Sample records for program digital forensics

  1. Digital Records Forensics: A New Science and Academic Program for Forensic Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Duranti


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Digital Records Forensics project, a research endeavour located at the University of British Columbia in Canada and aimed at the development of a new science resulting from the integration of digital forensics with diplomatics, archival science, information science and the law of evidence, and of an interdisciplinary graduate degree program, called Digital Records Forensics Studies, directed to professionals working for law enforcement agencies, legal firms, courts, and all kind of institutions and business that require their services. The program anticipates the need for organizations to become “forensically ready,” defined by John Tan as “maximizing the ability of an environment to collect credible digital evidence while minimizing the cost of an incident response (Tan, 2001.” The paper argues the need for such a program, describes its nature and content, and proposes ways of delivering it.

  2. Digital Forensics


    Garfinkel, Simson L.


    A reprint from American Scientist the magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society Since the 1980s, computers have had increasing roles in all aspects of human life—including an involvement in criminal acts. This development has led to the rise of digital forensics, the uncovering and examination of evidence located on all things electronic with digital storage, including computers, cell phones, and networks. Digital forensics researchers and practitione...

  3. Digital Forensics (United States)

    Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott


    The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…


    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...

  5. Digital Forensics to Intelligent Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Irons


    Full Text Available In this paper we posit that current investigative techniques—particularly as deployed by law enforcement, are becoming unsuitable for most types of crime investigation. The growth in cybercrime and the complexities of the types of the cybercrime coupled with the limitations in time and resources, both computational and human, in addressing cybercrime put an increasing strain on the ability of digital investigators to apply the processes of digital forensics and digital investigations to obtain timely results. In order to combat the problems, there is a need to enhance the use of the resources available and move beyond the capabilities and constraints of the forensic tools that are in current use. We argue that more intelligent techniques are necessary and should be used proactively. The paper makes the case for the need for such tools and techniques, and investigates and discusses the opportunities afforded by applying principles and procedures of artificial intelligence to digital forensics intelligence and to intelligent forensics and suggests that by applying new techniques to digital investigations there is the opportunity to address the challenges of the larger and more complex domains in which cybercrimes are taking place.

  6. On the Development of Digital Forensics Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manghui Tu


    Full Text Available Computer Crime and computer related incidents continue their prevalence and frequency and result in loss of billions of dollars. To fight against those crimes and frauds, it is urgent to develop digital forensics education programs to train a suitable workforce to efficiently and effectively investigate crimes and frauds. However, there is no standard to guide the design of digital forensics curriculum for an academic program. In this research, we investigate the research works on digital forensics curriculum design and existing education programs.  Both digital forensics educators and practitioners were surveyed and the results are analyzed to determine what industry and law enforcement need. Based on the survey results and what the industry certificate programs cover, we identified topics that are desired to be covered in digital forensics courses. Finally, we propose six digital forensics courses and their topics that can be offered in both undergraduate and graduate digital forensics programs.

  7. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

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    Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick


    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  8. The Design of an Undergraduate Degree Program in Computer & Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C. Kessler


    Full Text Available Champlain College formally started an undergraduate degree program in Computer & Digital Forensics in 2003. The underlying goals were that the program be multidisciplinary, bringing together the law, computer technology, and the basics of digital investigations; would be available as on online and on-campus offering; and would have a process-oriented focus. Success of this program has largely been due to working closely with practitioners, maintaining activity in events related to both industry and academia, and flexibility to respond to ever-changing needs. This paper provides an overview of how this program was conceived, developed, and implemented; its evolution over time; and current and planned initiatives.

  9. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M


    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  10. On the Development of Digital Forensics Curriculum


    Manghui Tu; Dianxiang Xu; Cristian Balan; kyle Cronin


    Computer Crime and computer related incidents continue their prevalence and frequency and result in loss of billions of dollars. To fight against those crimes and frauds, it is urgent to develop digital forensics education programs to train a suitable workforce to efficiently and effectively investigate crimes and frauds. However, there is no standard to guide the design of digital forensics curriculum for an academic program. In this research, we investigate the research works on digital for...

  11. Aspects of Digital Forensics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ophoff


    Full Text Available This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cybercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digital forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration of current legislation, and an analysis of computer forensics course provision in South African universities. The paper argues that there is a need to develop digital forensics skills in South Africa through university programs, in addition to associated training courses. The intention in this paper is to promote debate and discussion in order to identify the cyber threats to South Africa and to encourage the development of a framework to counter the threats – through legislation, high tech law enforcement structures and protocols, digital forensics education, digital forensics skills development, and a public and business awareness of cybercrime threats.

  12. Digital forensics and its application to forensic audit


    Martinka, Jan


    This thesis aims to describe a process framework suitable for conducting digital forensics investigation projects as support for forensic audit. Selection of existing digital forensics investigation framework was a subject of criterial comparison. Described new framework is a result of combination and enhancement of those frameworks, which were suitable for the characteristics of forensic audit. Thesis also discusses digital forensics methods for fraud examination and risk assessment as a par...

  13. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available been developed. This article provides a brief overview of the current international standards in the digital forensics domain. It describes the necessity of international standards and briefly explains the international standard structure. This article...

  14. Procedures for a harmonised digital forensic process in live forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G


    Full Text Available . For these reasons, digital forensic investigations in cloud computing need to be performed on live systems. There are challenges in cloud forensics itself, as there are no standardised digital forensic procedures and processes. This paper is part of an effort...

  15. Digital forensics digital evidence in criminal investigations

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    Marshall, Angus McKenzie


    The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s

  16. Digital forensics for handheld devices

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    Doherty, Eamon P


    Approximately 80 percent of the world's population now owns a cell phone, which can hold evidence or contain logs about communications concerning a crime. Cameras, PDAs, and GPS devices can also contain information related to corporate policy infractions and crimes. Aimed to prepare investigators in the public and private sectors, Digital Forensics for Handheld Devices examines both the theoretical and practical aspects of investigating handheld digital devices. This book touches on all areas of mobile device forensics, including topics from the legal, technical, academic, and social aspects o

  17. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics (United States)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa


    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  18. Towards a Formalization of Digital Forensics (United States)

    Slay, Jill; Lin, Yi-Chi; Turnbull, Benjamin; Beckett, Jason; Lin, Paul

    While some individuals have referred to digital forensics as an art, the literature of the discipline suggests a trend toward the formalization of digital forensics as a forensic science. Questions about the quality of digital evidence and forensic soundness continue to be raised by researchers and practitioners in order to ensure the trustworthiness of digital evidence and its value to the courts. This paper reviews the development of digital forensic models, procedures and standards to lay a foundation for the discipline. It also points to new work that provides validation models through a complete mapping of the discipline.

  19. Computational intelligence in digital forensics forensic investigation and applications

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    Choo, Yun-Huoy; Abraham, Ajith; Srihari, Sargur


    Computational Intelligence techniques have been widely explored in various domains including forensics. Analysis in forensic encompasses the study of pattern analysis that answer the question of interest in security, medical, legal, genetic studies and etc. However, forensic analysis is usually performed through experiments in lab which is expensive both in cost and time. Therefore, this book seeks to explore the progress and advancement of computational intelligence technique in different focus areas of forensic studies. This aims to build stronger connection between computer scientists and forensic field experts.   This book, Computational Intelligence in Digital Forensics: Forensic Investigation and Applications, is the first volume in the Intelligent Systems Reference Library series. The book presents original research results and innovative applications of computational intelligence in digital forensics. This edited volume contains seventeen chapters and presents the latest state-of-the-art advancement ...

  20. Cognitive Approaches for Digital Forensic Readiness Planning


    Pooe, Antonio; Labuschagne, Les


    Part 2: FORENSIC MODELS; International audience; This paper focuses on the use of cognitive approaches for digital forensic readiness planning. Research has revealed that a well-thought-out and legally contextualized digital forensic readiness strategy can provide organizations with an increased ability to respond to security incidents while maintaining the integrity of the evidence gathered and keeping investigative costs low. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge in digital forens...

  1. Aspects of Digital Forensics in South Africa


    Jacques Ophoff; Alastair Irons


    This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cy-bercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digi-tal forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration...

  2. Digital forensics in the cloud: The state of the art

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G


    Full Text Available The advent of cloud computing has brought new challenges to digital forensics. To address these challenges, new approaches in conducting digital forensic are required. In this paper, challenges that are faced by digital forensic investigator when...

  3. First Digit Law and Its Application to Digital Forensics (United States)

    Shi, Yun Q.

    Digital data forensics, which gathers evidence of data composition, origin, and history, is crucial in our digital world. Although this new research field is still in its infancy stage, it has started to attract increasing attention from the multimedia-security research community. This lecture addresses the first digit law and its applications to digital forensics. First, the Benford and generalized Benford laws, referred to as first digit law, are introduced. Then, the application of first digit law to detection of JPEG compression history for a given BMP image and detection of double JPEG compressions are presented. Finally, applying first digit law to detection of double MPEG video compressions is discussed. It is expected that the first digit law may play an active role in other task of digital forensics. The lesson learned is that statistical models play an important role in digital forensics and for a specific forensic task different models may provide different performance.

  4. Taxonomy of Challenges for Digital Forensics. (United States)

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S


    Since its inception, over a decade ago, the field of digital forensics has faced numerous challenges. Despite different researchers and digital forensic practitioners having studied and analysed various known digital forensic challenges, as of 2013, there still exists a need for a formal classification of these challenges. This article therefore reviews existing research literature and highlights the various challenges that digital forensics has faced for the last 10 years. In conducting this research study, however, it was difficult for the authors to review all the existing research literature in the digital forensic domain; hence, sampling and randomization techniques were employed to facilitate the review of the gathered literature. Taxonomy of the various challenges is subsequently proposed in this paper based on our review of the literature. The taxonomy classifies the large number of digital forensic challenges into four well-defined and easily understood categories. The proposed taxonomy can be useful, for example, in future developments of automated digital forensic tools by explicitly describing processes and procedures that focus on addressing specific challenges identified in this paper. However, it should also be noted that the purpose of this paper was not to propose any solutions to the individual challenges that digital forensics face, but to serve as a survey of the state of the art of the research area. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Cybercrime, digital forensics and jurisdiction

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    Chawki, Mohamed; Khan, Mohammad Ayoub; Tyagi, Sapna


    The purpose of law is to prevent the society from harm by declaring what conduct is criminal, and prescribing the punishment to be imposed for such conduct. The pervasiveness of the internet and its anonymous nature make cyberspace a lawless frontier where anarchy prevails. Historically, economic value has been assigned to visible and tangible assets. With the increasing appreciation that intangible data disseminated through an intangible medium can possess economic value, cybercrime is also being recognized as an economic asset. The Cybercrime, Digital Forensics  and Jurisdiction disseminate knowledge for everyone involved with understanding and preventing cybercrime - business entities, private citizens, and government agencies. The book is firmly rooted in the law demonstrating that a viable strategy to confront cybercrime must be international in scope.

  6. Handbook of digital forensics of multimedia data and devices

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    Li, Shujun


    Digital forensics and multimedia forensics are rapidly growing disciplines whereby electronic information is extracted and interpreted for use in a court of law. These two fields are finding increasing importance in law enforcement and the investigation of cybercrime as the ubiquity of personal computing and the internet becomes ever-more apparent. Digital forensics involves investigating computer systems and digital artefacts in general, while multimedia forensics is a sub-topic of digital forensics focusing on evidence extracted from both normal computer systems and special multimedia devices, such as digital cameras. This book focuses on the interface between digital forensics and multimedia forensics, bringing two closely related fields of forensic expertise together to identify and understand the current state-of-the-art in digital forensic investigation. Both fields are expertly attended to by contributions from researchers and forensic practitioners specializ ng in diverse topics such as forensic aut...

  7. Concept Mapping for Digital Forensic Investigations (United States)

    Tanner, April; Dampier, David

    Research in digital forensics has yet to focus on modeling case domain information involved in investigations. This paper shows how concept mapping can be used to create an excellent alternative to the popular checklist approach used in digital forensic investigations. Concept mapping offers several benefits, including creating replicable, reusable techniques, simplifying and guiding the investigative process, capturing and reusing specialized forensic knowledge, and supporting training and knowledge management activities. The paper also discusses how concept mapping can be used to integrate case-specific details throughout the investigative process.

  8. The modeling of a digital forensic readiness approach to WLAN digital forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, S


    Full Text Available digital forensics is seen as not only a counterproposal but as a solution to the rapid increase of cyber crime in WLANs. The key issue impacting WLAN digital forensics is that, it is an enormous challenge to intercept and preserve all the communications...

  9. Book Review: The Basics of Digital Forensics: The Primer for Getting Started in Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Larson


    Full Text Available Sammons, John. (2012. The Basics of Digital Forensics: The Primer for Getting Started in Digital Forensics. Waltham, MA: Syngress, 208 pages, Print Book ISBN: 9781597496612.eBook ISBN : 9781597496629. Print: US $29.95. eBook: US$20.97. Includes exercises, case studies, references, and index.Reviewed by Stephen Larson, PhD. Assistant Professor, Slippery Rock University of PAThe Basics of Digital Forensics: The Primer for Getting Started in Digital Forensics is well-named–it really is very basic. And it should be, as the book’s intended audience includes entry-level digital forensics professionals and complimentary fields such as law enforcement, legal, and general information security. Though the copyright is 2012, some of the data is from 2009, and there is mention of estimates for 2010.(see PDF for full review

  10. Managing digital evidence: the governance of digital forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available Governance in general is becoming increasingly important in contemporary management, but specifically the governance of Digital Forensics. In order to manage governance disciplines effectively, closer attention needs to be paid to the technical...

  11. Visualization Techniques for Digital forensics: A Survey


    Mr.Sushilkumar Chavhan, Ms.S.M.Nirkhi


    Digital crimes is big problem due to large numbersof data access and insufficient attack analysistechniques so there is the need for improvements inexisting digital forensics techniques. With growingsize of storage capacity these digital forensicinvestigations are getting more difficult.Visualization allows for displaying large amounts ofdata at once. Integrated visualization of datadistribution bars and rules, visualization ofbehaviour and comprehensive analysis, maps allowuser to analyze di...

  12. Science Column: Reconstruction: The Experimental Side of Digital Forensics

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    Fred Cohen


    Full Text Available Many in digital forensics seem to forget that the science part of digital forensics means experimentation and that implies a whole lot of things that most practitioners never learned.(see PDF for full column

  13. Science Column: Reconstruction: The Experimental Side of Digital Forensics


    Fred Cohen


    Many in digital forensics seem to forget that the science part of digital forensics means experimentation and that implies a whole lot of things that most practitioners never learned.(see PDF for full column)

  14. Digital forensic readiness in a cloud environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G


    Full Text Available represents a generic cloud service stack that is comprised of software as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and infrastructure as a service (IaaS). The third section represents our digital forensic service, which we integrate... as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software as a service (SaaS) (see Fig. 3). Depending on the level of service that a cloud service provider may choose to offer, the security services requirement as well as digital forensic...

  15. Automatic forensic face recognition from digital images. (United States)

    Peacock, C; Goode, A; Brett, A


    Digital image evidence is now widely available from criminal investigations and surveillance operations, often captured by security and surveillance CCTV. This has resulted in a growing demand from law enforcement agencies for automatic person-recognition based on image data. In forensic science, a fundamental requirement for such automatic face recognition is to evaluate the weight that can justifiably be attached to this recognition evidence in a scientific framework. This paper describes a pilot study carried out by the Forensic Science Service (UK) which explores the use of digital facial images in forensic investigation. For the purpose of the experiment a specific software package was chosen (Image Metrics Optasia). The paper does not describe the techniques used by the software to reach its decision of probabilistic matches to facial images, but accepts the output of the software as though it were a 'black box'. In this way, the paper lays a foundation for how face recognition systems can be compared in a forensic framework. The aim of the paper is to explore how reliably and under what conditions digital facial images can be presented in evidence.

  16. Toward a general ontology for digital forensic disciplines. (United States)

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S


    Ontologies are widely used in different disciplines as a technique for representing and reasoning about domain knowledge. However, despite the widespread ontology-related research activities and applications in different disciplines, the development of ontologies and ontology research activities is still wanting in digital forensics. This paper therefore presents the case for establishing an ontology for digital forensic disciplines. Such an ontology would enable better categorization of the digital forensic disciplines, as well as assist in the development of methodologies and specifications that can offer direction in different areas of digital forensics. This includes such areas as professional specialization, certifications, development of digital forensic tools, curricula, and educational materials. In addition, the ontology presented in this paper can be used, for example, to better organize the digital forensic domain knowledge and explicitly describe the discipline's semantics in a common way. Finally, this paper is meant to spark discussions and further research on an internationally agreed ontological distinction of the digital forensic disciplines. Digital forensic disciplines ontology is a novel approach toward organizing the digital forensic domain knowledge and constitutes the main contribution of this paper. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Digital Forensics as a Surreal Narrative (United States)

    Pollitt, Mark

    Digital forensics is traditionally approached either as a computer science problem or as an investigative problem. In both cases, the goal is usually the same: attempt to locate discrete pieces of information that are probative. In the computer science approach, characteristics of the data are utilized to include or exclude objects, data or metadata. The investigative approach reviews the content of the evidence to interpret the data in the light of known facts and elements of the crime in order to determine probative information or information of lead value. This paper explores two literary theories, narrative theory and surrealism, for potential application to the digital forensic process. Narrative theory focuses on the “story” that is represented by text. At some level, a storage device may be viewed as a series of interweaving, possibly multi-dimensional, narratives. Furthermore, the narratives themselves, coupled with the metadata from the file system and applications, may form a meta-narrative. The literary theory of surrealism, the notion of disjointed elements, can be utilized to derive meaning from forensic evidence. This paper uses a technique known as surrealist games to illustrate the point.

  18. System-Generated Digital Forensic Evidence in Graphic Design Applications


    Enos Mabuto; Hein Venter


    Graphic design applications are often used for the editing and design of digital art. The same applications can be used for creating counterfeit documents such as identity documents (IDs), driver’s licences, passports, etc. However, the use of any graphic design application leaves behind traces of digital information that can be used during a digital forensic investigation. Current digital forensic tools examine a system to find digital evidence, but they do not examine a system specifically ...

  19. Scenario-Based Digital Forensics Challenges in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Miranda Lopez


    Full Text Available The aim of digital forensics is to extract information to answer the 5Ws (Why, When, Where, What, and Who from the data extracted from the evidence. In order to achieve this, most digital forensic processes assume absolute control of digital evidence. However, in a cloud environment forensic investigation, this is not always possible. Additionally, the unique characteristics of cloud computing create new technical, legal and architectural challenges when conducting a forensic investigation. We propose a hypothetical scenario to uncover and explain the challenges forensic practitioners face during cloud investigations. Additionally, we also provide solutions to address the challenges. Our hypothetical case scenario has shown that, in the long run, better live forensic tools, development of new methods tailored for cloud investigations and new procedures and standards are indeed needed. Furthermore, we have come to the conclusion that forensic investigations biggest challenge is not technical but legal.

  20. Digital image forensics for photographic copying (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Fang, Yanmei


    Image display technology has greatly developed over the past few decades, which make it possible to recapture high-quality images from the display medium, such as a liquid crystal display(LCD) screen or a printed paper. The recaptured images are not regarded as a separate image class in the current research of digital image forensics, while the content of the recaptured images may have been tempered. In this paper, two sets of features based on the noise and the traces of double JPEG compression are proposed to identify these recaptured images. Experimental results showed that our proposed features perform well for detecting photographic copying.

  1. Digital imaging in the forensic post-mortem room. (United States)

    Crompton, Paul; Smith, Marc; Leadbeatter, Stephen; James, Ryk


    This paper describes the development of a specialist forensic post-mortem room, complete with digital imaging facilities, by the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff. It gives the background to the development of the facility, and briefly details the specifications before discussing the use of digital imaging in evidence and the need for a full-time specialist forensic medical photographer.

  2. The use of simulation in digital forensics teaching


    Crellin, Jonathan; Adda, Mo; Duke-Williams, Emma


    Simulation at different levels of fidelity has been used in education and training for many years. This paper will look at the use of simulation in this area of Computer Science education, and reports on a number of different simulation tools in use in the University of Portsmouth. Central to digital forensics education is a life cycle that involves forensically safe seizure of digital evidence, imaging of digital devices, their investigation, report writing, and acting as an expert witness i...

  3. System-Generated Digital Forensic Evidence in Graphic Design Applications

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    Enos Mabuto


    Full Text Available Graphic design applications are often used for the editing and design of digital art. The same applications can be used for creating counterfeit documents such as identity documents (IDs, driver’s licences, passports, etc. However, the use of any graphic design application leaves behind traces of digital information that can be used during a digital forensic investigation. Current digital forensic tools examine a system to find digital evidence, but they do not examine a system specifically for the creating of counterfeit documents created through the use of graphic design applications.The paper in hand reviews the system-generated digital forensic evidence gathered from certain graphic design applications, which indicates that a counterfeit document was created. This inference is made by associating the digital forensic information gathered with the possible actions taken, more specifically, the scanning, editing, saving and printing of counterfeit documents. The digital forensic information is gathered by analysing the files generated by the particular graphic design application used for creating the document. The acquired digital forensic information is corroborated to the creation of counterfeit documents and interpreted accordingly. In the end determining if a system was utilised for counterfeiting.

  4. Reconsidering Data Logging in Light of Digital Forensics (United States)

    Chou, Bin-Hui; Takahashi, Kenichi; Hori, Yoshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Logs record the events that have happened within in a system so they are considered the history of system activities. They are one of the objects that digital forensic investigators would like to examine when a security incident happens. However, logs were initially created for trouble shooting, and are not purposefully designed for digital forensics. Thus, enormous and redundant log data make analysis tasks complicated and time-consuming to find valuable information, and make logging-related techniques difficult utilized in some systems such as embedded systems. In this paper, we reconsider a data logging mechanism in terms of forensics and consequently, we propose purpose-based forensic logging. In purpose-based forensic logging, we only collect the required logs according to a specific purpose, which could decrease the space that logs occupy and may mitigate the analysis tasks during forensic investigations.

  5. Column: The Consortium of Digital Forensics Specialists (CDFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kelley


    Full Text Available Digital forensic practitioners are faced with an extraordinary opportunity. In fact, we may never again be faced with such an opportunity, and this opportunity will challenge us in ways we may never again be challenged.At this point in the history of the Digital Forensics profession, digital forensic specialists have the unique opportunity to help this profession emerge from its infancy. But for this profession to mature -- and to flourish -- individuals and organizations integral to the practice must assemble and shape its future. This is our opportunity. In fact, this is our mandate.(see PDF for full column

  6. Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs (United States)

    Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

    Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes

  7. Domain-Specific Languages for Digital Forensics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van den Bos (Jeroen); E. van Wyk; S. Zschaler


    textabstractDue to strict deadlines, custom requirements for nearly every case and the scale of digital forensic investigations, forensic software needs to be extremely flexible. There is a clear separation between different types of knowledge in the domain, making domain-specific languages (DSLs) a

  8. The Case for Open Source Software in Digital Forensics (United States)

    Zanero, Stefano; Huebner, Ewa

    In this introductory chapter we discuss the importance of the use of open source software (OSS), and in particular of free software (FLOSS) in computer forensics investigations including the identification, capture, preservation and analysis of digital evidence; we also discuss the importance of OSS in computer forensics

  9. The Application of Peer Teaching in Digital Forensics Education (United States)

    Govan, Michelle


    The field of digital forensics requires a multidisciplinary understanding of a range of diverse subjects, but is interdisciplinary (in using principles, techniques and theories from other disciplines) encompassing both computer and forensic science. This requires that practitioners have a deep technical knowledge and understanding, but that they…

  10. Digital forensic science : a manifesto : viewpoint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olivier, Martin


    Most members of the public probably had a rather vague notion of forensic science until various TV shows - starting with CSI - carried an image of a forensic utopia into our living rooms on a weekly basis...

  11. [Possibilities of use of digital imaging in forensic medicine]. (United States)

    Gaval'a, P; Ivicsics, I; Mlynár, J; Novomeský, F


    Based on the daily practice with digital photography and documentation, the authors point out the achievements of the computer technologies implementation to the practice of forensic medicine. The modern methods of imaging, especially the digital photography, offer a wide spectrum of use in forensic medicine--the digital documentation and archivation of autopsy findings, the possibility of immediate consultation of findings with another experts via Internet, and many others. Another possibility is a creation of digital photographic atlas of forensic medicine as a useful aid in pre- and postgradual study. Thus the application of the state-of-the-art computer technologies to the forensic medicine discloses the unknown before possibilities for further development of such a discipline of human medical sciences.

  12. The Beginning of the End for Digital Forensic Recovery?


    Graeme Baxter Bell; Richard Boddington


    Digital evidence is increasingly relied upon in computer forensic examinations and legal proceedings in the modern courtroom. The primary storage technology used for digital information has remained constant over the last two decades, in the form of the magnetic disc. Consequently, investigative, forensic, and judicial procedures are well-established for magnetic disc storage devices (Carrier, 2005). However, a paradigm shift has taken place in technology storage and complex, transistor-bas...

  13. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography]. (United States)

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A


    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation).

  14. The Forensic Curator: Digital Forensics as a Solution to Addressing the Curatorial Challenges Posed by Personal Digital Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Knight


    Full Text Available The growth of computing technology during the previous three decades has resulted in a large amount of content being created in digital form. As their creators retire or pass away, an increasing number of personal data collections, in the form of digital media and complete computer systems, are being offered to the academic institutional archive. For the digital curator or archivist, the handling and processing of such digital material represents a considerable challenge, requiring development of new processes and procedures. This paper outlines how digital forensic methods, developed by the law enforcement and legal community, may be applied by academic digital archives. It goes on to describe the strategic and practical decisions that should be made to introduce forensic methods within an existing curatorial infrastructure and how different techniques, such as forensic hashing, timeline analysis and data carving, may be used to collect information of a greater breadth and scope than may be gathered through manual activities.

  15. Problem Based Learning in Digital Forensics (United States)

    Irons, Alastair; Thomas, Paula


    The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the efforts of two universities to address the issue of providing computer forensics students with the opportunity to get involved in the practical aspects of forensic search and seizure procedures. The paper discusses the approaches undertaken by the University of Sunderland and the University…

  16. Visualizing Digital Forensic Datasets: A Proof of Concept. (United States)

    Tassone, Christopher F R; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond


    Digital forensic visualization is an understudied area despite its potential to achieve significant improvements in the efficiency of an investigation, criminal or civil. In this study, a three-stage forensic data storage and visualization life cycle is presented. The first stage is the decoding of data, which involves preparing both structured and unstructured data for storage. In the storage stage, data are stored within our proposed database schema designed for ensuring data integrity and speed of storage and retrieval. The final stage is the visualization of stored data in a manner that facilitates user interaction. These functionalities are implemented in a proof of concept to demonstrate the utility of the proposed life cycle. The proof of concept demonstrates the utility of the proposed approach for the storage and visualization of digital forensic data. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Evaluating Digital Forensic Options for the Apple iPad


    Hay, Andrew; Krill, Dennis; Kuhar, Benjamin; Peterson, Gilbert


    Part 5: ADVANCED FORENSIC TECHNIQUES; International audience; The iPod Touch, iPhone and iPad from Apple are among the most popular mobile computing platforms in use today. These devices are of forensic interest because of their high adoption rate and potential for containing digital evidence. The uniformity in their design and underlying operating system (iOS) also allows forensic tools and methods to be shared across product types. This paper analyzes the tools and methods available for con...

  18. Digital forensics: an analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM). (United States)

    Bulbul, Halil Ibrahim; Yavuzcan, H Guclu; Ozel, Mesut


    In order to ensure that digital evidence is collected, preserved, examined, or transferred in a manner safeguarding the accuracy and reliability of the evidence, law enforcement and digital forensic units must establish and maintain an effective quality assurance system. The very first part of this system is standard operating procedures (SOP's) and/or models, conforming chain of custody requirements, those rely on digital forensics "process-phase-procedure-task-subtask" sequence. An acceptable and thorough Digital Forensics (DF) process depends on the sequential DF phases, and each phase depends on sequential DF procedures, respectively each procedure depends on tasks and subtasks. There are numerous amounts of DF Process Models that define DF phases in the literature, but no DF model that defines the phase-based sequential procedures for crime scene identified. An analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM) that we suggest in this paper is supposed to fill in this gap. The proposed analytical procedure model for digital investigations at a crime scene is developed and defined for crime scene practitioners; with main focus on crime scene digital forensic procedures, other than that of whole digital investigation process and phases that ends up in a court. When reviewing the relevant literature and interrogating with the law enforcement agencies, only device based charts specific to a particular device and/or more general perspective approaches to digital evidence management models from crime scene to courts are found. After analyzing the needs of law enforcement organizations and realizing the absence of crime scene digital investigation procedure model for crime scene activities we decided to inspect the relevant literature in an analytical way. The outcome of this inspection is our suggested model explained here, which is supposed to provide guidance for thorough and secure implementation of digital forensic procedures at a crime scene. In digital forensic

  19. The modelling of a digital forensic readiness approach for wireless local area networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, S


    Full Text Available generated by the mobile stations and to conduct a proper digital forensic investigation. This paper attempts to address this issue by proposing a wireless digital forensic readiness model designed to monitor, log and preserve wireless network traffic...

  20. Leveraging CybOX™ to standardize representation and exchange of digital forensic information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casey, Eoghan; Back, Greg; Barnum, Sean


      With the growing number of digital forensic tools and the increasing use of digital forensics in various contexts, including incident response and cyber threat intelligence, there is a pressing need...

  1. General finite state machine reasoning method for digital forensics (United States)

    Chen, Long; Wang, Guoyin


    Digital forensics investigator faces the challenge of reliability of forensic conclusions. Formal automatic analysis method is helpful to deal with the challenge. The finite state machine analysis method tries to determine all possible sequences of events that could have happened in a digital system during an incident. Its basic idea is to model the target system using a finite state machine and then explore its all possible states on the condition of available evidence. Timed mealy finite state machine is introduced to model the target system, and the formalization of system running process and evidence is presented to match the system running with possible source evidence automatically. Based on Gladyshev's basic reasoning method, general reasoning algorithms with multi strategies are developed to find the possible real scenarios. Case study and experimental results show that our method is feasible and adaptable to possible cases and takes a further step to practical formal reasoning for digital forensics.

  2. A Comprehensive and Harmonized Digital Forensic Investigation Process Model. (United States)

    Valjarevic, Aleksandar; Venter, Hein S


    Performing a digital forensic investigation (DFI) requires a standardized and formalized process. There is currently neither an international standard nor does a global, harmonized DFI process (DFIP) exist. The authors studied existing state-of-the-art DFIP models and concluded that there are significant disparities pertaining to the number of processes, the scope, the hierarchical levels, and concepts applied. This paper proposes a comprehensive model that harmonizes existing models. An effort was made to incorporate all types of processes proposed by the existing models, including those aimed at achieving digital forensic readiness. The authors introduce a novel class of processes called concurrent processes. This is a novel contribution that should, together with the rest of the model, enable more efficient and effective DFI, while ensuring admissibility of digital evidence. Ultimately, the proposed model is intended to be used for different types of DFI and should lead to standardization. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Comparing the performance of three digital forensic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Cusack

    Full Text Available Software used for digital forensic investigations requires to be verified against reliability and validity criteria. In this paper, three well known tools are tested against the mandatory features of digital forensic tools published by the National Institute of Standards (NIST. It was found that a variation in performance existed between the tools, with all having measureable areas of non performance. The findings have an impact on the professional use of the tools and illustrate the need for benchmarking and testing of the tools before use.

  4. IoT-Forensics Meets Privacy: Towards Cooperative Digital Investigations. (United States)

    Nieto, Ana; Rios, Ruben; Lopez, Javier


    IoT-Forensics is a novel paradigm for the acquisition of electronic evidence whose operation is conditioned by the peculiarities of the Internet of Things (IoT) context. As a branch of computer forensics, this discipline respects the most basic forensic principles of preservation, traceability, documentation, and authorization. The digital witness approach also promotes such principles in the context of the IoT while allowing personal devices to cooperate in digital investigations by voluntarily providing electronic evidence to the authorities. However, this solution is highly dependent on the willingness of citizens to collaborate and they may be reluctant to do so if the sensitive information within their personal devices is not sufficiently protected when shared with the investigators. In this paper, we provide the digital witness approach with a methodology that enables citizens to share their data with some privacy guarantees. We apply the PRoFIT methodology, originally defined for IoT-Forensics environments, to the digital witness approach in order to unleash its full potential. Finally, we show the feasibility of a PRoFIT-compliant digital witness with two use cases.

  5. Domain-Specific Optimization in Digital Forensics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van den Bos (Jeroen); T. van der Storm (Tijs); Z. Hu; J. de Lara


    htmlabstractFile carvers are forensic software tools used to recover data from storage devices in order to find evidence. Every legal case requires different trade-offs between precision and runtime performance. The resulting required changes to the software tools are performed manually and under

  6. Bringing Domain-Specific Languages to Digital Forensics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van den Bos (Jeroen); T. van der Storm (Tijs); R.N. Taylor; H. Gall; N. Medvidović


    textabstractDigital forensics investigations often consist of analyzing large quantities of data. The software tools used for analyzing such data are constantly evolved to cope with a multiplicity of versions and variants of data formats. This process of customization is time consuming and error

  7. Investigasi Email Spoofing dengan Metode Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRWS)


    Andri Lesmana Suryana; Reza El Akbar; Nur Widiyasono


    Email spoofing merupakan kegiatan melakukan manipulasi data pada header email. Serangan yang paling terkenal dari email spoofing adalah serangan phishing, Tujuan dilakukan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberi wawasan tentang cara kerja melakukan pengiriman email spoofing dan mampu melakukan identifikasi email spoofing dengan melakukan analsis pada header email yang diterima. Metodologi yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah DFRWS (Digital Forensics Research Workshop), karena setiap langkah ...

  8. Advanced Digital Forensic and Steganalysis Methods (United States)


    or other common processing operations). TECNOLOGY APPLICATIONS 1. Determining the origin of digital images 2. Matching an image to a camera...importance with widespread use of digital imagery for reconnaissance, remote sensing, intelligence gathering, command, control, and communication

  9. Digital Forensics Using Local Signal Statistics (United States)

    Pan, Xunyu


    With the rapid growth of the Internet and the popularity of digital imaging devices, digital imagery has become our major information source. Meanwhile, the development of digital manipulation techniques employed by most image editing software brings new challenges to the credibility of photographic images as the definite records of events. We…

  10. A Framework for Automated Digital Forensic Reporting (United States)


    use, the report should make a note that private browsing or history erasing may have been conducted. Media reporting (still image, audio and video...provide a wealth of revealing information when examining a case. In this context, digital media is defined as digital photos, video, and audio . Digital...can then be parsed with a regular expression and mapped to the PyFlag relevant fields for inclusion in the database. For example, a steganography

  11. Advanced framework for digital forensic technologies and procedures. (United States)

    Trček, Denis; Abie, Habtamu; Skomedal, Asmund; Starc, Iztok


    Recent trends in global networks are leading toward service-oriented architectures and sensor networks. On one hand of the spectrum, this means deployment of services from numerous providers to form new service composites, and on the other hand this means emergence of Internet of things. Both these kinds belong to a plethora of realms and can be deployed in many ways, which will pose serious problems in cases of abuse. Consequently, both trends increase the need for new approaches to digital forensics that would furnish admissible evidence for litigation. Because technology alone is clearly not sufficient, it has to be adequately supported by appropriate investigative procedures, which have yet become a subject of an international consensus. This paper therefore provides appropriate a holistic framework to foster an internationally agreed upon approach in digital forensics along with necessary improvements. It is based on a top-down approach, starting with legal, continuing with organizational, and ending with technical issues. More precisely, the paper presents a new architectural technological solution that addresses the core forensic principles at its roots. It deploys so-called leveled message authentication codes and digital signatures to provide data integrity in a way that significantly eases forensic investigations into attacked systems in their operational state. Further, using a top-down approach a conceptual framework for forensics readiness is given, which provides levels of abstraction and procedural guides embellished with a process model that allow investigators perform routine investigations, without becoming overwhelmed by low-level details. As low-level details should not be left out, the framework is further evaluated to include these details to allow organizations to configure their systems for proactive collection and preservation of potential digital evidence in a structured manner. The main reason behind this approach is to stimulate efforts

  12. Digital Forensics and Born-Digital Content in Cultural Heritage Collections. CLIR Publication No. 149 (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, Matthew G.; Ovenden, Richard; Redwine, Gabriela


    The purpose of this report is twofold: first, to introduce the field of digital forensics to professionals in the cultural heritage sector; and second, to explore some particular points of convergence between the interests of those charged with collecting and maintaining born-digital cultural heritage materials and those charged with collecting…

  13. Digital radiological research in forensic dental investigation: case studies. (United States)

    Nuzzolese, E; Di Vella, G


    The advent of dental digital radiology and new portable X-ray devices allows the execution of periapical X-ray images not only in the dental surgery but also in hitherto difficult locations such as field military hospitals, archaeological excavation sites, morgues and in cases of house arrest. In this work authors evaluated the feasibility of Nomad Examiner (Aribex inc.) handheld X-ray device combined with a digital sensor and a portable pc in forensic odontology applications. Employed for the first time forensically during the 2004 Tsunami victim identification process, the Nomad Examiner has now passed all security and conformity requirements of US and EU regulations. Examples of the practical use and the technical features of this device are seen when employed in odontological assessment of skeletonised and carbonized individuals and the assessment of individuals under house arrest complaining dental lesions. Results from the use this portable device demonstrate the benefits of a dental radiological assessment during an autopsy with the aim of human identification and the importance of a complete dental assessment (clinical and radiological) when evaluating dental traumatic lesions of individuals who cannot visit a dental surgery. In the first example forensic dentist would work alongside a forensic pathologist. On the other hand in the second example an odontologist - dentist could be appointed as an expert witness directly by a Court.

  14. The Digital Forensics and Security Challenge of QR Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Thompson


    Full Text Available The disciplines of digital forensics and IT security must adapt to new technologies and methods of interaction with those technologies.  New technologies present both challenges and opportunities for providing evidence for digital forensics investigations.  These may be in the form of new devices such as smartphones or new methods of sharing information, such as social networks.  One such rapidly emerging interaction technology is the use of Quick Response (QR codes.  These offer a physical mechanism for quick access to web sites for advertising and social interaction.  This paper argues that the common implementation of QR codes potentially presents security issues which must be considered.  It analyzes potential privacy problems with QR codes and studies a range of devices as they may have implications for the process of evidence collection and analysis.

  15. Digital Forensic Research: The Good, the Bad and the Unaddressed (United States)

    Beebe, Nicole

    Digital forensics is a relatively new scientific discipline, but one that has matured greatly over the past decade. In any field of human endeavor, it is important to periodically pause and review the state of the discipline. This paper examines where the discipline of digital forensics is at this point in time and what has been accomplished in order to critically analyze what has been done well and what ought to be done better. The paper also takes stock of what is known, what is not known and what needs to be known. It is a compilation of the author’s opinion and the viewpoints of twenty-one other practitioners and researchers, many of whom are leaders in the field. In synthesizing these professional opinions, several consensus views emerge that provide valuable insights into the “state of the discipline.”

  16. Digitized forensics: retaining a link between physical and digital crime scene traces using QR-codes (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana


    The digitization of physical traces from crime scenes in forensic investigations in effect creates a digital chain-of-custody and entrains the challenge of creating a link between the two or more representations of the same trace. In order to be forensically sound, especially the two security aspects of integrity and authenticity need to be maintained at all times. Especially the adherence to the authenticity using technical means proves to be a challenge at the boundary between the physical object and its digital representations. In this article we propose a new method of linking physical objects with its digital counterparts using two-dimensional bar codes and additional meta-data accompanying the acquired data for integration in the conventional documentation of collection of items of evidence (bagging and tagging process). Using the exemplary chosen QR-code as particular implementation of a bar code and a model of the forensic process, we also supply a means to integrate our suggested approach into forensically sound proceedings as described by Holder et al.1 We use the example of the digital dactyloscopy as a forensic discipline, where currently progress is being made by digitizing some of the processing steps. We show an exemplary demonstrator of the suggested approach using a smartphone as a mobile device for the verification of the physical trace to extend the chain-of-custody from the physical to the digital domain. Our evaluation of the demonstrator is performed towards the readability and the verification of its contents. We can read the bar code despite its limited size of 42 x 42 mm and rather large amount of embedded data using various devices. Furthermore, the QR-code's error correction features help to recover contents of damaged codes. Subsequently, our appended digital signature allows for detecting malicious manipulations of the embedded data.

  17. Malware Forensics Field Guide for Windows Systems Digital Forensics Field Guides

    CERN Document Server

    Malin, Cameron H; Aquilina, James M


    Dissecting the dark side of the Internet with its infectious worms, botnets, rootkits, and Trojan horse programs (known as malware) is a treaterous condition for any forensic investigator or analyst. Written by information security experts with real-world investigative experience, Malware Forensics Field Guide for Windows Systems is a "tool" with checklists for specific tasks, case studies of difficult situations, and expert analyst tips. *A condensed hand-held guide complete with on-the-job tasks and checklists *Specific for Windows-based systems, the largest running OS in the world

  18. 2016 LLNL Nuclear Forensics Summer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nuclear Forensics Summer Program is designed to give graduate students an opportunity to come to LLNL for 8–10 weeks for a hands-on research experience. Students conduct research under the supervision of a staff scientist, attend a weekly lecture series, interact with other students, and present their work in poster format at the end of the program. Students also have the opportunity to meet staff scientists one-on-one, participate in LLNL facility tours (e.g., the National Ignition Facility and Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), and gain a better understanding of the various science programs at LLNL.

  19. 2017 LLNL Nuclear Forensics Summer Internship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nuclear Forensics Summer Internship Program (NFSIP) is designed to give graduate students an opportunity to come to LLNL for 8-10 weeks of hands-on research. Students conduct research under the supervision of a staff scientist, attend a weekly lecture series, interact with other students, and present their work in poster format at the end of the program. Students can also meet staff scientists one-on-one, participate in LLNL facility tours (e.g., the National Ignition Facility and Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), and gain a better understanding of the various science programs at LLNL.

  20. Book Review: Digital Crime and Forensic Science in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C. Kessler


    Full Text Available Kanellis, P., Kiountouzis, E., Kolokotronis, N., & Martakos, D. (2006. Digital Crime and Forensic Science in Cyberspace. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 357 pages, ISBN: 1-59140-873-3 (paper, US$79.95.Reviewed by Gary C. KesslerThis book, according to the preface, "is intended for those who are interested in a critical overview of what forensic science is, care about privacy issues, and wish to know what constitutes evidence for computer crime." It goes on to say that the specific audiences for which it was written are students in academia and professionals in the industry.If used carefully, this book does a good job at providing a snapshot of some of the current issues in digital forensics, although perhaps best aimed at information security professionals. It is a collection of 15 chapters written by authors from Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, South Africa, the U.K., and the U.S. The international flavor of the writing is also welcome in the field.(see PDF for full review

  1. Development of a National Repository of Digital Forensic Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Weiser


    Full Text Available Many people do all of their banking online, we and our children communicate with peers through computer systems, and there are many jobs that require near continuous interaction with computer systems. Criminals, however, are also “connected”, and our online interaction provides them a conduit into our information like never before. Our credit card numbers and other fiscal information are at risk, our children's personal information is exposed to the world, and our professional reputations are on the line.The discipline of Digital Forensics in law enforcement agencies around the nation and world has grown to match the increased risk and potential for cyber crimes. Even crimes that are not themselves computer-based, may be solved or prosecuted based on digital evidence left behind by the perpetrator. However, no widely accepted mechanism to facilitate sharing of ideas and methodologies has emerged. Different agencies re-develop approaches that have been tested in other jurisdictions. Even within a single agency, there is often significant redundant work. There is great potential efficiency gain in sharing information from digital forensic investigations.This paper describes an on-going design and development project between Oklahoma State University’s Center for Telecommunications and Network Security and the Defense Cyber Crimes Center to develop a Repository of Digital Forensic Knowledge. In its full implementation, the system has potential to provide exceptional gains in efficiency for examiners and investigators. It provides a better conduit to share relevant information between agencies and a structure through which cases can be cross-referenced to have the most impact on a current investigation.

  2. Forensic detection of noise addition in digital images (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Ou, Bo; Wang, Yongbin


    We proposed a technique to detect the global addition of noise to a digital image. As an anti-forensics tool, noise addition is typically used to disguise the visual traces of image tampering or to remove the statistical artifacts left behind by other operations. As such, the blind detection of noise addition has become imperative as well as beneficial to authenticate the image content and recover the image processing history, which is the goal of general forensics techniques. Specifically, the special image blocks, including constant and strip ones, are used to construct the features for identifying noise addition manipulation. The influence of noising on blockwise pixel value distribution is formulated and analyzed formally. The methodology of detectability recognition followed by binary decision is proposed to ensure the applicability and reliability of noising detection. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed noising detector.

  3. Simplified digital infra red photography: an alternative tool in Bite mark forensic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo


    Full Text Available Background: Decades ago, documentation of forensics evidences such as bitemarks, bloodstains and others which required sophisticated photographic techniques and equipments such as infrared (IR and ultraviolet (UV photography, became a problem since they only use film that must be developed. Therefore, direct evaluation of the photographic result could not be directly visualized. The equipments prices were relatively high. Moreover, most of the equipments were still not available and relatively expensive; and converted IR digital camera could not use for regular photography. Recently, digital camera made image documentation and editing easier. Purpose: This review was aimed to explore the different characteristics and benefits of regular digital camera in IR forensic photography as well as to simplify the equipments needed. Reviews: IR photography becomes easier since certain digital cameras could capture the IR image by using IR filters or to be switched to IR camera. The regular non-SLR digital camera had certain advantages compared to SLRs, such in focusing. However, since not every digital camera has the ability to capture IR light, laser pointer or TV remote could be used as a tester. Conclusion: Knowledge about IR Bite mark photography, characteristics of regular digital camera and its accesories could reduce the budget for an ideal standard forensic photographic equipments by modifications.Latar belakang: Puluhan tahun silam, dokumentasi bukti forensik seperti teraan gigit, bercak darah dan sebagainya yang memerlukan teknik dan peralatan yang canggih seperti fotografi infra merah (IR dan ultraviolet (UV merupakan masalah karena memakai film yang harus diproses terlebih dahulu untuk mengetahui hasilnya. Akibatnya, hasil pemotretan tidak bisa langsung dievaluasi, selain itu harganya relatif mahal, kamera digital yang diubah menjadi kamera IR tidak bisa untuk pemotretan biasa. Saat ini kamera digital dan program komputer mempermudah

  4. Digital-forensics based pattern recognition for discovering identities in electronic evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henseler, Hans; Hofsté, Jop; van Keulen, Maurice

    With the pervasiveness of computers and mobile devices, digital forensics becomes more important in law enforcement. Detectives increasingly depend on the scarce support of digital specialists which impedes efficiency of criminal investigations. This paper proposes and algorithm to extract, merge

  5. Book Review: Digital Forensic Evidence Examination (2nd ed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler


    Full Text Available Cohen, F. (2010. Digital Forensic Evidence Examination (2nd ed.. Livermore, CA: ASP Press. 452 pages, ISBN: 978-1-878109-45-3, US$79.Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler, Gary Kessler Associates & Edith Cowan University (gck@garykessler.netOn the day that I sat down to start to write this review, the following e-mailcame across on one of my lists:Person A and Person B write back and forth and create an email thread. Person A then forwards the email to Person C, but changes some wording in the email exchange between A & B. What is the easiest way (and is it even possible to find out when that earlier email message was altered before sent to Person C?Before you try to answer these questions, read Fred Cohen's Digital Forensic Evidence Examination. His book won't actually tell you how to answer these questions but it will help you understand the difficulty in even trying to answer them with any level of certainty.(see PDF for full review

  6. Investigation delayed is justice denied: proposals for expediting forensic examinations of digital evidence. (United States)

    Casey, Eoghan; Ferraro, Monique; Nguyen, Lam


    There is an urgent need to reduce the growing backlog of forensic examinations in Digital Forensics Laboratories (DFLs). Currently, DFLs routinely create forensic duplicates and perform in-depth forensic examinations of all submitted media. This approach is rapidly becoming untenable as more cases involve increasing quantities of digital evidence. A more efficient and effective three-tiered strategy for performing forensic examinations will enable DFLs to produce useful results in a timely manner at different phases of an investigation, and will reduce unnecessary expenditure of resources on less serious matters. The three levels of forensic examination are described along with practical examples and suitable tools. Realizing that this is not simply a technical problem, we address the need to update training and establish thresholds in DFLs. Threshold considerations include the likelihood of missing exculpatory evidence and seriousness of the offense. We conclude with the implications of scaling forensic examinations to the investigation.

  7. A simple experiment with Microsoft Office 2010 and Windows 7 utilizing digital forensic methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Carlton


    Full Text Available Digital forensic examiners are tasked with retrieving data from digital storage devices, and frequently these examiners are expected to explain the circumstances that led to the data being in its current state. Through written reports or verbal, expert testimony delivered in court, digital forensic examiners are expected to describe whether data have been altered, and if so, then to what extent have data been altered. Addressing these expectations results from opinions digital forensic examiners reach concerning their understanding of electronic storage and retrieval methods. The credibility of these opinions evolves from the scientific basis from which they are drawn using forensic methodology.   Digital forensic methodology, being a scientific process, is derived from observations and repeatable findings in controlled environments. Furthermore, scientific research methods have established that causal conclusions can be drawn only when observed in controlled experiments. With this in mind, it seems beneficial that digital forensic examiners have a library of experiments from which they can perform, observe results, and derive conclusions. After having conducted an experiment on a specific topic, a digital forensic examiner will be in a better position to express with confidence the state of the current data and perhaps the conditions that led to its current state.   This study provides a simple experiment using the contemporary versions of the most widely used software applications running on the most commonly installed operation system. Here, using the Microsoft Office 2010 applications, a simple Word document, an Excel spreadsheet, a PowerPoint presentation, and an Access database are created and then modified. A forensic analysis is performed to determine the extent in which the changes to the data are identified. The value in this study is not that it yields new forensic analysis techniques, but rather that it illustrates a

  8. Defining a Standard for Reporting Digital Evidence Items in Computer Forensic Tools (United States)

    Bariki, Hamda; Hashmi, Mariam; Baggili, Ibrahim

    Due to the lack of standards in reporting digital evidence items, investigators are facing difficulties in efficiently presenting their findings. This paper proposes a standard for digital evidence to be used in reports that are generated using computer forensic software tools. The authors focused on developing a standard digital evidence items by surveying various digital forensic tools while keeping in mind the legal integrity of digital evidence items. Additionally, an online questionnaire was used to gain the opinion of knowledgeable and experienced stakeholders in the digital forensics domain. Based on the findings, the authors propose a standard for digital evidence items that includes data about the case, the evidence source, evidence item, and the chain of custody. Research results enabled the authors in creating a defined XML schema for digital evidence items.

  9. A note on digital dental radiography in forensic odontology. (United States)

    Chiam, Sher-Lin


    Digital dental radiography, intraoral and extraoral, is becoming more popular in dental practice. It offers convenience, such as lower exposure to radiation, ease of storing of images, and elimination of chemical processing. However, it also has disadvantages and drawbacks. One of these is the potential for confusion of the orientation of the image. This paper outlines one example of this, namely, the lateral inversion of the image. This source of confusion is partly inherent in the older model of phosphor storage plates (PSPs), as they allow both sides to be exposed without clue to the fact that the image is acquired on the wrong side. The native software allows digital manipulation of the X-ray image, permitting both rotation and inversion. Attempts to orientate the X-ray according to the indicator incorporated on the plate can then sometimes lead to inadvertent lateral inversion of the image. This article discusses the implications of such mistakes in dental digital radiography to forensic odontology and general dental practice.

  10. Investigasi Email Spoofing dengan Metode Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Lesmana Suryana


    Full Text Available Email spoofing merupakan kegiatan melakukan manipulasi data pada header email. Serangan yang paling terkenal dari email spoofing adalah serangan phishing, Tujuan dilakukan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberi wawasan tentang cara kerja melakukan pengiriman email spoofing dan mampu melakukan identifikasi email spoofing dengan melakukan analsis pada header email yang diterima. Metodologi yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah DFRWS (Digital Forensics Research Workshop, karena setiap langkah yang dilakukan dapat memberikan penjelasan yang lengkap. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah email spoofing dapat dikirimkan dengan memanfaatkan layanan web hosting yang menyediakan layanan untuk pengiriman email dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman PHP dan hasil selanjutnya adalah mengetahui perbedaan antara email spoofing dan email asli, perbedaan tersebut akan  diketahui dengan jelas ketika membuka header email rinci. Kata Kunci: DFRWS, Email, Investigasi , Phishing, Spoofing

  11. How to Find Exculpatory and Inculpatory Evidence Using a Circular Digital Forensics Process Model (United States)

    Khatir, Marjan; Hejazi, Seyed Mahmood

    With raising the number of cyber crimes, the need of having a proper digital forensic process also increases. Although digital forensics is practiced in recent years, there is still a big gap between previously suggested digital forensics processes and what is really needed to be done in real cases. Some problems with current processes are lack of flexible transition between phases, not having a clear method or a complete scenario for addressing reliable evidence, and not paying enough attention to management aspects and team roles. This paper provides a process model by paying special attention to the team roles and management aspects as well as both exculpatory and inculpatory evidence.

  12. Digital Stratigraphy: Contextual Analysis of File System Traces in Forensic Science. (United States)

    Casey, Eoghan


    This work introduces novel methods for conducting forensic analysis of file allocation traces, collectively called digital stratigraphy. These in-depth forensic analysis methods can provide insight into the origin, composition, distribution, and time frame of strata within storage media. Using case examples and empirical studies, this paper illuminates the successes, challenges, and limitations of digital stratigraphy. This study also shows how understanding file allocation methods can provide insight into concealment activities and how real-world computer usage can complicate digital stratigraphy. Furthermore, this work explains how forensic analysts have misinterpreted traces of normal file system behavior as indications of concealment activities. This work raises awareness of the value of taking the overall context into account when analyzing file system traces. This work calls for further research in this area and for forensic tools to provide necessary information for such contextual analysis, such as highlighting mass deletion, mass copying, and potential backdating. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. [The undergraduate program in forensic science: a national challenge]. (United States)

    García Castillo, Zoraida; Graue Wiechers, Enrique; Durante Montiel, Irene; Herrera Saint Leu, Patricia


    The challenge in achieving an ideal state of justice is that each "proof" has the highest degree of reliability. This is the main responsibility of the forensic scientist. Up to now, criminal investigations in Mexico have been supported by forensic work from a wide variety of disciplinary backgrounds that give testimony in a particular area, even though they may have become forensic witnesses in a complementary and experiential manner. In January 2013, the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) approved the "Forensic Science" undergraduate program that, in collaboration with various academic entities and government institutions, will develop forensic scientists trained in science, law, and criminology. This is focused on contributing to the national demand that the justice system has more elements to procure and administer justice in dealing with crime.

  14. Redeye: A Digital Library for Forensic Document Triage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, Paul Logasa [ORNL; McKenzie, Amber T [ORNL; Gillen, Rob [ORNL


    Forensic document analysis has become an important aspect of investigation of many different kinds of crimes from money laundering to fraud and from cybercrime to smuggling. The current workflow for analysts includes powerful tools, such as Palantir and Analyst s Notebook, for moving from evidence to actionable intelligence and tools for finding documents among the millions of files on a hard disk, such as FTK. However, the analysts often leave the process of sorting through collections of seized documents to filter out the noise from the actual evidence to a highly labor-intensive manual effort. This paper presents the Redeye Analysis Workbench, a tool to help analysts move from manual sorting of a collection of documents to performing intelligent document triage over a digital library. We will discuss the tools and techniques we build upon in addition to an in-depth discussion of our tool and how it addresses two major use cases we observed analysts performing. Finally, we also include a new layout algorithm for radial graphs that is used to visualize clusters of documents in our system.

  15. A new anti-forensic scheme--hiding the single JPEG compression trace for digital image. (United States)

    Cao, Yanjun; Gao, Tiegang; Sheng, Guorui; Fan, Li; Gao, Lin


    To prevent image forgeries, a number of forensic techniques for digital image have been developed that can detect an image's origin, trace its processing history, and can also locate the position of tampering. Especially, the statistical footprint left by JPEG compression operation can be a valuable source of information for the forensic analyst, and some image forensic algorithm have been raised based on the image statistics in the DCT domain. Recently, it has been shown that footprints can be removed by adding a suitable anti-forensic dithering signal to the image in the DCT domain, this results in invalid for some image forensic algorithms. In this paper, a novel anti-forensic algorithm is proposed, which is capable of concealing the quantization artifacts that left in the single JPEG compressed image. In the scheme, a chaos-based dither is added to an image's DCT coefficients to remove such artifacts. Effectiveness of both the scheme and the loss of image quality are evaluated through the experiments. The simulation results show that the proposed anti-forensic scheme can verify the reliability of the JPEG forensic tools. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Gathering evidence: Model-driven software engineering in automated digital forensics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, J.


    Digital forensics concerns the acquisition, recovery and analysis of information on digital devices to answer legal questions. Exponential increases in available storage, as well as growing device adoption by the public, have made manual inspection of all information infeasible. A solution is

  17. Digital photo documentation of forensically relevant injuries as part of the clinical first response protocol. (United States)

    Verhoff, Marcel A; Kettner, Mattias; Lászik, András; Ramsthaler, Frank


    A problem encountered by medical examiners is that they have to assess injuries that have already been medically treated. Thus, they have to base their reports on clinical forensic examinations performed hours or days after an injury was sustained, or even base their assessment solely on information gleaned from medical files. In both scenarios, the forensic examiner has to rely heavily on the first responder's documentation of the original injury pattern. Medical priority will be to immediately treat a patient's injuries, and the first responder may, in addition, initially be unaware of a possibly criminal origin of an injury. As a result, the documentation of injuries is frequently of limited value for forensic purposes. This situation could be improved if photographic records were briefly made of injuries before they were treated. German-language medicolegal, criminal, and photography journals and books were selectively searched with the help of PubMed and other databases. In addition, the authors' experiences in creating and evaluating photographic records for clinical forensic use were assessed. This paper is an aid to creating photographic records of sufficient quality for forensic purposes. The options provided by digital photography in particular make this endeavor feasible even in a clinical setting. In addition, our paper illuminates some technical aspects of creating and archiving photographic records for forensic use, and addresses possible error sources. With the requisite technical background knowledge, injuries can be photographically recorded to forensic standards during patient care.

  18. Environment Recognition for Digital Audio Forensics Using MPEG-7 and MEL Cepstral Features (United States)

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Alghathbar, Khalid


    Environment recognition from digital audio for forensics application is a growing area of interest. However, compared to other branches of audio forensics, it is a less researched one. Especially less attention has been given to detect environment from files where foreground speech is present, which is a forensics scenario. In this paper, we perform several experiments focusing on the problems of environment recognition from audio particularly for forensics application. Experimental results show that the task is easier when audio files contain only environmental sound than when they contain both foreground speech and background environment. We propose a full set of MPEG-7 audio features combined with mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) to improve the accuracy. In the experiments, the proposed approach significantly increases the recognition accuracy of environment sound even in the presence of high amount of foreground human speech.

  19. Python forensics a workbench for inventing and sharing digital forensic technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, Chet


    Python Forensics provides many never-before-published proven forensic modules, libraries, and solutions that can be used right out of the box. In addition, detailed instruction and documentation provided with the code samples will allow even novice Python programmers to add their own unique twists or use the models presented to build new solutions. Rapid development of new cybercrime investigation tools is an essential ingredient in virtually every case and environment. Whether you are performing post-mortem investigation, executing live triage, extracting evidence from mobile devices or cl

  20. Windows registry forensics advanced digital forensic analysis of the Windows registry

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan


    Harlan Carvey brings readers an advanced book on Windows Registry - the most difficult part of Windows to analyze in forensics! Windows Registry Forensics provides the background of the Registry to help develop an understanding of the binary structure of Registry hive files. Approaches to live response and analysis are included, and tools and techniques for postmortem analysis are discussed at length. Tools and techniques will be presented that take the analyst beyond the current use of viewers and into real analysis of data contained in the Registry. This book also has a DVD containing tools, instructions and videos.

  1. Guidelines for procedures of a harmonised digital forensic process in network forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G


    Full Text Available and essential tools for collecting the evidence are acquired, it may be illegal to access computer data residing beyond the jurisdiction of a forensic investigator. The investigator needs to acquire a search warrant that can be executed in a specific foreign...

  2. Digital-forensics based pattern recognition for discovering identities in electronic evidence


    Henseler, Hans; Hofsté, Jop; Keulen, Maurice,


    With the pervasiveness of computers and mobile devices, digital forensics becomes more important in law enforcement. Detectives increasingly depend on the scarce support of digital specialists which impedes efficiency of criminal investigations. This paper proposes and algorithm to extract, merge and rank identities that are encountered in the electronic evidence during processing. Two experiments are described demonstrating that our approach can assist with the identification of frequently o...

  3. Digital image processing as an aid in forensic medicine. Digitale Roentgenbildbearbeitung als Hilfsmittel in der Rechtsmedizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Wenz, W. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik); Friedrich, G. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Rechtsmedizin)


    Radiology plays an important role in the identification of unknown corpses. Positive radiographic identification by comparison with antemortem films is an established technique in this setting. Technical defects together with non-well-preserved films make it sometimes difficult or even impossible to establish a confident comparison. Digital image processing after secondary digitalization of ante- and postmortem films represents an important development and aid in forensic medicine. The application of this method is demonstrated on a single case. (orig.).

  4. UFORIA : a flexible visualisation platform for digital forensics and e-discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkhoudt, Arnim; Vos, Sijmen; Stander, Adrie; Rudolph, Carsten; Kuntze, Nicolai; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Maña, Antonio

    With the current growth of data in digital investigations, one solution for forensic investigators is to visualise the data for the detection of suspicious activity. However, this process can be complex and difficult to achieve, as there few tools available that are simple and can handle a wide

  5. A Model for a Doctor of Psychology Program in Forensic Psychology: Curriculum and Rationale (United States)

    Fenster, C. Abraham; And Others


    An overview of the objectives and courses of a doctoral program in forensic psychology is provided. Forensic psychology is the application of psychological methods, principles, and skills to the relevant needs of the legal system. (DE)

  6. Digital and multimedia forensics justified: An appraisal on professional policy and legislation (United States)

    Popejoy, Amy Lynnette

    Recent progress in professional policy and legislation at the federal level in the field of forensic science constructs a transformation of new outcomes for future experts. An exploratory and descriptive qualitative methodology was used to critique and examine Digital and Multimedia Science (DMS) as a justified forensic discipline. Chapter I summarizes Recommendations 1, 2, and 10 of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Report 2009 regarding disparities and challenges facing the forensic science community. Chapter I also delivers the overall foundation and framework of this thesis, specifically how it relates to DMS. Chapter II expands on Recommendation 1: "The Promotion and Development of Forensic Science," and focuses chronologically on professional policy and legislative advances through 2014. Chapter III addresses Recommendation 2: "The Standardization of Terminology in Reporting and Testimony," and the issues of legal language and terminology, model laboratory reports, and expert testimony concerning DMS case law. Chapter IV analyzes Recommendation 10: "Insufficient Education and Training," identifying legal awareness for the digital and multimedia examiner to understand the role of the expert witness, the attorney, the judge and the admission of forensic science evidence in litigation in our criminal justice system. Finally, Chapter V studies three DME specific laboratories at the Texas state, county, and city level, concentrating on current practice and procedure.

  7. [Video recording system of endoscopic procedures for digital forensics]. (United States)

    Endo, Chiaki; Sakurada, A; Kondo, T


    Recently, endoscopic procedures including surgery, intervention, and examination have been widely performed. Medical practitioners are required to record the procedures precisely in order to check the procedures retrospectively and to get the legally reliable record. Medical Forensic System made by KS Olympus Japan offers 2 kinds of movie and patient's data, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and Spo, which are simultaneously recorded. We installed this system into the bronchoscopy room and have experienced its benefit. Under this system, we can get bronchoscopic image, bronchoscopy room view, and patient's data simultaneously. We can check the quality of the bronchoscopic procedures retrospectively, which is useful for bronchoscopy staff training. Medical Forensic System should be installed in any kind of endoscopic procedures.

  8. A Survey of Graduate Training Programs and Coursework in Forensic Psychology (United States)

    Burl, Jeffrey; Shah, Sanjay; Filone, Sarah; Foster, Elizabeth; DeMatteo, David


    An increasing number of graduate programs are available to students interested in the study of forensic psychology. The growth of forensic training opportunities is reflective of the wider development of forensic psychology as a discrete specialty area. An Internet-based survey was conducted to provide descriptive information to academic advisors…

  9. A Study of the FEPAC Accredited Graduate Forensic Science Programs' Curricula (United States)

    Rushton, Catherine Genice


    The National Institute of Justice (1999) and the National Academy of Sciences (2009) recommended that forensic science training shift from on-the-job training to formal education; however, the reports cited inconsistencies in the curricula of the forensic science degree programs as an impediment to this. The Forensic Science Education Programs…

  10. A practical overview and comparison of certain commercial forensic software tools for processing large-scale digital investigations (United States)

    Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner


    The aim of this paper is to show the usefulness of modern forensic software tools for processing large-scale digital investigations. In particular, we focus on the new version of Nuix 4.2 and compare it with AccessData FTK 4.2, X-Ways Forensics 16.9 and Guidance Encase Forensic 7 regarding its performance, functionality, usability and capability. We will show how these software tools work with large forensic images and how capable they are in examining complex and big data scenarios.

  11. A review of forensic science higher education programs in the United States: bachelor's and master's degrees. (United States)

    Tregar, Kristen L; Proni, Gloria


    As the number of forensic science programs offered at higher education institutions rises, and more students express an interest in them, it is important to gain information regarding the offerings in terms of courses, equipment available to students, degree requirements, and other important aspects of the programs. A survey was conducted examining the existing bachelor's and master's forensic science programs in the U.S. Of the responding institutions, relatively few were, at the time of the survey, accredited by the forensic science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC). In general, the standards of the responding programs vary considerably primarily in terms of their size and subjects coverage. While it is clear that the standards for the forensic science programs investigated are not homogeneous, the majority of the programs provide a strong science curriculum, faculties with advanced degrees, and interesting forensic-oriented courses. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Digital Forensic Analysis Of Malware Infected Machine- Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amulya Podile


    Full Text Available Abstract Internet banking has created a convenient way for us to handle our business without leaving our home. Man-in-the-Browser is a special case of Man-in-the-middle attack targeted against customers of Internet banking. One of the capabilities of Man-in-the-Browser Trojan is modification of html referred to as html injection that allows the attacker to alter the html of a page before it is sent to the browser for interpretation. In this paper the authors discussed about forensic analysis of RAM Volatile data system logs and registry collected from bank customer computer infected with Trojan and confirmed the source of attack time-stamps and the behavior of the malware by using open source and commercial tools.

  13. The use of full spectrum digital photography for evidence collection and preservation in cases involving forensic odontology. (United States)

    Wright, Franklin D; Golden, Gregory S


    Photography often represents the best method to collect and preserve evidence in forensic cases. This is especially true in forensic odontology with cases involving dental identification, human abuse and, perhaps most significantly, bitemark cases. Basic visible light photography is adequate in most dental identification cases; however, full spectrum digital photography is best utilized to collect all available evidence in cases of human abuse and bitemarks. This paper will discuss the types of photographic evidence that should be collected with various forensic odontological cases and the specific techniques utilized in full spectrum forensic digital photography. The use of full spectrum photography captures the forensic injuries using special techniques recording the injuries in each of the four resultant events that occur when light strikes skin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Curbing cyber-crime and Enhancing e-commerce security with Digital Forensics


    Fianyi, Israel


    The explosion in the e-commerce industry which has been necessitated by the growth and advance expansion of Information technology and its related facilities in recent years have been met with adverse security issues consequently affecting the industry and the entire online activities. This paper exams the prevailing security threats e-commerce is facing which is predominantly known as cyber-crime and how computer related technology and facilities such as digital forensics tools can be adopte...

  15. Digital Archaeology and/or Forensics: Working with Floppy Disks from the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Durno


    Full Text Available While software originating from the domain of digital forensics has demonstrated utility for data recovery from contemporary storage media, it is not as effective for working with floppy disks from the 1980s. This paper details alternative strategies for recovering data from floppy disks employing software originating from the software preservation and retro computing communities. Imaging hardware, storage formats and processing workflows are also discussed.

  16. Overview of Digital Forensics Algorithms in Dslr Cameras (United States)

    Aminova, E.; Trapeznikov, I.; Priorov, A.


    The widespread usage of the mobile technologies and the improvement of the digital photo devices getting has led to more frequent cases of falsification of images including in the judicial practice. Consequently, the actual task for up-to-date digital image processing tools is the development of algorithms for determining the source and model of the DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) camera and improve image formation algorithms. Most research in this area based on the mention that the extraction of unique sensor trace of DSLR camera could be possible on the certain stage of the imaging process into the camera. It is considered that the study focuses on the problem of determination of unique feature of DSLR cameras based on optical subsystem artifacts and sensor noises.

  17. How many digits should be reported in forensic breath alcohol measurements? (United States)

    Gullberg, Rod G


    Uncertainty is an inherent property of all measurements. The magnitude of this uncertainty will determine the number of meaningful digits that should be reported in a measurement result. Several statistical arguments are considered providing evidence that three digit truncated results are more appropriate than two since the first significant digit of the combined uncertainty (standard deviation) in breath alcohol measurement is found in the third decimal place. Probably, the most compelling reason for reporting three digits is the significant reduction in combined uncertainty compared with the use of two digits. For a breath alcohol concentration of 0.089 g/210 L, the combined uncertainty for two digit results is ∼0.0042 g/210 L, compared with 0.0031 g/210 L for three digit results. The historical practice of reporting two digit truncated results in forensic breath alcohol analysis has been largely based on the use of analog scale instruments with 0.01 g/210 L scale resolution. With today's modern digital instrumentation, this practice should be reconsidered. While the focus of this paper is on breath alcohol analysis, the general principles will apply to any quantitative analytical measurement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  18. Digital Image Forensics There is More to a Picture than Meets the Eye

    CERN Document Server

    Memon, Nasir


    Photographic imagery has come a long way from the pinhole cameras of the nineteenth century. Digital imagery, and its applications, develops in tandem with contemporary society’s sophisticated literacy of this subtle medium. This book examines the ways in which digital images have become ever more ubiquitous as legal and medical evidence, just as they have become our primary source of news and have replaced paper-based financial documentation. Crucially, the contributions also analyze the very profound problems which have arisen alongside the digital image, issues of veracity and progeny that demand systematic and detailed response: It looks real, but is it? What camera captured it? Has it been doctored or subtly altered? Attempting to provide answers to these slippery issues, the book covers how digital images are created, processed and stored before moving on to set out the latest techniques for forensically examining images, and finally addressing practical issues such as courtroom admissibility. In an e...

  19. A note on digital dental radiography in forensic odontology


    Chiam, Sher-Lin


    Digital dental radiography, intraoral and extraoral, is becoming more popular in dental practice. It offers convenience, such as lower exposure to radiation, ease of storing of images, and elimination of chemical processing. However, it also has disadvantages and drawbacks. One of these is the potential for confusion of the orientation of the image. This paper outlines one example of this, namely, the lateral inversion of the image. This source of confusion is partly inherent in the older mod...

  20. The Advanced Data Acquisition Model (ADAM: A Process Model for Digital Forensic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Brian Adams


    Full Text Available As with other types of evidence, the courts make no presumption that digital evidence is reliable without some evidence of empirical testing in relation to the theories and techniques associated with its production. The issue of reliability means that courts pay close attention to the manner in which electronic evidence has been obtained and in particular the process in which the data is captured and stored. Previous process models have tended to focus on one particular area of digital forensic practice, such as law enforcement, and have not incorporated a formal description. We contend that this approach has prevented the establishment of generally accepted standards and processes that are urgently needed in the domain of digital forensics. This paper presents a generic process model as a step towards developing such a generally-accepted standard for a fundamental digital forensic activity – the acquisition of digital evidence. Normal 0 false false false EN-AU X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:12.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; text-indent:18.0pt; line-height:200%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US; mso-bidi-language:EN-US;}

  1. Digitized locksmith forensics: automated detection and segmentation of toolmarks on highly structured surfaces (United States)

    Clausing, Eric; Vielhauer, Claus


    Locksmith forensics is an important area in crime scene forensics. Due to new optical, contactless, nanometer range sensing technology, such traces can be captured, digitized and analyzed more easily allowing a complete digital forensic investigation. In this paper we present a significantly improved approach for the detection and segmentation of toolmarks on surfaces of locking cylinder components (using the example of the locking cylinder component 'key pin') acquired by a 3D Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. This improved approach is based on our prior work1 using a block-based classification approach with textural features. In this prior work1 we achieve a solid detection rate of 75-85% for the detection of toolmarks originating from illegal opening methods. Here, in this paper we improve, expand and fuse this prior approach with additional features from acquired surface topography data, color data and an image processing approach using adapted Gabor filters. In particular we are able of raising the detection and segmentation rates above 90% with our test set of 20 key pins with approximately 700 single toolmark traces of four different opening methods. We can provide a precise pixel- based segmentation as opposed to the rather imprecise segmentation of our prior block-based approach and as the use of the two additional data types (color and especially topography) require a specific pre-processing, we furthermore propose an adequate approach for this purpose.

  2. Chain of evidence generation for contrast enhancement in digital image forensics (United States)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Messina, Giuseppe; Strano, Daniela


    The quality of the images obtained by digital cameras has improved a lot since digital cameras early days. Unfortunately, it is not unusual in image forensics to find wrongly exposed pictures. This is mainly due to obsolete techniques or old technologies, but also due to backlight conditions. To extrapolate some invisible details a stretching of the image contrast is obviously required. The forensics rules to produce evidences require a complete documentation of the processing steps, enabling the replication of the entire process. The automation of enhancement techniques is thus quite difficult and needs to be carefully documented. This work presents an automatic procedure to find contrast enhancement settings, allowing both image correction and automatic scripting generation. The technique is based on a preprocessing step which extracts the features of the image and selects correction parameters. The parameters are thus saved through a JavaScript code that is used in the second step of the approach to correct the image. The generated script is Adobe Photoshop compliant (which is largely used in image forensics analysis) thus permitting the replication of the enhancement steps. Experiments on a dataset of images are also reported showing the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  3. [Indexes of forensic identification by the digital orthopantomogram of the normal teeth]. (United States)

    Gao, Dong; Wang, Qing-Hong; Ye, Jia-Qing; Wang, Hu; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Deng, Zhen-Hua


    To explore more concise and unified forensic identification indexes for people with none dental disease in digital orthopantomogram. To select randomly 170 digital orthopantomogram with none dental disease. Then to select indexes for full dentition patterns and dental alignment patterns according to the dental physiological variations and the characters of dental alignment respectively. Finally diversity of the indexes would be evaluated by statistical analysis. The group with none dental disease had 74 kinds of full dentition pattern in 170 samples, thus its diversity was 43.53%. The group had 129 kinds of dental alignment pattern, thus its diversity was 75.88%. The group had 150 kinds of full dentition/dental alignment pattern, thus its diversity was 88.24%. The diversity of the full dentition pattern was not very good. So the full dentition coding was not very effective when it was used solely. The diversity of dental alignment pattern was good. So the method of dental alignment coding could be used in the maxillofacial forensic identification. If the group was coded by the full dentition and dental alignment pattern at the same time, its diversity was better than any single pattern. So the method would be valuable in forensic identification.

  4. Assisting digital forensics investigations by identifying social communication irregularities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pieterse, Heloise


    Full Text Available according to the design described in the previous section. Java, which is a general-purpose computer programming language, was chosen to create and implement the application since the language allows for platform independence. The final compiled version...-cultural modeling and prediction, pp 43-52. Bakkum, P. and Skadron, K. (2010) “Accelarating SQL database operations on a GPU with CUDA”, Proceedings of the 3rd workshop on general-purpose computation on graphics processing units, pp 94-103. Casey, E. (2009...

  5. [Morphological classification of frontal sinuses on digital X-ray films and its forensic identification indexes]. (United States)

    Huang, Yun; Xu, Zhe; Zhang, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Deng, Zhen-Hua


    To explore morphological classification of the Caldwell view of frontal sinuses in computer radiography (CR) for forensic identification and to construct a forensic identification system with digital X-ray films with assistance of identification indexes coding. Four hundred CR films of the Caldwell view of frontal sinus were selected from Sichuan Han ethnic Chinese. The frontal sinuses were classified according to the relationship between the tangential line above the upper edge of the bilateral orbits and the location of the frontal sinus. Then to code the identification indexes for the frontal sinus. The Caldwell view of frontal sinuses were classified into 6 categories. Eight identification indexes for the frontal sinus were identified, including degree of asymmetry, superiority of side, ratio of the left frontal sinus area and orbit area (A(LFS)/A(LOR)), ratio of the right frontal sinus area and orbit area ((RFS)/A(ROR)), outline of the left upper border, outline of the right upper border, occurrence of partial septa and location of frontal median margin. Initial identification by the Caldwell view classification of frontal sinuses followed with coding the frontal sinuses with 8 indexes is likely a novel approach for forensic identification of the frontal sinuses in CR.

  6. Forensic Analysis of Digital Dynamic Signatures: New Methods for Data Treatment and Feature Evaluation. (United States)

    Linden, Jacques; Marquis, Raymond; Mazzella, Williams


    This study explored digital dynamic signatures containing quantifiable dynamic data. The change in data content and nature necessitates the development of new data treatment approaches. A SignPad Omega digitizing tablet was used to assess measurement reproducibility, as well as within-writer variation and the occurrence of correctly simulated features. Measurement reproducibility was found to be high except for pressure information. Within-writer variation was found to be higher between days than on a same day. Occurrence of correct simulation was low for features such as signature size, trajectory length, and total signature time. Feature discrimination factors combining within-writer variability and the occurrence of correctly simulated features were computed and show that signature size, trajectory length, and signature time are the features that perform the best for discriminating genuine from simulated signatures. A final experiment indicates that dynamic information can be used to create connections between simulation cases. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Proposal for internet-based Digital Dental Chart for personal dental identification in forensics. (United States)

    Hanaoka, Yoichi; Ueno, Asao; Tsuzuki, Tamiyuki; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Sato, Yoshinobu


    A dental chart is very useful as a standard source of evidence in the personal identification of bodies. However, the kind of dental chart available will often vary as a number of types of odontogram have been developed where the visual representation of dental conditions has relied on hand-drawn representation. We propose the Digital Dental Chart (DDC) as a new style of dental chart, especially for open investigations aimed at establishing the identity of unknown bodies. Each DDC is constructed using actual oral digital images and dental data, and is easy to upload onto an Internet website. The DDC is a more useful forensic resource than the standard types of dental chart in current use as it has several advantages, among which are its ability to carry a large volume of information and reproduce dental conditions clearly and in detail on a cost-effective basis.

  8. Penerapan Integrated Digital Forensic Investigation Framework v2 (IDFIF pada Proses Investigasi Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuhwan Ruuhwan


    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi yang semakin pesat, dapat menimbulkan permasalahan bagi pengguna teknologi itu sendiri, semakin maju kehidupan masyarakat, maka kejahatan juga ikut semakin maju. Smartphone merupakan salah satu bentuk teknologi yang digunakan untuk melakukan penipuan melalui fasilitas Short Message Service (SMS. Pada saat smartphone yang digunakan untuk melakukan kejahatan maka smartphone tersebut dapat disita oleh aparat penegak hukum sebagai salah satu barang bukti. Cara pembuktian untuk mendapatkan bukti yang valid adalah dengan melakukan investigasi menggunakan pendekatan penanganan bukti digital yang dikenal dengan istilah Framework. Integrated Digital Forensics Investigation Framework versi 2 (IDFIF v2 merupakan framework terbaru yang telah dikembangkan sehingga dapat digunakan untuk proses investigasi smartphone. Kata kunci— Barang Bukti, Framework, IDFIF v2, Smartphone

  9. Applying a verification classification system to medical and forensic digital images. (United States)

    Shapter, Michael


    This paper gives the definitions, and describes the application, of a classification system for photographic veracity relating to medical and forensic images. It uses practical examples to demonstrate the reasons and parameters for using such a system. It also calls for continued discussion on what the limits and extent should be for the parameters. A debate encompassing the advantages and disadvantages of manipulating photographs goes back well before the introduction of digital imaging and has continued since the introduction of photography in the mid-nineteenth century. This author's first foray dates back twenty years (1). The introduction of digital imaging only gave the debate new impetus and new problems to solve (2), some of which might be resolved as suggested in this paper.

  10. Blind Forensics of Successive Geometric Transformations in Digital Images Using Spectral Method: Theory and Applications. (United States)

    Chen, Chenglong; Ni, Jiangqun; Shen, Zhaoyi; Shi, Yun Qing


    Geometric transformations, such as resizing and rotation, are almost always needed when two or more images are spliced together to create convincing image forgeries. In recent years, researchers have developed many digital forensic techniques to identify these operations. Most previous works in this area focus on the analysis of images that have undergone single geometric transformations, e.g., resizing or rotation. In several recent works, researchers have addressed yet another practical and realistic situation: successive geometric transformations, e.g., repeated resizing, resizing-rotation, rotation-resizing, and repeated rotation. We will also concentrate on this topic in this paper. Specifically, we present an in-depth analysis in the frequency domain of the second-order statistics of the geometrically transformed images. We give an exact formulation of how the parameters of the first and second geometric transformations influence the appearance of periodic artifacts. The expected positions of characteristic resampling peaks are analytically derived. The theory developed here helps to address the gap left by previous works on this topic and is useful for image security and authentication, in particular, the forensics of geometric transformations in digital images. As an application of the developed theory, we present an effective method that allows one to distinguish between the aforementioned four different processing chains. The proposed method can further estimate all the geometric transformation parameters. This may provide useful clues for image forgery detection.

  11. Técnicas de análisis forense digital aplicadas a dispositivos y sistemas móviles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Jaramillo Cabrera


    Full Text Available La disciplina del Análisis Forense Digital, es un campo de investigación excitante y dinámico, conocido hasta ahora sólo por especialistas, y tiene cada vez más un poderoso impacto en una variedad de situaciones, incluyendo ambientes corporativos, investigaciones internas, litigación civil, investigaciones criminales, investigaciones de inteligencia y asuntos de seguridad nacional. El Análisis Forense Digital Móvil, es sin duda, el de mayor crecimiento y desarrollo en la disciplina forense digital y ofrece ventajas significativas así como también muchos retos. Mientras que lo interesante de la investigación forense de dispositivos como los que usan el Sistema Operativo Móvil Android o simplemente dispositivo Android, implica la adquisición y análisis de datos; es importante tener una visión amplia tanto de la plataforma como de las herramientas que serán utilizadas a lo largo de la investigación. Un entendimiento minucioso asistirá al Ingeniero Examinador Forense o Ingeniero de Seguridad a través del análisis e investigación exitosos de dispositivos móviles, incluyendo los Smartphone basados en Android.

  12. Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral program for chronically psychotic forensic inpatients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.


    The present study evaluated the progress of four groups of chronically psychotic patients in treatment at De Kijvelanden Forensic Psychiatric Hospital. The psychotic patients were offered a cognitive-behavioral program, including psycho education, grief processing, stress management, functional

  13. Integrating forensically and civilly committed adult inpatients in a treatment mall program at a state hospital. (United States)

    Webster, Steven L; Sheitman, Brian B; Barboriak, Peter N; Harmon, Susan H; Paesler, Betty T; Gordon, Pamela A; Kelly, Shirley Y; Geller, Jeffrey L


    This brief report presents outcome data from a 350-bed state psychiatric hospital that integrated its adult forensically and civilly committed inpatient populations within one rehabilitative program. Dorothea Dix Hospital, located in Raleigh, North Carolina, used the "treatment mall" model to offer all of its resources to all adult patients in a centralized setting. Program participation of 100 patients from two long-term civil units was compared with program participation of 94 patients from the hospital's medium- and maximum-security forensic units. The forensic patients were significantly less likely to refuse to join or to leave a group, and they were better engaged in their treatment. The use of restrictive interventions and the incidence of assault were minimal for both groups. The experience at Dorothea Dix Hospital suggests that integrating these populations in rehabilitative programming is not only fiscally responsible but also clinically promising, with no evidence of greater disruptiveness attributable to forensic patients.

  14. [Study on the indexes of forensic identification by the occlusal-facial digital radiology]. (United States)

    Gao, Dong; Wang, Hu; Hu, Jin-liang; Xu, Zhe; Deng, Zhen-hua


    To discuss the coding of full dentition with 32 locations and measure the characteristics of some bony indexes in occlusal-facial digital radiology (DR). To select randomly three hundred DR orthopantomogram and code the full dentition, then analyze the diversity of dental patterns. To select randomly one hundred DR lateral cephalogram and measure six indexes (N-S,N-Me,Cd-Gn,Cd-Go,NP-SN,MP-SN) separately by one odontologist and one trained forensic graduate student, then calculate the coefficient variation (CV) of every index and take a correlation analysis for the consistency between two measurements. (1) The total diversity of 300 dental patterns was 75%.It was a very high value. (2)All six quantitative variables had comparatively high CV value.(3) After the linear correlation analysis between two measurements, all six coefficient correlations were close to 1. This indicated that the measurements were stable and consistent. The method of coding full dentition in DR orthopantomogram and measuring six bony indexes in DR lateral cephalogram can be used to forensic identification.

  15. An interactive program on digitizing historical seismograms (United States)

    Xu, Yihe; Xu, Tao


    Retrieving information from analog seismograms is of great importance since they are considered as the unique sources that provide quantitative information of historical earthquakes. We present an algorithm for automatic digitization of the seismograms as an inversion problem that forms an interactive program using Matlab® GUI. The program integrates automatic digitization with manual digitization and users can easily switch between the two modalities and carry out different combinations for the optimal results. Several examples about applying the interactive program are given to illustrate the merits of the method.

  16. An Interactive Program on Digitizing Historical Seismograms (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Xu, T.


    Retrieving information from historical seismograms is of great importance since they are considered the unique sources that provide quantitative information of historical earthquakes. Modern techniques of seismology require digital forms of seismograms that are essentially a sequence of time-amplitude pairs. However, the historical seismograms, after scanned into computers, are two dimensional arrays. Each element of the arrays contains the grayscale value or RGB value of the corresponding pixel. The problem of digitizing historical seismograms, referred to as converting historical seismograms to digital seismograms, can be formulated as an inverse problem that generating sequences of time-amplitude pairs from a two dimension arrays. This problem has infinite solutions. The algorithm for automatic digitization of historical seismogram presented considers several features of seismograms, including continuity, smoothness of the seismic traces as the prior information, and assumes that the amplitude is a single-valued function of time. An interactive program based on the algorithm is also presented. The program is developed using Matlab GUI and has both automatic and manual modality digitization. Users can easily switch between them, and try different combinations to get the optimal results. Several examples are given to illustrate the results of digitizing seismograms using the program, including a photographic record and a wide-angle reflection/refraction seismogram. Digitized result of the program (redrawn using Golden Software Surfer for high resolution image). (a) shows the result of automatic digitization, and (b) is the result after manual correction.

  17. Digital Competition Game to Improve Programming Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julián Moreno


      The aim of this paper is to describe a digital game with an educational purpose in the subject of computer programming, which enables students to reinforce and improve their abilities on the concepts...

  18. Technical and legal perspectives on forensics scenario


    Solinas, Fabrizio


    The dissertation concerns digital forensic. The expression digital forensic (sometimes called digital forensic science) is the science that studies the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, documentation, use, and every other form of computer data processing in order to be evaluated in a legal trial. Digital forensic is a branch of forensic science. First of all, digital forensic represents the extension of theories, principles and procedures that are typical and importa...

  19. A novel method for detecting light source for digital images forensic (United States)

    Roy, A. K.; Mitra, S. K.; Agrawal, R.


    Manipulation in image has been in practice since centuries. These manipulated images are intended to alter facts — facts of ethics, morality, politics, sex, celebrity or chaos. Image forensic science is used to detect these manipulations in a digital image. There are several standard ways to analyze an image for manipulation. Each one has some limitation. Also very rarely any method tried to capitalize on the way image was taken by the camera. We propose a new method that is based on light and its shade as light and shade are the fundamental input resources that may carry all the information of the image. The proposed method measures the direction of light source and uses the light based technique for identification of any intentional partial manipulation in the said digital image. The method is tested for known manipulated images to correctly identify the light sources. The light source of an image is measured in terms of angle. The experimental results show the robustness of the methodology.

  20. DHS National Technical Nuclear Forensics Program FY 10 Summary Report: Graduate Mentoring Assistance Program (GMAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha R. Finck Ph.D.


    This program provides practical training to DHS graduate fellows in the DOE laboratory complex. It involves coordinating students, their thesis advisors, and their laboratory project mentors in establishing a meaningful program of research which contributes to the graduate student's formation as a member of the nuclear forensics community. The summary report details the student/mentor experience and future plans after the first summer practicum. This program provides practical training to DHS graduate fellows in the DOE laboratory complex. It involves coordinating students, their thesis advisors, and their laboratory project mentors in establishing a meaningful program of research which contributes to the graduate student's formation as a member of the nuclear forensics community. This final written report includes information concerning the overall mentoring experience, including benefits (to the lab, the mentors, and the students), challenges, student research contributions, and lab mentor interactions with students home universities. Idaho National Laboratory hosted two DHS Nuclear Forensics graduate Fellows (nuclear engineering) in summer 2011. Two more Fellows (radiochemistry) are expected to conduct research at the INL under this program starting in 2012. An undergraduate Fellow (nuclear engineering) who worked in summer 2011 at the laboratory is keenly interested in applying for the NF Graduate Fellowship this winter with the aim of returning to INL. In summary, this program appears to have great potential for success in supporting graduate level students who pursue careers in nuclear forensics. This relatively specialized field may not have been an obvious choice for some who have already shown talent in the traditional areas of chemistry or nuclear engineering. The active recruiting for this scholarship program for candidates at universities across the U.S. brings needed visibility to this field. Not only does this program offer critical

  1. A postgraduate sexual assault forensic medicine program: sexual assault medicine from scratch. (United States)

    Parekh, Vanita; Currie, Marian; Brown, Cassandra Beaumont


    A government-funded service to provide forensic and medical care to survivors of sexual assault was established in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) in 2001. Doctors employed by the service lacked the specific skills required to care comprehensively for survivors. Our aim was to develop, implement and evaluate a sexual assault medical education program. It consisted of an 'in-house' education program, and external university course and incorporated team-building, networking activities and protocol development. Core elements were: forensic evidence collection, assessment and management of injuries, prevention of sexually transmissible infections and pregnancy, counselling and emotional support. Participant satisfaction and knowledge acquisition were evaluated using a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire. Seven doctors participated in a 16-session program conducted by the director and nurse coordinator with help from local forensic, legal and medical experts. All doctors successfully completed the Certificate in Forensic Medicine, and reported satisfaction with the program and their increased knowledge, particularly associated with collection of forensic evidence and court procedures. A compete set of protocols was developed and cohesive networks established. We have designed an effective education program for doctors working in the field of sexual assault and offer it as a template to other health professionals working in this area.

  2. The Development of a Substance Abuse Treatment Program for Forensic Patients with Cognitive Impairment (United States)

    Glassmire, David M.; Welsh, Robert K.; Clevenger, Jeanne K.


    The Substance Abuse and Mental Illness (SAMI) program combines cognitive rehabilitation and dual-diagnosis substance abuse treatment within a stages of change context. This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcome analysis of the SAMI program in a forensic hospital.

  3. A computerized assessment program for forensic science evaluations: a preliminary report. (United States)

    Cavanaugh, J L; Rogers, R; Wasyliw, O E


    The development of the innovative use of an on-line, computer-assisted evaluation program is discussed, with a brief review of pertinent literature. The particular applications within a forensic psychiatric center of the Tandem 16 computer system, utilizing both "canned psychological tests" and specialized assessment techniques, are examined and highlighted with a case vignette. A highly relevant problem within forensic psychiatry, malingering or exaggeration of symptoms, is examined in more detail as it relates to computer assessments. The advantages and limitations of a computer-assisted evaluation are described relative to both its clinical and research application.

  4. An Interactive Graphics Program for Investigating Digital Signal Processing. (United States)

    Miller, Billy K.; And Others


    Describes development of an interactive computer graphics program for use in teaching digital signal processing. The program allows students to interactively configure digital systems on a monitor display and observe their system's performance by means of digital plots on the system's outputs. A sample program run is included. (JN)

  5. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics (United States)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  6. Digital forensic technologies as e-fraud risk mitigation tools in the banking industry: Evidence from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewangu Dzomira


    Full Text Available The paper investigates digital analytical tools and technologies used in electronic fraud prevention and detection, used in the banking industry. The paper is based on a descriptive study which studied digital forensics and cyber fraud phenomenon using content analysis. To obtain the data questionnaires and interviews were administered to the selected informants from 22 banks. Convenience and judgemental sampling techniques were used. It was found out that fraud detection and prevention tools and technologies would be most effective way of combating e-fraud if they can be utilized. It is concluded that banking institutions should reshape their anti-fraud strategies to be effective by considering fraud detection efforts using advanced analytics and related tools, software and application to get more efficient oversight

  7. Book Review: Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard: Using Digital Forensics and Investigative Techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nash


    Full Text Available Shavers, B. (2013. Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard: Using Digital Forensics and Investigative Techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects. Waltham, MA: Elsevier, 290 pages, ISBN-978-1-59749-985-9, US$51.56. Includes bibliographical references and index.Reviewed by Detective Corporal Thomas Nash (, Burlington Vermont Police Department, Internet Crime against Children Task Force. Adjunct Instructor, Champlain College, Burlington VT.In this must read for any aspiring novice cybercrime investigator as well as the seasoned professional computer guru alike, Brett Shaver takes the reader into the ever changing and dynamic world of Cybercrime investigation.  Shaver, an experienced criminal investigator, lays out the details and intricacies of a computer related crime investigation in a clear and concise manner in his new easy to read publication, Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard. Using Digital Forensics and Investigative techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects. Shaver takes the reader from start to finish through each step of the investigative process in well organized and easy to follow sections, with real case file examples to reach the ultimate goal of any investigation: identifying the suspect and proving their guilt in the crime. Do not be fooled by the title. This excellent, easily accessible reference is beneficial to both criminal as well as civil investigations and should be in every investigator’s library regardless of their respective criminal or civil investigative responsibilities.(see PDF for full review

  8. American Academy of Forensic Sciences (United States)

    ... Want to Be a Forensic Scientist! Read More Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) Read More ‹ › The American Academy of Forensic Sciences is a multi-disciplinary professional organization that provides ...

  9. Digitized crime scene forensics: automated trace separation of toolmarks on high-resolution 2D/3D CLSM surface data (United States)

    Clausing, Eric; Vielhauer, Claus


    Locksmith forensics is an important and very challenging part of classic crime scene forensics. In prior work, we propose a partial transfer to the digital domain, to effectively support forensic experts and present approaches for a full process chain consisting of five steps: Trace positioning, 2D/3D acquisition with a confocal 3D laser scanning microscope, detection by segmentation, trace type determination, and determination of the opening method. In particular the step of trace segmentation on high-resolution 3D surfaces thereby turned out to be the part most difficult to implement. The reason for that is the highly structured and complex surfaces to be analyzed. These surfaces are cluttered with a high number of toolmarks, which overlap and distort each other. In Clausing et al., we present an improved approach for a reliable segmentation of relevant trace regions but without the possibility of separating single traces out of segmented trace regions. However, in our past research, especially features based on shape and dimension turned out to be highly relevant for a fully automated analysis and interpretation. In this paper, we consequently propose an approach for this separation. To achieve this goal, we use our segmentation approach and expand it with a combination of the watershed algorithm with a graph-based analysis. Found sub-regions are compared based on their surface character and are connected or divided depending on their similarity. We evaluate our approach with a test set of about 1,300 single traces on the exemplary locking cylinder component 'key pin' and thereby are able of showing the high suitability of our approach.

  10. Into the decomposed body-forensic digital autopsy using multislice-computed tomography. (United States)

    Thali, M J; Yen, K; Schweitzer, W; Vock, P; Ozdoba, C; Dirnhofer, R


    It is impossible to obtain a representative anatomical documentation of an entire body using classical X-ray methods, they subsume three-dimensional bodies into a two-dimensional level. We used the novel multislice-computed tomography (MSCT) technique in order to evaluate a case of homicide with putrefaction of the corpse before performing a classical forensic autopsy. This non-invasive method showed gaseous distension of the decomposing organs and tissues in detail as well as a complex fracture of the calvarium. MSCT also proved useful in screening for foreign matter in decomposing bodies, and full-body scanning took only a few minutes. In conclusion, we believe postmortem MSCT imaging is an excellent vizualisation tool with great potential for forensic documentation and evaluation of decomposed bodies.

  11. Isolation and genetic analysis of pure cells from forensic biological mixtures: The precision of a digital approach. (United States)

    Fontana, F; Rapone, C; Bregola, G; Aversa, R; de Meo, A; Signorini, G; Sergio, M; Ferrarini, A; Lanzellotto, R; Medoro, G; Giorgini, G; Manaresi, N; Berti, A


    Latest genotyping technologies allow to achieve a reliable genetic profile for the offender identification even from extremely minute biological evidence. The ultimate challenge occurs when genetic profiles need to be retrieved from a mixture, which is composed of biological material from two or more individuals. In this case, DNA profiling will often result in a complex genetic profile, which is then subject matter for statistical analysis. In principle, when more individuals contribute to a mixture with different biological fluids, their single genetic profiles can be obtained by separating the distinct cell types (e.g. epithelial cells, blood cells, sperm), prior to genotyping. Different approaches have been investigated for this purpose, such as fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) or laser capture microdissection (LCM), but currently none of these methods can guarantee the complete separation of different type of cells present in a mixture. In other fields of application, such as oncology, DEPArray™ technology, an image-based, microfluidic digital sorter, has been widely proven to enable the separation of pure cells, with single-cell precision. This study investigates the applicability of DEPArray™ technology to forensic samples analysis, focusing on the resolution of the forensic mixture problem. For the first time, we report here the development of an application-specific DEPArray™ workflow enabling the detection and recovery of pure homogeneous cell pools from simulated blood/saliva and semen/saliva mixtures, providing full genetic match with genetic profiles of corresponding donors. In addition, we assess the performance of standard forensic methods for DNA quantitation and genotyping on low-count, DEPArray™-isolated cells, showing that pure, almost complete profiles can be obtained from as few as ten haploid cells. Finally, we explore the applicability in real casework samples, demonstrating that the described approach provides complete

  12. Changing a culture: a brief program analysis of a social learning program on a maximum-security forensic unit. (United States)

    Goodness, Kelly R; Renfro, Nancy S


    This report presents outcome data collected for a three-year period from a maximum-security forensic psychiatric program. Admission and discharge variables, restraint/seclusion, and client abuse/neglect data are presented from a one-year period that preceded the advent of the Behavior Management Treatment Program's (BMTP's) Social Learning Diagnostic Program to two years after implementing the Social Learning Diagnostic Program. Significant overall progress and improvement was observed in all variables analyzed after instituting a social learning program paradigm. This report provides a brief summary of the BMTP's Social Learning Diagnostic Program along with a discussion of the role played by Dangerousness Management Plans in the treatment of patients within the social learning milieu. Additionally the patient population served, and the rationale for implementation of a program based in social learning theory, are discussed. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Efficient estimation and large-scale evaluation of lateral chromatic aberration for digital image forensics (United States)

    Gloe, Thomas; Borowka, Karsten; Winkler, Antje


    The analysis of lateral chromatic aberration forms another ingredient for a well equipped toolbox of an image forensic investigator. Previous work proposed its application to forgery detection1 and image source identification.2 This paper takes a closer look on the current state-of-the-art method to analyse lateral chromatic aberration and presents a new approach to estimate lateral chromatic aberration in a runtime-efficient way. Employing a set of 11 different camera models including 43 devices, the characteristic of lateral chromatic aberration is investigated in a large-scale. The reported results point to general difficulties that have to be considered in real world investigations.

  14. New horizons in forensic radiology: the 60-second digital autopsy-full-body examination of a gunshot victim by multislice computed tomography. (United States)

    Thali, Michael J; Schweitzer, Wolf; Yen, Kathrin; Vock, Peter; Ozdoba, Christoph; Spielvogel, Elke; Dirnhofer, Richard


    The goal of this study was the full-body documentation of a gunshot wound victim with multislice helical computed tomography for subsequent comparison with the findings of the standard forensic autopsy. Complete volume data of the head, neck, and trunk were acquired by use of two acquisitions of less than 1 minute of total scanning time. Subsequent two-dimensional multiplanar reformations and three-dimensional shaded surface display reconstructions helped document the gunshot-created skull fractures and brain injuries, including the wound track, and the intracerebral bone fragments. Computed tomography also demonstrated intracardiac air embolism and pulmonary aspiration of blood resulting from bullet wound-related trauma. The "digital autopsy," even when postprocessing time was added, was more rapid than the classic forensic autopsy and, based on the nondestructive approach, offered certain advantages in comparison with the forensic autopsy.

  15. Combined use of frontal sinus and nasal septum patterns as an aid in forensics: a digital radiographic study. (United States)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Khosa, Rameen; Kumar, Sandeep; Basavaraju, Suman; Patwardhan, Nitin


    Skull radiographic examination is a potentially useful procedure for the personal identification in cases where fragments of skull persist with no likelihood of identification based on dental arch. The study was to determine the uniqueness and reliability of combined frontal sinus (FS) and nasal septum (NS) patterns as observed on posterioanterior (PA) cephalograms for personal identification. The randomly selected 149 digital PA cephalograms taken on Kodak 8000C Digital Panoramic and Cephalometric system were evaluated for patterns of FS and NS. Also the distribution of lobulations, area, and ratio of height/width of FS was calculated. The data obtained was statistical analyzed using Pearson's coefficient correlation. FS symmetry was observed in 78.5% and asymmetry in 7.3% subjects. Bilateral aplasia was noticed in 5.3% and unilateral aplasia in 8.7% of subjects. The total lobulation of FS was noted more in males on both sides while center lobes were observed slightly more in females. The straight NS was maximally seen followed by reverse sigmoid. The mean ratio of width/height of FS was observed more in males and highly significant correlation was observed with both sexes. The mean area of FS was noted more in males. There was significant correlation found between patterns of NS and FS except in right dominated asymmetrical FS. The combined use of FS and NS patterns could be used as method for identification by exclusion in forensics.

  16. Video gaming and sexual violence: rethinking forensic nursing in a digital age. (United States)

    Mercer, Dave; Parkinson, Denis


    This article reports findings from a qualitative study into how forensic nurses, and male personality disordered sexual offenders, talked about "pornography" in one U.K. high-security hospital. Research rationale was rooted in current professional and political debates, adopting a discourse analytic design to situate the project in a clinical context. Semistructured interviews, as co-constructed accounts, explored talk about sexual media, offending, treatment, and risk. Data were analyzed using a version of discourse analysis popular in healthcare research, identifying discursive repertoires, or collective language use, characteristic of the institutional culture. Findings revealed that masculine discourse marginalized female nurses and contradicted therapeutic goals, where men's talk about pornography, sex, and sexual crime represented discriminatory and gendered language. Nursing definitions of pornography were constructed in the context of the client group and an organizational need to manage risk. In a highly controlled environment, with a long-stay population, priority in respondent talk was given to mainstream commercial sexual media and everyday items/images perceived to have embedded sexual meaning. However, little mention was made of contemporary modes of producing/distributing pornography, where sex and sexual violence are enacted in virtual realities of cyberspace. Failure to engage with information technology, and globally mediated sex, is discussed as a growing concern for forensic health workers.

  17. The Advanced Data Acquisition Model (ADAM): A Process Model for Digital Forensic Practice


    Richard Brian Adams; Val Hobbs; Graham Mann


    As with other types of evidence, the courts make no presumption that digital evidence is reliable without some evidence of empirical testing in relation to the theories and techniques associated with its production. The issue of reliability means that courts pay close attention to the manner in which electronic evidence has been obtained and in particular the process in which the data is captured and stored. Previous process models have tended to focus on one particular area of digital forens...

  18. Forensic age estimation on digital X-ray images: Medial epiphyses of the clavicle and first rib ossification in relation to chronological age. (United States)

    Garamendi, Pedro M; Landa, Maria I; Botella, Miguel C; Alemán, Inmaculada


    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in forensic sciences about forensic age estimation in living subjects by means of radiological methods. This research was conducted on digital thorax X-rays to test the usefulness of some radiological changes in the clavicle and first rib. The sample consisted in a total of 123 subjects of Spanish origin (61 men and 62 women; age range: 5-75 years). From all subjects, a thorax posterior-anterior radiograph was obtained in digital format. Scoring for fusion of medial epiphyses of the clavicle was carried out by Schmeling's system and ossification of the costal cartilage of the first rib by Michelson's system. Degree of ossification and epiphyseal fusion were analyzed in relation with known age and sex of these subjects. The results give a minimum age of >20 years for full fusion of the medial epiphysis of the clavicle (Stages 4 and 5). Concerning the first rib, all subjects with the final Stage 3 of ossification were above 25 years of age. These results suggest that the first rib ossification might become an additional method to the ones so far recommended for forensic age estimation in subjects around 21. New research would be desirable to confirm this suggestion. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. The ongoing Digitalization of an Introductory Programming Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt


    This paper is about the ongoing digitalization of a C programming course. The paper describes our considerations about the use of video resources, as well as other digital learning resources. In particular, we discuss the ongoing transition from using a number of supplementary videos (in a tradit......This paper is about the ongoing digitalization of a C programming course. The paper describes our considerations about the use of video resources, as well as other digital learning resources. In particular, we discuss the ongoing transition from using a number of supplementary videos (in...

  20. A computer program for planimetric analysis of digitized images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N; Lynnerup, O; Homøe, P


    bones as seen on X-rays. By placing the X-rays on a digitizer tablet and tracing the outline of the cell system, the area was calculated by the program. The calculated data and traced images could be stored and printed. The program is written in BASIC; necessary hardware is an IBM-compatible personal......Planimetrical measurements are made to calculate the area of an entity. By digitizing the entity the planimetrical measurements may be done by computer. This computer program was developed in conjunction with a research project involving measurement of the pneumatized cell system of the temporal...... computer, a digitizer tablet and a printer....

  1. Clustering Spam Domains and Destination Websites: Digital Forensics with Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wei


    Full Text Available Spam related cyber crimes have become a serious threat to society. Current spam research mainly aims to detect spam more effectively. We believe the prosecution of spammers is a more effective way of stopping spam emails than filtering, therefore more research is needed to help forensic investigators to collect useful evidence. This research proposes an algorithm for clustering spam domains extracted from spam emails based on the hosting IP addresses and tracing the domains over a period of time. The results reveal several facts that merit law enforcement attention: many seemingly unrelated spam campaigns are actually related; spammers have a sophisticated mechanism for combating URL blacklisting by registering many new domain names every day and flushing out old domains; the domains are hosted at different IP addresses across several networks, mostly in China where legislation is not as tight as in US; old IP addresses are replaced by new ones from time to time, but still show strong correlation among them. These facts lead to the conclusion that spam-related cyber crimes are operated by well-organized criminal syndicates that have sufficient manpower to distribute a huge volume of spam through bots, purchase a large number of domain names and hosting servers and maintain websites to sell counterfeit products online. Traditional law enforcements technology has not scaled well in cases involving millions of data elements. This paper demonstrates an effective use of data mining to respond to this challenge.

  2. Copy-Move Forgery Detection Technique for Forensic Analysis in Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Mahmood


    Full Text Available Due to the powerful image editing tools images are open to several manipulations; therefore, their authenticity is becoming questionable especially when images have influential power, for example, in a court of law, news reports, and insurance claims. Image forensic techniques determine the integrity of images by applying various high-tech mechanisms developed in the literature. In this paper, the images are analyzed for a particular type of forgery where a region of an image is copied and pasted onto the same image to create a duplication or to conceal some existing objects. To detect the copy-move forgery attack, images are first divided into overlapping square blocks and DCT components are adopted as the block representations. Due to the high dimensional nature of the feature space, Gaussian RBF kernel PCA is applied to achieve the reduced dimensional feature vector representation that also improved the efficiency during the feature matching. Extensive experiments are performed to evaluate the proposed method in comparison to state of the art. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique precisely determines the copy-move forgery even when the images are contaminated with blurring, noise, and compression and can effectively detect multiple copy-move forgeries. Hence, the proposed technique provides a computationally efficient and reliable way of copy-move forgery detection that increases the credibility of images in evidence centered applications.

  3. Digital forensic osteology--possibilities in cooperation with the Virtopsy project. (United States)

    Verhoff, Marcel A; Ramsthaler, Frank; Krähahn, Jonathan; Deml, Ulf; Gille, Ralf J; Grabherr, Silke; Thali, Michael J; Kreutz, Kerstin


    The present study was carried out to check whether classic osteometric parameters can be determined from the 3D reconstructions of MSCT (multislice computed tomography) scans acquired in the context of the Virtopsy project. To this end, four isolated and macerated skulls were examined by six examiners. First the skulls were conventionally (manually) measured using 32 internationally accepted linear measurements. Then the skulls were scanned by the use of MSCT with slice thicknesses of 1.25 mm and 0.63 mm, and the 33 measurements were virtually determined on the digital 3D reconstructions of the skulls. The results of the traditional and the digital measurements were compared for each examiner to figure out variations. Furthermore, several parameters were measured on the cranium and postcranium during an autopsy and compared to the values that had been measured on a 3D reconstruction from a previously acquired postmortem MSCT scan. The results indicate that equivalent osteometric values can be obtained from digital 3D reconstructions from MSCT scans using a slice thickness of 1.25 mm, and from conventional manual examinations. The measurements taken from a corpse during an autopsy could also be validated with the methods used for the digital 3D reconstructions in the context of the Virtopsy project. Future aims are the assessment and biostatistical evaluation in respect to sex, age and stature of all data sets stored in the Virtopsy project so far, as well as of future data sets. Furthermore, a definition of new parameters, only measurable with the aid of MSCT data would be conceivable.

  4. Digital Earth Initiative: A Joint Interagency Program (United States)

    Halem, Milton


    The Digital Earth is a virtual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural and cultural information gathered about the Earth. The Digital Earth comprises data interfaces and standards enabling access to geo-referenced data from remote sensing, cartographic, demographic, medical, and other sources to respond to questions posed by the user. In a recent address at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Vice President Al Gore articulated a Digital Earth Vision. That vision spoke to developing a multi-resolution, three-dimensional representation of the planet, into which we can roam and zoom into vast quantities of embedded geo-referenced data. The vision was not limited to moving through space but also allowing travel over a time-line, which can be set for days, years, centuries, or even geological epochs. As prototypes become available, it would also be possible to interact with the Digital Earth in multiple places around the country with access to high-speed networks and at a more limited level of access over the Internet. NASA was asked by the Vice President to lead an interagency initiative that would take steps to bring this vision to the public. This talk describes the start-up and plans of the Digital Earth Interagency Working Group in the formulation of its charter, an architecture reference model for Digital Earth, public/private partnerships, cooperative agreement notices, Digital Earth prototypes, and testbeds. Animations employing technologies for virtual roaming and zooming through multi-resolution satellite data set as prototype systems will be presented along with examples of potential user scenarios. Plans for engaging academia and industry in implementing the Digital Earth initiative will be discussed.

  5. Design of All Digital Flight Program Training Desktop Application System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu


    Full Text Available All digital flight program training desktop application system operating conditions are simple. Can make the aircraft aircrew learning theory and operation training closely. Improve the training efficiency and effectiveness. This paper studies the application field and design requirements of flight program training system. Based on the WINDOWS operating system desktop application, the design idea and system architecture of the all digital flight program training system are put forward. Flight characteristics, key airborne systems and aircraft cockpit are simulated. Finally, By comparing flight training simulator and the specific script program training system, The characteristics and advantages of the training system are analyzed in this paper.

  6. Connecting Hispanic Women in Baltimore to the Mercy Medical Center Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners/Forensic Nurse Examiners Program: A Preliminary Assessment of Service Utilization and Community Awareness. (United States)

    Adams, Margaret; Fitzgerald, Sheila; Holbrook, Debra


    Sexual violence and gender-based violence represent a major public health problem causing significant negative mental, physical, and social outcomes for victims. The rapidly growing population of Hispanic women in Baltimore are both more vulnerable to sexual assault and less able to access postassault services. In an effort to assess service utilization and community awareness of the Mercy Medical Center Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners/Forensic Nurse Examiners Program, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 2,322 women who were seen by the program between 2010 and 2013 and found that only 2.5% of the women were identified as Hispanic, about half of what Baltimore City demographic data would predict. This exploratory pilot project, augmented by key informant interviews, reveals that Hispanic women are underutilizing sexual assault services. Multiple barriers exist for Hispanic women in obtaining victim services, including lack of awareness within the community that the services exist, cultural factors, language barriers, lack of awareness of legal rights, and a fear of deportation.

  7. Digit ratio (2D:4D – A forensic marker for sexual dimorphism in North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Dey


    Conclusion: This research study proves beneficial for identity authentication, for criminal investigation and a powerful forensic tool for medico – legal cases. This will help in the advancement of technology which will prove beneficial for the welfare of indigenous population of India. Also the data so collected can be useful as forensic anthropology population data.

  8. [The development of a treatment program for violent forensic psychiatric patients with a cluster B personality disorder]. (United States)

    Hornsveld, R H J; Soe-Agnie, S; Donker, J; van der Wal, L


    Very few articles have been published in professional journals concerning the design, content, and results of treatment programs for violent forensic psychiatric patients in the Netherlands. To describe the development of a treatment program for forensic psychiatric patients with a cluster B personality disorder. In this program a treatment for aggression was combined with a treatment for substance abuse. Clinical findings obtained with both treatments are discussed, followed by a description of new modules that were added because of recent research results. results The combined treatment program targets the principal dynamic factors that cause individuals to display criminal behaviour. Empirical research is needed in order to find out whether the treatment as a whole produces better results than the two treatments administered separately.

  9. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics: Recommendations on the validation of software programs performing biostatistical calculations for forensic genetics applications. (United States)

    Coble, M D; Buckleton, J; Butler, J M; Egeland, T; Fimmers, R; Gill, P; Gusmão, L; Guttman, B; Krawczak, M; Morling, N; Parson, W; Pinto, N; Schneider, P M; Sherry, S T; Willuweit, S; Prinz, M


    The use of biostatistical software programs to assist in data interpretation and calculate likelihood ratios is essential to forensic geneticists and part of the daily case work flow for both kinship and DNA identification laboratories. Previous recommendations issued by the DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) covered the application of bio-statistical evaluations for STR typing results in identification and kinship cases, and this is now being expanded to provide best practices regarding validation and verification of the software required for these calculations. With larger multiplexes, more complex mixtures, and increasing requests for extended family testing, laboratories are relying more than ever on specific software solutions and sufficient validation, training and extensive documentation are of upmost importance. Here, we present recommendations for the minimum requirements to validate bio-statistical software to be used in forensic genetics. We distinguish between developmental validation and the responsibilities of the software developer or provider, and the internal validation studies to be performed by the end user. Recommendations for the software provider address, for example, the documentation of the underlying models used by the software, validation data expectations, version control, implementation and training support, as well as continuity and user notifications. For the internal validations the recommendations include: creating a validation plan, requirements for the range of samples to be tested, Standard Operating Procedure development, and internal laboratory training and education. To ensure that all laboratories have access to a wide range of samples for validation and training purposes the ISFG DNA commission encourages collaborative studies and public repositories of STR typing results. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Liforac - A Model For Live Forensic Acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available Live Forensic Acquisition. This model is composed of four distinct dimensions (Laws and Regulations, Timeline, Knowledge and Scope) that look at the details of ensuring forensically sound digital evidence. At the time of writing, the Liforac model...

  11. Best practice approach to live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available , timeline, knowledge and scope. These dimensions combine to present a wide ranging model to guide first responders and forensic investigators in acquiring forensically sound digital evidence. The dimensions were identified as part of an intense research...

  12. Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programming Metamaterials


    Cui, Tie Jun; Qi, Mei Qing; Wan, Xiang; Zhao, Jie; Cheng, Qiang


    As artificial structures, metamaterials are usually described by macroscopic effective medium parameters, which are named as "analog metamaterials". Here, we propose "digital metamaterials" in two steps. Firstly, we present "coding metamaterials" that are composed of only two kinds of unit cells with 0 and {\\pi} phase responses, which we name as "0" and "1" elements. By coding "0" and "1" elements with controlled sequences (i.e., 1-bit coding), we can manipulate electromagnetic (EM) waves and...

  13. Exposing Vital Forensic Artifacts of USB Devices in the Windows 10 Registry (United States)


    Forensic Wipe Requirements Wiping digital media is a standard forensic practice to ensure that all data that exists on a device is controlled. The...ed.). Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons. Carvey, H. (2011). Windows registry forensics : Advanced digital forensic analysis of the windows...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited EXPOSING VITAL FORENSIC ARTIFACTS

  14. Forensic Chemistry Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK


    Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.

  15. Forensic Science. (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.


    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  16. Recovery and identification of human remains in post-conflict environments: A comparative study of the humanitarian forensic programs in Cyprus and Kosovo. (United States)

    Mikellide, Maria


    This study follows the humanitarian forensic programs in Cyprus and Kosovo over a ten-year period with an emphasis on the role of local capacity building. It begins by providing an in-depth historical account of forensic activities, followed by a comparison of the rate of excavations, exhumations and identifications. Through this analysis, a repeated pattern emerges whereby forensic activities in Kosovo start with a surge in values, which drop drastically in the first few years of operations, followed by a steadily declining productivity curve. By contrast, in Cyprus, activities begin modestly, with lower values allowing for some modest growth. Close observation of the two programs provides indications as to the factors that may influence the development of forensic programs as well as the elements that need to be set in place to create an environment conducive to greater sustainability through local ownership and responsibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. IDRC program to focus on digital innovations | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Mar 17, 2016 ... The Networked Economies program will support research that helps developing countries use digital innovations to create inclusive economic opportunities and advance democracy. More particularly ... IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer ...

  18. The Relevant Skills for Forensic Accountants – Can the Romanian Accounting Education Programs offer them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobițan Nicolae


    Full Text Available In Romania for becoming a forensic accountant it is necessary, as preliminary conditions, first,to have a bachelor`s degree in accounting or finance, and second, to attain a certification, aschartered accountant, given by the professional body, CECCAR, and after that, as forensicaccountant. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the Romanian academic educationand the professional education can assure all the relevant skills for a forensic accountant. In orderto achieve the objective, first, the authors investigated the most important studies which have thepurpose to identify the relevant skills for a forensic accountant. Second, the authors reviewed thecurriculum of the most important faculties with the aim to find and connect different courses withdifferent skills. The purpose was to determine how the forensic accounting education, offered to theprofessional accountants, assures them, all the relevant skills that are necessary in the profession.

  19. Forensic analysis of video file formats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gloe, Thomas; Fischer, André; Kirchner, Matthias


    .... In combination, such characteristics can help to authenticate digital video files in forensic settings by distinguishing between original and post-processed videos, verifying the purported source...

  20. Predictors of attrition for a sexual assault forensic examiner (SAFE) blended learning training program. (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Resko, Stella


    Participant attrition is a major concern for online continuing education health care courses. The current study sought to understand what factors predicted health care professionals completing the online component of a sexual assault forensic examiner (SAFE) blended learning training program (12-week online course and 2-day in-person clinical skills workshop). The study used a Web-based survey to examine participant characteristics, motivation, and external barriers that may influence training completion. Hierarchical logistic regression was utilized to examine the predictors of training completion, while the Cox proportional hazards (Cox PH) regression model helped determine the factors associated with the timing of participant attrition. Results show that 79.3% of the enrolled professionals completed the online component. The study also found that clinicians who work in rural communities and those who were interested in a 2-day clinical skills workshop were more likely to complete the online course. In terms of when attrition occurred, we found that participants who were motivated by the 2-day clinical workshop, those who worked in a rural community, and participants interested in the training program because of its online nature were more likely to complete more of the online course. Blending an online course with a brief in-person clinical component may serve as a motivator for completing an online course because it provides the opportunity to develop clinical skills while receiving immediate feedback. Participant attrition appears to be less of a concern for rural clinicians because this modality can reduce their barriers to accessing continuing education. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  1. What Makes the Digital "Special"? The Research Program in Digital Collections at the National Library of Wales (United States)

    Cusworth, Andrew; Hughes, Lorna M.; James, Rhian; Roberts, Owain; Roderick, Gareth Lloyd


    This article introduces some of the digital projects currently in development at the National Library of Wales as part of its Research Program in Digital Collections. These projects include the digital representation of the Library's Kyffin Willams art collection, musical collections, and probate collection, and of materials collected by the…

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Digital Architecture Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Digital Architecture effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The LWRS program is performed in close collaboration with industry research and development (R&D) programs that provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants (NPPs). One of the primary missions of the LWRS program is to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. Therefore, a major objective of the LWRS program is the development of a seamless digital environment for plant operations and support by integrating information from plant systems with plant processes for nuclear workers through an array of interconnected technologies. In order to get the most benefits of the advanced technology suggested by the different research activities in the LWRS program, the nuclear utilities need a digital architecture in place to support the technology. A digital architecture can be defined as a collection of information technology (IT) capabilities needed to support and integrate a wide-spectrum of real-time digital capabilities for nuclear power plant performance improvements. It is not hard to imagine that many processes within the plant can be largely improved from both a system and human performance perspective by utilizing a plant wide (or near plant wide) wireless network. For example, a plant wide wireless network allows for real time plant status information to easily be accessed in the control room, field workers’ computer-based procedures can be updated based on the real time plant status, and status on ongoing procedures can be incorporated into smart schedules in the outage command center to allow for more accurate planning of critical tasks. The goal

  3. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel


    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  4. A State-of-the-Art Review of Cloud Forensics


    Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla; Youssef Iraqi; Andrew Jones


    Cloud computing and digital forensics are emerging fields of technology. Unlike traditional digital forensics where the target environment can be almost completely acquired, isolated and can be under the investigators control; in cloud environments, the distribution of computation and storage poses unique and complex challenges to the investigators.Recently, the term "cloud forensics" has an increasing presence in the field of digital forensics. In this state-of-the-art review, we included th...

  5. Forensic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Riordan, Daniel


    This paper describes the role forensic psychotherapy has in the assessment and treatment of mentally disordered offender patients, and its role in the supervision of individual therapists, staff groups or whole organisations which contain and manage this patient population. Forensic psychotherapy has a valuable role to play in the management of mentally disordered forensic patients. As forensic services continue to develop in Australia and New Zealand and interest in this field continues to grow, then the future of forensic psychotherapy looks bright.

  6. The engineering design integration (EDIN) system. [digital computer program complex (United States)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hirsch, G. N.; Alford, G. E.; Colquitt, W. N.; Reiners, S. J.


    A digital computer program complex for the evaluation of aerospace vehicle preliminary designs is described. The system consists of a Univac 1100 series computer and peripherals using the Exec 8 operating system, a set of demand access terminals of the alphanumeric and graphics types, and a library of independent computer programs. Modification of the partial run streams, data base maintenance and construction, and control of program sequencing are provided by a data manipulation program called the DLG processor. The executive control of library program execution is performed by the Univac Exec 8 operating system through a user established run stream. A combination of demand and batch operations is employed in the evaluation of preliminary designs. Applications accomplished with the EDIN system are described.

  7. Evaluation of the Position of Mental Foramen for Clinical and Forensic Significance in terms of Gender in Dentate Subjects by Digital Panoramic Radiographs. (United States)

    Thakare, Shweta; Mhapuskar, Amit; Hiremutt, Darshan; Giroh, Versha R; Kalyanpur, Kedarnath; Alpana, K R


    Evaluation of the position of mental foramen aids in forensic, surgical, endodontic, as well as diagnostic procedures. Thus, in view of this, the present study was conducted among the population of Pune, a central part of India, to determine the most regular location of the mental foramen and to estimate difference in position of mental foramen based on gender. The present retrospective study was commenced on 200 digital panoramic radiographs of dentate patients. The location of the representation of the mental foramen was traced. Measurements for evaluating distance of superior and inferior borders of the foramen in relation to the lower border of the mandible were made using the reference lines drawn from anatomical landmarks. The data so obtained were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. The most common position of mental foramen among Pune population in horizontal plane in both male and female patients was in line with second premolar followed by position in between first and second premolar, whereas in the vertical plane, most common position was at or in line with apex of second premolar followed by in between apex of first and second premolar. The variation in length of superior and inferior border of the foramen in relation to lower border of the mandible with respect to gender was found to be significant, with p-value forensic identification of gender.

  8. Research in Computer Forensics (United States)


    from many other sorts of systems. It includes viewgraphs covering a wide range of topics in digital forensic, audio recordings and examples from files, video files and audio files; PDF format files; executable files or binary data files; files housing email archives and/or active... Steganography , combines encryption and data hiding to create a file system that makes digital evidence recovery and reconstruction very difficult. 24 139

  9. Linear programming phase unwrapping for dual-wavelength digital holography. (United States)

    Wang, Zhaomin; Jiao, Jiannan; Qu, Weijuan; Yang, Fang; Li, Hongru; Tian, Ailing; Asundi, Anand


    A linear programming phase unwrapping method in dual-wavelength digital holography is proposed and verified experimentally. The proposed method uses the square of height difference as a convergence standard and theoretically gives the boundary condition in a searching process. A simulation was performed by unwrapping step structures at different levels of Gaussian noise. As a result, our method is capable of recovering the discontinuities accurately. It is robust and straightforward. In the experiment, a microelectromechanical systems sample and a cylindrical lens were measured separately. The testing results were in good agreement with true values. Moreover, the proposed method is applicable not only in digital holography but also in other dual-wavelength interferometric techniques.

  10. Forensics Investigator (United States)

    ... Other Careers Career Profiles Forensics Investigator Overview Description Forensic science technicians investigate crimes by collecting and analyzing physical evidence. Often, they specialize in areas such as DNA analysis or firearm examination, performing tests on weapons ...

  11. Forensic odontology. (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal


    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Digital Architecture Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    There are many technologies available to the nuclear power industry to improve efficiency in plant work activities. These range from new control room technologies to those for mobile field workers. They can make a positive impact on a wide range of performance objectives – increase in productivity, human error reduction, validation of results, accurate transfer of data, and elimination of repetitive tasks. It is expected that the industry will more and more turn to these technologies to achieve these operational efficiencies to lower costs. At the same time, this will help utilities manage a looming staffing problem as the inevitable retirement wave of the more seasoned workers affects both staffing levels and knowledge retention. A barrier to this wide-scale implementation of new technologies for operational efficiency is the lack of a comprehensive digital architecture that can support the real-time information exchanges needed to achieve the desired operational efficiencies. This project will define an advanced digital architecture that will accommodate the entire range of system, process, and plant worker activity to enable the highest degree of integration, thereby creating maximum efficiency and productivity. This pilot project will consider a range of open standards that are suitable for the various data and communication requirements of a seamless digital environment. It will map these standards into an overall architecture to support the II&C developments of this research program.

  13. La informática forense y sus analogías: la balística digital


    Constanzo, Bruno; Cistoldi, Pablo; Iturriaga, Juan Ignacio; Di Iorio, Ana


    Con el progreso de las tecnologías de la información sobre múltiples aspectos de la vida diaria, se hace cada vez más común la presencia de evidencia digital en las investigaciones judiciales. La evidencia, en cuanto contenedor físico de datos con valor investigativo, presenta distintos grados de complejidad, y la evidencia digital es un exponente excepcional en este aspecto. Algunas preguntas poco frecuentes en cuanto a la...

  14. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lamont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Nuclear forensics assists in responding to any event where nuclear material is found outside of regulatory control; a response plan is presented and a nuclear forensics program is undergoing further development so that smugglers are sufficiently deterred.

  15. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine


    Full Text Available The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC, international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc., forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics, forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants, psychiatry and hypnotics, forensic anthropology and archeology, forensic odontology, fingerprints and impressions, firearms and tool marks, white collar crimes (counterfeit and forgery; questioned documents, digital forensics; cyber-crimes, criminal justice and crime scene investigation, as well as many other disciplines where science and medicine interact with the law.

  16. Forensic examination of ink by high-performance thin layer chromatography--the United States Secret Service Digital Ink Library. (United States)

    Neumann, Cedric; Ramotowski, Robert; Genessay, Thibault


    Forensic examinations of ink have been performed since the beginning of the 20th century. Since the 1960s, the International Ink Library, maintained by the United States Secret Service, has supported those analyses. Until 2009, the search and identification of inks were essentially performed manually. This paper describes the results of a project designed to improve ink samples' analytical and search processes. The project focused on the development of improved standardization procedures to ensure the best possible reproducibility between analyses run on different HPTLC plates. The successful implementation of this new calibration method enabled the development of mathematical algorithms and of a software package to complement the existing ink library. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. System Support for Forensic Inference (United States)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  18. Multimedia security watermarking, steganography, and forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Shih, Frank Y


    Multimedia Security: Watermarking, Steganography, and Forensics outlines essential principles, technical information, and expert insights on multimedia security technology used to prove that content is authentic and has not been altered. Illustrating the need for improved content security as the Internet and digital multimedia applications rapidly evolve, this book presents a wealth of everyday protection application examples in fields including multimedia mining and classification, digital watermarking, steganography, and digital forensics. Giving readers an in-depth overview of different asp

  19. 75 FR 7370 - Closed Captioning of Video Programming; Closed Captioning Requirements for Digital Television... (United States)


    ... Television Receivers AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective... Closed Captioning of Video Programming; Closed Captioning Requirements for Digital Television Receivers...

  20. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community. (United States)

    van Asten, Arian C


    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Forensic ballistics


    Hoznour, Ondřej


    - 1 - 9. Abstract Forensic ballistics The goal of this thesis is to initiate readers into the branch of criminalistic or forensic ballistics and to its basic terminology. It is not possible to compile this theme at full length, there is no sufficient space for it, therefore I offer professional minimum of criminalistic ballistics. The fundamental purpose of my thesis is to afford the complex view of problems of modern forensic ballistics. The thesis is composed of introduction, six chapters, ...

  2. Folding Digital Mapping into a Traditional Field Camp Program (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.


    Louisiana State University runs a field camp with a permanent fixed-base which has continually operated since 1928 in the Front Range just to the south of Colorado Springs, CO. The field camp program which offers a 6-credit hour course in Field Geology follows a very traditional structure. The first week is spent collecting data for the construction of a detailed stratigraphic column of the local geology. The second week is spent learning the skills of geologic mapping, while the third applies these skills to a more geologically complicated mapping area. The final three weeks of the field camp program are spent studying and mapping igneous and metamorphic rocks as well as conducting a regional stratigraphic correlation exercise. Historically there has been a lack of technology involved in this program. All mapping has been done in the field without the use of any digital equipment and all products have been made in the office without the use of computers. In the summer of 2011 the use of GPS units, and GIS software were introduced to the program. The exercise that was chosen for this incorporation of technology was one in which metamorphic rocks are mapped within Golden Gate Canyon State Park in Colorado. This same mapping exercise was carried out during the 2010 field camp session with no GPS or GIS use. The students in both groups had the similar geologic backgrounds, similar grade point averages, and similar overall performances at field camp. However, the group that used digital mapping techniques mapped the field area more quickly and reportedly with greater ease. Additionally, the students who used GPS and GIS included more detailed rock descriptions with their final maps indicating that they spent less time in the field focusing on mapping contacts between units. The outcome was a better overall product. The use of GPS units also indirectly caused the students to produce better field maps. In addition to greater ease in mapping, the use of GIS software to

  3. Digital library programs for libraries and archives developing, managing, and sustaining unique digital collections

    CERN Document Server

    Purcell, D


    Equally valuable for LIS students just learning about the digital landscape, information professionals taking their first steps to create digital content, and organizations who already have well-established digital credentials, Purcell's book outlines methods applicable and scalable to many different types and sizes of libraries and archives.

  4. Polygonal Approximation of Digital Curves Using Evolutionary Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul E. Sanchez-Yanez


    Full Text Available El artículo propone un método basado en Programación Evolutiva para solucionar la aproximación poligonal de curvas digitales. La solución proporcionada por el método consiste en una secuencia de segmentos de línea que será traducida a primitivas de movimiento Avanzar y Rotar en un robot Cartesiano 2D. El método propuesto encuentra automáticamente el número de segmentos así como sus puntos iniciales y finales. El método ha sido probado en un conjunto de curvas digitales de prueba que exhibe principalmente dos características: openess y straightness, en diferentes grados. Se demuestra que el método propuesto proporciona buenos resultados para la aproximación de curvas en el conjunto de pruebas. Presentamos resultados cualitativos y cuantitativos de estas pruebas.This paper proposes an Evolutionary Programming (EP approach to solve the polygonal approximation of digital curves. The solution provided by the method consists of a sequence of straight line segments to be applied as Advance and Rotate motion primitives of a 2D Cartesian robot. The proposed approach finds automatically the number of segments and the startingand ending points of each of them. We have tested our approach on a test set of digital curves that exhibits two main qualitative features: openess and straightness, in different degrees. We show that our method obtains good results for approximating the curves in the test set. We present both quantitative and qualitative results of these test.

  5. Forensic Data Carving (United States)

    Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

    File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

  6. FORENSIC SCIENCE: (United States)

    Brkić, Hrvoje


    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world. PMID:27688352

  7. The Implementation and Growth of an International Online Forensic Science Graduate Program at the University of Florida (United States)

    Grundmann, Oliver; Wielbo, Donna; Tebbett, Ian


    Forensic science education has evolved as an interdisciplinary science that includes medicine, chemistry, biology, and criminal justice. Therefore, multiple paths can lead to a career in forensic science. A formal education usually requires the student to attend a college or university to obtain a bachelor's or master's degree. In many cases,…

  8. Multimedia Analytics for Image Collection Forensics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worring, M.; Ho, A.T.S.; Li, S.


    This chapter focuses on techniques suited for forensic analysis of large image collections. In digital forensics an investigator is often tasked to analyze a data source containing large numbers of images and their metadata sometimes reaching into the millions. Apart from the content of the images

  9. DBT in an outpatient forensic setting. (United States)

    van den Bosch, L M C; Hysaj, M; Jacobs, P


    Literature shows that effective treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has become possible. However, borderline patients in forensic psychiatry do not seem to benefit from this development. In forensic psychiatry, prevention of criminal recidivism is the main focus of treatment, not core borderline problems like parasuicidal and self-destructive behavior. A dialectical behavioral treatment program for BPD was implemented in an outpatient forensic clinic in The Netherlands. Sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment data were collected from ten male, and nineteen female forensic BPD patients, and compared with corresponding data from fifty-eight non-forensic BPD patients. The results show that it is possible to implement dialectical behavior therapy in an outpatient forensic clinic. The data indicate that the exclusion of forensic patients, and especially female forensic patients, from evidence-based treatment is unjustified given the highly comparable clinical and etiological characteristics they share with female BPD patients from general mental health settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana


    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  11. Digital Media and Technology in Afterschool Programs, Libraries, and Museums (United States)

    Herr-Stephenson, Becky; Rhoten, Diana; Perkel, Dan; Sims, Christo


    Digital media and technology have become culturally and economically powerful parts of contemporary middle-class American childhoods. Immersed in various forms of digital media as well as mobile and Web-based technologies, young people today appear to develop knowledge and skills through participation in media. This MacArthur Report examines the…

  12. Success Factors and Strategic Planning: Rebuilding an Academic Library Digitization Program


    Cory Lampert; Jason Vaughan


    This paper discusses a dual approach of case study and research survey to investigate the complex factors in sustaining academic library digitization programs. The case study involves the background of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Libraries’ digitization program and elaborates on the authors’ efforts to gain staff support for this program. A related survey was administered to all Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members, seeking to collect baseline data on their digital c...

  13. Forensic psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje


    Full Text Available The paper is a review of different issues that a forensic psychologists encounter at work. Forensic assessment might be needed in civil law cases, administrative procedures and in criminal law cases. The paper focuses on referrals in criminal law cases regarding matters such as assessing competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility and violence risk assessment. Finally, the role of expert testimony on eyewitness memory, which is not used in practice in Slovenia yet, is presented.

  14. Open Source Live Distributions for Computer Forensics (United States)

    Giustini, Giancarlo; Andreolini, Mauro; Colajanni, Michele

    Current distributions of open source forensic software provide digital investigators with a large set of heterogeneous tools. Their use is not always focused on the target and requires high technical expertise. We present a new GNU/Linux live distribution, named CAINE (Computer Aided INvestigative Environment) that contains a collection of tools wrapped up into a user friendly environment. The CAINE forensic framework introduces novel important features, aimed at filling the interoperability gap across different forensic tools. Moreover, it provides a homogeneous graphical interface that drives digital investigators during the acquisition and analysis of electronic evidence, and it offers a semi-automatic mechanism for the creation of the final report.

  15. 76 FR 52350 - Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard, Certification Program... (United States)


    ... of Justice Programs Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard...) will make available to the general public three draft documents related to Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording Systems (VDMERSs) used by law enforcement agencies: 1. Draft VDMERS Standard for Law...

  16. A Management-Based CIPP Evaluation of a Northern New Jersey School District's Digital Backpack Program (United States)

    Bachenheimer, Barry A.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Digital Backpack program in a Northern New Jersey School District using the CIPP Management-Based Evaluation model as a framework. The Stufflebeam (1971) CIPP model is an acronym for Context, Input, Process, and Product Evaluation. A "Digital Backpack" is a rolling computer bag given to K-12…

  17. Programming Not Required: Skills and Knowledge for the Digital Library Environment (United States)

    Howard, Katherine


    Education for Library and Information professionals in managing the digital environment has been a key topic for discussion within the LIS environment for some time. However, before designing and implementing a program for digital library education, it is prudent to ensure that the skills and knowledge required to work in this environment are…

  18. An Outlook of Public Accounting Undergraduate Programs in Colombia Regarding Forensic Auditing and Financial Crime Prevention Contents


    Baracaldo-Lozano, Natalia Andrea; Universidad de la Salle. Universidad Santiago de Chile. ontificia Universidad Javeriana; Daza-Giraldo, Luis Eduardo; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana


    Recent cases of economic and financial crimes, financial fraud, corruption, and corporate malpractice in the local and international corporate environment have created the need to have professionals trained to face the challenges related to their investigation and analysis, activities carried out by forensic auditing.This article highlights several key aspects to understand why is important to specifically include forensic auditing as a subject in curricula during the studies of public accoun...

  19. Learning iOS forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Epifani, Mattia


    If you are a digital forensics examiner daily involved in the acquisition and analysis of mobile devices and want to have a complete overview of how to perform your work on iOS devices, this book is definitely for you.

  20. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole


    Processes of digitization have for years represented a major trend in the developments of modern society but have only recently been related to processes of mediatization. The purpose of this article is to look into the relation between the concepts of mediatization and digitization and to clarify...... what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...... not anticipated in previous conceptualizations of media and mediatization. If digital media are to be included, the concept of mediatization has to be revised and new parameters are to be built into the concept of media. At the same time it is argued that the concept of mediatization still provides a variety...

  1. Digital Video Assignments: Focusing a New Lens on Teacher Preparation Programs (United States)

    Fiorentino, Leah Holland


    Since NCATE requires teacher preparation programs to integrate technology, this article begins the dialogue for sharing start-up strategies. This article shows how one program (Adelphi University) has integrated digital video assignments into the teacher preparation program. It is hoped that this will spur interest and effort from other teacher…

  2. Cyber Forensics and Security as an ABET-CAC Accreditable Program (United States)

    Wood, David F.; Kohun, Frederick G.; Ali, Azad; Paullet, Karen; Davis, Gary A.


    This paper frames the recent ABET accreditation model with respect to the balance between IS programs and innovation. With the current relaxation of the content of the information systems requirement by ABET, it is possible to include innovation into the accreditation umbrella. To this extent this paper provides a curricular model that provides…

  3. The state of nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, Michael J. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-186, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Tumey, Scott J., E-mail: [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-397, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)


    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  4. Forensic hash for multimedia information (United States)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min


    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  5. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics. (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair


    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gamma spectra pictures using a digital plotter. Program MONO; Representacion de Espectros directos mediante un trazado digital. Prograa MONO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos, J. M.


    The program MONO has been written for a CALCOMP-936 digital plotter operating off- -line with a UMI VAC 1106 computer, to obtain graphic representations of single gamma spectra stored on magnetic tape. It allows to plot the whole spectrum or only a part, as well as to draw a given spectrum on the same or different picture than the previous one. Ten representation scales are available and at up nine comment lines can be written in a graphic. (Author) 4 refs.

  7. Computer forensics with FTK

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Fernando


    This tutorial contains detailed instructions with useful integrated examples that help you understand the main features of FTK and how you can use it to analyze evidence. This book has clear and concise guidance in an easily accessible format.This tutorial-based guide is great for you if you want to conduct digital investigations with an integrated platform. Whether you are new to Computer Forensics or have some experience, this book will help you get started with FTK so you can analyze evidence effectively and efficiently. If you are a law enforcement official, corporate security, or IT profe

  8. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession. A Survey of Educational Offerings in the Forensic Sciences. Volume I. (United States)

    Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This survey of the educational offerings in the Forensic Sciences was initiated to identify institutions and agencies offering educational courses and/or programs in the forensic sciences and to evaluate the availability of these programs. The information gathered by surveying members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences reveals that…

  9. Forensic Pathology Education in Pathology Residency (United States)

    Ross, Wayne K.; Domen, Ronald E.


    Forensic pathology is a fundamental part of anatomic pathology training during pathology residency. However, the lack of information on forensic teaching suggests the highly variable nature of forensic education. A survey of pathology residency program directors was performed to determine key aspects of their respective forensic rotations and curriculum. A total of 38.3% of programs from across the country responded, and the survey results show 5.6% don’t require a forensic pathology rotation. In those that do, most forensic pathology rotations are 4 weeks long, are done at a medical examiner’s office, and require set prerequisites. A total of 21.1% of responding programs have residents who are not receiving documented evaluations for this rotation. While 39.6% of programs have a defined forensics curriculum, as many as 15% do not. Furthermore, nearly 43% of programs place no limit on counting forensic autopsies when applying for pathology board examinations. Our survey confirmed the inconsistent nature of forensic pathology training in resident education. Additionally, our curriculum was reorganized to create a more robust educational experience. A pre- and post-forensic lecture quiz and Resident In-Service Examination scores were analyzed to determine our curriculum’s impact and effectiveness. Analysis of our pre- and post-lecture quiz showed an improved overall average as well as an increase in Resident In-Service Examination scores, indicating improved general forensic pathology knowledge. Using this knowledge, along with changes in our curriculum, we generated a number of recommendations for improving forensic pathology education in pathology residency. PMID:28913415

  10. How to optimize radiological images captured from digital cameras, using the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 program. (United States)

    Chalazonitis, A N; Koumarianos, D; Tzovara, J; Chronopoulos, P


    Over the past decade, the technology that permits images to be digitized and the reduction in the cost of digital equipment allows quick digital transfer of any conventional radiological film. Images then can be transferred to a personal computer, and several software programs are available that can manipulate their digital appearance. In this article, the fundamentals of digital imaging are discussed, as well as the wide variety of optional adjustments that the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) program can offer to present radiological images with satisfactory digital imaging quality.

  11. [Forensic entomology]. (United States)

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal


    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  12. Microcprocessing Computer Technician, Digital and Microprocessor Technician Program. Post-Graduate 5th Year. (United States)

    Carangelo, Pasquale R.; Janeczek, Anthony J.

    Materials are provided for a two-semester digital and microprocessor technician postgraduate program. Prerequisites stated for the program include a background in DC and AC theory, solid state devices, basic circuit fundamentals, and basic math. A chronology of major topics and a listing of course objectives appear first. Theory outlines for each…

  13. Multimedia forensics and security foundations, innovations, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fouad, Mohamed; Manaf, Azizah; Zamani, Mazdak; Ahmad, Rabiah; Kacprzyk, Janusz


    This book presents recent applications and approaches as well as challenges in digital forensic science. One of the evolving challenges that is covered in the book is the cloud forensic analysis which applies the digital forensic science over the cloud computing paradigm for conducting either live or static investigations within the cloud environment. The book also covers the theme of multimedia forensics and watermarking in the area of information security. That includes highlights on intelligence techniques designed for detecting significant changes in image and video sequences. Moreover, the theme proposes recent robust and computationally efficient digital watermarking techniques. The last part of the book provides several digital forensics related applications, including areas such as evidence acquisition enhancement, evidence evaluation, cryptography, and finally, live investigation through the importance of reconstructing the botnet attack scenario to show the malicious activities and files as evidence...

  14. A State-of-the-Art Review of Cloud Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla


    Full Text Available Cloud computing and digital forensics are emerging fields of technology. Unlike traditional digital forensics where the target environment can be almost completely acquired, isolated and can be under the investigators control; in cloud environments, the distribution of computation and storage poses unique and complex challenges to the investigators.Recently, the term "cloud forensics" has an increasing presence in the field of digital forensics. In this state-of-the-art review, we included the most recent research efforts that used "cloud forensics" as a keyword and then classify the literature in to three dimensions, (1 survey-based, (2 technology-based and (3 forensics procedural-based.We discuss widely accepted international standard bodies and their efforts to cope with the current trend of cloud forensics. Our aim is not only to reference related work based on the discussed dimensions, but also to analyze them and generate a mind map that will help in identifying research gaps. Finally, we summarize existing digital forensics tools and, the available simulation environments that can be used for evidence acquisition, examination and cloud forensics test purposes.

  15. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  16. Success Factors and Strategic Planning: Rebuilding an Academic Library Digitization Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Lampert


    Full Text Available This paper discusses a dual approach of case study and research survey to investigate the complex factors in sustaining academic library digitization programs. The case study involves the background of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV Libraries’ digitization program and elaborates on the authors’ efforts to gain staff support for this program. A related survey was administered to all Association of Research Libraries (ARL members, seeking to collect baseline data on their digital collections, understand their respective administrative frameworks, and to gather feedback on both negative obstacles and positive inputs affecting their success. Results from the survey, combined with the authors’ local experience, point to several potential success factors including staff skill sets, funding, and strategic planning.

  17. Transitioning from Forensic Genetics to Forensic Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Kayser


    Full Text Available Due to its support of law enforcement, forensics is a conservative field; nevertheless, driven by scientific and technological progress, forensic genetics is slowly transitioning into forensic genomics. With this Special Issue of Genes we acknowledge and appreciate this rather recent development by not only introducing the field of forensics to the wider community of geneticists, but we do so by emphasizing on different topics of forensic relevance where genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic principles, methods, and datasets of humans and beyond are beginning to be used to answer forensic questions.

  18. Transitioning from Forensic Genetics to Forensic Genomics. (United States)

    Kayser, Manfred; Parson, Walther


    Due to its support of law enforcement, forensics is a conservative field; nevertheless, driven by scientific and technological progress, forensic genetics is slowly transitioning into forensic genomics. With this Special Issue of Genes we acknowledge and appreciate this rather recent development by not only introducing the field of forensics to the wider community of geneticists, but we do so by emphasizing on different topics of forensic relevance where genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic principles, methods, and datasets of humans and beyond are beginning to be used to answer forensic questions.

  19. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness (United States)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  20. Marketing digital, de la publicidad online a la publicidad program??tica = Digital marketing, from online advertising to programmatic advertising


    Panera Gallego, Sergio


    El marketing digital se encuentra en continuo avance y evolucionando a pasos agigantados desarrollando todo tipo de nuevas t??cnicas, tecnolog??as, formatos o simplemente mejorando lo ya existente hasta la fecha. En esta espiral evolutiva ha surgido una nueva manera de realizar publicidad, la conocida como publicidad program??tica, la cual ser?? foco de estudio a lo largo de este trabajo. Como consecuencia de la aparici??n de este nuevo y tecnol??gico sistema publicitario, tambi??n han sur...



    Rozas Flores, Alan Errol; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos


    The forensic audit is an audit specialist in obtaining evidence to turn them into tests, which are presented in the forum that is in the courts of justice, in order to check crime or settle legal disputes. Currently, major efforts are being carried out by compliance audits and comprehensive audits need to be retrofitted with legal research, to minimize the impunity that comes before economic and financial crimes, such as administrative corruption, corporate fraud and money laundering assets. ...

  2. [Forensic anthropology]. (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels


    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  3. [Application of virtopsy in forensic science]. (United States)

    Hao, Zi-Rui; Wu, Jing-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Shan; Chen, Bi-Zhu; Hu, Tao; Xing, Hao-Wei


    Virtopsy is a non-invasive technique to reconstruct 3 dimensional (3-D) images of human organs and tissues using digitized radiographic imaging and may provide clues for forensic identification of the cause and manner of death. Because of its nature of minimally invasive, objective, and accurate, virtopsy has recently been a research focus of forensic pathology in developed countries. In this review article, the authors will discuss the principle, advantage, disadvantage, and recent proceeding of virtopsy as well as its potential application in forensic practice in China.

  4. Forensic geomorphology (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer


    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  5. REEFER: a digital computer program for the simulation of high energy electron tubes. [Reefer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boers, J.E.


    A digital computer program for the simulation of very high-energy electron and ion beams is described. The program includes space-charge effects through the solution of Poisson's equation and magnetic effects (both induced and applied) through the relativistic trajectory equations. Relaxation techniques are employed while alternately computing electric fields and trajectories. Execution time is generally less than 15 minutes on a CDC 6600 digital computer. Either space-charge-limited or field-emission sources may be simulated. The input data is described in detail and an example data set is included.

  6. Forensic Analysis of the Windows 7 Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawla Abdulla Alghafli


    Full Text Available The recovery of digital evidence of crimes from storage media is an increasingly time consuming process as the capacity of the storage media is in a state of constant growth. It is also a difficult and complex task for the forensic investigator to analyse all of the locations in the storage media. These two factors, when combined, may result in a delay in bringing a case to court. The concept of this paper is to start the initial forensic analysis of the storage media in locations that are most likely to contain digital evidence, the Windows Registry. Consequently, the forensic analysis process and the recovery of digital evidence may take less time than would otherwise be required. In this paper, the Registry structure of Windows 7 is discussed together with several elements of information within the Registry of Windows 7 that may be valuable to a forensic investigator. These elements were categorized into five groups which are system, application, networks, attached devices and the history lists. We have discussed the values of identified elements to a forensic investigator. Also, a tool was implemented to perform the function of extracting these elements and presents them in usable form to a forensics investigator.

  7. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams (United States)

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.


    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  8. An interactive program for digitization of seabed photographs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.; Sharma, R.

    A program for dignitization of seabed photographs to compute coverage and abundance of polymetallic nodules is developed. Since the objects in the seabed photograph are partially covered by thin sediment layer, the automatic scanning devices may...

  9. A Proposal for Training in Forensic Psychology. (United States)

    Poythress, Norman G., Jr.


    Graduate programs are lagging behind in developing courses to prepare psychologists to function with expertise in forensic (law-related) matters. Paradoxically, the courts are now finding increasing use for the forensic psychologist, while current journals express wide skepticism about the quality of available expertise. (Author/RLV)

  10. Computer Forensics for Graduate Accountants: A Motivational Curriculum Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Kearns


    Full Text Available Computer forensics involves the investigation of digital sources to acquire evidence that can be used in a court of law. It can also be used to identify and respond to threats to hosts and systems. Accountants use computer forensics to investigate computer crime or misuse, theft of trade secrets, theft of or destruction of intellectual property, and fraud. Education of accountants to use forensic tools is a goal of the AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Accounting students, however, may not view information technology as vital to their career paths and need motivation to acquire forensic knowledge and skills. This paper presents a curriculum design methodology for teaching graduate accounting students computer forensics. The methodology is tested using perceptions of the students about the success of the methodology and their acquisition of forensics knowledge and skills. An important component of the pedagogical approach is the use of an annotated list of over 50 forensic web-based tools.

  11. Computer Forensics for Graduate Accountants: A Motivational Curriculum Design Approach


    Grover Kearns


    Computer forensics involves the investigation of digital sources to acquire evidence that can be used in a court of law. It can also be used to identify and respond to threats to hosts and systems. Accountants use computer forensics to investigate computer crime or misuse, theft of trade secrets, theft of or destruction of intellectual property, and fraud. Education of accountants to use forensic tools is a goal of the AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants). Accounting stu...

  12. Genetic program based data mining to reverse engineer digital logic (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Nguyen, Thanh Vu H.


    A data mining based procedure for automated reverse engineering and defect discovery has been developed. The data mining algorithm for reverse engineering uses a genetic program (GP) as a data mining function. A genetic program is an algorithm based on the theory of evolution that automatically evolves populations of computer programs or mathematical expressions, eventually selecting one that is optimal in the sense it maximizes a measure of effectiveness, referred to as a fitness function. The system to be reverse engineered is typically a sensor. Design documents for the sensor are not available and conditions prevent the sensor from being taken apart. The sensor is used to create a database of input signals and output measurements. Rules about the likely design properties of the sensor are collected from experts. The rules are used to create a fitness function for the genetic program. Genetic program based data mining is then conducted. This procedure incorporates not only the experts' rules into the fitness function, but also the information in the database. The information extracted through this process is the internal design specifications of the sensor. Uncertainty related to the input-output database and the expert based rule set can significantly alter the reverse engineering results. Significant experimental and theoretical results related to GP based data mining for reverse engineering will be provided. Methods of quantifying uncertainty and its effects will be presented. Finally methods for reducing the uncertainty will be examined.

  13. A Genetic Programming Approach to Geometrical Digital Content Modeling in Web Oriented Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos PALAGHITA


    Full Text Available The paper presents the advantages of using genetic techniques in web oriented problems. The specific area of genetic programming applications that paper approaches is content modeling. The analyzed digital content is formed through the accumulation of targeted geometrical structured entities that have specific characteristics and behavior. The accumulated digital content is analyzed and specific features are extracted in order to develop an analysis system through the use of genetic programming. An experiment is presented which evolves a model based on specific features of each geometrical structured entity in the digital content base. The results show promising expectations with a low error rate which provides fair approximations related to analyzed geometrical structured entities.

  14. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology? (United States)

    Turner, Bryan


    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  15. Transitioning from forensic genetics to forensic genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayser, M. (Manfred); W. Parson (Walther)


    textabstractDue to its support of law enforcement, forensics is a conservative field; nevertheless, driven by scientific and technological progress, forensic genetics is slowly transitioning into forensic genomics. With this Special Issue of Genes we acknowledge and appreciate this rather recent

  16. Gender Digital Divide and Challenges in Undergraduate Computer Science Programs (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian; McDougall, Douglas


    Previous research revealed a reduced number of female students registered in computer science studies. In addition, the female students feel isolated, have reduced confidence, and underperform. This article explores differences between female and male students in undergraduate computer science programs in a mid-size university in Ontario. Based on…

  17. Integration of Digital Dentistry into a Predoctoral Implant Program: Program Description, Rationale, and Utilization Trends. (United States)

    Afshari, Fatemeh S; Sukotjo, Cortino; Alfaro, Maria F; McCombs, Jeri; Campbell, Stephen D; Knoernschild, Kent L; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun


    A recently revised predoctoral implant curriculum at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry integrated digital dentistry into both the preclinical dental implant course and clinical activities. Traditionally, competence in the didactic and clinical parts of predoctoral education in single tooth implant restorations has emphasized the analog impression technique and subsequent mounting of soft tissue working casts. However, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) implant restorations can play a significant role in predoctoral dental education utilizing digital technologies. The goal of the curriculum expansion is to transition from analog to partially digital and, finally, complete digital workflow. The aim of this article is to describe the specific components, implementation, and rationale for the new digitally integrated implant curriculum and present short-term clinical utilization trends.

  18. Digital Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Maxillofacial Fractures: A Retrospective Analysis of 626 Cases. (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Lian, Xiaotian; Chen, Gang; Ju, Rui; Tian, Weidong; Tang, Wei


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the digital diagnosis and treatment program for maxillofacial fractures. The data of 626 patients with maxillofacial fractures were analyzed retrospectively from January 2010 to August 2016. These patients were divided into 2 groups. In the experimental group, preoperative planning was conducted and transferred to patients with guiding templates and navigation according to the digital diagnosis and treatment program for maxillofacial fractures. In the control group, postsurgical planning was performed instead of preoperative planning. To assess the accuracy of the digital diagnosis and treatment program for maxillofacial fractures, preoperative planning and postoperative computed tomographic models were superimposed and imported to dedicated software (Geomagic Studio 13.0, Geomagic, Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC) to calculate the difference between the 2 models in the 2 groups. Results of the experimental set showed that the mean error between the preoperative planning model and the postoperative model ranged from 0.65 to 0.97 mm (average, 0.89 mm). For the control group, the mean error was 0.78 to 1.45 mm (average, 1.01 mm). Thus, the mean error of the experimental group was statistically lower than that of the control group (P maxillofacial fractures was more accurate. Aided by the digital diagnosis and treatment program, the accuracy for maxillofacial fractures was notably improved. To facilitate the application and promotion of digital technology, further modification of the complete digital diagnosis and treatment pathway for maxillofacial fractures is highly desired. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Putting Multiliteracies into Practice: Digital Storytelling for Multilingual Adolescents in a Summer Program (United States)

    Angay-Crowder, Tuba; Choi, Jayoung; Yi, Youngjoo


    In this article we demonstrate how we created a context in which digital storytelling was designed and implemented to teach multilingual middle school students in the summer program sponsored by a local nonprofit organization, the Latin American Association, in a city in the southeastern United States. While implementing the notion of…

  20. Re-Articulating the Mission and Work of the Writing Program with Digital Video (United States)

    Kopp, Drew; Stevens, Sharon McKenzie


    In this webtext, we discuss one powerful way that writing program administrators (WPAs) can start to reshape their basic rhetorical situation, potentially shifting the underlying premises that external audiences bring to discussions about writing instruction. We argue that digital video, when used strategically, is a particularly valuable medium…

  1. We Interrupt This Program: Media Theorist Douglas Rushkoff Has Second Thoughts about Our Digital Practices (United States)

    Rushkoff, Douglas


    When asked what Facebook is for, kids will say that it's there to help them make friends. The kids the author celebrated in his early books as "digital natives," capable of seeing through all efforts of big media and marketing, have actually proven less able to discern the integrity of the sources they read and the intentions of the programs they…

  2. A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement (United States)

    Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.


    The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

  3. The prevalence of encoded digital trace evidence in the nonfile space of computer media(,) (.). (United States)

    Garfinkel, Simson L


    Forensically significant digital trace evidence that is frequently present in sectors of digital media not associated with allocated or deleted files. Modern digital forensic tools generally do not decompress such data unless a specific file with a recognized file type is first identified, potentially resulting in missed evidence. Email addresses are encoded differently for different file formats. As a result, trace evidence can be categorized as Plain in File (PF), Encoded in File (EF), Plain Not in File (PNF), or Encoded Not in File (ENF). The tool bulk_extractor finds all of these formats, but other forensic tools do not. A study of 961 storage devices purchased on the secondary market and shows that 474 contained encoded email addresses that were not in files (ENF). Different encoding formats are the result of different application programs that processed different kinds of digital trace evidence. Specific encoding formats explored include BASE64, GZIP, PDF, HIBER, and ZIP. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Forensic Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Forensic entomology (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  5. Limitations in forensic odontology


    B Kavitha; A Einstein; B Sivapathasundharam; T R Saraswathi


    The concept of using dental evidence in forensic investigation has kindled so much interest in the recent past that forensic odontology is even suggested as the single positive identification method to solve certain forensic cases. In this process, the shortcomings in forensic odontology though few are overlooked. These discrepancies associated with various methods are to be weighed cautiously to make forensic odontology a more accurate, reliable, and reproducible investigatory science. In th...

  6. Forensic nursing in Bolu, Turkey: a survey. (United States)

    Gökdoğan, M R; Erkol, Zerrin


    Forensic nursing is generally considered to be the application of the forensic aspect of health care combined with the bio-psychosocial education of the registered nurse in the scientific investigation and treatment of trauma and violence. In 1990 the term forensic nursing was established in the USA and has been developing in many countries as a subdivision of forensic sciences a nursing since. The first masters thesis with the subject of forensic nursing was written in 1997 at Istanbul University, Institute of Forensic Sciences. The aim of this survey is to outline the approach to forensic nursing by nurses in the province of Bolu, Turkey, and to determine the influence of education at undergraduate level and continuing education programs lectured in Istanbul. In this study, a questionnaire has been applied at random to clinical nurses and nursing educators, a total of 101 participants. 11 out of 18 questions, has also been compared with results acquired from Istanbul in 2002. The results were defined using SPSS and Primer statistics software. The results of this research revealed, that no formal training/education in clinical forensics has been received. It is suggested that formal education programs have to be developed at both, undergraduate and postgraduate levels, providing initial and continuing education.

  7. A digital computer program for the dynamic interaction simulation of controls and structure (DISCOS), volume 1 (United States)

    Bodley, C. S.; Devers, A. D.; Park, A. C.; Frisch, H. P.


    A theoretical development and associated digital computer program system for the dynamic simulation and stability analysis of passive and actively controlled spacecraft are presented. The dynamic system (spacecraft) is modeled as an assembly of rigid and/or flexible bodies not necessarily in a topological tree configuration. The computer program system is used to investigate total system dynamic characteristics, including interaction effects between rigid and/or flexible bodies, control systems, and a wide range of environmental loadings. In addition, the program system is used for designing attitude control systems and for evaluating total dynamic system performance, including time domain response and frequency domain stability analyses.

  8. Between life and death: problems with live forensics between life and death

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, M


    Full Text Available some of the problems introduced by traditional forensic acquisition • Still in the starting phase in SA… – theoretically produce comprehensive forensically sound evidence Practising Innovation in Digital Forensics Management, November 2008 4 Cyber... 2008 10 Disadvantages: Dead Forensics • Cryptography • Volatile network data • Gigabytes of data to analyse • Lack of standardised procedures • Practical and legal constraints • Evidence easily rendered inadmissible Practising Innovation...

  9. Improved JPEG anti-forensics with better image visual quality and forensic undetectability. (United States)

    Singh, Gurinder; Singh, Kulbir


    There is an immediate need to validate the authenticity of digital images due to the availability of powerful image processing tools that can easily manipulate the digital image information without leaving any traces. The digital image forensics most often employs the tampering detectors based on JPEG compression. Therefore, to evaluate the competency of the JPEG forensic detectors, an anti-forensic technique is required. In this paper, two improved JPEG anti-forensic techniques are proposed to remove the blocking artifacts left by the JPEG compression in both spatial and DCT domain. In the proposed framework, the grainy noise left by the perceptual histogram smoothing in DCT domain can be reduced significantly by applying the proposed de-noising operation. Two types of denoising algorithms are proposed, one is based on the constrained minimization problem of total variation of energy and other on the normalized weighted function. Subsequently, an improved TV based deblocking operation is proposed to eliminate the blocking artifacts in the spatial domain. Then, a decalibration operation is applied to bring the processed image statistics back to its standard position. The experimental results show that the proposed anti-forensic approaches outperform the existing state-of-the-art techniques in achieving enhanced tradeoff between image visual quality and forensic undetectability, but with high computational cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Criminalistics and the forensic nursing process. (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Piatelli, Michael J; Pasqualone, Georgia


    Students learn science by actually performing science activities. The 12 laboratories described in this article assist students in applying the fundamental techniques germane to the field of forensic science to "solve" contrived cases and present "evidence" in a mock trial. Moreover, students are also confronted with some of the legal and ethical issues concerning the validity, reliability, and application of some forensic techniques. The pedagogical design of the laboratory course provides a rich, challenging, and interdisciplinary academic experience intended to augment and compliment the didactic forensic lecture portion of the course. This laboratory course was designed to engender, embody, and articulate one of the University's directive goals to support interdisciplinary teaching, research, and programming. Because we developed the laboratories on minimal funds, we demonstrated that it could be cost-effective. And thus, we recommend a laboratory science course be included as part of the curriculum of all forensic nursing students and practitioners. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  11. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence. (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin


    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather


    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  13. Bridging biometrics and forensics (United States)

    Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa Ann


    This paper is a survey on biometrics and forensics, especially on the techniques and applications of face recognition in forensics. This paper describes the differences and connections between biometrics and forensics, and bridges each other by formulating the conditions when biometrics can be applied in forensics. Under these conditions, face recognition, as a non-intrusive and non-contact biometrics, is discussed in detail as an illustration of applying biometrics in forensics. The discussion on face recognition covers different approaches, feature extractions, and decision procedures. The advantages and limitations of biometrics in forensic applications are also addressed.

  14. [Profile, competencies and digital fluency of nurses in the Professional Improvement Program]. (United States)

    Tanabe, Lyvia Pini; Kobayashi, Rika Miyahara


    A descriptive exploratory study conducted in the city of São Paulo, which aimed to identify the profile, competencies and digital fluency of nurses in the Professional Improvement Program in handling technology at work. The population, composed by 60 nurses in the program, answered a questionnaire with data about profile, digital fluency and professional competencies. The participants were found to be: 95.0% female, 61.7% between 23 and 25 years old, 75.0% from public schools, 58.3% enrolled in cardiovascular nursing, 98.3% had contact with computing resources during graduation, 100.0% had a computer at home, 86.7% accessed the internet daily, 96.7% used Messenger and 58.3% had an intermediate level of knowledge and skill in computing. Professional competencies required for technology management referred to knowing how to be innovative, creative, and updated to identify and manage software and to use technological resources.

  15. DANCER: a program for digital anatomical reconstruction of gene expression data (United States)

    Kankainen, Matti; Wong, Garry


    A digital anatomy construction (DANCER) program was developed for gene expression data. DANCER can be used to reconstruct anatomical images from in situ hybridization images, microarray or other gene expression data. The program fills regions of a drawn figure with the corresponding values from a gene expression data set. The output of the program presents the expression levels of a particular gene in a particular region relative to other regions. The program was tested with values from experimental in situ hybridization autoradiographs and from a microarray experiment. Reconstruction of in situ hybridization data from adult rat brain made by DANCER corresponded well with the original autoradiograph. Reconstruction of microarray data from adult mouse brains provided images that reflect actual expression levels. This program should help to provide visualization and interpretation of data derived from gene expression experiments. DANCER may be freely downloaded. PMID:14576332

  16. Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a shape analysis computer program: Part 1; The development of "SCIP" and the similarity index. (United States)

    Nambiar, P; Bridges, T E; Brown, K A


    Bite marks left on human tissue and bitten material have become an important aspect of scientific evidence used for the conviction or acquittal of a suspect. Expert opinion has often been based on subjective comparisons rather than any objective metrical analysis and many experts will agree that there is a need to employ additional comparative tests to achieve unbiased objectivity in their investigation. In this study, an interactive shape analysis computer program ("SCIP"-Shape Comparison Interactive Program) has been employed in an attempt to derive experimentally a quantitative comparison, in the form of a Similarity Index (S.I.), between the "offender's" teeth and the bite marks produced on a standard flat wax form. The S.I. values obtained using "SCIP" were evaluated in a variety of experimental bite mark situations. It was found that in no case could the S.I. values produced by comparison of the bite mark with the dental casts from non-perpetrators be confused with the much lower S.I. from comparison of the bite mark with the dental cast of the perpetrator. The use of the Similarity Index derived using the "SCIP" program is recommended as a simple, accurate and objective means of comparing bite marks in suitable forensic cases.

  17. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier


    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  18. Integrating Forensic Science. (United States)

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.


    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  19. Learning Android forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamma, Rohit


    If you are a forensic analyst or an information security professional wanting to develop your knowledge of Android forensics, then this is the book for you. Some basic knowledge of the Android mobile platform is expected.

  20. An enhanced feature set for pattern recognition based contrast enhancement of contact-less captured latent fingerprints in digitized crime scene forensics (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus


    In crime scene forensics latent fingerprints are found on various substrates. Nowadays primarily physical or chemical preprocessing techniques are applied for enhancing the visibility of the fingerprint trace. In order to avoid altering the trace it has been shown that contact-less sensors offer a non-destructive acquisition approach. Here, the exploitation of fingerprint or substrate properties and the utilization of signal processing techniques are an essential requirement to enhance the fingerprint visibility. However, especially the optimal sensory is often substrate-dependent. An enhanced generic pattern recognition based contrast enhancement approach for scans of a chromatic white light sensor is introduced in Hildebrandt et al.1 using statistical, structural and Benford's law2 features for blocks of 50 micron. This approach achieves very good results for latent fingerprints on cooperative, non-textured, smooth substrates. However, on textured and structured substrates the error rates are very high and the approach thus unsuitable for forensic use cases. We propose the extension of the feature set with semantic features derived from known Gabor filter based exemplar fingerprint enhancement techniques by suggesting an Epsilon-neighborhood of each block in order to achieve an improved accuracy (called fingerprint ridge orientation semantics). Furthermore, we use rotation invariant Hu moments as an extension of the structural features and two additional preprocessing methods (separate X- and Y Sobel operators). This results in a 408-dimensional feature space. In our experiments we investigate and report the recognition accuracy for eight substrates, each with ten latent fingerprints: white furniture surface, veneered plywood, brushed stainless steel, aluminum foil, "Golden-Oak" veneer, non-metallic matte car body finish, metallic car body finish and blued metal. In comparison to Hildebrandt et al.,1 our evaluation shows a significant reduction of the error rates

  1. Evaluation of the use of digital study models in postgraduate orthodontic programs in the United States and Canada. (United States)

    Shastry, Shruti; Park, Jae Hyun


    To investigate the extent, experience, and trends associated with digital model use, as well as the advantages of using a particular study model type (digital or plaster) in postgraduate orthodontic programs in the United States and Canada. An electronic survey consisting of 14 questions was sent to 72 program directors or chairpersons of accredited orthodontic postgraduate programs in the United States and Canada. Fifty-one responded for a 71% response rate. Sixty-five percent of the schools use plaster study models compared with 35% that use digital models. The most common advantages of plaster models were a three-dimensional feel and the ability for them to be mounted on an articulator. The most common advantages of digital models were the ease of storage and retrieval, and the residents' exposure to new technology. About one third of the plaster model users reported that they wanted to switch to digital models in the future, with 12% planning to do so within 1 year. Based on our study, 35% of accredited orthodontic postgraduate programs in the United States and Canada are using digital study models in most cases treated in their programs, and the trend is for increased digital model use in the future.

  2. Dental Forensics: Bitemark Analysis


    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari


    Forensic odontology (dental forensics) can provide useful evidence in both criminal and civil cases, and therefore remains a part of the wider discipline of forensic science. As an example from the toolbox of forensic odontology, the practice and experience on bitemark analysis is reviewed here in brief. The principle of using visible bitemarks in crime victims or in other objects as evidence is fundamentally based on the observation that the detailed pattern of dental imprints tend to be pra...

  3. Simulation and Digitization of a Gas Electron Multiplier Detector Using Geant4 and an Object-Oriented Digitization Program (United States)

    McMullen, Timothy; Liyanage, Nilanga; Xiong, Weizhi; Zhao, Zhiwen


    Our research has focused on simulating the response of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector using computational methods. GEM detectors provide a cost effective solution for radiation detection in high rate environments. A detailed simulation of GEM detector response to radiation is essential for the successful adaption of these detectors to different applications. Using Geant4 Monte Carlo (GEMC), a wrapper around Geant4 which has been successfully used to simulate the Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID) at Jefferson Lab, we are developing a simulation of a GEM chamber similar to the detectors currently used in our lab. We are also refining an object-oriented digitization program, which translates energy deposition information from GEMC into electronic readout which resembles the readout from our physical detectors. We have run the simulation with beta particles produced by the simulated decay of a 90Sr source, as well as with a simulated bremsstrahlung spectrum. Comparing the simulation data with real GEM data taken under similar conditions is used to refine the simulation parameters. Comparisons between results from the simulations and results from detector tests will be presented.

  4. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration (United States)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.


    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  5. Forensics for Dummies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalman, S.; van der Kemp, J.J.


    Forensic disciplines such as DNA-matching, pathology and psychology are often requested to report in criminal cases. Within the Dutch legal system forensic experts are court appointed and little use of second opinion or contra-expertise by the defence is seen. This makes that forensic reports

  6. Horizon 2020 program for industry 4.0: Towards a digital model of quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Vidosav D.


    Full Text Available Program Manufuture Vision 2020 was developed as a Strategic Research Agenda and Road Maps, as a basis for EU research within Horizon 2020. This document is a response to the challenges of global competitiveness and sustainable development, seeking to EU industry as many turns, innovative production based to create additional value for the customer and the use of ICT technologies. Somewhat later also made public a document - Manufuture a strategic research agenda '2020-2030' and Roadmaps, to support structural changes industry, which should be orjetisana high automation, effectiveness and flexibility. Technological developments driven by technological advancement potential in a process chain, from raw materials to the exclusion of the product from use, through continuous improvement of additional value for the customer. These documents Program Manufacture represent a proactive action and collaborative research for 40 industrial sectors. Key areas of this research are: the factory of the future - the Factory of the Future (FOF, and digital production - Digital Manufacturing as well as digital quality.

  7. Readiness for Delivering Digital Health at Scale: Lessons From a Longitudinal Qualitative Evaluation of a National Digital Health Innovation Program in the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Lennon, Marilyn R; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Devlin, Alison M; O'Connor, Siobhan; O'Donnell, Catherine; Chetty, Ula; Agbakoba, Ruth; Bikker, Annemieke; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Watson, Nicholas; Wyke, Sally; Mair, Frances S


    Digital health has the potential to support care delivery for chronic illness. Despite positive evidence from localized implementations, new technologies have proven slow to become accepted, integrated, and routinized at scale. The aim of our study was to examine barriers and facilitators to implementation of digital health at scale through the evaluation of a £37m national digital health program: ‟Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale" (dallas) from 2012-2015. The study was a longitudinal qualitative, multi-stakeholder, implementation study. The methods included interviews (n=125) with key implementers, focus groups with consumers and patients (n=7), project meetings (n=12), field work or observation in the communities (n=16), health professional survey responses (n=48), and cross program documentary evidence on implementation (n=215). We used a sociological theory called normalization process theory (NPT) and a longitudinal (3 years) qualitative framework analysis approach. This work did not study a single intervention or population. Instead, we evaluated the processes (of designing and delivering digital health), and our outcomes were the identified barriers and facilitators to delivering and mainstreaming services and products within the mixed sector digital health ecosystem. We identified three main levels of issues influencing readiness for digital health: macro (market, infrastructure, policy), meso (organizational), and micro (professional or public). Factors hindering implementation included: lack of information technology (IT) infrastructure, uncertainty around information governance, lack of incentives to prioritize interoperability, lack of precedence on accountability within the commercial sector, and a market perceived as difficult to navigate. Factors enabling implementation were: clinical endorsement, champions who promoted digital health, and public and professional willingness. Although there is receptiveness to digital health

  8. Personality Characteristics of Undergraduates with Career Interests in Forensic Identification (United States)

    Roberti, Jonathan W.


    The author assessed personality scores for 47 undergraduates enrolled in a forensic identification program. Results revealed no difference between men and women enrolled in the Forensic Identification Program on subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V), with the exception of Experience Seeking. Participants had lower Disinhibition scores…

  9. Curriculum and Course Materials for a Forensic DNA Biology Course (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M.


    The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the natural…sciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which…

  10. Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus K. Rogers


    Full Text Available With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s/media, transporting it to the lab, making a forensic image(s, and then searching the entire system for potential evidence, is no longer appropriate in some circumstances. In cases such as child abductions, pedophiles, missing or exploited persons, time is of the essence. In these types of cases, investigators dealing with the suspect or crime scene need investigative leads quickly; in some cases it is the difference between life and death for the victim(s. The Cyber Forensic Field Triage Process Model (CFFTPM proposes an onsite or field approach for providing the identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence in a short time frame, without the requirement of having to take the system(s/media back to the lab for an in-depth examination or acquiring a complete forensic image(s. The proposed model adheres to commonly held forensic principles, and does not negate the ability that once the initial field triage is concluded, the system(s/storage media be transported back to a lab environment for a more thorough examination and analysis. The CFFTPM has been successfully used in various real world cases, and its investigative importance and pragmatic approach has been amply demonstrated. Furthermore, the derived evidence from these cases has not been challenged in the court proceedings where it has been introduced. The current article describes the CFFTPM in detail, discusses the model’s forensic soundness, investigative support capabilities and practical considerations.

  11. A minimax technique for time-domain design of preset digital equalizers using linear programming (United States)

    Vaughn, G. L.; Houts, R. C.


    A linear programming technique is presented for the design of a preset finite-impulse response (FIR) digital filter to equalize the intersymbol interference (ISI) present in a baseband channel with known impulse response. A minimax technique is used which minimizes the maximum absolute error between the actual received waveform and a specified raised-cosine waveform. Transversal and frequency-sampling FIR digital filters are compared as to the accuracy of the approximation, the resultant ISI and the transmitted energy required. The transversal designs typically have slightly better waveform accuracy for a given distortion; however, the frequency-sampling equalizer uses fewer multipliers and requires less transmitted energy. A restricted transversal design is shown to use the least number of multipliers at the cost of a significant increase in energy and loss of waveform accuracy at the receiver.

  12. Validation of a digital videodensitometric program analysis for measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaux, J.C.; Angel, C.Y.; Pernes, J.M.; Raynaud, A.; Brenot, Ph.; Vuthien, H.; Letienne, G.


    Left ventricular (LV) function was studied in 30 patients using digital subtraction angiography by the intravenous approach. Each ventriculogram was processed with a specific video-densitometric analysis to determine LV ejection fraction. The program was verified in an experimental set-up consisting of nine latex balloons filled with contrast medium. Its validation has been established by comparing videodensitometric results with classical results supplied by geometric methods. A good correlation was obtained (r 0.9449) and, furthermore, with experimental models, videodensitometric analysis seemed to be more accurate than geometric analysis. Digital videodensitometry appears to be a valuable and accurate method for quantifying LV function, and a promising technique for determination of the real volumes.

  13. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  14. Forensic accounting in the fraud auditing case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Simeunović


    Full Text Available This paper presents a real case of digital forensic analysis in organizational fraud auditing process investigated using two different forensic tools, namely Tableau TD3 Touch Screen Forensic Imager and Access Data FTK Imager. Fraud auditing is more of a mindset than a methodology and has different approaches from financial auditing. Fraud auditors are mostly focused on exceptions, accounting irregularities, and patterns of their conduct. Financial auditors place special emphasis on the audit trail and material misstatements. A fraud case investigation of non-cash misappropriations committed by an employee, the warehouseman, will be presented herein in order to highlight the usefulness of fraud auditing, which can reveal many forms of financial crime and can be used in both private and public sector companies. Due to the computerized accounting environment, fraud investigation requires a combination of auditing, computer crime and digital forensic investigation skills, which can be achieved through joint efforts and cooperation of both digital investigator and fraud auditor as proposed herein.

  15. The forensic validity of visual analytics (United States)

    Erbacher, Robert F.


    The wider use of visualization and visual analytics in wide ranging fields has led to the need for visual analytics capabilities to be legally admissible, especially when applied to digital forensics. This brings the need to consider legal implications when performing visual analytics, an issue not traditionally examined in visualization and visual analytics techniques and research. While digital data is generally admissible under the Federal Rules of Evidence [10][21], a comprehensive validation of the digital evidence is considered prudent. A comprehensive validation requires validation of the digital data under rules for authentication, hearsay, best evidence rule, and privilege. Additional issues with digital data arise when exploring digital data related to admissibility and the validity of what information was examined, to what extent, and whether the analysis process was sufficiently covered by a search warrant. For instance, a search warrant generally covers very narrow requirements as to what law enforcement is allowed to examine and acquire during an investigation. When searching a hard drive for child pornography, how admissible is evidence of an unrelated crime, i.e. drug dealing. This is further complicated by the concept of "in plain view". When performing an analysis of a hard drive what would be considered "in plain view" when analyzing a hard drive. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues of digital forensics and the related issues as they apply to visual analytics and identify how visual analytics techniques fit into the digital forensics analysis process, how visual analytics techniques can improve the legal admissibility of digital data, and identify what research is needed to further improve this process. The goal of this paper is to open up consideration of legal ramifications among the visualization community; the author is not a lawyer and the discussions are not meant to be inclusive of all differences in laws between states and

  16. Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students (United States)

    Burgess, Christiana J.

    Over the last several decades, forensic science---the application of science to civil and criminal legal matters---has become of increasing popularity with the public. The range of disciplines within the field is immense, offering individuals the potential for a unique career, regardless of their specific interests or expertise. In response to this growth, many organizations, both public and private, have recognized the need to create forensic science programs that strive to maintain and enhance the quality of forensic science education. Unfortunately, most of the emphasis placed on developing these materials relates to post-secondary education, and creates a significant lack of forensic science educational materials available in the U.S., especially in Oklahoma. The purpose of this project was to create a high school curriculum that provides the foundation for building a broad, yet comprehensive, overview of the field of forensic science and its associated disciplines. The overall goal was to create and provide course materials to high school teachers in order to increase their knowledge of forensic science such that they are able to teach its disciplines effectively and with accuracy. The Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students includes sample lesson plans, PowerPoint presentations, and lab activities with step-by-step instructions.

  17. Signature Based Detection of User Events for Post-mortem Forensic Analysis (United States)

    James, Joshua Isaac; Gladyshev, Pavel; Zhu, Yuandong

    This paper introduces a novel approach to user event reconstruction by showing the practicality of generating and implementing signature-based analysis methods to reconstruct high-level user actions from a collection of low-level traces found during a post-mortem forensic analysis of a system. Traditional forensic analysis and the inferences an investigator normally makes when given digital evidence, are examined. It is then demonstrated that this natural process of inferring high-level events from low-level traces may be encoded using signature-matching techniques. Simple signatures using the defined method are created and applied for three popular Windows-based programs as a proof of concept.

  18. Forensic nursing in secure environments. (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah


    There are few well-designed studies of corrections or prison nursing roles. This study seeks to describe the corrections or prison role of forensic nurses in the United States who provide care in secure environments. National data detailing the scope of practice in secure environments are limited. This pencil and paper survey describes the roles of 180 forensic nurses from 14 states who work in secure environments. Descriptive statistics are utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses was implemented. These nurses were older than average in age, but had 10 years or less experience in forensic nursing practice. Two significant roles emerged to "promote and implement principles that underpin effective quality and practice" and to "assess, develop, implement, and improve programs of care for individuals." Significant roles varied based upon the security classification of the unit or institution in which the nurses were employed. Access to information about these nurses and their nursing practice was difficult in these closed systems. Minimal data are available nationally, indicating a need for collection of additional data over time to examine changes in role. It is through such developments that forensic nursing provided in secure environments will define its specialization and attract the attention it deserves.

  19. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners. (United States)

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy


    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of image editing software for forensic detection of image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The image editing software's available today is apt for creating visually compelling and sophisticated fake images, which causes major issues to the reliability of digital contents as a right representation of reality. Authenticity is the main problem in most digital image communication. Various forensic techniques have been ...

  1. Linux malware incident response an excerpt from malware forensic field guide for Linux systems

    CERN Document Server

    Malin, Cameron H; Aquilina, James M


    Linux Malware Incident Response is a ""first look"" at the Malware Forensics Field Guide for Linux Systems, exhibiting the first steps in investigating Linux-based incidents. The Syngress Digital Forensics Field Guides series includes companions for any digital and computer forensic investigator and analyst. Each book is a ""toolkit"" with checklists for specific tasks, case studies of difficult situations, and expert analyst tips. This compendium of tools for computer forensics analysts and investigators is presented in a succinct outline format with cross-references to suppleme

  2. 3D Virtual Images and Forensic Identification Training (United States)


    properly trained for these duties, as a minimum all Air Force Dental Residency programs (13 sites) require a course in forensic dentistry including...Nuinber: FKE20080002E 2. Title: ŗD Virtual Images and Forensic Identification Training" 3. Principal Investigator (PI): Stephanie A. Stouder, Lt Col...47XX identifies the requirement for initial and annual training in forensic identification for all AF Dentists. Currently, to ensure that dentists are

  3. Their Portfolios, Our Role: Examining a Community College Teacher Education Digital Portfolio Program from the Students' Perspective (United States)

    Plaisir, Jean Y.; Hachey, Alyse C.; Theilheimer, Rachel


    In the of Fall 2006, our large, urban community college implemented digital portfolio development for all of the preservice early childhood educators registered in the infant-toddler and preschool-early elementary programs. Three years after implementation of the program, we conducted survey research to assess our students' perceptions of their…

  4. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters


    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika


    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  5. Forensic anthropology in Latin America. (United States)

    Işcan, M Y; Olivera, H E


    Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent

  6. SNOW: a digital computer program for the simulation of ion beam devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boers, J.E.


    A digital computer program, SNOW, has been developed for the simulation of dense ion beams. The program simulates the plasma expansion cup (but not the plasma source itself), the acceleration region, and a drift space with neutralization if desired. The ion beam is simulated by computing representative trajectories through the device. The potentials are simulated on a large rectangular matrix array which is solved by iterative techniques. Poisson's equation is solved at each point within the configuration using space-charge densities computed from the ion trajectories combined with background electron and/or ion distributions. The simulation methods are described in some detail along with examples of both axially-symmetric and rectangular beams. A detailed description of the input data is presented.

  7. Book Review: The X-Ways Forensics Practitioner's Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lau


    Full Text Available Shavers, B., and Zimmerman, E. (2013. The X-Ways Forensics Practitioner's Guide. Waltham, MA: Syngress, 242 pages. ISBN: 978-0-12-411605-4. Print: US $50.90. Includes exercises, case studies, references, and index. Reviewed by Linda K. Lau, Longwood UniversityBrett Shavers is a former law enforcement officer, a digital forensics examiner, an adjunct instructor, and a frequent speaker at many conferences. After writing his first book, titled Placing the Suspect Behind the Keyboard: Using Digital Forensics and Investigative Techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects, he co-wrote his 2nd book with Eric Zimmerman and Jimmy Weg, who is a knowledgeable technical editor. Both Brett and Eric are experts in cyber forensics, with many years of law enforcement experience at both the state and federal levels.

  8. Elderly online: effects of a digital inclusion program in cognitive performance. (United States)

    Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Cachioni, Meire


    There is little empirical data about the impact of digital inclusion on cognition among older adults. This paper aimed at investigating the effects of a digital inclusion program in the cognitive performance of older individuals who participated in a computer learning workshop named "Idosos On-Line" (Elderly Online). Forty-two aged individuals participated in the research study: 22 completed the computer training workshop and 20 constituted the control group. All subjects answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and completed the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination, revised (ACE-R), which examines five cognitive domains: orientation and attention, memory, verbal fluency, language, and visuo-spatial skills. It was noted that the experimental group's cognitive performance significantly improved after the program, particularly in the language and memory domains, when compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the acquisition of new knowledge and the use of a new tool, that makes it possible to access the Internet, may bring gains to cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Ontological Approach to Study and Manage Digital Chain of Custody of Digital Evidence


    Ćosić, Jasmin; Ćosić, Zoran; Baća, Miroslav


    Chain of custody of digital evidence in digital forensic field are today essential part of digital investigation process. In order the evidence to be accepted by the court as valid, chain of custody for digital evidence must be kept, or it must be known who exactly, when, where, why and how came into contact with evidence in each stage of the digital investigations process. This paper deals with digital evidence and chain of custody of digital evidence. Authors definetaxonomy and use an ontol...

  10. Teaching forensic medicine in the University of Porto. (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Santos, Agostinho


    The University of Porto (UP) provides education in Forensic Medicine (FM) through the 1st, 2nd and 3rd cycle of studies, post-graduation and continuing education courses. This education is related to forensic pathology, clinical forensic medicine (including forensic psychology and psychiatry), forensic chemistry and toxicology, forensic genetics and biology, and criminalistics. With this work we intent to reflect on how we are currently teaching FM in the UP, at all levels of university graduation. We will present our models, regarding the educational objectives, curricular program and teaching/learning methodologies of each cycle of studies as well as in post-graduate and continuing education courses. Historically, and besides related administratively to the Ministry of Justice, the Portuguese Medico-Legal Institutes (since 1918) and more recently the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF) also have educational and research responsibilities. Thus, it lends space and cooperates with academic institutions and this contribution, namely regarding teaching forensic sciences in Portugal has been judged as an example for other Countries. This contribution is so important that in UP, the Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the Faculty of Medicine (FMUP) shares, until now, the same physical space with North Branch of the INMLCF, which represents a notorious advantage, since it makes possible the "learning by doing". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels


    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics....

  12. Forensic odontology: an overview. (United States)

    Spencer, Duane E


    This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements.

  13. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system. (United States)

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian


    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system (United States)

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian


    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. PMID:26101289

  15. Understanding digital storytelling: individual ‘voice’ and community-building in youth media programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Craig Campbell


    Full Text Available Digital storytelling (DST has been widely used as a means of empowerment for marginalised voices across community-based projects worldwide. This paper discusses uses but also limitations of the practice in the context of a Melbourne-based youth media program for ‘youth at risk’ called YouthWorx. Based on our ongoing, long-term ethnographic research, we explore the cultural production of digital stories as a co-creative process that exposes a range of controversies to do with the politics of ‘voice’, genre’s communicative potential and ethical considerations. Concrete examples from YouthWorx’s pedagogical work serve to illustrate the values of self-expression (‘voice’, critical reflection and collaboration that form part of broader social transformations generated by these creative practices. The critique of DST practice offered here connects with existing studies concerned with the socially contextualised processes of media education, and the theoretical shift beyond ‘the right to speak’ towards ‘the right to be understood’ (Husband, 2009. The paper recommends more analytical attention be paid to a dynamic social process of learning (of media, interpersonal competencies and community-building, extending beyond the immediate DST situation, rather than narrowing the focus on end-result atomised media products.

  16. Understanding digital storytelling: individual ‘voice’ and community-building in youth media programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Podkalicka


    Full Text Available Digital storytelling (DST has been widely used as a means of empowerment for marginalised voices across community-based projects worldwide. This paper discusses uses but also limitations of the practice in the context of a Melbourne-based youth media program for ‘youth at risk’ called YouthWorx. Based on our ongoing, long-term ethnographic research, we explore the cultural production of digital stories as a co-creative process that exposes a range of controversies to do with the politics of ‘voice’, genre’s communicative potential and ethical considerations. Concrete examples from YouthWorx’s pedagogical work serve to illustrate the values of self-expression (‘voice’, critical reflection and collaboration that form part of broader social transformations generated by these creative practices. The critique of DST practice offered here connects with existing studies concerned with the socially contextualised processes of media education, and the theoretical shift beyond ‘the right to speak’ towards ‘the right to be understood’ (Husband, 2009. The paper recommends more analytical attention be paid to a dynamic social process of learning (of media, interpersonal competencies and community-building, extending beyond the immediate DST situation, rather than narrowing the focus on end-result atomised media products.

  17. Challenges in applying the ACPO principles in cloud forensic investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjinder Singh Lallie


    Full Text Available The numerous advantages offered by cloud computing has fuelled its growth and has made it one of the most significant of current computing trends. The same advantages have created complex issues for those conducting digital forensic investigations. Digital forensic investigators rely on the ACPO guidelines when conducting an investigation, however the guidelines make no reference to some of the issues presented by cloud investigations.This study investigates the impact of cloud computing on ACPO’s core principles and asks whether there is a need for the principles and guidelines to be reviewed to address the issues presented by cloud computing. Empirical research is conducted and data collected from key experts in the field of digital forensics.This research presents several key findings: there is a very real concern for how cloud computing will affect digital forensic investigations; the ACPO principles cannot easily be applied in all cloud investigations but are generally sufficient for cloud computing forensic investigations. However the advent of cloud computing is a significant development in technology and may in the near future warrant a review of the guidelines in particular to incorporate the involvement of third parties in cloud investigations.

  18. Forensic Toxicology: An Introduction. (United States)

    Smith, Michael P; Bluth, Martin H


    This article presents an overview of forensic toxicology. The authors describe the three components that make up forensic toxicology: workplace drug testing, postmortem toxicology, and human performance toxicology. Also discussed are the specimens that are tested, the methods used, and how the results are interpreted in this particular discipline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Forensic Science Technician (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010


    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  20. Embedded protostars in the dust, ice, and gas in time (DIGIT) Herschel key program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Joel D.; Evans II, Neal J.; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian


    We present 50-210 um spectral scans of 30 Class 0/I protostellar sources, obtained with Herschel-PACS, and 0.5-1000 um SEDs, as part of the Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time (DIGIT) Key Program. Some sources exhibit up to 75 H2O lines ranging in excitation energy from 100-2000 K, 12 transitions of OH......, but not with the time-averaged outflow rate derived from low-J CO maps. [C II] emission is in general not local to the source. The sample Lbol increased by 1.25 (1.06) and Tbol decreased to 0.96 (0.96) of mean (median) values with the inclusion of the Herschel data. Most CO rotational diagrams are characterized by two...

  1. The use of linear programming techniques to design optimal digital filters for pulse shaping and channel equalization (United States)

    Houts, R. C.; Burlage, D. W.


    A time domain technique is developed to design finite-duration impulse response digital filters using linear programming. Two related applications of this technique in data transmission systems are considered. The first is the design of pulse shaping digital filters to generate or detect signaling waveforms transmitted over bandlimited channels that are assumed to have ideal low pass or bandpass characteristics. The second is the design of digital filters to be used as preset equalizers in cascade with channels that have known impulse response characteristics. Example designs are presented which illustrate that excellent waveforms can be generated with frequency-sampling filters and the ease with which digital transversal filters can be designed for preset equalization.

  2. Forensic seismology revisited (United States)

    Douglas, A.


    . Much of the evidence for plate tectonics comes from seismological studies so it would be expected that the implications for Earth structure arising from forensic seismology would be consistent with plate-tectonic models. So far the AWE Group have found little synergy between plate tectonics and forensic seismology. It is to be hoped that the large volume of seismological data of high quality now being collected by the IMS and the increasing number of digital stations, will result in a revised Earth model that is consistent with the findings of forensic seismology, so that a future review of progress will show that the forensic seismologist can draw on this model in attempting to interpret apparently anomalous seismograms.

  3. A Big Data-inspired Spatio-temporal Story Model for Forensic Evidence Validation


    Liu, Ying; Xu, Zhijie


    Digital Forensic Evidence (DFE) are more than digitised computer data chunks. They may contain complicated causality relationships within specific timelines and feature domains. Recent developments in forensic science study have shown that DEF should be treated as part of the concept of “Big Data” formed by the explosively increasing electronic data generated by Internet, social networks, consumer electronics, and public surveillance systems.

  4. [The concept of "forensic medicine"]. (United States)

    Popov, V L


    The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed.

  5. Close Reading and Slow Programming — Computer Code as Digital Scholarly Edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zundert, Joris J.


    Currently most digital scholarly editions are representational digital documentary editions, largely along the lines described by Elena Pierazzo (2015). Alternative theoretical perspectives take less document centric and more process analytical oriented approaches. Textual scholars have, for

  6. Assessing the impact of a remote digital coaching engagement program on patient-reported outcomes in asthma. (United States)

    Rasulnia, Mazi; Burton, Billy Stephen; Ginter, Robert P; Wang, Tracy Y; Pleasants, Roy Alton; Green, Cynthia L; Lugogo, Njira


    Low adherence and poor outcomes provide opportunity for digital coaching to engage patients with uncontrolled asthma in their care to improve outcomes. To examine the impact of a remote digital coaching program on asthma control and patient experience. We recruited 51 adults with uncontrolled asthma, denoted by albuterol use of >2 times per week and/or exacerbations requiring corticosteroids, and applied a 12-week patient-centered remote digital coaching program using a combination of educational pamphlets, symptom trackers, best peak flow establishment, physical activity, and dietary counseling, as well as coaches who implemented emotional enforcement to motivate disease self-management through telephone, text, and email. Baseline and post-intervention measures were quality of life (QOL), spirometry, Asthma Control Test (ACT), Asthma Symptom Utility Index (ASUI), rescue albuterol use, and exacerbation history. Among 51 patients recruited, 40 completed the study. Eight subjects required assistance reading medical materials. Significant improvements from baseline were observed for Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System mental status (p = 0.010), body weight, and outpatient exacerbation frequency (p = 0.028). The changes from baseline in ACT (p = 0.005) were statistically significant but did not achieve the pre-specified minimum clinically important difference (MCID), whereas for ASUI, the MCID and statistical significance were achieved. Spirometry and rescue albuterol use were no different. A patient-oriented, remote digital coaching program that utilized trained health coaches and digital materials led to statistically significant improvement in mental status, outpatient exacerbations, body weight, and ASUI. Digital coaching programs may improve some outcomes in adults with uncontrolled asthma.

  7. Comparative performance of modern digital mammography systems in a large breast screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, Martin J., E-mail:; Bloomquist, Aili K.; Hunter, David M.; Mawdsley, Gordon E. [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Departments of Medical Biophysics and Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Chiarelli, Anna M. [Prevention and Cancer Control, Cancer Care Ontario, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada); Muradali, Derek [Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)


    Purpose: To compare physical measures pertaining to image quality among digital mammography systems utilized in a large breast screening program. To examine qualitatively differences in these measures and differences in clinical cancer detection rates between CR and DR among sites within that program. Methods: As part of the routine quality assurance program for screening, field measurements are made of several variables considered to correlate with the diagnostic quality of medical images including: modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, d′ (an index of lesion detectability) and air kerma to allow estimation of mean glandular dose. In addition, images of the mammography accreditation phantom are evaluated. Results: It was found that overall there were marked differences between the performance measures of DR and CR mammography systems. In particular, the modulation transfer functions obtained with the DR systems were found to be higher, even for larger detector element sizes. Similarly, the noise equivalent quanta, d′, and the phantom scores were higher, while the failure rates associated with low signal-to-noise ratio and high dose were lower with DR. These results were consistent with previous findings in the authors’ program that the breast cancer detection rates at sites employing CR technology were, on average, 30.6% lower than those that used DR mammography. Conclusions: While the clinical study was not large enough to allow a statistically powered system-by-system assessment of cancer detection accuracy, the physical measures expressing spatial resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio are consistent with the published finding that sites employing CR systems had lower cancer detection rates than those using DR systems for screening mammography.

  8. The Data Sprint Approach: Exploring the field of Digital Humanities through Amazon’s Application Programming Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.M.; Borra, E.; Helmond, A.; Plantin, J.-C.; Rettberg, J.W.


    This paper documents the results of an intensive "data sprint" method for undertaking data and algorithmic work using application programming interfaces (APIs), which took place during the Digital Method Initiative 2013 Winter School at the University of Amsterdam. During this data sprint, we

  9. Breast cancer screening results 5 years after introduction of digital mammography in a population-based screening program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssemeijer, N.; Bluekens, A.M.; Beijerinck, D.; Deurenberg, J.J.; Beekman, M.; Visser, R.; Engen, R. van; Bartels-Kortland, A.; Broeders, M.J.M.


    PURPOSE: To compare full-field digital mammography (FFDM) using computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) with screen-film mammography (SFM) in a population-based breast cancer screening program for initial and subsequent screening examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was approved by the regional

  10. 7 CFR 1755.522 - RUS general specification for digital, stored program controlled central office equipment. (United States)


    ... accepted telecommunications practices. (2) The output of a digital-to-digital port shall be Pulse Code... burn-in procedures shall be sufficient so the failure rate of printed circuit boards does not exceed an... application of the appropriate bit stream to the line or trunk circuit via the digital switching network. The...

  11. Apollo guidance, navigation and control: Guidance system operations plan for manned CM earth orbital and lunar missions using Program COLOSSUS 3. Section 3: Digital autopilots (revision 14) (United States)


    Digital autopilots for the manned command module earth orbital and lunar missions using program COLOSSUS 3 are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) reaction control system digital autopilot, (2) thrust vector control autopilot, (3) entry autopilot and mission control programs, (4) takeover of Saturn steering, and (5) coasting flight attitude maneuver routine.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Michael Espinosa Durán

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el diseño de un microsistema programable para el procesamiento de efectos de audio digital implementado en un FPGA. El microsistema es diseñado usando un procesador de propósito específico y reconfigurable, un banco de RAMs y una interfaz gráfica de usuario basada en una pantalla táctil LCD. El procesador es diseñado usando 15 efectos de audio basados en retardos y procesamiento en el dominio dinámico y de la frecuencia. Los efectos son diseñados usando Megafunciones y el compilador FIR de Quartus II, son simulados en Simulink5 usando DSP Builder6, y son configurados utilizando una interfaz gráfica de usuario. El microsistema programable es implementado en el sistema de desarrollo DE2-70, y su funcionamiento es verificado usando un reproductor MP3 y un parlante. Adicionalmente, el microsistema permite la generación de efectos con alta fidelidad usando una tasa de muestreo máxima de 195.62 MSPS, y puede ser embebido en un SoC.

  13. Judges Awareness, Understanding, and Application of Digital Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C Kessler


    Full Text Available As digital evidence grows in both volume and importance in criminal and civil courts, judges need to fairly and justly evaluate the merits of the offered evidence. To do so, judges need a general understanding of the underlying technologies and applications from which digital evidence is derived. Due to the relative newness of the computer forensics field, there have been few studies on the use of digital forensic evidence and none about judges’ relationship with digital evidence.This paper describes a recent study, using grounded theory methods, into judges’ awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of digital evidence. This study is the first in the U.S. to examine judges and digital forensics, thus opening up a new avenue of research. It is the second time that grounded theory has been employed in a published digital forensics study, demonstrating the applicability of that methodology to this discipline.

  14. [Forensic odontology. Introduction]. (United States)

    Kroon, F S


    Human teeth and dental restorations have proven to remain stable during a long time as well as in extreme situations such as fire. Therefore, forensic odontology can play an important part in the identification of severe mutilated bodies of unknown persons. The essence of the identification procedure is comparing the post mortem remains with the ante mortem records. In this issue several authors describe the importance of forensic odontology by means of the use of dental records in mass disasters. Another aspect of forensic odontology is the examination of bite marks, which can be seen in some criminal cases.

  15. Comparison of direct digital mammography, computed radiography, and film-screen in the French national breast cancer screening program. (United States)

    Séradour, Brigitte; Heid, Patrice; Estève, Jacques


    The purpose of this article was to compare the performance of digital mammography using hardcopy image reading against film-screen mammography in a French national routine population-based screening program with a decentralized organization. The French context offered the opportunity to examine separately computed radiography and direct digital mammography performances in a large cohort. The study includes 23,423 direct digital mammography, 73,320 computed radiography, and 65,514 film-screen mammography examinations performed by 123 facilities in Bouches du Rhône, France, for women 50-74 years old between 2008 and 2010. We compared abnormal mammography findings rate, cancer detection rate, and tumor characteristics among the technologies. Abnormal finding rates were higher for direct digital mammography (7.78% vs 6.11% for film-screen mammography and 5.34% for computed radiography), particularly in younger women and in denser breasts. Cancer detection rates were also higher for direct digital mammography (0.71% vs 0.66% for film-screen mammography and 0.55% for computed radiography). The contrast between detection rates was stronger for ductal carcinoma in situ. Breast density was the main factor explaining the differences in detection rates. For direct digital mammography only, the detection rate was clearly higher in dense breasts whatever the age (odds ratio, 2.20). Except for grade, no differences were recorded concerning tumor characteristics in which the proportion of high-grade tumors was larger for direct digital mammography for invasive and in situ tumors. Direct digital mammography has a higher detection rate than film-screen mammography in dense breasts and for tumors of high grade. This latter association warrants further study to measure the impact of technology on efficacy of screening. The data indicate that computed radiography detects fewer tumors than film-screen mammography in most instances.

  16. The role of forensic dentist following mass disaster. (United States)

    Kolude, B; Adeyemi, B F; Taiwo, J O; Sigbeku, O F; Eze, U O


    This review article focuses on mass disaster situations that may arise from natural or manmade circumstances and the significant role of forensic dental personnel in human identification following such occurrences. The various forensic dental modalities of identification that include matching techniques, postmortem profiling, genetic fingerprinting, dental fossil assessment and dental biometrics with digital subtraction were considered. The varying extent of use of forensic dental techniques and the resulting positive impact on human identification were considered. The importance of preparation by way of special training for forensic dental personnel, mock disaster rehearsal, and use of modern day technology was stressed. The need for international standardization of identification through the use of Interpol Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) for ms was further emphasized. Recommendations for improved human identification in Nigerian situation include reform of the National Emergency Management Association (NEMA), incorporation of dental care in primary health care to facilitate proper ante mortem database of the populace and commencement of identification at site of disaster.

  17. DIGIT, GASPS, DEBRIS and DUNES: four HERSCHEL Open Time Key Programs to survey the dust cycle in circumstellar disks


    Augereau, J. -C.; Absil, Olivier; Bouvier, J.; Duchêne, G.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Maret, S.; Martin-Zaïdi, C.; Ménard, F.; Morbidelli, A; Olofsson, J.; Pantin, E.; Pinte, C.; Thébault, P.


    Four accepted HERSCHEL open time key programs, DIGIT, GASPS, DEBRIS and DUNES, will study the evolution of the dust grains in circumstellar disks around young and Main Sequence stars. There is a strong implication of the french community in these four projects which represent a total of 930 hours (>38 days) of her\\ observing time. The DIGIT and GASPS projects will focus on the first stages of planet formation, while the DEBRIS and DUNES projects will search for extra-solar Kuiper Belt analogs...

  18. Results from a Pilot REU Program: Exploring the Cosmos Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data (United States)

    Chanover, Nancy J.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Holtzman, Jon A.


    In the Summer of 2016 we conducted a 10-week pilot Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program aimed at increasing the participation of underrepresented minority undergraduate students in research using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This program utilized a distributed REU model, whereby students worked with SDSS scientists on exciting research projects while serving as members of a geographically distributed research community. The format of this REU is similar to that of the SDSS collaboration itself, and since this collaboration structure has become a model for the next generation of large scale astronomical surveys, the students participating in the SDSS REU received early exposure and familiarity with this approach to collaborative scientific research. The SDSS REU also provided the participants with a low-risk opportunity to audition for graduate schools and to explore opportunities afforded by a career as a research scientist. The six student participants were placed at SDSS REU host sites at the Center for Astrophysics at Harvard University, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Vanderbilt University, and the University of Portsmouth. Their research projects covered a broad range of topics related to stars, galaxies, and quasars, all making use of SDSS data. At the start of the summer the REU students participated in a week-long Boot Camp at NMSU, which served as a program orientation, an introduction to skills relevant to their research projects, and an opportunity for team-building and cohort-forming. To foster a sense of community among our distributed students throughout the summer, we conducted a weekly online meeting for all students in the program via virtual meeting tools. These virtual group meetings served two purposes: as a weekly check-in to find out how their projects were progressing, and to conduct professional development seminars on topics of interest and relevance to the REU participants. We discuss the outcomes of this

  19. Defining a Forensic Audit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G Stevenson Smith; D Larry Crumbley


    .... The authors argue that these two factors will change the practices used to fight corporate malfeasance as investigators adapt the techniques of accounting into a forensic audit engagement model...

  20. Forensic science in medicine:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief review and guide for the medical practitioner in identifying, collecting and handling biological and ... Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Pretoria. Gert Saayinan, MBChB ... of defence attorneys to find fault with the method of.

  1. Forensic Science: Hair Identification. (United States)

    Keller, Elhannan L.


    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  2. Forensic odontology: an overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spencer, Duane E


    This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field...

  3. Forensic odontology involvement in disaster victim identification. (United States)

    Berketa, John William; James, Helen; Lake, Anthony W


    Forensic odontology is one of three primary identifiers designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass casualty events. Forensic odontology is involved in all five phases-Scene, Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation and Debrief. Forward planning, adequate funding, international cooperation and standardization are essential to guarantee an effective response. A Standard Operation Procedure should be utilized to maximize quality, facilitate occupation and health issues, maintain security and form a structure to the relief program. Issues that must be considered in the management of the forensic odontology component of disaster victim identification are given in "Appendix 1". Each stage of the disaster, from initial notification to debrief, is analyzed and a comprehensive checklist of actions suggested.

  4. [Forensic medicine and criminalistics]. (United States)

    Schwerd, W


    The supplementary designation "criminalistics" in the title of certain forensic medical institutes in the first half of this century is to be regarded as a reaction to faulty developments in our specialty, which almost led to the elimination of forensic medicine as an independent scientific discipline in the 1960s. The ability to think in terms of criminalistics and the corresponding working procedures has always been a crucial precondition for the forensic physician, since forensic medicine is the application of medical knowledge for juridical purposes. Forensic medicine originated with the appraisal of cases of violent death by doctors, i.e., reconstruction of the facts in the case. To use the term "criminalistics" in the form of a supplementary designation is thus not required. An attempt is nevertheless made to define "medical criminalistics" as a small but important component of criminalistics. They are subdivided into two phases: the first part begins at the scene of the crime or the place of discovery (local evidence). Here, the trained eye of the forensic physician is indispensable to the criminal investigation department and the prosecutor. Medical criminalistic thinking and working procedures continue at the autopsy. Here, forensic autopsy differs from that practiced by the pathologist. Without knowledge of the situation at the discovery location, the forensic physician runs the risk of not recognizing facts that are important for reconstruction and thus becoming a "destroyer of clues". The second part of medical criminalistics is the actual detection of medical clues, i.e., the investigation of medical clues with special methods, including histological and toxicological investigations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Research in forensic odontology.


    Whittaker, D. K.


    Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this f...

  6. [Forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark]. (United States)

    Larsen, Tina Gram; Valbak, Lone; Perto, Gurli; Reinert, Kjeld


    In Denmark the number of forensic psychiatric patients is increasing. The objective of this study was to explore whether the increased number of forensic psychiatric patients has been reflected in the use of psychiatric inpatient facilities. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate differences in the treatment of various diagnostic groups of forensic patients and of forensic and non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Information about admissions and outpatient contact was extracted from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register for all Danish patients sentenced to psychiatric treatment in the period 1994-2003. Furthermore, a group of first-admission forensic patients suffering from schizophrenia was compared to a control group of first-admission non-forensic patients with schizophrenia, matched for sex, age and time of admission. The number of forensic psychiatric patients increased markedly in the period 1994-2003; at the same time, the use of inpatient facilities for this group of patients did not increase to a similar degree but actually decreased. Forensic patients in the group F20-F29 spent more time in hospital than did forensic patients with affective disorders and personality disorders. Forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia had significantly longer periods of hospitalization than did non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Forensic psychiatric patients' use of psychiatric inpatient facilities during the last 10 years did not increase to the extent expected relative to the increasing number of forensic psychiatric patients. This raises the question of whether these patients are receiving necessary and sufficient treatment.

  7. The Rise of Forensic Pathology in Human Medicine: Lessons for Veterinary Forensic Pathology. (United States)

    Pollanen, M S


    The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Smartphones as distributed witnesses for digital forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pieterse, H


    Full Text Available databases and therefore can be easily transformed. To perform event reconstruction, the various SQLite databases need to be integrated and this is accomplished by using existing knowledge of distributed databases. This paper proposes a new process, called...

  9. Digital forensic framework for a cloud environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G


    Full Text Available the monitoring virtual machine uses WireShark and nmap [2] to monitor activities occurring in the victim machine. 5.1 - Network monitoring tests This test will be conducted to determine the ability of the service to isolate suspected packets and to determine.... Currently LDF2C environment is set-up as explained in Section 4. The virtual machine that monitors the network uses an existing network monitoring tool, WireShark [1]. The next step in this research involves development of an algorithm that will extract...

  10. Evolving a Network of Networks: The Experience of Partnerships in the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Anderson


    Full Text Available The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP was initiated in December 2000 when the U.S. Congress authorized the Library of Congress to work with a broad range of institutions to develop a national strategy for the preservation of at-risk digital content. Guided by a strategy of collaboration and iteration, the Library of Congress began the formation of a national network of partners dedicated to collecting and preserving important born-digital information. Over the last six years, the Library and its partners have been engaged in learning through action that has resulted in an evolving understanding of the most appropriate roles and functions for a national network of diverse stakeholders. The emerging network is complex and inclusive of a variety of stakeholders; content producers, content stewards and service providers from the public and private sectors. Lessons learned indicate that interoperability is a challenge in all aspects of collaborative work.

  11. Development of a Digital Mapping Program at the Defense Mapping Agency. (United States)


    operations is covered. Special emphasis is placed on the rationale for ieenaio of enhaced hardwar and software / technologies into the production...requirements at minimum cost. DMA is also investigating digital image processing in support of an all digital production system. Studies include...interactive feature extraction and applied pattern recognition and are carried out on a digital image processing test bed delivered to DMA in 1981. This test

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Digital Technology Business Case Methodology Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lawrie, Sean [ScottMadden, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Hart, Adam [ScottMadden, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Vlahoplus, Chris [ScottMadden, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States)


    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program aims to develop and deploy technologies that will make the existing U.S. nuclear fleet more efficient and competitive. The program has developed a standard methodology for determining the impact of new technologies in order to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in building sound business cases. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway is part of the DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. It conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. This work involves two major goals: (1) to ensure that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet and (2) to implement digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the NPP operating model. Resolving long-term operational concerns with the II&C systems contributes to the long-term sustainability of the LWR fleet, which is vital to the nation’s energy and environmental security. The II&C Pathway is conducting a series of pilot projects that enable the development and deployment of new II&C technologies in existing nuclear plants. Through the LWRS program, individual utilities and plants are able to participate in these projects or otherwise leverage the results of projects conducted at demonstration plants. Performance advantages of the new pilot project technologies are widely acknowledged, but it has proven difficult for utilities to derive business cases for justifying investment in these new capabilities. Lack of a business case is often cited by utilities as a barrier to pursuing wide-scale application of digital technologies to nuclear plant work activities. The decision to move forward with funding usually hinges on

  13. Measurement and evaluation of digital cervicography programs in two cervical cancer screening camps in East Africa (United States)

    Peterson, Curtis W.; Mink, Jonah; Levitz, David


    Cervical cancer disproportionately affects women living in low- and middle-income countries. To address this global crisis, many governments and NGOs have implemented community-based screening and treatment programs at outreach camps. Here, high volumes of patients are able to access care: screening and diagnosis followed by immediate treatment of precancerous lesions onsite. However, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of these efforts presents challenges, since each event typically relies on a different health workforce, and refers patients to different facilities for follow up and advanced care. To address these challenges, a digital imaging intervention was deployed at several screening camps in East Africa. Trained nurses screened women using a connected low-cost mobile colposcope built around a smartphone. A decision support job aid was integrated into the app controlling the device, guiding nurses and recording their diagnosis and treatment decisions. Aggregating the data from the job aid allowed M&E of the screening camp in real-time. In this paper, the M&E data from 2 different screening camps in East Africa are compared. Additionally, screening camps are compared to stationary clinics. Differences in the patient screening times, treatment rates, and individual nurse statistics were all documented through the job aid allowing for much improved epidemiological information following outreach events thus enabling targeted program improvements and provider training. Reporting data from screening camps were also shared online via public web pages, facilitating broader dissemination of health needs in specific East African communities, and sparking conversations with regional stakeholders about local disease burden.

  14. [Research Progress on Forensic Dentistry]. (United States)

    Liu, F; Dang, Y H


    Forensic dentistry is an interdiscipline of forensic medicine and stomatology, which provides legal information by collecting, testing and assessing the dental evidence scientifically. In this review, the present application of forensic dentistry has been described, such as the estimation of age, sex, species, occupation and living habit, as well as the identification of individual, domestic violence or abuse, which aims to enrich and improve forensic dentistry for making it be more useful in forensic medicine even in juridical practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  15. An Evidence-Based Forensic Taxonomy of Windows Phone Communication Apps. (United States)

    Cahyani, Niken Dwi Wahyu; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Ab Rahman, Nurul Hidayah; Ashman, Helen


    Communication apps can be an important source of evidence in a forensic investigation (e.g., in the investigation of a drug trafficking or terrorism case where the communications apps were used by the accused persons during the transactions or planning activities). This study presents the first evidence-based forensic taxonomy of Windows Phone communication apps, using an existing two-dimensional Android forensic taxonomy as a baseline. Specifically, 30 Windows Phone communication apps, including Instant Messaging (IM) and Voice over IP (VoIP) apps, are examined. Artifacts extracted using physical acquisition are analyzed, and seven digital evidence objects of forensic interest are identified, namely: Call Log, Chats, Contacts, Locations, Installed Applications, SMSs and User Accounts. Findings from this study would help to facilitate timely and effective forensic investigations involving Windows Phone communication apps. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Evaluation of a Digital Game-Based Learning Program for Enhancing Youth Mental Health: A Structural Equation Modeling of the Program Effectiveness. (United States)

    Huen, Jenny My; Lai, Eliza Sy; Shum, Angie Ky; So, Sam Wk; Chan, Melissa Ky; Wong, Paul Wc; Law, Y W; Yip, Paul Sf


    Digital game-based learning (DGBL) makes use of the entertaining power of digital games for educational purposes. Effectiveness assessment of DGBL programs has been underexplored and no attempt has been made to simultaneously model both important components of DGBL: learning attainment (ie, educational purposes of DGBL) and engagement of users (ie, entertaining power of DGBL) in evaluating program effectiveness. This study aimed to describe and evaluate an Internet-based DGBL program, Professor Gooley and the Flame of Mind, which promotes mental health to adolescents in a positive youth development approach. In particular, we investigated whether user engagement in the DGBL program could enhance their attainment on each of the learning constructs per DGBL module and subsequently enhance their mental health as measured by psychological well-being. Users were assessed on their attainment on each learning construct, psychological well-being, and engagement in each of the modules. One structural equation model was constructed for each DGBL module to model the effect of users' engagement and attainment on the learning construct on their psychological well-being. Of the 498 secondary school students that registered and participated from the first module of the DGBL program, 192 completed all 8 modules of the program. Results from structural equation modeling suggested that a higher extent of engagement in the program activities facilitated users' attainment on the learning constructs on most of the modules and in turn enhanced their psychological well-being after controlling for users' initial psychological well-being and initial attainment on the constructs. This study provided evidence that Internet intervention for mental health, implemented with the technologies and digital innovations of DGBL, could enhance youth mental health. Structural equation modeling is a promising approach in evaluating the effectiveness of DGBL programs.

  17. A forensic readiness model for Wireless Local Area Networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, S


    Full Text Available of cyber crime, where criminals deliberately and actively break into WLANs with the intent to cause harm or access sensitive information. WLAN digital forensics is seen not only as a response to cyber crime in wireless environments, but also as a means...

  18. Radiological findings at a South African forensic pathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The work serves as a preliminary evaluation of the utility of full-body radiography in examining cases of sudden unexpected death in infants (SUDI). Setting. This paper reviews findings from full-body digital radiography in cases of SUDI in 2008 at the Salt River Forensic Pathology Laboratory in Cape Town.

  19. Blurriness in Live Forensics: An Introduction (United States)

    Savoldi, Antonio; Gubian, Paolo

    The Live Forensics discipline aims at answering basic questions related to a digital crime, which usually involves a computer-based system. The investigation should be carried out with the very goal to establish which processes were running, when they were started and by whom, what specific activities those processes were doing and the state of active network connections. Besides, a set of tools needs to be launched on the running system by altering, as a consequence of the Locard’s exchange principle [2], the system’s memory. All the methodologies for the live forensics field proposed until now have a basic, albeit important, weakness, which is the inability to quantify the perturbation, or blurriness, of the system’s memory of the investigated computer. This is the very last goal of this paper: to provide a set of guidelines which can be effectively used for measuring the uncertainty of the collected volatile memory on a live system being investigated.

  20. Digital Literacy Matters: Increasing Workforce Productivity through Blended English Language Programs (United States)

    Jose, Kshema


    Current workplace demands newer forms of literacies that go beyond the ability to decode print. These involve not only competence to operate digital tools, but also the ability to create, represent, and share meaning in different modes and formats; ability to interact, collaborate and communicate effectively using digital tools, and engage…

  1. Use of Digital Technology and Support Software Programs in the Private Dental Offices in Nevada (United States)

    Fattore-Bruno, LaDeane


    The purpose of this survey research was to determine the diffusion of digital radiography, the electronic oral health record (EOHR), digital intraoral photography, and diagnosis and clinical decision-making support software into the dental offices of Nevada. A cross-sectional survey design was utilized with a random sample of 600 Nevada dentists.…

  2. Streaming the Archives: Repurposing Systems to Advance a Small Media Digitization and Dissemination Program (United States)

    Anderson, Talea


    In 2013-2014, Brooks Library at Central Washington University (CWU) launched library content in three systems: a digital asset-management system, an institutional repository (IR), and a web-based discovery layer. In early 2014, the archives at the library began to use these systems to disseminate media recently digitized from legacy formats. As…

  3. Programming the Gesture of Writing: On the Algorithmic Paratexts of the Digital (United States)

    Adams, Catherine


    In the wake of the digital, some have recommended that we abandon the tedium of teaching handwriting to children in service of promoting "more creative" digital literacies. Others worry that an early diet of keyboard and screen may have deleterious effects on children's social, emotional, and cognitive development, as well as their…

  4. Integrating the Digital Literacies into an After-School Program: A Structural Analysis of Teachers' Lessons (United States)

    Gormley, Kathleen; McDermott, Peter


    The structure of lessons where teachers integrated the digital literacies is examined here. Twelve graduate teachers participating in an after-school practica were observed over a six-week period. This manuscript identifies the structure of their lessons and describes the kinds of digital literacies children learned when completing them. Teachers…

  5. Virtopsy - the concept of a centralized database in forensic medicine for analysis and comparison of radiological and autopsy data. (United States)

    Aghayev, Emin; Staub, Lukas; Dirnhofer, Richard; Ambrose, Tony; Jackowski, Christian; Yen, Kathrin; Bolliger, Stephan; Christe, Andreas; Roeder, Christoph; Aebi, Max; Thali, Michael J


    Recent developments in clinical radiology have resulted in additional developments in the field of forensic radiology. After implementation of cross-sectional radiology and optical surface documentation in forensic medicine, difficulties in the validation and analysis of the acquired data was experienced. To address this problem and for the comparison of autopsy and radiological data a centralized database with internet technology for forensic cases was created. The main goals of the database are (1) creation of a digital and standardized documentation tool for forensic-radiological and pathological findings; (2) establishing a basis for validation of forensic cross-sectional radiology as a non-invasive examination method in forensic medicine that means comparing and evaluating the radiological and autopsy data and analyzing the accuracy of such data; and (3) providing a conduit for continuing research and education in forensic medicine. Considering the infrequent availability of CT or MRI for forensic institutions and the heterogeneous nature of case material in forensic medicine an evaluation of benefits and limitations of cross-sectional imaging concerning certain forensic features by a single institution may be of limited value. A centralized database permitting international forensic and cross disciplinary collaborations may provide important support for forensic-radiological casework and research.

  6. DIGIT, GASPS, DEBRIS and DUNES: four HERSCHEL Open Time Key Programs to survey the dust cycle in circumstellar disks (United States)

    Augereau, J.-C.; Absil, O.; Bouvier, J.; Duchêne, G.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Maret, S.; Martin-Zaïdi, C.; Ménard, F.; Morbidelli, A.; Olofsson, J.; Pantin, E.; Pinte, C.; Thébault, P.


    Four accepted HERSCHEL open time key programs, DIGIT, GASPS, DEBRIS and DUNES, will study the evolution of the dust grains in circumstellar disks around young and Main Sequence stars. There is a strong implication of the french community in these four projects which represent a total of 930 hours (>38 days) of her\\ observing time. The DIGIT and GASPS projects will focus on the first stages of planet formation, while the DEBRIS and DUNES projects will search for extra-solar Kuiper Belt analogs around nearby Main Sequence stars. In this paper, we give an overview of the scientific goals of the four projects and of the numerical tools that we will be providing to the teams to model and interpret the her\\ observations from these programs.

  7. Social Studies Teacher Candidates' Opinions about Digital Citizenship and Its Place in Social Studies Teacher Training Program: A Comparison between the USA and Turkey (United States)

    Karaduman, Hidir


    This research aims to determine and compare what social studies teacher candidates living in two different countries think about digital citizenship and its place within social studies and social studies teacher training program and to produce suggestions concerning digital citizenship education. Having a descriptive design, this research has…

  8. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013


    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  9. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: broadening DNA investigative intelligence. (United States)

    Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred


    Human genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomic lifestyle prediction is expected to increase the ability of police to find unknown perpetrators of crime who are not identifiable using current forensic DNA profiling.

  10. Adaptation and Feasibility Study of a Digital Health Program to Prevent Diabetes among Low-Income Patients: Results from a Partnership between a Digital Health Company and an Academic Research Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valy Fontil


    Full Text Available Background. The feasibility of digital health programs to prevent and manage diabetes in low-income patients has not been adequately explored. Methods. Researchers collaborated with a digital health company to adapt a diabetes prevention program for low-income prediabetes patients at a large safety net clinic. We conducted focus groups to assess patient perspectives, revised lessons for improved readability and cultural relevance to low-income and Hispanic patients, conducted a feasibility study of the adapted program in English and Spanish speaking cohorts, and implemented real-time adaptations to the program for commercial use and for a larger trial of in multiple safety net clinics. Results. The majority of focus group participants were receptive to the program. We modified the curriculum to a 5th-grade reading level and adapted content based on patient feedback. In the feasibility study, 54% of eligible contacted patients expressed interest in enrolling (n=23. Although some participants’ computer access and literacy made registration challenging, they were highly satisfied and engaged (80% logged in at least once/week. Conclusions. Underserved prediabetic patients displayed high engagement and satisfaction with a digital diabetes prevention program despite lower digital literacy skills. The collaboration between researchers and a digital health company enabled iterative improvements in technology implementation to address challenges in low-income populations.

  11. Geoethics and Forensic Geology (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance


    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  12. Putting multiliteracies into practice: digital storytelling for multilingual adolescents in a summer program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angay-Crowder, Tuba; Choi, Jayoung; Yi, Youngjoo


    .... While implementing the notion of multiliteracies (New London Group, 1996) in the Digital Storytelling classroom, we designed tasks and activities that were aligned with the four components of a multiliteracies pedagogy (i.e...

  13. Digital Mapping Charting and Geodesy analysis Program (DMAP) Review of Technical Initiatives for FY03

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breckenridge, John


    The Naval DMAP serves as a technical representative for the Oceanographer of the Navy, NO96 to address significant issues relevant to the Navy's use and development of digital Mapping, Charting & Geodesy (MC&G) data...

  14. A journey from robot to digital human mathematical principles and applications with MATLAB programming

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Edward Y L


    This book provides readers with a solid set of diversified and essential tools for the theoretical modeling and control of complex robotic systems, as well as for digital human modeling and realistic motion generation. Following a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of robotic kinematics, dynamics and control systems design, the author extends robotic modeling procedures and motion algorithms to a much higher-dimensional, larger scale and more sophisticated research area, namely digital human modeling. Most of the methods are illustrated by MATLAB™ codes and sample graphical visualizations, offering a unique closed loop between conceptual understanding and visualization. Readers are guided through practicing and creating 3D graphics for robot arms as well as digital human models in MATLAB™, and through driving them for real-time animation. This work is intended to serve as a robotics textbook with an extension to digital human modeling for senior undergraduate and graduate engineering students....

  15. Development of Window-based program for analysis and visualization of two-dimensional stress field in digital photoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichet Pinit


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a Window-based framework for analyzing and visualizing two-dimensional stress field in digital photoelasticity. The program is implemented as stand-alone software. The program contains mainly two parts: computational part and visual part supplemented with several image-processing functions. The computation method used in the program for retrieval of photoelastic parameters (isoclinic and isochromatic parameters is the phase stepping method. The visualization links between the results and the user by a gray scale or color map of such parameters, which is very convenient to the user for physical interpretation. With the Windows-based framework, additional modules eithercomputation or visualization can be simply added to the program.

  16. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Diagnosis: Concept Development of the Next Generation Diagnostic Breast Imaging Using Digital Image Library and Networking Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chouikha, Mohamed F


    ...); and Georgetown University (Image Science and Information Systems, ISIS). In this partnership training program, we will train faculty and students in breast cancer imaging, digital image database library techniques and network communication strategy...

  17. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): digital still images from transects on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii 2008-2010 (NCEI Accession 0104357) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) taken 2008-2010 from 24 sites within 5 main...

  18. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): digital still images from transects on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii 2011-2012 (NODC Accession 0119360) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) taken 2011-2012 from 29 sites within 5 main...

  19. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): digital still images from transects on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii 2011-2012 (NCEI Accession 0119360) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) taken 2011-2012 from 29 sites within 5 main...

  20. Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers (United States)

    Wolfe, Thomas


    Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

  1. Achieving Business Excellence by Optimizing Corporate Forensic Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Grubor


    Full Text Available In order to improve their business excellence, all organizations, despite their size (small, medium or large one should manage their risk of fraud. Fraud, in today’s world, is often committed by using computers and can only be revealed by digital forensic investigator. Not even small or medium-sized companies are secure from fraud. In the light of recent financial scandals that literary demolished not just economies of specific countries but entire world economy, we propose in this paper an optimal model of corporative computer incident digital forensic investigation (CCIDFI by using adopted mathematic model of the greed MCDM – multi-criteria decision-making method and the Expert Choice software tool for multi-criteria optimization of the CCIDFI readiness. Proposed model can, first of all, help managers of small and medium-sized companies to justify their decisions to employ digital forensic investigators and include them in their information security teams in order to choose the optimal CCIDFI model and improve forensic readiness in the computer incident management process that will result with minimization of potential losses of company in the future and improve its business quality.

  2. Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology (United States)

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima


    Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

  3. Exploring trends in forensic odontology. (United States)

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Gowhar, Owais; Ain, Tasneem S; Sultan, Saima


    Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. RESULTS showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology.

  4. Practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Balachandra, A Thambirajah; Vadysinghe, Amal N; William, Anita L


    The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is based on the British model. Medical students during their third and fourth years receive approximately 50 hours of lectures and tutorials in forensic medicine and pathology and then undergo an examination. After completing an internship, these doctors are sent to various hospitals throughout Sri Lanka where they may be asked to perform medicolegal examinations on victims and suspects in rape cases, persons suspected of being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol, and, injured live patients. As well, they may be asked to perform medicolegal autopsies. Depending upon their experience, some medical officers may be designated as judicial medical officers and appointed full time to do medicolegal work. Up until 1980, judicial medical officers with at least 2 years of work experience were allowed to obtain their postgraduate qualifications in the United Kingdom. However, since 1981 and the establishment of its own Postgraduate Institute of Medicine in Colombo, Sri Lanka, medical officers are offered 2 postgraduate programs in forensic medicine and pathology, a diploma in legal medicine and a doctorate in medicine (forensic medicine). After completing the doctorate in forensic medicine, doctors are allowed to train abroad for a further year in an approved center. Upon return they can then be appointed as consultant judicial medical officers. The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is unique and vibrant. However, due to the country's prevailing civil war, the practice of forensic medicine and pathology is suboptimal.

  5. Forensic radiology in dentistry. (United States)

    Manigandan, T; Sumathy, C; Elumalai, M; Sathasivasubramanian, S; Kannan, A


    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.



    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu


    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  7. Forensic radiology in dentistry


    T Manigandan; C Sumathy; M Elumalai; S Sathasivasubramanian; A Kannan


    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  8. Forensic postmortem computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lundemose, Sissel; Banner, Jytte


    differences. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive in situ PMCT methods for organ measuring, as performed in this study, are not useful tools in forensic pathology. The best method to estimate organ volume is a CT-scan of the eviscerated organ. PMCT-determined CTR seems to be useless for ascertaining cardiomegaly...

  9. Targeting Medication Non-Adherence Behavior in Selected Autoimmune Diseases: A Systematic Approach to Digital Health Program Development. (United States)

    van Mierlo, Trevor; Fournier, Rachel; Ingham, Michael


    29 autoimmune diseases, including Rheumatoid Arthritis, gout, Crohn's Disease, and Systematic Lupus Erythematosus affect 7.6-9.4% of the population. While effective therapy is available, many patients do not follow treatment or use medications as directed. Digital health and Web 2.0 interventions have demonstrated much promise in increasing medication and treatment adherence, but to date many Internet tools have proven disappointing. In fact, most digital interventions continue to suffer from high attrition in patient populations, are burdensome for healthcare professionals, and have relatively short life spans. Digital health tools have traditionally centered on the transformation of existing interventions (such as diaries, trackers, stage-based or cognitive behavioral therapy programs, coupons, or symptom checklists) to electronic format. Advanced digital interventions have also incorporated attributes of Web 2.0 such as social networking, text messaging, and the use of video. Despite these efforts, there has not been little measurable impact in non-adherence for illnesses that require medical interventions, and research must look to other strategies or development methodologies. As a first step in investigating the feasibility of developing such a tool, the objective of the current study is to systematically rate factors of non-adherence that have been reported in past research studies. Grounded Theory, recognized as a rigorous method that facilitates the emergence of new themes through systematic analysis, data collection and coding, was used to analyze quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies addressing the following autoimmune diseases: Rheumatoid Arthritis, gout, Crohn's Disease, Systematic Lupus Erythematosus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Studies were only included if they contained primary data addressing the relationship with non-adherence. Out of the 27 studies, four non-modifiable and 11 modifiable risk factors were discovered. Over one

  10. Forensic learning disability nursing skills and competencies: a study of forensic and non-forensic nurses. (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne


    This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.

  11. Overview Of Forensic Toxicology, Yesterday, Today And In The Future. (United States)

    Chung, Heesun; Choe, Sanggil


    The scope of forensic toxicology has been tremendously expanded over the past 50 years. From two general sections forensic toxicology can be further classified into 8-9 sections. The most outstanding improvement in forensic toxicology is the changes brought by instrumental development. The field of forensic toxicology was revolutionized by the development of immunoassay and bench-top GC-MS in the 1980's and LC-MS-MS in 2000's. Detection of trace amounts of analytes has allowed the use of new specimens such as hair and oral fluids, along with blood and urine. Over a longer period of time, continuous efforts have been made to efficiently extract and separate drug and poison from biological fluids. International endeavors to develop high quality standards and guidelines for drugs and poisons in biological specimens and to promote them in order to increase reliability of laboratories are also part of the recent advancement of forensic toxicology. Interpretation of postmortem toxicology encompasses various factors including postmortem redistribution and stability. Considering the recent trend, the interpretation of toxicological results should account for autopsy findings, crime scene information, and related medical history. The fields of forensic toxicology will continuously develop to improve analysis of target analytes from various specimens, quality assurance program, and results interpretation. In addition, the development of analytical techniques will also contribute further advancement of forensic toxicology. The societies of forensic toxicologists, such as TIAFT, will play an important role for the advancement of forensic toxicology by collaborating and sharing ideas between toxicologists from both developed and developing countries. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  12. The NASA digital VGH program. Exploration of methods and final results. Volume 1: Development of methods (United States)

    Crabill, Norman L.


    Two hundred hours of Lockheed L 1011 digital flight data recorder data taken in 1973 were used to develop methods and procedures for obtaining statistical data useful for updating airliner airworthiness design criteria. Five thousand hours of additional data taken in 1978 to 1982 are reported in volumes 2, 3, 4 and 5.

  13. Improving Student Job Placement and Assessment through the Use of Digital Marketing Certification Programs (United States)

    Staton, Mark G.


    The area of digital marketing is a difficult one for course development. Not only is it a relatively new topic area--having become popular after many marketing faculty completed their academic training--it is a constantly changing one wherein "innovative" tools are continuously being replaced within the industry. After uncovering what…

  14. Identifying a Computer Forensics Expert: A Study to Measure the Characteristics of Forensic Computer Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Carlton


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The usage of digital evidence from electronic devices has been rapidly expanding within litigation, and along with this increased usage, the reliance upon forensic computer examiners to acquire, analyze, and report upon this evidence is also rapidly growing. This growing demand for forensic computer examiners raises questions concerning the selection of individuals qualified to perform this work. While courts have mechanisms for qualifying witnesses that provide testimony based on scientific data, such as digital data, the qualifying criteria covers a wide variety of characteristics including, education, experience, training, professional certifications, or other special skills. In this study, we compare task performance responses from forensic computer examiners with an expert review panel and measure the relationship with the characteristics of the examiners to their quality responses. The results of this analysis provide insight into identifying forensic computer examiners that provide high-quality responses. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. A Comprehensive Review on Adaptability of Network Forensics Frameworks for Mobile Cloud Computing (United States)

    Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid; Han, Qi; Bin Abdul Rahman, Zulkanain


    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC. PMID:25097880

  16. A comprehensive review on adaptability of network forensics frameworks for mobile cloud computing. (United States)

    Khan, Suleman; Shiraz, Muhammad; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Gani, Abdullah; Han, Qi; Rahman, Zulkanain Bin Abdul


    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC.

  17. USB Storage Device Forensics for Windows 10. (United States)

    Arshad, Ayesha; Iqbal, Waseem; Abbas, Haider


    Significantly increased use of USB devices due to their user-friendliness and large storage capacities poses various threats for many users/companies in terms of data theft that becomes easier due to their efficient mobility. Investigations for such data theft activities would require gathering critical digital information capable of recovering digital forensics artifacts like date, time, and device information. This research gathers three sets of registry and logs data: first, before insertion; second, during insertion; and the third, after removal of a USB device. These sets are analyzed to gather evidentiary information from Registry and Windows Event log that helps in tracking a USB device. This research furthers the prior research on earlier versions of Microsoft Windows and compares it with latest Windows 10 system. Comparison of Windows 8 and Windows 10 does not show much difference except for new subkey under USB Key in registry. However, comparison of Windows 7 with latest version indicates significant variances. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. [Training and research in forensic medicine: present situation and future challenges for medical schools in Chile]. (United States)

    González, Leonardo; Inzunza, José Antonio; Bustos, Luis; Vallejos, Carlos; Gutiérrez, René


    Lawyers need some medical knowledge and physicians must know about forensics. To explore training and research programs in forensic medicine in Chilean universities. Deans of all Medicine Faculties in Chile were contacted by e-mail and invited to answer a questionnaire containing 21 questions. A survey of Chilean publications on forensic medicine was performed in Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases. Fourteen deans answered the questionnaire. In all the responding faculties, forensic medicine is an obligatory course, generally during the fifth year and mostly combining theory with practice. In seven faculties, forensic medicine concepts are included in other courses. Forensics is taught in only two of 10 dental schools, two of 17 nursing schools, one of nine midwives schools and one of nine medical technology schools. It is not taught in phonoaudiology, kinesiology and nutrition schools. There are 74 physicians that teach the specialty but only 10 are certified by the National Board of Medical Specialty Certification (CONACEM). Treatment of most topics on forensics is insufficient. Thanatology is the strongest topic and forensic dentistry is the weakest. There are 52 publications in the area, mostly on "medical law". Forensic medicine is taught in medical schools mostly as thanatology. The knowledge of forensics among medical students is limited and must be improved.

  19. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  20. Molecular Advancements in Forensic Odontology. (United States)

    Babu Rs, A; Rose, D


    Forensic odontology explores the field of human identification through dental tissues in cases where there is the destruction of body tissues in criminal investigations and mass disasters. Forensic odontology involves dentists participating in legal and criminal issues. Parameters such as age and gender identification are important in identifying the person or persons. Over the last two decades, the molecular aspect of forensic sciences has increased, and these molecular techniques now provide a novel approach to forensic odontology. Molecular advancements in science like DNA analysis have extended the range of forensic dentistry, as teeth possess the character of resistance toward physical or chemical aggressions. Teeth provide the abundant space for DNA, and hence teeth represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The present paper focusses on molecular advancements in the field of forensic odontology.

  1. Snap Forensics: A Tradeoff between Ephemeral Intelligence and Persistent Evidence Collection


    Yu, Yijun; Tun, Thein


    Digital evidence needs to be made persistent so that it can be used later. For citizen forensics, sometimes intelligence cannot or should not be made persistent forever. In this position paper, we propose a form of snap forensics by defining an elastic duration of evidence/intelligence validity. Explicitly declaring such a duration could unify the treatment of both ephemeral intelligence and persistent evidence towards more flexible storage to satisfy privacy requirements.

  2. [Forensic aspects of schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Prunnlechner, Regina


    Recent research has shown a clear association between schizophrenia and violent behaviour, which cannot be completely explained by co-morbid substance abuse or personality disorders. This increased risk for delinquent behaviour becomes apparent in acts of severe violent crime. Individuals who frequent the penal system often have a history of acute and chronic mental illness, as well as significant rates of co-morbidity; this includes alcohol and drug abuse, lack of motivation in therapy, poor insight regarding their illness, high rates of therapeutic non-compliance, as well as frequent, mostly short-term, contact with general psychiatry prior to forensic institutionalisation. Forensic psychiatric research has developed assessment and treatment tools which are also of great practical importance to general psychiatry.

  3. Forensic geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, GL


    In this edited volume on advances in forensic geotechnical engineering, a number of technical contributions by experts and professionals in this area are included. The work is the outcome of deliberations at various conferences in the area conducted by Prof. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Dr. V.V.S. Rao as secretary and Chairman of Technical Committee on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering of International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMGE). This volume contains papers on topics such as guidelines, evidence/data collection, distress characterization, use of diagnostic tests (laboratory and field tests), back analysis, failure hypothesis formulation, role of instrumentation and sensor-based technologies, risk analysis, technical shortcomings. This volume will prove useful to researchers and practitioners alike.

  4. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology. (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M


    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Identical twins in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Morling, Niels


    The increase in the number of forensic genetic loci used for identification purposes results in infinitesimal random match probabilities. These probabilities are computed under assumptions made for rather simple population genetic models. Often, the forensic expert reports likelihood ratios, where...... published results accounting for close familial relationships. However, we revisit the discussion to increase the awareness among forensic genetic practitioners and include new information on medical and societal factors to assess the risk of not considering a monozygotic twin as the true perpetrator...

  6. Implementing a Swedish regionalized medical program supported by digital technologies: possibilities and challenges from a management perspective. (United States)

    Pettersson, Fanny L M


    In 2011, Umeå University in Sweden was facing its first attempt to transform the existing medical program into a regionalized medical program (RMP), supported by the use of digital technologies. The Swedish RMP means that students are distributed in geographically separated groups while doing their five clinical clerkship semesters. To provide medical students with ways of undertaking their theoretical studies when geographically distributed, digital technologies are used for educational and administrative purposes. In this article, the Swedish RMP will be described and related to previous international research on educating medical students in rural settings. The aim of this article was, from a management perspective, to understand if and how contradictions arise during the implementation process of the Swedish RMP, supported by digital technologies. Based on this analysis, a further aim was to discuss, from a management perspective, the possibilities and challenges for improvement of this medical educational practice, as well as to provide implications for other similar changes in medical programs internationally. To identify possible contradictions during the implementation process, ethnographically inspired observations were made during management work meetings, before and during the first regionalized semester. In addition, in-depth follow-up interviews were held in May and June 2011 with six management executives of the Swedish RMP, concerning their expectations and experiences of the implementation process. The qualitative and activity theory (AT)-inspired analysis resulted in the emergence of two main themes and seven sub-themes. The analysis suggests that a number of contradictions arose during the implementation process of the Swedish RMP. For instance, a contradiction constituted as a conflict between the university management and some teachers concerning how digital technologies and technology enhanced learning (TEL) could and should be used when

  7. Dental Forensics: Bitemark Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari


    Full Text Available Forensic odontology (dental forensics can provide useful evidence in both criminal and civil cases, and therefore remains a part of the wider discipline of forensic science. As an example from the toolbox of forensic odontology, the practice and experience on bitemark analysis is reviewed here in brief. The principle of using visible bitemarks in crime victims or in other objects as evidence is fundamentally based on the observation that the detailed pattern of dental imprints tend to be practically unique for each individual. Therefore, finding such an imprint as a bitemark can bear a strong testimony that it was produced by the individual that has the matching dental pattern. However, the comparison of the observed bitemark and the suspected set of teeth will necessarily require human interpretation, and this is not infallible. Both technical challenges in the bitemarks and human errors in the interpretation are possible. To minimise such errors and to maximise the value of bitemark analysis, dedicated procedures and protocols have been developed, and the personnel taking care of the analysis need to be properly trained. In principle the action within the discipline should be conducted as in evidence-based dentristy, i.e. accepted procedures should have known error rates. Because of the involvement of human interpretation, even personal performance statistics may be required from legal expert statements. The requirements have been introduced largely due to cases where false convictions based on bitemark analysishave been overturned after DNA analysis.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i2.76

  8. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Manigandan


    Full Text Available Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  9. About forensic phonetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Hollien


    Full Text Available This article sets forth the goals and content of Forensic Phonetics and its major elements. Considered are 1 the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, 2 enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings, 3 authentication of recordings, 4 speaker identification, and 5 detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech, and the psychological stress evaluation systems that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors also will be considered.

  10. Application of Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Algorithm Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Computer Forensics (United States)

    Wang, Deguang; Han, Baochang; Huang, Ming

    Computer forensics is the technology of applying computer technology to access, investigate and analysis the evidence of computer crime. It mainly include the process of determine and obtain digital evidence, analyze and take data, file and submit result. And the data analysis is the key link of computer forensics. As the complexity of real data and the characteristics of fuzzy, evidence analysis has been difficult to obtain the desired results. This paper applies fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (FCMP) in computer forensics, and it can be more satisfactory results.

  11. CCITT Study Group XVIII Work Program 1981-1984; (Integrated Services Digital Network) (United States)


    new transmission media including optical fibre, coaxial and radio systems will be used as appropriate. 10. Customer/network signalling Digital accese...Subscriber Line implemented using very wide bandwidth transmission media (such as fiber optic links) the possibility of the inclusion of video bandwidth...kind of noise does not present a great infuence on subjective osessments, while it is more important, for the overall noise object-ve =easurenent

  12. NASA's advanced control law program for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft (United States)

    Elliott, J. R.


    This paper briefly describes the NASA F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) and Langley Research Center's role in investigating and promoting advanced control laws for possible flight experimentation and also provides a brief description of the Phase II DFBW F-8 aircraft and its control system. Some of the advanced control law study objectives and guidelines are discussed, and some mathematical models which are useful in the control analysis problem are provided.

  13. Digital-audio/MIDI sequencers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher Breen


    .... With these upgrades, both programs now support digital-audio fade and cross-fade transitions. If you are looking for the most complete MIDI/digital-audio solution right out of the box, consider Digital Performer...

  14. Neuroimaging, culture, and forensic psychiatry. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil K


    The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine.

  15. Tattoos: forensic considerations. (United States)

    Byard, Roger W


    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.

  16. Digital signal processing system design LabVIEW-bases hybrid programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Peng, Qingzhong


    Reflecting LabView's new MathScripting feature, the new edition of this book combines textual and graphical programming to form a hybrid programming approach, enabling a more effective means of building and analyzing DSP systems. The hybrid programming approach allows the use of previously developed textual programming solutions to be integrated into LabVIEW's highly interactive and visual environment, providing an easier and quicker method for building DSP systems.Features * The only DSP laboratory book that combines both textual and graphical programming * 12 lab experime

  17. The digital computer

    CERN Document Server

    Parton, K C


    The Digital Computer focuses on the principles, methodologies, and applications of the digital computer. The publication takes a look at the basic concepts involved in using a digital computer, simple autocode examples, and examples of working advanced design programs. Discussions focus on transformer design synthesis program, machine design analysis program, solution of standard quadratic equations, harmonic analysis, elementary wage calculation, and scientific calculations. The manuscript then examines commercial and automatic programming, how computers work, and the components of a computer

  18. The impact of banners on digital television: the role of program interactivity and product involvement. (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick


    In a sample of 281 respondents, the effect of a noninteractive and a medium-interactive television program on recall and brand attitudes for low- and high-involvement products advertised in banners during these programs was investigated. Medium-interactive programs resulted in less product and brand recall and recognition of brands in embedded banner advertisements, but generated more positive brand attitudes than noninteractive programs. These effects were more outspoken for a high-involvement product than for a low-involvement product. The impact of perceived program interactivity on brand attitude is fully mediated program valence and involvement for low-involvement products, but not for high-involvement products, for which perceived program interactivity had a direct impact on brand attitude.

  19. Average glandular dose in paired digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis acquisitions in a population based screening program: effects of measuring breast density, air kerma and beam quality (United States)

    Helge Østerås, Bjørn; Skaane, Per; Gullien, Randi; Catrine Trægde Martinsen, Anne


    The main purpose was to compare average glandular dose (AGD) for same-compression digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) acquisitions in a population based screening program, with and without breast density stratification, as determined by automatically calculated breast density (Quantra™). Secondary, to compare AGD estimates based on measured breast density, air kerma and half value layer (HVL) to DICOM metadata based estimates. AGD was estimated for 3819 women participating in the screening trial. All received craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views of each breasts with paired DM and DBT acquisitions. Exposure parameters were extracted from DICOM metadata. Air kerma and HVL were measured for all beam qualities used to acquire the mammograms. Volumetric breast density was estimated using Quantra™. AGD was estimated using the Dance model. AGD reported directly from the DICOM metadata was also assessed. Mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.10 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. Mean DBT/DM AGD ratio was 1.24. For fatty breasts: mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.27 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. For dense breasts: mean AGD was 1.73 and 1.79 mGy, for DM and DBT, respectively. For breasts of similar thickness, dense breasts had higher AGD for DM and similar AGD for DBT. The DBT/DM dose ratio was substantially lower for dense compared to fatty breasts (1.08 versus 1.33). The average c-factor was 1.16. Using previously published polynomials to estimate glandularity from thickness underestimated the c-factor by 5.9% on average. Mean AGD error between estimates based on measurements (air kerma and HVL) versus DICOM header data was 3.8%, but for one mammography unit as high as 7.9%. Mean error of using the AGD value reported in the DICOM header was 10.7 and 13.3%, respectively. Thus, measurement of breast density, radiation dose and beam quality can substantially affect AGD estimates.

  20. [Epidemiological data on shock in forensic medicine]. (United States)

    Manoilescu, Irina; Teleman, S; Mihăilă, Doina; Cojocaru, Elena; Plămădeală, P


    The shock is a relative frequent diagnostic in forensic medicine. We realized a statistical study, using 323 deaths through diverse shock typology, registered within the Forensic Medicine Institute of Iaşi in 2000-2009. The concerned variables were: the spread of cases on years, the clinical forms, age, sex, provenience environment, volemic feature, the survival time from the shock to the death, the spread of complications on the form of the shock and survival, the juridical way of death. Our data were introduced in the EXCEL database and statisticaly analyzed by SPSS program. We obtained statistic data on shock typology, based on the survival time and based on the complications of shock types. Relevant statistic data were obtained on the relations between the factors that generated the shock, the complications induced and the shock types, related also to the juridical way of death.

  1. DNS in Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Fowler Wright


    Full Text Available The Domain Name Service (DNS is a critical core component of the global Internet and integral to the majority of corporate intranets. It provides resolution services between the human-readable name-based system addresses and the machine operable Internet Protocol (IP based addresses required for creating network level connections. Whilst structured as a globally dispersed resilient tree data structure, from the Global and Country Code Top Level Domains (gTLD/ccTLD down to the individual site and system leaf nodes, it is highly resilient although vulnerable to various attacks, exploits and systematic failures. This paper examines the history along with the rapid growth of DNS up to its current critical status. It then explores the often overlooked value of DNS query data; from packet traces, DNS cache data, and DNS logs, with its use in System Forensics and more frequently in Network Forensics, extrapolating examples and experiments that enhance knowledge.Continuing on, it details the common attacks that can be used directly against the DNS systems and services, before following on with the malicious uses of DNS in direct system attacks, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS, traditional Denial of Service (DOS attacks and malware. It explores both cyber-criminal activities and cyber-warfare based attacks, and also extrapolates from a number of more recent attacks the possible methods for data exfiltration. It explores some of the potential analytical methodologies including; common uses in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, as well as infection and activity tracking in malware traffic analysis, and covers some of the associated methods around technology designed to defend against, mitigate, and/or manage these and other risks, plus the effect that ISP and nation states can have by direct manipulation of DNS queries and return traffic.This paper also investigates potential behavioural analysis and time-lining, which can then be used for the

  2. "Who Dunnit?": Learning Chemistry and Critical Thinking through Hands-On Forensic Science. (United States)

    Demetry, Chrysanthe; Nicoletti, Denise; Mix, Kimberlee; O'Connor, Kerri; Martin, Andrea


    Demonstrates how forensic science can be used as a framework for generating student interest and learning in chemistry and promoting critical thinking. The "Who Dunnit?" forensic science workshop was developed by undergraduate students and is one element of a two-week residential summer outreach program that seeks to develop interest in…

  3. Root morphology and anatomical patterns in forensic dental identification: a comparison of computer-aided identification with traditional forensic dental identification. (United States)

    van der Meer, Dirk T; Brumit, Paula C; Schrader, Bruce A; Dove, Stephen B; Senn, David R


    An online forensic dental identification exercise was conducted involving 24 antemortem-postmortem (AM-PM) dental radiograph pairs from actual forensic identification cases. Images had been digitally cropped to remove coronal tooth structure and dental restorations. Volunteer forensic odontologists were passively recruited to compare the AM-PM dental radiographs online and conclude identification status using the guidelines for identification from the American Board of Forensic Odontology. The mean accuracy rate for identification was 86.0% (standard deviation 9.2%). The same radiograph pairs were compared using a digital imaging software algorithm, which generated a normalized coefficient of similarity for each pair. Twenty of the radiograph pairs generated a mean accuracy of 85.0%. Four of the pairs could not be used to generate a coefficient of similarity. Receiver operator curve and area under the curve statistical analysis confirmed good discrimination abilities of both methods (online exercise = 0.978; UT-ID index = 0.923) and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis (0.683) indicated good correlation between the results of both methods. Computer-aided dental identification allows for an objective comparison of AM-PM radiographs and can be a useful tool to support a forensic dental identification conclusion. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B


    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  5. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: Broadening DNA investigative intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vidaki (Athina); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)


    textabstractHuman genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We

  6. Forensic Tools for Mobile Phone Subscriber Identity Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Jansen


    Full Text Available Mobile phones and other handheld devices incorporating cellular capabilities, such as Personal Digital Assistants, are ubiquitous.  Besides placing calls, these devices allow users to perform other useful tasks, including text messaging and phonebook entry management.  When cell phones and cellular devices are involved in a crime or other incident, forensic specialists require tools that allow the proper retrieval and speedy examination of data present on the device.  For devices conforming to the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM standards, certain data such as dialed numbers, text messages, and phonebook entries are maintained on a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM.  This paper gives a snapshot of the state of the art of forensic software tools for SIMs and an explanation of the types of digital evidence they can recover.

  7. New perspectives in forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A


    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  8. Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro


    Cyber forensics has been in the popular mainstream for some time, and has matured into an information-technology capability that is very common among modern information security programs. The goal of cyber forensics is to support the elements of troubleshooting, monitoring, recovery, and the protection of sensitive data. Moreover, in the event of a crime being committed, cyber forensics is also the approach to collecting, analyzing, and archiving data as evidence in a court of law. Although scalable to many information technology domains, especially modern corporate architectures, cyber forensics can be challenging when being applied to non-traditional environments, which are not comprised of current information technologies or are designed with technologies that do not provide adequate data storage or audit capabilities. In addition, further complexity is introduced if the environments are designed using proprietary solutions and protocols, thus limiting the ease of which modern forensic methods can be utilized. The legacy nature and somewhat diverse or disparate component aspects of control systems environments can often prohibit the smooth translation of modern forensics analysis into the control systems domain. Compounded by a wide variety of proprietary technologies and protocols, as well as critical system technologies with no capability to store significant amounts of event information, the task of creating a ubiquitous and unified strategy for technical cyber forensics on a control systems device or computing resource is far from trivial. To date, no direction regarding cyber forensics as it relates to control systems has been produced other than what might be privately available from commercial vendors. Current materials have been designed to support event recreation (event-based), and although important, these requirements do not always satisfy the needs associated with incident response or forensics that are driven by cyber incidents. To address these

  9. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective. (United States)

    Oakley, Kate


    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  10. The NSF National Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Digital Library (NSDL) Program: New Projects and a Progress Report; Lessons Learned: The Development of Electronic Reserves at the University of Calgary; A Challenging Future Awaits Libraries Able To Change: Highlights of the International Summer School on the Digital Library; DISA: Insights of an African Model for Digital Library Development; Organizing Ready Reference and Administrative Information with the Reference Desk Manager; Sue at the Field Museum. (United States)

    Zia, Lee L.; Pearce, Linda; Prinsen, Jola G. B.; Ticer, B. V.; Peters, Dale; Pickover, Michele; Matylonek, John C.; Ottow, Carolyn; Reese, Terry


    Topics include: digital library projects in the National Science Foundation's NSDL program; an electronic reserve platform at the University of Calgary; highlights from the sixth International Summer School on the Digital Library; the Digital Imaging Project of South Africa; a database of local information at the Oregon State University library;…

  11. GPU-accelerated compressed-sensing (CS) image reconstruction in chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) using CUDA programming (United States)

    Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Lee, Donghoon; Choi, Seungyeon; Shin, Jungwook; Jang, Woojin; Seo, Chang-Woo; Kim, Hee-Joung


    A compressed-sensing (CS) technique has been rapidly applied in medical imaging field for retrieving volumetric data from highly under-sampled projections. Among many variant forms, CS technique based on a total-variation (TV) regularization strategy shows fairly reasonable results in cone-beam geometry. In this study, we implemented the TV-based CS image reconstruction strategy in our prototype chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) R/F system. Due to the iterative nature of time consuming processes in solving a cost function, we took advantage of parallel computing using graphics processing units (GPU) by the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programming to accelerate our algorithm. In order to compare the algorithmic performance of our proposed CS algorithm, conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) reconstruction schemes were also studied. The results indicated that the CS produced better contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) in the physical phantom images (Teflon region-of-interest) by factors of 3.91 and 1.93 than FBP and SART images, respectively. The resulted human chest phantom images including lung nodules with different diameters also showed better visual appearance in the CS images. Our proposed GPU-accelerated CS reconstruction scheme could produce volumetric data up to 80 times than CPU programming. Total elapsed time for producing 50 coronal planes with 1024×1024 image matrix using 41 projection views were 216.74 seconds for proposed CS algorithms on our GPU programming, which could match the clinically feasible time ( 3 min). Consequently, our results demonstrated that the proposed CS method showed a potential of additional dose reduction in digital tomosynthesis with reasonable image quality in a fast time.

  12. E-Rate Program Seen as Too Lean for a Digital Era (United States)

    Klein, Alyson


    As school districts strive to put more technology into schools to support 1-to-1 computing initiatives and prepare for the common-core online assessments, the federal E-rate program is in danger of becoming as outdated and insufficient as a sputtering dial-up connection in a Wi-Fi world. While the program can boast great success since its…

  13. Digital Writing and Diversity: The Effects of School Laptop Programs on Literacy Processes and Outcomes (United States)

    Zheng, Binbin; Warschauer, Mark; Farkas, George


    Over the last decade, the number of one-to-one laptop programs in U.S. schools has steadily increased. Though technology advocates believe that such programs can assist student writing, there has been little systematic evidence for this claim, and even less focused on technology use by at-risk learners. This study examined the effect of daily…

  14. Targeting Medication Non-Adherence Behavior in Selected Autoimmune Diseases: A Systematic Approach to Digital Health Program Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor van Mierlo

    Full Text Available 29 autoimmune diseases, including Rheumatoid Arthritis, gout, Crohn's Disease, and Systematic Lupus Erythematosus affect 7.6-9.4% of the population. While effective therapy is available, many patients do not follow treatment or use medications as directed. Digital health and Web 2.0 interventions have demonstrated much promise in increasing medication and treatment adherence, but to date many Internet tools have proven disappointing. In fact, most digital interventions continue to suffer from high attrition in patient populations, are burdensome for healthcare professionals, and have relatively short life spans.Digital health tools have traditionally centered on the transformation of existing interventions (such as diaries, trackers, stage-based or cognitive behavioral therapy programs, coupons, or symptom checklists to electronic format. Advanced digital interventions have also incorporated attributes of Web 2.0 such as social networking, text messaging, and the use of video. Despite these efforts, there has not been little measurable impact in non-adherence for illnesses that require medical interventions, and research must look to other strategies or development methodologies. As a first step in investigating the feasibility of developing such a tool, the objective of the current study is to systematically rate factors of non-adherence that have been reported in past research studies.Grounded Theory, recognized as a rigorous method that facilitates the emergence of new themes through systematic analysis, data collection and coding, was used to analyze quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies addressing the following autoimmune diseases: Rheumatoid Arthritis, gout, Crohn's Disease, Systematic Lupus Erythematosus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Studies were only included if they contained primary data addressing the relationship with non-adherence.Out of the 27 studies, four non-modifiable and 11 modifiable risk factors were

  15. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.


    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  16. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan


    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is

  17. Statistical aspects of forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben

    This PhD thesis deals with statistical models intended for forensic genetics, which is the part of forensic medicine concerned with analysis of DNA evidence from criminal cases together with calculation of alleged paternity and affinity in family reunification cases. The main focus of the thesis...

  18. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  19. Forensic odontology education:from undergraduate to PhD - a Brazilian experience. (United States)

    Dietrichkeit Pereira, J G; Frontanilla Recalde, T S; Barreto Costa, P; Jacometti, V; Vigorito Magalhães, L; Alves Da Silva, R H


    Forensic Odontology is a topic present in the majority of Dental Schools in Brazil, and due to this reality, some universities develop activities related to undergraduate and graduate students, from the Dentistry course until the Ph.D. degree. To present the education experience related to Forensic Odontology at School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto (USP - University of São Paulo), showing the strategies and activities in the different degrees (Dental course, Forensic Odontology Specialization Program, Specific Professional Training, Master, and Ph.D.). To the undergraduate students, many activities are developed in order to demonstrate all the possibilities that Forensic Dentistry allow, including theoretical and practical activities; in the Forensic Odontology Specialization Program, the dentists are trained to act as Forensic Odontologists in all its amplitude; in the Specific Professional Training, some courses are available, related to specific topics as DVI, Forensic Facial Reconstruction, Auditor in Dental Care Insurance and others; and in the Master and Ph.D. Programs, the professionals receive training in skills like teaching, research, student's guidance and others. In Brazil, Forensic Odontology is a well-known field in Dentistry and universities develop an important role in training a qualified workforce.

  20. Increasing the Accessibility of Sexual Assault Forensic Examinations: Evaluation of Texas Law SB 1191. (United States)

    Davis, Robert C; Auchter, Bernard; Howley, Susan; Camp, Torie; Knecht, Ilse; Wells, William


    Texas SB 1191 was enacted in 2013 with the intent of increasing access to medical forensic examinations for sexual assault victims by requiring every hospital with an emergency department to be prepared to provide a medical forensic examination if requested by a sexual assault victim. To realize that goal, the law also required basic forensic training for medical professionals before conducting a medical forensic examination as well as a requirement that hospitals develop a "plan to train personnel on sexual assault forensic evidence collection." Interviews were conducted in 18 healthcare facilities (five with sexual assault nurse examiner [SANE] programs and 13 without SANE programs) in Dallas, Lubbock, and Austin to determine their awareness and compliance with SB 1191. The data suggest that the law had a little effect on actual practice, and sexual assault survivors still sought a SANE program for a medical forensic examination. Although SB 1191 is an important state level effort to make forensic examinations more readily available, it did not fully account for the challenges faced by smaller hospitals that do not see enough sexual assault victims to justify training staff to SANE standards and did not adequately address the training required by medical professionals to feel prepared to conduct a medical forensic examination.

  1. User's instructions for ORCENT II: a digital computer program for the analysis of steam turbine cycles supplied by light-water-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, L.C.


    The ORCENT-II digital computer program will perform calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. Turbine performance calculations are based on a method published by the General Electric Company. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. The program is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM System 360 digital computers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. Bitemarks in forensic odontology. (United States)

    Atsü, S S; Gökdemir, K; Kedici, P S; Ikyaz, Y Y


    Person identification is important in criminology, and forensic odontologists are key personnel for identifying a highly individual dentition which could cause a bitemark and which could be used to convict or exculpate a suspect. Bitemarks may be observed in skin, wax, from a dental model indirectly from a photograph, a scanned image of a dental model or food. This paper shows that bitemarks constitute reliable evidence for person identification and that a tolerance of approximately 1mm existed between measurements of a wax bite, dental model, photograph and computer scanned image.

  3. Defining a Forensic Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson G. Smith


    Full Text Available Disclosures about new financial frauds and scandals are continually appearing in the press.  As a consequence, the accounting profession's traditional methods of monitoring corporate financial activities are under intense scrutiny.  At the same time, there is recognition that principles-based GAAP from the International Accounting Standards Board will become the recognized standard in the U.S.  The authors argue that these two factors will change the practices used to fight corporate malfeasance as investigators adapt the techniques of accounting into a forensic audit engagement model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  5. Bio-forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J. (Jill)


    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  6. Virginia Base Mapping Program (VBMP) 2002; Digital Terrain Model developed for 1"=400' scale Digital Orthophotography for the South Zone of the Virginia State Plane Grid (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — These files contain rectified digital vector terrain model data. The vector files are uncompressed complete with coordinate information. The VBMP project encompasses...

  7. Virginia Base Mapping Program (VBMP) 2002; Digital Terrain Model developed for 1"=400' scale Digital Orthophotography for the North Zone of the Virginia State Plane Grid (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — These files contain rectified digital vector terrain model data. The vector files are uncompressed complete with coordinate information. The VBMP project encompasses...

  8. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science. (United States)

    Cole, Simon A


    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria


    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  10. Development and evaluation of an automatic acne lesion detection program using digital image processing. (United States)

    Min, Seonguk; Kong, Hyoun-joong; Yoon, Chiyul; Kim, Hee Chan; Suh, Dae Hun


    Existing acne grading methods, which depend on overall impression, require a long training period and there is a high degree of variability among raters, including trained dermatologists. The use of lesion count provides fair reproducibility but the method is time consuming. New technologies in photographic equipment and software allow solutions to the problem of acne evaluation. This study was conducted to develop the automatic acne lesion program and evaluation of its usefulness. We made the conditions to optimize characterization of acne lesions and developed the counting program. Twenty-five volunteers with acne lesions were enrolled. Automated lesion counting for five subtypes of acne (papule, nodule, pustule, whitehead comedone, and blackhead comedone) was performed with image processing. The usefulness of the automatic lesion count program was assessed by a comparison with manual counting performed by an expert dermatologist. In a comparison with manual counting performed by an expert dermatologist, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the lesion-counting program was greater than 70% for papules, nodules, pustules, and whitehead comedo. In a comparison with manual counting, findings with the use of the lesion-counting program were well correlated for papules, nodules, pustules, and whitehead comedo (r > 0.9). Automatic lesion-counting program can be a useful tool for acne severity evaluation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Knowledge Sharing Dan Inovasi Pada Industri Startup (Studi pada 15 Perusahaan Startup di Program Indigo Incubator, Bandung Digital Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodi Jayen Suwarno


    ABSTRACT Year 2014 become the beginning of massive investments of foreign investors to several startups in Indonesia. It triggers the creation of making startup incubation program by considering the use of knowledge sharing activity, which has been previously known as a success factor of former startups in the world. Knowledge sharing itself can increase innovation. Indigo Incubator program made by Telkom Group is of the example located in Bandung Digital Valley. With the expectation of innovation enhancement after incubation, we still know there are some startups that failed and dipersed at the end. This study aims to determine whether there is influence of knowledge sharing on innovation, and the statistical amount of the contributions. The object of research are determined based on the 15 startups incubated at Indigo Incubator program batch 2015. The method used by distributing a questionnaire, which is then processed using linear regression technique. Based on the analysis that there is significant influence of knowledge sharing on innovation. Tthe result illustrates that knowledge sharing need to be considered for various parties in the future to create high competitive startup with advanced innovation. This research is also beneficial for scientific literature development, especially Human Resources, as well can become the reference materials for business related to knowledge sharing practice and its linking to Innovation. Keywords: knowledge sharing, innovation, startup, incubation.

  12. Digital books. (United States)

    Wink, Diane M


    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes digital books.

  13. Application of forensic image analysis in accident investigations. (United States)

    Verolme, Ellen; Mieremet, Arjan


    Forensic investigations are primarily meant to obtain objective answers that can be used for criminal prosecution. Accident analyses are usually performed to learn from incidents and to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Although the primary goal may be different, the steps in which information is gathered, interpreted and weighed are similar in both types of investigations, implying that forensic techniques can be of use in accident investigations as well. The use in accident investigations usually means that more information can be obtained from the available information than when used in criminal investigations, since the latter require a higher evidence level. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of forensic techniques for accident investigations by presenting a number of cases from one specific field of expertise: image analysis. With the rapid spread of digital devices and new media, a wealth of image material and other digital information has become available for accident investigators. We show that much information can be distilled from footage by using forensic image analysis techniques. These applications show that image analysis provides information that is crucial for obtaining the sequence of events and the two- and three-dimensional geometry of an accident. Since accident investigation focuses primarily on learning from accidents and prevention of future accidents, and less on the blame that is crucial for criminal investigations, the field of application of these forensic tools may be broader than would be the case in purely legal sense. This is an important notion for future accident investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Image manipulation: Fraudulence in digital dental records: Study and review. (United States)

    Chowdhry, Aman; Sircar, Keya; Popli, Deepika Bablani; Tandon, Ankita


    In present-day times, freely available software allows dentists to tweak their digital records as never before. But, there is a fine line between acceptable enhancements and scientific delinquency. To manipulate digital images (used in forensic dentistry) of casts, lip prints, and bite marks in order to highlight tampering techniques and methods of detecting and preventing manipulation of digital images. Digital image records of forensic data (casts, lip prints, and bite marks photographed using Samsung Techwin L77 digital camera) were manipulated using freely available software. Fake digital images can be created either by merging two or more digital images, or by altering an existing image. Retouched digital images can be used for fraudulent purposes in forensic investigations. However, tools are available to detect such digital frauds, which are extremely difficult to assess visually. Thus, all digital content should mandatorily have attached metadata and preferably watermarking in order to avert their malicious re-use. Also, computer alertness, especially about imaging software's, should be promoted among forensic odontologists/dental professionals.

  15. Title: Using Video to Enhance a Citizen Science Program: Digital Earth Watch And The Picture Post Network (United States)

    Smith, J. D.; Beaudry, J.; Schloss, A. L.; Pickle, J.


    Digital Earth Watch (DEW) involves individuals, schools, organizations and communities in a systematic monitoring project of their local environment, especially vegetation health. The DEW Picture Post network offers people the means to make and share their own observations. A Picture Post is an easy-to-use and inexpensive platform for repeatedly taking digital photographs as a standardized set of images of the entire 360° landscape, which then can be shared over the Internet on the Picture Post website. This simple concept has the potential to create a wealth of information and data on changing environmental conditions, which is important for a society grappling with the effects of climate change. As a web-based program, it is critical to bring in new participants and to convey technical, scientific, and participant information with little or no human interaction. Once they get going, it is also important to keep participants engaged by getting their feedback as well as by sharing their experiences. This presentation will demonstrate our use of video to enhance the program, in particular the power of video for teaching skills needed to start up and contribute to a picture post, to convey findings and other scientific information collected at picture posts, and to engage participants and the community in an ongoing effort in monitoring and understanding their local environment and changing conditions. A DEW video library is being developed by a collaborative effort led by the University of New Hampshire with the University of Southern Maine, and Concord Academy. We invite individuals, schools, informal education centers, groups and communities to join: visit us atPicture Post is supported by NASA

  16. Forensic Pathology Education in Pathology Residency: A Survey of Current Practices, a Novel Curriculum, and Recommendations for the Future. (United States)

    Spencer, Amanda; Ross, Wayne K; Domen, Ronald E


    Forensic pathology is a fundamental part of anatomic pathology training during pathology residency. However, the lack of information on forensic teaching suggests the highly variable nature of forensic education. A survey of pathology residency program directors was performed to determine key aspects of their respective forensic rotations and curriculum. A total of 38.3% of programs from across the country responded, and the survey results show 5.6% don't require a forensic pathology rotation. In those that do, most forensic pathology rotations are 4 weeks long, are done at a medical examiner's office, and require set prerequisites. A total of 21.1% of responding programs have residents who are not receiving documented evaluations for this rotation. While 39.6% of programs have a defined forensics curriculum, as many as 15% do not. Furthermore, nearly 43% of programs place no limit on counting forensic autopsies when applying for pathology board examinations. Our survey confirmed the inconsistent nature of forensic pathology training in resident education. Additionally, our curriculum was reorganized to create a more robust educational experience. A pre- and post-forensic lecture quiz and Resident In-Service Examination scores were analyzed to determine our curriculum's impact and effectiveness. Analysis of our pre- and post-lecture quiz showed an improved overall average as well as an increase in Resident In-Service Examination scores, indicating improved general forensic pathology knowledge. Using this knowledge, along with changes in our curriculum, we generated a number of recommendations for improving forensic pathology education in pathology residency.

  17. Detecting Copy Move Forgery In Digital Images (United States)

    Gupta, Ashima; Saxena, Nisheeth; Vasistha, S. K.


    In today's world several image manipulation software's are available. Manipulation of digital images has become a serious problem nowadays. There are many areas like medical imaging, digital forensics, journalism, scientific publications, etc, where image forgery can be done very easily. To determine whether a digital image is original or doctored is a big challenge. To find the marks of tampering in a digital image is a challenging task. The detection methods can be very useful in image forensics which can be used as a proof for the authenticity of a digital image. In this paper we propose the method to detect region duplication forgery by dividing the image into overlapping block and then perform searching to find out the duplicated region in the image.

  18. Forensic Analysis of Lubricants. (United States)

    Hirz, R


    Lubricants are found everywhere as a matter of course, and thus would also likely be found at the scene of a crime. Many fields of applications for lubricants exist and numerous formulations can be used within a single field. In addition, the composition of a lubricant changes significantly during its use. These facts are an illustration that lubricants, especially those that have been used, will have features that may possess high evidential value. Most studies on lubricants deal with wear monitoring, monitoring of the degradation of lubricants, and chemical analysis of the base oil and additives. The methods used require sample sizes in the range of 0.5 g and can give an indication of the brand and its application. In contrast, the studies dealing with forensic problems utilize spectroscopic methods that require sample sizes in the microgram range, and can only compare samples. Their main drawback is that the sample matrix may have an adverse effect on the analysis. Analyses using a combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods for the detection of special compound classes require more sample but are not as affected by the matrix. Using the methods reviewed here, the forensic scientist may be able to identify the brand and application if the sample size exceeds 0.5 g or may compare samples if the size is very low. Copyright © 1991 Central Police University.

  19. Nanoparticles in forensic science (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio A.


    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  20. [Psychopathy in forensic psychiatry]. (United States)

    Möller, A; Hell, D


    The review refers to the construct of psychopathy which is of increasing relevance for forensic psychiatry and psychology, especially empiric studies on legal prognosis and predictors of therapeutic efficacy. Psychopathy is related to early-onset delinquency, number and severeness of violent crimes, number of sexual victims in rapists, and unfavorable legal prognosis. Recent research has also indicated that the treatment of psychopaths is complicated by low levels of motivation and high rates of attrition. In psychiatric-diagnostic terms, psychopathy is related to substance abuse and dependency and to cluster A and B personality disorders (PD), especially to antisocial and borderline PD. In juvenile with "psychopathic tendencies", a relationship to impulsivity, emotional and behavioral difficulties, and learning behavior (card sorting test) had been shown and interpreted by reference to an anatomical level. In connection with these findings, the relevance of psychopathic disorder for testimonies on legal responsibility should also be discussed again. Further research on psychopathy, especially psychiatric morbidity and psychosocial functioning in non-forensic groups, is needed.

  1. Implementing The Automated Phases Of The Partially-Automated Digital Triage Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D Cantrell


    Full Text Available Digital triage is a pre-digital-forensic phase that sometimes takes place as a way of gathering quick intelligence. Although effort has been undertaken to model the digital forensics process, little has been done to date to model digital triage. This work discuses the further development of a model that does attempt to address digital triage the Partially-automated Crime Specific Digital Triage Process model. The model itself will be presented along with a description of how its automated functionality was implemented to facilitate model testing.

  2. [The progressive models of educational activities as a basis for the training of forensic medical experts of the new generation]. (United States)

    Smirnova, S A; Yastrebov, O A

    The authors interpret forensic expertology as a synthetic science and propose the models for the training of professionals in the field of forensic medical expertise. They provide a rationale for the realization of such systematic training in the framework of the model of the three-level system based at the educational institutions of higher professional education. Characteristic features of the existing standards of professional training in the sphere of forensic medical expertise are considered with special reference to the organization of education of future forensic medical experts based at the many-level programs adopted in the Russian University of People's Friendship. The authors maintain that the integration of the activities of the Russian University of People's Friendship in the sphere of training of highly qualified forensic medical professionals and the potential of other leading Russian and foreign educational institutions in the close collaboration with the practical forensic medical facilities would provide a solid basis for the long-term fruitful cooperation for the modernization of the existing system of the training of forensic experts, its harmonization with the most sophisticated international programs, innovative scientific and educational technologies integrated into the system of management of the quality of modern laboratories of forensic medical expertise. It is concluded that the modification of the system of professional education in the field of forensic medical education constitutes the strategic approach to the solution of the problem of professional competence in the sphere of forensic expert activities.

  3. Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser


    Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

  4. Cyber Forensics Ontology for Cyber Criminal Investigation (United States)

    Park, Heum; Cho, Sunho; Kwon, Hyuk-Chul

    We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from digital data and cyber space. Accordingly, it is difficult to determine relational crime types and collect evidence. Therefore, we considered the classifications of cyber crime, the collection of evidence in cyber space and the application of laws to cyber crime. In order to efficiently investigate cyber crime, it is necessary to integrate those concepts for each cyber crime-case. Thus, we constructed a cyber forensics domain ontology for criminal investigation in cyber space, according to the categories of cyber crime, laws, evidence and information of criminals. This ontology can be used in the process of investigating of cyber crime-cases, and for data mining of cyber crime; classification, clustering, association and detection of crime types, crime cases, evidences and criminals.

  5. The Digital Library for Earth System Education: A Progress Report from the DLESE Program Center (United States)

    Marlino, M. R.; Sumner, T. R.; Kelly, K. K.; Wright, M.


    DLESE is a community-owned and governed digital library offering easy access to high quality electronic resources about the Earth system at all educational levels. Currently in its third year of development and operation, DLESE resources are designed to support systemic educational reform, and include web-based teaching resources, tools, and services for the inclusion of data in classroom activities, as well as a "virtual community center" that supports community goals and growth. "Community-owned" and "community-governed" embody the singularity of DLESE through its unique participatory approach to both library building and governance. DLESE is guided by policy development vested in the DLESE Steering Committee, and informed by Standing Committees centered on Collections, Services, Technology, and Users, and community working groups covering a wide variety of interest areas. This presentation highlights both current and projected status of the library and opportunities for community engagement. It is specifically structured to engage community members in the design of the next version of the library release. The current Version 1.0 of the library consists of a web-accessible graphical user interface connected to a database of catalogued educational resources (approximately 3000); a metadata framework enabling resource characterization; a cataloging tool allowing community cataloging and indexing of materials; a search and discovery system allowing browsing based on topic, grade level, and resource type, and permitting keyword and controlled vocabulary-based searches; and a portal website supporting library use, community action, and DLESE partnerships. Future stages of library development will focus on enhanced community collaborative support; development of controlled vocabularies; collections building and community review systems; resource discovery integrating the National Science Education Standards and geography standards; Earth system science vocabulary

  6. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing. (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Ontological Approach to Study and Manage Digital Chain of Custody of Digital Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Ćosić


    Full Text Available Chain of custody of digital evidence in digital forensic field are today essential part of digital investigation process. In order the evidence to be accepted by the court as valid, chain of custody for digital evidence must be kept, or it must be known who exactly, when, where, why and how came into contact with evidence in each stage of the digital investigations process. This paper deals with digital evidence and chain of custody of digital evidence. Authors definetaxonomy and use an ontological approach to manage chain of custody of digital evidence. The aim of this paper was to develop ontology to provide a new approach to study and better understand chain of custody of digital evidence . Additionally, developed ontology can be used as a method to further develop a set of standard and procedures for secure management with digital evidence.

  8. Reimagining Understandings of Literacy in Teacher Preparation Programs Using Digital Literacy Autobiographies (United States)

    McTavish, Marianne; Filipenko, Margot


    This article examines preservice teachers' understandings and beliefs about literacy in the 21st century specifically at the beginning of their teacher education program. In particular, the authors explored preservice teachers' responses to the first assignment of their foundations literacy course for evidence of their emerging beliefs and…

  9. Digitized and Decoupled? Teacher Sensemaking around Educational Technology in a Model 1:1 Program (United States)

    Gherardi, Stacy


    This mixed-methods study utilized surveys and interviews to analyze teacher sensemaking in a widely acclaimed 1:1 laptop program in a predominantly low-income, predominantly Latino school district. Quantitative and qualitative measures found that teachers across the district used technology in similar ways and that technology strongly increased…

  10. Computer Forensics JumpStart

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Michael G; Tittel, Ed; Broom, Neil; Barrett, Diane


    Essential reading for launching a career in computer forensicsInternet crime is on the rise, catapulting the need for computer forensics specialists. This new edition presents you with a completely updated overview of the basic skills that are required as a computer forensics professional. The author team of technology security veterans introduces the latest software and tools that exist and they review the available certifications in this growing segment of IT that can help take your career to a new level. A variety of real-world practices take you behind the scenes to look at the root causes

  11. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists. (United States)

    Gaensslen, Robert E.


    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T.


    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  13. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM)


    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine


    The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC), international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc.), forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics), forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants), psychiatry and...

  14. Transition From Film to Digital Mammography Impact for Breast Cancer Screening Through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravesteyn, N.T.; van Lier, L.I.; Schechter, C.B.; Ekwueme, D.U.; Royalty, J.; Miller, J.W.; Near, A.M.; Cronin, K.A.; Heijnsdijk, E.A.M.; Mandelblatt, J.S.; Koning, H.J.


    Introduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides mammograms and diagnostic services for low-income, uninsured women aged 40-64 years. Mammography facilities within the NBCCEDP gradually shifted from plain-film to digital mammography. The purpose of this

  15. Transition from film to digital mammography: Impact for breast cancer screening through the national breast and cervical cancer early detection program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); L. Van Lier (Lisanne); C.B. Schechter (Clyde); D.U. Ekwueme (Donatus U.); J. Royalty (Janet); J.W. Miller (Jacqueline W.); A.M. Near (Aimee); K.A. Cronin (Kathleen); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); J.S. Mandelblatt (Jeanne); H.J. de Koning (Harry)


    textabstractIntroduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides mammograms and diagnostic services for low-income, uninsured women aged 40-64 years. Mammography facilities within the NBCCEDP gradually shifted from plain-film to digital mammography. The

  16. Nuclear Forensics: Report of the AAAS/APS Working Group (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Benn


    This report was produced by a Working Group of the American Physical Society's Program on Public Affairs in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the Congress, U.S. government agencies and other institutions involved in nuclear forensics with a clear unclassified statement of the state of the art of nuclear forensics; an assessment of its potential for preventing and identifying unattributed nuclear attacks; and identification of the policies, resources and human talent to fulfill that potential. In the course of its work, the Working Group observed that nuclear forensics was an essential part of the overall nuclear attribution process, which aims at identifying the origin of unidentified nuclear weapon material and, in the event, an unidentified nuclear explosion. A credible nuclear attribution capability and in particular nuclear forensics capability could deter essential participants in the chain of actors needed to smuggle nuclear weapon material or carry out a nuclear terrorist act and could also encourage states to better secure such materials and weapons. The Working Group also noted that nuclear forensics result would take some time to obtain and that neither internal coordination, nor international arrangements, nor the state of qualified personnel and needed equipment were currently enough to minimize the time needed to reach reliable results in an emergency such as would be caused by a nuclear detonation or the intercept of a weapon-size quantity of material. The Working Group assesses international cooperation to be crucial for forensics to work, since the material would likely come from inadequately documented foreign sources. In addition, international participation, if properly managed, could enhance the credibility of the deterrent effect of attribution. Finally the Working Group notes that the U.S. forensics

  17. The Development of Interactive World Wide Web Based Teaching Material in Forensic Science. (United States)

    Daeid, Niamh Nic


    Describes the development of a Web-based tutorial in the forensic science teaching program at the University of Strathclyde (Scotland). Highlights include the theoretical basis for course development; objectives; Web site design; student feedback; and staff feedback. (LRW)

  18. Mobile Technology for Community Health in Ghana: what happens when technical functionality threatens the effectiveness of digital health programs? (United States)

    LeFevre, Amnesty E; Mohan, Diwakar; Hutchful, David; Jennings, Larissa; Mehl, Garrett; Labrique, Alain; Romano, Karen; Moorthy, Anitha


    Despite the growing use of technology in the health sector, little evidence is available on the technological performance of mobile health programs nor on the willingness of target users to utilize these technologies as intended (behavioral performance). In this case study of the Mobile Technology for Health (MOTECH) program in Ghana, we assess the platform's effectiveness in delivering messages, along with user response across sites in five districts from 2011 to 2014. MOTECH is comprised of "Client Data Application" (CDA) which allows providers to digitize and track service delivery information for women and infants and "Mobile Midwife" (MM) which sends automated educational voice messages to the mobile phones of pregnant and postpartum women. Using a naturalist study design, we draw upon system generated data to evaluate message delivery, client engagement, and provider responsiveness to MOTECH over time and by level of facility. A total of 7,370 women were enrolled in MM during pregnancy and 14,867 women were enrolled postpa1rtum. While providers were able to register and upload patient-level health information using CDA, the majority of these uploads occurred in Community-based facilities versus Health Centers. For MM, 25% or less of expected messages were received by pregnant women, despite the majority (>77%) owning a private mobile phone. While over 80% of messages received by pregnant women were listened to, postpartum rates of listening declined over time. Only 25% of pregnant women received and listened to at least 1 first trimester message. By 6-12 months postpartum, less than 6% of enrolled women were exposed to at least one message. Caution should be exercised in assuming that digital health programs perform as intended. Evaluations should measure the technological, behavioral, health systems, and/or community factors which may lead to breaks in the impact pathway and influence findings on effectiveness. The MOTECH platform's technological limitations

  19. Barriers to Teaching Social Determinants of Health: Nursing Study-Abroad Programs in a Digital Age. (United States)

    de Ruiter, Hans-Peter


    The social determinants of health are the conditions in which humans are born, grow up, live, work, and age (World Health Organization [WHO], 2012). In nursing programs, this content is typically taught in community health courses. Another strategy for teaching students how to understand the social determinants of health is study-abroad courses. Budding nurses can learn how to assess conditions that influence the health of a community. Conducting this assessment in a culture that differs from the student's own can help highlight what factors impact one's own health. For the past eight years, the author has been teaching the social and cultural determinants of health to nursing students by taking them on 3-week cultural immersion/community health studyabroad programs. Destinations have included Ghana, Austria, the Netherlands, and Thailand. This article presents observations on how the teaching of social determinants of health has changed during the period 2008-2016.

  20. Maximizing the Impact of Digital Media Campaigns to Promote Smoking Cessation: A Case Study of the California Tobacco Control Program and the California Smokers' Helpline. (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Momin, Behnoosh; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Harms, Kristin; McCartney, Amanda; Neri, Antonio; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L


    Digital media are often used to encourage smoking cessation by increasing quitline call volume through direct promotion to smokers or indirect promotion to smoker proxies. The documentation of a program's experiences utilizing digital media is necessary to develop both the knowledge base and a set of best practices. This case study highlights the use of digital media in a proxy-targeted campaign to promote the California Smokers' Helpline to health care professionals from October 2009 to September 2012. We describe the iterative development of the campaign's digital media activities and report campaign summaries of web metrics (website visits, webinar registrations, downloads of online materials, online orders for promotional materials) and media buy (gross impressions) tracking data. The campaign generated more than 2.7 million gross impressions from digital media sources over 3 years. Online orders for promotional materials increased almost 40% over the course of the campaign. A clearly defined campaign strategy ensured that there was a systematic approach in developing and implementing campaign activities and ensuring that lessons learned from previous years were incorporated. Discussion includes lessons learned and recommendations for future improvements reported by campaign staff to inform similar efforts using digital media.

  1. Biosensors in forensic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickx, C.


    Full Text Available A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to detect and monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by law enforcement agencies and rescue teams typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. This concept of using dogs to detect specific substances is quite old. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. Thus, the possibility of using other organisms as biosensors including rats, dolphins, honeybees, and parasitic wasps for detecting explosives, narcotics and cadavers has been developed. Insects have several advantages unshared by mammals. Insects are sensitive, cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. Moreover, insects might be a preferred sensing method in scenarios that are deemed too dangerous to use mammals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the biosensors used in forensic sciences.

  2. Issues in forensic voice. (United States)

    Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D


    The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear Forensic Field Exercise #1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larsson, Carey L; Hinton, Anthony


    .... As such, a radiological field exercise was held to review current forensic investigator methods and identify problem areas with respect to the collection of evidence from a contaminated crime scene...

  4. Forensic historiography: narratives and science. (United States)

    Drukteinis, Albert M


    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  5. Forensic Science--A Proposal (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.


    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  6. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M


    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  7. Parasites in Forensic Science: a historic perspective (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C


    Parasites show a great potential to Forensic Science. Forensic Science is the application of any science and methodology to the legal system. The forensic scientist collects and analyses the physical evidence and produce a report of the results to the court. A parasite is an organism that lives at the expense of another and they exist in any ecosystem. Parasites are the cause of many important diseases. The forensic scientists can use the parasites to identify a crime scene, to determine the murder weapon or simply identify an individual. The applications for parasites in the Forensic Science can be many and more studies should be made in Forensic Parasitology. The most important parasites in Forensic Science are helminths specifically schistosomes. Through history there are many cases where schistosomes were described in autopsies and it was related to the cause of death. Here we review the applications of parasites in Forensic Science and its importance to the forensic scientist.

  8. Origin and development of forensic medicine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Al Madani, Osama Mohamed; Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Galeb, Sherien Salah; Al Moghannam, Salah Ali; Moulana, Ashraf Abdul Raheem


    The medicolegal death investigation system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is unique in the world. It is exclusively derived from Islamic judiciary based on Shari'ah law, which is the definitive Islamic law or doctrine. This law is applied on Saudi citizens as well as foreigners. This is different from other Islamic countries, which have a combination of Islamic and other judiciary systems.The forensic medicine centers in KSA are related administratively to the Ministry of Health (MOH) and its subdivisions in the different governorates. They are concerned with forensic medical examination and autopsy, as well as the clinical forensic medical examination of sexual assault cases, and those injured in civil and criminal cases. The assisting laboratories (forensic histopathology, microbiology, serology, forensic chemistry) are working independently under the funding of MOH, whereas the DNA laboratory and other departments of forensic sciences, for example, counterfeiting and forgery unit are related administratively to the Ministry of Interior represented by the Administration of Criminal Evidences. Efforts concerning crime scene investigations are shared with Administration of Criminal Evidences' crime scene investigators.Forensic medicine education in KSA developed in the past few years after the foundation of Saudi specialty certificate in forensic medicine. The certificate is a postgraduation qualification equivalent to a doctorate degree in forensic medicine and requires completion of a 4-year training program in both MOH- and Ministry of Interior-related departments, as well as passing annual evaluation and examination.This review is aimed at providing in the next decade the medicolegal centers with national forensic specialists throughout the kingdom and granting skillful headships for the next generations. Moreover, this review suggests more scientific associations with the academic universities in the various fields of forensic sciences through academic

  9. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coble, M. D.; Buckleton, J.; Butler, J M


    The use of biostatistical software programs to assist in data interpretation and calculate likelihood ratios is essential to forensic geneticists and part of the daily case work flow for both kinship and DNA identification laboratories. Previous recommendations issued by the DNA Commission...... of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) covered the application of bio-statistical evaluations for STR typing results in identification and kinship cases, and this is now being expanded to provide best practices regarding validation and verification of the software required for these calculations...... requirements to validate bio-statistical software to be used in forensic genetics. We distinguish between developmental validation and the responsibilities of the software developer or provider, and the internal validation studies to be performed by the end user. Recommendations for the software provider...

  10. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine


    Leth, Peter Mygind


    Modern diagnostic imagining techniques are gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Denmark has been involved in the development of this use of imaging techniques from the beginning. The Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Southern Denmark acquired a helical computed tomography (CT) scanner in 2006. This thesis presents our research on post-mortem CT (PMCT) and addresses the following research questions: 1. In how many cases can the cause of death be established by PMCT, and w...

  11. Transition from film to digital mammography: impact for breast cancer screening through the national breast and cervical cancer early detection program. (United States)

    van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; van Lier, Lisanne; Schechter, Clyde B; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Royalty, Janet; Miller, Jacqueline W; Near, Aimee M; Cronin, Kathleen A; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; de Koning, Harry J


    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides mammograms and diagnostic services for low-income, uninsured women aged 40-64 years. Mammography facilities within the NBCCEDP gradually shifted from plain-film to digital mammography. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of replacing film with digital mammography on health effects (deaths averted, life-years gained [LYG]); costs (for screening and diagnostics); and number of women reached. NBCCEDP 2010 data and data representative of the program's target population were used in two established microsimulation models. Models simulated observed screening behavior including different screening intervals (annual, biennial, irregular) and starting ages (40, 50 years) for white, black, and Hispanic women. Model runs were performed in 2012. The models predicted 8.0-8.3 LYG per 1,000 film screens for black women, 5.9-7.5 for white women, and 4.0-4.5 for Hispanic women. For all race/ethnicity groups, digital mammography had more LYG than film mammography (2%-4%), but had higher costs (34%-35%). Assuming a fixed budget, 25%-26% fewer women could be served, resulting in 22%-24% fewer LYG if all mammograms were converted to digital. The loss in LYG could be reversed to an 8%-13% increase by only including biennial screening. Digital could result in slightly more LYG than film mammography. However, with a fixed budget, fewer women may be served with fewer LYG. Changes in the program, such as only including biennial screening, will increase LYG/screen and could offset the potential decrease in LYG when shifting to digital mammography. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Keeping the Momentum and Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dion, Heather M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); LaMont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    LANL has 70 years of experience in nuclear forensics and supports the community through a wide variety of efforts and leveraged capabilities: Expanding the understanding of nuclear forensics, providing training on nuclear forensics methods, and developing bilateral relationships to expand our understanding of nuclear forensic science. LANL remains highly supportive of several key organizations tasked with carrying forth the Nuclear Security Summit messages: IAEA, GICNT, and INTERPOL. Analytical chemistry measurements on plutonium and uranium matrices are critical to numerous programs including safeguards accountancy verification measurements. Los Alamos National Laboratory operates capable actinide analytical chemistry and material science laboratories suitable for nuclear material and environmental forensic characterization. Los Alamos National Laboratory uses numerous means to validate and independently verify that measurement data quality objectives are met. Numerous LANL nuclear facilities support the nuclear material handling, preparation, and analysis capabilities necessary to evaluate samples containing nearly any mass of an actinide (attogram to kilogram levels).

  13. Terminology and forensic gait analysis. (United States)

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria


    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics using Benford's Law (United States)

    Qadir, Ghulam; Zhao, Xi; Ho, Anthony T. S.


    With the tremendous growth and usage of digital images nowadays, the integrity and authenticity of digital content is becoming increasingly important, and a growing concern to many government and commercial sectors. Image Forensics, based on a passive statistical analysis of the image data only, is an alternative approach to the active embedding of data associated with Digital Watermarking. Benford's Law was first introduced to analyse the probability distribution of the 1st digit (1-9) numbers of natural data, and has since been applied to Accounting Forensics for detecting fraudulent income tax returns [9]. More recently, Benford's Law has been further applied to image processing and image forensics. For example, Fu et al. [5] proposed a Generalised Benford's Law technique for estimating the Quality Factor (QF) of JPEG compressed images. In our previous work, we proposed a framework incorporating the Generalised Benford's Law to accurately detect unknown JPEG compression rates of watermarked images in semi-fragile watermarking schemes. JPEG2000 (a relatively new image compression standard) offers higher compression rates and better image quality as compared to JPEG compression. In this paper, we propose the novel use of Benford's Law for estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics applications. By analysing the DWT coefficients and JPEG2000 compression on 1338 test images, the initial results indicate that the 1st digit probability of DWT coefficients follow the Benford's Law. The unknown JPEG2000 compression rates of the image can also be derived, and proved with the help of a divergence factor, which shows the deviation between the probabilities and Benford's Law. Based on 1338 test images, the mean divergence for DWT coefficients is approximately 0.0016, which is lower than DCT coefficients at 0.0034. However, the mean divergence for JPEG2000 images compression rate at 0.1 is 0.0108, which is much higher than uncompressed DWT coefficients. This result

  15. A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis (United States)

    Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Baggili, Ibrahim; Sridhar, Ramalingam

    Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex and often require additional hardware for analysis. Some products are not robust and often fail to extract optimal evidence without modifying the iPhone firmware which makes the analysis questionable in legal platforms. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive framework (iFF) for iPhone forensic analysis. Through experimental results using real device, we have shown the effectiveness of this framework in extracting digital evidence from an iPhone.

  16. [Two anniversaries in Czech forensic medicine]. (United States)

    Nečas, P; Hejna, P


    The authors commemorate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Slavíks textbook Forensic Pathology for Medical and Legal Students and the 125th anniversary of the 1st Czech forensic autopsy. They introduce professor V. Slavík and describe his personal qualities and expertise. The content of the textbook is described. The topicality of Slavíks explanations and the tradition of Czech forensic pathology are discussed. Key words: forensic pathology - history of Czech forensic pathology - textbooks of forensic pathology.

  17. Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a shape analysis computer program: Part 2; 'SCIP' and bite marks in skin and foodstuffs


    Nambiar, P.; Bridges, T. E.; Brown, K. A.


    In a previous paper, we have shown that the use of an interactive shape analysis computer program ('SCIP') and the derivation of a quantitative Similarity Index greatly facilitated the comparison of experimental flat wax bite marks with the dentition of various 'suspects' and the identification of the agent producing the bite. In this study, 'SCIP' was employed in an attempt to quantify the comparison, in the form of the Similarity Index (S.I.), between the 'offender's' teeth and the bite mar...

  18. Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a shape analysis computer program: Part 1; the development of 'SCIP' and the Similarity Index


    Nambiar, P.; Bridges, T. E.; Brown, K. A.


    Bite marks left on human tissue and bitten material have become an important aspect of scientific evidence used for the conviction or acquittal of a suspect. Expert opinion has often been based on subjective comparisons rather than any objective metrical analysis and many experts will agree that there is a need to employ additional comparative tests to achieve unbiased objectivity in their investigation. In this study, an interactive shape analysis computer program ('SCIP' - Shape Comparison ...

  19. AMULET: A MUlti-cLuE Approach to Image Forensics (United States)


    observables may refer to the audio and video tracks and so on. Even if the original target of our analysis was giving a theoretical background to... steganography and steganalysis, network intrusion detection, traffic monitoring, cognitive radio and many others. In the next subsections, we first give a...scenarios, including multimedia forensics, biometrics, digital watermarking, steganography and steganalysis, network intrusion detection, traffic

  20. Framework para la computación forense en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés F. Álvarez Serna


    Full Text Available Este FRAMEWORK es un conjunto estandarizado de conceptos, prácticas y criterios para enfocar la problemática a la que se enfrentan los investigadores forenses al momento de procesar las evidencias digitales. Este artículo se refiere a la forense digital en conceptos generales y ubica al lector en el presente de esta ciencia y muestra una guía de pasos a seguir para la recolección y tratamiento de las evidencias enmarcadas en las leyes colombianas y servirá como material de apoyo a estudiantes interesados en el tema y/o quienes ya estén en el medio.