescent led to the selection of mutants with indehiscent (nonshattering) ears, which evolved into modern domestic wheat. Previous estimates suggested that this transformation was rapid, but our analyses of archaeological plant remains demonstrate that indehiscent domesticates were slow to appear, emerging approximately 9500 years before the present, and that dehiscent (shattering) forms were still common in cultivated fields approximately 7500 years before the present. Slow domestication implies that after cultivation began, wild cereals may have remained unchanged for a long period, supporting claims that agriculture originated in the Near East approximately 10,500 years before the present.

  3. Domestication and Breeding of Jatropha curcas L. (United States)

    Montes, Juan M; Melchinger, Albrecht E


    Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species. Altogether, the outlook is promising for accelerating the domestication of jatropha by applying modern scientific methods and novel technologies developed in plant breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Control challenges in domestic heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Honglian; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Weitzmann, Peter


    The objective of this paper is to analyze domestic heating applications and identify unfavorable building constructions and control challenges to be addressed by high performance heating control systems. Heating of domestic houses use a large amount of the total energy consumption in Scandinavia....... Hence the potential of reducing energy consumption by applying high performance control is vast. Indoor climate issues are becoming more in focus, which also leads to a demand for high performance heating systems. The paper presents an analysis of how the building elements of today's domestic houses...... with water based floor heating affect the control challenge. The analysis is documented with simulation results....

  5. Performance Optimization of Centrifugal Pump for Crude Oil Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.I. Bellary


    Full Text Available Crude oil transport is an essential task in oil and gas industries, where centrifugal pumps are extensively used. The design of a centrifugal pump involves a number of independent parameters which affect the pump performance. Altering some of the parameters within a realistic range improves pump performance and saves a significant amount of energy. The present research investigated the pump characteristics by modifying the number of blades and the exit blade-angles. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with standard k-ε two-equation turbulence closure were used for steady and incompressible flow of crude oil through the pump. The experimental set-up was installed and the pump performance calculated numerically  was compared with the experiments.   The investigations showed that the number of blades and the exit blade-angles have a significant influence on the head, shaft power, and efficiency. The vortical flow structures, recirculation and reverse flow characteristics around the impeller were investigated to explain the flow dynamics of impeller and casing. A larger number of blades on the rotor showed dominant streamlined flow without any wake phenomena. The combined effect of the number of blades and exit blade angle has led to an increase in head and efficiency through the parametric optimization.

  6. Fatty acid fragmentation of triacylglycerol isolated from crude nyamplung oil (United States)

    Aparamarta, Hakun Wirawasista; Anggraini, Desy; Istianingsih, Della; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Widjaja, Arief; Ju, Yi-Hsu; Gunawan, Setiyo


    Nyamplung (Calophylluminophyllum) has many benefits ranging from roots, stems, leaves, until seeds. In this seed, C. inophyllum contained significantly high amount of crude oil (70.4%). C. inophyllum oil is known as non edible. Therefore Indonesian people generally only know that seeds can produce oil that can be used for biodiesel. In this work, the fragmentation of fatty acid in triacylglycerols (TAG) was studied. The isolation process was started with separation of non polar lipid fraction (NPLF) from crude C. inophyllum oil via batchwise multistage liquid extraction. TAG was obtained in high purity (99%) and was analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). It was found that fatty acids of TAG are palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1c), linoleic acid (C18:2c), and linolenic acid (C18:3c). Moreover, TAG isolated from C. inophyllum oil was promising as edible oil.

  7. Effects of Louisiana crude oil on the sheepshead minnow ... (United States)

    Determining the long-term effects of crude oil exposure is critical for ascertaining population-level ecological risks of spill events. A 19-week complete life-cycle experiment was conducted with the estuarine sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) exposed to reference (uncontaminated) sediment spiked with laboratory weathered South Louisiana crude (SLC) oil at five concentrations as well as one unspiked sediment control and one seawater (no sediment) control. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to the oiled sediments at measured concentrations of fish were assessed for growth, survival, and reproduction. Resulting F1 embryos were then collected, incubated, and hatched in clean water to determine if parental full life-cycle exposure to oiled sediment produced trans-generational effects. Larvae experienced significantly reduced standard length (5–13% reduction) and wet weight (13–35% reduction) at concentrations at and above 50 and 103 mg tPAH/kg sediment, respectively. At 92 and 132 days post hatch (dph), standard length was reduced (7–13% reduction) at 199 and 109 mg tPAH/kg dry sediment, respectively, and wet weight for both time periods was reduced

  8. Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien [Department of Finance, Chung Yuan Christian University (China); Hu, Hsu-Ning [Department of Money, Banking and Finance, TamKang University (China); Chiou, Jer-Shiou [Department of Finance and Banking, Shih Chien University, 70 Ta-Chih Street, Taipei 104 (China)


    This study investigates the joint phenomena of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance and jump intensity along with verification of structural breaks for crude oil prices. We adopt a Component-ARJI model with structural break analysis, utilizing daily data on West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot and futures contracts. The analytical results verify the existence of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance, with the permanent component of conditional variance increasing with the occurrence of a sudden major event (such as the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm and the war between the US and Iraq), and a relatively greater increase in the transitory component over the same period. Notably, jump intensity fluctuates with an increase in the transitory component of conditional variance in response to abnormal events. It is the transitory component which serves as the primary influential factor for jumps in returns; therefore, speculators are willing to take large risks, particularly with respect to anticipating future price movements, or gambling, in the hopes of rapidly making substantial gains; thus, speculators prefer the temporary volatility component and engage in trade activities. However, investors prefer the permanent volatility component, because they may well be better off relocating their assets into more stable portfolios to outperform the market portfolio over the long run. (author)

  9. Crude oil contamination of plastic and copper drinking water pipes. (United States)

    Huang, Xiangning; Andry, Stephane; Yaputri, Jessica; Kelly, Devin; Ladner, David A; Whelton, Andrew J


    This study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of plastic (i.e., PEX, HDPE and CPVC) and copper pipes to short-term contamination by crude oil. Pipes were exposed to highly and slightly contaminated drinking water for the typical duration of Do Not Use drinking water orders. PEX pipes sorbed and desorbed the greatest amount of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), whereas copper pipes were less susceptible to contamination. For benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) quantified in water, only benzene exceeded its health based maximum contaminant level (MCL). The MCL was exceeded for copper pipe on day 3, for CPVC pipe through day 9, and PEX and HDPE pipes through day 15. The BTEX compound concentration in water after the pipes were returned to service depended on the initial crude oil concentration, material type, and exposure duration. Total organic carbon (TOC) measurement was not helpful in detecting oil contaminated water. Except BTEX, trimethylbenzene isomers and a couple of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with and without MCLs were also detected desorbing from PEX-A pipe. Oil contaminated water must be thoroughly characterized and pipe type will influence the ability of drinking water levels to return to safe limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Sugato


    Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.

  11. Language disorders in victims of domestic violence in children's homes. (United States)

    Cobos-Cali, Martha; Ladera, Valentina; Perea, María Victoria; García, Ricardo


    Studies that deal with child maltreatment have become relevant during these past years. One important aspect to consider is the impact of maltreatment on the cognitive functioning and more precisely on language. Our objective is to analyze the different components in the comprehension and production of language in children victims of domestic abuse in Childreńs Homes. The sample consists of 104 participants divided in two groups. A group of children who have just been institutionalized due to domestic abuse (VG) (Age: 8 years 2 months with a standard deviation of 1, 5 years) without previous treatment; a group of comparison (CG) made up by children who have not been victim of domestic violence (Age: 8 years 6 months with a standard deviation of 2 years and a month), with similar characteristics of gender, age and schooling. The Child Neuropsychological Assessment by Matute, Rosselli, Ardila and Ostrosky (2007) was applied. This test includes metalinguistic, oral and written comprehension and expression skills. The VG group showed low scores in all components of the analyzed language with exception to the discourse, syllable and non-word dictation compared to the CG children. The alterations of the language observed in these children semantic suggest a lack of consolidation of phonological coding and a low use of code. From our findings an early language evaluation in these children can be of especial interest to apply timely intervention programs with the aim of diminishing the impact caused by domestic violence on school failure which is a frequent trait in these children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Housing associations and ventilation. Program Requirements for Domestic Ventilation for new construction and renovation (version 2.0); Woningcorporaties en ventilatie. Programma van Eisen voor Woningventilatie voor nieuwbouw en renovatie (versie 2.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balvers, J.; Boerstra, A. [BBA Binnenmilieu, Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    The aim of the title project is to develop a base of Program Requirements (PvE, abbreviated in Dutch) that employees of housing associations can use as a starting point to achieve ventilation systems in new construction and renovation of housing projects. The tool comprises of three parts: Instructions the for use of the PvE (Chapter 1); PvE for homes with balanced ventilation, including explanatory notes (Chapter 2); PvE for homes with natural ventilation and mechanical exhaust system, including explanatory notes (Chapter 3) [Dutch] Het doel van het project is het ontwikkelen van een basis Programma van Eisen (PvE) dat medewerkers van woningcorporaties als uitgangspunt kunnen gebruiken bij het realiseren van ventilatiesystemen in nieuwbouw en renovatie van woningbouwprojecten. Het instrument bestaat uit 3 delen: Aanwijzingen voor het gebruik van de PvE's (hoofdstuk 1); PvE voor woningen met balansventilatie, inclusief toelichting (hoofdstuk 2); PvE voor woningen met natuurlijke luchttoevoer en mechanische luchtafvoer, inclusief toelichting (hoofdstuk 3)

  13. An Exploratory Study on the Impact of Domestic Violence on the Families in Trinidad and Tobago, the West Indies. (United States)

    Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan


    The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of domestic violence on the economic condition of the families. This cross-sectional study utilized a non-probability sampling procedure (purposive sampling) that included 30 women who have sought services from the Coalition Against Domestic Violence Agency. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which was comprised of 21 questions. The questions sought information on socioeconomic conditions and impact on domestic violence on the financial position. The study revealed that more of domestic violence victims were at an early age. Recommendations for future research include identifying the major causes for family disorganization and break down in the families arise out of domestic violence and other associated factors where explored while emphasizing the importance of family-based programs that minimize the impact.

  14. Isolation and characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from the Persian Gulf (Khorramshahr provenance). (United States)

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Zeynalipour, Mohammad Saleh; Musa, Farzaneh Hosseinzadeh


    Fifteen crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from oil contaminated sites in the Persian Gulf at Khorramshahr provenance. These bacteria were screened with two important factors such as growth rate on crude oil and hydrocarbon biodegradation, and then three strains were selected from 15 isolated strains for further study. One strain (PG-Z) that show the best crude oil biodegradation was selected between all isolates. Nucleotides sequencing of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that strain PG-Z belong to Corynebacterium variabile genus. This strain was efficient in degrading of crude oil. This strain was capable to degraded 82% of crude-oil after one week incubation in ONR7a medium. The PG-Z strain had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production between all isolates. GC-MS analysis shows that C. variabile strain PG-Z can degrade different alkanes in crude oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of biosurfactant produced from peanut oil cake by Lactobacillus delbrueckii in biodegradation of crude oil. (United States)

    Thavasi, Rengathavasi; Jayalakshmi, Singaram; Banat, Ibrahim M


    Lactobacillus delbrueckii cultured with peanut oil cake as the carbon source yielded 5.35 mg ml(-1) of biosurfactant production. Five sets of microcosm biodegradation experiments were carried out with crude oil as follows: set 1 - bacterial cells+crude oil, set 2 - bacterial cells+crude oil+fertilizer, set 3 - bacterial cells+crude oil+biosurfactant, set 4 - bacterial cells+crude oil+biosurfactant+fertilizer, set 5 - with no bacterial cells, fertilizer and biosurfactant (control). Maximum degradation of crude oil was observed in set 4 (75%). Interestingly, when biosurfactant and bacterial cells were used (set 3), significant oil biodegradation activity occurred and the difference between this treatment and that in set 4 was 7% higher degradation level in microcosm experiments. It is evident from the results that biosurfactants alone is capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Policy paradigms, transnationalism, and domestic politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skogstad, Grace Darlene


    Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms -- the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain...

  17. Understanding the National Domestic Waste Collection Standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH


    Full Text Available The Department of Environmental Affairs with the assistance of the CSIR, developed the National Domestic Waste Collection Standards, which contain a range of service standards appropriate to different contexts. The standards, which came into effect...

  18. Origin and domestication of Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de I.M.


    The domestication of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. is described on the basis of literature study. The centre of origin is discussed. A historical survey is made of the distribution of the groups of Lactuca cultivars over the world.

  19. Performance evaluation of biosimulator for treating domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Performance evaluation of biosimulator for treating domestic wastewater using activated sludge treatment system. HASHMI IMRAN. Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Tamiz uddin Road, Rawalpindi,. Pakistan. ABSTRACT: This research investigation was ...

  20. Electric energy saving potential by substitution of domestic refrigerators in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-Cabanas, F.G. [Posgrado en Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 20-364, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C.P. 05500 (Mexico); Programa de Energia, Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, San Lorenzo 290, Col. Del Valle, Del. Benito Juarez, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C.P. 03100 (Mexico); Aguillon-Martinez, J.E. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 20-364, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C.P. 05500 (Mexico); Ambriz-Garcia, J.J. [Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, C.P. 09340, Iztapalapa, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Canizal, G. [Programa de Energia, Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, San Lorenzo 290, Col. Del Valle, Del. Benito Juarez, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C.P. 03100 (Mexico)


    We evaluate the potential for electric power saving in Mexico that would follow the substitution of old, low efficiency domestic refrigerators with modern, high efficiency ones. Our results indicate that a total substitution of domestic refrigerators would save 4.7 TWh/year, which represents 33% of the annual total consumption of 14.1 TWh. Assuming an average daily use of 14 h for domestic refrigeration, 900 MW of electricity would be saved. An annual substitution of 20% over 5 years would save approximately 1 TWh a year and almost 180 MW would be released. It is recommended that this program of replacement should be supported by the Federal and State governments, beginning with the States (which have more direct influence), and with the oldest, least efficient refrigerators along the lines followed in programs that introduced fluorescent compact lamps. (author)