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Sample records for program determines gas

  1. Natural Gas STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Voluntary Methane Programs encourage oil and natural gas companies to adopt cost-effective technologies and practices that improve operational efficiency and reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  2. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  3. F-Gas Partnership Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides basic information and resources for the Fluorinated Gas Partnership Programs, which were launched as a joint effort by EPA and industry groups to reduce the amount of fluorinated gases emitted through a variety of industrial processes.

  4. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeh, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of the utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.

  5. Gravimetric gas determinations for volume calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, P.W.

    1991-12-31

    Gravimetric measurement of gases is one of the methods available for calibrating gas volumes. By inputting a known quantity of gas and measuring the resulting pressure and temperature, the system volume can be calculated using gas law principles. Historically, this method has been less accurate due to the difficulty in the mass determination. This difficulty comes from several sources. Two examples are the large tare weight of the gas container relative to the weight of gas and the external volume of the gas container relative to the standards. The application of a gravimetric gas determination to tank volume calibrations at the Savannah River Site is discussed. Mass determinations on a 25,000 gram gas container were such that a 1500 gram quantity of gas was routinely determined to within {plus_minus}0.2 gram at the 99% confidence level. The weighing design and the methods used to address the difficulties of the mass determination are detailed.

  6. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  7. Derivatization coupled to headspace programmed-temperature vaporizer gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of amino acids: Application to urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Paredes, Rosa María; García Pinto, Carmelo; Pérez Pavón, José Luis; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    A new method based on headspace programmed-temperature vaporizer gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for the determination of amino acids (alanine, sarcosine, ethylglycine, valine, leucine, and proline) in human urine samples. Derivatization with ethyl chloroformate was employed successfully to determine the amino acids. The derivatization reaction conditions as well as the variables of the headspace sampling were optimized. The existence of a matrix effect was checked and the analytical characteristics of the method were determined. The limits of detection were 0.15-2.89 mg/L, and the limits of quantification were 0.46-8.67 mg/L. The instrumental repeatability was 1.6-11.5%. The quantification of the amino acids in six urine samples from healthy subjects was performed with the method developed with the one-point standard additions protocol, with norleucine as the internal standard. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Flammable gas program topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1996-10-30

    The major emphasis of this report is to describe what has been learned about the generation, retention, and release of flammable gas mixtures in high-level waste tanks. A brief overview of efforts to characterize the gas composition will be provided. The report also discusses what needs to be learned about the phenomena, how the Unreviewed Safety Question will be closed, and the approach for removing tanks from the Watch List.

  9. Oil and Gas R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This publication describes the major components of the research and development programs of the Department of Energy`s Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Technology. These programs are commonly referred to collectively as the `Oil and Gas Program.` This document provides customers with a single source of information describing the details of the individual technology program components. This document reflects the results of a planning cycle that began in early 1996 with the development of a scenario analysis for the programs, followed by the development of the coordinated strategic plan. The technology program plans, which are the most recent products of the planning cycle, expand on the program descriptions presented in the coordinated strategic plan, and represent an initial effort to coordinate the Oil and Gas Program exploration and production programs and budgets. Each technology program plan includes a `roadmap` that summarizes the progress of the program to the present and indicates its future direction. The roadmaps describe the program drivers, vision, mission, strategies, and measures of success. Both the individual technology program plans and the strategic plan are dynamic and are intended to be updated regularly.

  10. GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate

  11. BASIC program calculates flue gas energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Engineers always seek cost-cutting, energy-efficient ways to operate boilers and waste-heat recovery systems. The starting point in the design or performance evaluation of any heat transfer equipment is an energy balance calculation. This easy-to-use BASIC program tackles this problem. Using the gas stream analysis as percent weight or volume, the program calculates inlet and exit temperatures, heat duty, the gas stream's molecular weight, etc. This program is a definite must for the plant engineering notebook.

  12. Gas chromatographic determination of sulphur compounds in town gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshika, Y; Iida, Y

    1977-04-11

    The gas chromatographic (GC) determination of the sulphur compounds in town gas (in the Nagoya area) was studied by using a flame-photometric detector (FPD) and the cold-trap method with liquid oxygen. The column packings used were 25% TCEP on Shimalite (AW, DMCS), 25% TCP on Shimalite (AW, DMCS), 10% PPE on Shimalite TPA, Porapak Q and silica gel. The major components identified were carbonyl sulphide, hydrogen sulphide, carbon disulphide, thiophene and tetrahydrothiophene (THT). The identities of thiophene and THT were also confirmed by GC combined with the use of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The average concentrations and standard deviations of thiophene and THT were 8.8 +/- 1.8and 124 +/- 35 ng per 0.051, respectively. The latter value corresponds to 0.7 ppm, which is relatively high for the concentration of an odorant.

  13. Gas Hydrates Research Programs: An International Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2009-12-09

    Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.

  14. Determination of antioxidants in new and used lubricant oils by headspace-programmed temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogal Sanchez, Miguel del; Perez Pavon, Jose Luis; Garcia Pinto, Carmelo; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Salamanca (Spain); Glanzer, Paul [University of Vienna, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    A sensitive method is presented to determine antioxidants (2-, 3-, and 4-tert-butylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, 1-naphthol, and diphenylamine) in new and used lubricant oil samples. Research was carried out on a GC device equipped with a headspace sampler, a programmed temperature vaporizer, and an MS detector unit. The proposed method does not require sample treatment prior to analyses, hence eliminating possible errors occurring in this step. Sample preparation is reduced when placing the oil sample (2.0 g) in the vial and adding propyl acetate (20 {mu}L). Solvent vent injection mode permits a pre-concentration of the compounds of interest in the liner filled with Tenax-TA {sup registered}, while venting other species present in the headspace. Thereby, both the life of the liner and the capillary column is prolonged, and unnecessary contamination of the detector unit is avoided. Calibration was performed by adding different concentrations of analytes to a new oil which did not contain any of the studied compounds. Limits of detection as low as 0.57 {mu}g/L (2-tert-butylphenol) with a precision lower or equal to 5.3% were achieved. Prediction of the antioxidants in new oil samples of different viscosities (5W40, 10W40, and 15W40) was accomplished with the previous calibration, and the results were highly satisfactory. To determine antioxidants in used engine oils, standard addition method was used due to the matrix effect. (orig.)

  15. [PFBC Hot Gas Cleanup Test Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Four hundred and fifty four clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filters were purchased for installation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) plant in Brilliant, Ohio. A surveillance effort has been identified which will monitor candle filter performance and life during hot gas cleaning in AEP's pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. A description of the candle surveillance program, strategy for candle filter location selection, as well as candle filter post-test characterization is provided in this memo. The period of effort for candle filter surveillance monitoring is planned through March 1994.

  16. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  17. Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

  18. Rapid determination of thermodynamic parameters from one-dimensional programmed-temperature gas chromatography for use in retention time prediction in comprehensive multidimensional chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinitie, Teague M; Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Harynuk, James J

    2014-01-17

    A new method for estimating the thermodynamic parameters of ΔH(T0), ΔS(T0), and ΔCP for use in thermodynamic modeling of GC×GC separations has been developed. The method is an alternative to the traditional isothermal separations required to fit a three-parameter thermodynamic model to retention data. Herein, a non-linear optimization technique is used to estimate the parameters from a series of temperature-programmed separations using the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. With this method, the time required to obtain estimates of thermodynamic parameters a series of analytes is significantly reduced. This new method allows for precise predictions of retention time with the average error being only 0.2s for 1D separations. Predictions for GC×GC separations were also in agreement with experimental measurements; having an average relative error of 0.37% for (1)tr and 2.1% for (2)tr. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous determination of gasoline oxygenates and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in water samples using headspace-programmed temperature vaporization-fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pavón, José Luis; del Nogal Sánchez, Miguel; Fernández Laespada, María Esther; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2007-12-14

    A sensitive method is presented for the fast analysis of seven fuel oxygenates (methanol, ethanol, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and diisopropyl ether (DIPE)) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene (BTEX) in water samples. The applicability of a headspace (HS) autosampler in combination with a GC device equipped with a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) and a MS detector is explored. The proposed method achieves a clear improvement in sensitivity with respect to conventional headspace methods due to the use of the PTV. Two different packed liners with materials of different trapping strengths (glass wool and Tenax-TA) were compared. The benefits of using Tenax-TA instead of glass wool as packed material for the measurement of the 11 compounds emerged as better signal-to-noise ratios and hence better detection limits. The proposed method is extremely sensitive. The limits of detection are of the order of ng/L for six of the compounds studied and of the order of microg/L for the rest, with the exception of the most polar and volatile compound: methanol. Precision (measured as the relative standard deviation for a level with an S/N ratio close to 3) was equal to or lower than 15% in all cases. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in natural matrixes (tap, river and sea water) and the results obtained can be considered highly satisfactory. The methodology has much lower detection limits than the concentration limits proposed in drinking water by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union for compounds under regulation.

  20. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Fourteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1976-04-30

    Progress is reported for a Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sponsored by the Heat Engine Systems Branch, Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Structurally, this program is made up of three parts: (1) documentation of the existing automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art; (2) conduction of an extensive component improvement program; and (3) utilization of the improvements in the design, and building of an Upgraded Engine capable of demonstrating program goals.

  1. Gas energy meter for inferential determination of thermophysical properties of a gas mixture at multiple states of the gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Thomas B [San Antonio, TX; Kelner, Eric [San Antonio, TX; Owen, Thomas E [Helotes, TX

    2008-07-08

    A gas energy meter that acquires the data and performs the processing for an inferential determination of one or more gas properties, such as heating value, molecular weight, or density. The meter has a sensor module that acquires temperature, pressure, CO2, and speed of sound data. Data is acquired at two different states of the gas, which eliminates the need to determine the concentration of nitrogen in the gas. A processing module receives this data and uses it to perform a "two-state" inferential algorithm.

  2. Portable tester for determining gas content within a core sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jr., Fred; Schatzel, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    A portable tester is provided for reading and displaying the pressure of a gas released from a rock core sample stored within a sealed container and for taking a sample of the released pressurized gas for chemical analysis thereof for subsequent use in a modified direct method test which determines the volume of gas and specific type of gas contained within the core sample. The portable tester includes a pair of low and high range electrical pressure transducers for detecting a gas pressure; a pair of low and high range display units for displaying the pressure of the detected gas- a selector valve connected to the low and high range pressure transducers, a selector knob for selecting gas flow to one of the flow paths; control valve having an inlet connection to the sealed container, and outlets connected to: a sample gas canister, a second outlet port connected to the selector valve means for reading the pressure of the gas from the sealed container to either the low range or high range pressure transducers, and a connection for venting gas contained within the sealed container to the atmosphere. A battery is electrically connected to and supplies the power for operating the unit. The pressure transducers, display units, selector and control valve means and the battery is mounted to and housed within a protective casing for portable transport and use.

  3. Experimental Determination of Refractive Index of Gas Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylov, Martin; Rasmussen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The refractive indexes of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate have been experimentally determined. The refractive indexes were determined in an indirect manner making use of the fact that two non-absorbing materials will have the same refractive index if they cannot be distinguished visually....... For methane hydrate (structure I) the refractive index was found to be 1.346 and for natural gas hydrate (structure II) it was found to be 1.350. The measurements further suggest that the gas hydrate growth rate increases if the water has formed hydrates before. The induction time, on the other hand, seems...

  4. Fast temperature programming in gas chromatography using resistive heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallüge, J.; Ou-Aissa, R.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Veraart, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The features of a resistive-heated capillary column for fast temperature-programmed gas chromatography (GC) have been evaluated. Experiments were carried out using a commercial available EZ Flash GC, an assembly which can be used to upgrade existing gas chromatographs. The capillary column is placed

  5. Blood gas analysis as a determinant of occupationally related disability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, W.K.; Zaldivar, G.L. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-05-01

    Arterial blood gas analysis is one of the criteria used by the Department of Labor to award total and permanent disability for coal workers' pneumoconiosis (Black Lung). We have observed that Black Lung claimants often undergo several blood gas analyses with widely differing results that sometimes range from complete normality to life-threatening hypoxemia in the same subject. We concluded that blood gas analysis in occupationally related disability determination is unreliable, in that quality control and instrumentation are variable; that severe hypoxemia is rare in coal workers' pneumoconiosis; and that such hypoxemia is nonspecific and correlates poorly with breathlessness.

  6. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  7. Determining the Halo Mass Scale Where Galaxies Lose Their Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Gregory; Jablonka, Pascale; Moustakas, John; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Zaritsky, Dennis; Jaffé, Yara L.; De Lucia, Gabriella; Desai, Vandana; Halliday, Claire; Just, Dennis; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Poggianti, Bianca

    2017-12-01

    A major question in galaxy formation is how the gas supply that fuels activity in galaxies is modulated by their environment. We use spectroscopy of a set of well-characterized clusters and groups at 0.4 10.4) of these old galaxies with weak [O II] emission. We use line ratios and compare to studies of local early-type galaxies to conclude that this gas is likely excited by post-AGB stars and hence represents a diffuse gas component in the galaxies. For cluster and group galaxies the fraction with EW([O II]) > 5 Å is f [O II] = {0.08}-0.02+0.03 and f [O II] = {0.06}-0.04+0.07, respectively. For field galaxies we find f [O II] = {0.27}-0.06+0.07, representing a 2.8σ difference between the [O II] fractions for old galaxies between the different environments. We conclude that a population of old galaxies in all environments has ionized gas that likely stems from stellar mass loss. In the field galaxies also experience gas accretion from the cosmic web, and in groups and clusters these galaxies have had their gas accretion shut off by their environment. Additionally, galaxies with emission preferentially avoid the virialized region of the cluster in position-velocity space. We discuss the implications of our results, among which is that gas accretion shutoff is likely effective at group halo masses (log { M }/{{ M }}⊙ > 12.8) and that there are likely multiple gas removal processes happening in dense environments. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal through ESO program 166.A-0162.

  8. TRANSPETRO gas security of supply program; Programa de confiabilidade de suprimento de gas natural da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Gas Security of Supply Program that is being implemented at TRANSPETRO since 2002. It includes the application of the state of the art techniques and models related to reliability engineering. The main objective of the program is to evaluate and optimize overall gas network performance and to provide gas to different consumers (industrial, residential, thermo-plants and vehicles) in compliance with stated reliability levels. Heavy fines will be applied to PETROBRAS in case of occurrence of shortfalls. We hope that this paper can contribute to a wider discussion about this subject of performance indicators involving security of supply, safety and environment preservation. (author)

  9. [Portable gas chromatography for determining airborne acrylonitrile in workplaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Bao-li

    2013-10-01

    To establish a method for rapid determination of airborne acrylonitrile using a portable gas chromatograph. A single standard sample of acrylonitrile was prepared in a laboratory and sampled by the built-in constant flow pump of the portable gas chromatograph. The sample was then preconcentrated by the preconcentrator, thermally desorbed, separated by capillary columns, and detected by a micro argon ionization detector to determine the retention time. Retention time was then used to perform qualitative analysis. Under the set condition of gas chromatography, the external standard method was used to create a standard curve for quantitative analysis of acrylonitrile. The linear range of acrylonitrile on the portable gas chromatograph was 0.25 to 3.00 mg/m(3). The regression equation was y = 10(-5) x-0.0275, r = 0.9977. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/m(3), and the lower limit of quantification was 0.25 mg/m(3). The relative standard deviation was lower than 7.09%, and the degree of accuracy was 91.09-105.54%. Portable gas chromatography is a simple, repeatable, and accurate method for rapid determination of airborne acrylonitrile.

  10. An electronic nose for quantitative determination of gas concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Kalinowski, Paweł; Woźniak, Łukasz

    2016-11-01

    The practical application of human nose for fragrance recognition is severely limited by the fact that our sense of smell is subjective and gets tired easily. Consequently, there is considerable need for an instrument that can be a substitution of the human sense of smell. Electronic nose devices from the mid 1980s are used in growing number of applications. They comprise an array of several electrochemical gas sensors with partial specificity and a pattern recognition algorithms. Most of such systems, however, is only used for qualitative measurements. In this article usage of such system in quantitative determination of gas concentration is demonstrated. Electronic nose consist of a sensor array with eight commercially available Taguchi type gas sensor. Performance of three different pattern recognition algorithms is compared, namely artificial neural network, partial least squares regression and support vector machine regression. The electronic nose is used for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide concentration determination.

  11. Proceedings of the flexible, midsize gas turbine program planning workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission (CEC) held a program planning workshop on March 4--5, 1997 in Sacramento, California on the subject of a flexible, midsize gas turbine (FMGT). The workshop was also co-sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the Gas Turbine Association (GTA), and the Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine Program (CAGT). The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a broad cross section of knowledgeable people to discuss the potential benefits, markets, technical attributes, development costs, and development funding approaches associated with making this new technology available in the commercial marketplace. The participants in the workshop included representatives from the sponsoring organizations, electric utilities, gas utilities, independent power producers, gas turbine manufacturers, gas turbine packagers, and consultants knowledgeable in the power generation field. Thirteen presentations were given on the technical and commercial aspects of the subject, followed by informal breakout sessions that dealt with sets of questions on markets, technology requirements, funding sources and cost sharing, and links to other programs.

  12. Manometric determination of supercritical gas sorption in coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hemert, P.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the manometric method are investigated so that it can be used to obtain accurate data of sorption of supercritical gas in coal. Furthermore, data of the sorption of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen in coal at in situ conditions have been determined. Accurate data are

  13. Determinants of Environmental Disclosures in Nigeria's Oil and Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to determine the effect of firm size, leverage, profitability and firm origin on the extent of environmental disclosures in all quoted companies in the Nigeria's oil and gas sector. A sample of 10 companies was selected using the simple random sampling technique. Secondary data were utilized for the study ...

  14. Determination of thiobencarb in water samples by gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction via flotation assistance (HLLME-FA) coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was applied for the extraction and determination of thiobencarb in water samples. In this study, a special extraction cell was designed to facilitate collection of the ...

  15. Detonation duct gas generator demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Andrew; Brinlee, Gayl A.; Othmer, Peter; Whelan, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of the generation of detonation waves moving periodically across high speed channel flow is experimentally demonstrated. Such waves are essential to the concept of compressing requirements and increasing the engine pressure compressor with the objective of reducing conventional compressor requirements and increasing the engine thermodynamic efficiency through isochoric energy addition. By generating transient transverse waves, rather than standing waves, shock wave losses are reduced by an order of magnitude. The ultimate objective is to use such detonation ducts downstream of a low pressure gas turbine compressor to produce a high overall pressure ratio thermodynamic cycle. A 4 foot long, 1 inch x 12 inch cross-section, detonation duct was operated in a blow-down mode using compressed air reservoirs. Liquid or vapor propane was injected through injectors or solenoid valves located in the plenum or the duct itself. Detonation waves were generated when the mixture was ignited by a row of spark plugs in the duct wall. Problems with fuel injection and mixing limited the air speeds to about Mach 0.5, frequencies to below 10 Hz, and measured pressure ratios of about 5 to 6. The feasibility of the gas dynamic compression was demonstrated and the critical problem areas were identified.

  16. New method to determine gas content in materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevshupa, R; Roman, E; Segovia, J L de [Institute of Material Science of Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Konovalov, P [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, MT-11, 2-Baumanskaia 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: rnevshupa@icmm.csic.es

    2008-03-15

    A new method to determine gas content in solid materials based on the phenomenon of gas desorption induced by mechanical action, i.e. friction, indentation, etc., has been developed. Absorbed gases including hydrogen and helium can be analyzed using this method in both bulk or thin film materials. The sensitivity of the method for most gases is below 10 ppm of atomic concentration, while depth resolution is below 1 micrometer. The study of the effect of adsorption and readsorption of the desorbed molecules on the accuracy, sensitivity and the dynamic range of measurements is discussed. Experimental validation of the method has been done using normal and deuterated stainless steel samples.

  17. A modular radiative transfer program for gas filter correlation radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. C.; Campbell, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamentals of a computer program, simulated monochromatic atmospheric radiative transfer (SMART), which calculates atmospheric path transmission, solar radiation, and thermal radiation in the 4.6 micrometer spectral region, are described. A brief outline of atmospheric absorption properties and line by line transmission calculations is explained in conjunction with an outline of the SMART computational procedures. Program flexibility is demonstrated by simulating the response of a gas filter correlation radiometer as one example of an atmospheric infrared sensor. Program limitations, input data requirements, program listing, and comparison of SMART transmission calculations are presented.

  18. ANALISIS PELAKSANAAN PROGRAM KONVERSI MINYAK TANAH KE GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fara Meriyan Sari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak :            Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui pelaksanaan program konversi minyak tanah ke gas di Kota Pekanbaru (studi kasus Kelurahan Tuah Karya dan faktor-faktor apa saja yang mempengaruhi pelaksanaan program konversi minyak tanah ke gas tersebut. Adapun manfaat yang dapat diambil dari hasil penelitian ini nanti nya antara lain, Pertama : untuk mengembangkan dan meningkatkan kemampuan berfikir melaui penerapan teori yang didapat penulis. Kedua : untuk menambah pengetahuan penulis tentang pelaksanaan program konversi minyak tanah ke gas, sebagai pertimbangan dan masukan bagi instansi terkait dan sebagai bahan referensi bagi pihak-pihak yang ingin melakukan penelitian dengan topik atau permasaahan yang sama. Kata Kunci :      Kebijakan, implementasi kebijakan dan program konversi minyak tanah. Abstract :             This research is intended to find out which programme  execution to gas conversion kerosene in the city of Peknabaru (a case study of village of Tuah Karya and the factors that influence the implementation  of any Convention program ground to gas oil. As for the benefits that can be taken from the results of this research would include, among others, first : to develop and enhance the ability to think through the application of the theory in the can author. The second : to add to the knowledge of the author about the implementation of the programme of conversion of kerosene into a gas, as a consideration and input for relevant agencies and as reference material for those who want to do research with the same topic or problem. Keyword :              Policy, implementation of policies and kerosen.

  19. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program fourth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, C.E.

    1973-10-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1976 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. Reasonably firm delivery schedules were arranged for all of the critical Task 1 engine parts. However, the program will likely have to continue to function with loaner turbine wheels for the next few months. Vehicle A was built and utilized for running demonstrations at both EPA and NASA. Engine 5 (Vehicle B) was built and is being checked out. Upgraded Engine design guidelines were jointly worked out and agreed to with EPA and NASA. Life testing on the loaner endurance engine was extended beyond the 3500-hour milestone. Improvements are being made to extend low emissions Baseline burner life, currently under 300 hours. State-of-the-art ceramic regenerator cores were received from two sources and are being bench checked. Drive and seal system procurement is delaying hot rig testing. Analytical studies were made to determine suitability for the upgraded engine. AiResearch was awarded the integrated control system subcontract. They have initiated work on a simulation model. An elasto-plastic turbine wheel disc analysis program, required for analysis of a ''Gatorized'' non-ribbed turbine wheel disc, was checked out and is being refined to improve convergence. Free-rotor low speed fuel flow tests showed negligible difference from a normal geared rotor arrangement. Preparations are being made for vehicle evaluations. Design of a variable inlet guide vane test rig installation was completed. An initial upgraded engine layout has commenced.

  20. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Gas Phase Structures of Amino Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Rožman, Marko; Srzić, Dunja

    2005-01-01

    In the past two decades mass spectrometry became an important tool in the structural investigations of biomolecules (amino acids). Although, the primary focus of mass spectrometry is on compound identification and sequence information (primary structure), some mass spectrometry based methods as ion chromatography, hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and kinetic method are able to determine secondary gas phase structure of the amino acids. For example, it is possible to distinguish the zwitterionic a...

  1. Application of four dimensional matrix for thermal analysis of Slovak transit gas pipeline by program FENIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széplaky, Dávid; Varga, Augustín

    2016-06-01

    The contribution describes the principle of the FENIX program operation, which was designed to determine the temperature field of the transit pipeline for the transportation of natural gas. The program itself consists of several modules which are reciprocally linked. The basis of the program is the elementary balance method by means of which the unsteady heat transfer is assigned in several layers in different directions. The first step was to assess both the pressure and temperature of the natural gas mode, the second step is to determine the heat transfer through the walls of the pipes, and the last one is to determine the distribution of the temperature field in the surroundings of the pipeline.

  2. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Overview of scientific and technical program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.; Digert, S.A.; Pospisil, G.; Baker, R.; Weeks, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was drilled within the Alaska North Slope (ANS) Milne Point Unit (MPU) from February 3 to 19, 2007. The well was conducted as part of a Cooperative Research Agreement (CRA) project co-sponsored since 2001 by BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BPXA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help determine whether ANS gas hydrate can become a technically and commercially viable gas resource. Early in the effort, regional reservoir characterization and reservoir simulation modeling studies indicated that up to 0.34 trillion cubic meters (tcm; 12 trillion cubic feet, tcf) gas may be technically recoverable from 0.92 tcm (33 tcf) gas-in-place within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation near industry infrastructure within ANS MPU, Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), and Kuparuk River Unit (KRU) areas. To further constrain these estimates and to enable the selection of a test site for further data acquisition, the USGS reprocessed and interpreted MPU 3D seismic data provided by BPXA to delineate 14 prospects containing significant highly-saturated gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The "Mount Elbert" site was selected to drill a stratigraphic test well to acquire a full suite of wireline log, core, and formation pressure test data. Drilling results and data interpretation confirmed pre-drill predictions and thus increased confidence in both the prospect interpretation methods and in the wider ANS gas hydrate resource estimates. The interpreted data from the Mount Elbert well provide insight into and reduce uncertainty of key gas hydrate-bearing reservoir properties, enable further refinement and validation of the numerical simulation of the production potential of both MPU and broader ANS gas hydrate resources, and help determine viability of potential field sites for future extended term production testing. Drilling and data acquisition operations demonstrated that gas hydrate

  3. Designing building energy efficiency programs for greenhouse gas reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael, E-mail: mfb@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lima Azevedo, Ines, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Scott Matthews, H., E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Hendrickson, Chris T., E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. The analysis includes electricity and natural gas consumption, covering 75% of building energy consumption in Pittsburgh and 85% in Austin. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings, and GHG reductions. Results suggest uncertainty in local stocks, demands, and efficiency significantly impacts anticipated outcomes. Annual GHG reductions of 1 ton CO{sub 2} eq/capita/yr in Pittsburgh could cost near nothing or over $20 per capita annually. Capital-constrained policies generate slightly less social savings (a present value of a few hundred dollars per capita) than policies that maximize social savings. However, sectors and end uses targeted for intervention vary depending on policy objectives and constraints. Optimal efficiency investment strategies for some end uses vary significantly (in excess of 100%) between Pittsburgh and Austin, suggesting that resources and guidance conducted at the national scale may mislead state and local decision-makers. Results are used to provide recommendations for efficiency program administrators. - Highlights: > We use public data to estimate local building energy costs, benefits and greenhouse gas reductions. > We use optimization to evaluate trade-offs between program objectives and capital constraints. > Local energy market conditions significantly influence efficiency expectations. > Different program objectives can lead to different effective investment strategies. > We reflect on the implications of our results for efficiency program design.

  4. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of exhaust-gas composition. 36.43... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.43 Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (a) Samples shall be taken to determine the composition of the exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads and speeds...

  5. First results from the Herschel Open time Large Program GaS in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, W.-F.

    2011-11-01

    We summarize the first results from the Herschel Open time Key Program GaS in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS, P.I.W. Dent). GASPS aims to determine the gas and dust content of ~240 planet-forming discs with ages 1-30 Myrs in a systematic fashion. Photometry in the far-IR and low-resolution spectroscopy of the fine-structure emissions of OI and CII are obtained with the PACS instrument on board the European space telescope Herschel. Initial modelling of the Herschel and complementary observations of the classical T Tauri star TW Hya and of the Herbig Ae star HD 169142 are presented.

  6. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Results of work performed from January 1, 1977 through March 31, 1977 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Process Heat and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (impure Helium), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes progress to date on alloy selection for VHTR Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) applications and for DCHT applications. The present status on the simulated reactor helium loop design and on designs for the testing and analysis facilities and equipment is discussed.

  7. Determination of radon gas and respirable ore dust concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has estimated the concentrations of radon gas and respirable ore dust in the Merelani underground tanzanite mines. Two different portable monitors were used to measure the radon gas and respirable ore dust concentrations respectively. The mean radon gas concentration (disintegrations per second per cubic ...

  8. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  9. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  10. Baseline gas turbine development program. Sixteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1976-10-31

    Progress is reported for a program whose goals are to demonstrate an experimental ungraded gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, compact-size American automobile. Initial running of the upgraded engine took place on July 13, 1976. The engine proved to be mechanically sound but was also seriously deficient in power. Principal program effort has therefore been in the area of diagnostic testing and corrective development. To date, three upgraded engines were assembled and two were run in the test cell. Special diagnostic instrumentation was installed on Engine 3 to evaluate the compressor, turbine, and hot engine leakage. Engine airflow, starting characteristics, oil flow/heat rejection/blowby, emissions, leakage, and component performance tests were conducted in this quarter.

  11. Description and application of the EAP computer program for calculating life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of household consumption items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, R.M.J.; Wilting, H.C.; Kramer, K.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on reduction in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, a life-cycle-based analysis tool has been developed. The energy analysis program (EAP) is a computer program for determining energy use and greenhouse gas emissions related to household consumption items, using a hybrid calculation

  12. Pathlength Determination for Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Liang; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS) has been extensively studied and applied during recent years in, e.g., food packaging, human sinus monitoring, gas diffusion studies, and pharmaceutical tablet characterization. The focus has been on the evaluation of the gas absorption pathlength in porous media, which a priori is unknown due to heavy light scattering. In this paper, three different approaches are summarized. One possibility is to simultaneously monitor another gas with known concentration (e.g., water vapor), the pathlength of which can then be obtained and used for the target gas (e.g., oxygen) to retrieve its concentration. The second approach is to measure the mean optical pathlength or physical pathlength with other methods, including time-of-flight spectroscopy, frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry and the frequency domain photon migration method. By utilizing these methods, an average concentration can be obtained and the porosities of the material are studied. The last method retrieves the gas concentration without knowing its pathlength by analyzing the gas absorption line shape, which depends upon the concentration of buffer gases due to intermolecular collisions. The pathlength enhancement effect due to multiple scattering enables also the use of porous media as multipass gas cells for trace gas monitoring. All these efforts open up a multitude of different applications for the GASMAS technique. PMID:24573311

  13. Pathlength Determination for Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Mei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS has been extensively studied and applied during recent years in, e.g., food packaging, human sinus monitoring, gas diffusion studies, and pharmaceutical tablet characterization. The focus has been on the evaluation of the gas absorption pathlength in porous media, which a priori is unknown due to heavy light scattering. In this paper, three different approaches are summarized. One possibility is to simultaneously monitor another gas with known concentration (e.g., water vapor, the pathlength of which can then be obtained and used for the target gas (e.g., oxygen to retrieve its concentration. The second approach is to measure the mean optical pathlength or physical pathlength with other methods, including time-of-flight spectroscopy, frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry and the frequency domain photon migration method. By utilizing these methods, an average concentration can be obtained and the porosities of the material are studied. The last method retrieves the gas concentration without knowing its pathlength by analyzing the gas absorption line shape, which depends upon the concentration of buffer gases due to intermolecular collisions. The pathlength enhancement effect due to multiple scattering enables also the use of porous media as multipass gas cells for trace gas monitoring. All these efforts open up a multitude of different applications for the GASMAS technique.

  14. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  15. Proposal for determining changes in entropy of semi ideal gas using mean values of temperature functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Branko B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a semi-ideal gas, entropy changes cannot be determined through the medium specific heat capacity in a manner as determined by the change of internal energy and enthalpy, i.e. the amount of heat exchanged. Taking this into account, the authors conducted two models through which it is possible to determine the change in the specific entropy of a semi-ideal gas for arbitrary temperature interval using the spread sheet method, using the mean values of the appropriate functions. The idea is to replace integration, which occurs here in evitably, with mean values of the previous functions. The models are derived based on the functional dependence of the actual specific heat capacity on the temperature. The theorem used is that of the mean value of a function as well as the mathematical properties of the definite integral. The mean value of a fractional function is determined via its integrand while the logarithmic functions were performed by applying a suitable transformation of the differential calculus. The relations derived relation, using the computer program, have enabled the design of appropriate thermodynamic tables through which it is possible to determine the change in entropy of arbitrary state changes in an efficient and rational manner, without the use of calculus or finished forms. In this way, the change in the entropy of a semi-ideal gas is determined for an arbitrary temperature interval using the method which is analogous to that applied in determining the change of internal energy and enthalpy or the amount of heat exchanged, which was the goal of the work. Verification of the proposed method for both the above functions was performed for a a few characteristic semi-ideal gases where change c(T is significant, for the three adopted temperature intervals, for the characteristic change of state. This was compared to the results of the classical integral and the proposed method through the prepared tables. In certain or special cases

  16. Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory D. Gillispie

    1997-12-01

    This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not

  17. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: results of the National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, J.R.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) is designed to study the occurrence of gas hydrate along the passive continental margin of the Indian Peninsula and in the Andaman convergent margin, with special emphasis on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. The NGHP-01 expedition established the presence of gas hydrates in the Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi Basins, and the Andaman Sea. The expedition discovered in the Krishna-Godavari Basin one of the thickest gas hydrate accumulations ever documented, in the Andaman Sea one of the thickest and deepest gas hydrate stability zones in the world, and established the existence of a fully developed gas hydrate petroleum system in all three basins.

  18. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume II. Gas generation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume II of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report contains the data generated from evaluating the adequacy of venting/filtering devices for maintaining safe hydrogen levels in plutonium contaminated waste drums. Additional studies reported in this volume include gas generation rates, selected waste form monitoring, and evaluation of hydrogen migration from sealed 90-mil rigid polyethylene drum liners containing /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes. All wastes used in the studies were newly-generated, and the waste drums were under controlled, experimental conditions. Studies using /sup 239/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant. Studies using /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  19. Gas chromatography flow rates for determining deuterium/hydrogen ratios of natural gas by gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wanglu; Peng, Ping'an; Liu, Jinzhong

    2008-08-01

    The effects of the gas chromatography flow rate on the determination of the deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratios of natural gas utilising gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/TC/IRMS) have been evaluated. In general, the measured deltaD values of methane, ethane and propane decrease with increase in column flow rate. When the column flow rate is 1 mL/min or higher, which is commonly used for the determination of D/H ratios of natural gas, the organic H in gas compounds may not be completely converted into hydrogen gas. Based on the results of experiments conducted on a GC column with an i.d. of 0.32 mm, a GC flow rate of 0.6 mL/min is proposed for determining the D/H ratios of natural gas by GC/TC/IRMS. Although this value may be dependent on the instrument conditions used in this work, we believe that correct deltaD values of organic compounds with a few carbon atoms are obtained only when relatively low GC flow rates are used for D/H analysis by GC/TC/IRMS. Moreover, as the presence of trace water could significantly affect the determination of D/H ratios, a newly designed inlet liner was used to remove trace water contained in some gas samples. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Baseline gas turbine development program. Eighteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E [comps.

    1977-04-30

    Progress is reported for a program whose goals are to demonstrate an experimental upgraded gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, compact-size American automobile. Initial running of the upgraded engine took place on July 13, 1976. The engine proved to be mechanically sound, but was also 43% deficient in power. A continuing corrective development effort has to date reduced the power deficiency to 32%. Compressor efficiency was increased 2 points by changing to a 28-channel diffuser and tandem deswirl vanes; improved processing of seals has reduced regenerator leakage from about 5 to 2.5% of engine flow; a new compressor turbine nozzle has increased compressor turbine stage efficiency by about 1 point; and adjustments to burner mixing ports has reduced pressure drop from 2.8 to 2.1% of engine pressure. Key compressor turbine component improvements are scheduled for test during the next quarterly period. During the quarter, progress was also made on development of the Upgraded Vehicle control system; and instrumentation of the fourth program engine was completed by NASA. The engine will be used for development efforts at NASA LeRC.

  1. Determining fluid and gas flow distribution within separation apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remizov, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    This study considered fluid and gas flow distribution in existing industrial separator units. The author found that overall hydraulic resistance was not identical in these units, resulting from variables in the gas-fluid mixtures' movement between the distribution points and the separator units. Separator loads were found to be imbalanced due to the imperfect design of these units. Load equalization could be obtained by way of achieving simultaneous pulsation suppression in distribution lines. Pulsation suppression itself is achieved through the use of a separation phase in collection pipelines followed by individual flow separation. Gas and fluid are thus introduced into the distribution pipeline and separator separately. Separator design dimensions and parameters are given along with suggestions for their application. Long-term industrial experience with flow separators has shown that these units not only require minimal operating expenditure, but also are highly reliable and effective.

  2. Enhanced recovery of unconventional gas. Volume II. The program. [Tight gas basins; Devonian shale; coal seams; geopressured aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Brashear, J.P.; Doscher, T.M.; Elkins, L.E.

    1978-10-01

    This study was conducted to assist public decision-makers in selecting among many choices to obtain new gas supplies by addressing 2 questions: 1) how severe is the need for additional future supplies of natural gas, and what is the economic potential of providing part of future supply through enhanced recovery from unconventional natural gas resources. The study also serves to assist the DOE in designing a cost-effective R and D program to stimulate industry to recover this unconventional gas and to produce it sooner. Tight gas basins, Devonian shale, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers are considered. It is concluded that unconventional sources, already providing about 1 Tcf per year, could provide from 3 to 4 Tcf in 1985 and from 6 to 8 Tcf in 1990 (at $1.75 and $3.00 per Mcf, respectively). However, even with these additions to supply, gas supply is projected to remain below 1977 usage levels. (DLC)

  3. Determination of complex association constants from gas chromatograhic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligny, C.L. de; Koole, N.J.; Nelson, H.D.; Nieuwdorp, G.H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Abstract The equilibrium constants for hydrogen bonding of a series of β-substituted alcohols with a number of monofunctional hexadecyl derivatives and dioctyl compounds have been measured by gas chromatography. For ethanol, propanol and butanol, the enthalpy and standard entropy of hydrogen

  4. determination of thiobencarb in water samples by gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Aqua MaxTM- ultra, Korea) was used for purification of water. Instrumentation. Separation and quantification of thiobencarb were carried out using an Agilent 7890 gas chromatograph, equipped with a FID detector and a DB-5 fused-silica capillary ...

  5. Transit investments for greenhouse gas and energy reduction program : second assessment report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report is the second assessment of the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administrations Transit Investments for : Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction (TIGGER) Program. The TIGGER Program provides capital funds to transit age...

  6. Unconventional gas recovery program. Semi-annual report for the period ending September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manilla, R.D. (ed.)

    1980-04-01

    This document is the third semi-annual report describing the technical progress of the US DOE projects directed at gas recovery from unconventional sources. Currently the program includes Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project, Eastern Gas Shales Project, Western Gas Sands Project, and Geopressured Aquifers Project.

  7. A bi-level programming for multistage co-expansion planning of the integrated gas and electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    power systems. The system operation is optimized and embedded in the planning horizon. A bi-level multi-stage programming problem is formulated to minimize the investment cost plus the operational cost. The upper-level optimizes the expansion plan and determines the network topology as well......) and the interior point method (IPM). The BPSO is used for the upper-level sub-problem, and the IPM is adopted for the lower-level sub-problem. Numerical case studies have been carried out on the practical gas and electricity transmission network in western Denmark. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness......This paper focuses on the coordinated expansion planning of the integrated natural gas and electrical power systems with bi-directional energy conversion. Both the Gas-fired Power Generations (GPGs) and Power-to-Gas stations (P2Gs) are considered as the linkages between the natural gas and electric...

  8. Inhomogeneous Oxygen Vacancy Distribution in Semiconductor Gas Sensors: Formation, Migration and Determination on Gas Sensing Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianqiao; Gao, Yinglin; Wu, Xu; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia; Liu, Huan

    2017-01-01

    The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacanc...

  9. Experimental Studies for Determining Gas Flow Rate Accidental Release on Linear Part of Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V. G.; Nikolaev, A. K.; Lykov, Y. V.

    2017-10-01

    The method of determining the flow rate of gas in the gas-dynamic resistance of a medium gas stream with high linear speed was studied. The reduction of the density of the gas is a result of its expansion. Multiple calculations of gas losses were evaluated. Calculation is set by loss of gas depending on the area of the pipeline damage. A comparative analysis was done. In order to establish a functional empirical dependence of the flow rate on the whole on the parameters of the leakage process, a series of experiments was conducted on a test bench and their processing was carried out. In experiments conducted, the effect of pressure and temperature in the receiver was evaluated, the physical properties of the gas and the diameter of the hole were predetermined by the limits of the amount of the whole flow rate in critical conditions, as well as the critical regime of gas leakage.

  10. Determination of Morphine and Codeine in Human Urine by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and selective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of morphine and codeine in human urine. The GC-MS conditions were developed. The analysis was carried out on a HP-1MS column (30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm with temperature programming, and Helium was used as the carrier gas with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Selected ion monitoring (SIM mode was used to quantify morphine and codeine. The derivation solvent, temperature, and time were optimized. A mixed solvent of propionic anhydride and pyridine (5 : 2 was finally used for the derivation at 80°C for 3 min. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 25–2000.0 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 25 ng/mL. The intra- and interday precision (RSD values were below 13%, and the accuracy was in the range 87.2–108.5%. This developed method was successfully used for the determination of morphine and codeine in human urine for forensic identification study.

  11. Determination of fission gas yields from isotope ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a method of calculating the actual fission yield of Kr and Xe in nuclear fuel including the effect of neutron capture reactions and decay. The bases for this calculation are the cumulative yields (ref. 1) of Kr and Xe isotopes (or pairs of isotopes) which are unaffected...... by neutron capture reactions, and measured Kr and Xe isotope ratios. Also the burnup contribution from the different fissile heavy isotopes must be known in order to get accurate fission gas yields....

  12. 77 FR 10373 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program GWP global warming... principle to including high global warming potential (GWP) HTFs in subpart I irrespective of their vapor... INFORMATION CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs (MC-6207J...

  13. 7 CFR 3052.520 - Major program determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Auditors § 3052.520 Major program determination. (a) General. The auditor shall use a risk-based approach... section shall be followed. (b) Step 1. (1) The auditor shall identify the larger Federal programs, which... providing loans significantly affects the number or size of Type A programs, the auditor shall consider this...

  14. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program twelfth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1975-10-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. The endurance engine was modified to incorporate a power turbine drive to the regenerators in order to simulate free rotor (upgraded) conditions. A portable baseline engine fixture complete with controls, intake, exhaust, and transmission is being assembled for odor evaluation. An additional 502 engine hours were accumulated on ceramic regenerators and seals. No core or seal failures were experienced during engine test. Initial fixture tests of zirconia seals show torque levels comparable with nickle oxide seals against the same matrix. An ambient compensation schedule was devised for the upgraded engine integrated control, and the integrated control system specifications were updated. A proposed hydromechanical automotive continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT) was evaluated and approved for preliminary development. Tests of heat rejection to the oil for lined versus linerless insulated engine assemblies indicated no heat loss penalty in omitting the metal liners. A study was made of various power turbine rotor assemblies and a final design was selected. Optimization studies of the two-stage power turbine reduction gears and regenerator spur and worm gears were completed. Initial tests on the fixture for simulating the scaled S-26 upgraded burner have begun.

  15. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program ninth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1975-01-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed the first phase of their baseline engine heat balance tests, and an upgraded engine compressor is being scaled for test. EPA completed their report on vehicle tests including emissions and vehicle performance, and a new endurance engine is on test. Significant development progress was made on both fixed and variable geometry combustors. After 45 hours of engine operation with Vendor A ceramic regenerator, no significant deterioration of the matrix, seals, or elastomeric mount was encountered. Ceramic regenerator stress analysis has commenced. Additional developments in non-nickel oxide regenerator rubbing seals are encouraging. The first preprototype integrated control system is in vehicle operation. Control adaptation for variable inlet guide vanes and water injection is progressing. AiRefrac turbine wheels were verified dimensionally and are being processed for engine testing. Water injection tests with a four nozzle system were run, and additional performance documentation of variable inlet guide vanes was obtained. Linerless insulation is on test in the free rotor engine, the new endurance engine, and a performance engine. The free rotor engine completed test cell checkout and was installed in a vehicle. Vehicle checkout, including a preprototype integrated control, is underway. Detailed specifications of the upgraded engine were written.

  16. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). gas chromatographic method; Determinazione degli idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA). Metodo gascaromatografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichini, E.; Viviano, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1997-12-01

    The method enables the determination of 4- to 6- ring PAHs and particularly of carcinogenic PAHs regulated in Italy. This revision is based on the results of a national collaborative study. Sample extract, obtained by a method described in a previous report (Rapporto ISTISAN: 90/33) is cleaned up by thin layer chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography; identification is confirmed by mass spectrometry. An intralaboratory quality control program is described.

  17. Multiple sulfur isotope determination on SO2 gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Stanislaw; Pienkos, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    The principal motivation of this study is to apply SO2 gas in the multiple isotope analysis (i.e. simultaneous analysis of sulfur isotope ratios: 33S/32S , 34S/32S and 36S/32S) rather than SF6 gas. SO2 gas can be easily prepared from sulfides (Robinson and Kusakabe 1975) and from sulfates (Halas and Wolacewicz 1981), whilst the preparation of SF6 gas requires the use of a fluorination line (Ono et al. 2006) and a mass spectrometer with enhanced resolving power to resolve isotope peaks 33SF5- from 32SF5- (masses 128 and 127). In the patent application (Halas et al. 2016) we have described a new ion source which can be applied for analysis of gases. The new ion source significantly enhances generation, both positive and negative, ions in comparison to commonly used Nier type. The analyzed gas is admitted from a dual inlet system to the ion source through separate capillaries connected to the pneumatically operated changeover valve as described by Halas (1979). It is important to have SO2 samples well purified from volatiles which eliminates O2 interference at mass 32 peak. A great advantage of the isotope analysis on S+ instead on SO+ or SO2+spectra is that there is no need to keep constant oxygen isotopic composition in the SO2 gas. Usually sulfide and sulfate samples have different oxygen, but it doesn't matter in the case of analysis on S+. The achieved precision (1σ) on positive ion beams was better than 0.1‰ and 0.01‰ for δ36S and δ34S, respectively. Unfortunately δ33S cannot be measured in this way, because of formation of 32SH+ ions which interfere with 33S+. The details of the design of the ion source, vacuum system and electronic controllers are presented in the poster. We thank to Dr. Keith Hackley for donation of an old mass spectrometer to UMCS, on the basis of which we were able to develop the new instrument. This study was supported by NCN project 2013/11/B/ST10/00250. References Hałas S., Pieńkos T., Pelc A., Wójtowicz A. (2016) Patent

  18. Determination of gas phase triacetone triperoxide with aspiration ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Riikka-Marjaana; Nousiainen, Marjaana; Peräkorpi, Kaleva; Sillanpää, Mika; Polari, Lauri; Anttalainen, Osmo; Utriainen, Mikko

    2008-08-08

    Aspiration ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been used for the first time to screen 3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexaoxacyclononane explosive, the most commonly known as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). Gaseous TATP was generated from synthesized solid compound, sublimed and directed to a portable chemical detection system comprised of an aspiration-type IMS detector and six semiconductor sensors. Different unknown TATP gas phase concentrations were produced and corresponding IMS and semiconductor responses were measured. The experimental concentrations were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results evidenced that the monitored compound in the gas phase was TATP. In addition, the determined TATP concentrations and corresponding IMS intensities showed that the IMS response values were proportional to the measured TATP concentrations.

  19. Studies of blood gas determination and intelligent image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Cheng; Jin, Xiaogang

    1992-04-01

    In recent years, progress has been made in understanding the theory of laser absorption and emission. In addition, advancements of electronic components and fiber optics permitted construction of useful medical instruments. Such a fiber optic sensor (FOS) has been developed at the authors' institution. The technique is a method of major importance in the areas of geochemistry, biomedical engineering, and blood gas analysis. According to the type of variable to be measured, two wide classes can be defined; Biomedical (for oxygen saturation, pH, pO2, and pCO2 measurement) and physical (for pressure, temperature, and blood velocity). In general, biomedical sensors use an appropriate reversible reagent fixed at a fiber end, allowing spectrophotometric or fluorimetric analysis by modulation. Sensors for measuring blood velocity and flow are mainly applied in the cardiovascular clinic and in pathophysiology. Velocity in vessels can be measured using the laser Doppler method based on the frequency shift of light scattered by the moving red cells (erythrocytes, diameter 7/micrometers ). The Doppler-shifted backscattered light is partially collected by the same fiber tip end transmitted back to its entrance. There was shown to be a highly sensitive and linear relationship between the results obtained with this method and the blood gas analyzer.

  20. An automated gas exchange tank for determining gas transfer velocities in natural seawater samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schneider-Zapp

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to advance understanding of the role of seawater surfactants in the air–sea exchange of climatically active trace gases via suppression of the gas transfer velocity (kw, we constructed a fully automated, closed air–water gas exchange tank and coupled analytical system. The system allows water-side turbulence in the tank to be precisely controlled with an electronically operated baffle. Two coupled gas chromatographs and an integral equilibrator, connected to the tank in a continuous gas-tight system, allow temporal changes in the partial pressures of SF6, CH4 and N2O to be measured simultaneously in the tank water and headspace at multiple turbulence settings, during a typical experimental run of 3.25 h. PC software developed by the authors controls all operations and data acquisition, enabling the optimisation of experimental conditions with high reproducibility. The use of three gases allows three independent estimates of kw for each turbulence setting; these values are subsequently normalised to a constant Schmidt number for direct comparison. The normalised kw estimates show close agreement. Repeated experiments with Milli-Q water demonstrate a typical measurement accuracy of 4% for kw. Experiments with natural seawater show that the system clearly resolves the effects on kw of spatial and temporal trends in natural surfactant activity. The system is an effective tool with which to probe the relationships between kw, surfactant activity and biogeochemical indices of primary productivity, and should assist in providing valuable new insights into the air–sea gas exchange process.

  1. Determination of respiratory gas flow by electrical impedance tomography in an animal model of mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Bodenstein, Marc; Boehme, Stefan; Bierschock, Stephan; Vogt, Andreas; David, Matthias; Markstaller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent method determines regional gas flow of the lung by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The aim of this study is to show the applicability of this method in a porcine model of mechanical ventilation in healthy and diseased lungs. Our primary hypothesis is that global gas flow measured by EIT can be correlated with spirometry. Our secondary hypothesis is that regional analysis of respiratory gas flow delivers physiologically meaningful results. Methods In two s...

  2. Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

  3. Determination Of Gas Mixture Components Using Fluctuation Enhanced Sensing And The LS-SVM Regression Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lentka Łukasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effectiveness of determining gas concentrations by using a prototype WO3 resistive gas sensor together with fluctuation enhanced sensing. We have earlier demonstrated that this method can determine the composition of a gas mixture by using only a single sensor. In the present study, we apply Least-Squares Support-Vector-Machine-based (LS-SVM-based nonlinear regression to determine the gas concentration of each constituent in a mixture. We confirmed that the accuracy of the estimated gas concentration could be significantly improved by applying temperature change and ultraviolet irradiation of the WO3 layer. Fluctuation-enhanced sensing allowed us to predict the concentration of both component gases.

  4. Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Multi-Year Program Crosscut Plan, FY 1994--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    DOE has established a Natural Gas Coordinating Committee to ensure that all natural gas programs are conducted with a single strategic focus and without unnecessary duplication. This group prepared the FY 1993 update of the DOE Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Multi-Year Crosscut Program Plan (FY 1993-1998), which was first produced a year ago as a ``working draft`` for industry comment. This revised version incorporates these external comments and the results and recommendations of such developments as Order No. 636 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the FERC/DOE Natural Gas Deliverability Task Force Report; the National Petroleum Council`s 1992 natural gas study, The Potential for Natural Gas in the United States; relevant provisions of the EPACT, and new policy guidance from the Clinton Administration. The overall goal of the Natural Gas RD&D Program is to improve the Nation`s ability to supply, store, transport, distribute, and utilize gas in an economically efficient and environmentally beneficial manner. In support of DOE`s missions are programs that will: improve the confidence in the continued availability of a long-term gas supply (Resource and Extraction Area); provide more cost-effective and competitive means to use natural gas in both new and existing markets (Utilization Area); develop improved and less costly means of delivering and storing gas (Delivery and Storage Area); and develop and ensure availability of low cost environmental compliance technology, and reduce regulatory barriers to efficient market operations by promoting coordinated, efficient, and innovative Federal and State regulations (Environmental/Regulatory Impact Area). Each program area has its own unique mission that contributes to the goals and mission of the overall Natural Gas Program.

  5. Inhomogeneous Oxygen Vacancy Distribution in Semiconductor Gas Sensors: Formation, Migration and Determination on Gas Sensing Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianqiao; Gao, Yinglin; Wu, Xu; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia; Liu, Huan

    2017-01-01

    The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy was proposed based on the effects of cooling rate and re-annealing on semiconductive thin films. The model established the diffusion equations of oxygen vacancy according to the defect kinetics of diffusion and exclusion. We described that the steady-state and transient-state oxygen vacancy distributions, which were used to calculate the gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor resistance and response to reducing gases under two different conditions. The gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model had the applications in simulating the sensor performances, such as the power law, the grain size effect and the effect of depletion layer width. PMID:28796167

  6. Inhomogeneous Oxygen Vacancy Distribution in Semiconductor Gas Sensors: Formation, Migration and Determination on Gas Sensing Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiao Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy was proposed based on the effects of cooling rate and re-annealing on semiconductive thin films. The model established the diffusion equations of oxygen vacancy according to the defect kinetics of diffusion and exclusion. We described that the steady-state and transient-state oxygen vacancy distributions, which were used to calculate the gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor resistance and response to reducing gases under two different conditions. The gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model had the applications in simulating the sensor performances, such as the power law, the grain size effect and the effect of depletion layer width.

  7. Inhomogeneous Oxygen Vacancy Distribution in Semiconductor Gas Sensors: Formation, Migration and Determination on Gas Sensing Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianqiao; Gao, Yinglin; Wu, Xu; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia; Liu, Huan

    2017-08-10

    The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy was proposed based on the effects of cooling rate and re-annealing on semiconductive thin films. The model established the diffusion equations of oxygen vacancy according to the defect kinetics of diffusion and exclusion. We described that the steady-state and transient-state oxygen vacancy distributions, which were used to calculate the gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor resistance and response to reducing gases under two different conditions. The gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model had the applications in simulating the sensor performances, such as the power law, the grain size effect and the effect of depletion layer width.

  8. Flammable gas tank safety program: Technical basis for gas analysis and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1995-09-08

    Flammable gases generated in radioactive liquids. Twenty-five high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks located underground at the Hanford Site are on a Flammable Gas Watch List because they contain waste which tends to retain the gases generated in it until rather large quantities are available for sudden release to the tank head space; if a tank is full it has little dome space, and a flammable concentration of gases could be produced--even if the tank is ventilated. If the waste has no tendency to retain gas generated in it then a continual flammable gas concentration in the tank dome space is established by the gas production rate and the tank ventilation rate (or breathing rate for unventilated tanks); this is also a potential problem for Flammable Gas Watch List tanks, and perhaps other Hanford tanks too. All Flammable Gas Watch List tanks will be fitted with Standard Hydorgen Monitoring Systems so that their behavior can be observed. In some cases, such as tank 241-SY-101, the data gathered from such observations will indicate that tank conditions need to be mitigated so that gas release events are either eliminated or rendered harmless. For example, a mixer pump was installed in tank 241-SY-101; operating the pump stirs the waste, replacing the large gas release events with small releases of gas that are kept below twenty-five percent of the lower flammability limit by the ventilation system. The concentration of hydrogen measured in Hanford waste tanks is greater than that of any other flammable gas. Hydrogen levels measured with a Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System in excess of 0.6 volume percent will cause Westinghouse Hanford Company to consider actions which will decrease the amount of flammable gas in the tank

  9. Simultaneous determination of Hugoniot and Isentrope in gas gun experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoe, R S

    2007-02-22

    We have been exploring the use of the ''reverse ballistics'' method to obtain Hugoniot and off Hugoniot Equation Of State. This method uses the unknown sample as the flyer and collides it into a window whose EOS is well known. A VISAR determines the particle velocity which when combined with the windows EOS gives a direct determination of the pressure. Since the pressure and particle velocity are continuous across the interface the shock speed in the flyer can be determined: Us = P/(rhoUp). Subtracting the time of arrival of the shock at the back of the flyer from the times of arrival of the rarefaction wave allows the determination of the release isentrope centered at the measured Hugoniot point and extending down to the release pressure as determined by the impedance of the sabot. Besides obtaining both Hugoniot and isentrope data on a single shot, this method has an advantage in that all the timing information is accomplished within the interferometer, i.e. no dependence of cable delays etc.

  10. Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.

    2003-08-01

    Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

  11. Determination of Fatty Acid in Asparagus by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra HAJRULAI-MUSLIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus contain a lot of macronutrients and micronutrients including folate, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble and phenolic compounds. Also asparagus is a good source of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which are precursors for Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA. Unsaturated fatty acids have important biological effects and they have important role in human health. The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition of asparagus as a potential source of linoleic and linolenic acid - a precursor for EPA and DHA. For this reason we analyzed fifty seven samples of asparagus collected from the local market. We used AOAC 996.06 method and analyses were performed with gas chromatograph with flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The highest concentration of fatty acid in the asparagus was linoleic acid (C18:2n6 which content in asparagus is 25.620±1.0%. Also, asparagus is good source of -linolenic fatty acid (C18:3n3 and content of this fatty acid in asparagus is 8.840±0.3%. The omega-6 to omega-3 (n6/n3 ratio in asparagus was 3.19. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were higher than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, and from saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid was most frequent with 24.324±1.0%. From our study we can conclude that asparagus is very good source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic fatty acids.

  12. Economic determinants of Greenhouse gas emissions in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at investigating the main economic determinants that contribute to greenhouse gases emissions in Ethiopia. By applying the bounds testing approach, the long and short-run impacts of economic growth, trade openness, and industry on air pollution in Ethiopia are estimated. The data set used in the ...

  13. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  14. Histogrammatic Method for Determining Relative Abundance of Input Gas Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrake, Lukas; Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Madzunkov, Stojan; MacAskill, John A.

    2012-01-01

    To satisfy the Major Constituents Analysis (MCA) requirements for the Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM), this software analyzes the relative abundance ratios for N2, O2, Ar, and CO2 as a function of time and constructs their best-estimate mean. A histogram is first built of all abundance ratios for each of the species vs time. The abundance peaks corresponding to the intended measurement and any obfuscating background are then separated via standard peak-finding techniques in histogram space. A voting scheme is then used to include/exclude this particular time sample in the final average based on its membership to the intended measurement or the background population. This results in a robust and reasonable estimate of the abundance of trace components such as CO2 and Ar even in the presence of obfuscating backgrounds internal to the VCAM device. VCAM can provide a means for monitoring the air within the enclosed environments, such as the ISS (International Space Station), Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), a Lunar Habitat, or another vehicle traveling to Mars. Its miniature pre-concentrator, gas chromatograph (GC), and mass spectrometer can provide unbiased detection of a large number of organic species as well as MCA analysis. VCAM s software can identify the concentration of trace chemicals and whether the chemicals are on a targeted list of hazardous compounds. This innovation s performance and reliability on orbit, along with the ground team s assessment of its raw data and analysis results, will validate its technology for future use and development.

  15. European intercomparison of the calibration of gas density meters and an introduction to a guideline to the determination of gas density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambo, M.; Soegaard, T.

    1997-07-01

    For more than 10 years Nordic countries have been producing, selling and/or buying natural gas. One of the major issues has been how to determine the amount of gas. Several of the methods involve the determination of gas density. Two laboratories in the Nordic countries perform calibration of vibrating element gas density meters and an intercomparison was performed as part of a NORDTEST project between these two laboratories and three European calibration laboratories. The intercomparison was performed in 1996 at laboratories in Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway and United Kingdom. The calibration gas was nitrogen. The main conclusion of the intercomparison was that all the laboratories were well within an uncertainty of 0,1 % for the calibration of gas density meters with nitrogen, if the same source of nitrogen data was applied. As another part of the NORDTEST project the applied methods for the determination of gas density on an industrial level in the Nordic countries were gathered and on the basis of this information a guideline for the determination of gas density was set up. The determination of gas density in the Nordic countries is mainly performed in the natural gas industry and the two methods most commonly applied are (1) the application of a gas density meter with a vibrating element as sensor and (2) the application of the real gas equation. The guideline describes instrumentation, installation, maintenance for these two methods with an emphasis on the methods for the calculation of the uncertainty of the density determination. (author)

  16. HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, D. A.; Baily, C. E.; Malewitz, T. J.; Medvedev, P. G.; Porter, D. L.; Hilton, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    A system has been developed to perform measurements on irradiated, sodium bonded-metallic fuel elements to determine the amount of fission gas retained in the fuel material after release of the gas to the element plenum. During irradiation of metallic fuel elements, most of the fission gas developed is released from the fuel and captured in the gas plenums of the fuel elements. A significant amount of fission gas, however, remains captured in closed porosities which develop in the fuel during irradiation. Additionally, some gas is trapped in open porosity but sealed off from the plenum by frozen bond sodium after the element has cooled in the hot cell. The Retained fission Gas (RFG) system has been designed, tested and implemented to capture and measure the quantity of retained fission gas in characterized cut pieces of sodium bonded metallic fuel. Fuel pieces are loaded into the apparatus along with a prescribed amount of iron powder, which is used to create a relatively low melting, eutectic composition as the iron diffuses into the fuel. The apparatus is sealed, evacuated, and then heated to temperatures in excess of the eutectic melting point. Retained fission gas release is monitored by pressure transducers during the heating phase, thus monitoring for release of fission gas as first the bond sodium melts and then the fuel. A separate hot cell system is used to sample the gas in the apparatus and also characterize the volume of the apparatus thus permitting the calculation of the total fission gas release from the fuel element samples along with analysis of the gas composition.

  17. Determination of optimum miscible gas injection for Iranian oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadpour, F. G.; Jamialohmadi, M.; Shadizadeh, S. R.

    1997-12-31

    Results of experimental work to determine miscibility conditions for eight Iranian oil fields were discussed. The experimental work consisted of investigating and simulating new miscibility criteria for slim-tube apparatus. Results of the experimental and simulation runs were compared. Results showed that ternary diagrams are not reliable to predict miscibility conditions. A semi-empirical correlation was then developed which was able to satisfactorily predict the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) within an acceptable error range. (The average prediction error was 4.9 per cent). 12 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  18. Competency Based Education Curriculum for the Orientation and Safety Program of the Oil and Gas Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Career Center, Clarksburg, WV.

    This competency-based education curriculum for teaching the orientation and safety program for the oil and gas industry in West Virginia is organized into seven units. These units cover the following topics: introduction to oil and gas, first aid, site preparation, drilling operations, equipment familiarity, well completion, and preparation for…

  19. EPA Launches New Voluntary Methane Challenge Program To Reduce Emissions from the Oil and Gas Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON -Today, as part of the Obama Administration's ongoing commitment to take action on climate change and protect public health, EPA is launching a new voluntary partnership program-with 41 founding partner companies in the oil and gas sector.

  20. Transit investments for greenhouse gas and energy reduction program : first assessment report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview and preliminary analysis of the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administrations TIGGER Program. TIGGER, which stands for Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Redu...

  1. 2012-2017 OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Final Program - Gulf of Mexico Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This file represents the program areas of the Outer Continental Shelf that have been included in the 2012-2017 Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Proposed...

  2. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs: Opportunities for Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R.; Tondro, M.

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer's understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  3. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs. Opportunities for Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Tondro, M. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer’s understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHARCOAL ADSORPTION TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF RADON CONTENT IN NATURAL GAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paewpanchon, P; Chanyotha, S

    2017-11-01

    A technique for the determination of the radon concentration in natural gas using charcoal adsorption has been developed to study the effects of parameters that influence the adsorption efficiency of radon onto activated charcoal. Several sets of experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and in an actual natural gas field for comparison. The results show that the adsorption capability of radon onto activated charcoal varies inversely with temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the humidity contained within the natural gas. A technique utilizing dry ice as a coolant was found to be the most effective for trapping radon in natural gas samples at the production site. A desiccant can be used to remove moisture from the sampling gas. The technique described here increases the adsorption efficiency of activated charcoal by 10-20% compared to our previous study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Optical sensor for carbon dioxide gas determination, characterization and improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo-López, M L; Capitán-Vallvey, L F; Fernández-Ramos, M D

    2014-08-01

    A study of different alternatives to improve the stability and lifetime of sensors for the determination of gaseous CO2 has been performed. It includes the characterization of different sensing membranes, a discussion of the results obtained and possibilities for the future. The solid sensor membrane for gaseous CO2 based on changes in the luminiscence of a luminophore immobilized on O2-insensitive film, concurrent with the displacement of a pH indicator, has some drawbacks, such as the loss of efficiency over time and the need to maintain the sensor in special atmospheric conditions. As a solution to these drawbacks, two alternatives were tested, the first alternative was replacing the newly proposed tetraoctyl ammonium hydroxide (TOAOH ) phase transfer agent with other basic agents that did not undergo a Hoffman degradation reaction, and the second alternative was the use of hydrophilic polymers that could retain water needed for CO2 sensing more efficiently. The different membranes tested indicated that the use of tetramethyl ammonium (TMAOH) instead of TOAOH as the phase transfer agent produced better results regarding stability and sensitivity. In addition, replacing the membrane polymer with hydrophilic polymers improved the sensing characteristics in terms of response time and stability over hydrophobic polymers. With a detection limit of 0.006%, the response time is 19s and the recovery time is 100s. The lifetime of the sensing membranes, which do not need to be held in any special atmosphere other than darkness, is longer than at least 300 days for membranes with TMAOH in hydrophilic polymer and 515 days for membranes with TMAOH in ethyl cellulose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  7. Methane emission from naturally ventilated livestock buildings can be determined from gas concentration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne; Zhang, Guoqiang; Madsen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Determination of emission of contaminant gases as ammonia, methane, or laughing gas from natural ventilated livestock buildings with large opening is a challenge due to the large variations in gas concentration and air velocity in the openings. The close relation between calculated animal heat...... gas emission and the precision of the estimation are influenced by different calculation procedures, measuring period length, measure point locations, measure point numbers, and criteria for excluding measuring data. The analyses were based on existing data from a 6-day measuring period in a naturally...... ventilated, 150 milking cow building. The results showed that the methane emission can be determined with much higher precision than ammonia or laughing gas emissions, and, for methane, relatively precise estimations can be based on measure periods as short as 3 h. This result makes it feasible...

  8. 75 FR 7045 - Key Gas Components, Inc., Marion, NC; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Key Gas Components, Inc., Marion, NC; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated January 8, 2010, a petitioner requested... of facts or of the law justified reconsideration of the decision. The negative determination of the...

  9. Determination of selenium in biological samples by gas-liquid chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, C F; Evans, N J; Wibberley, D G

    1977-06-01

    Selenium can be determined quantitatively in biological samples after nitric acid-magnesium nitrate digestion and formation of 5-nitropiazselenole, by extraction into toluene for gas-liquid chromatography with electron-capture detection. The method is suitable for the determination of selenium in orchard leaves, bovine liver and human placenta, hair, blood and urine.

  10. Determination of maximal amount of minor gases adsorbed in a shale sample by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Pan, Lei; Xiao, Xian-Ming

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we present a novel method for determining the maximal amount of ethane, a minor gas species, adsorbed in a shale sample. The method is based on the time-dependent release of ethane from shale samples measured by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). The study includes a mathematical model for fitting the experimental data, calculating the maximal amount gas adsorbed, and predicting results at other temperatures. The method is a more efficient alternative to the isothermal adsorption method that is in widespread use today. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of gas temperature in the plasmatron channel according to the known distribution of electronic temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimov Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method to calculate the temperature distribution of heavy particles in the channel of the plasma torch on the known distribution of the electronic temperature has been proposed. The results can be useful for a number of model calculations in determining the most effective conditions of gas blowing through the plasma torch with the purpose of heating the heavy component. This approach allows us to understand full details about the heating of cold gas, inpouring the plasma, and to estimate correctly the distribution of the gas temperature inside the channel.

  12. Determination of equilibrium composition of thermally ionized monoatomic gas under different physical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, M. S.; Rydalevskaya, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    Perfect gas mixtures that result from thermal ionization of spatially and chemically homogeneous monoatomic gases are considered. Equilibrium concentrations of the components of such mixtures are determined using integration over the momentum space and summation with respect to energy levels of the distribution functions that maximize the entropy of system under condition for constancy of the total number of nuclei and electrons. It is demonstrated that such a method allows significant simplification of the calculation of the equilibrium composition for ionized mixtures at different temperatures and makes it possible to study the degree of ionization of gas versus gas density and number in the periodic table of elements.

  13. Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H/sub 2/ +CO/sub 2/) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000/sup 0/F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR.

  14. Methods of analysis-Determination of pesticides in sediment using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; McWayne, Megan M.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of 119 pesticides in environmental sediment samples is described. The method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in support of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The pesticides included in this method were chosen through prior prioritization. Herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides along with degradates are included in this method and span a variety of chemical classes including, but not limited to, chloroacetanilides, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, triazines, and triazoles. Sediment samples are extracted by using an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE®, and the compounds of interest are separated from co-extracted matrix interferences (including sulfur) by passing the extracts through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) along with the use of either stacked graphitized carbon and alumina solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges or packed Florisil®. Chromatographic separation, detection, and quantification of the pesticides from the sediment-sample extracts are done by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Recoveries in test sediment samples fortified at 10 micrograms per kilogram (μg/kg) dry weight ranged from 75 to 102 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 3 to 13 percent. Method detection limits (MDLs), calculated by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures (40 CFR 136, Appendix B), ranged from 0.6 to 3.4 μg/kg dry weight.

  15. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  16. Gas Reactor International Cooperative Program. Interim report: assessment of gas-cooled reactor economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The merits of introducing Pebble Bed Gas Reactors (PBRs) into the existing US electric generating sector are discussed. Information is presented concerning an economic model; nuclear fuel costs; capital cost targets; time comparison of nuclear power costs; introduction scenarios; domestic economic incentives; the selection of a discount rate for national energy supply studies; nuclear fuel cycle cost calculation code RAMMER; and PBR and HTGR fabrication and reprocessing costs.

  17. Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01

    The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

  18. Determination of gas composition in a biogas plant using a Raman-based sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, S. C.; Kiefer, J.; Benz, J.; Kempf, T.; Leipertz, A.; Seeger, T.

    2014-07-01

    We propose a gas sensor, based on spontaneous Raman scattering, for the compositional analysis of typical biogas mixtures and present a description of the sensor, as well as of the calibration procedure, which allows the quantification of condensable gases. Moreover, we carry out a comprehensive characterization of the system, in order to determine the measurement uncertainty, as well as influences of temperature and pressure fluctuation. Finally, the sensor is applied at different locations inside a plant in which biogas is produced from renewable raw materials. The composition is monitored after fermenting, after purification and after the final conditioning, where natural gas is added. The Raman sensor is able to detect all the relevant gas components, i.e. CH4, CO2, N2 and H2O, and report their individual concentrations over time. The results were compared to reference data from a conventional gas analyzer and good agreement was obtained.

  19. Program for stator winding leakage inductance determination by FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivian Chiver

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a program designed by the author in order to determine the stator winding parameters. The program is realized in Visual Basic and, in fact, it is for computer aided design of AC machines. Starting from the design data, based on the classical analytical formulas, geometrical parameters of the stator and the parameters of the stator winding are computed. This program works with a finite elements analysis (FEA software (the one used by the author is MagNet, a product of Infolytica company and according to data obtained after the design calculation, or according to data specified by user (in case of an existing machine, the stator and stator winding are built 3D (three-dimensional. For the same stator, different types of winding can be chosen. After realizing numerical model, by 3D FEA, leakage inductance is determined.

  20. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  1. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: environmental permit compliance plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodamer, Jr., James W.; Bocchino, Robert M.

    1979-11-01

    This Environmental Permit Compliance Plan is intended to assist the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division in acquiring the necessary environmental permits for their proposed Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant in a time frame consistent with the construction schedule. Permits included are those required for installation and/or operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste sources and disposal areas. Only those permits presently established by final regulations are described. The compliance plan describes procedures for obtaining each permit from identified federal, state and local agencies. The information needed for the permit application is presented, and the stepwise procedure to follow when filing the permit application is described. Information given in this plan was obtained by reviewing applicable laws and regulations and from telephone conversations with agency personnel on the federal, state and local levels. This Plan also presents a recommended schedule for beginning the work necessary to obtain the required environmental permits in order to begin dredging operations in October, 1980 and construction of the plant in September, 1981. Activity for several key permits should begin as soon as possible.

  2. Climate change science : high quality greenhouse gas emissions data are a cornerstone of programs to address climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-24

    This testimony focuses on (1) the importance of quality data on emissions in the context of a program intended to limit greenhouse gas emissions, and (2) key considerations in developing reliable data on greenhouse gas emissions. This testimony is ba...

  3. Optimal planning of gas turbine cogeneration system based on linear programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S.D. [Hyosung Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, H.Y. [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Cogeneration systems can result in significant energy efficiency improvements because they produce electrical and heat energy simultaneously from a single source of fuel. This paper discussed planning and design optimization practices for the successful application of a gas turbine cogeneration plant in a hotel and a public building. It was suggested that planners should determine the optimal plant configuration by first selecting the size and number of auxiliary equipment, as well as considering annual electricity costs and heat and cooling requirements. An optimal planning method was presented, employing system configurations among possible combinations of equipment, operational plans and energy demand patterns. A mixed-integer linear program and branch and bound algorithms were adapted to obtain the optimal configuration, based on an annual cost method. A public building and a hotel in Seoul, Korea were selected as case studies. Energy demand patterns for both buildings were presented, with details of maximum outputs and initial equipment costs for co-generation plants. Payback periods and internal rates of return were examined. It was concluded that the optimal configuration of the cogeneration plant is determined by considering the annual energy demand patterns of both buildings, as these patterns are a crucial parameter in determining the feasibility of a cogeneration plant. It was suggested that the methods presented in this study may provide the best configuration of a cogeneration plant fitted to a hotel, or public buildings. 6 refs., 9 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of sulfolane in wetland vegetation exposed to sour gas-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, J V; Peru, K M; Dickson, L C

    1999-10-22

    Described is a GC-MS method for the determination of the levels of sulfolane (tetrahydrothiophene 1,1-dioxide, C4H8O2S; a water miscible chemical used in the sweetening of sour gas) in wetland vegetation (roots, shoots, berries, seeds, grasses, and leaves). The technique was developed to provide positive detection of sulfolane in a variety of wetland vegetation and to determine the extent to which sulfolane may translocate within the plants. Vegetation samples collected at a sour gas processing facility were extracted using a two-stage process which utilized a back extraction of a water extract with toluene. The main advantages of this procedure were: good extraction efficiency (recovery of 80+/-12%), exclusion of most of the highly polar co-extractives during the toluene back extraction step, and a final extract well suited to routine GC-MS selected ion monitoring of sulfolane with a detection limit of 90 ng g(-1) (wet mass). In general, the method was rugged, based on a study period of 18 months in which over 175 runs were conducted.

  5. Research to Support California Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, B. E.; Charrier-Klobas, J. G.; Chen, Y.; Duren, R. M.; Falk, M.; Franco, G.; Gallagher, G.; Huang, A.; Kuwayama, T.; Motallebi, N.; Vijayan, A.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Since the passage of the California Global Warming Solutions Act in 2006, California state agencies have developed comprehensive programs to reduce both long-lived and short-lived climate pollutants. California is already close to achieving its goal of reducing greenhouse (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, about a 30% reduction from business as usual. In addition, California has developed strategies to reduce GHG emissions another 40% by 2030, which will put the State on a path to meeting its 2050 goal of an 80% reduction. To support these emission reduction goals, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the California Energy Commission have partnered with NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) program on a comprehensive research program to identify and quantify the various GHG emission source sectors in the state. These include California-specific emission studies and inventories for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission sources; a Statewide GHG Monitoring Network for these pollutants integrated with the Los Angeles Megacities Carbon Project funded by several federal agencies; efforts to verify emission inventories using inversion modeling and other techniques; mobile measurement platforms and flux chambers to measure local and source-specific emissions; and a large-scale statewide methane survey using a tiered monitoring and measurement program, which will include satellite, airborne, and ground-level measurements of the various regions and source sectors in the State. In addition, there are parallel activities focused on black carbon (BC) and fluorinated gases (F-gases) by CARB. This presentation will provide an overview of results from inventory, monitoring, data analysis, and other research efforts on Statewide, regional, and local sources of GHG emissions in California.

  6. The properties of the wood-polystyrene interphase determined by inverse gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Simonsen; Zhenqiu Hong; Timothy G. Rials

    1997-01-01

    The properties of the interphase in wood-polymer composites are important determinants of the properties of the final composite. This study used inverse gas chromatography (IGC) to measure interphasal properties of composites of polystyrene and two types of wood fiber fillers and an inoranic substrate (CW) with varying amounts of surface coverage of polystyrene. Glass...

  7. Determinants of children's participation in California's Medicaid and SCHIP programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincheloe, Jennifer; Frates, Janice; Brown, E Richard

    2007-04-01

    To develop a comprehensive predictive model of eligible children's enrollment in California's Medicaid (Medi-Cal [MC]) and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP; Healthy Families [HF]) programs. 2001 California Health Interview Survey data, data on outstationed eligibility workers (OEWs), and administrative data from state agencies and local health insurance expansion programs for fiscal year 2000-2001. The study examined the effects of multiple family-level factors and contextual county-level factors on children's enrollment in Medicaid and SCHIP. Simple logistical regression analyses were conducted with sampling weights. Hierarchical logistic regressions were run to control for clustering. Participation in MC and HF programs is determined by a combination of family-level predisposing, perceived need, and enabling/disabling factors, and county-level enabling/disabling factors. The strongest predictors of MC enrollment were family-level immigration status, ethnicity, and income, and the presence of a county-level "expansion program"; and the county-level ratio of OEWs to eligible children. Important HF enrollment predictors included family-level ethnicity, age, number of hours a parent worked, and urban residence; and county-level population size and outreach and media expenditure. MC and HF outreach/enrollment efforts should target poorer and immigrant families (especially Latinos), older children, and children living in larger and urban counties. To reach uninsured eligible children, it is important to further simplify the application process and fund selected outreach efforts. Local health insurance expansion programs increase children's enrollment in MC.

  8. Determination of natural in vivo noble-gas concentrations in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yama Tomonaga

    Full Text Available Although the naturally occurring atmospheric noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe possess great potential as tracers for studying gas exchange in living beings, no direct analytical technique exists for simultaneously determining the absolute concentrations of these noble gases in body fluids in vivo. In this study, using human blood as an example, the absolute concentrations of all stable atmospheric noble gases were measured simultaneously by combining and adapting two analytical methods recently developed for geochemical research purposes. The partition coefficients determined between blood and air, and between blood plasma and red blood cells, agree with values from the literature. While the noble-gas concentrations in the plasma agree rather well with the expected solubility equilibrium concentrations for air-saturated water, the red blood cells are characterized by a distinct supersaturation pattern, in which the gas excess increases in proportion to the atomic mass of the noble-gas species, indicating adsorption on to the red blood cells. This study shows that the absolute concentrations of noble gases in body fluids can be easily measured using geochemical techniques that rely only on standard materials and equipment, and for which the underlying concepts are already well established in the field of noble-gas geochemistry.

  9. METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF THE CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF THE THERMAL INERTIA OF AIRCRAFT GAS TEMPERATURE SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sabitov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of correction of the dynamic characteristics of gas temperature sensors in automatic control systems for the operation of aircraft gas turbine engines depends on the accuracy of the time constants of the sensors used from heat exchange conditions. The aim of this work was to develop a new method for determining the characteristic curves of the thermal inertia of gas temperature sensors.The new technique does not require finding the time constants of gas temperature sensors on the experimental transient characteristics. Characteristic curves for each time constant are defined as hyperbolic dependencies on the heat transfer coefficient of the gas temperature sensors sensing element with the gas flow. Parameters of hyperbolic dependencies are proposed to be established using two-dimensional regression analysis. For this purpose, special software has been developed in the Mathcad 14 and Mathcad 15. The software allows inputting the original data from the transient characteristics to the corresponding vectors or from tables in Excel format. It is shown that the transient characteristics in three-dimensional coordinates«time – heat transfer coefficient – the value of the transition characteristic» form a surface whose parameters are parameters of the desired hyperbolic dependencies.For a specific application of the technique, the regression functions for the dynamic characteristics of gas temperature sensors corresponding to the first and second orders are given. Analysis of the characteristic dependencies suggests that the proposed method more accurately establishes the dependence of the dynamic characteristics of aircraft gas temperature sensors on heat exchange conditions.It is shown that the algorithm of two-dimensional regression analysis realizes finding more accurate values of the parameters of the characteristic dependencies. The found parameters of the characteristic dependencies in a best way reach the surface of the

  10. Determination of gas-oil miscibility conditions by interfacial tension measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dandina N; Lee, Jong I

    2003-06-15

    Processes that inject gases such as carbon dioxide and natural gas have long been and still continue to be used for recovering crude oil from petroleum reservoirs. It is well known that the interfacial tension between the injected gas and the crude oil has a major influence on the efficiency of displacement of oil by gas. When the injected gas becomes miscible with the crude oil, which means that there is no interface between the injected and displaced phases or the interfacial tension between them is zero, the oil is displaced with maximum efficiency, resulting in high recoveries. This paper presents experimental measurements of interfacial tension between crude oil and natural gases (using a computerized drop shape analysis technique) as a function of pressure and gas composition at the temperature of the reservoir from which the crude oil was obtained. The point of zero interfacial tension was then identified from these measurements by extrapolation of data to determine minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) and minimum miscibility composition (MMC). The gas-oil miscibility conditions thus obtained from interfacial tension measurements have been compared with the more conventional techniques using slim-tube tests and rising-bubble apparatus as well as predictive correlations and visual observations. The miscibility pressures obtained from the new VIT technique were 3-5% higher than those from visual observations and agreed well with the slim-tube results as well as with the correlations at enrichment levels greater than 30 mol% C2+ in the injected gas stream. The rising bubble apparatus yielded significantly higher MMPs. This study demonstrates that the VIT technique is rapid, reproducible, and quantitative, in addition to providing visual evidence of gas-oil miscibility.

  11. Evaluation of the impacts of the gas aid program in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos impactos do programa do auxilio-gas no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Pamplona [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEARP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the coverage and the economic impact of the Federal Government Program Aid Gas (Auxilio Gas) , started in the year of 2002. The evaluation covers only the state of Sao Paulo, using as source the Research of Familiar Budgets of IBGE 2002/2003. To evaluate the coverage of 'Aid-Gas' the targeted population is compared with the population that effectively received the benefit. To evaluate the economic impact of the program a test of significance of dummy variable that differentiate weight gas consumption on income for those attended by the program, controlled by Working-Leser function that models the covariates of gas expenses. A low coverage of the program was evidenced, only 32,098 families had received the benefit (4,01%) out of 786.929 families targeted group, those with per capita income was inferior the half minimum wage. The economic impact had mixed results. In one hand program beneficiaries would spend a larger percentage of income with gas consumption than those not reached; on the other hand, they would have access larger quantities of the product. If the food consumption and the gas consumption are correlated, and the families not benefited by the program are rationed, it is possible to confirm that the introduction of the program would increase welfare of families. (author)

  12. Synthesis gas demonstration plant program, Phase I. Site confirmation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    With few reservations, the Baskett, Kentucky site exhibits the necessary characteristics to suggest compatibility with the proposed Synthesis Gas Demonstration Plant Project. An evaluation of a broad range of technical disciplinary criteria in consideration of presently available information indicated generally favorable conditions or, at least, conditions which could be feasibly accommodated in project design. The proximity of the Baskett site to market areas and sources of raw materials as well as a variety of transportation facilities suggests an overall favorable impact on Project economic feasibility. Two aspects of environmental engineering, however, have been identified as areas where the completion or continuation of current studies are required before removing all conditions on site suitability. The first aspect involves the current contradictory status of existing land use and planning ordinances in the site area. Additional investigation of the legality of, and local attitudes toward, these present plans is warranted. Secondly, terrestrial and aquatic surveys of plant and animal life species in the site area must be completed on a seasonal basis to confirm the preliminary conclusion that no exclusionary conditions exist.

  13. Determination of respiratory gas flow by electrical impedance tomography in an animal model of mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstein, Marc; Boehme, Stefan; Bierschock, Stephan; Vogt, Andreas; David, Matthias; Markstaller, Klaus

    2014-04-29

    A recent method determines regional gas flow of the lung by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The aim of this study is to show the applicability of this method in a porcine model of mechanical ventilation in healthy and diseased lungs. Our primary hypothesis is that global gas flow measured by EIT can be correlated with spirometry. Our secondary hypothesis is that regional analysis of respiratory gas flow delivers physiologically meaningful results. In two sets of experiments n = 7 healthy pigs and n = 6 pigs before and after induction of lavage lung injury were investigated. EIT of the lung and spirometry were registered synchronously during ongoing mechanical ventilation. In-vivo aeration of the lung was analysed in four regions-of-interest (ROI) by EIT: 1) global, 2) ventral (non-dependent), 3) middle and 4) dorsal (dependent) ROI. Respiratory gas flow was calculated by the first derivative of the regional aeration curve. Four phases of the respiratory cycle were discriminated. They delivered peak and late inspiratory and expiratory gas flow (PIF, LIF, PEF, LEF) characterizing early or late inspiration or expiration. Linear regression analysis of EIT and spirometry in healthy pigs revealed a very good correlation measuring peak flow and a good correlation detecting late flow. PIFEIT = 0.702 · PIFspiro + 117.4, r(2) = 0.809; PEFEIT = 0.690 · PEFspiro-124.2, r(2) = 0.760; LIFEIT = 0.909 · LIFspiro + 27.32, r(2) = 0.572 and LEFEIT = 0.858 · LEFspiro-10.94, r(2) = 0.647. EIT derived absolute gas flow was generally smaller than data from spirometry. Regional gas flow was distributed heterogeneously during different phases of the respiratory cycle. But, the regional distribution of gas flow stayed stable during different ventilator settings. Moderate lung injury changed the regional pattern of gas flow. We conclude that the presented method is able to determine global respiratory gas flow of the lung in different phases of the respiratory

  14. [Multi-residue determination of 289 pesticides in garlic by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jianfeng; Lu, Shengyu; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jinxing; Liang, Zhen; Liu, Jianjun

    2011-07-01

    A new idea of solvent transfer technique was developed and applied to determine 283 pesticide residues in garlic by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (method I), and the other method using normal phase silica/selective elution technique was applied to determine 6 pesticide residues with strongly polar in garlic by gas chromatography (method II). For the method I, the residues were extracted from homogenized tissue with acetonitrile-water, separated with liquid-liquid partition; the clear supernatant was purified by solvent transfer technique and solid phase extraction (Envi-18 and LC-NH2 columns), then was analyzed by GC-MS. For the method II, the residues were extracted from homogenized tissue using ethyl acetate and sodium sulfate assisted by ultrasonication. The supernatant was purified by solid phase extraction (primary secondary amine (PSA) powder and LC-Si column) prior to GC analysis. The determination was performed by using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode in GC-MS method and flame photometric detector (FPD) in GC method, then external standard method was used in the quantification. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for the two methods (S/N > or = 10) of pesticides were 0.01-0.05 mg/kg, the recoveries carried out by the addition of standards of 0.01-0.20 mg/kg were 52%-163%, among which the recoveries for 88% pesticides were between 70% and 120%; the recoveries of the method II were 70%-111%; while the relative standard deviations were 2.4%-18% and 3.2%-9.3%, respectively. The model of solvent transfer technique and the sensitivity improvement of GC-MS was also studied. The methods are easy, fast, more sensitive, and can meet the requirement of the multiresidual analysis in garlic.

  15. Determination of Beeswax Hydrocarbons by Gas Chromatography with a Mass Detector (GC -MS ) Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe a method of hydrocarbon (alkanes, alkenes, dienes) identification and quantitative determination of linear saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes) in beeswax using gas chromatography with a mass detector technique (GC -MS ). Beeswax hydrocarbons were isolated using a solid-phase extraction (SPE ) technique with neutral aluminum oxide (Alumina - N, 1000 mg, 6 mL), then were separated on a non-polar gas chromatography column ZB-5HT INFERNO (20 m×0.18 mm×0.18 μm). Qquantitative analy...

  16. Application of fuzzy logic to determine the odour intensity of model gas mixtures using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyński, Bartosz; Gębicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the possibility of application of fuzzy logic to determine the odour intensity of model, ternary gas mixtures (α-pinene, toluene and triethylamine) using electronic nose prototype. The results obtained using fuzzy logic algorithms were compared with the values obtained using multiple linear regression (MLR) model and sensory analysis. As the results of the studies, it was found the electronic nose prototype along with the fuzzy logic pattern recognition system can be successfully used to estimate the odour intensity of tested gas mixtures. The correctness of the results obtained using fuzzy logic was equal to 68%.

  17. Determination of flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Div. of Mineral Physics

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes a multiphase flow meter developed by CSIRO for determining of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in high pressure pipelines, and the results of a trial of this flow meter on an offshore oil platform. Two gamma-ray transmission gauges are mounted about a pipeline carrying the full flow of oil, water and gas. The flow rates are determined by combining single energy gamma-ray transmission measurements which determine the mass per unit area of fluids in the gamma-ray beam as a function of time, dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET) which determine the approximate mass fraction of oil in the liquids, cross-correlation of gamma-ray transmission measurements, with one gauge upstream of the other, which determines flow velocity, pressure and temperature measurements, and knowledge of the specific gravities of oil and (salt) water, and solubility of the gas in the liquids, all as a function of pressure and temperature. 3 figs.

  18. Application of carbon nanotube hold-off voltage for determining gas composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor); Li, Jing (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for determining chemical composition of a single-component or multiple-component gas, using a discharge holdoff mechanism. A voltage difference V between two spaced apart electrodes is brought to a selected value and held, the holdoff time interval .DELTA.t(V;ho) required before gas discharge occurs is measured, and the associated electrical current or cumulative electrical charge is measured. As the voltage difference V increases, the time interval length .DELTA.t(V;ho) decreases monotonically. Particular voltage values, V.sub..infin. and V.sub.0, correspond to initial appearance of discharge (.DELTA.t.apprxeq..infin.) and prompt discharge (.DELTA.t.apprxeq.0). The values V.sub..infin. and V.sub.0 and the rate of decrease of .DELTA.t(V;ho) and/or the rate of increase of current or cumulative charge with increasing V are characteristic of one or more gas components present.

  19. Method and system for fiber optic determination of gas concentrations in liquid receptacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system for determining gas compositions includes a probe, inserted into a source of gaseous material, the probe having a gas permeable sensor tip and being capable of sending and receiving light to and from the gaseous material, a sensor body, connected to the probe, situated outside of the source and a fiber bundle, connected to the sensor body and communicating light to and from the probe. The system also includes a laser source, connected to one portion of the fiber bundle and providing laser light to the fiber bundle and the probe a Raman spectrograph, connected to another portion of the fiber bundle, receiving light from the probe and filtering the received light into specific channels and a data processing unit, receiving and analyzing the received light in the specific channels and outputting concentration of specific gas species in the gaseous material based on the analyzed received light.

  20. Potentiometric determination of total nitrogen in soils by flow injection analysis with a gas-diffusion unit

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Alexandra M. R.; José L. F. C. Lima; Rangel,António O. S. S.

    1996-01-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system incorporating a gas-diffusion unit and a potentiometric detector was developed for the determination of total nitrogen in soil digests. The solutions obtained from the Kjeldahl digestion of the soil samples were injected in the FIA system where ammonium was converted into ammonia. This gas diffused through a gas-permeable membrane to a buffer acceptor stream, allowing the separation of the gas from the rest of the sample. Once in contact with the buffer ...

  1. Gas mixing apparatus for determining cardiac output by CO2 rebreathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, D R; Fitton, T R

    1995-12-01

    The carbon dioxide rebreathing technique is widely used for determination of cardiac output during exercise. The equilibration method of Collier et at. (J. Appl. Physiol. 9:25, 1956) is generally preferred over the exponential method of Defares (J. Appl. Physiol. 13:159, 1968). However, the equilibration method requires the volume and initial CO2 percentage in the rebreathing bag to be adjusted according to the work rate. A device for mixing two gases (100% O2 and 20% CO2/80% O2) was constructed for this purpose. Multistage regulators are attached to the gas tanks and connected to a medical gas mixer via high-pressure air hoses. A variable time-delay switch causes a solenoid valve to open for 1.0-10s to deliver a predetermined gas volume. The device was found to accurately deliver a preset volume and concentration of gas to the rebreathing bag. A gas mixing apparatus simplifies the equilibration CO2 rebreathing technique by allowing the investigator to easily select the initial volume and percentage of CO2.

  2. Gas-cooled fast reactor program. Progress report, January 1, 1980-June 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.

    1981-09-01

    Since the national Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Program has been terminated, this document is the last progress report until reinstatement. It is divided into three sections: Core Flow Test Loop, GCFR shielding and physics, and GCFR pressure vessel and closure studies. (DLC)

  3. Status of the Ford program to evaluate ceramics for stator applications in automotive gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews the progress of the major technical tasks of the DOE/NASA/Ford program Evaluation of Ceramics for Stator Applications in Automotive Gas Turbine Engines: reliability prediction, stator fabrication, material characterization, and stator evaluation. A fast fracture reliability model was prepared for a one-piece ceramic stator. Periodic inspection results are presented.

  4. Continuous determination of volatile products in anaerobic fermenters by on-line capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, V; Melidis, P; Aivasidis, A

    2006-07-28

    Bio-ethanol and biogas produced during the anaerobic conversion of organic compounds has been a subject of great interest since the oil crisis of the 1970s. In ethanol fermentation and anaerobic treatment of wastewaters, end-product (ethanol) and intermediate-products (short-chain fatty acids, SCFA) cause inhibition that results in reduced process efficiency. Control of these constituents is of utmost importance for bioreactor optimization and process stability. Ethanol and SCFA can be detected with precision by capillary gas chromatography usually conducted in off-line measurements. In this work, an on-line monitoring and controlling system was developed and connected to the fermenter via an auto-sampling equipment, which could perform the feeding, filtration and dilution of the sample and final injection into the gas chromatograph through an automation-based programmed procedure. The sample was continuously pumped from the recycle stream of the bioreactor and treated using a microfiltration unit. The concentrate was returned to the reactor while the permeate was quantitatively mixed with an internal standard solution. The system comprised of a gas chromatograph with the flow cell and one-shot sampler and a PC with the appropriate software. The on-line measurement of ethanol and SCFA, directly from the liquid phase of an ethanol fermenter and a high-rate continuous mode anaerobic digester, was accomplished by gas chromatography. Also, this monitoring and controlling system was proved to be effective in the continuous fermentation of alcohol-free beer.

  5. [Rapid determination of volatile organic compounds in workplace air by protable gas chromatography-mass spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H B; Su, C J; Tang, H F; Ruan, Z; Liu, D H; Wang, H; Qian, Y L

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To establish a method for rapid determination of 47 volatile organic compounds in the air of workplace using portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometer(GC-MS). Methods: The mixed standard gas with different concentration levels was made by using the static gas distribution method with the high purity nitrogen as dilution gas. The samples were injected into the GC-MS by a hand-held probe. Retention time and characteristic ion were used for qualitative analysis,and the internal standard method was usd for quantitation. Results: The 47 poisonous substances were separated and determined well. The linear range of this method was 0.2-16.0 mg/m(3),and the relative standard deviation of 45 volatile ovganic compounds was 3.8%-15.8%. The average recovery was 79.3%-119.0%. Conclusion: The method is simple,accurate,sensitive,has good separation effect,short analysis period, can be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds in the workplace, and also supports the rapid identification and detection of occupational hazards.

  6. Experimental determination of critical parameters for gas-condensate-oil systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanova, Z.E.; Yagubov, A.S.; Razamat, M.S.; Babaev, R.D.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of crude oil quantity and quality on changes of critical parameters in gas-condensate-oil systems. Experiments were performed at 40/sup 0/, 100/sup 0/, and 140/sup 0/C, and pressures up to 1,000 kg/sq cm. The 3 components of the system were gas, condensate, and crude oil. Isotherms of condensation were determined to the left and right of the critical point, reaching one-phase zones for liquid and gas. Experimental values of critical parameters varied widely from calculated values. Even insignificant changes in composition caused sharp changes in the critical parameters. For example by changing the weight fraction of crude oil from 0.499 to 0.503, critical temperature changed from 40/sup 0/ to 140/sup 0/C and critical pressure from 640 to 780 kg/sq cm. This type of occurrence must be kept in mind when exploiting gas-oil reservoirs near the critical range.

  7. Corporate Diversity Programs and Gender Inequality in the Oil and Gas Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christine L; Kilanski, Kristine; Muller, Chandra

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1980s, major U.S. corporations have embraced diversity as a management strategy to increase the number of women in top jobs. Diversity management programs include targeted recruitment, hiring, and promotions policies; mentoring programs; affinity groups; and diversity training. Few of these programs have proven effective in achieving gender diversity in the corporate world, despite their widespread popularity. To explore the reasons for this, the authors investigate the experiences of women scientists in the oil and gas industry who are targeted by these programs. In-depth interviews reveal possible reasons why these programs fail to achieve their intended goals. The authors find that these programs can paradoxically reinforce gender inequality and male dominance in the industry. The authors discuss alternative approaches for addressing gender inequality in work organizations and conclude with implications of their findings for corporate approaches to promoting diversity and for future research.

  8. A method for determining atmospheric emissions from ruptured gas gathering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Kenny, J. [ATECH Application Technology Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    This paper described the development of a gas pipeline release-rate model that accounts for the effects of emergency shut down (ESD) valve activation and closure time. In order to assess the level of risk associated with operating a sour gas pipeline, it is necessary to know the atmospheric release-rate in the event of a rupture. Contrary to common belief that an ESD valve closes at the exact instant of a rupture, in most cases of small ruptures the valve activates only after a considerable amount of time has lapsed. This new pipeline depressurization model takes this into consideration and can accurately determine the cumulative emission volume and can therefore accurately assess the potential risk. The model also provides a means to determine the minimum size rupture that would be required to activate the ESD valves. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Determination of the polar and total surface energy distributions of particulates by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamal C; Larson, Ian; Morton, David A V; Stewart, Peter J

    2011-01-18

    This Letter reports a technique of measuring polar surface energy distributions of lactose using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The significance of this study is that the total surface energy distributions can now be characterized by combining the already known dispersive surface energy distribution with polar surface energy distribution determined in this study. The polar surface energy was calculated from the specific free energies for surface interactions with a monopolar basic probe, ethyl acetate, and a monopolar acidic probe, dichloromethane.

  10. Headspace Solid Phase Micro Extraction Gas Chromatographic Determination of Fenthion in Human Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M.; Souki, Helen; Tsakirakis, Angelos N.; Carageorgiou, Haris; Theotokatos, Spiridon A.; Haroutounian, Serkos A.; Machera, Kyriaki

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective analytical procedure was developed for the determination of fenthion residues in human serum samples. The sample treatment was performed using the headspace solid-phase micro extraction with polyacrylate fiber, which has the advantage to require low amount of serum (1 mL) without tedious pre-treatment. The quantification of fenthion was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the recoveries ranged from 79 to 104% at two spiking levels for 6 replicates. D...

  11. DETERMINATION OF TERTIARY AMINO ANTITUSSIVES IN BODY FLUIDS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SURFACE IONIZATION DETECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Akira; Seno, Hiroshi; KUMAZAWA Takeshi; Suzuki, Osamu

    1993-01-01

    We could determine carbetapentane, clobutinol and oxeladin, tertiary amino antitussives, with extremely high sensitivity by gas chromatography with surface ionization detection (GC-SID). The calibration curves showed satisfactory linearity in the range of 50-800 pg on column and the detection limit was about 30 pg on column (1.5 ng/ml). Solid extraction method with Sep-pak C18 cartridges was useful for purification of these antitussives from body fluids. We also quantitated oxeladin in whole ...

  12. The Texas Railroad Commission, Oil and Gas Division underground injection control program: A peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-01-01

    The reports included herein and any reports added subsequently are the result of an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of state programs to protect Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDW) from potential contamination resulting from the operation of injection wells related to the production of oil and gas (Class II injection wells). The programs examined in this study cover wells which are used for the injection of fluids into oil reservoirs for the purpose of stimulating or furthering their production when natural production mechanisms decline or cease (enhanced recovery wells) and for the disposal of waters produced in conjunction with the production of oil and gas (disposal wells). The programs examined are those where primary enforcement authority has been delegated to the states by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act and EPA regulations (see following UIC Development Section of this report). The study was conducted under the auspices of the Underground Injection Practices Council (UIPC).

  13. Permitting program with best management practices for shale gas wells to safeguard public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J; Petetin, Ludivine

    2015-11-01

    The development of shale gas resources in the United States has been controversial as governments have been tardy in devising sufficient safeguards to protect both people and the environment. Alleged health and environmental damages suggest that other countries around the world that decide to develop their shale gas resources can learn from these problems and take further actions to prevent situations resulting in the release of harmful pollutants. Looking at U.S. federal regulations governing large animal operations under the permitting provisions of the Clean Water Act, the idea of a permitting program is proposed to respond to the risks of pollution by shale gas development activities. Governments can require permits before allowing the drilling of a new gas well. Each permit would include fluids and air emissions reduction plans containing best management practices to minimize risks and releases of pollutants. The public availability of permits and permit applications, as occurs for water pollution under various U.S. permitting programs, would assist governments in protecting public health. The permitting proposals provide governments a means for providing further assurances that shale gas development projects will not adversely affect people and the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid determination of chlorobutanol in milk by glass capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rillaer, W G; Beernaert, H

    1984-06-01

    A rapid method for the determination of chlorobutanol(1,1,1-trichloro-2-methylpropan-2-ol) in milk is described. The method is based on a steam-distillation solvent-extraction technique and a quantitative determination of chlorobutanol by gas chromatography using a glass-capillary column coated with Carbowax 20M and 2,2,2-trichloroethanol as internal standard. The detection limit is 1 pg and recoveries of chlorobutanol are between 93 und 99%. Fifty-two milk samples have been analysed.

  15. The effect of nuclear gas distribution on the mass determination of supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Restrepo, J. E.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Capellupo, D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes reside in the nuclei of most galaxies. During their active episodes, black holes are powered by accretion discs where gravitational energy is converted into radiation1. Accurately determining black hole masses is key to understand how the population evolves over time and how the black holes relate to their host galaxies2-4. Beyond the local universe, z ≳ 0.2, the mass is commonly estimated assuming a virialized motion of gas in the close vicinity of the active black holes, traced through broad emission lines5,6. However, this procedure has uncertainties associated with the unknown distribution of the gas clouds. Here, we show that the black hole masses derived from the properties of the accretion disk and virial mass estimates differ by a factor that is inversely proportional to the width of the broad emission lines. This leads to virial mass misestimations up to a factor of six. Our results suggest that a planar gas distribution that is inclined with respect to the line of sight may account for this effect. However, radiation pressure effects on the distribution of gas can also reproduce our results. Regardless of the physical origin, our findings contribute to mitigating the uncertainties in current black hole mass estimations and, in turn, will help us to better understand the evolution of distant supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.

  16. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  17. Natural gas conversion program of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil; Projeto de conversao do sistema de distribuicao de gas canalizado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallottino, J.T.; Costa Filho, M.A.F.; Guarana, L.F.M.L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Margalef, J.M. [Companhia Estadual de Gas (CEG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the Conversion Project of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, that converted all customers and the distribution network from Manufactured Gas (MG) to Natural Gas (NG), evaluating its logistic and benefits, highlighting those related to consumer safety. The Conversion Project was executed under the responsibility of CEG with the support of UERJ, specially on the definition and revision of the technical procedures as well as the quality assurance of the project execution. As main advantages followed by MG to NG network conversion, we can note: increasing of gas distribution network capacity and gas network operational condition improvements; elimination of production plant; revision and renovation of gas network; revision and repairing of building gas facilities; augmenting of NG usage; elimination of carbon monoxide as a supplied gas constituent. Conservation condition of most consumer internal gas facilities and ambient ventilation were so critical that conversion program resulted in no measurable accident prevention. The achieved safety level should be maintained through a periodically re-evaluation program of customer's gas facilities and appliances, with special focus on permanent ventilation required for NG safety usage. (author)

  18. Determining on-fault earthquake magnitude distributions from integer programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Earthquake magnitude distributions among faults within a fault system are determined from regional seismicity and fault slip rates using binary integer programming. A synthetic earthquake catalog (i.e., list of randomly sampled magnitudes) that spans millennia is first formed, assuming that regional seismicity follows a Gutenberg-Richter relation. Each earthquake in the synthetic catalog can occur on any fault and at any location. The objective is to minimize misfits in the target slip rate for each fault, where slip for each earthquake is scaled from its magnitude. The decision vector consists of binary variables indicating which locations are optimal among all possibilities. Uncertainty estimates in fault slip rates provide explicit upper and lower bounding constraints to the problem. An implicit constraint is that an earthquake can only be located on a fault if it is long enough to contain that earthquake. A general mixed-integer programming solver, consisting of a number of different algorithms, is used to determine the optimal decision vector. A case study is presented for the State of California, where a 4 kyr synthetic earthquake catalog is created and faults with slip ≥3 mm/yr are considered, resulting in >106 variables. The optimal magnitude distributions for each of the faults in the system span a rich diversity of shapes, ranging from characteristic to power-law distributions.

  19. City of Rio de Janeiro's Gas Distribution Network Conversion Program; Projeto de conversao do Sistema de Distribuicao de Gas Canalizado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Filho, Manoel A.F.; Pallottino, Joao T. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Margalef, Jose M. [Companhia Distribuidora de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses the Conversion Program of Rio de Janeiro city, from Town Gas to Natural Gas, looking for evaluating its logistic and benefits, highlighting mainly those related to consumer's safety. The Conversion Program is been implemented under Companhia Distribuidora de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG) supervision, with support of Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ) in service's quality appraisal and conversion technical procedure elaboration and review. This partnership has started in 2001 and 46% of all residential and commercial customers have already been converted up to July 2004. Conversion Program is divided into the following Phases: Design and Planning, Gas Distribution Network Renovation and Adaptation, Revision, Post-Revision, Conversion and Post-Conversion. This Program may serve as model for similar programs, to be developed in other cities where Natural Gas will be distributed, displacing the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and it is one contribution to achieve the federal governmental goal of 12%-NG-participation within Brazilian Energetic Matrix in 2010. (author)

  20. Hydrocarbon emissions from gas engine CHP-units. 2011 measurement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, G.H.J. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    In December 2009, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment (IandM) issued the Decree on Emission Limits for Middle Sized Combustion Installations (BEMS). This decree imposes a first-time emission limit value (ELV) of 1500 mg C/m{sup 3}{sub o} at 3% O{sub 2} for hydrocarbons emitted by gas engines. IandM used the findings of two hydrocarbon emission measurement programs, executed in 2007 and 2009, as a guideline for this initial ELV. The programs did reveal substantial variation in the hydrocarbon emissions of the gas engines tested. This variation, and especially the uncertainty as to the role of engine and/or other parameters causing such variation, was felt to hamper further policy development. IandM therefore commissioned KEMA to perform follow-up measurements on ten gas engine CHP-units in 2011. Aim of this 2011 program is to assess hydrocarbon emission variation in relation to engine parameters and process conditions including maintenance status, and to atmospheric conditions. The 2011 program comprised two identical measurement sessions, one in spring and one in winter.

  1. Self-determined shapes and velocities of giant near-zero drag gas cavities

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2017-09-09

    Minimizing the retarding force on a solid moving in liquid is the canonical problem in the quest for energy saving by friction and drag reduction. For an ideal object that cannot sustain any shear stress on its surface, theory predicts that drag force will fall to zero as its speed becomes large. However, experimental verification of this prediction has been challenging. We report the construction of a class of self-determined streamlined structures with this free-slip surface, made up of a teardrop-shaped giant gas cavity that completely encloses a metal sphere. This stable gas cavity is formed around the sphere as it plunges at a sufficiently high speed into the liquid in a deep tank, provided that the sphere is either heated initially to above the Leidenfrost temperature of the liquid or rendered superhydrophobic in water at room temperature. These sphere-in-cavity structures have residual drag coefficients that are typically less than Embedded Image those of solid objects of the same dimensions, which indicates that they experienced very small drag forces. The self-determined shapes of the gas cavities are shown to be consistent with the Bernoulli equation of potential flow applied on the cavity surface. The cavity fall velocity is not arbitrary but is uniquely predicted by the sphere density and cavity volume, so larger cavities have higher characteristic velocities.

  2. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal combustion gas using high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, N. [Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industry Co Ltd, Tokyo (Japan). Research Institution

    2002-11-01

    The study describes a sampling and analysis procedure for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at high temperatures in flue gas. Particulate matter sampling was used in conjunction with gas phase sampling. Particulates were collected on quartz fiber filter heated at the same temperature as flue gas. Vaporous PAHs not retained by the filter were cooled at 55{sup o}C and trapped from the gas phase on Tenax-GC polymer beads of 10 g. The sample volume was about 1 m{sup 3}. Tenax-GC has demonstrated high collection efficiency for benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) generated at 375{sup o}C under a stream of nitrogen. PAH were extracted with n-pentane for 4 h by a continuous PAH extractor. It demonstrated 99% extraction efficiency for B(a)P spiked on the adsorbent and it was more effective than Soxhlet extraction. The extracts were concentrated to 1 ml of n-pentane in a Kuderna Danish evaporator. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the extracts were performed by high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with ultraviolet/fluorescence detection. Eight PAH (3,4,5,6-dibenzocarbazole, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, 2-methylanthracene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene) were determined in coal combustion gas on reducing NOx procedures. It was demonstrated that the tendency to reduce NOx levels leads to an increase in the PAH present. Moreover total concentration of four PAH (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene) in this study is satisfactory agreement with those measured in the emissions of coal-fired power stations in the literature.

  3. A Novel Acoustic Liquid Level Determination Method for Coal Seam Gas Wells Based on Autocorrelation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In coal seam gas (CSG wells, water is periodically removed from the wellbore in order to keep the bottom-hole flowing pressure at low levels, facilitating the desorption of methane gas from the coal bed. In order to calculate gas flow rate and further optimize well performance, it is necessary to accurately monitor the liquid level in real-time. This paper presents a novel method based on autocorrelation function (ACF analysis for determining the liquid level in CSG wells under intense noise conditions. The method involves the calculation of the acoustic travel time in the annulus and processing the autocorrelation signal in order to extract the weak echo under high background noise. In contrast to previous works, the non-linear dependence of the acoustic velocity on temperature and pressure is taken into account. To locate the liquid level of a coal seam gas well the travel time is computed iteratively with the non-linear velocity model. Afterwards, the proposed method is validated using experimental laboratory investigations that have been developed for liquid level detection under two scenarios, representing the combination of low pressure, weak signal, and intense noise generated by gas flowing and leakage. By adopting an evaluation indicator called Crest Factor, the results have shown the superiority of the ACF-based method compared to Fourier filtering (FFT. In the two scenarios, the maximal measurement error from the proposed method was 0.34% and 0.50%, respectively. The latent periodic characteristic of the reflected signal can be extracted by the ACF-based method even when the noise is larger than 1.42 Pa, which is impossible for FFT-based de-noising. A case study focused on a specific CSG well is presented to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, and also to demonstrate that signal processing with autocorrelation analysis can improve the sensitivity of the detection system.

  4. Determining equilibrium constants for cd6(u compounds in calculating separation of gas-condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskii, K.V.; Ramazanova, E.E.; Razamat, M.S.

    1967-01-01

    Optimum separation of liquid condensate from natural gas is possible only with knowledge of equilibrium phase constants. While considerable data are available on equilibrium behavior of components from methane to pentane, essentially no data are available concerning hexane and higher components. Values of equilibrium constants are determined for CD6+U components for several Azerbaidzhan gas-condensates as a function of temperature, pressure, and average molar boiling point. Equilibrium constants are shown in graphs for CD6+U components boiling at 134- 220$C and having a characteristic factor K of 11.5-11.9. Equilibrium constants are shown for temperatures of 0-50$C and pressures of 10-100 atm. Good agreement is shown betwen condensation isotherms obtained experimentally and by calculation from equilibrium constants presented in this paper.

  5. Emergency Response Program Designing Based On Case Study ERP Regulations In Ilam Gas Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tahmasbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of Emergency response plan designing is one of the most important prevention approaches in crisis management. This study aims to design emergency response plan based on case study ERP regulations in Ilam gas refinery. On the basis of risk assessment and identification techniques such as HAZOP and FMEA in Ilam gas refinery the risks have been prioritized and then according to this prioritization the design of possible scenarios which have the highest rate of occurrence and the highest level of damage has been separated. Possible scenarios were simulated with PHAST software. Then emergency response program has been designed for the special mode or similar cases. According to the internal emergency response plan for Ilam gas refinery and predictable conditions of the process special instructions should be considered at the time of the incident to suffer the least damage on people and environment in the shortest time possible.

  6. Gas Production Potential in the Landfill of Tehran by Landfill Methane Outreach Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Landfilling is the most common way of municipal solid waste (MSW disposal in Iran. Many countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings as well as the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. Landfill gas (LFG consists of 50% - 60 vol% methane and 30% - 40 vol% carbon dioxide as well as trace amounts of numerous chemical compounds such as aromatics, chlorinated organic compounds and sulfur compounds. Landfill methane outreach program (LMOP is a voluntary assistance program which helps reduce methane emissions from landfills by encouraging the recovery and the beneficial use of LFG as an energy resource. Objectives In this study, the volume of LFG of Tehran by landfill methane outreach program (LMOP software was calculated. In addition, the relationship between the time of gas collection system operation and the volume of LFG production was evaluated. Materials and Methods The LMOP software was used. The available information and some presumptions were used to operate the software. The composition of the solid waste collected from the landfill of Tehran had specific details. A large amount of it was organic materials, which was about 67.8%. These materials have a good potential to produce gas. In addition, LMOP Colombia model uses the first-order equations in all the analytical equations. Furthermore, it is assumed that the landfill operation time is 30 years and the process is considered in two conditions; first, the gas was recovered in 2000, and second, the process started in 2015. Results The modeling results showed that for the gas recovery starting in 2000 and 2015, the power generation would be 2

  7. Technical study of brazilian vehicular natural gas program and impact of normative regulators; Estudo tecnico do programa de gas natural veicular e o impacto das normas reguladoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Newton; Fragoso, Karine; Caselli, Bruno [Servicco Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burrowes, Mariana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2004-07-01

    This paper it concept to present the evaluation of the Brazilian natural gas program in the last decade, our technological aspects and use, as those economical implications of this program. Verification of environment advantages from this gas system and the relation between another fuel system from the bibliographic review. Discussions of future scenarios in this market share, those threats and opportunities. The impact of new stands from next years and it considerations. Finally will be present proposes for sustainable grow of this program with base in the relationship of market, stand and technology, in expose aspects. (author)

  8. Determinations of gas-liquid partition coefficients using capillary chromatographic columns. Alkanols in squalane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascon, Marcos; Romero, Lílian M; Acquaviva, Agustín; Keunchkarian, Sonia; Castells, Cecilia

    2013-06-14

    This study focused on an investigation into the experimental quantities inherent in the determination of partition coefficients from gas-liquid chromatographic measurements through the use of capillary columns. We prepared several squalane - (2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane) - containing columns with very precisely known phase ratios and determined solute retention and hold-up times at 30, 40, 50 and 60°C. We calculated infinite dilution partition coefficients from the slopes of the linear regression of retention factors as a function of the reciprocal of the phase ratio by means of fundamental chromatographic equations. In order to minimize gas-solid and liquid-solid interface contributions to retention, the surface of the capillary inner wall was pretreated to guarantee a uniform coat of stationary phase. The validity of the proposed approach was first tested by estimating the partition coefficients of n-alkanes between n-pentane and n-nonane, for which compounds data from the literature were available. Then partition coefficients of sixteen aliphatic alcohols in squalane were determined at those four temperatures. We deliberately chose these highly challenging systems: alcohols in the reference paraffinic stationary phase. These solutes exhibited adsorption in the gas-liquid interface that contributed to retention. The corresponding adsorption constant values were estimated. We fully discuss here the uncertainties associated with each experimental measurement and how these fundamental determinations can be performed precisely by circumventing the main drawbacks. The proposed strategy is reliable and much simpler than the classical chromatographic method employing packed columns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

  10. Rapid method for determination of carbonyl groups in lignin compounds by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2015-07-24

    The paper reports on a novel method for rapid determination of carbonyl in lignins by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). The method involves the quantitative carbonyl reduction for aldehydes in 2min at room temperature or for acetones in 30min at 80°C by sodium borohydride solution in a closed headspace sample vial. After the reaction, the solution was acidified by injecting sulfuric acid solution and the hydrogen released to the headspace was determined by GC using thermal-conductivity detector. The results showed that with the addition of SiO2 powder, the reduction reaction of carbonyl groups can be greatly facilitated. The method has a good measurement precision (RSD<7.74%) and accuracy (relative error <10% compared with a reference method) in the carbonyl quantification. It is suitable to be used for rapid determination of carbonyl content in lignin and related materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of oxadiazon residues by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalón, Alberto; Prieto, Avismelsi; Araujo, Lilia; Vílchez, José Luis

    2002-02-08

    A method for the determination of trace amounts of the herbicide oxadiazon was developed using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and selected ion monitoring. It was applied to determine oxadiazon in ground water, agricultural soil, must, wine and human urine samples. To determine oxadiazon in liquid samples, a response surface methodology generated with a Doehlert design was applied to optimize the HS-SPME conditions using a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fibre. For the analysis of soil samples, they were mixed with water and the SPME fibre suspended in the headspace above the slurry. Ground water, human urine and must show linear concentration range of application of 0.5-50 ng ml(-1)' with detection limits matrix samples. The developed analytical procedure is solvent free, cost effective and fast.

  12. Determination of the Boltzmann constant with cylindrical acoustic gas thermometry: new and previous results combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X. J.; Zhang, J. T.; Lin, H.; Gillis, K. A.; Mehl, J. B.; Moldover, M. R.; Zhang, K.; Duan, Y. N.

    2017-10-01

    We report a new determination of the Boltzmann constant k B using a cylindrical acoustic gas thermometer. We determined the length of the copper cavity from measurements of its microwave resonance frequencies. This contrasts with our previous work (Zhang et al 2011 Int. J. Thermophys. 32 1297, Lin et al 2013 Metrologia 50 417, Feng et al 2015 Metrologia 52 S343) that determined the length of a different cavity using two-color optical interferometry. In this new study, the half-widths of the acoustic resonances are closer to their theoretical values than in our previous work. Despite significant changes in resonator design and the way in which the cylinder length is determined, the value of k B is substantially unchanged. We combined this result with our four previous results to calculate a global weighted mean of our k B determinations. The calculation follows CODATA’s method (Mohr and Taylor 2000 Rev. Mod. Phys. 72 351) for obtaining the weighted mean value of k B that accounts for the correlations among the measured quantities in this work and in our four previous determinations of k B. The weighted mean {{\\boldsymbol{\\hat{k}}}{B}} is 1.380 6484(28)  ×  10-23 J K-1 with the relative standard uncertainty of 2.0  ×  10-6. The corresponding value of the universal gas constant is 8.314 459(17) J K-1 mol-1 with the relative standard uncertainty of 2.0  ×  10-6.

  13. Evaluation of a gas chromatography method for azelaic acid determination in selected biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelnabi, Mahdi; Litvinov, Dmitry; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2010-01-01

    Background: Azelaic acid (AzA) is the best known dicarboxilic acid to have pharmaceutical benefits and clinical applications and also to be associated with some diseases pathophysiology. Materials and Methods: We extracted and methylesterified AzA and determined its concentration in human plasma obtained from healthy individuals and also in mice fed AzA containing diet for three months. Results: AzA was detected in Gas Chromatography (GC) and confirmed by Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS), and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMC). Our results have shown that AzA can be determined efficiently in selected biological samples by GC method with 1nM limit of detection (LoD) and the limit of quantification (LoQ); was established at 50nM. Analytical Sensitivity as assayed by hexane demonstrated an analytical sensitivity at 0.050nM. The method has demonstrated 8-10% CV batch repeatability across the sample types and 13-18.9% CV for the Within-Lab Precision analysis. The method has shown that AzA can efficiently be recovered from various sample preparation including liver tissue homogenate (95%) and human plasma (97%). Conclusions: Because of its simplicity and lower limit of quantification, the present method provides a useful tool for determining AzA in various biological sample preparations. PMID:22558586

  14. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as stationary phase in gas chromatographic separation and determination of argon, carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Maleki, Norooz; Doroodmand, Mohammad Mahdi

    2010-08-24

    A chromatographic technique is introduced based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as stationary phase for separation of Ar, CO(2) and H(2) at parts per million (ppm) levels. The efficiency of SWCNTs was compared with solid materials such as molecular sieve, charcoal, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers. The morphology of SWCNTs was optimized for maximum adsorption of H(2), CO(2) and Ar and minimum adsorption of gases such as N(2), O(2), CO and H(2)O vapour. To control temperature of the gas chromatography column, peltier cooler was used. Mixtures of Ar, CO(2) and H(2) were separated according to column temperature program. Relative standard deviation for nine replicate analyses of 0.2 mL H(2) containing 10 microL of each Ar or CO(2) was 2.5% for Ar, 2.8% for CO(2) and 3.6% for H(2). The interfering effects of CO, and O(2) were investigated. Working ranges were evaluated as 40-600 ppm for Ar, 30-850 ppm for CO(2) and 10-1200 ppm for H(2). Significant sensitivity, small relative standard deviation (RSD) and acceptable limit of detection (LOD) were obtained for each analyte, showing capability of SWCNTs for gas separation and determination processes. Finally, the method was used to evaluate the contents of CO(2) in air sample. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of oxeladin in human plasma by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartigue-Mattei, C; Galmier, M J; Chabard, J L; Beyssac, E; Aiache, J M

    1995-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatographic method with mass-selective detection was developed for the determination of oxeladin in human plasma. Plasma samples (1 mL) were alkalinized and extracted using 5mL of hexane: isoamyl alcohol (99:1). The method was demonstrated to be sensitive (limit of quantitation at 1 ng/mL), linear between 1 and 150 mg/mL, accurate and precise enough (mean error and mean coefficient of variation at the limit of quantitation were 2.3 and 13.3%, respectively) to support pharmacokinetic evaluation of the drug at doses down to 30 mg.

  16. Simultaneous determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs and PCTs in pork liver by gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barros, C. [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez Pineiro, M.E. [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Simal Lozano, J. [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lage Yusty, M.A. [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    A multicomponent extraction/concentration procedure has been developed for the enrichment of PCBs, PCTs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (pristane, C{sub 18}, C{sub 19}, C{sub 20}, C{sub 22}, C{sub 24}, C{sub 28}, C{sub 32} and C{sub 36}) in pork liver. These components of the enriched extract were then simultaneously determined by gas chromatography. Mean recoveries ranged from 81.5% for pristane to 93% for PCBs; CV % (0.9-6.7) indicated the method to be both precise and reproducible. (orig.)

  17. Determination of oligofructose, a soluble dietary fiber, by high-temperature capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, D; Hoebregs, H; Joye, D; Hoebregs, H

    2000-01-01

    A high-temperature capillary gas chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of oligofructose in foods and food products. Sample preparation involves oxymation and silylation of the extracted sugars. The oximetrimethylsilyl derivatives are analyzed on an apolar capillary column, with detection by flame ionization. The method is accurate, with recovery of spiked samples at >96%. Repeatability was excellent; RSD values of 1.1% were obtained. Other common oligosaccharides, such as malto-, isomalto-, and galactooligosaccharides, and levan do not interfere, making the method specific and reliable.

  18. Determination of ketone bodies in blood by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Karen Marie Dollerup; Linnet, Kristian; Rasmussen, Brian Schou

    2010-01-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for determination of ketone bodies (ß-hydroxybutyrate, acetone, and acetoacetate) in blood is presented. The method is based on enzymatic oxidation of D-ß-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate, followed by decarboxylation to acetone, which...... was quantified by the use of headspace GC-MS using acetone-(13)C(3) as an internal standard. The developed method was found to have intra- and total interday relative standard deviations acetone+acetoacetate levels (~25 to 8300 µM) and D-ß-hydroxybutyrate levels (~30 to 16500 µM). Recovery values varied...

  19. Determination of cyanide in blood by reaction head-space gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felby, Søren

    2009-01-01

    A method describing determination of cyanide in blood by head-space gas chromatography with electron capture detector was reported. The method involves transformation of cyanide into cyanogen chloride by reacting hydrogen cyanide with chloramine-T on a stick of filter paper in the space above the blood in the head-space vial. The recovery was 84-96% and the coefficient of variation was 3.3-7.2%. The limit of quantitation was about 0.01 mg cyanide/l.

  20. Radiocarbon-based determination of biogenic and fossil carbon partitioning in the production of synthetic natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Rabou, Luc P. L. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of the radiocarbon (C-14) method for the quantification of the biogenic carbon fractions at different stages of the Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) production process is demonstrated in this study. The C-14-based biogenic carbon fractions were determined in process flue gas and raw SNG

  1. Determination of gas & liquid two-phase flow regime transitions in wellbore annulus by virtual mass force coefficient when gas cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Junbo; Yan, Tie; Sun, Xiaofeng; Chen, Ye; Pan, Yi

    2017-10-01

    With the development of drilling technology to deeper stratum, overflowing especially gas cut occurs frequently, and then flow regime in wellbore annulus is from the original drilling fluid single-phase flow into gas & liquid two-phase flow. By using averaged two-fluid model equations and the basic principle of fluid mechanics to establish the continuity equations and momentum conservation equations of gas phase & liquid phase respectively. Relationship between pressure and density of gas & liquid was introduced to obtain hyperbolic equation, and get the expression of the dimensionless eigenvalue of the equation by using the characteristic line method, and analyze wellbore flow regime to get the critical gas content under different virtual mass force coefficients. Results show that the range of equation eigenvalues is getting smaller and smaller with the increase of gas content. When gas content reaches the critical point, the dimensionless eigenvalue of equation has no real solution, and the wellbore flow regime changed from bubble flow to bomb flow. When virtual mass force coefficients are 0.50, 0.60, 0.70 and 0.80 respectively, the critical gas contents are 0.32, 0.34, 0.37 and 0.39 respectively. The higher the coefficient of virtual mass force, the higher gas content in wellbore corresponding to the critical point of transition flow regime, which is in good agreement with previous experimental results. Therefore, it is possible to determine whether there is a real solution of the dimensionless eigenvalue of equation by virtual mass force coefficient and wellbore gas content, from which we can obtain the critical condition of wellbore flow regime transformation. It can provide theoretical support for the accurate judgment of the annular flow regime.

  2. [Determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ghengyun; Zhang, Weiya; Li, Lixia; Shen, Yalei; Lin, Junfeng; Xie, Tangtang; Chu, Naiqing

    2014-08-01

    An effective method was established for the simultaneous determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Glycol ethers in leather and leather products were ultrasonically extracted at 45 °C, using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent. The extracts were purified by solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and then analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode. The content of each analyte was calibrated by external standard method. The limit of detection of ethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE) was 0. 10 mg/kg under the condition of signal to noise (S/N) of 3 and the limits of the other 11 glycol ethers were all less than 0.05 mg/kg. The spiked recoveries varied from 81. 2% to 95. 5% at three different spiked levels with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 1.4% to 6. 6%. The proposed method is simple, rapid and accurate, with the limits of detection much less than the requirements of the Regulation Concerning Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) of European Union. It is applicable to the determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products, and provides a reference for the relevant testing standards.

  3. [Determination of olive oil content in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanfeng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Fengyan; Yang, Zhao

    2017-07-08

    A method for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SH-GC/MS) was established. The amount of the sample, the heating temperature, the heating time, the amount of injection, the injection mode and the chromatographic column were optimized. The characteristic compounds of olive oil were found by chemometric method. A sample of 1.0 g was placed in a 20 mL headspace flask, and heated at 180℃ for 2700 s. Then, 1.0 mL headspace gas was taken into the instrument. An HP-88 chromatographic column was used for the separation and the analysis was performed by GC/MS. The results showed that the linear range was 0-100%(olive oil content). The linear correlation coefficient (r2) was more than 0.995, and the limits of detection were 1.26%-2.13%. The deviations of olive oil contents in the olive blend oil were from -0.65% to 1.02%, with the relative deviations from -1.3% to 6.8% and the relative standard deviations from 1.18% to 4.26% (n=6). The method is simple, rapid, environment friendly, sensitive and accurate. It is suitable for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil.

  4. [Simultaneous determination of three organic fluorides in workplace air by portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Xin, Chaoyi; Zhu, Baoli

    2015-06-01

    To establish a method for rapid determination of organic fluorides in the air of a fluorine chemical plant using portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Standard samples of monochlorodifluoromethane, tetrafluoroethylene, and hexafluoropropylene of different concentrations were prepared by static volumetric method with high-purity nitrogen as the diluent gas. The samples were injected into the GC-MS by a hand-held probe. Retention time and characteristic ion were used for qualitative analysis, and the area of selected ion peak was used for quantitative analysis. The standard curves were then created for quantitative determination of the three organic fluorides. The linear ranges for monochlorodifluoromethane, tetrafluoroethylene, and hexafluoropropylene by the method were 0.39-7.72, 0.45-8.84, and 0.61-12.20 mg/m3, respectively, the average recovery rates for the three concentrations were 102.8%, 96.0%, and 106.5%, respectively, and the average deviations were 2.1%, 5.1%, and 2.4%, respectively. The portable GC-MS can be used for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of monochlorodifluoromethane, tetrafluoroethylene, and hexafluoropropylene in the workplace air, and the method is simple, fast, and accurate.

  5. A new gas chromatographic method for the determination of succinic acid and other di-basic acids in tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyahara, S; Tabatam, Y

    1965-01-01

    The authors have devised a method whereby succinic acid and other di-basic acids can be determined through gas chromatography, by converting the succinic acid contained in the tissue and other acids...

  6. Determination of isocyanate groups in the organic intermediates by reaction-based headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-10-14

    This work reports on a novel method for the determination of isocyanate groups in the related organic intermediates by a reaction-based headspace gas chromatography. The method is based on measuring the CO2 formed from the reaction between the isocyanate groups in the organic intermediates and water in a closed headspace sample vial at 45°C for 20min. The results showed that the method has a good precision and accuracy, in which the relative standard deviation in the repeatability measurement was 5.26%, and the relative differences between the data obtained by the HS-GC method and the reference back-titration method were within 9.42%. The present method is simple and efficient and is particularly suitable to be used for determining the isocyanate groups in the batch sample analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2002-07-26

    The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to < or = 0.01 microgram.g-1 for most of the pyrethroids by GC with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Quantitative determination was obtained by the method of external standards. Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco spiked with different amounts of pyrethroids were used and the pyrethroid levels in mainstream smoke were determined. For all the pyrethroid residues, 1.51-15.50% were transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke.

  8. Determination of Beeswax Hydrocarbons by Gas Chromatography with a Mass Detector (GC -MS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a method of hydrocarbon (alkanes, alkenes, dienes identification and quantitative determination of linear saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes in beeswax using gas chromatography with a mass detector technique (GC -MS . Beeswax hydrocarbons were isolated using a solid-phase extraction (SPE technique with neutral aluminum oxide (Alumina - N, 1000 mg, 6 mL, then were separated on a non-polar gas chromatography column ZB-5HT INFERNO (20 m×0.18 mm×0.18 μm. Qquantitative analysis of n-alkanes was conducted by the method of internal standard with squalane used as the internal standard. The basic parameters of validation (linearity and working range, limit of determination, repeatability and reproducibility, recovery were determined. For all of the identified compounds, satisfactory (≥0.997 coefficients of correlation in the working ranges of the method (from 0.005 to 5.0 g/100 g were obtained. The elaborated method was characterized by satisfactory repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility. The average coefficients of variation for the total n-alkanes did not exceed 2% under conditions of repeatability or 4% under conditions of reproducibility. The recovery for individual n-alkanes was above 94%; for their total content, it was 100.5%. In beeswax originating from Apis mellifera, n-alkanes containing from 20 to 35 carbon atoms in their molecules were determined. The total content of these alkanes was between 9.08 g and 10.86 g/100 g (on average, 9.81 g/100 g. Additionally, apart from the saturated hydrocarbons, unsaturated hydrocarbons and dienes were identified.

  9. Determination of HSE program proportional to organizational Corporate life cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Result: Corporate life cycles questionnaire with 10 indicators, available HSE programs score cards with 47 indicators according to OGP model and corporate life cycles proper programs table were results of this article. .Conclusion: The results showedweakness in the HSE programs implementation.Therefore, we offered the management methods like upgrade HSE culture and leadership for modification.

  10. Determinants of Participating in Australian University Student Exchange Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Outbound mobility programs such as exchange programs are one of the many strategies implemented at universities to develop graduates' intercultural skills and international knowledge. Few Australian students participate in exchange programs. This article presents a literature review and proposes a model of the contextual and individual factors…

  11. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: German Pebble Bed Reactor design and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    This report describes and evaluates several gas-cooled reactor plant concepts under development within the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The concepts, based upon the use of a proven Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element design, include nuclear heat generation for chemical processes and electrical power generation. Processes under consideration for the nuclear process heat plant (PNP) include hydrogasification of coal, steam gasification of coal, combined process, and long-distance chemical heat transportation. The electric plant emphasized in the report is the steam turbine cycle (HTR-K), although the gas turbine cycle (HHT) is also discussed. The study is a detailed description and evaluation of the nuclear portion of the various plants. The general conclusions are that the PBR technology is sound and that the HTR-K and PNP plant concepts appear to be achievable through appropriate continuing development programs, most of which are either under way or planned.

  12. Quantitative determination of poly(vinylpyrrolidone by "on-line" pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzbauer Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available "On-line" pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography (GC was performed for quantitative determination of poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP in wastewater sample. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS showed that the main product of pyrolysis of PVP, at high temperatures, is N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP. After that, different amounts of commercial PVP were pyrolyzed in order to establish correlation between the amount of generated NVP (its GC peak area and the initial mass of pyrolyzed PVP. GC-FID analysis was used for construction of calibration curve and for quantitative determination of PVP. Very good linear correlation was obtained between the area of NVP peak, generated during pyrolysis, and the initial mass of PVP (r2 = 0.998. Further, solutions of known concentration of PVP were prepared in destilled water ("spiked samples". Spiked samples were preextracted with diethyl ether and n-hexane, and after that, the water-layer was evaporated and dissolved again in methanol. Analysis of pyrolysates of preextracted spiked samples showed that the "recovery" of PVP was above 96 mas%. This finding suggested that pre-extraction could be applied to reduce the concentration of organic substances that could also be pyrolyzed, and thus hinder identification and quantitative determination of PVP, without significant loss of polymer. The sample of an industrial wastewater from Pančevo, Serbia was investigated in the last part of this work. The sample was preextracted in the same way as the spiked samples and than pyrolyzed. NVP was identified by GC-MS in obtained pyrolysate, which was the evidence that PVP was present in the wastewater sample. NVP was quantified on the basis of the peak area in GC-FID chromatogram, and than the concentration of PVP in wastewater sample was calculated based on calibration curve. Concentration of PVP in industrial wastewater amounted 2.5 mg/L.

  13. Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

  14. A Gas Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Bicarbonate and Dissolved Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Loughrin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A gas chromatographic method for the rapid determination of aqueous carbon dioxide and its speciation into solvated carbon dioxide and bicarbonate is presented. One-half mL samples are injected through a rubber septum into 20-mL vials that are filled with 9.5 mL of 0.1 N HCl. A one mL portion of the headspace is withdrawn and injected onto a gas chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector. Using the dimensionless Henry's constant for carbon dioxide and an adaptation of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, carbon dioxide in the samples can be categorized among solvated, bicarbonate, and carbonate forms. Natural water samples as well as wastewater from a municipal sewage treatment plant and a swine rearing operation were analyzed by this method and the results compared favorably to those obtained by titration. Samples stored for up to 5 weeks showed no significant changes in carbon dioxide concentrations. In addition, using flame ionization and electron capture detectors, methane and nitrous oxide concentrations in the samples were also measured.

  15. Oxysterols in cosmetics-Determination by planar solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrack, S; Hohl, C; Schwack, W

    2016-11-18

    Sterol oxidation products (SOPs) are linked to several toxicological effects. Therefore, investigation of potential dietary uptake sources particularly food of animal origin has been a key issue for these compounds. For the simultaneous determination of oxysterols from cholesterol, phytosterols, dihydrolanosterol and lanosterol in complex cosmetic matrices, planar solid phase extraction (pSPE) was applied as clean-up tool. SOPs were first separated from more non-polar and polar matrix constituents by normal phase thin-layer chromatography and then focussed into one target zone. Zone extraction was performed with the TLC-MS interface, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. pSPE showed to be effective for cleaning up cosmetic samples as sample extracts were free of interferences, and gas chromatographic columns did not show any signs of overloading. Recoveries were between 86 and 113% with relative standard deviations of below 10% (n=6). Results of our market survey in 2016 showed that some cosmetics with ingredients of plant origin contained phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) in the low ppm range and therefore in line with levels reported for food. In lanolin containing products, total SOPs levels (cholesterol oxidation products (COPs), lanosterol oxidation products (LOPs), dihydrolanosterol oxidation products (DOPs)) being in the low percent range exceeded reported levels for food by several orders of magnitudes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The DOE Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Gary Bell

    2005-05-01

    The Department of Energy has established the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program to address the following overall goals: Provide a baseline fuel qualification data set in support of the licensing and operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). Gas-reactor fuel performance demonstration and qualification comprise the longest duration research and development (R&D) task for the NGNP feasibility. The baseline fuel form is to be demonstrated and qualified for a peak fuel centerline temperature of 1250°C. Support near-term deployment of an NGNP by reducing market entry risks posed by technical uncertainties associated with fuel production and qualification. Utilize international collaboration mechanisms to extend the value of DOE resources. The Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program consists of five elements: fuel manufacture, fuel and materials irradiations, postirradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing, fuel performance modeling, and fission product transport and source term evaluation. An underlying theme for the fuel development work is the need to develop a more complete fundamental understanding of the relationship between the fuel fabrication process, key fuel properties, the irradiation performance of the fuel, and the release and transport of fission products in the NGNP primary coolant system. Fuel performance modeling and analysis of the fission product behavior in the primary circuit are important aspects of this work. The performance models are considered essential for several reasons, including guidance for the plant designer in establishing the core design and operating limits, and demonstration to the licensing authority that the applicant has a thorough understanding of the in-service behavior of the fuel system. The fission product behavior task will also provide primary source term data needed for licensing. An overview of the program and recent progress will be presented.

  17. WATRE: a program for computing water and gas released from heated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claybrook, S.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    The WATRE computer program calculates the rate and quantity of water and carbon dioxide gas released from heated concrete. Recent development efforts have improved the numerical solution scheme, resulting in increased computational efficiency. The WATRE model is presented and the numerical procedure used to solve the governing equations is outlined. Validation of the WATRE model by comparison with extensive experimental data is emphasized. Results of a sensitivity study which investigated the effects that changes in input data have on WATRE calculations are also discussed.

  18. Headspace Solid Phase Micro Extraction Gas Chromatographic Determination of Fenthion in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Machera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple and effective analytical procedure was developed for the determination of fenthion residues in human serum samples. The sample treatment was performed using the headspace solid-phase micro extraction with polyacrylate fiber, which has the advantage to require low amount of serum (1 mL without tedious pre-treatment. The quantification of fenthion was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the recoveries ranged from 79 to 104% at two spiking levels for 6 replicates. Detection and quantification limits were calculated as 1.51 and 4.54 ng/mL of serum respectively. Two fenthion metabolites − fenoxon and fenthion–sulfoxide − were also identified.

  19. Dispersive surface properties of glass-ionomer cements determined by inverse gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewska, E.; Voelkel, A.; Andrzejewski, M.; Limanowska-Shaw, H.

    2005-05-01

    The surface properties of several glass-ionomer cements (GIC), restorative dental materials, (GC-Fuji, Chemadent G-J, Ketac Fil and Ketac Molar) were investigated for the first time by means of inverse gas chromatography. This method enables characterization of surface activity in dispersive (non-polar) and acid-base interactions. The ability of the surface of glass-ionomers to participate in dispersive interactions was expressed by the use of the dispersive component of surface free energy γsd. This parameter was determined with satisfactory precision, meaning that the values of γsd can be further used in the discussion of the influence of the type of GIC, its preparation and the storage time on the surface properties. The greatest capacity for dispersive interactions was revealed by Ketac Molar and the lowest by GC-Fuji. Dispersive interactions in the surface activity of glass-ionomers increased with increasing storage time after cement preparation.

  20. Determining magnetic phase transitions temperatures in working magnetocaloric coolers bodies and gas cryorefrigerators regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagusov, V. I.; Mayankov, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Due to magnetic phase transitions rare-earth materials possess unique properties near the Curie and Neel temperatures, such as the magneto-caloric effect, the abnormally high heat capacity, the magnetic susceptibility and permeability extremes. Using rare earth materials in gas cryogenic refrigerators regenerators increases the efficiency, reduces the power consumption and allows reaching helium temperatures. The magneto-caloric effect has also extreme values near the Curie and Neel temperatures. The paper presents theoretical and experimental methods allowing to determine magnetic phase transitions temperatures in a wide range of low temperature materials with a various rare-earth components content and expected thermophysical properties of a certain rare-earth materials composition at the temperatures based on starting pure metals characteristics. The results analysis has shown that magnetic phase transitions temperatures are a linear function of the components concentration. Moreover, heat capacity values and MCE also depend linearly on the starting components concentration, which simplifies calculations significantly.

  1. Determination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in polyamine epichlorohydrin solution by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Wan, Xiao-Fang; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Chen, Run-Quan

    2017-05-05

    This study demonstrated a headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for the determination of residual epichlorohydrin (ECH) and the by-product 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (DCP) in polyamine epichlorohydrin (PAE) solution. It was based on the vapor-liquid phase equilibrium of these analytes at 60°C for 30min in a closed headspace sample vial before GC measurement. It was found that matrix of the PAE solution had the effect on the headspace equilibrium of these species and therefore a standard addition must be applied in the method validation. The results showed that the present method has a good measurement precision (RSD volatile organic compounds in the commercial PAE resin solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Determination of organophosphorous pesticide residues in red wine by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan; Liu, Wenmin; Zhou, Yanming; Guan, Yafeng

    2006-05-01

    A method for the determination of 12 organophosphorus pesticide residues (OPs) in red wine by fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) was developed and validated. The SPME phase was prepared by sol-gel technology of physical incorporation. The extraction conditions were optimized with the results of stirring rate of 1,250 r/min, NaCl mass concentration of 150 g/L, and extraction time of 30 min. With the sample volume of 25 mL, the relative standard deviations (RSD) of peak areas for most of OPs were below 5%, and the detection limits of OPs were in the range of 5 ng/L-0.38 microg/L. It can be seen from the results that this method has the potential to analyze OPs in other beverages and soft drinking materials.

  3. Determination of Chlorpyrifos in Human Blood by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of chlorpyrifos in human blood samples. The chlorpyrifos and parathion (internal standard in human blood were extracted with a mixed solvent of hexane and acetonitrile. Chlorpyrifos was well separated from the internal standard. The linear range of chlorpyrifos was 0.01–2 μg/ml in blood. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were estimated at 0.002 and 0.01 μg/ml, respectively. The inter- and intra-day precisions, accuracy, and recovery were assessed to verify this method. The results showed that the developed method is rapid, sensitive, and reliable. It is suitable for the determination of chlorpyrifos in forensic toxicological analysis and clinical diagnosis.

  4. Bio-sample preparation and gas chromatographic determination of benzodiazepines--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Samanidou, Victoria F; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N

    2013-08-01

    Benzodiazepines have become commonly prescribed medicines worldwide in the therapy of anxiety, sleep disorders and convulsive attacks because they are relatively safe, with mild side effects. The availability of rapid, sensitive and selective analytical methods is essential for the determination of these drugs in clinical and forensic cases. Benzodiazepines are usually present at trace levels (μg/mL or ng/mL) in a complex biological matrix, and the potentially interfering compounds need to be removed before analysis. Therefore, a sample preparation technique is often mandatory, both to extract the drugs of interest from the matrices and to increase their concentration. An extended and comprehensive review is presented herein, focusing on bio-sample preparation (pretreatment, extraction and derivatization) and gas chromatographic methods applied for the quantification of 1,4-benzodiazepines.

  5. Determination of solubility parameters and thermodynamic properties in hydrocarbon-solvent systems by gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Díaz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography used to calculate the specific retention volume of several hydrocarbons in different chromatographic liquid phases (Squalane, Carbowax-400, Carbowax-1500, Carbowax-4000, Amine-220, Dinonyl phthalate, Tributyl phosphate and Trixylenyl phosphate. Some thermodynamic parameters, such as enthalpy of sorption and Flory-Huggins parameters relating the interaction between liquid phases and solutes, were also calculated from the determined retention volumes. Liquid phase solubility parameters of Squalane, Carbowax-400, Carbowax-1500 and Carbowax-4000 at 80 ºC as well as the polar and apolar components were calculated too. A new model was proposed to correlate polar contribution to the solubility parameter of a liquid phase with the specific retention volume of a solute in this liquid phase.

  6. Gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for the determination of atmospheric polychlorinated naphthalenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fang [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jin, Jing [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, Xiaoli [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Xueli; Li, Yun; Shah, Syed Mazhar [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Chen, Jiping, E-mail: chenjp@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Atmospheric PCNs were detected by isotope-dilution GC–MS/MS. • The pollution levels of PCNs covering from mono- to octa-CNs were investigated comprehensively in air samples. • The dioxin-like toxicity and human exposure levels of PCNs in air samples were estimated. - Abstract: Atmospheric polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) ranging from mono-CNs to octa-CNs were detected using isotope-dilution gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS). The developed instrumental method was successfully applied to the determination of PCNs in technical products. It was observed that there were significant differences in concentrations, homologue profiles, chlorinated contents and total toxic equivalents (∑TEQs) of PCNs for four Halowax products. Subsequently, the validation of the analytical method was evaluated for the determination of PCNs in air samples in terms of method detection limit (MDL), recovery and matrix effect. The results demonstrated that this method could provide satisfactory sensitivity and adequate selectivity with lower cost. It was conducted to comprehensively evaluate the levels, composition patterns, ∑TEQs, and daily intake exposure of PCNs in indoor and outdoor air samples. Concentrations and ∑TEQs of PCNs in air samples ranged 47.7–832.7 pg m{sup −3} and 1.31–5.99 fg m{sup −3}, respectively, and the predominant homologues were di- and tri-CNs in the gas phase. The results indicated that this analytical method was useful for the accurate and specific evaluation of dioxin-like toxicity and human exposure levels of PCNs in the atmosphere.

  7. Canada's new national energy program on oil and gas: What are the main provisions? What are the reactions so far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, K. K.

    1981-04-01

    The Canadian federal government announced a National Energy Program (NEP) for oil and natural gas to achieve energy self sufficiency. The program deals with two major political and economic influences in Canadian energy: provincial ownership of natural resources and 70% of foreign ownership in the Canadian petroleum industry. The objectives to achieve national energy security, create opportunities for Canadian participation, and share resource benefits among the provinces. The major provisions include: a 80% federal tax on oil and gas production; a natural gas federal excise tax; a pricing scheme which holds conventional oil prices down but gives incentives for oil sands, heavy oil, and tertiary recovery production; a gas pricing scheme which encourages substitution of gas for oil; a 25% carried interest for the government on federal leases; and a Canadianization incentives grant system which replace the depletion allowance system.

  8. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Data from sidestream testing are presented. 18 refs.

  9. Optimal planning of gas turbine cogeneration system based on linear programming. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S.-D. [Hyosung Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ohsidk@hyosung.com; Kwak, H.-Y. [Chung-Ang Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kwakhy@cau.ac.kr

    2005-07-01

    An optimal planning for gas turbine cogeneration system has been studied. The planning problem considered in this study is to determine the optimal configuration of the system equipments and optimal operational policy of the system when the annual energy demands of electric power, heat and cooling are given a priori. The main benefit of the optimal planning is to minimize operational costs and to save energy by efficient energy utilization. A mixed-integer linear programming and the branch and bound algorithm have been adopted to obtain the optimal solution. Both the optimal configuration of the system equipments and the optimal operation policy has been obtained based on annual cost method. The planning method employed here may be applied to the planning problem of the cogeneration plant to any specific building or hotel. (author)

  10. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, José L; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Ester

    2009-04-15

    A rapid analytical method has been developed for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in human hair. PBDEs were determined by gas chromatography with electron ionization mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC-MS-SIM). A 200mg amount of hair samples was overnight digested in 3N HCl and then PBDEs extracted with n-hexane. After clean up of extracts in a Florisil column, PBDEs were analyzed by GC-MS. The method has been validated by spiking human hair at five concentration levels, in the range from 5 to 25 ng/g for most compounds, and PBDEs were quantified using labelled compounds as internal standards. Recoveries of PBDEs were higher than 90%, repeatability was equal or lower than 12.5%, and reproducibility lower than 14%, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD). Limits of detection (LOD) were in the range 0.08-0.9 ng/g and limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.27 and 3.0 ng/g. This method was applied to the determination of PBDEs in hair samples from 16 individuals and 5 PBDE congeners were detected in most of the samples. BDE-209 was the dominant compound found, followed by BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-190. BDE-209 was found in 12 out of 16 hair samples, and the total levels of PBDEs ranged from 1.4 to 19.9 ng/g.

  11. Using Self-Determination Theory in Correctional Education Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Dani; Cotronea, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    As funding has become available through the Second Chance Act of 2007, many correctional facilities have developed new educational programs in an effort to ease the transition from prison to community. Many new programs are developed based on the belief that incarcerated individuals are a special and unique population of student. The present…

  12. Thermal-maturity limit for primary thermogenic-gas generation from humic coals as determined by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael; Kotarba, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrous-pyrolysis experiments at 360°C (680°F) for 72 h were conducted on 53 humic coals representing ranks from lignite through anthracite to determine the upper maturity limit for hydrocarbon-gas generation from their kerogen and associated bitumen (i.e., primary gas generation). These experimental conditions are below those needed for oil cracking to ensure that generated gas was not derived from the decomposition of expelled oil generated from some of the coals (i.e., secondary gas generation). Experimental results showed that generation of hydrocarbon gas ends before a vitrinite reflectance of 2.0%. This reflectance is equivalent to Rock-Eval maximum-yield temperature and hydrogen indices (HIs) of 555°C (1031°F) and 35 mg/g total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. At these maturity levels, essentially no soluble bitumen is present in the coals before or after hydrous pyrolysis. The equivalent kerogen atomic H/C ratio is 0.50 at the primary gas-generation limit and indicates that no alkyl moieties are remaining to source hydrocarbon gases. The convergence of atomic H/C ratios of type-II and -I kerogen to this same value at a reflectance of indicates that the primary gas-generation limits for humic coal and type-III kerogen also apply to oil-prone kerogen. Although gas generation from source rocks does not exceed vitrinite reflectance values greater than , trapped hydrocarbon gases can remain stable at higher reflectance values. Distinguishing trapped gas from generated gas in hydrous-pyrolysis experiments is readily determined by of the hydrocarbon gases when a -depleted water is used in the experiments. Water serves as a source of hydrogen in hydrous pyrolysis and, as a result, the use of -depleted water is reflected in the generated gases but not pre-existing trapped gases.

  13. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  14. Note: Determination of effective gas diffusion coefficients of stainless steel films with differently shaped holes using a Loschmidt diffusion cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrath, N G C; Shen, J; Astrath, F B G; Zhou, J; Huang, C; Yuan, X Z; Wang, H; Navessin, T; Liu, Z S; Vlajnic, G; Bessarabov, D; Zhao, X

    2010-04-01

    In this work, an in-house made Loschmidt diffusion cell is used to measure the effective O(2)-N(2) diffusion coefficients through four porous samples of different simple pore structures. One-dimensional through-plane mass diffusion theory is applied to process the experimental data. It is found that both bulk diffusion coefficient and the effective gas diffusion coefficients of the samples can then be precisely determined, and the measured bulk one is in good agreement with the literature value. Numerical computation of three-dimensional mass diffusion through the samples is performed to calculate the effective gas diffusion coefficients. The comparison between the measured and calculated coefficient values shows that if the gas diffusion through a sample is dominated by one-dimensional diffusion, which is determined by the pore structure of the sample, these two values are consistent, and the sample can be used as a standard sample to test a gas diffusion measurement system.

  15. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  16. Determination of the fission gas release in the segment N0204 and gas phase result of anoxic leaching experiment

    OpenAIRE

    González-Robles, Ernesto; Bohnert, Elke; Müller, Nikolaus; Herm, Michel; Metz, Volker; Kienzler, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the experiments performed at INE within the Work-packages 2 and 3 of the EURATOM FP7 Collaborative Project, “Fast / Instant Release of Safety Relevant Radionuclides from Spent Nuclear Fuel (CP FIRST-Nuclides)”. The segment N0204 from the pressure water reactor of Gösgen (KKG) nuclear power plant was selected to carry out this project. In a first approach and before the performance of leaching experiment, the fission gas release of this segment was det...

  17. EQQYAC: Program for determining geothermal reservoir chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, R. M.; Nieva, D. G.

    The computer program EQQYAC calculates the equilibrium distribution of inorganic aqueous ion species in geothermal reservoirs, using the chemical composition of discharged fluids and in situ physical measurements. The program, written in FORTRAN IV for a VAX/11-780 computer system, is suited to handle data from wells that produce both steam and liquid phase water. The program has been successfully used with data of wells from Los Azufres geothermal field. EQQYAC estimates the reservoir steam fraction, (excess steam), that could be present in the total discharge fluid. In order to carry out this calculation, the Fischer-Tropsch reaction is assumed to be at equilibrium at reservoir conditions. The deviation of the concentrations of the participant ions from the expected values at equilibrium, are considered due to the excess steam. This program also may be used to study chemical changes in the deep fluid as a consequence of reservoir boiling.

  18. Baseline gas turbine development program. First quarterly progress report, January 31, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine-powered automobile which meets the 1976 Federal Emission Standards and which is competitive in fuel economy, performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine-powered, standard size American automobile. Procurement and assembly of parts for seven engines plus spares is basically on schedule, although some areas are requiring intensive follow-up. A partial engine (including regenerators) was assembled for shipment to Solar. It will be incorporated into their combustor test rig, where it will provide both pre-heat and a proper physical environment for their combustor evaluation and development. Of the two test cells being refurbished for use on this program, one was completed and the other is underway. Two engines loaned to start the program were checked out, qualified, and delivered. Vehicle installation design is nearly complete. The cars were ordered. Vehicle engineering to provide hydraulic power boost braking, heating and air conditioning, and transmission is underway. Procurement arrangements for basic body and chassis changes were completed. In support to the Government, an engine characterization was prepared and assistance given in developing a combustor test procedure. Work was initiated on developing a control system for a variable geometry combustor. A request for proposal for an upgraded engine control system was prepared and issued. Preparations are being made for a free rotor concept evaluation. A plan of performance was prepared and submitted. Included were program plan charts and estimated cumulative manpower graphs.

  19. Alternative sorptive extraction method for gas chromatography determination of halogenated anisoles in water and wine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Rodriguez, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)], E-mail: qnisaac@usc.es; Rubi, E.; Bollain, M.H.; Cela, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2007-09-05

    An alternative sorptive microextraction method for the determination of five halogenated anisoles in water and wine matrices is proposed. Analytes were concentrated in an inexpensive and disposable piece of bulk polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), desorbed with a small volume of organic solvent, and determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) or tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of several factors on the efficiency of extraction and desorption steps was investigated in detail and the observed behaviour justified on the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics of the solid-phase microextraction technique. Under optimised conditions, analytes were first extracted in the headspace (HS) mode, at room temperature, for 2.5 h and then desorbed with 1 mL of n-pentane. This extract was further evaporated to 50 {mu}L. The overall extraction yield of the procedure ranged from 40 to 55% and the limits of quantification remained between 0.5 and 20 ng L{sup -1}, depending on the compound considered and the detection technique. Precision and linearity of the method were excellent for all species with both GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS detection. Matrix effects were evaluated with different water and wine samples; moreover, the suitability of the PDMS sorbent for storage of analytes, under different conditions, was demonstrated.

  20. Accurate determination of residual acrylic acid in superabsorbent polymer of hygiene products by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Jiang, Ran

    2017-02-17

    This work reports on a method for the determination of residual acrylic acid (AA) in the superabsorbent polymers for hygiene products by headspace analysis. It was based on water extraction for the polymer sample at a room temperature for 50min. Then, the AA in the extractant reacted with bicarbonate solution in a closed headspace sample vial, from which the carbon dioxide generated from the reaction (within 20min at 70°C) was detected by gas chromatography (GC). It was found that there is adsorption partition equilibrium of AA between solid-liquid phases. Therefore, an equation for calculating the total AA content in the original polymers sample was derived based on the above phase equilibrium. The results show that the HS-GC method has good precision (RSD<2.51%) and good accuracy (recoveries from 93 to 105%); the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 373mg/kg. The present method is rapid, accurate, and suitable for determining total residual acrylic acid in a wide variety of applications from processing of superabsorbent polymer to commercial products quality control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of enantiomers of synthetic pyrethroids in water by solid phase microextraction - enantioselective gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping; Gan, Jay J

    2004-02-25

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is an ideal sample preparation technique because of its speed and solvent-free features. Sampling by SPME is selective and only the dissolved concentration is measured, which allows measurement of the bioavailable fraction of a contaminant in aqueous media. One potential application of SPME is for analysis of enantiomers of chiral contaminants in environmental samples. In this study, a method was developed for determining enantiomers of (Z)-cis-bifenthrin and cis-permethrin in water using coupled SPME and enantioselective gas chromatography (GC). Following SPME sampling, enantiomers of (Z)-cis-bifenthrin and cis-permethrin were separated at the baseline on a beta-cyclodextrin-based enantioselective column, and analyte enrichment onto the SPME fiber was not enantioselective. The GC response increased as sampling time was increased from 0 to 240 min, and as sampling temperature was increased from 20 to 40 degrees C. Organic solvents such as methanol, acetone, and acetonitrile enhanced, while soil extracts slightly decreased, the GC response. The integrated SPME-enantioselective GC method was used to analyze surface runoff samples. The analysis showed preferential degradation of the 1S-3S enantiomer over the 1R-3R enantiomer for both (Z)-cis-bifenthrin and cis-permethrin. The concentrations detected by SPME-GC were substantially smaller than those determined following solvent extraction, suggesting that SPME-enantioselective GC analysis selectively measured the dissolved fraction.

  2. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Fatty Acids in Oils with Regard to the Assessment of Fire Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Alica; Štefko, Tomáš

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the paper was to study and research the application of processing gas chromatographic method for the rapid and accurate determination of the composition of different types of oils, such as substances with the possibility of an adverse event spontaneous combustion or self-heating. Tendency to spontaneous combustion is chemically characterized mainly by the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, which have one or more double bonds in their molecule. Vegetable oils essentially consist of the following fatty acids: palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linoleic. For the needs of assessment, the fire hazard must be known, in which the double bond is present, as well as their number in a molecule. As an analytical method, GCMS was used for determination of oils content. Three types of oil were used - rapeseed, sunflower, and coconut oil. Owing to the occurrence of linoleic acid C18:2 (49.8 wt.%) and oleic acid C18:1 (43.3 wt.%) with double bonds, sunflower oil is the most prone to self-heating. The coconut and rapeseed oils contain double bond FAME in lesser amount, and their propensity to self-heating is relatively low.

  3. Determination of Profenofos Pesticidal Residue in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. by Gas Chromatographic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Alen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The determination of profenofos pesticidal residue in the lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. by using gas chromatography using flame photometric detector (FPD had been investigated. The lettuce was collected from Padang Luar area, Agam distric, West Sumatera. Sample for determination of profenofos residue divided into three groups: unwashed (A, washed with water (B, and washed with detergent (C. Maceration with sonication was used for the extraction using ethylacetateas a solvent. The results showed that profenofos pesticide residue in sample A, B and C were 0.204, 0.080 and 0.061 ppm, respectively. These profenofos pesticidal residue are over than the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL that established by The Japan Food Chemical Research Foundation (0.05 ppm even though World Health Organization (WHO has not established Maximum Residue Limits (MRL profenofos on lettuce. Based on the statistical analysis one-way method (Anova using SPSS 20.0 showed that there was a significant concentrations difference between lettuce A from lettuce B and lettuce C with p < 0.05.

  4. In situ aqueous derivatization as sample preparation technique for gas chromatographic determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana María Casas; Laespada, María Esther Fernández; Pavón, José Luis Pérez; Cordero, Bernardo Moreno

    2013-06-28

    The use of derivatization reactions is a common practice in analytical laboratories. Although in many cases it is tedious and time-consuming, it does offer a good alternative for the determination of analytes not compatible to gas chromatography. Many of the reactions reported in the literature occur in organic medium. However, in situ aqueous derivatization reactions, which can be performed directly in aqueous medium, offer important advantages over those mentioned above, such as no need of a previous extraction step and easy automation. Here we review the most recent developments and applications of in situ aqueous derivatization. The discussion focuses on the derivatization reactions used for the determination of alcohols and phenols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and ketones, nitrogen-containing compounds and thiols in different aqueous matrices, such as environmental, biological and food samples. Several reactions are described for each functional group (acylation, alkylation, esterification, among others) and, in some cases, the same reagents can be used for several functional groups, such that there is an unavoidable overlap between sections. Finally, attention is also focused on the techniques used for the introduction of the derivatives formed in the aqueous medium into the chromatographic system. The implementation of in situ aqueous derivatization coupled to preconcentration techniques has permitted the enhancement of recoveries and improvements in the separation, selectivity and sensitivity of the analytical methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Simultaneous determination of seven residual solvents in bovis calculus artifactus by headspace gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyao; Wu, Dike; Sun, Jinhong; Ye, Ruhan; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2014-05-01

    A headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven residual solvents (petroleum ether (60-90 degrees C), acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol, methylene chloride, ethanol and butyl acetate) in bovis calculus artifactus. The DB-WAX capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) were used for the separation and detection of the residual solvents, and the internal standard method was used for the quantification. The chromatographic conditions, such as equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, all of the seven residual solvents showed good linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (not less than 0.999 3) in the prescribed concentration range. At three spiked levels, the recoveries for the seven residual solvents were 94.7%-105.2% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 3.5%. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method were 0.43-5.23 mg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.25-16.67 mg/L. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and is suitable for the simultaneous determination of the seven residual solvents in bovis calculus artifactus.

  6. Amperometric Determination of Sulfite by Gas Diffusion- Sequential Injection with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawon Chailapakul

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A gas diffusion sequential injection system with amperometric detection using aboron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the determination of sulfite. A gasdiffusion unit (GDU was used to prevent interference from sample matrices for theelectrochemical measurement. The sample was mixed with an acid solution to generategaseous sulfur dioxide prior to its passage through the donor channel of the GDU. Thesulfur dioxide diffused through the PTFE hydrophobic membrane into a carrier solution of 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 8/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in the acceptor channel of theGDU and turned to sulfite. Then the sulfite was carried to the electrochemical flow cell anddetected directly by amperometry using the boron-doped diamond electrode at 0.95 V(versus Ag/AgCl. Sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the carrier solution to preventelectrode fouling. This method was applicable in the concentration range of 0.2-20 mgSO32−/L and a detection limit (S/N = 3 of 0.05 mg SO32−/L was achieved. This method wassuccessfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wines and the analytical resultsagreed well with those obtained by iodimetric titration. The relative standard deviations forthe analysis of sulfite in wines were in the range of 1.0-4.1 %. The sampling frequency was65 h−1.

  7. Determination of acetaldehyde in saliva by gas-diffusion flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdzan, Adlin N; Mornane, Patrick J; McCullough, Michael J; Mazurek, Waldemar; Kolev, Spas D

    2013-07-05

    The consumption of ethanol is known to increase the likelihood of oral cancer. In addition, there has been a growing concern about possible association between long term use of ethanol-containing mouthwashes and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde, known to be a carcinogen, is the first metabolite of ethanol and it can be produced in the oral cavity after consumption or exposure to ethanol. This paper reports on the development of a gas-diffusion flow injection method for the online determination of salivary acetaldehyde by its colour reaction with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) and ferric chloride. Acetaldehyde samples and standards (80 μL) were injected into the donor stream containing NaCl from which acetaldehyde diffused through the hydrophobic Teflon membrane of the gas-diffusion cell into the acceptor stream containing the two reagents mentioned above. The resultant intense green coloured dye was monitored spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. Under the optimum working conditions the method is characterized by a sampling rate of 9h(-1), a linear calibration range of 0.5-15 mg L(-1) (absorbance=5.40×10(-2) [acetaldehyde, mg L(-1)], R(2)=0.998), a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.90% (n=10, acetaldehyde concentration of 2.5 mg L(-1)), and a limit of detection (LOD) of 12.3 μg L(-1). The LOD and sampling rate of the proposed method are superior to those of the conventional gas chromatographic (GC) method (LOD=93.0 μg L(-1) and sampling rate=4 h(-1)). The reliability of the proposed method was illustrated by the fact that spiked with acetaldehyde saliva samples yielded excellent recoveries (96.6-101.9%), comparable to those obtained by GC (96.4-102.3%) and there was no statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the two methods when non-spiked saliva samples were analysed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Public Service Electric & Gas Company`s standard offer program, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    In May 1993, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), the largest investor-owned utility in New Jersey, initiated the Standard Offer program, an innovative approach to acquiring demand-side management (DSM) resources. In this program, PSE&G offers longterm contracts with standard terms and conditions to project sponsors, either customers or third-party energy service companies (ESCOs), on a first-come, first-serve basis to fill a resource block. The design includes posted, time-differentiated prices which are paid for energy savings that will be verified over the contract term (5, 10, or 15 years) based on a statewide measurement and verification (M&V) protocol. The design of the Standard Offer differs significantly from DSM bidding programs in several respects. The eligibility requirements and posted prices allow ESCOs and other energy service providers to market and develop projects among customers with few constraints on acceptable end use efficiency technologies. In contrast, in DSM bidding, ESCOs typically submit bids without final commitments from customers and the utility selects a limited number of winning bidders who often agree to deliver a pre-specified mix of savings from various end uses in targeted markets. The major objectives of the LBNL evaluation were to assess market response and customer satisfaction; analyze program costs and cost-effectiveness; review and evaluate the utility`s administration and delivery of the program; examine the role of PSE&G`s energy services subsidiary (PSCRC) in the program and the effect of its involvement on the development of the energy services industry in New Jersey; and discuss the potential applicability of the Standard Offer concept given current trends in the electricity industry (i.e., increasing competition and the prospect of industry restructuring).

  9. Determination of pesticide residues in animal origin baby foods by gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Graziella; Pelosi, Patrizia; Attard Barbini, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    A simple, fast and multiresidue method for the determination of pesticide residues in baby foods of animal origin has been developed in order to check the compliance with the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) set at a general value of 0.01 mg/kg by Commission Directive 2006/125/EC for infant foods. The main classes of organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid compounds have been considered, which are mainly fat soluble pesticides. The analytical procedure consists in the extraction of baby food samples by acetonitrile (ACN) followed by a clean up using C18 solid-phase extraction column eluted with ACN. The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with a Programmed Temperature Vaporizer (PTV) injection and a backflush system. In order to compensate for matrix effects PTV and matrix matched standard calibrations have been used. The method has been fully validated for 57 pesticides according to the Document SANCO/12571/2013. Accuracy and precision (repeatability) have been studied by recoveries at two spiking levels, the Limit of Quantitation (LOQ) (0.003-0.008 mg/kg) and 10 time greater (0.03-0.08 mg/kg), and the results were in the acceptable range of 70-120% with Relative Standards Deviations (RSD) ≤20%. Selectivity, linearity, LOQ and uncertainty of measurement were also determined for all the compounds. The method has been also applied for the analysis of 18 baby food animal origin samples, bought form the local market in Rome (Italy), and no pesticide in the scope of the method has been found above the MRL or the LOQ.

  10. Generic Analysis Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Performance: The development of the gas turbine simulation program GSP

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, W.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical modelling and simulation have played a critical role in the research and development towards today’s powerful and efficient gas turbine engines for both aviation and power generation. The simultaneous progress in modelling methods, numerical methods, software development tools and methods, and computer platform technology has provided the gas turbine community with ever more accurate design, performance prediction and analysis tools. An important element is the development towards g...

  11. Computing Programs for Determining Traffic Flows from Roundabouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroiu, A. A.; Tabacu, I.; Ene, A.; Neagu, E.; Boroiu, A.

    2017-10-01

    For modelling road traffic at the level of a road network it is necessary to specify the flows of all traffic currents at each intersection. These data can be obtained by direct measurements at the traffic light intersections, but in the case of a roundabout this is not possible directly and the literature as well as the traffic modelling software doesn’t offer ways to solve this issue. Two sets of formulas are proposed by which all traffic flows from the roundabouts with 3 or 4 arms are calculated based on the streams that can be measured. The objective of this paper is to develop computational programs to operate with these formulas. For each of the two sets of analytical relations, a computational program was developed in the Java operating language. The obtained results fully confirm the applicability of the calculation programs. The final stage for capitalizing these programs will be to make them web pages in HTML format, so that they can be accessed and used on the Internet. The achievements presented in this paper are an important step to provide a necessary tool for traffic modelling because these computational programs can be easily integrated into specialized software.

  12. Temporal competition between differentiation programs determines cell fate choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchina, Anna; Espinar, Lorena; Cagatay, Tolga; Balbin, Alejandro; Alvarado, Alma; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Suel, Gurol

    2011-03-01

    During pluripotent differentiation, cells adopt one of several distinct fates. The dynamics of this decision-making process are poorly understood, since cell fate choice may be governed by interactions between differentiation programs that are active at the same time. We studied the dynamics of decision-making in the model organism Bacillus subtilis by simultaneously measuring the activities of competing differentiation programs (sporulation and competence) in single cells. We discovered a precise switch-like point of cell fate choice previously hidden by cell-cell variability. Engineered artificial crosslinks between competence and sporulation circuits revealed that the precision of this choice is generated by temporal competition between the key players of two differentiation programs. Modeling suggests that variable progression towards a switch-like decision might represent a general strategy to maximize adaptability and robustness of cellular decision-making.

  13. [Determination of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material by headspace gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huilian

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of five kinds of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material was developed by headspace gas chromatography. An HP-FFAP capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm x 1.0 microm), a flame ionization detector and the external standard method were used for the separation and quantitative analysis. The effects of equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time on the determination of residual organic solvents were investigated. The good results were obtained in the equilibrium temperature of 90 degrees C and equilibrium time of 30 min. The standard curves were linear in the range of 0.40-7.93 mg/L (r = 0.999 8) for ethyl acetate, 7.32-146.48 mg/L (r = 0.999 6) for methanol, 4.53-90.61 mg/L (r = 0.999 9) for isopropanol, 3.62-72.32 mg/L (r = 0.999 8) for ethanol and 2.31-46.24 mg/L (r = 0.999 6) for acetonitrile. The recoveries for the five residual organic solvents were between 95.96% and 100.31% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 6) of 1.97%-3.28%. The detection limits of ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropanol, ethanol and acetonitrile were 0.08, 0.9, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze the residual organic solvents in the real sample of flunixin meglumine raw material. The results showed that only isopropanol and ethanol were found in the sample with the contents of 177.44 microg/g and 69.32 microg/g, respectively. The method is rapid, sensitive and accurate for the content determination of residual solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material.

  14. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of british anti-lewisite in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, C E; Holloway, E R; Korte, W D; Smith, J R; Clarkson, E D; Platoff, G E; Capacio, B R

    2004-01-01

    British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) is a potential therapeutic compound when used against the effects of cutaneous sulfur mustard, and a method for its determination in plasma has been developed. BAL and the internal standard (IS) ethane dithiol were isolated from plasma samples through solid-phase extraction and then reacted with 1-pentafluoropropionylimidazole, forming stable pentafluoropropionyl derivates that are sensitive to gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. Examination of concentration versus peak-area ratios of the BAL and IS derivatives demonstrated the method to be linear over a concentration range of 0.48 to 124 ng/mL in plasma when fit to a weighted (1/y2) least-squares regression. Correlation coefficients were 0.9943 to 0.9995 for six runs, and coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.5 to 8.7% over the eight concentrations tested. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision of this method was measured by examining six groups of eight unknown test samples (n = 6). Intraday accuracy, as expressed by percent error, was found to range from -15.4 to 0.21%, whereas the precision, expressed as %CV, was less than 9.8% over all sample concentrations. Interday test unknown sample results were similar in that the accuracy was shown to be -7.1 to 0.4%, and precision was 4.7 to 9.5%. BAL levels in frozen plasma (-70 degrees C) remained constant for more than 14 days with a CV of less than 10% for the eight concentrations tested. The data indicate that the method will provide accurate and precise determination of BAL at concentrations down to approximately 1 ng/mL in plasma. This procedure has been applied to determine preliminary time-concentration profile studies of BAL in the hairless guinea pig.

  15. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY DISINVESTMENT WORLDWIDE: OVERVIEW OF PROGRAMS AND POSSIBLE DETERMINANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orso, Massimiliano; de Waure, Chiara; Abraha, Iosief; Nicastro, Carlo; Cozzolino, Francesco; Eusebi, Paolo; Montedori, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a growing interest in health technology disinvestment. A disinvestment process should involve all relevant stakeholders to identify and deliver the most effective, safe, and cost-effective healthcare interventions. The aim of the present study was to describe the state of the art of health technology disinvestment around the world and to identify parameters that could be associated with the implementation of disinvestment programs. A systematic review of the literature was performed from database inception to November 2014, together with the collection of original data on socio-economic indicators from forty countries. Overall, 1,456 records (1,199 from electronic databases and 257 from other sources) were initially retrieved. After analyzing 172 full text articles, 38 papers describing fifteen disinvestment programs/experiences in eight countries were included. The majority (12/15) of disinvestment programs began after 2006. As expected, these programs were more common in developed countries, 63 percent of which had a Beveridge model healthcare system. The univariate analysis showed that countries with disinvestment programs had a significantly higher level of Human Development Index, Gross Domestic Product per capita, public expenditure on health and social services, life expectancy at birth and a lower level of infant mortality rate, and of perceived corruption. The existence of HTA agencies in the country was a strong predictor (p = .034) for the development of disinvestment programs. The most significant variables in the univariate analysis were connected by a common factor, potentially related to the overall development stage of the country.

  16. An integrated platform for gas-diffusion separation and electrochemical determination of ethanol on fermentation broths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, Gabriela Furlan [Microfabrication Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Vieira, Luis Carlos Silveira; Gobbi, Angelo Luiz [Microfabrication Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Lima, Renato Sousa [Microfabrication Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo, E-mail: kubota@iqm.unicamp.br [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • Integrated platform was developed to determine ethanol in fermentation broths. • The designed system integrates gas diffusion separation with voltammetric detection. • Detector relied on Ni(OH){sub 2}-modified electrode stabilized by Co{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} insertion. • Separation was made by PTFE membrane separating sample from electrolyte (receptor). • Despite the sample complexity, accurate tests were achieved by direct interpolation. - Abstract: An integrated platform was developed for point-of-use determination of ethanol in sugar cane fermentation broths. Such analysis is important because ethanol reduces its fuel production efficiency by altering the alcoholic fermentation step when in excess. The custom-designed platform integrates gas diffusion separation with voltammetric detection in a single analysis module. The detector relied on a Ni(OH){sub 2}-modified electrode. It was stabilized by uniformly depositing cobalt and cadmium hydroxides as shown by XPS measurements. Such tests were in accordance with the hypothesis related to stabilization of the Ni(OH){sub 2} structure by insertion of Co{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions in this structure. The separation step, in turn, was based on a hydrophobic PTFE membrane, which separates the sample from receptor solution (electrolyte) where the electrodes were placed. Parameters of limit of detection and analytical sensitivity were estimated to be 0.2% v/v and 2.90 μA % (v/v){sup −1}, respectively. Samples of fermentation broth were analyzed by both standard addition method and direct interpolation in saline medium based-analytical curve. In this case, the saline solution exhibited ionic strength similar to those of the samples intended to surpass the tonometry colligative effect of the samples over analyte concentration data by attributing the reduction in quantity of diffused ethanol vapor majorly to the electrolyte. The approach of analytical curve provided rapid, simple and accurate

  17. US Natural Gas Price Determination: Fundamentals and the Development of Shale

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins, Seth; Etienne, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a structural vector autoregression (SVAR) to model the US natural gas market. Domestic natural gas production has dramatically increased in the late 2000’s as producers implemented improved horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to extract natural gas from shale deposits. This paper applies techniques developed in the crude-oil literature that incorporate time-varying parameters (TVP), which more realistically model a changing market. Results suggest the suppl...

  18. Building Self-Determination through Inclusive Extracurricular Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoski, Erin; Graybill, Emily; Roach, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Extracurricular activities provide students a range of rich experiences that influence their academic achievement, leadership and communication skills, and career paths. Students with disabilities (SWDs) historically have had limited access to extracurricular programs and thus fewer opportunities for academic, social, and vocational development.…

  19. Residual solvent determination by head space gas chromatography with flame ionization detector in omeprazole API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Pandey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Residual solvents in pharmaceutical samples are monitored using gas chromatography with head space. Based on good manufacturing practices, measuring residual solvents is mandatory for the release testing of all active pharmaceutical ingredients (API. The analysis of residual organic solvents (methanol, acetone, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, toluene in Omeprazole, an active pharmaceutical ingredient was investigated. Omeprazole is a potent reversible inhibitor of the gastric proton pump H+/K+-ATPase. The Head space gas chromatography (HSGC method described in this investigation utilized a SPB TM-624, Supelco, 30 m long x 0.25 mm internal diameter, 1.4µm-thick column. Since Omeprazole is a thermally labile compound, the selection of the proper injector temperature is critical to the success of the analysis. The injector temperature was set at 170ºC to prevent degradation. The initial oven temperature was set at 40ºC for 12 min and programmed at a rate of 10ºC min-1 to a final temperature of 220ºC for 5 min. Nitrogen was used as a carrier gas. The sample solvent selected was N,N-dimethylacetamide. The method was validated to be specific, linear, precise, sensitive, rugged and showed excellent recovery.Solventes residuais em amostras farmacêuticas são monitoradas utilizando-se cromatografia a gás "headspace". Com base nas boas práticas de fabricação, a medida de solventes residuais é obrigatória para o teste de liberação de todos os ingredientes farmacêuticos (API. Efetuou-se a análise de solventes orgânicos residuais (metanol, acetona, cicloexano, diclorometano, tolueno em omeprazol, ingrediente farmacêutico ativo. O omeprazol é potente inibidor reversível da bomba de prótons H+/K+-ATPase. A cromatografia a gás "headspace" (HSGC descrita nessa pesquisa utilizou um SPB TM-624, Supelco, de 30 m de comprimento x 0,25 mm de diâmetro interno, e coluna de 1,4 µm de espessura. Considerando-se que o omeprazol é termicamente l

  20. Determination of natural and synthetic oestrogens in surface water using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive gas chromatography method was developed to determine a group of oestrogens in surface water. In the first stage of analysis, enzymatic hydrolysis of oestrogen metabolites with glucuronidase AS-HP was performed. Free compounds were extracted from 200 mL of water sample on C18 SPE column (6 mL, 1000 mg. The evaporated extract was subjected to derivatisation with a mixture of MSTFA/NH4I/DTT (1000:2:5, v/w/w. The separation of the analytes on HP-5ms capillary column was conducted. The method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Recovery in spiked samples ranged from 90% to 120 % with standard deviation lower than 30% for all examined compounds. The decision limit and detection capability of five oestrogens were in the range of 0.3-0.6 ng L-1 and 0.5-0.9 ng L-1, respectively. Nineteen water samples collected from different sites of several Polish rivers and lakes were tested for the presence of oestrogens. Some target compounds such as 17α-oestradiol, 17β-oestradiol, oestrone, oestriol, and 17α-ethynyloestradiol were found in trace amounts in the analysed samples. The highest concentration observed for oestradiol reached 23 ng L-1.

  1. Determination of Menthol in Plasma and Urine by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Judy; Frazee, Clint; Kearns, Gregory; Garg, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Menthol, a monoterpene, is a principal component of peppermint oil and is used extensively in consumer products as a flavoring aid. It is also commonly used medicinally as a topical skin coolant; to treat inflammation of the mucous membranes, digestive problems, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); and in preventing spasms during endoscopy and for its spasmolytic effect on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Menthol has a half life of 3-6 h and is rapidly metabolized to menthol glucuronide which is detectable in urine and serum following menthol use. We describe a method for the determination of total menthol in human plasma and urine using liquid/liquid extraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode and menthol-d4 as the internal standard. Controls are prepared with menthol glucuronide and all samples undergo enzymatic hydrolysis for the quantification of total menthol. The method has a linear range of 5-1000 ng/mL, and coefficient of variation <10%.

  2. Quantitative determination of non-starch polysaccharides in foods using Gas Chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Adler, Lewis; Srzednicki, George; Arcot, Jayashree

    2017-04-01

    A gas chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharides of the soluble, insoluble fractions and the total non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) content in foods with fat contents of less than 5%. Sample preparation involved enzymatic removal of starch and acid hydrolysis of the NSP to their constituent sugars. The alditol acetate derivatives were analysed on a wide bore capillary column with detection by flame ionization. The method was accurate, with recovery of spiked samples between 93.6% and 102.7% for intra-day analysis and between 93.2% and 104.7% for inter-day analysis. Repeatability was excellent; RSD values from 0.1 to 4.4% and 0.2 to 5.7% were observed from intra-day analysis and inter-day analysis, respectively. The peaks for all neutral sugars were sharp and separation was at baseline resolution with no interfering or co-eluting peaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of volatile marker compounds in raw ham using headspace-trap gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse Née Danz, Ramona; Wirth, Melanie; Konstanz, Annette; Becker, Thomas; Weiss, Jochen; Gibis, Monika

    2017-03-15

    A simple, reliable and automated method was developed and optimized for qualification and quantification of aroma-relevant volatile marker compounds of North European raw ham using a headspace (HS)-Trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detector (FID) analysis. A total of 38 volatile compounds were detected with this HS-Trap GC-MS method amongst which the largest groups were ketones (12), alcohols (8), hydrocarbons (7), aldehydes (6) and esters (3). The HS-Trap GC-FID method was optimized for the parameters: thermostatting time and temperature, vial and desorption pressure, number of extraction cycles and salt addition. A validation for 13 volatile marker compounds with limits of detection in ng/g was carried out. The optimized method can serve as alternative to conventional headspace and solid phase micro extraction methods and allows users to determine volatile compounds in raw hams making it of interest to industrial and academic meat scientists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Determination of antioxidant residues in polymer food package using gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhongqiang; Wang, Libing; Li, Ningtao; Yu, Yanjun; Jia, Xiaochuan

    2011-03-01

    A new method for the determination of antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in plastic food package by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (ECD) was developed. The antioxidants were extracted by cyclohexane with ultrasonic extraction, separated by an HP-50 + chromatographic column (30 m x 0.53 mm x 1 microm) and quantified by external standard method with an ECD detector. The average recoveries of antioxidants were 88% -93%, 92% - 101% and 83% -97% for BHT, BHA and TBHQ, respectively, at the spiking levels of 3.00 - 10.0 mg/kg. The corresponding relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) were 2.01% - 2.89%, 2.11% - 3.19% and 2.99% - 4.02%, respectively. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.5, 0.5 and 0.8 mg/kg for BHT, BHA and TBHQ, respectively. The proposed method has been applied to the analysis of 5 kinds of polymer food package. The results indicated that all the above antioxidants were found in the practical polymer food package samples. Plastic food package contained BHT and BHA with the concentrations varying from 6.3 to 7.8 mg/kg and rubber food package contained all the three antioxidants with the concentrations varying from 9.3 to 28.4 mg/kg. This method is accurate, sensitive, highly reproducible and suitable for the analysis of residual antioxidants in polymer food package.

  5. Determination of porphyrin carbon isotopic composition using gas chromatography-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z; Sheng, G; Fu, J; Peng, P

    2000-12-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions of aetio I occurring in the form of free-base, nickel, demetallation, dihydroxysilicon(IV) and bis(tert.-butyldimethylsiloxy)silicon(IV) [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] have shown that it has experienced no obvious isotope fractionation during the synthesis of [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] porphyrin from aetio I. Here, aetio I porphyrin species such as free-base, nickel, demetallated and dihydroxysilicon were analyzed by the conventional method, namely it is combusted in sealed system, and followed by isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometric analysis. [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] aetio I was assayed by gas chromatography-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). A porphyrin mixture of [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] aetio I and octaethylporphyrin was also prepared. Their carbon isotopic compositions measured by GC-IRMS indicate that no isotope exchange took place between the porphyrins during the synthesis of [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] porphyrins. This method is employed for delta13C determination of geoporphyrins from the Maoming and Jianghan oil shales.

  6. Determination of volatile organic compounds in river water by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaleb, M A; Abedin, M Z; Islam, M S

    2004-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and reproducible method is described employing solid-phase extraction (SPE) using dichloromethane followed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID) for determination of volatile organic compound (VOC) from the Buriganga River water of Bangladesh. The method was applied to detect the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and cumene (BTEXC) in the sample collected from the surface or 15 cm depth of water. Two-hundred ml of n-hexane-pretreated and filtered water samples were applied directly to a C18 SPE column. BTEXC were extracted with dichloromethane and average concentrations were obtained as 0.104 to 0.372 microg/ml. The highest concentration of benzene was found as 0.372 microg/ml with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.2%, and cumene was not detected. Factors influencing SPE e.g., adsorbent types, sample load volume, eluting solvent, headspace and temperatures, were investigated. A cartridge containing a C18 adsorbent and using dichloromethane gave better performance for extraction of BTEXC from water. Average recoveries exceeding 90% could be achieved for cumene at 4 degrees C with a 2.7% RSD.

  7. Determination of terpenes in tequila by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Alvarez, Araceli; Capella, Santiago; Juárez, Rocío; Labastida, Carmen

    2006-11-17

    Solid phase microextraction and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for the determination of seven terpenes in tequila. The method was selected based on the following parameters: coating selection (PA, PDMS, CW/DVB, and PDMS/DVB), extraction temperature, addition of salt, and extraction time profile. The extraction conditions were: PDMS/DVB fiber, Headspace, 100% NaCl, 25 degrees C extraction temperature, 30 min extraction time and stirring at 1200 rpm. The calibration curves (50-1000 ng/ml) for the terpenes followed linear relationships with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.99, except for trans,trans-farnesol (r = 0.98). RSD values were smaller than 10% confirmed that the technique was precise. Samples from 18 different trade brands of "Aged" tequila analyzed with the developed method showed the same terpenes in different concentrations. The analytical procedure used is selective, robust (more than 100 analyses with the same fiber), fast and of low-cost.

  8. Identification and determination of chlorinated paraffins using multivariate evaluation of gas chromatographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Marie-Louise; Bengtsson, Staffan; Kylin, Henrik

    2012-04-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were found in the biodegradable fraction of source separated waste from Uppsala, Sweden. We identified and quantified the CPs by multivariate evaluation of gas chromatography-electron capture detection chromatograms. Using principal component analyses (PCA) we identified different types of CP-formulations and also obtain quantitative data. PCA yielded better identifications of individual CP-formulations than visual comparison of chromatograms. Partial least squares regression gave good calibration curves of the standards, but did not work for the waste samples. No source of CPs could be identified in the waste collection chain, and as the waste samples seemed to contain at least two different CP-formulations the source was probably to be found in the waste material itself. The method was used to determine CPs in additional environmental samples, demonstrating that multivariate methods may be developed into a powerful tool for identification and quantification of complex mixture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN INFANT FORMULA BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY WITHOUT DERIVATIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Oveisi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids play important roles in biological systems and the newborns fatty acids requirements are covered only by the milk. It is of particular interest to qualify the content of the fatty acids in the milk. This study was performed to determine the levels of some fatty acids in the infant formulas and also to describe a method without derivatization for the fatty acids analysis and applying it to the control of infant formulas. Free fatty acids were produced by adding isopropanol- KOH to milk fat extract and heating it to saponify and acidify by H2SO4. Free fatty acids were extracted and were quantified by capillary gas chromatography on a fused silica column (AT-1000 and flame ionization detector. The average experimental values of lauric, palmitic, stearic and linoleic fatty acids contents of twenty infant formulas were 6.47, 16.52, 2.11 and 14.56 g/100g, respectively. The obtained experimental values of lauric and linoleic fatty acids contents of twenty infant formulas were in good agreement with the values proposed by standards of codex alimentary.

  10. Simultaneous determination of organophosphorous insecticides in bean samples by gas chromatography - flame photometric detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyller Bastos Borges

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs in crops may leave residues in food and may cause poisoning in the applicators. A method was developed for the determination of five OPPs in bean samples by Gas Chromatography-Flame Photometric Detection (GC-FPD. Validation parameters comprised linearity between 0.24 and 8.56 μg g-1 (r = 0.9985 for diazinon; 0.23 and 8.14 μg g-1 (r = 0.9959 for methyl parathion; 0.28 and 10.25 μg g-1 (r = 0.9987 for methyl pirimiphos; 0.52 and 18.87 μg g-1 (r = 0.9955 for malathion; 0.86 and 13.67 μg g-1 (r = 0.9919 for ethion. The limits of quantification (equal to those of detection were the lowest rates of ranges mentioned above for each compound. The extraction method showed approximately 95% recovery, with CV% < 15%. Although twenty-eight bean samples obtained in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais,Brazil, were analyzed, they failed to match any of the OPPs under analysis. The absence of OPPs in the samples could be due to the degradation that occurred between the use of OPPs and bean commercialization, levels below the detection /quantification limits and the non-use of OPPs in bean cultivation.

  11. Simultaneous determination of cosmetics ingredients in nail products by fast gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanlong; Wang, Perry G; Wittenberg, James B; Rua, Diego; Krynitsky, Alexander J

    2016-05-13

    A rapid and sensitive gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated to quantitatively determine cosmetic ingredients, such as toluene, N-methylpyrrolidone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (benzophenone-1, BP-1), and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate, in nail products. In this procedure, test portions were extracted with acetone, followed by vortexing, sonication, centrifugation, and filtration. During the extraction procedure, BP-1 was derivatized making it amenable to GC-MS analysis, using N,O-​bis(trimethylsilyl)​trifluoroacetamide. The four ingredients were quantified by GC-MS/MS in an electron ionization mode. Four corresponding stable isotopically labeled analogues were selected as internal standards, which were added at the beginning of the sample preparation to correct for recoveries and matrix effects. The validated method was used to screen 34 commercial nail products for these four cosmetic ingredients. The most common ingredients detected in the nail products were toluene and BP-1. Toluene was detected in 26 products and ranged from 1.36 to 173,000μg/g. BP-1 ranged from 18.3 to 2,370μg/g in 10 products. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Innovative method for carbon dioxide determination in human postmortem cardiac gas samples using headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and stable labeled isotope as internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, V; Smith, F; de Froidmont, S; Dominguez, A; Rinaldi, A; Augsburger, M; Mangin, P; Grabherr, S

    2013-06-19

    A novel approach to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) in gaseous samples, based on a precise and accurate quantification by (13)CO2 internal standard generated in situ is presented. The main goal of this study was to provide an innovative headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) method applicable in the routine determination of CO2. The main drawback of the GC methods discussed in the literature for CO2 measurement is the lack of a specific internal standard necessary to perform quantification. CO2 measurement is still quantified by external calibration without taking into account analytical problems which can often occur considering gaseous samples. To avoid the manipulation of a stable isotope-labeled gas, we have chosen to generate in situ an internal labeled standard gas ((13)CO2) on the basis of the stoichiometric formation of CO2 by the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaH(13)CO3). This method allows a precise measurement of CO2 concentration and was validated on various human postmortem gas samples in order to study its efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of D-lactide content in lactide stereoisomeric mixture using gas chromatography-polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lidong; Bian, Xinchao; Chen, Zhiming; Xiang, Sheng; Liu, Yanlong; Sun, Bin; Li, Gao; Chen, Xuesi

    2017-03-01

    An analytical method has been proposed to quantify the D-lactide content in a lactide stereoisomeric mixture using combined gas chromatography and polarimetry (GC- polarimetry). As for a lactide stereoisomeric mixture, meso-lactide can be determined quantitatively using GC, but D- and L-lactides cannot be separated by the given GC system. The composition of a lactide stereoisomeric mixture is directly relative to its specific optical rotation. The specific optical rotations of neat L-lactide were obtained in different solutions, which were -266.3° and -298.8° in dichloromethane (DCM) and toluene solutions at 20°C, respectively. Therefore, for a lactide sample, the D-lactide content could be calculated based on the meso-lactide content obtained from GC and the specific optical rotations of the sample and neat L-lactide obtained from polarimetry. The effects of impurities and temperature on the test results were investigated, respectively. When the total content of impurities was not more than 1.0%, the absolute error for determining D-lactide content was less than 0.10% in DCM and toluene solutions. When the D-lactide content was calculated according to the specific optical rotation of neat L-lactide at 20°C, the absolute error caused by the variation in temperature of 20±15°C was not more than 0.2 and 0.7% in DCM and toluene solutions, respectively, and thus usually could be ignored in a DCM solution. When toluene was used as a solvent for the determination of D-lactide content, a temperature correction for specific optical rotations could be introduced and would ensure the accuracy of results. This method is applicable to the determination of D-lactide content in lactide stereoisomeric mixtures. The standard deviation (STDEV) of the measurements is less than 0.5%, indicating that the precision is suitable for this method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination Of A Nonresidential Space Cooling Load Vb Program Apprication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study develops a computer application in Visual Basic computer programming language capable of computing the sensible and latent cooling loads of a single zone of a non-residential building taking all the influential factors into consideration using the CLTDSCLCLF method.The developed program is enhanced with a special Graphical User Interface GUI to make it more User friendly. Basic equations relating to the problem were presented these are mainly assumptions proposed by ASHRAE for its calculation of heat gain and cooling load.The calculation was based on the atmospheric condition and parameters obtainable in the month of March at 8hours interval between the 8.00hrs and 16.00hrs of the day. This space cooling load calculation was carried out for an actual building in University of Nigeria Nsukka i.e. 3rd year lecture room in Mechanical Engineering Department using the developed program and the maximum space loads which are required for the space are 11432 watts sensible and 4120 watts latent.

  15. PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELING OF THE GAS LIFTED WELL BY MEANS OF THE PROGRAM PROSPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Koščak Kolin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A production system analysis was made for the well Šandrovac-136 equipped with a continuous gas lift. The analysis was based on the test data which served as the foundation for creating a production well model in computer program ‘PROSPER’ (Version 10.3, License 2681. The importance of the measured data in well modeling is accuracy and reliability in predicting future developments of the production system. The model design can be divided in six steps among which the most important are: calculation of the IPR curve, calculation of the gas lift system and matching of VLP and IPR curves based on the well testing. The aim of the VLP/IPR matching is to choose an appropriate method for calculating the pressure drop gradient by applying the nonlinear regression method, which results in the system working point adjusted to the measured data. This model was applied in sensitivity analysis of the well, in which three key variables are selected to predict their effect on future system changes, primarily on changes of the production and bottom dynamic pressure (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Validation protocol for multiple blood gas analyzers in accordance with laboratory accreditation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérsio A. R. Ebner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:The results of blood gas analysis using different instrumentation can vary widely due to the methodological differences, the calibration procedures and the use of different configurations for each type of instrument.Objective:The objective of this study was to evaluate multiple analytical systems for measurement of blood gases, electrolytes and metabolites in accordance with the accreditation program (PALC of Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica/Medicina Laboratorial (SBPC/ML.Materials and methods:20 samples were evaluated in three ABL800 Flex (Radiometer Medical ApS, Denmark blood gas analyzers, and the results were compared with those of the device in use, which was considered the reference. The analysis of variance (Anova was applied for statistical purposes, as well as the calculation of mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation.Results:The p values obtained in the statistical analysis were: pH = 0.983, pO2 = 0.991, pCO2 = 0.353, lactate = 0.584, glucose = 0.995, ionized calcium = 0.983, sodium = 0.991, potassium = 0.926, chlorine = 0.029.Conclusion:The evaluation of multiple analytical systems is an essential procedure in the clinical laboratory for quality assurance and accuracy of the results.

  17. Determination of mechanical damage from wells under oil and gas flow condition; Determinacao de dano mecanico em pocos sob condicao de escoamento de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, J. B.D. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, O. V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The well bore effect is one of the most difficult variables obtained from well test analysis under two-phase condition. The presence of the gas in a well inserted in reservoir, which operates under gas drive solution, hinders the development of the analytical model to determine the mechanical damage. It is one of the reasons of the using the single phase well test analysis methodologies become suitable to the multiphase cases. The determination of the well bore effect is justified; therefore it is possible to work over in the well in order to determinate the real potential productive. The main objective of this work is to reevaluate a method of determination of the mechanical damage gotten from a well test under two-phase condition. In this work a simplified model of reservoir simulation is constructed in a commercial simulator in order to validate the methodology. The refinement of the blocks near to the well adopted in the simulation is a good representation of the well mechanical damage which occurs in a homogeneous reservoir. The types of well test analysis used in this work are two: drawdown and buildup test. The results gotten for this methodology, as will be shown, are excellent quality and the model of simulation presented here can be used for other analytical methods studies in order to determinate the mechanical damage or other variable of the reservoir. (author)

  18. Embedded protostars in the dust, ice, and gas in time (DIGIT) Herschel key program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Joel D.; Evans II, Neal J.; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian

    2013-01-01

    We present 50-210 um spectral scans of 30 Class 0/I protostellar sources, obtained with Herschel-PACS, and 0.5-1000 um SEDs, as part of the Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time (DIGIT) Key Program. Some sources exhibit up to 75 H2O lines ranging in excitation energy from 100-2000 K, 12 transitions of OH......, but not with the time-averaged outflow rate derived from low-J CO maps. [C II] emission is in general not local to the source. The sample Lbol increased by 1.25 (1.06) and Tbol decreased to 0.96 (0.96) of mean (median) values with the inclusion of the Herschel data. Most CO rotational diagrams are characterized by two...

  19. Determination of the Specific Heat Ratio of a Gas in a Plastic Syringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The rapid compression or expansion of a gas in a plastic syringe is a poor approximation of an adiabatic process. Heat exchange with the walls of the syringe brings the gas to equilibrium in an amount of time that is not significantly greater than the length of the compression or expansion itself. Despite this limitation, it is still possible to…

  20. Hyphenation of gas-diffusion separation and ion chromatography. Part 1: determination of free sulfite in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäldt, S; Karlberg, B; Frenzel, W

    2001-10-01

    The hyphenation of gas-diffusion separation and ion chromatography (IC) is described as a convenient, reliable, robust, and economic method for in-line sample pre-treatment. The high selectivity associated with this method permits direct analysis of samples containing microparticulates, colloidal matter, and/or high molecular weight compounds. The determination of sulfite serves as a first example of its application. The method is based on the diffusional separation of SO2 following in-line oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to sulfate and final determination of the sulfate formed using IC. The influence of operational parameters has been thoroughly investigated and gas-diffusion cells of different geometries compared with respect to the gas-transfer rates obtained. Application to the analysis of wines demonstrates the utility of the method.

  1. Generic Analysis Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Performance : The development of the gas turbine simulation program GSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical modelling and simulation have played a critical role in the research and development towards today’s powerful and efficient gas turbine engines for both aviation and power generation. The simultaneous progress in modelling methods, numerical methods, software development tools and methods,

  2. Natural gas based technologies as revealed in possible New Zealand energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1983-01-01

    During the energy crisis of the 1970's, New Zealand developed its natural gas fields for the production of liquid condensates. The gas produced was flared. The authors discuss the economic feasibility of employing the technology of gas-to-methanol production as opposed to developing a compressed natural gas market for industry and transportation.

  3. A generic static headspace gas chromatography method for determination of residual solvents in drug substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chang; Liu, Shaorong; Mueller, Bradford J; Yan, Zimeng

    2010-10-08

    In order to increase productivity of drug analysis in the pharmaceutical industry, an efficient and sensitive generic static headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) method was successfully developed and validated for the determination of 44 classes 2 and 3 solvents of International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guideline Q3C, as residual solvents in drug substance. In order to increase the method sensitivity and efficiency in sample equilibration, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was selected as the sample diluent based on its high capacity of dissolving drug substance, stability and high boiling point. The HS sample equilibration temperature and equilibration time are assessed in ranges of 125-150°C and 8-15 min, respectively. The results indicate that the residual solvents in 200mg of drug substance can be equilibrated efficiently in HS sampler at 140°C for 10 min. The GC parameters, e.g. sample split ratio, carrier flow rate and oven temperature gradient are manipulated to enhance the method sensitivity and separation efficiency. The two-stage gradient GC run from 35 to 240°C, using an Agilent DB-624 capillary column (30 m long, 0.32 mm I.D., 1.8 μm film thickness), is suitable to determine 44 ICH classes 2 and 3 solvents in 30 min. The method validation results indicate that the method is accurate, precise, linear and sensitive for solvents assessed. The recoveries of most of these solvents from four drug substances are greater than 80% within the method determination ranges. However, this method is not suitable for the 10 remaining ICH classes 2 and 3 solvents, because they are too polar (e.g. formic acid and acidic acid), or have boiling points higher than 150°C, (e.g. anisol and cumene). In comparison with the previous published methods, this method has a much shorter sample equilibration time, a better separation for many solvents, a higher sensitivity and a broader concentration range. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF N-ACETYLISOPUTREANINE-GAMMA-LACTAM, A UNIQUE CATABOLITE OF N1-ACETYLSPERMIDINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HESSELS, J; KINGMA, AW; STURKENBOOM, MCJM; ELZINGA, H; VANDENBERG, GA; MUSKIET, FAJ

    1991-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatographic method with nitrogen-phosphorus detection for the determination of N-acetylisoputreanine-gamma-lactam (acisoga) in urine is described. The method was validated by comparing the results with those given by an isotope dilution mass fragmentographic method. Making use of

  5. Development and evaluation of a new prototype P&T system to determine in-heading gas release rate.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, FJ

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify the potential methane hazard in underground coal mines, it is necessary to determine the in-seam methane content and an expected gas release rate during production. Various methods for estimating this have been proposed, ranging...

  6. Determination of urinary 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid by gas chromatography and its clinical application in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume, CPF; van der Molen, JC; Kerstens, MN; Dullaart, RPF; Wolthers, BG

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive and quantitative gas chromatographic assay for the determination of 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18 beta-GA), the main metabolite of glycyrrhizin after oral licorice consumption in human urine, has been developed and validated. For the extraction of 18 beta-GA from urine two Sep-Pak C-18

  7. Determination of Fuel Consumption Indexes of Co-generation Combined Cycle Steam and Gas Units with unfired waste heat boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the developed methodology and the results of determination of fuel consumption indexes of co-generation combined cycle steam and gas units (PGU with unfired waste heat boilers apply to PGU-230 of 3-d co-generation power plant ofMinsk. 

  8. Direct solid-phase microextraction combined with gas and liquid chromatography for the determination of lidocaine in human urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.H M; Hofman, N.S K; de Jong, G.J.

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been combined with gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) for the determination of lidocaine in human urine. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated fibre was directly immersed into buffered urine. Extraction conditions such as time, pH, ionic

  9. Comparison of protein fermentation characteristics in rumen fluid determined with the gas production technique and the nylon bag technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Blok, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a modified version of the gas production technique was used to determine protein fermentation characteristics in rumen fluid of 19 feedstuffs. Performing the incubations in a N-free environment, and with an excess of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates, made N the limiting factor to

  10. Determination of BROMATE AT PARTS-PER-TRILLION LEVELS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY WITH NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ozonation of bromide-containing source waters produces bromate as a class 2B carcinogenic disinfection by-product. The present work describes the determination of bromate by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCIMS) following a bromate react...

  11. Gas chromatographic determination of chlorothalonil and its metabolite 4-hydroxy-2,5,6-trichloroisophtalonitrile (HTI) in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, C. van; Vink, M.; Poll, J.M. van der

    1995-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method, with electron capture detection and mass spectrometric confirmation, is described for the determination of chlorothalonil and its metabolite 4-hydroxy-2,5,6-trichloroisophtalonitrile (HTI) in water samples. Water is saturated with sodium chloride and acidified to pH < 2

  12. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, D.L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Khwaja, S. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Determination of pedestrian displacement velocity for ground exploration programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernán Ochoa Gutierrez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Engineering and Geophysics field exploration, uncertainty for determination of the velocity of ground data acquisition due to extreme topographic conditions has been underestimated in the calculation of the displacement time between stations or sampling points. This lack of reliable models, negatively affects the determination of costs and planning of fieldwork activities. Known models of times and routes of displacement determination such as the “Smaller Cost Routes” are based on the effect of the type of land and the slope. However, these models consider the effect of the slope by means of subjective impedance values which has no a clear physical meaning. Furthermore, the upslope or downslope displacement is not considered to affect the reliability of velocity estimation. In this paper, a model of displacement velocity is proposed taking into account the upslope/downslope factor. The model was determined using real data from a topographical survey along a pipeline of 880 Km extended along terrains with changing climatic and topographic conditions. As a result, the proposed model improves the selection of optimal routes for a reliable time and cost estimation.

  14. Reducing Violence in Non-Controlling Ways: A Change Program Based on Self Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assor, Avi; Feinberg, Ofra; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Kaplan, Haya

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents and examines the first school change program focusing on violence and caring based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2012). The program aimed at promoting teachers' capacity to cope with violence and enhance caring without becoming more controlling. Comparisons of the effects of a 22-month-long program in three…

  15. 49 CFR 240.213 - Procedures for making the determination on completion of training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... completion of training program. 240.213 Section 240.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... making the determination on completion of training program. (a) Each railroad, prior to the initial... documentation showing that: (1) The person completed a training program that complies with § 240.123 of this...

  16. Use of GRASP, a finite element program, to model faulted gas reservoir of the southern North Sea Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, P.A.; Goldwater, M.H.; Taylor, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    This study describes a single-phase, 2-dimensional reservoir simulation program called GRASP (gas reservoir areal simulation program) and its use in modeling gas reservoirs in the southern North Sea. The design of the program is outlined, placing special emphasis on those features which have proved to be of greatest value during its application to various gas fields. These include the ability to describe pressure discontinuities across faults and overlapping gas-bearing strata within the context of a 2-dimensional model. The provision of a network analysis model to describe the surface gathering system allows the program to be used either for history matching or for predicting the future reservoir behavior. In the latter case, facilities are provided which allow the consequences of different operating strategies to be investigated. GRASP has been designed, not as a research tool, but as a practical aid to reservoir analysis. Most published applications of finite element methods have considered only small regular reservoirs. In the present study, particular attention is directed toward the difficulties encountered in designing a program capable of describing large, realistic reservoirs. 14 references.

  17. Temperature Programming of the Second Dimension in Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Hei-Yin J; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2017-08-15

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) provides a significant increase in selectivity and peak capacity for the separation of complex mixtures. Optimization of the system is often complicated, with many interconnected parameters between the two dimensions and additional problems like peak wraparound that need to be eliminated or minimized. Wraparound peaks are compounds with retention times in the second dimension that are longer than the modulation period. This results in broad peaks that elute in subsequent modulation cycles, potentially coeluting with separated compounds. The use of a secondary oven is often the solution to the problem. By applying a constant positive temperature offset from the main oven temperature, the retention of all analytes can be reduced so that they elute within their respective modulation periods. However, this reduces the separation of less retained compounds, a classical consequence of the general elution problem due to the isothermal conditions during the limited separation time in the second dimension. To overcome this problem, the second dimension was temperature-programmed by resistively heating an electrically conductive secondary column using constant current. The column was cooled through forced convection inside the GC oven within the time frame of a single modulation period. Temperature programming in the second dimension of GC × GC was able to improve separation while eliminating wraparound peaks and reducing peak widths, leading to significantly increased second dimension peak capacity.

  18. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in soil by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhonghua; Liu, Yu; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a rapid and sensitive sample pretreatment technique for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in soil samples is developed by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection. Experimental conditions, including the kind of extraction and disperser solvent and their volumes, the extraction time, and the salt addition, are investigated, and the following experiment factors are used: 20 µL chlorobenzene as the extraction solvent; 1.0 mL acetonitrile as the disperser solvent; no addition of salt; and an extraction time of 1 min. Under the optimum conditions, the linearities for the three target OPPs (ethoprophos, chlorpyriphos, and profenofos) are obtained by five points in the concentration range of 2.5-1500 µg/kg, and three replicates are used for each point. Correlation coefficients vary from 0.9987 to 0.9997. The repeatability is tested by spiking soil samples at a concentration level of 5.0 µg/kg. The relative standard deviation (n = 3) varied between 2.0% and 6.6%. The limits of detection, based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, range from 200 to 500 pg/g. This method is applied to the analysis of the spiked samples S1, S2, and S3, which are collected from the China Agriculture University's orchard, lawn, and garden, respectively. The recoveries for each target analyte are in the range between 87.9% and 108.0%, 87.4% and 108.0%, and 86.7% and 107.2%, respectively. © The Author [2011]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Soil by Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction and Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhonghua; Liu, Yu; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a rapid and sensitive sample pretreatment technique for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in soil samples is developed by using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography–flame photometric detection. Experimental conditions, including the kind of extraction and disperser solvent and their volumes, the extraction time, and the salt addition, are investigated, and the following experiment factors are used: 20 µL chlorobenzene as the extraction solvent; 1.0 mL acetonitrile as the disperser solvent; no addition of salt; and an extraction time of 1 min. Under the optimum conditions, the linearities for the three target OPPs (ethoprophos, chlorpyriphos, and profenofos) are obtained by five points in the concentration range of 2.5–1500 µg/kg, and three replicates are used for each point. Correlation coefficients vary from 0.9987 to 0.9997. The repeatability is tested by spiking soil samples at a concentration level of 5.0 µg/kg. The relative standard deviation (n = 3) varied between 2.0% and 6.6%. The limits of detection, based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, range from 200 to 500 pg/g. This method is applied to the analysis of the spiked samples S1, S2, and S3, which are collected from the China Agriculture University's orchard, lawn, and garden, respectively. The recoveries for each target analyte are in the range between 87.9% and 108.0%, 87.4% and 108.0%, and 86.7% and 107.2%, respectively. PMID:22291051

  20. An integrated platform for gas-diffusion separation and electrochemical determination of ethanol on fermentation broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Gabriela Furlan; Vieira, Luis Carlos Silveira; Gobbi, Angelo Luiz; Lima, Renato Sousa; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo

    2015-05-22

    An integrated platform was developed for point-of-use determination of ethanol in sugar cane fermentation broths. Such analysis is important because ethanol reduces its fuel production efficiency by altering the alcoholic fermentation step when in excess. The custom-designed platform integrates gas diffusion separation with voltammetric detection in a single analysis module. The detector relied on a Ni(OH)2-modified electrode. It was stabilized by uniformly depositing cobalt and cadmium hydroxides as shown by XPS measurements. Such tests were in accordance with the hypothesis related to stabilization of the Ni(OH)2 structure by insertion of Co(2+) and Cd(2+) ions in this structure. The separation step, in turn, was based on a hydrophobic PTFE membrane, which separates the sample from receptor solution (electrolyte) where the electrodes were placed. Parameters of limit of detection and analytical sensitivity were estimated to be 0.2% v/v and 2.90 μA % (v/v)(-1), respectively. Samples of fermentation broth were analyzed by both standard addition method and direct interpolation in saline medium based-analytical curve. In this case, the saline solution exhibited ionic strength similar to those of the samples intended to surpass the tonometry colligative effect of the samples over analyte concentration data by attributing the reduction in quantity of diffused ethanol vapor majorly to the electrolyte. The approach of analytical curve provided rapid, simple and accurate analysis, thus contributing for deployment of point-of-use technologies. All of the results were accurate with respect to those obtained by FTIR method at 95% confidence level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] in processed meat products using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Olatunde S; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Opeolu, Beatrice O; Ximba, Bhekumusa J

    2014-08-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked, grilled and boiled meats were determined using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GC-FID). PAHs in the processed meats were extracted in n-hexane after hydrolysis with methanolic KOH. Clean-up was achieved using solid phase extraction in neutral-Si/basic-Si/acidic-Si/neutral-Si frits. The fractions, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkP), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[123-cd]pyrene (IP) and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) were separated and quantified using GC-FID. The method and instrument limits of detections were 0.1, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3μg/kg and 0.5, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5μg/kg, respectively, for BkP, BaP, IP and BghiP. The method's recovery and precision generally varied between 83.69% and 94.25% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.18-15.60%; and 90.38-96.71% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.82-12.87% respectively. The concentration of BkP, BaP, IP and BghiP in smoked, grilled and boiled meat samples were ranged 0.64-31.54μg/kg, 0.07-7.04μg/kg, 0.09-15.03, 0.51-46.67μg/kg and 0.01-5.11μg/kg, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Failure life determination of oilfield elastomer seals in sour gas/dimethyl disulfide environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennelley, K.J.; Abrams, P.I. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (US)); Vicic, J.C. (FMC Corp., Central Engineering Labs., Santa Clara, CA (US)); Cain, D. (FMC Corp., Wellhead Equipment, Houston, TX (US))

    1989-01-01

    Previous screening tests of various oilfield elastomers in sour gas/dimethyl disulfide environments indicated that hydrogenated nitrile (HNBR), tetrafluoroethylene-propylene (TFE/P), ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM), and perfluorinated rubber (FFKM) elastomers may perform satisfactorily in these environments. This paper describes subsequent failure life tests conducted with the subject elastomers in the sour gas/dimethyl disulfide test environment at several elevated temperatures (> 135{degrees}C). The materials were tested in the form of O-rings (size 214), which were used to seal an autoclave containing the test environment at 14 MPa gas pressure. The results were used to extrapolate time to failure at a common reference temperature of 135{degrees}C. The performance of EPDM and HNBR in the sour gas/dimethyl disulfide mixture substantially exceeded a projected 20-year service life at 135{degrees}C, while FFKM and TFE/P did not.

  3. Exploring the determinants of health and wellbeing in communities living in proximity to coal seam gas developments in regional Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Mactaggart

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some concern that coal seam gas mining may affect health and wellbeing through changes in social determinants such as living and working conditions, local economy and the environment. The onward impact of these conditions on health and wellbeing is often not monitored to the same degree as direct environmental health impacts in the mining context, but merits attention. This study reports on the findings from a recurrent theme that emerged from analysis of the qualitative component of a comprehensive Health Needs Assessment (HNA conducted in regional Queensland: that health and wellbeing of communities was reportedly affected by nearby coal seam gas (CSG development beyond direct environmental impacts. Methods Qualitative analysis was initially completed using the Framework Method to explore key themes from 11 focus group discussions, 19 in-depth interviews, and 45 key informant interviews with health and wellbeing service providers and community members. A key theme emerged from the analysis that forms the basis of this paper. This study is part of a larger comprehensive HNA involving qualitative and quantitative data collection to explore the health and wellbeing needs of three communities living in proximity to CSG development in regional Queensland, Australia. Results Communities faced social, economic and environmental impacts from the rapid growth of CSG development, which were perceived to have direct and indirect effects on individual lifestyle factors such as alcohol and drug abuse, family relationships, social capital and mental health; and community-level factors including social connectedness, civic engagement and trust. Conclusions Outer regional communities discussed the effects of mining activity on the fabric of their town and community, whereas the inner regional community that had a longer history of industrial activity discussed the impacts on families and individual health and wellbeing. The

  4. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-25

    Results are presented of work performed on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Included are the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described, including screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850, and 950/sup 0/C.

  5. Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, July 1, 1979-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-07

    The results of work performed from July 1, 1979 through September 30, 1979 on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The status of the data management system is presented. In addition, the progress in the screening test program is described.

  6. Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, April 1, 1979-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-25

    The results are presented of work performed on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The status of the data management system is presented. In addition, the progress in the screening test program is described.

  7. Gas Reactor International Cooperative Program. Interim report. Construction and operating experience of selected European Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The construction and operating experience of selected European Gas-Cooled Reactors is summarized along with technical descriptions of the plants. Included in the report are the AVR Experimental Pebble Bed Reactor, the Dragon Reactor, AGR Reactors, and the Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR). The study demonstrates that the European experience has been favorable and forms a good foundation for the development of Advanced High Temperature Reactors.

  8. Gas Nonideality at One Atmosphere Revealed through Speed of Sound Measurements and Heat Capacity Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Liu, Allen

    2008-01-01

    Using an easy-to-make cylindrical resonator, students can measure the speed of sound in a gas, u, with sufficiently high precision (by locating standing-wave Lissajous patterns on an oscilloscope) to observe real gas properties at one atmosphere and 300 K. For CO[subscript 2] and SF[subscript 6], u is found to be 268.83 and 135.25 m s[superscript…

  9. Simultaneous determination of styrene, toluene, and xylene metabolites in urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szucs, Sandor; Toth, Laszlo; Sarvary, Attila; Adany, Roza [Debreceni Egyetem, Orvos- es Egeszsegtudomanyi Centrum, Nepegeszseguegyi Iskola, Megeloza Orvostani Intezet, Debrecen (Hungary); Legoza, Jozsef [Allami Nepegeszseguegyi es Tisztiorvosi Szolgalat Hajdu-Bihar Megyei Intezete, Debreceen (Hungary)

    2002-10-01

    Exposure to styrene, toluene, and xylene (STX) frequently occurs in various industrial settings leading to several adverse health effects. Therefore, the biological monitoring by determination of urinary mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), hippuric acid (HA), and 2-, 3-, and 4-methylhippuric acids (2-, 3-, and 4-MHAs), the metabolites of STX, is required or at least recommended in case of workers exposed by these agents. Considering the fact that co-exposure to STX frequently occurs, methods that have been described for the separate analysis of these compounds in urine samples cannot be used effectively for monitoring. Therefore, a reliable gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of these metabolites. Following solid phase extraction of the urine samples, the extracts were silylated and analyzed by GC/MS using a HP-5MS capillary column. The method was evaluated for linearity, limits of detection and quantification, and specificity, as well as for precision, extraction efficiency, and stability at three different concentrations prepared in urine. The assay was linear up to 0.16 mg/ml for MA, and 0.32 mg/ml for PGA, HA, and 2-, 3- and 4-MHAs. The limits of detection and quantification of STX metabolites varied between 0.001 and 0.02 mg/ml, and from 0.01 to 0.04 mg/ml, respectively. The within-day and between-day precision, determined at low, medium, and high concentrations, ranged from 2 to 12% and 2 to 19%, respectively. The extraction efficiency was 70-80%. No degradation of the metabolites occurred in the urine samples under the possible working conditions. The method was applied for the analysis of the urine samples from exposed workers. The cost- and time-effectiveness, the technical advantages and validity parameters of this GC/MS analysis make it suitable for biological monitoring of mixed exposure to styrene, toluene and xylene. (orig.)

  10. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Small-Scale Industrial Project. Environmental assessment statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Solid, liquid, and gaseous by-products and wastes are generated during coal storage and processing, gasification, and gas cleanup. Recovery systems have been designed to collect and utilize by-products. Wastes will be placed in storage areas designed to prevent release of the materials to the environment. The coal gasification plant along with the solid waste disposal area will occupy approximately 115 acres. To prevent, to the fullest extent possible, degradation of groundwater and surface water resources, the coal stockpile, landfill, collection pond, settling basin, and drainage ditches will be constructed to prevent the seepage of potential contaminants into groundwater or the drainage of runoff into surface waters. Cooling water is the primary water requirement of the project. None of the water utilized in the gasification plant will be released into the area surface water system, but will be either recycled or directed into the settling basin. The gasification facility has the potential of emitting a broad spectrum of pollutants into the atmosphere. However, effective emission control procedures such as off-gas recycling, hydrogen sulfide removal, particulate removal, and flaring will be applied to minimize the plant's emissions. The necessity of monitoring the more exotic pollutants such as acid gases, trace elements, metal carbonyls, and a multitude of organic compounds, will be determined as the gasification facility becomes more of a reality and the latest literature and research developments can be surveyed to evaluate the emission rates, biological significance, and monitoring techniques for these pollutants.

  11. ARSENIC DETERMINATION IN SALINE WATERS UTILIZING A TUBULAR MEMBRANE AS A GAS-LIQUID SEPATRATOR FOR HYDRIDE GENERATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tubular silicone rubber membrane is evaluated as a gas-liquid separator for the determination of arsenic in saline waters via HG-ICP-MS. The system was optimized in terms of NaBH and HCI concentrations. The intermediate gas and carrier gas were optimized in terms of sensitiity ...

  12. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology development program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Bartine, D.E.; Sanders, J.P.

    1983-06-01

    During 1982 the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Technology Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) continued to develop experimental data required for the design and licensing of cogeneration HTGRs. The program involves fuels and materials development (including metals, graphite, ceramic, and concrete materials), HTGR chemistry studies, structural component development and testing, reactor physics and shielding studies, performance testing of the reactor core support structure, and HTGR application and evaluation studies.

  13. Method of determining the extent to which a nickel structure has been attached by a fluorine-containing gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusie, James P.

    2004-07-13

    The method of determining the extent to which a nickel structure has been attacked by a halogen containing gas to which it has been exposed which comprises preparing a quantity of water substantially free from dissolved oxygen, passing ammonia gas through a cuprammonium solution to produce ammonia substantially free from oxygen, dissolving said oxygen-free ammonia in said water to produce a saturated aqueous ammonia solution free from uncombined oxygen, treating at least a portion of said nickel structure of predetermined weight with said solution to dissolve nickel compounds from the surface of said structure without dissolving an appreciable amount of said nickel and analyzing the resulting solution to determine the quantity of said nickel compounds that was associated with said said portion of said structure to determine the proportion of combined nickel in said nickel structure.

  14. Determination of leveled costs of electric generation for gas plants, coal and nuclear; Determinacion de costos nivelados de generacion electrica para plantas de gas, carbon y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Palacios H, J.C.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Gomez, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: galonso@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The present work analyzes the leveled costs of electric generation for different types of nuclear reactors known as Generation III, these costs are compared with the leveled costs of electric generation of plants with the help of natural gas and coal. In the study several discount rates were used to determine their impact in the initial investment. The obtained results are comparable with similar studies and they show that it has more than enough the base of the leveled cost the nuclear option it is quite competitive in Mexico. Also in this study it is also thinks about the economic viability of a new nuclear power station in Mexico. (Author)

  15. Report on the Method Performance Study of a Method to Determine Phthalates in Wine Determination of Ten Phthalates in Wine by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

    OpenAIRE

    WENZL Thomas; KARASEK LUBOMIR; GIRI ANUPAM

    2015-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) organised in close collaboration with the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV) a collaborative study to assess the performance of an analytical procedure for the determination of ten phthalates in wine by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The tested analytical procedure (OIV-MA-AS323-10:2013) was endorsed in June 2013 by the General Assembly of OIV and taken up in the Compendium of International Methods o...

  16. Optimal design of a combustion chamber of gas turbine engine by a Combustion chamber 1D-2D computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, Y. B.; Mingazov, B. G.

    2017-09-01

    The paper shows a method of modeling and optimization of processes in combustion chambers of gas turbine engines using a computer program developed by a team at the Department of Jet Engines and Power Plants (DJEPP) of Technical University named after A N Tupolev KNRTU-KAI.

  17. Comparison of inert-gas-fusion and modified Kjeldahl techniques for determination of nitrogen in niobium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, E. J.; Graab, J. W.; Davis, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    This report compares results obtained for the determination of nitrogen in a selected group of niobium-base alloys by the inert-gas-fusion and the Kjeldahl procedures. In the inert-gas-fusion procedure the sample is heated to approximately 2700 C in a helium atmosphere in a single-use graphite crucible. A platinum flux is used to facilitate melting of the sample. The Kjeldahl method consisted of a rapid decomposition with a mixture of hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, and potassium chromate; distillation in the presence of sodium hydroxide; and highly sensitive spectrophotometry with nitroprusside-catalyzed indophenol. In the 30- to 80-ppm range, the relative standard deviation was 5 to 7 percent for the inert-gas-fusion procedure and 2 to 8 percent for the Kjeldahl procedure. The agreement of the nitrogen results obtained by the two techniques is considered satisfactory.

  18. Sensors for online determination of CNG gas quality; Sensorer foer onlinebestaemnning av fordonsgaskvalitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenlaaaas, Ola; Roedjegaard, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Swedish automotive gas has until now been a very uniform, high quality automotive fuel. Elsewhere in Europe the quality of automotive gas varies significantly. Gas from different sources with different flammability require engine settings adjusted to the chosen gas' unique composition. The prospects for a vehicle-mounted sensor based on infrared technology for gas quality measurement has been studied and solutions are presented with questions that must be answered in a possible future work. The proposed vehicle mounted sensor is based on two channels, one of which measures the partial pressure of methane and the other measures the partial pressure of heavier hydrocarbons in 'equivalents of butane'. Ethane produces a signal of about 0.6 equivalents of butane and propane about 0.8 equivalents. The sensor can be accommodated in a cube with 5 cm side and should be equipped with nipple connections to the existing system. The sensor is expected to work throughout their entire lifetime without manual calibration, through continuous automatic calibration, so-called ABC (Automatic Baseline Compensation). The sensor will have to meet tough quality and environmental standards in which primarily contact ring, vibration and prevention of leakage are identified as extra difficult. Working temperatures and the electrical conditions of power supply and communication interface is considered less challenging. In one million volumes, the cost per sensor could be 200 to 300 SEK.

  19. Determination of Etch Rate Behavior of 4H-SiC Using Chlorine Trifluoride Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yutaka; Habuka, Hitoshi; Katsumi, Yusuke; Oda, Satoko; Fukai, Yasushi; Fukae, Katsuya; Kato, Tomohisa; Okumura, Hajime; Arai, Kazuo

    2007-12-01

    The etch rate of single-crystalline 4H-SiC is studied using chlorine trifluoride gas at 673-973 K and atmospheric pressure in a cold wall horizontal reactor. The 4H-SiC etch rate can be higher than 10 μm/min at substrate temperatures higher than 723 K. The etch rate increases with the chlorine trifluoride gas flow rate. The etch rate is calculated by taking into account the transport phenomena in the reactor including the chemical reaction at the substrate surface. The flat etch rate at the higher substrate temperatures is caused mainly by the relationship between the transport rate and the surface chemical reaction rate of chlorine trifluoride gas.

  20. Determination of phenoxy acid herbicides in water by electron-capture and microcoulometric gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlitz, D.F.; Lamar, William L.

    1967-01-01

    A sensitive gas chromatographic method using microcoulometric titration and electron-capture detection for the analysis of 2,4-D, silvex, 2,4,5-T, and other phenoxy acid herbicides in water is described. The herbicides are extracted from unfiltered water samples (800-1,000 ml) by use of ethyl ether ; then the herbicides are concentrated and esterilied. To allow the analyst a choice, two esterilication procedures--using either boron trifluoride-methanol or diazomethane--are evaluated. Microcoulometric gas chromatography is specific for the detection of halogenated compounds such as the phenoxy acid herbicides whereas it does not respond to nonhalogenated components. Microcoulometric gas chromatography requires care and patience. It is not convenient for rapid screening of l-liter samples that contain less than 1 microgram of the herbicide. Although electroncapture gas chromatography is less selective and more critically affected by interfering substances, it is, nevertheless, convenient and more sensitive than microcoulometric gas chromatography. Two different liquid phases are used in the gas chromatographic columns--DC-200 silicone in one column and QF-1 silicone in the other. The performance of both columns is improved by the addition of Carbowax 20M. The Gas Chrom Q support is coated with the liquid phases by the 'frontal-analysis' technique. The practical lower limits for measurement of the phenoxy acid herbicides in water primarily depend upon the sample size, interferences present, anal instrumentation used. With l-liter samples of water, the practical lower limits of measurement are 10 ppt (parts per trillion) for 2,4-D and 2 ppt for silvex and 2,4,5-T when electron-capture detection is used, and approximately 20 ppt for each herbicide when analyzed by microcoulometric-titration gas chromatography. Recoveries of the herbicides immediately after addition to unfiltered water samples averaged 92 percent for 2,4-D, 90 percent for silvex, and 98 percent for 2

  1. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Progress report, January 1, 1979-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-19

    This report presents the results of work performed from January 1, 1979 through March 31, 1979 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the creep-rupture testing of the test materials for the purpose of verifying the stresses selected for the screening creep test program, and the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment.

  2. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, October 1, 1978--December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-09

    Results of work performed from October 1, 1978 through December 31, 1978 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program is presented. Objectives are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys, and selection of materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. The activities associated with the characterization of the materials for the screening test program, and the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment are included. The status of the data management system is presented.

  3. 78 FR 66885 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process AGENCIES: Forest... determination process. These comments will be used by the Board, coordinating with the Secretaries of the... to improve the rural determination process. DATES: Comments: The comment period for the document...

  4. Programed nebulizing-gas pressure mode for quantitative capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry analysis of endocrine disruptors in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Álvarez, Javier; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Hernández-Méndez, Jesús; Carabias-Martínez, Rita

    2012-08-01

    The application of programed nebulizing-gas pressure (PNP) has been previously described to be a simple strategy for the separation of anions by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS). The PNP mode provided high resolution and stable analyses and also had the advantage of allowing the use of capillaries wider than the 50-75 μm conventional ones. Here, the application of the PNP approach to the quantitative analysis of pollutants in real samples by CE-ESI-MS is described for the first time; in particular, for the determination several endocrine disruptors (2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, bisphenol-A, 4-tert-butyl-phenol, and 4-tert-butyl benzoic acid) in honey. For sample pretreatment, different liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedures were assayed and compared to the QuEChERS(©) methodology prior to electrophoretic analysis. With the application of the PNP approach to CE-ESI-MS, the limits of detection achieved were in the 1-4 ng/g range with a simple liquid-liquid procedure without any further clean-up step; relative standard deviation values in the 2-9% range were found. The analytical characteristics allow the proposed method to be used in the control analysis of these compounds in honey. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Temperature-dependent bulk viscosity of nitrogen gas determined from spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Z.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Values for the bulk viscosity ηb of molecular nitrogen gas (N2) were derived from spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering at ultraviolet wavelengths (λ = 366.8 nm) and at a 90° scattering angle. Analysis of the scattering profiles yields values showing a linear increasing trend, ranging from η

  6. 78 FR 71903 - 2013 Revisions to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule and Final Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Aeronautics and Space Administration ] NGL natural gas liquid NSPS New Source Review Performance Standards... collected under the GHGRP to better inform EPA policies. The AR4 GWPs will complement the reporting metrics... metrics that were based on recent scientific data and that were consistent with the international...

  7. Tequila volatile characterization and ethyl ester determination by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón Fernando; del Carmen Estrada-Montoya, María

    2004-09-08

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography were used for tequila volatile characterization and ethyl ester quantitation. Several factors determined the differences in tequila volatile profiles obtained by the SPME technique, namely, sampling mode, fiber coating, and fiber exposure time. Each of these factors determined the most suitable conditions for the analysis of volatile profiles in tequila. Volatile extraction consisted of placing 40 mL of tequila in a sealed vial kept at 40 degrees C. A poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber was immersed in the liquid for 60 min and desorbed for 5 min into the gas chromatograph. The identified volatiles by mass spectrometry were mainly alcohols, esters, and ketones. The calibration curves for ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, and decanoate followed linear relationships with highly significant (p tequila samples. Quantitative differences in ethyl esters were found for the four most commonly known tequila types: silver, gold, aged, and extra-aged.

  8. Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report; Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.; Hoopes, V.; Mong, G.M.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.; Wahl, K.H.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the status of optimizing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods developed are illustrated by their application to samples from Tanks 241-SY-103 and 241-S-102. Capability to account for organic carbon in Tank SY-101 was improved significantly by improving techniques for isolating organic constituents relatively free from radioactive contamination and by improving derivatization methodology. The methodology was extended to samples from Tank SY-103 and results documented in this report. Results from analyzing heated and irradiated SY-103 samples (Gas Generation Task) and evaluating methods for analyzing tank waste directly for chelators and chelator fragments are also discussed.

  9. Spectrophotometric flow-injection determination of sulphite in white wines involving gas diffusion through a concentric tubular membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Melo Denise; Zagatto Elias A. G.; Mattos Ivanildo L.; Maniasso Nelson

    2003-01-01

    A flow-injection system is proposed for the spectrophotometric determination of sulphite in white wines. The method involves analyte conversion to SO2, gas diffusion through a Teflon® semi-permeable membrane, collection into an alkaline stream (pH 8), reaction with Malachite green (MG) and monitoring at 620 nm. With a concentric tubular membrane, the system design was simplified. Influence of reagent concentrations, pH of donor and acceptor streams, temperature, timing, surfactant addition an...

  10. Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to Determine Composition of the Pro ducts of Waste Tire Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gertsiuk, M.M.; Kovalchuk, T.; Kapral, K.; Lysychenko, G.V.

    2014-01-01

    The method of two-dimensional gas chromatography cou pled with mass-spectrometry detection was used for determination of pyrolysis liquid — a mixture of pyrolysis products of waste tires. 6500 organic compounds have been identified: the saturated, unsaturated, aromatic hydrocarbons, the derivatives of thiophene, cyclic aminocompounds. By its composition pyrolytic liquid is close to the diesel fuel and can be used as the alternative fuel.

  11. Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to Determine Composition of the Pro ducts of Waste Tire Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertsiuk, M.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of two-dimensional gas chromatography cou pled with mass-spectrometry detection was used for determination of pyrolysis liquid — a mixture of pyrolysis products of waste tires. 6500 organic compounds have been identified: the saturated, unsaturated, aromatic hydrocarbons, the derivatives of thiophene, cyclic aminocompounds. By its composition pyrolytic liquid is close to the diesel fuel and can be used as the alternative fuel.

  12. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, January 1, 1978--March 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-26

    The activities associated with the procurement of the materials for the screening test program, information from vendor certification for the materials received, and preliminary information from the materials characterization tests performed by GE are reported. The construction status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment are discussed. The final recommended impurity levels for the screening phase helium are presented and the rational behind this gas chemistry is discussed. The status of the data management system is presented.

  13. 75 FR 43889 - Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for Data Required Under the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ..., Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs (MC-6207J), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200... Atmospheric Programs, Climate Change Division, Mail Code 6207-J, Washington, DC 20460, telephone (202) 343... Fuel Combustion Sources; Subpart D, Electricity Generation; Subpart F, Aluminum Production; Subpart G...

  14. Using organization theory to understand the determinants of effective implementation of worksite health promotion programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiner, Bryan J; Lewis, Megan A; Linnan, Laura A

    .... However, no integrated theory of implementation has emerged from this research. This article describes a theory of the organizational determinants of effective implementation of comprehensive worksite health promotion programs...

  15. Determining the quality of competences assessment programs: A self-evaluation procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2009-01-01

    Baartman, L. K. J., Prins, F. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2007). Determining the quality of Competence Assessment Programs: A self-evaluation procedure. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 33, 258-281.

  16. Motivation and Career-Development Training Programs: Use of Regulatory Focus to Determine Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Peter J.; Weide, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to focus on the relationship between career-development training programs and the motivation of employees. The study used a qualitative method and a phenomenological design using semistructured interviews conducted with a script of open-ended questions. Two main components of the research design were the modified van…

  17. Fundamental solution of the problem of linear programming and method of its determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunin, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The idea of a fundamental solution to a problem in linear programming is introduced. A method of determining the fundamental solution and of applying this method to the solution of a problem in linear programming is proposed. Numerical examples are cited.

  18. 77 FR 77005 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Forest Service DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process AGENCIES: Forest Service, Agriculture; Fish and... Secretary of the Interior initiated a review of the Federal Subsistence Management Program. An ensuing...

  19. The gas turbine - modular helium reactor program for efficient disposition of weapons plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodochigov, N.G.; Kuzavkov, N.G.; Sukharev, Yu.P. [OKBM, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Chudin, A.G. [MINATOM, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shenoy, A.S.; Simon, W.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A large amount of weapons grade plutonium has been currently accumulated in the world. These stock-piles of accumulated plutonium are potentially hazardous because of the possibility of its unpermitted proliferation with subsequent manufacturing and use in nuclear weapons. From this point of view, the problem of the plutonium disposition is urgent. On the other hand, plutonium is an extremely valuable energy product, and should be used efficiently. The concept of burning WGPu in reactor power plants for electricity production is the official Russian position, and is considered as a long-term solution by existing power plants modification as well as with new reactor technologies development. Operating VVERs-1000 and BN-600 are some of the candidates to involve of WGPu in their fuel cycle, but the advantages of Gas Cooled High Temperature Reactors as GT-MHR allow to consider this type of reactor as a surplus WGPu consumer in the nearest future (2010). The inherent safety characteristics of the GT-MHR make it well suited to the mission of WGPu disposition. Because of the high burnup and no breeding of new plutonium, the GT-MHR consumes circa 90 % of the initially charged Pu-239. A single GT-MHR plant consisting of four reactor modules of 600 MWt power each can achieve this level of destruction for 50 tonnes of WGPu with concurrent electricity generation of circa 46 GW{center_dot}year over its design lifetime. In contrast, only 50 % of initial charged plutonium is consumed in LWR with electricity generation of circa 25 GW{center_dot}year. Discussion between General Atomics (GA) of United States and the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM), in the summer of 1994, led to an agreement on a jointly funded design and development program for the GT-MHR, presented in a GA paper at this meeting. The program is initially focused on the burning of weapons plutonium that becomes available from dismantled nuclear weapons. The long term goal is to utilize the same design for

  20. Study to determine the feasibility of obtaining true samples of oil and gas reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.E.; Sinclair, A.R.

    1977-10-01

    The study concludes that a feasible solution is possible which would provide up to about 90 percent information accuracy under many operating conditions, well within the economic range for most oil and gas operations. The study also concludes that there is potential feasibility for the development of systems to approach 100 percent information accuracy under many operating situations. However, the cost of such a system is far beyond those considered practical within the economics of the competitive oil and gas industry. The justification of such a system has been likened to that of a ''moon shot'' approach and would take several years of development before true feasibility and probability of success could be assessed.

  1. Trace determination of ethyl methanesulfonate in Viracept 250 mg tablets by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebiere, H; Maggio, A-F; Gimeno, P; Levaillant, D; Civade, C; Bonnet, P-A; Tissier, M-H

    2008-02-01

    Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) is a potential human mutagenic and carcinogenic compound which has been found by Roche laboratories in nelfinavir mesylate, the active pharmaceutical ingredient of Viracept. In order to verify the quality of the medicinal product, a gas chromatographic method using mass spectrometry detection was developed for the trace analysis of EMS in Viracept 250 mg tablets from Roche laboratories. Combined with suitable sample preparation including a liquid/liquid extraction this method allows the EMS quantification with a reporting limit of 5 ppm. The extract is injected on a gas chromatographic system with a CP624-CB capillary column. Selected Ion Monitoring mode was used for the EMS quantification. Some validation elements of the method are reported. The validation study was performed over a range from 5 ppm to 100 ppm.

  2. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, F; Daldrup, T

    1997-08-04

    A sensitive method for the detection and quantification of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in serum samples is described. After liquid-liquid extraction the trimethylsilyl derivative of LSD is detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Experiments with spiked samples resulted in a recovery of 76%, the coefficient of variation was 9.3%. Excellent linearity was obtained over the range 0.1-10 ng ml-1. Additionally experiments demonstrating the light sensitivity of LSD are presented together with casuistics.

  3. Temperature-dependent bulk viscosity of nitrogen gas determined from spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ziyu; Ubachs, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Values for the bulk viscosity of molecular nitrogen gas (N2) were derived from spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering at ultraviolet wavelengths (366.8 nm) and at a 90 degree scattering angle. Analysis of the scattering profiles yield values showing a linear increasing trend in the temperature interval from 255 K to 340 K. The present values, pertaining to hypersound acoustics at frequencies in the GHz domain, are found to be in agreement with results from acoustic attenuation experim...

  4. The molecular structure of tellurium dichloride, TeCl 2, determined by gas electron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernholt, Liv; Haaland, Arne; Volden, Hans V.; Kniep, Rüdiger

    1985-04-01

    The electron diffraction pattern of the vapor from a liquid sample ( t = 210°C) of composition Te:Cl = 1.00:2.00 has been recorded. The gas jet was found to consist of TeCl 2 molecules with bond distance TeCl = 2.329(3) Å and valence angle ∠ClTeCl = 97.0(6)°.

  5. Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    Detected Detection Limita Time Resolution Licor 6262 Licor 820 CO2 CO2 (high range) 300 ppb 2 ppm 1 sec NOx Chemiluminescence Analyzer...Table A-2.2 Trace Gas Instruments Deployed during the F100-220 Engine Tests. Instrument Species Detected Detection Limita Time Resolution Licor ...6262 Licor 820 CO2 CO2 (high range) 300 ppb 2 ppm 1 sec NOx Chemiluminescence Analyzer ThermoElectron (model 42C) NO NOxb 0.5 ppb 0.5

  6. Enantiomeric Excess Determination for Monosaccharides Using Chiral Transmission to Cold Gas-Phase Tryptophan in Ultraviolet Photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Maeda, Naoto; Doan, Thuc N.; Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2017-02-01

    Chiral transmission between monosaccharides and amino acids via photodissociation in the gas phase was examined using a tandem mass spectrometer fitted with an electrospray ionization source and a cold ion trap in order to investigate the origin of the homochirality of biomolecules in molecular clouds. Ultraviolet photodissociation mass spectra of cold gas-phase noncovalent complexes of the monosaccharide enantiomers glucose (Glc) and galactose (Gal) with protonated l-tryptophan H+( l-Trp) were obtained by photoexcitation of the indole ring of l-Trp. l-Trp dissociated via Cα-Cβ bond cleavage when noncovalently complexed with d-Glc; however, no dissociation of l-Trp occurred in the homochiral H+( l-Trp)( l-Glc) noncovalent complex, where the energy absorbed by l-Trp was released through the evaporation of l-Glc. This enantioselective photodissociation of Trp was due to the transmission of chirality from Glc to Trp via photodissociation in the gas-phase noncovalent complexes, and was applied to the quantitative chiral analysis of monosaccharides. The enantiomeric excess of monosaccharides in solution could be determined by measuring the relative abundance of the two product ions in a single photodissociation mass spectrum of the cold gas-phase noncovalent complex with H+( l-Trp), and by referring to the linear relationships derived in this work.

  7. Analytic determination of the effective thermal conductivity of PEM fuel cell gas diffusion layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, E.; Bahrami, M.; Djilali, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Accurate information on the temperature field and associated heat transfer rates are particularly important in devising appropriate heat and water management strategies in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. An important parameter in fuel cell performance analysis is the effective thermal conductivity of the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Estimation of the effective thermal conductivity is complicated because of the random nature of the GDL micro structure. In the present study, a compact analytical model for evaluating the effective thermal conductivity of fibrous GDLs is developed. The model accounts for conduction in both the solid fibrous matrix and in the gas phase; the spreading resistance associated with the contact area between overlapping fibers; gas rarefaction effects in microgaps; and salient geometric and mechanical features including fiber orientation and compressive forces due to cell/stack clamping. The model predictions are in good agreement with existing experimental data over a wide range of porosities. Parametric studies are performed using the proposed model to investigate the effect of bipolar plate pressure, aspect ratio, fiber diameter, fiber angle, and operating temperature. (author)

  8. Analytic determination of the effective thermal conductivity of PEM fuel cell gas diffusion layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, E.; Bahrami, M.; Djilali, N.

    Accurate information on the temperature field and associated heat transfer rates are particularly important in devising appropriate heat and water management strategies in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. An important parameter in fuel cell performance analysis is the effective thermal conductivity of the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Estimation of the effective thermal conductivity is complicated because of the random nature of the GDL micro structure. In the present study, a compact analytical model for evaluating the effective thermal conductivity of fibrous GDLs is developed. The model accounts for conduction in both the solid fibrous matrix and in the gas phase; the spreading resistance associated with the contact area between overlapping fibers; gas rarefaction effects in microgaps; and salient geometric and mechanical features including fiber orientation and compressive forces due to cell/stack clamping. The model predictions are in good agreement with existing experimental data over a wide range of porosities. Parametric studies are performed using the proposed model to investigate the effect of bipolar plate pressure, aspect ratio, fiber diameter, fiber angle, and operating temperature.

  9. Determination and evaluation of gas holdup time with the quadratic equation model and comparison with nonlinear models for isothermal gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liejun; Chen, Maoxue; Chen, Yongli; Li, Qing X

    2013-07-05

    Gas holdup time (tM) is a basic parameter in isothermal gas chromatography (GC). Determination and evaluation of tM and retention behaviors of n-alkanes under isothermal GC conditions have been extensively studied since the 1950s, but still remains unresolved. The difference equation (DE) model [J. Chromatogr. A 1260: 215-223] reveals retention behaviors of n-alkanes excluding tM, while the quadratic equation (QE) model [J. Chromatogr. A 1260: 224-231] including tM is suitable for applications. In the present study, tM values were calculated with the QE model, which is referred to as tMT, evaluated and compared with other three typical nonlinear models. The QE model gives an accurate estimation of tM in isothermal GC. The tMT values are highly accurate, stable, and easy to calculate and use. There is only one tMT value at each GC condition. The proper classification of tM values can clarify their disagreement and facilitate GC retention data standardization for which tMT values are promising reference tM values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination and evaluation of gas holdup time with the quadratic equation model and comparison with nonlinear equation models for isothermal gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liejun; Chen, Maoxue; Chen, Yongli; Li, Qing X.

    2013-01-01

    Gas holdup time (tM) is a basic parameter in isothermal gas chromatography (GC). Determination and evaluation of tM and retention behaviors of n-alkanes under isothermal GC conditions have been extensively studied since the 1950s, but still remains unresolved. The difference equation (DE) model [J. Chromatogr. A 1260:215–223] reveals retention behaviors of n-alkanes excluding tM, while the quadratic equation (QE) model [J. Chromatogr. A 1260:224–231] including tM is suitable for applications. In the present study, tM values were calculated with the QE model, which is referred to as tMT, evaluated and compared with other three typical nonlinear models. The QE model gives an accurate estimation of tM in isothermal GC. The tMT values are highly accurate, stable, and easy to calculate and use. There is only one tMT value at each GC condition. The proper classification of tM values can clarify their disagreement and facilitate GC retention data standardization for which tMT values are promising reference tM values. PMID:23726077

  11. Semi-annual report for the unconventional gas recovery program, period ending September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manilla, R.D. (ed.)

    1980-11-01

    Progress is reported in research on methane recovery from coalbeds, eastern gas shales, western gas sands, and geopressured aquifers. In the methane from coalbeds project, data on information evaluation and management, resource and site assessment and characterization, model development, instrumentation, basic research, and production technology development are reported. In the methane from eastern gas shales project, data on resource characterization and inventory, extraction technology, and technology testing and verification are presented. In the western gas sands project, data on resource assessments, field tests and demonstrations and project management are reported. In the methane from geopressured aquifers project, data on resource assessment, supporting research, field tests and demonstrations, and technology transfer are reported.

  12. Motivation and career-development training programs: Use of regulatory focus to determine program effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter John Anthony

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to focus on the relationship between career-development training programs and the motivation of employees. The study used a qualitative method and a phenomenological design using semistructured interviews conducted with a script of open-ended questions. Two main components of the research design were the modified van Kaam method for exploration of experiences and the purposive selection of the participants. The 20 participants in the sample were project managers and consultants from south-central Texas, all of whom had experience with governmental projects. Based on interview responses, the findings of this study highlighted a concern from the participants that training programs have a major influence on workplace productivity and morale. Furthermore, the findings suggest the training program’s quality may influence workplace productivity. The authors conclude by pointing out the analysis of the answers showed that not only does workplace productivity decline from the changes in a training program, but employee motivation is altered as well. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i2.214

  13. [Determination of sulfur compounds in fluid catalytic cracking gasoline by gas chromatography with a sulfur chemiluminescence detector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongtan; Wang, Zheng; Zong, Baoning; Yang, Haiying

    2004-05-01

    A method for the separation and determination of sulfur compounds in fluid catalytic cracking gasoline (FCC gasoline) by gas chromatography with a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (GC-SCD) was established. Fifty eight sulfur compounds including mercaptan, sulfide, disulfide, thiophene, alkyl thiophenes, benzothiophene and alkyl benzothiophenes were identified based on their retention indexes and the data obtained from gas chromatography with an atomic emission detector (GC-AED). The effects of flow rate of carrier gas and oven temperature were discussed. Detection reproducibilities of main sulfur compounds (thiophene, n-butyl mercaptan, 2-methylthiophene, 3-methylthiophene, 2,4-dimethylthiophene) in FCC gasoline were satisfactory (RSDs were no more than 5.0%) and detection limit for sulfur was 0.1 mg/L. Using thiophene and benzothiophene as testing samples, it was determined that response factor was independent of the molecular structure of sulfur compounds. The linear range was 0.5-800.0 mg/L sulfur with a correlation coefficient of 0.999.

  14. Multiple responses optimization in the development of a headspace gas chromatography method for the determination of residual solvents in pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Teglia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient generic static headspace gas chromatography (HSGC method was developed, optimized and validated for the routine determination of several residual solvents (RS in drug substance, using a strategy with two sets of calibration. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO was selected as the sample diluent and internal standards were used to minimize signal variations due to the preparative step. A gas chromatograph from Agilent Model 6890 equipped with flame ionization detector (FID and a DB-624 (30 m×0.53 mm i.d., 3.00 µm film thickness column was used. The inlet split ratio was 5:1. The influencing factors in the chromatographic separation of the analytes were determined through a fractional factorial experimental design. Significant variables: the initial temperature (IT, the final temperature (FT of the oven and the carrier gas flow rate (F were optimized using a central composite design. Response transformation and desirability function were applied to find out the optimal combination of the chromatographic variables to achieve an adequate resolution of the analytes and short analysis time. These conditions were 30 °C for IT, 158 °C for FT and 1.90 mL/min for F. The method was proven to be accurate, linear in a wide range and very sensitive for the analyzed solvents through a comprehensive validation according to the ICH guidelines.

  15. HTGR gas-turbine program. Semiannual progress report for period ending March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the conceptual design and analysis performed by General Atomic Company and its subcontractors for the US Department of Energy on the direct cycle gas turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The primary accomplishments for this period were cost reduction studies, turbomachinery failure analysis, and alternate plant concept evaluation.

  16. Environmental management programs of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Programa de gestao ambiental do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio Joaquim dos [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the largest South America's enterprises of energy integration of the Bolivia/Brazil gas pipeline in Brazilian side own and operated by TBG has interacted with 05 states, 137 districts and 06 environment governmental entities (IBAMA and States' department) of environment multilateral financial institutions and group of ten of other governmental and not governmental organizations. The level of approved investment was of the order of 1,5 billion dollars, of which about 29 million had been destined the ambient activities. Thus, without precedents in Brazil this work presents the plan of ambient management of the enterprise, created to develop and implement the ambient programs during the construction and operation of the gas pipeline stage. The work here presented will give prominence to the programs of ambient compensation and social communication inside Brazil. (author)

  17. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-24

    Results of work performed from July 1, 1978 through September 30, 1978 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. Candidate alloys were evaluated for Very High Temperature Reactor Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the affect of simulated reactor primary coolant (Helium containing small amounts of various other gases), the high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. The activities associated with the characterization of the materials for the screening test program are reported, i.e., test specimen preparation, information from the materials characterization tests performed by General Electric, and the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The status of the data management system is presented.

  18. Standard test method for determining whether gas-leak-detector fluid solutions can cause stress corrosion cracking of brass alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an accelerated test method for evaluating the tendency of gas leak detection fluids (LDFs) to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of brass components in compressed gas service. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Gas-chromatographic determination of aviation gasoline and JP-4 jet fuel in subsurface core samples (journal version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, S.A.; Kampbell, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    A new gas-chromatographic procedure for quantifying levels of aviation gasoline (avgas) and JP-4 jet fuel contamination in soils is described. The fuel is extracted from a small quantity of soil or subsurface material, typically about 6 g, using 3 mL of methylene chloride. The extract is analyzed by wide-bore capillary-column gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. Advantages of the method are a short analysis time of 20 minutes, the use of small amounts of solvent, detection limit in the low parts-per-million range, and determination of the type of fuel contamination (i.e. avgas or jet fuel) by the chromatographic pattern or fingerprint.

  20. Temperature-dependent bulk viscosity of nitrogen gas determined from spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ziyu; Ubachs, Wim

    2013-04-01

    Values for the bulk viscosity of molecular nitrogen gas (N2) were derived from spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering at ultraviolet wavelengths (366.8 nm) and at a 90 degree scattering angle. Analysis of the scattering profiles yield values showing a linear increasing trend in the temperature interval from 255 K to 340 K. The present values, pertaining to hypersound acoustics at frequencies in the GHz domain, are found to be in agreement with results from acoustic attenuation experiments in N2 performed at MHz frequencies.

  1. Determination of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in plasma by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, J.F.; Bopp, R.J.; Carmichael, R.H.; Farid, K.Z.; Lemberger, L.

    1982-10-01

    This gas-chromatographic method for assay of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in human plasma involves extraction of the drugs and use of a /sup 63/Ni electron-capture detector. The linear range of detection is 25 to 800 micrograms/L for each drug. Overall precision (CV) in the concentration range of 10 to 100 micrograms/L for both drugs was approximately 10%. Accuracy (relative error) in the same concentration range was approximately +10%. None of the commonly prescribed antidepressants or tranquilizers that we tested interfere with the assay.

  2. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of levodropropizine plasma levels in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaratin, P; De Angelis, L; Cattabeni, F

    1988-08-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526) in plasma is described. The method proved to be highly selective and sensitive. Drug concentrations as low as 5 ng/ml could be measured. Levodropropizine plasma levels were measured in 6 healthy volunteers after administration of an acute 60 mg dose. Peak concentrations were reached between 40 and 60 min and measurable amounts of drug were present till 8 h after administration.

  3. Determination of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in river water and final effluent by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparham, Chris; Van Egmond, Roger; O'Connor, Sean; Hastie, Colin; Whelan, Mick; Kanda, Rakesh; Franklin, Oliver

    2008-11-28

    A method is described for the analysis of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) in river water and treated waste water using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Internal standard addition to samples and field blanks was carried out in the field to provide both a measure of recovery and to prevent any exposure of samples to laboratory air, which contained background levels of D(5). Measured levels of D(5) were typically in the range River Great Ouse (UK) with slightly higher levels in the River Nene (UK). The measured concentration of D(5) in treated waste water varied between 31 and 400ngL(-1), depending on the type of treatment process employed.

  4. 75 FR 4271 - Refinement of Income and Rent Determination Requirements in Public and Assisted Housing Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Parts 5 and 92 RIN 2501-AD48 Refinement of Income and Rent Determination..., entitled ``Refinement of Income and Rent Determination Requirements in Public and Assisted Housing Programs...

  5. Efficient determination of average valence of manganese in manganese oxides by reaction headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2017-08-18

    This work investigates a new reaction headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) technique for efficient quantifying average valence of manganese (Mn) in manganese oxides. This method is on the basis of the oxidation reaction between manganese oxides and sodium oxalate under the acidic condition. The carbon dioxide (CO2) formed from the oxidation reaction can be quantitatively analyzed by headspace gas chromatography. The data showed that the reaction in the closed headspace vial can be completed in 20min at 80°C. The relative standard deviation of this reaction HS-GC method in the precision testing was within 1.08%, the relative differences between the new method and the reference method (titration method) were no more than 5.71%. The new HS-GC method is automated, efficient, and can be a reliable tool for the quantitative analysis of average valence of manganese in the manganese oxide related research and applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Shock Initiation Behavior of PBXN-9 Determined by Gas Gun Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, N. J.; Gustavsen, R. L.; Hooks, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    The shock to detonation transition was evaluated in the HMX based explosive PBXN-9 by a series of light-gas gun experiments. PBXN-9 consists of 92 wt% HMX, 2wt% Hycar 4054 & 6 wt&percent; dioctyl adipate with a density of 1.75 g/cm3 and 0.8&% voids. The experiments were designed to understand the specifics of wave evolution and the run distance to detonation as a function of input shock pressure. These experiments were conducted on gas guns in order to vary the input shock pressure accurately. The primary diagnostics were embedded magnetic gauges, which are based on Faraday's law of induction, and Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). The run distance to detonation vs. shock pressure, or "Pop plot," was redefined as log(X) = 2.14-1.82 log (P), which is substantially different than previous data. The Hugoniot was refined as Us = 2.32+2.211 Up. This data will be useful for the development of predictive models for the safety and performance of PBXN-9 along with providing increased understanding of HMX based explosives in varying formulations.

  7. Replacing Natural Gas by Biogas — Determining the Bacterial Contamination of Biogas by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Čermáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising way of using biogas is to upgrade it to natural gas, which is referred to as Substitute Natural Gas (SNG or biomethane. Biomethane, or biogas, is produced by biological processes of harnessing the ability of microorganisms to degrade organic material to methane. Some of the microorganisms are aerosolized from the digester into the biogas; afterwards a bio-film is formed that attaches to the surfaces of the distribution pipes, and can find it was to the place where the end use of biogas takes place. This paper deals with the detection of microbial species in biogas, their influenceon corrosion and the potential risk that diseases can be spread via biogas using molecular techniques. Using molecular methods, we found that raw biogas contains about 8 million microorganisms per m3, which is most likely the result of microbial transmission from the anaerobic digestion process. Some bacterial species may contribute to the corrosion of pipelines and equipment; others are opportunistic pathogens that can cause toxic reactions. However, most bacterial species, more than 40 % in biogas, are still unknown, as is their influence on the digestion process and on human health. Further studies are needed to better understand the behavior of microorganisms in anaerobic digestion and to preventmicrobial-influenced corrosion and microbial dissemination.

  8. Results from the DOE Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti

    2014-06-01

    Modular HTGR designs were developed to provide natural safety, which prevents core damage under all design basis accidents and presently envisioned severe accidents. The principle that guides their design concepts is to passively maintain core temperatures below fission product release thresholds under all accident scenarios. This level of fuel performance and fission product retention reduces the radioactive source term by many orders of magnitude and allows potential elimination of the need for evacuation and sheltering beyond a small exclusion area. This level, however, is predicated on exceptionally high fuel fabrication quality and performance under normal operation and accident conditions. Germany produced and demonstrated high quality fuel for their pebble bed HTGRs in the 1980s, but no U.S. manufactured fuel had exhibited equivalent performance prior to the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The design goal of the modular HTGRs is to allow elimination of an exclusion zone and an emergency planning zone outside the plant boundary fence, typically interpreted as being about 400 meters from the reactor. To achieve this, the reactor design concepts require a level of fuel integrity that is better than that claimed for all prior US manufactured TRISO fuel, by a few orders of magnitude. The improved performance level is about a factor of three better than qualified for German TRISO fuel in the 1980’s. At the start of the AGR program, without a reactor design concept selected, the AGR fuel program selected to qualify fuel to an operating envelope that would bound both pebble bed and prismatic options. This resulted in needing a fuel form that could survive at peak fuel temperatures of 1250°C on a time-averaged basis and high burnups in the range of 150 to 200 GWd/MTHM (metric tons of heavy metal) or 16.4 to 21.8% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). Although Germany has demonstrated excellent performance of TRISO-coated UO

  9. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  10. [Rapid determination of alkaloids in tobacco using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with full scan-selected ion monitoring mode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoxing; Yang, Shihua; Hou, Ying; Zeng, Xiaoying; Wu, Yi; Xu, Guowang

    2008-05-01

    Simultaneous full scan-selected ion monitoring mode (Scan-SIM) is a new improvement method of data acquisition of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A method of determing alkaloids in tobacco was established by GC-MS with Scan-SIM. Nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine and anatabine were determined with scan mode, and myosmine, nicotyrine, 2,3'-bipyridyl and cotinine were determined with SIM mode. The average recoveries of alkaloids ranged from 94.8% to 98.8%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 6.0% (n = 5). Therefore, it is a simple, rapid, accurate method. Tobacco samples picked in different years were determined using this method, and the results were satisfactory.

  11. Sustaining Gains in Health Programs: Technical Efficiency and its Determinants in Malaria Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atake, Esso-Hanam

    2017-04-01

    Since the year 2000, Africa has made significant progress in the fight against malaria. Between 2000 and 2015, the incidence and death from malaria fell by 42 and 66%, respectively. However, the African region still accounts for most global cases of malaria. In 2015, the region was home to 89% of malaria cases and 91% of malaria death. This study aimed to evaluate efficiency of policies against malaria in 30 malaria-endemic Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, from the perspective of sustaining gains. The data came from World Malaria Report 2013. Data were analyzed using the double bootstrap method. We first estimated bootstrapped efficiency scores. Then, bootstrapped truncated regression was used to determine factors associated with malaria program efficiency. This study showed that most malaria programs in SSA are technically inefficient. We also found that aid from international institutions and public expenditures on malaria programs do not significantly affect the efficiency of malaria programs. However, in an enhanced governance context, international aid and public expenditure impact positively on the efficiency of malaria programs. Moreover, intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women is associated with a positive effect on the efficiency. Surprisingly, the free care policies-artemisinin-based combinations for under five-year-old children in the public facilities, rapid diagnostic tests, and distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets and long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets-does not significantly affect the efficiency of malaria programs. Financing alone does not ensure efficiency of malaria programs. Good governance and the targeting of the most vulnerable segments of the population are necessary to reduce malaria deaths and improve efficiency of malaria programs in SSA.

  12. 78 FR 69337 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for Fluorinated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal information provided, unless the comment includes... group (chemical type) at the process level for each generically defined production or transformation... emissions from production and transformation processes; emissions from venting of container heels and...

  13. 78 FR 68161 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Final Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... dioxide equivalent N 2 O nitrous oxide NAICS North American Industrial Classification System NF 3 nitrogen... updated since proposal to account for new data submitted in public comments. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O... Issues, CAA section 114 provides the EPA broad authority to obtain the information in Part 98, including...

  14. 77 FR 63537 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... systems (MEMS), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), or photovoltaic (PV) cells. Because we are planning an... or removal efficiency EIA Economic Impact Analysis EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency F-GHG... manufacturing facilities. 334413 Semiconductor, photovoltaic (solid- state) device manufacturing facilities...

  15. Applicability of NASA contract quality management and failure mode effect analysis procedures to the USGS Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, M. K.; Little, D. G.; Hoard, E. G.; Taylor, A. C.; Campbell, R.

    1972-01-01

    An approach that might be used for determining the applicability of NASA management techniques to benefit almost any type of down-to-earth enterprise is presented. A study was made to determine the following: (1) the practicality of adopting NASA contractual quality management techniques to the U.S. Geological Survey Outer Continental Shelf lease management function; (2) the applicability of failure mode effects analysis to the drilling, production, and delivery systems in use offshore; (3) the impact on industrial offshore operations and onshore management operations required to apply recommended NASA techniques; and (4) the probable changes required in laws or regulations in order to implement recommendations. Several management activities that have been applied to space programs are identified, and their institution for improved management of offshore and onshore oil and gas operations is recommended.

  16. 78 FR 19801 - 2013 Revisions to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule and Proposed Confidentiality Determinations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Climate Change and to add global warming potentials for certain fluorinated greenhouse gases not currently... Program GWP global warming potential HFC hydrofluorocarbon HHV high heat value IPCC Intergovernmental.... Impacts of the Proposed Rule A. Impacts of the Proposed Amendments to Global Warming Potentials B...

  17. Determinants of Private Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase in Response to the Partnership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haizhen; Prince, Jeffrey T

    2016-04-01

    To assess three possible determinants of individuals' response in their private insurance purchases to the availability of the Partnership for Long-Term Care (PLTC) insurance program: bequest motives, financial literacy, and program awareness. The health and retirement study (HRS) merged with data on states' implementation of the PLTC program. Individual-level decision on private long-term care insurance is regressed on whether the PLTC program is being implemented for a given state-year, asset dummies, policy determinant variable, two-way and three-way interactions of these variables, and other controls, using fixed effects panel regression. Analysis used a sample between 50 and 69 years of age from 2002 to 2010, resulting in 12,695 unique individuals with a total of 39,151 observations. We find mild evidence that intent to bequest influences individual purchase of insurance. We also find that program awareness is necessary for response, while financial literacy notably increases responsiveness. Increasing response to the PLTC program among the middle class (the stated target group) requires increased efforts to create awareness of the program's existence and increased education about the program's benefits, and more generally, about long-term care risks and needs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. Gas chromatographic determination of methoxyflurane in maternal and foetal blood during anaesthesia for Caesarean sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, V; Roth, M

    1975-02-01

    In 50 cases of Caesarean section for various indication, methoxyflurane was administered to two groups of patients in two different dosages by a Pentec-vaporizer. Blood was sampled simultaneously in the radial artery of the mother and in the umbilical vein. The methoxyflurane concentrations of both samples of blood were measured by gas chromatography. With an inspiratory concentration of 0.2 vol.-% methoxyflurane, the mean concentration was 166 mumol/1(2.75 mg/100 ml) in the maternal blood and 69 mumol/1 (1.14 mg/100 ml) in the umbilical vein. With 0.5 vol.-%, the corresponding values were 345 mumol/1 (5.72 mg/100 ml) and 137 mumol/1 (2.25 mg/100 ml) respectively. The condition of the new-born did not appear to be affected by the given doses of methoxyflurane.

  19. Laser microsampling method for determination of retained fission gas in irradiated nuclear fuels. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graczyk, D.G.; Bandyopadhyay, G.; Gehl, S.M.; Hughes, J.P.; Goodspeed, H.T.

    1979-10-01

    A small ruby laser adapted to fire through a microscope is used to release fission gases from specific sites on a plane surface of an irradiated fuel specimen. Interaction of the focused laser pulse with the specimen surface results in a conical crater from which sampled material has been vaporized; the crater is surrounded by a heat-affected zone in which intergranular fracture and grain separation allow release of grain-boundary gases. Procedures for measuring the amount of krypton-85 released by laser heating and the volume of material from which the release occurred are presented. The data obtained may be used to obtain local krypton fission-gas concentrations and the intragranular/intergranular distribution.

  20. The molecular structure of diethyl cadmium determined by gas-phase electron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Matthew J.; Beer, Michael P.; Page, Elizabeth M.; Rice, David A.; Hagen, Kolbjørn; Volden, Hans Vidar

    1993-10-01

    The molecular structure of diethyl cadmium (C 2H 5) 2Cd, has been studied by gas-phase electron diffraction. The molecule was found to consist of a central linear CCdC fragment terminated at each end by a methyl group From consideration of the data it seems that there is a substantial degree of rotation about the CdC bonds Results from a model in which free rotation about the CdC bonds was assumed yielded the following values for the molecular parameters: rg(CdC) = 2.133(6) Å, rg(CC) = 1.537(7) Å, ∠CdCC = 115.81(1.1)°.

  1. Determination of Glycerin from a Marketed Personal Care Product Using Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar De

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents a packed column gas chromatographic technique for the estimation of glycerin using a flame ionization detector from a marketed hair tonic in presence of resorcinol, ethanol, biotin, keratin hydrolysate, undecylenic acid alkylolamide (hyalkyl HBU, D-biotin, nicotinic acid, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The validation studies show the proposed method to be specific, sensitive, precise, and accurate. The method is found to be linear in the concentration range 1.25 mg/mL to 10.02 mg/mL with r2 value 0.99. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were 0.01 mg/mL and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The method does not involve any complex sample preparation procedure and is therefore suitable for regular analysis of glycerin from marketed hair tonic.

  2. In Silico Determination of Gas Permeabilities by Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics: CO2 and He through PIM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentrup, Hendrik; Hart, Kyle E; Colina, Coray M; Müller, Erich A

    2015-03-10

    We study the permeation dynamics of helium and carbon dioxide through an atomistically detailed model of a polymer of intrinsic microporosity, PIM-1, via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. This work presents the first explicit molecular modeling of gas permeation through a high free-volume polymer sample, and it demonstrates how permeability and solubility can be obtained coherently from a single simulation. Solubilities in particular can be obtained to a very high degree of confidence and within experimental inaccuracies. Furthermore, the simulations make it possible to obtain very specific information on the diffusion dynamics of penetrant molecules and yield detailed maps of gas occupancy, which are akin to a digital tomographic scan of the polymer network. In addition to determining permeability and solubility directly from NEMD simulations, the results shed light on the permeation mechanism of the penetrant gases, suggesting that the relative openness of the microporous topology promotes the anomalous diffusion of penetrant gases, which entails a deviation from the pore hopping mechanism usually observed in gas diffusion in polymers.

  3. In Silico Determination of Gas Permeabilities by Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics: CO2 and He through PIM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Frentrup

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the permeation dynamics of helium and carbon dioxide through an atomistically detailed model of a polymer of intrinsic microporosity, PIM-1, via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD simulations. This work presents the first explicit molecular modeling of gas permeation through a high free-volume polymer sample, and it demonstrates how permeability and solubility can be obtained coherently from a single simulation. Solubilities in particular can be obtained to a very high degree of confidence and within experimental inaccuracies. Furthermore, the simulations make it possible to obtain very specific information on the diffusion dynamics of penetrant molecules and yield detailed maps of gas occupancy, which are akin to a digital tomographic scan of the polymer network. In addition to determining permeability and solubility directly from NEMD simulations, the results shed light on the permeation mechanism of the penetrant gases, suggesting that the relative openness of the microporous topology promotes the anomalous diffusion of penetrant gases, which entails a deviation from the pore hopping mechanism usually observed in gas diffusion in polymers.

  4. Determination of Nutrient Contents and Gas Production Values of Some Legume Forages Grown in the Harran Plain Saline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value of some legume species in salt-affected soils of South-East Anatolian region using chemical composition and in vitro gas production kinetics. In this study, Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium alexandrinum, Medicago sativa were sown and tested in four different locations. A 3 by 4 factorial design with 3 legume species and 4 salt levels (non salty electrical conductivity (ECECECEC was used in the study. Results indicated that salinity and plants had no significant effect on ash and ether extract. Dry matter (DM, acid detergent fiber, digestible dry matter, dry matter intake (DMI were affected by plant, salinity and plant×salinity interaction. On the other hand neutral detergent fiber, relative feed value (RFV, and DMI were affected by salinity and plant×salinity interaction. Mineral contents were affected by plant species, salinity and salinity×plants interactions. In vitro gas production, their kinetics and estimated parameters such as were not affected by salinity whereas the gas production up to 48 h, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy (ME, and net energy lactation (NEL were affected by plant and plant×salt interaction. Generally RFVs of all species ranged from 120 to 210 and were quite satisfactory in salty conditions. Current results show that the feed value of Medicago sativa is higher compared to Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium alexandrinum.

  5. Methodology to determine the appropriate amount of excess air for the operation of a gas turbine in a wet environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Leyte, R.; Zamora-Mata, J.M.; Torres-Aldaco, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col Vicentina 09340, Iztapalapa, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Toledo-Velazquez, M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Laboratorio de Ingenieria Termica e Hidraulica Aplicada, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 5, 3er piso SEPI-ESIME, C.P. 07738, Col. Lindavista, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Salazar-Pereyra, M. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Division de Ingenieria Mecatronica e Industrial, Posgrado en Ciencias en Ingenieria Mecatronica, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Col. Valle de Anahuac, C.P. 55210, Ecatepec de Morelos, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    This paper addresses the impact of excess air on turbine inlet temperature, power, and thermal efficiency at different pressure ratios. An explicit relationship is developed to determine the turbine inlet temperature as a function of excess air, pressure ratio and relative humidity. The effect of humidity on the calculation of excess air to achieve a pre-established power output is analyzed and presented. Likewise it is demonstrated that dry air calculations provide a valid upper bound for the performance of a gas turbine under a wet environment. (author)

  6. Flow analysis-hydride generation-gas phase derivative molecular absorption spectrophotometric determination of antimony in antileishmanial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Gallignani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the development of a method based on the coupling of flow analysis (FA, hydride generation (HG, and derivative molecular absorption spectrophotometry (D-EAM in gas phase (GP, is described in order to determine total antimony in antileishmanial products. Second derivative order (D²224nm of the absorption spectrum (190 - 300 nm is utilized as measurement criterion. Each one of the parameters involved in the development of the proposed method was examined and optimized. The utilization of the EAM in GP as detection system in a continuous mode instead of atomic absorption spectrometry represents the great potential of the analytic proposal.

  7. DETERMINATION OF KRESOXIM-METHYL AND TRIFLOXYSTROBIN IN WATER SAMPLES BY SINGLE DROP MICROEXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Araujo; Gizelle Sánchez; Dalia Cubillán; Jair Mercado; María Troconis; Avismelsi Prieto

    2012-01-01

    A method for determination of trace amounts of the fungicides kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in water samples, previous single-drop microextraction, was developed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The effects of organic solvent, stirring speed , drop volume, ionic strength, sample volume, extraction time as well as the extraction temperature were studied. Both fungicides were extracted using 2 µL of n-heptane. The linear concentration range of application was 0.2–10.0 µg/L (r =...

  8. The AirWaterGas Teacher Professional Development Program: Lessons Learned by Pairing Scientists and Teachers to Develop Curriculum on Global Climate Change and Regional Unconventional Oil and Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Hatheway, B.; Rogers, J. D.; Casey, J. G.; Lackey, G.; Birdsell, D.; Brown, K.; Polmear, M.; Capps, S.; Rosenblum, J.; Sitterley, K.; Hafich, K. A.; Hannigan, M.; Knight, D.

    2015-12-01

    The AirWaterGas Teacher Professional Development Program, run by the UCAR Center for Science Education, brought together scientists and secondary science teachers in a yearlong program culminating in the development of curriculum related to the impacts of unconventional oil and gas development. Graduate students and research scientists taught about their research area and its relationship to oil and gas throughout three online courses during the 2015-16 school year, during which teachers and scientists engaged in active online discussions. Topics covered included climate change, oil and gas infrastructure, air quality, water quality, public health, and practices and policies relating to oil and gas development. Building upon their initial online interactions and a face-to-face meeting in March, teachers were paired with appropriate AirWaterGas team members as science advisors during a month-long residency in Boulder, Colorado. During the residency, graduate student scientists provided resources and feedback as teachers developed curriculum projects in collaboration with each other and UCAR science educators. Additionally, teachers and AirWaterGas researchers shared experiences on an oil and gas well site tour, and a short course on drilling methods with a drilling rig simulator. Here, we share lessons learned from both sides of the aisle, including initial results from program assessment conducted with the participating teachers.

  9. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter D.; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  10. Evaluation of Well Records and Geophysical Logs for Determining the Presence of Freshwater, Saltwater, and Gas Above the Marcellus Shale, South-Central New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of water wells in NWIS and records and geophysical logs of gas wells in ESOGIS were evaluated to provide a preliminary determination of the presence of freshwater, saltwater, and gas above the Marcellus Shale in south-central New York.

  11. A Method to Determine British Anti-Lewisite in Plasma Utilizing Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Christopher E; Holloway, Evan R; Korte, William D; Smith, John R; Capacio, Bebedict R

    2005-01-01

    British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) is a potential therapeutic compound against the effects of cutaneous sulfur mustard, and an method for its determination in plasma has been developed...

  12. Determinants of small business interest in offering a wellness program to their employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divine, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    Data from a survey of small business managers were analyzed in order to identify the main determinants of how interested they were in offering a wellness program to their employees. The results indicate that interest in offering a wellness program is more a function of perceived effectiveness than it is related to the issue of whether the benefits these programs provide are relevant to the needs of small businesses. The results also suggest that humanitarian motives have a greater influence on small business interest in wellness than do financial motives.

  13. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  14. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Progress report, September 23, 1976--December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This report presents the results of work performed from September 23, 1976 through December 31, 1976 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Process Heat and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the affect of simulated reactor primary coolant (impure Helium), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes progress to date on alloy selection for VHTR Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) applications and for DCHT applications. The present status on the simulated reactor helium loop design and on designs for the testing and analysis facilities and equipment is discussed.

  15. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-31

    The objectives of the program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the affect of simulated reactor primary coolant (Helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in the report includes the activities associated with the procurement of the materials for the screening test program, information from vendor certification for the materials receiver, and preliminary information from the materials characterization tests performed by General Electric. The construction status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment are discussed. The status of the data management system is also reviewed.

  16. Determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater by solvent extraction and gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhize, Nontando T.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Momba, Maggy

    The purpose of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction method for the analysis of volatile fatty acids collected at the elutriation units of Unit 3, 4 and 5 at Johannesburg Water-Northern Works Wastewater Treatment Plant. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method employing dichloromethane (DCM) and methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) as extracting solvents was used during the quantitative analysis of volatile fatty acids namely acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and heptanoic acid. The detection of the extracts was by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating under electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). The results showed that MTBE was a better extraction solvent than DCM as it gave much higher recoveries (>5 folds). On the other hand, the overall reactor performance for all the three units in the period when the samples were collected, which was measured by the ratio of propionic to acetic acid was good since the ratio o did not exceed 1.4 with the exception of the samples collected on the 3rd of October where the ratio exceeded 1.4 significantly. The concentration of acetic acid, another indicator for the reactor performance in all three units was way below 800 mg/L thus the digester balance was on par.

  17. Determination of Selected Phthalates by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in Personal Perfumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchio, Santino; Indelicato, Roberta; Barreca, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    A simple and fast method is proposed to analyze commercial personal perfumes. Our method includes measurement of phthalates, known to be major sources of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDC), which originate from the less volatile fraction of perfumes. The quantification of phthalates were carried out directly with no sample preparation required on 30 samples of commercial products using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a detector. The total concentrations of 15 investigated compounds ranged from 17 to 9650 mg/L with an average of 2643 mg/L. The highest total concentration was found in cologne. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were detected in appreciable concentrations. Further, it was found that the composition of counterfeit samples varied widely from that of authentic products. The composition of old products was different from that of recent perfumes, which contain less harmful chemicals, attributed to the ban on some phthalates in Europe due their toxicity. It should be noted that older and contaminated products are not equivalent to authentic products when considering quality, safety, and probably effectiveness. Older and nonapproved perfumes contain chemicals that are not allowed for commercial use and may contain toxic impurities.

  18. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Inverse gas chromatography as a method for determination of surface properties of binding materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jihai; Lu, Xiaolei; Yang, Chunxia; Du, Baoli; Wang, Shuxian; Ye, Zhengmao

    2017-09-01

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is a promising measurement technique for investigating the surface properties of binding materials, which are the major influence element for the adsorption performance of superplasticizer. In this work, using the IGC method, blast furnace slag (BFS), sulphoaluminate cement (SAC) and portland cement (P·O) are employed to systematically evaluate the corresponding dispersive component (γ s d ), specific surface free energy (γ s ab ), and acid-base properties. The obtained results show that γ s d contributes to a major section of the surface free energy in the three binding materials, suggesting they are of a relatively low polarity. Compared to the two kinds of cements, the BFS possesses the highest dispersive and specific surface free energies (the values are 45.01 mJ/m2 and 11.68 mJ/m2, respectively), and also exhibits a wider distribution range of γ s d , indicating their surfaces are heterogeneous. For acid-base properties, the results indicate the surfaces of three samples are basic in nature. In addition, the adsorption investigation shows that per unit surface of BFS adsorbs the most superplasticizer molecules, which indicates the higher surface free energies is beneficial to the superplasticizer adsorption.

  20. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for determination of the terpenes profile of blue honeysuckle berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupska, Magdalena; Chmiel, Tomasz; Jędrkiewicz, Renata; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Terpenes are the main group of secondary metabolites, which play essential role in human. The establishment of the terpenes profile of berries of different blue honeysuckle cultivars was achieved by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC×GC-TOFMS). The berries were found to contain 44 terpenes identified by GC×GC-TOFMS. From these, 10 were previously reported in blueberries. According to their chemical structure, the compounds were organised in different groups: monoterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene oxygen-containing compounds (oxides, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones). Positive identification of some of the compounds was performed using authentic standards, while tentative identification of the compounds was based on deconvoluted mass spectra and comparison of linear retention indices (LRI) with literature values. The major components of volatile fraction were monoterpenes, such as eucalyptol, linalool and p-cymene. Furthermore, quantitative analysis showed that eucalyptol was the most abundant bioactive terpene in analysed berries (12.4-418.2 μg/L). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Some insights into the gas chromatographic determination of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2005-09-01

    The analytical properties of four reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), including hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), were investigated to improve the techniques for their measurements at sub-part-per-billion (sub-ppb) concentration levels. Forthis purpose, a gas chromatographic (GC) system with a pulsed-flame photometric detector (PFPD) was interfaced with a thermal desorption (TD) unit for the collection and analysis of RSCs in ambient air. The calibration results obtained by working standards of equimolar concentrations (prepared at five different concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 ppb) were evaluated to properly describe the detection characteristics of the GC/ PFPD setting and of different RSCs. It was observed that the absolute magnitude of calibration slopes changed among different S compounds in a consistent manner (e.g., enhanced sensitivity toward the compound of heavy molecular weight and/or high sulfur contents), while their full scales of linearity range varied in an opposite pattern. The absolute magnitude of the H2S calibration slope values was remarkably sensitive to the initial standard concentrations, while such effects were not so evident from other RSCs. The overall results of this study suggest that the GC detection of H2S by means of the bag sampling technique can suffer from the strongest variability due to the dynamic change of its calibration in accord with its initial concentration.

  2. Evaluation of gas chromatographic methods for the determination of trans fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonte, Pierluigi; Rader, Jeanne I

    2007-09-01

    Consumption of trans fat has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. For nutrition labeling purposes, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines trans fat as the sum of all the fatty acids with at least one nonconjugated double bond in the trans configuration. The FDA regulation states that label declarations of trans fat are not required for products that contain less than 0.5 g of trans fat per serving if no claims are made about fat, fatty acids or cholesterol. While attenuated total reflection Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) provides reproducible measurements for samples containing more than 5% trans fat, methods based on gas chromatography (GC) are needed to measure lower trans fat levels. Trans fat quantitation by GC has recently been updated by considering more fatty acids, focusing more attention on fatty acids present in low amounts, and by using 100-m high-polarity capillary columns for optimal separation. The consistently high interlaboratory relative standard deviations (RSD, e.g., 21% at 1% trans fatty acids (TFA), 60% at 0.17% TFA), and intralaboratory RSD values (e.g., 10% at 1% TFA, 16% at 0.17% TFA) for trans fat at 1% or less of total fat reported in the collaborative study data for American Oil Chemists Society Official Method Ce 1h-05 suggest the need to carefully define the parameters associated with GC analysis of fatty acids.

  3. Cinnamaldehyde content in foods determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M; Kozukue, N; Harden, L A

    2000-11-01

    trans-Cinnamaldehyde, the principal component of cinnamon flavor, is a potent antimicrobial compound present in essential oils such as cinnamon. In the course of studies designed to discover its maximum microbial lethality under food-processing conditions, a gas chromatographic-mass spectrophotometric procedure was developed for the extraction and analysis of essential oil components such as cinnamaldehyde from commercial cinnamon-containing foods (several brands of cinnamon breads, cereals, cookies, puddings, applesauces, and fruit juices). The cinnamaldehyde content ranged from trace amounts in orange juice to 12.2 mg/100 g (122 ppm) in apple cinnamon cereals and 31.1 mg/100 g (311 ppm) for cinnamon swirl bread (highest value). To ascertain the heat stability of cinnamaldehyde, pure cinnamaldehyde, pure eugenol, cinnamon oil, and mixtures consisting of cinnamaldehyde plus eugenol or cinnamon oil were heated at graded temperatures up to 210 degrees C and 60 min, and then possible compositional changes were examined. Eugenol was stable to heat, as were the components of cinnamon oil: carvone, eugenol, and linalool. In contrast, starting at approximately 60 degrees C, pure cinnamaldehyde undergoes a temperature-dependent transformation to benzaldehyde under the influence of heat. Eugenol, both pure and in cinnamon oil, when added to pure cinnamaldehyde protected the aldehyde against heat destruction. The protection may due to an antioxidative action of eugenol. The possible mechanism of this effect and the significance of these findings for food chemistry and microbiology are discussed.

  4. [Rapid determination of benzene series in seawater by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with static headspace extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongyan; Han, Bin; Chen, Junhui; Zheng, Li; Yang, Dongfang; Wang, Xiaoru

    2012-05-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 13 benzene series (BTEX) in seawater using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with static headspace extraction (HS-GC/MS) was developed. To carefully characterize the performance of this method, several factors affecting parameters were studied in detail, such as the type of column, heating procedure, equilibrium temperature, equilibrium time and the volume ratio of gas phase to liquid phase. The optimized conditions were as follows: the polar column of DB-WAX; heating procedure, 40 degrees C kept for 4 min, then raised to 120 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min, to 180 degrees C at 25 degrees C/min; equilibrium temperature, 80 degrees C; equilibrium time, 10 min; and the volume ratio of gas phase to liquid phase, 1:1. Under the optimized conditions, the linear equations were obtained in the concentration range of 0.16-320 microg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.019-0.033 microg/L. The recoveries at the three spiked levels of 1.6, 16 and 160 microg/L ranged from 81. 25% to 103.73% with the relative standard deviations (RSD, n=6) from 0.3% to 4.4%. The analytical results of the practical seawater samples from Shanghai Huangpu District were satisfactory. The determination of the 13 benzene series can be finished in 12 min. The method is simple, accurate, reliable, efficient and environmental-friendly.

  5. Methane emissions from natural gas compressor stations in the transmission and storage sector: measurements and comparisons with the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, R; Williams, Laurie L; Vaughn, Timothy L; Zimmerle, Daniel; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Floerchinger, Cody; Tkacik, Daniel S; Mitchell, Austin L; Sullivan, Melissa R; Dallmann, Timothy R; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-03-03

    Equipment- and site-level methane emissions from 45 compressor stations in the transmission and storage (T&S) sector of the US natural gas system were measured, including 25 sites required to report under the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program (GHGRP). Direct measurements of fugitive and vented sources were combined with AP-42-based exhaust emission factors (for operating reciprocating engines and turbines) to produce a study onsite estimate. Site-level methane emissions were also concurrently measured with downwind-tracer-flux techniques. At most sites, these two independent estimates agreed within experimental uncertainty. Site-level methane emissions varied from 2-880 SCFM. Compressor vents, leaky isolation valves, reciprocating engine exhaust, and equipment leaks were major sources, and substantial emissions were observed at both operating and standby compressor stations. The site-level methane emission rates were highly skewed; the highest emitting 10% of sites (including two superemitters) contributed 50% of the aggregate methane emissions, while the lowest emitting 50% of sites contributed less than 10% of the aggregate emissions. Excluding the two superemitters, study-average methane emissions from compressor housings and noncompressor sources are comparable to or lower than the corresponding effective emission factors used in the EPA greenhouse gas inventory. If the two superemitters are included in the analysis, then the average emission factors based on this study could exceed the EPA greenhouse gas inventory emission factors, which highlights the potentially important contribution of superemitters to national emissions. However, quantification of their influence requires knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of superemitters across the entire T&S sector. Only 38% of the methane emissions measured by the comprehensive onsite measurements were reportable under the new EPA GHGRP because of a combination of inaccurate emission factors for leakers and

  6. [Determination of acetanilide herbicide residues in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weijian; Xu, Jinzhong; Yang, Wenquan; Shen, Chongyu; Zhao, Zengyun; Ding, Tao; Wu, Bin

    2007-09-01

    An analytical method of solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques was established for simultaneous determination of 12 acetanilide herbicide residues in tea-leaves. Herbicides were extracted from tea-leaf samples with ethyl acetate. The extract was cleaned-up on an active carbon SPE column connected to a Florisil SPE column. Analytical screening was determined by the technique of gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode with either electron impact ionization (EI) or negative chemical ionization (NCI). It is reliable and stable that the recoveries of all herbicides were in the range from 50% to 110% at three spiked levels, 10 microg/kg, 20 microg/kg and 40 microg/kg, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were no more than 10.9%. The two different ionization techniques are complementary as more ion fragmentation information can be obtained from the EI mode while more molecular ion information from the NCI mode. By comparison of the two techniques, the selectivity of NCI-SIM was much better than that of EI-SIM method. The sensitivities of the both techniques were high, the limit of quantitative (LOQ) for each herbicide was no more than 2.0 microg/kg, and the limit of detection (LOD) with NCI-SIM technique was much lower than that of EI-SIM when analyzing herbicides with several halogen atoms in the molecule.

  7. [Determination of levamisole residue in animal livers by two liquid-liquid extraction steps-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Xiao, Shanshan; Dong, Weifeng; Sui, Kai; Cao, Jijuan; Diao, Wenting; Zhang, Jing

    2012-09-01

    A novel method wasdeveloped for the determination oflevamisole in animal livers by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levamisole hydrochloride was transferred to levamisole in alkalinesolution, andthen extracted intoethyl acetate. Two liquid-liquid extraction steps were carried out with HCI aqueous solution and potassium hydroxide-dichloromethane system in turn, and the liposoluble substances and the water-soluble substances were removed, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of levamisole were achieved by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. The characteristic fragments m/z 148, 176 and 204 were selected and m/z 204 was used as the quantitative ion. A good linear relationship was obtained between the peak area and the mass concentration of levamisole from 0.25 mg/L to 3.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for levamisole was 5 microg/kg, which was much lower than the international maximum residue limit. The average recoveries of levamisole spiked in chicken liver, duck liver, rabbit liver and pig liver samples at three spiked levels ranged from 76% to 106% with the relative standard deviations less than 9%. The method is simple and stable without tedious sample preparation, and suitable for the determination of levamisole in animal livers.

  8. Rapid gas chromatographic method for the determination of famoxadone, trifloxystrobin and fenhexamid residues in tomato, grape and wine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likas, D T; Tsiropoulos, N G; Miliadis, G E

    2007-05-25

    Trifloxystrobin, fenhexamid and famoxadone belong to the generation of fungicides acting against a broad spectrum of fungi and widely used in Integrated Pest Management strategies in different agricultural crops but mainly in viticulture. In the present work, a gas chromatographic (GC) method for their determination was developed and validated on tomato, grape and wine matrices. The method was based on a simple one step liquid-liquid microextraction with cyclohexane/dichloromethane (9+1, v/v) and determination of fungicides by gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous (NP-) and electron capture (EC-) detection, and ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) for confirmation. The method was validated by recovery experiments, assessment of matrix effect and calculation of the associated uncertainty. Recoveries for GC-NPD and GC-ECD were found in the range of 81-102% with RSD trifloxystrobin being the most sensitive. The expanded uncertainty, calculated for a sample concentration of 0.10 mg/kg, ranged from 4.8 to 13% for the GC-ECD and from 5.4 to 29% for the GC-NPD. The concentration levels for famoxadone residues found in tomato and grape samples from field experiments were clearly below the EU established MRL values, thus causing no problems in terms of food safety.

  9. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in wheat flour by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D H; Heo, G S; Lee, D W

    1998-10-16

    Application of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for selective isolation of organophosphorus pesticides from a real-world matrix (wheat flour) has been described. The method uses extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide at 206.8 bar and 60 degrees C, followed by quantitation by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorous detection without clean-up of the extracts. Comparison of SFE with a method currently employed for sample preparation (i.e., organic solvent extraction followed by liquid-liquid extraction and gel permeation chromatography clean-up) shows that the SFE technique simplifies the sample preparation step and speeds up the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in flour. Extraction times were 60 min for a 7 g sample size. This technique was able to determine organophosphorus pesticides (ethoprophos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos methyl, fenitrothion, parathion, phenthoate, EPN) in samples at the 10 ng/g level.

  10. Exploiting gas diffusion for non-invasive sampling in flow analysis: determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Simone; Zagatto, Elias A G; Pinto, Paula C A G; Saraiva, Maria Lucia M E S; Lima, José L F C; Borges, Eduardo P

    2006-03-01

    A tubular gas diffusion PTFE membrane is exploited for non-invasive sampling in flow analysis, aiming to develop an improved spectrophotometric determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. The probe is immersed into the sample, allowing ethanol to diffuse through the membrane. It is collected into the acceptor stream (acidic dichromate solution), leading to formation of Cr(III), monitored at 600 nm. The analytical curve is linear up to 50% (v/v) ethanol, baseline drift is < 0.005 absorbance during four working-hours, and sample throughput is 30 h(-1), meaning 0.6 mmol K2Cr2O7 per determination. Results are precise (r.s.d.< 2%) and in agreement with an official procedure.

  11. Determination of physical adsorption loss of primary standard gas mixtures in cylinders using cylinder-to-cylinder division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangil; Eon Kim, Mi; Hyub Oh, Sang; Seog Kim, Jin

    2017-12-01

    Primary standard gas mixtures (PSMs) are typically prepared in cylinders and the amount-of-substance fractions are determined by purity analysis and gravimetric method. However, the actual amount-of-substance fraction can be different from the gravimetrically determined value due to adsorption loss onto the internal surface of cylinders. The resulted difference due to the adsorption loss can be larger than the PSM uncertainty. In this study, the cylinder-to-cylinder division method is proposed to evaluate any potential physical adsorption loss onto the internal surface of cylinders. A method for estimating the amount of adsorption loss, the corrected amount-of-substance fraction and its uncertainty due to the adsorption loss is described.

  12. A LabVIEW program for determining confidence intervals of Abel-inverted radial emission profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, George C.-Y. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Hieftje, Gary M. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)]. E-mail: hieftje@indiana.edu

    2005-11-15

    A LabVIEW-based program for the determination of confidence intervals in Abel inversion is described in detail. Confidence intervals are determined from the noise level in the input lateral-emission profile. It is first assumed that the noise-free lateral profile is a smooth and continuous function which can be satisfactorily approximated by a polynomial fit. Random noise is then added to produce a profile that is statistically identical to the experimental lateral profile. Because the number of generated lateral profiles can be as large as desired, the corresponding Abel-inverted radial profiles provide a basis for determination of the confidence intervals. The program is capable of determining the optimal order of the fitting polynomial for the input lateral profile. Two methods for computing the Abel inversion calculation, the Nestor-Olsen and the Hankel-Fourier algorithms, are built into the program. If necessary, the input lateral profile can be smoothed by a built-in moving-average function. A detailed description of the program and its associated functions is presented, followed by a characterization of its performance in the determination of Abel-inversion confidence intervals for several test emission profiles.

  13. Determination of Trace Elements in Nickel Base Gas Turbine Parts by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigation is described to ascertain whether or not atomic absorption spectrophotometry could be used to determine the concentration of trace ... elements such as silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in nickel base alloys such as IN100, B1900 and 713C, without interference from

  14. Determination of aliphatic amines in water by gas chromatography using headspace solvent microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaykhaii, Massoud; Nazari, Saeed; Chamsaz, Mahmood

    2005-01-15

    The possibility of applying headspace microextraction into a single drop for the determination of amines in aqueous solutions is demonstrated. A 1mul drop of benzyl alcohol containing 2-butanone as an internal standard was suspended from the tip of a micro syringe needle over the headspace of stirred sample solutions for extraction. The drop was then injected directly into a GC. The total chromatographic determination was less than 10min. Optimization of experimental conditions (sampling time, sampling temperature, stirring rate, ionic strength of the solution, concentration of reagents, time of extraction and organic drop volume) with respect to the extraction efficiency were investigated and the linear range and the precision were also examined. Calibration curves yielded good linearity and concentrations down to 2.5ngml(-1) were detectable with R.S.D. values ranging from 6.0 to 12.0%. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of amines in tap and river water samples. This system represents an inexpensive, fast, simple and precise sample cleanup and preconcentration method for the determination of volatile organic compounds at trace levels.

  15. Determination of the gas-to-membrane mass transfer coefficient in a catalytic membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    A novel method to determine the external mass transfer coefficient in catalytic membrane reactors (Sloot et al., 1992a, b) was presented in this study. In a catalytically active membrane reactor, in which a very fast reaction occurs, the external transfer coefficient can conveniently be measured by

  16. [Rapid determination of ethanol in blood by capillary-gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lin; Sun, Cheng-jun; Zou, Xiao-li; Zeng, Hong-yan; Jiang, Bo

    2010-11-01

    To develop a method for the rapid determination of ethanol in blood with capillary-GC. 0.50 mL of whole blood sample was taken and added with 1.00 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 2 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate. The supernatant of the sample solution was directly injected into GC for analysis. Ethanol was separated from other substances in the sample. The liner range of ethanol detected by the capillary-GC was 0.0-300.0 mg/100 mL, and the detection limit was 0.2 mg/100 mL. The RSD for standard solution determination was 1.36%. Satisfactory results were obtained for the determination of ethanol in whole blood samples, with recoveries ranging from 90.9% to 107.3% and a RSD of 1.98%. The combined uncertainty was 2.2%. This is a rapid, sensitive and simple method for determination of ethanol in large quantities of samples. The method has shortened the duration of analysis cycle in comparison with the traditional headspace-GC, with a reduction from 20-30 min to less than 10 min.

  17. Updated determination of the molar gas constant R by acoustic measurements in argon at UVa-CEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, J. J.; Lozano-Martín, D.; Martín, M. C.; Chamorro, C. R.; Villamañán, M. A.; Pérez, E.; García Izquierdo, C.; del Campo, D.

    2017-10-01

    A new determination of the molar gas constant was performed from measurements of the speed of sound in argon at the triple point of water and extrapolation to zero pressure. A new resonant cavity was used. This is a triaxial ellipsoid whose walls are gold-coated steel and which is divided into two identical halves that are bolted and sealed with an O-ring. Microwave and electroacoustic traducers are located in the northern and southern parts of the cavity, respectively, so that measurements of microwave and acoustic frequencies are carried out in the same experiment. Measurements were taken at pressures from 600 kPa to 60 kPa and at 273.16 K. The internal equivalent radius of the cavity was accurately determined by microwave measurements and the first four radial symmetric acoustic modes were simultaneously measured and used to calculate the speed of sound. The improvements made using the new cavity have reduced by half the main contributions to the uncertainty due to the radius determination using microwave measurements which amounts to 4.7 parts in 106 and the acoustic measurements, 4.4 parts in 106, where the main contribution (3.7 parts in 106) is the relative excess half-widths associated with the limit of our acoustic model, compared with our previous measurements. As a result of all the improvements with the new cavity and the measurements performed, we determined the molar gas constant R  =  (8.314 449  ±  0.000 056) J · K-1 · mol-1 which corresponds to a relative standard uncertainty of 6.7 parts in 106. The value reported in this paper lies  -1.3 parts in 106 below the recommended value of CODATA 2014, although still within the range consistent with it.

  18. A Determination of Air-Sea Gas Exchange and Upper Ocean Biological Production From Five Noble Gases and Tritiugenic Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    og a . ..... .Joint Program V - Chemica r ceanography Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Oce Institution August 10, 2007...CO 2 is an important greenhouse gas. As mentioned above, CO 2 enters the ocean through air-sea gas exchange. Marine organ - isms then fix approximately...50 Pg of carbon per year (Field et al., 1998). Some of this organic matter is remineralized in the surface of the ocean and thus has no net effect on

  19. Notice and Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final Renewable Fuel Standard Program from Canola Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule finalizes the determination that canola oil biodiesel meets the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction threshold of 50 required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA).

  20. Barriers to Teaching Social Determinants of Health: Nursing Study-Abroad Programs in a Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    The social determinants of health are the conditions in which humans are born, grow up, live, work, and age (World Health Organization [WHO], 2012). In nursing programs, this content is typically taught in community health courses. Another strategy for teaching students how to understand the social determinants of health is study-abroad courses. Budding nurses can learn how to assess conditions that influence the health of a community. Conducting this assessment in a culture that differs from the student's own can help highlight what factors impact one's own health. For the past eight years, the author has been teaching the social and cultural determinants of health to nursing students by taking them on 3-week cultural immersion/community health studyabroad programs. Destinations have included Ghana, Austria, the Netherlands, and Thailand. This article presents observations on how the teaching of social determinants of health has changed during the period 2008-2016.

  1. Determination of the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in toasted bread using gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rashdan, Amal; Helaleh, Murad I H; Nisar, A; Ibtisam, A; Al-Ballam, Zainab

    2010-01-01

    Concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in eighteen baked bread samples using gas oven toasting were evaluated in this study. Samples were classified into the following categories: (1) bread baked from white wheat flour, (2) bread baked from brown wheat flour, and (3) sandwich bread baked from white wheat flour. Analysis was performed by GC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of the sample and clean up of the extract. The levels of B[a]P was not detected in ten of eighteen samples. In the rest of the samples, B[a]P are varied from 2.83 to 16.54 μg/kg. B[a]A, CHR, B[b]FA, B[k] FA, IP, DB[a,h]A, and B[ghi]P concentrations were found to be less than 10.0 μg/kg. However, B[a]P are not detected in original white and brown wheat flour. The total PAHs were varied in the range 1.06-44.24 μg/kg and 3.08-278.66 μg/kg for H-PAH and L-PAH, respectively. Reproducibility and repeatability of the proposed method was calculated and presented in terms of recovery and relative standard deviations (RSD, %). Recoveries were varied from 72.46% to 99.06% with RSD ± 0.28-15.01% and from 82.39% to 95.01% with RSD ±1.91-13.01% for repeatability and reproducibility, respectively. Different commercialized samples of toasted bread were collected and analyzed.

  2. Determination of the Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Toasted Bread Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Al-Rashdan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in eighteen baked bread samples using gas oven toasting were evaluated in this study. Samples were classified into the following categories: (1 bread baked from white wheat flour, (2 bread baked from brown wheat flour, and (3 sandwich bread baked from white wheat flour. Analysis was performed by GC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of the sample and clean up of the extract. The levels of B[a]P was not detected in ten of eighteen samples. In the rest of the samples, B[a]P are varied from 2.83 to 16.54 g/kg. B[a]A, CHR, B[b]FA, B[k] FA, IP, DB[a,h]A, and B[ghi]P concentrations were found to be less than 10.0 g/kg. However, B[a]P are not detected in original white and brown wheat flour. The total PAHs were varied in the range 1.06–44.24 g/kg and 3.08–278.66 g/kg for H-PAH and L-PAH, respectively. Reproducibility and repeatability of the proposed method was calculated and presented in terms of recovery and relative standard deviations (RSD, %. Recoveries were varied from 72.46% to 99.06% with RSD ± 0.28–15.01% and from 82.39% to 95.01% with RSD ±1.91–13.01% for repeatability and reproducibility, respectively. Different commercialized samples of toasted bread were collected and analyzed.

  3. Determining air quality and greenhouse gas impacts of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens-Romero, Shane; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2009-12-01

    Adoption of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector and transition to fuel independence. However, it is uncertain (1) to what degree the reduction in criteria pollutants will impact urban air quality, and (2) how the reductions in pollutant emissions and concomitant urban air quality impacts compare to ultralow emission gasoline-powered vehicles projected for a future year (e.g., 2060). To address these questions, the present study introduces a "spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool" (STREET) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and HFCVs at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution. To demonstrate the utility of STREET, two spatially and temporally resolved scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure are evaluated in a prototypical urban airshed (the South Coast Air Basin of California) using geographic information systems (GIS) data. The well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions are quantified and the air quality is established using a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model followed by a comparison to a future gasoline scenario comprised of advanced ICE vehicles. One hydrogen scenario includes more renewable primary energy sources for hydrogen generation and the other includes more fossil fuel sources. The two scenarios encompass a variety of hydrogen generation, distribution, and fueling strategies. GHG emissions reductions range from 61 to 68% for both hydrogen scenarios in parallel with substantial improvements in urban air quality (e.g., reductions of 10 ppb in peak 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 mug/m(3) in 24-h-averaged particulate matter concentrations, particularly in regions of the airshed where concentrations are highest for the gasoline scenario).

  4. Implications of Cost Effectiveness Screening Practices in a Low Natural Gas Price Environment: Case Study of a Midwestern Residential Energy Upgrade Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borgeson, Merrian Goggio [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zimring, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-12

    With the proliferation of statewide energy savings targets and other policies favorable to energy efficiency, savings from utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs could rise to offset much of annual load growth by 2025 (Barbose et al 2013). For these increased savings to occur, however, nearly all of these programs must pass screening for cost effectiveness. Some program administrators and state regulators are finding that conventional analyses, which only consider a narrow set of energy-savings related efficiency program benefits, are now resulting in some natural gas efficiency programs failing their cost-effectiveness criteria in the new low natural gas price environment. Regulators are considering whether to scale back or terminate gas portfolios in at least four states (WA, OR, ID, NM) because of cost-effectiveness concerns. Stakeholders in several regions of the country have asked LBNL to help assess alternatives to reducing the pursuit of energy savings in their regions. We address these requests by producing two working papers: one exploring cost-effectiveness screening policy implications of low to moderate natural gas prices, and a second assessing some of the values that policymakers may take into account in weighing the pros and cons of ending natural gas efficiency programs. In this policy brief, we lay out the challenges that low gas prices pose for cost effectiveness of an electric-gas efficiency program and portfolio. We then quantify options available to regulators and administrators who want to evaluate the tradeoffs among multiple policy objectives. A multi-measure, residential energy upgrade program in the Midwest is used as a lens to explore the implications of common and emerging cost-effectiveness policies in the context of low prices for natural gas. We illustrate the results across a range of cost-effectiveness screening options, including different discount rates, levels of test application, various benefit-cost tests, and the

  5. Natural gas based technologies as revealed in possible New Zealand energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1983-09-01

    New Zealand is an exporter of commodities and thus completely dependent on world market conditions. Its large resources of hydro-electricity, forests, natural gas and fish give it the possibility of industrializing. The off-shore debt on March 31, 1982, stood at US 3,263 million or about US 1,052 per head of population - just about as high as the per capita debt of Argentina - a country mentioned when the world banking system started to worry about possible defaults. In the words of Foreign Minister Warren Cooper before the U.N. General Assembly on October 6, 1982 ''As a small trading nation, New Zealand is acutely sensitive to fluctuations in the health of our major trading partners. New Zealand is classed as a developed country, but we share many of the problems of developing countries''. New Zealand has no oil resources and when the country was hit by the Energy Crisis it decided to develop the gas fields at Kapuni and at Maui in the Taranaki province (in the western part of the North Island) in order to collect associated liquid condensates. The gas was first used to fire electrical plants and later readied for reticulation via pipelines in the Northern Island. Eventually, when the condensate became so much more valuable than the gas - despite its quantity being much smaller - it actually led to flaring the gas to waste in order to obtain the condensate. A ''take-or-pay'' system was negotiated under which the government is contracted to take a given amount of gas per year from the producing partnership.

  6. Natural gas based technologies as revealed in possible New Zealand energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1983-09-01

    The authors do not believe that the Mobil Methanol to Gasoline process, scheduled to be introduced in New Zealand, is cost-effective. The technical feasibility of the process is not in question. They argue that by reducing the liquid volume of the methanol to ca one-half in order to form the twice higher energy content synthetic gasoline wastes advantages the alcohol has had per energy unit. A recommendation is made that the government encourage the use of methanol as a liquid fuel in addition to compressed natural gas, rather than trying to produce synthetic gasoline from natural gas.

  7. Determination of internal pressure and the backfill gas composition of nuclear fuel rods; Determinacion de la presion interna y la composicion del gas de llenado de barras de combustible nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia C, M.A.; Cota S, G.; Merlo S, L.; Fernandez T, F. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    An important consideration in the nuclear fuel manufacturing is the measurement of the helium atmosphere pressure and its composition analysis inside the nuclear fuel rod. In this work it is presented a system used to measure the internal pressure and to determine the backfill gas composition of fuel rods. The system is composed of an expansion chamber provided of a seals system to assure that when rod is drilled, the gas stays contained inside the expansion chamber. The system is connected to a pressure measurement digital system: Baratron MKS 310-AHS-1000. Range 1000 mm Hg from which the pressure readings are taken when this is stabilized in all the system. After a gas sample is sent toward a Perkin Elmer gas chromatograph, model 8410 with thermal conductivity detector to get the corresponding chromatogram and doing the necessary calculations for obtaining the backfill gas composition of the rod in matter. (Author)

  8. Gas-cooled reactor programs. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology development program. Annual progress report, December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Bartine, D.E.; Sanders, J.P.

    1984-06-01

    ORNL continues to make significant contributions to the national program. In the HTR fuels area, we are providing detailed statistical information on the fission product retention performance of irradiated fuel. Our studies are also providing basic data on the mechanical, physical, and chemical behavior of HTR materials, including metals, ceramics, graphite, and concrete. The ORNL has an important role in the development of improved HTR graphites and in the specification of criteria that need to be met by commercial products. We are also developing improved reactor physics design methods. Our work in component development and testing centers in the Component Flow Test Loop (CFTL), which is being used to evaluate the performance of the HTR core support structure. Other work includes experimental evaluation of the shielding effectiveness of the lower portions of an HTR core. This evaluation is being performed at the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility. Researchers at ORNL are developing welding techniques for attaching steam generator tubing to the tubesheets and are testing ceramic pads on which the core posts rest. They are also performing extensive testing of aggregate materials obtained from potential HTR site areas for possible use in prestressed concrete reactor vessels. During the past year we continued to serve as a peer reviewer of small modular reactor designs being developed by GA and GE with balance-of-plant layouts being developed by Bechtel Group, Inc. We have also evaluated the national need for developing HTRs with emphasis on the longer term applications of the HTRs to fossil conversion processes.

  9. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  10. Radon gas monitoring survey for the determination of Radon Prone Areas in Lombardia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolo, D. de; Alberici, A.; Gallini, R.; Maggioni, T.; Mondini, A.; Zini, E. [A.R.P.A. della Lombardia, Milano (Italy); Arrigoni, S.; Cazzaniga, P.; Cugini, A.; Gallinari, G.; Olivieri, F.; Romanelli, M. [A.R.P.A. della Lombardia, Dipt. di Bergamo, Bergamo (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Region Lombardia has carried out a radon gas monitoring survey on its territory to localize radon prone areas as by law 241/00 enacted. To plan the survey, the Lombardia territory has been divided into two different types according to the morphology as well as the presence of a substratum of rock. The area with hills and mountains has been investigated with more attention compared to the plain because we can assume higher variability in radon concentration distribution due to the geological and morphological characteristics. The territory subdivision was based on the standard grid.. of the techniregional cartography (8 x 5 km). To perform radon indoor concentration measurements about 3600 measuring points were selected. They are located at the ground floor of buildings with the characteristics to ensure the tests are representative and comparable. It has also been taken into account evaluations done with previous surveys in accordance with the defined specification of the sites. The measurements were carried out using C.R. 39 trace detector technique. The detectors were contained in closed plastic canisters and they were positioned in situ for one year and measured each semester. The detectors were chemically treated and the traces counted using the automated optical system installed at the Radiometric Laboratory of the A.R.P.A. Department in Bergamo. The instrument accuracy and precision were evaluated using data obtained with different methods: using detectors exposed to radon known concentrations, participating to an international intercomparison as well as exposing the detector in a national calibration centre. Due to the large amount of detectors involved, a particular attention was taken for the detector homogeneity response and for the optimization of the analysis parameters. For further investigating the reliability of the measurements, two detectors were used in parallel in 10% of the tests. The results show higher values in the areas of Bergamo, Brescia

  11. Pedagogical Professional Self-Determination Support for Students under Conditions of Additional Education Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairutdinova, Rezeda R.; Fedorova, Yuliya A.

    2016-01-01

    Significance of the problem stated in the article is stipulated by the fact that professional self-determination of students at the stage of professional education needs pedagogical support; using resources of additional education program will let the individual make smart choices about future professional sphere. Object of the article is to work…

  12. A Study To Determine the Drinking Patterns and Related Behaviors of SEEK Program Students. Societal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Nathaniel A.; Cooper, Phyllis

    This study was aimed at determining the need for development of an alcohol education program for Search for Education, Elevation, and Knowledge (SEEK) students at New York City Technical College. College students (N=105) were surveyed to assess preferences for beer, wine or liquor; frequency of consumption; reasons for drinking; and the…

  13. 78 FR 32228 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Determination of Whether To Conduct a Referendum Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Determination of Whether To Conduct a Referendum Regarding 1990 Amendments to the Cotton Research and Promotion Act AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... among producers and importers on continuation of the 1990 amendments to the Cotton Research and...

  14. 78 FR 70530 - Notice of Determination; New and Revised Treatments for the Imported Fire Ant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... No. APHIS-2012-0064] Notice of Determination; New and Revised Treatments for the Imported Fire Ant... the public that we are adding or revising certain treatment schedules for the Imported Fire Ant... revised treatments in the imported fire ant program. Based on the treatment evaluation document, the...

  15. 42 CFR 405.1803 - Intermediary determination and notice of amount of program reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notice. The notice must explain (with appropriate use of the applicable money amounts) any difference in... period covered by the notice. (3) Hospice caps. With respect to a hospice, the reporting period for the cap calculation is the cap year; and the intermediaries' determination of program reimbursement letter...

  16. Computer program determines thermal environment and temperature history of lunar orbiting space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, D. E.; Mitchell, K. L.

    1967-01-01

    Program computes the thermal environment of a spacecraft in a lunar orbit. The quantities determined include the incident flux /solar and lunar emitted radiation/, total radiation absorbed by a surface, and the resulting surface temperature as a function of time and orbital position.

  17. Manufacturing Improvement Program for the Oil and Gas Industry Supply Chain and Marketing Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Robert [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2016-09-28

    This project supported upgrades for manufacturing companies in the oil and natural gas supply chain in Oklahoma. The goal is to provide assistance that will lead to the improved efficiency advancement of the manufacturing processes currently used by the existing manufacturing clients. The basis for the work is to improve the economic environment for the clients and the communities they serve.

  18. Improved real gas routines for Sandia's NASA Ames flow field program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, R.R.; Larson, D.E.

    1976-02-01

    The real gas subroutines in Sandia's version of the NASA Ames flow field code have been extensively revised. Using these modifications the required computer run time for a difficult high Mach number case has been reduced from 1330 seconds to 151 seconds. (auth)

  19. Compressed Natural Gas Installation. A Video-Based Training Program for Vehicle Conversion. Instructor's Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach four competency-based course units of instruction in installing compressed natural gas (CNG) systems in motor vehicles. It is designed to accompany an instructional videotape (not included) on CNG installation. The following competencies are covered in the four instructional units:…

  20. [Determination of propargite, tebuconazole and bromopropylate pesticide residues in Taiwan green jujubes by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Liu, Chunhua; Wu, Nancun; Wu, Xiaofang; Li, Shuhuai

    2014-08-01

    An analytical method was established for the determination of propargite, tebuconazole and bromopropylate in Taiwan green jujubes (Zizyphus mauritiana Lam) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with acetonitrile from the Taiwan green jujubes after treated with a homogenizer. The organic phase was then separated from water phase by adding NaCl. The extract was further purified on a carbon/ NH2 cartridge with elution solvents of acetonitrile/toluene (3:1, v/v). Finally, the target analytes were separated by a capillary gas chromatographic column SLB-5MS (30 m x 0. 25 mm x 0. 25 μm). A tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in either full scan mode or in MS/MS mode for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the constituents, respectively. The results showed that the average recoveries of the three pesticides ranged from 75. 8% to 103. 6% with the RSDs of 1. 7%-9. 3% at the spiking levels from 0.01 mg/kg to 0. 50 mg/kg (n= 5). The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-0.50 mg/kg, with the determination coefficients over 0.99 (R2>0.99). The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01 mg/kg for propargite, tebuconazole and bromopropylate in Taiwan green jujubes. The method is available for the determination of propargite, tebuconazole and bromopropylate pesticide residues in Taiwan green jujubes.

  1. Development of a screened cathode gas flow proportional counter for in situ field determination of alpha contamination in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S.P.

    1997-02-01

    This study resulted in the design, construction and testing of a gas flow proportional counter for in-situ determination of soil contamination. The uniqueness of this detector is the screened material used for the cathode. A Pu-239 source of 0.006 {micro}Ci was mounted to the outside of the cathode to simulate radioactive soil. The detector probe was placed into a laboratory mock-up and tested to determine operating voltage, efficiency and energy resolution. Two gas flow proportional counters were built and tested. The detectors are cylindrical, each with a radius of 1.905 cm, having an anode wire with a radius of 0.0038 cm. The length of the smaller detector`s anode was 2.54 cm, and the length of the larger detector`s anode was 7.64 cm. Therefore, the active volumes were 28.96 cm{sup 3} and 87.10 cm{sup 3}, respectively, for the small and large detector. An operating voltage of 1,975 volts was determined to be sufficient for both detectors. The average efficiency was 2.59 {+-} 0.12% and 76.71 {+-} 10.81% for the small volume and large volume detectors, respectively. The average energy resolution for the low-energy peak of the small detector was 4.24 {+-} 1.28% and for the large-energy peak was 1.37 {+-} 0.66%. The large detectors` energy resolution was 17.75 {+-} 3.74%. The smaller detector, with better energy resolution, exhibited a bi-modal spectrum, whereas the larger detector`s spectrum centered around a single broad peak.

  2. Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric Determination of Myo-inositol in Humans Utilizing a Deuterated Internal Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Larsen, Elfinn; Harbo, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The isotopic dilution technique was used for determining the content of myo-inositol in human urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocyte samples. A deuterated myo-inositol, synthesized from inosose-2 by base-catalysed exchange of hydrogens by deuterium, followed by reduction of the inosose with 2H2...... selected for monitoring were m/z 210 and m/z 214, which are characteristic and abundant fragment ions from unlabelled and hexadeuterated myo-inositolhexa-acetate, respectively. Calibration curves from water, urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocytes show parallel, linear responses in the ratio between...

  3. Simultaneous determination of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and ethanol in human blood by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, J; Chiadmi, F; Gandon, V; Chariot, P

    2014-01-01

    Methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and ethanol, which are commonly used as biomarkers of several diseases, in acute intoxications, and forensic settings, can be detected and quantified in biological fluids. Gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry techniques are complex, require highly trained personnel and expensive materials. Gas chromatographic determinations of ethanol, methanol, and acetone have been reported in one study with suboptimal accuracy. Our objective was to improve the assessment of these compounds in human blood using GC with flame ionization detection. An amount of 50 µl of blood was diluted with 300 µl of sterile water, 40 µl of 10% sodium tungstate, and 20 µl of 1% sulphuric acid. After centrifugation, 1 µl of the supernatant was injected into the gas chromatograph. We used a dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column of 30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 µm. We observed linear correlations from 7.5 to 240 mg/l for methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone and from 75 to 2400 mg/l for ethanol. Precision at concentrations 15, 60, and 120 mg/l for methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone and 150, 600, and 1200 mg/ml for ethanol were 0.8-6.9%. Ranges of accuracy were 94.7-98.9% for methanol, 91.2-97.4% for acetaldehyde, 96.1-98.7% for acetone, and 105.5-111.6% for ethanol. Limits of detection were 0.80 mg/l for methanol, 0.61 mg/l for acetaldehyde, 0.58 mg/l for acetone, and 0.53 mg/l for ethanol. This method is suitable for routine clinical and forensic practices.

  4. Formulation of models for determination of the fuel gas demand and consumption in residential buildings; Formulacao de modelos para determinacao da demanda e consumo de gas combustivel em edificios residenciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilha, Marina Sangoi de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento; Goncalves, Orestes Marracini [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Construcao Civil

    1996-07-01

    This work presents models for design flow rate and gas volume determination in residential buildings. First, an experimental investigation, applied on a sample of residential buildings at Sao Paulo, Brazil, is described, which essentially consisted in the filling of a form and measurement of gas volume at one minute interval during 10 days (mean). From this data, it was performed a regression analysis in order to explain design flow rate (demand) and gas volume values (consumption), based on different variables. Models proposed on this work are different from the current applied methodology due to their 'open' approach, that is, involved variables can be explicitly found in formulas. (author)

  5. [PFBC Hot Gas Cleanup Test Program]. Third Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992, CY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Four hundred and fifty four clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filters were purchased for installation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) plant in Brilliant, Ohio. A surveillance effort has been identified which will monitor candle filter performance and life during hot gas cleaning in AEP`s pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. A description of the candle surveillance program, strategy for candle filter location selection, as well as candle filter post-test characterization is provided in this memo. The period of effort for candle filter surveillance monitoring is planned through March 1994.

  6. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Progress report, October 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-18

    This report presents the results of work performed from October 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described. This includes: screening creep results, weight gain and post-exposure mechanical properties for materials thermally exposed at 750/sup 0/ and 850/sup 0/C (1382/sup 0/ and 1562/sup 0/F). In addition, the status of the data management system is described.

  7. Determination of pesticide residues in honey by single-drop microextraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos G; Amvrazi, Elpiniki G

    2011-01-01

    A novel, simple, and rapid single-drop microextraction (SDME) procedure combined with GC has been developed, validated, and applied for the determination of multiclass pesticide residues in honey samples. The SDME was optimized using a Plackett-Burman screening design considering all parameters that may influence an SDME procedure and a consequent central composite design to control the parameters that were found to significantly influence the pesticide determination. The developed analytical method required minimal volumes of organic solvents and exhibited good analytical characteristics with enrichment factors ranging from 3 for alpha-endosulfan to 10 for lindane, procymidone, and captan and method quantification limits ranging from 0.03 microg/kg for phosalone to 10.6 microg/kg for diazinon. The relative recoveries obtained ranged from 70.8% for captan to 120% for fenarimol, and the precision (RSD) ranged from 3 to 15%. The proposed SDME procedure followed by GC with an electron capture detector for quantification and GC/MS for identification was applied with success to the analysis of 17 honey samples. Monitoring results indicated a low level of honey contamination by diazinon, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, procymidone, bromopropylate, and endosulfan (alpha-, beta-, and endosulfan sulfate) residues that were far below the maximum residue limit values specified by the European Union for endosulfan (10 microg/kg) and bromopropylate (100 microg/kg) in honey samples.

  8. Modified Gas Chromatographic Method to Determine Monoacylglycerol and Diacylglycerol Contents in Edible Fats and Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Chiemi; Goto, Hirofumi; Yamazaki, Yuya; Saitou, Katsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Shoji; Takahashi, Ou; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Ikuta, Keiichi; Yajima, Yosuke

    2017-06-01

    Monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are minor components of edible fats and oils, and they relate to the quality of these foods. The AOCS official method Cd 11b-91 has been used to determine MAG and DAG contents in fats and oils. There are, however, difficulties in the determination of MAG and DAG using this analytical procedure. Therefore, we improved this method by modifying the trimethylsilyl derivatization procedure and replacing the internal standard (IS) material. In our modified method, TMS-HT (mixture of hexamethyldisilazane and trimethylchlorosilane) was used for derivatization of MAG and DAG, which was followed by liquid-liquid extraction with water and n-hexane solution containing the IS, tricaprin. Using the modified method, we demonstrated superior repeatability in comparison with that of the AOCS method by reducing procedural difficulties. The relative standard deviation of distearin peak areas was 1.8% or 2.9% in the modified method, while it was 5.6% in the AOCS method. In addition, capillary columns, such as DB-1ht and DB-5ht could be used in this method.

  9. Determining national greenhouse gas emissions from waste-to-energy using the Balance Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Rechberger, Helmut; Cencic, Oliver; Fellner, Johann

    2016-03-01

    Different directives of the European Union require operators of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants to report the amount of electricity that is produced from biomass in the waste feed, as well as the amount of fossil CO2 emissions generated by the combustion of fossil waste materials. This paper describes the application of the Balance Method for determining the overall amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions from waste incineration in Austria. The results of 10 Austrian WTE plants (annual waste throughput of around 2,300 kt) demonstrate large seasonal variations in the specific fossil CO2 emissions of the plants as well as large differences between the facilities (annual means range from 32±2 to 51±3 kg CO(2,foss)/GJ heating value). An overall amount of around 924 kt/yr of fossil CO2 for all 10 WTE plants is determined. In comparison biogenic (climate neutral) CO2 emissions amount to 1,187 kt/yr, which corresponds to 56% of the total CO2 emissions from waste incineration. The total energy input via waste feed to the 10 facilities is about 22,500 TJ/yr, of which around 48% can be assigned to biogenic and thus renewable sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: A Program Studying Multi-sector Opportunities and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossett, S.

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the major transitions occurring within the U.S. energy economy, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) and Stanford University's Precourt Institute for Energy (PIE) engaged energy system stakeholders from government, industry, academia, and the environmental community in a discussion about the priority issues for a program of rigorous research relating to natural gas. Held December 10-11, 2012 on the Golden, CO campus of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the workshop provided invited experts opportunity to describe the state of current knowledge in defined topic areas, and to suggest analytic priorities for that topic area. Following discussion, all stakeholders then contributed potential research questions for each topic, and then determined priorities through an interactive voting process. This record of proceedings focuses on the outcomes of the discussion.

  11. [Determination of methanol and fusel oils in alcohol beverages using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-he; Li, Yuan-qian; Sun, Cheng-jun

    2002-01-01

    A method for the determination of methanol and fusel oils in alcohol beverages using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC) is presented. The solid phase was a coated epoxy resin. The extraction and chromatography conditions were optimized. Limits of detection were 0.02 mg/L-0.04 mg/L and relative standard deviations were in the range of 1.4%-4.1%. The proposed method showed better sensitivity in comparing with direct headspace gas chromatography(HS-GC, the National Standard method). This method was applied to evaluate real samples. The spiked recoveries in beer, wine and functional alcohol samples ranged from 80.8% to 110.3% for methanol and fusel oils. The results by HS-SPME-GC and HS-GC for alcohol samples coincided very well. The proposed method is simple, fast and accurate with high reproducibility, high sensitivity and low cost. It extends the applications of SPME.

  12. Direct sample introduction gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the determination of phthalate esters in cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2015-02-06

    A method using direct sample introduction (DSI) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is developed for the determination of six phthalate esters (dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, butylbenzyl, diethylhexyl and dioctyl phthalate) in cleaning products. The different variables involved in the DSI step, including venting time and temperature, vaporisation time and temperature, injector heating temperature and gas flow rate and pressure, were evaluated and optimised using Taguchi orthogonal arrays. The proposed method, using calibration against methanolic standards, showed good linearity in the 0.05-15 μg g(-1) range and good repeatability, with RSD values ranging from 3.5% to 5.7%. Quantification limits between 0.010 and 0.041 μg g(-1), depending on the compound, were attained, while recovery assays provided values from 83% to 115%. Twenty-seven cleaning products were analysed using the DSI-GC-MS method, being four phthalates (dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl and diethylhexyl phthalate) found in fourteen of them at concentration levels in the 0.1-21 μg g(-1) range. Compared with the most common GC injection technique, which uses the split/splitless injector, the proposed DSI procedure provided larger peak areas and lower detection limits, as result of the greater injected volume and reduction in noise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of calcium stearate in polyolefin samples by gas chromatographic technique after performing dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranji, Ali; Ghorbani Ravandi, Mahboobeh; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali

    2008-05-01

    In this study, a gas chromatographic method is presented for the determination of calcium stearate after its conversion to stearic acid in a polymeric matrix. A solution of hydrochloric acid in 2-propanol is used as an extracting solvent of calcium stearate and its converter to stearic acid. For stearic acid preconcentration before its injection to a separation system, a recently presented extraction method, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, using carbon tetrachloride as an extracting solvent is used. Finally, 1 microL of the organic phase collected at the bottom of a conical test tube after centrifuging is injected into a gas chromatograph (GC) for quantification. This method has a relatively broad linear dynamic range (50 - 2000 mg/L) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 15 mg/L for stearic acid in solution. The LOD of the proposed method in a polymeric sample using 10 mg of polymer is 60 ppm as calcium stearate. Some effective parameters, such as the time and temperature of heating, the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of distilled water, were studied.

  14. A new room temperature gas sensor based on pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film for amines determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanxiao, Li; Xiao-bo, Zou; Xiao-wei, Huang; Ji-yong, Shi; Jie-wen, Zhao; Holmes, Mel; Hao, Limin

    2015-05-15

    A new room temperature gas sensor was fabricated with pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film as the sensing layer. Four natural pigments were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) by ethanol. Natural pigment-sensitized TiO2 sensor was prepared by immersing porous TiO2 films in an ethanol solution containing a natural pigment for 24h. The hybrid organic-inorganic formed films here were firstly exposed to atmospheres containing methylamine vapours with concentrations over the range 2-10 ppm at room temperature. The films sensitized by the pigments from black-rice showed an excellent gas-sensitivity to methylamine among the four natural pigments sensitized films due to the anthocyanins. The relative change resistance, S, of the films increased almost linearly with increasing concentrations of methylamine (r=0.931). At last, the black rice pigment sensitized TiO2 thin film was used to determine the biogenic amines generated by pork during storage. The developed films had good sensitivity to analogous gases such as putrscine, and cadaverine that will increase during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitive determination of bromate in ozonated and chlorinated water, and sea water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ho-Sang

    2012-02-03

    A sensitive gas chromatographic method has been established for the determination of bromate in ozonated and chlorinated water, and in sea water. With acidic conditions, bromate reacts with chloride to form bromine, which reacts with 2,6-dialkylphenol to form 4-bromo-2,6-dialkylphenol. The organic derivative was extracted with ethyl acetate after quenching remaining oxidants with ascorbic acid, and then measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The lowest detection limit and limit of quantification of bromate in drinking water were 0.02 and 0.07 μg/L, respectively, and the calibration curve showed good linearity with r²=0.998. The 32 common ions did not interfere even when present in 100-fold excess over the bromated ion. The accuracy was in a range of 102-106% and the precision of the assay was less than 6% in chlorinated and ozonated tap water, ozonated mineral water, and sea water. The method was sensitive, reproducible and simple enough to permit reliable analysis of bromate to the ng/L level in water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. IUPAC gas chromatographic method for determination of fatty acid composition: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, D; Horwitz, W

    1979-07-01

    An international collaborative study of IUPAC methods II.D.19 and II.D.25 for preparation and GLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters was begun in 1976. The IUPAC methodology, applicable to animal and vegetable oils and fats and fatty acids from all sources, contains special instructions for preparation and analysis of methyl esters of fatty acids containing 4 or more carbon atoms (analysis of milk fat). Twenty-three collaborators participated in the analysis of 5 known mixtures, 4 vegetable oils, 1 fish oil, and 2 butterfats. Several blind duplicate samples were included. The experimental data were subjected to statistical analysis to examine intra- and interlaboratory variation. Reproducibility and accuracy data for the higher fatty acid (14:0-22:1) mixtures and fish and vegetable oils were satisfactory and were in good agreement with results from an AOCS Smalley Committee check sample program involving analysis of the same samples. Typical coefficients of variation (%) at various concentrations were 15 (2% level), 8.5 (5% level), 7 (10% level), and 3 (50% level). Low recoveries and poor reproducibility were characteristics of results obtained for butyric acid in the butterfat and related known mixtures. A coefficient of variation of about 19% was found for analysis of butyric acid in butterfat, vs coefficients of variation in the range of 4-13% for similar levels of other components in butterfat and other samples. The IUPAC methodology for GLC analysis of fats and oils other than milk fats has been adopted by the AOAC as official first action to replace the current GLC method, 28.063-28.067.

  17. A sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of patulin in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Fu, Shanlin

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive GC/MS method was developed for the detection of patulin in apple juice. The method utilized a common laboratory chemical, 3-nitrobenzyl alcohol, as an internal standard. The calibration curve, ranging from 5 to 100 microg/L, showed good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The LOD and LOQ were 2 and 5 microg/L, respectively. The significant advantage of the method was removal of the need for in-house synthesis of appropriate internal standards as reported by other researchers. The method also eliminated the need for careful sample preparation procedures, as outlined in some AOAC methods in which no internal standard was utilized. The streamlined extraction process and the improved sensitivity warrant the developed method to be a useful alternative for drug testing laboratories, especially those with large specimen volume and throughput to determine patulin levels in apple juice.

  18. Application of Sigma Metrics and Performance Comparison Between Two Biochemistry Analyser and a Blood Gas Analyser for the Determination of Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustundag-Budak, Yasemin; Huysal, Kagan

    2017-02-01

    Electrolytes have a narrow range of biological variation and small changes are clinically significant. It is important to select the best method for clinical decision making and patient monitoring in the emergency room. The sigma metrics model provides an objective method to evaluate the performance of a method. To calculate sigma metrics for electrolytes measured with one arterial blood gas analyser including two auto-analysers that use different technologies. To identify the best approach for electrolyte monitoring in an emergency setting and the context of routine emergency room workflow. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) was determined from Internal Quality Control (IQC). Data was measured from July 2015 to January 2016 for all three analysers. The records of KBUD external quality data (Association of Clinical Biochemists, Istanbul, Turkey) for both Mindray BS-2000M analyser (Mindray, Shenzhen, China) and Architect C16000 (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL) and MLE clinical laboratory evaluation program (Washington, DC, USA) for Radiometer ABL 700 (Radiometer Trading, Copenhagen, Denmark) during the study period were used to determine the bias. The calculated average sigma values for sodium (-1.1), potassium (3.3), and chloride (0.06) were with the Radiometer ABL700. All calculated sigma values were better than the auto-analysers. The sigma values obtained from all analysers suggest that running more controls and increasing the calibration frequency for electrolytes is necessary for quality assurance.

  19. The geopolitics as a determinant of logistics flow of Russian gas to Europe; A geopolitica como determinante da logistica do escoamento do gas russo para a Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael N.; Bone, Rosemarie B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Poli/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2012-07-01

    Russia has strong power in Europe and takes the place of big exporter of natural gas. Other countries also participates in this offer, but to a lesser degree. However, the logistics problem lies in permanent conflict between the supplier country and the transit country. The latter can promote retaliation to the supplier as a way to grab a representative slice of the commodity. As a result, Russia has been designing new routes of gas pipelines to Europe, as a way to circumvent this geopolitical risk. Other pipelines are also being implemented to minimize the Russian power in the supply of gas. The inconsistency occurs when the pipelines are operated all at once and there is not sufficient supply of gas to all.

  20. Method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography in daily practice

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Makhomet, Andrey A; Guguchkina, Tatiana I; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

    2016-01-01

    Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography (GC) is investigated from different sides including method testing on prepared standard solutions like cognac and brandy, different ethanol-water solutions and certified reference material CRM LGC5100 Whisky-Congeners. Analysis of obtained results of experimental study from four different laboratories shows that relative bias between the experimentally measured concentrations calculated in accordance with proposed method and the values of concentrations assigned during the preparation by gravimetric method for all analyzed compounds does not exceed 10 %. It is shown that relative response factors (RRF) between analyzed volatile compounds and ethanol do not depend on time of analysis and are constant for every model of GC. It is shown the possibility to use predetermined RRF in daily practice of testing laboratories and to implement this new method in the international s...

  1. Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction conditions for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic species using gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguinaga, N.; Campillo, N.; Vinas, P.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M. [University of Murcia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Murcia (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    This paper describes a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) for the determination of eight PAHs in aquatic species. The influence of various parameters on the PAH extraction efficiency was carefully examined. At 75 C and for an extraction time of 60 min, a polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber coating was found to be most suitable. Under the optimized conditions, detection limits ranged from 8 to 450 pg g{sup -1}, depending on the compound and the sample matrix. The repeatability varied between 7 and 15% (RSD). Accuracy was tested using the NIST SRM 1974b reference material. The method was successfully applied to different samples, and the studied PAHs were detected in several of the samples. (orig.)

  2. Determination of the content of alkyl ketene dimer in its latex by an ionic-liquid assisted headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Wan, Xiao-Fang; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Chen, Run-Quan; Chen, Chun-Xia

    2017-12-29

    This paper reports on an ionic-liquid assisted headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) for the determination of the content of alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) in its latex samples, in which the GC system was equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The method was based on the AKD hydrolysis conducted in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (ionic-liquid) added medium at 100°C for 10min in a closed headspace sample vial, and the measured CO 2 (the resulting product of the hydrolysis) by HS-GC. The results showed that the present method has a good measurement precision (RSD latex sample in mill applications. The study also showed that the content of AKD in the tested commercial latex samples were in the range of 3.5-12%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  4. Presence of a radioactive gas in archaeological excavations, determination and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, M; Gómez, S; Peña, P; Zavala Arredondo, J; Gazzola, J; Villamares, A

    2014-01-01

    During recent archaeological discovery and excavation of a tunnel build approximately 2000 years ago by the Teotihuacans under the feathered serpent temple, in Mexico, abnormal radon concentrations up to 700 Bq m(-3) were measured at several excavation stages. The tunnel is at 15m below the earth surface with a vertical rectangular entrance of 4×4 m(2), a semi cylindrical shape of 3m in diameter, with a probable length of 100 m. This study supports the assumption that at the opening of the tunnel radon concentration was around 5500 Bq m(-3); however, although natural convection in the tunnel atmosphere naturally pups radon out, it build up to a maximum concentration of 2000 Bq m(-3). This paper presents the identification of the radon problem in this archaeological site, dose determination, and the mitigation actions that reduced the radon concentration down to 40 Bq m(-3) that ensure a negligible radon risk for archaeologist. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Capillary gas chromatography with atomic emission detection for determining chlorophenols in water and soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campillo, Natalia [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain); Aguinaga, Nerea [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain); Vinas, Pilar [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain); Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain); Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain)]. E-mail: hcordoba@um.es

    2005-11-03

    A purge-and-trap preconcentration system coupled to a GC equipped with a microwave-induced atomic emission detector was used to determine 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in water and soil samples. The analytes were previously leached from the solid matrices into a 5% (w/v) sodium carbonate solution using an ultrasonic probe. It was necessary to acetylate the compounds before purging them from the aqueous medium, which, at the same time, improved their chromatographic separation. After selecting the optimal experimental conditions, the performance of the system was evaluated. Each chromatographic run took 26 min, including the purge time. Detection limits for 5 ml water samples ranged from 23 to 150 ng l{sup -1}, which is lower than the limits reached using the methods proposed by the US Environmental Pollution Agency (EPA) for chlorophenols in water. For soil samples, detection limits were calculated for 7 g samples, the resulting values ranging between 80 and 540 pg g{sup -1} for 2,4,6-TCP and 2-CP, respectively. The accuracy of the method was checked by analysing a certified reference soil, as well as fortified water and soil samples.

  6. System and Method for Determining Gas Optical Density Changes in a Non-Linear Measurement Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor); Rana, Mauro (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Each of two sensors, positioned to simultaneously detect electromagnetic radiation absorption along a path, is calibrated to define a unique response curve associated therewith that relates a change in voltage output for each sensor to a change in optical density. A ratio-of-responses curve is defined by a ratio of the response curve associated with the first sensor to the response curve associated with the second sensor. A ratio of sensor output changes is generated using outputs from the sensors. An operating point on the ratio-of-responses curve is established using the ratio of sensor output changes. The established operating point is indicative of an optical density. When the operating point is in the non-linear response region of at least one of the sensors, the operating point and optical density corresponding thereto can be used to establish an actual response of at least one of the sensors whereby the actual sensor output can be used in determining changes in the optical density.

  7. Wet flue gas desulphurisation procedures and relevant solvents thermophysical properties determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nikola V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate climate change, the priority task is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, including sulfur oxides, from stationary power plants. The legal framework of the European Union has limited the allowable emissions of gases with harmful effects and fulfillment of this obligation is also ahead of the Republic of Serbia in the following years. In this paper categorization of wet procedures for sulfur oxides removal is given. Wet procedure with the most widespread industrial application, lime/limestone process, has been described in detail. In addition, the procedures with chemical and physical absorption and solvent thermal regeneration, which recently gained more importance, have been presented. Experimentally determined thermophysical and transport properties of commercially used and alternative solvents, necessary for the equipment design and process optimization, are also given in the paper. The obtained values of densities and viscosities of pure chemicals - solvents, polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDMA, N-methyl-2-pyrolidon (NMP and dimethylaniline (DMA, measured at the atmospheric pressure, are presented as a function of temperature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172063

  8. Noninvasive determination of anaerobic threshold by monitoring the %SpO2 changes and respiratory gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooie, Roohollah; Gharakhanlo, Reza; Rajabi, Hamid; Bahraminegad, Morteza; Ghafari, Ali

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of noninvasive anaerobic threshold (AT) estimation using %SpO2 (arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation) changes and respiratory gas exchanges. Fifteen active, healthy males performed 2 graded exercise tests on a motor-driven treadmill in 2 separated sessions. Respiratory gas exchanges and heart rate (HR), lactate concentration, and %SpO2 were measured continuously throughout the test. Anaerobic threshold was determined based on blood lactate concentration (lactate-AT), %SpO2 changes (%SpO2-AT), respiratory exchange ratio (RER-AT), V-slope method (V-slope-AT), and ventilatory equivalent for O2 (EqO2-AT). Blood lactate measuring was considered as gold standard assessment of AT and was applied to confirm the validity of other noninvasive methods. The mean O2 corresponding to lactate-AT, %SpO2-AT, RER-AT, V-slope -AT, and EqO2-AT were 2176.6 +/- 206.4, 1909.5 +/- 221.4, 2141.2 +/- 245.6, 1933.7 +/- 216.4, and 1975 +/- 232.4, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis indicates a significant correlation between 4 noninvasive methods and the criterion method. Blond-Altman plots showed the good agreement between O2 corresponding to AT in each method and lactate-AT (95% confidence interval (CI). Our results indicate that a noninvasive and easy procedure of monitoring the %SpO2 is a valid method for estimation of AT. Also, in the present study, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) method seemed to be the best respiratory index for noninvasive estimation of anaerobic threshold, and the heart rate corresponding to AT predicted by this method can be used by coaches and athletes to define training zones.

  9. Determination of the Degree of Substitution of Cationic Guar Gum by Headspace-Based Gas Chromatography during Its Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaofang; Guo, Congbao; Feng, Jiarui; Yu, Teng; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Chen, Guangxue; Xie, Wei-Qi

    2017-08-16

    This study reports on a headspace-based gas chromatography (HS-GC) technique for determining the degree of substitution (DS) of cationic guar gum during the synthesis process. The method is based on the determination of 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in the process medium. After a modest pretreatment procedure, the sample was added to a headspace vial containing bicarbonate solution for measurement of evolved CO2 by HS-GC. The results showed that the method had a good precision (relative standard deviation of <3.60%) and accuracy for the 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride measurement, with recoveries in the range of 96-102%, matching with the data obtained by a reference method, and were within 12% of the values obtained by the more arduous Kjeldahl method for the calculated DS of cationic guar gum. The HS-GC method requires only a small volume of sample and, thus, is suitable for determining the DS of cationic guar gum in laboratory-scale process-related applications.

  10. Multiclass semi-volatile compounds determination in wine by gas chromatography accurate time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cabo, T; Rodríguez, I; Ramil, M; Silva, A; Cela, R

    2016-04-15

    The performance of gas chromatography (GC) with accurate, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the determination of a group of 39 semi-volatile compounds related to wine quality (pesticide residues, phenolic off-flavours, phenolic pollutants and bioactive stilbenes) is investigated. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used as extraction technique, previously to acetylation (phenolic compounds) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) concentration. Compounds were determined by GC coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) MS system through an electron ionization (EI) source. The final method attained limits of quantification (LOQs) at the very low ng mL(-1) level, covering the range of expected concentrations for target compounds in red and white wines. For 38 out of 39 compounds, performance of sample preparation and determination steps were hardly affected by the wine matrix; thus, accurate recoveries were achieved by using pseudo-external calibration. Levels of target compounds in a set of 25 wine samples are reported. The capabilities of the described approach for the post-run identification of species not considered during method development, without retention time information, are illustrated and discussed with selected examples of compounds from different classes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of Solid Phase Microextraction for Determination of Carbon tetrachloride and Chloroform in Air by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamad javad Zare Sakhvidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this research the solid phase micro extraction (SPME for sampling and determination of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in air was developed and effect of ambient parameters on SPME was assessed. Methods: For this purpose standard chamber was built in the laboratory. The concentrations of compounds in the chamber were measured with SPME. The optimum condition for extraction were determined and compared with 1003 method of national institute occupational safety and health (NIOSH-1003. The samples were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Carboxen-Poly dimethyl siloxane (CAR/PDMS has high adsorption in comparing with other fibers and there were no significant differences between sampling rates at different temperatures (range of 20 to 30 °C and air velocities (2 to 50 cm/s but, relative humidity (RH had a significant effect on sampling rates. The results showed that samples can be storage in refrigerator at 4 °C for 3 days. The correlation coefficient of results between SPME and NIOSH-1003 for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were 0.99 and 0.98 respectively and relative standard deviation of reproducibility between fibers for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were 13.6 and 12.8 respectively. Conclusion: This study was showed that SPME was more sensitive than NIOSH-1003 method and successfully applied for determination of time weight average of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform as a passive method.

  12. Small Business: Action Needed to Determine Whether DOD’s Comprehensive Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be Made Permanent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    SMALL BUSINESS Action Needed to Determine Whether DOD’s Comprehensive Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be... Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be Made Permanent 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...committees November 2015 SMALL BUSINESS Action Needed to Determine Whether DOD’s Comprehensive Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be Made

  13. Occupational exposure prevention program to oil and gas industry; Antecipacao, reconhecimento, avaliacao e controle dos riscos ambientais em uma planta de petroleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Paulo Sergio de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Palierini, Renato Martins [TWA Brasil, Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals have 500 regular employees and 5.064 out sourced workers in its Southeast Division. The out sourced employees work under 125 contracts involving a wide range of activities such as maintenance, pipeline operation, pipeline launching, engineering, administrative and auxiliary services. Among these workers, 1.200 peoples are subjected to occupational exposure, which may be present in the industrial process or in the products transported in our pipelines, e.g. industrial noise, sulfidric gas, toluene, xylene and benzene (recognized as a carcinogen according to ACGIH and Brazilian Ministry of Labour). Our PPRA (acronym in Portuguese for Occupational Exposure Prevention Program) involves the workforce and fosters health by anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of the situations that may result in injuries. Further actions include the procurement of equipment for detection of these agents not only in the air but also diluted in liquids and the introduction of state-of the- art technologies for a better process control. The priority is the acquisition of equipment for collective protection not forgetting the individual protection equipment (IPE) and the required training. Implementation of this program counted on the effective involvement of the managers, contract supervisors and HSE professionals whose main task was to advise all involved parts on the use the Risk Analysis Methods tailored for Occupational Hygiene. Furthermore, these information will be used in a info system called SD-2000 that will gather and compare Health, Hygiene e Human Resources data in order to support the professional in the management and decision making process. (author)

  14. Injecting Drug Users Retention in Needle-Exchange Program and its Determinants in Iran Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mohammad; Farnia, Marzieh; Moradi, Ghobad; Karamati, Mohammadreza; Paknazar, Fatemeh; Mirmohammad Khani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Participation and to stay in a health program depends on many factors. One of these programs is Needle Exchange Program (NEP) in prisons. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the retention of injecting drug prisoners and find the related factors in Iran. Patients and Methods: This cohort study analyzed data about injecting drug male prisoners who were participated in NEP in three Iranian prisons. Data was collected from October 2009 to June 2010. A proper approach of survival analyses including Kaplan-Meier method, Log-Rank test, and Cox Proportional Hazard Model were used to evaluate Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) retention in NEP and its determinants. Results: Out of 320 prisoners, 167 were from Isfahan Central Prison, 82 from Tehran-Ghezel-Hesar Prison, and 71 from Hamadan Central Prison. Two-hundred and fifty prisoners (78.4%) had history of drug injection; and drug injection was the most common choice for 115 persons (35.9%). Participants were followed up for 29 weeks, the mean (SD) time of retention in the program was 24.1 (0.6) weeks. There was a significant relationship between age, number of used needles per week, duration of addiction, age of addiction onset, as well as imprisonment age, main method of drug use, type of main using drug, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection, job status, reason of arrestment, history of involvement in harm reduction programs, and the length of retention (P addiction (P = 0.048), and retention. Conclusions: Tattooing and longer duration of addiction were two important factors that significantly increased retention in the program. In contrast, history of using harm reduction services was the factor that decreased persistence. The risk of quitting the program may decrease about 68% in those who did not involve in harm reduction programs. PMID:26405681

  15. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, July 1, 1980-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-12

    Objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described: screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850, 950 and 1050/sup 0/C. Initiation of controlled purity helium creep-rupture testing in the intensive screening test program is discussed. In addition, the results of 1000-hour exposures at 750 and 850/sup 0/C on several experimental alloys are discussed.

  16. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-14

    Objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described; this includes: screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850 and 950/sup 0/C. The initiation of air creep-rupture testing in the intensive screening test program is discussed. In addition, the status of the data management system is described.

  17. A novel method for the determination of adsorption partition coefficients of minor gases in a shale sample by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Pan, Lei; Xiao, Xian-Ming

    2013-10-04

    A novel method has been developed for the determination of adsorption partition coefficient (Kd) of minor gases in shale. The method uses samples of two different sizes (masses) of the same material, from which the partition coefficient of the gas can be determined from two independent headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) measurements. The equilibrium for the model gas (ethane) was achieved in 5h at 120°C. The method also involves establishing an equation based on the Kd at higher equilibrium temperature, from which the Kd at lower temperature can be calculated. Although the HS-GC method requires some time and effort, it is simpler and quicker than the isothermal adsorption method that is in widespread use today. As a result, the method is simple and practical and can be a valuable tool for shale gas-related research and applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A computer program for two-dimensional and axisymmetric nonreacting perfect gas and equilibrium chemically reacting laminar, transitional and-or turbulent boundary layer flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, E. W.; Anderson, E. C.; Lewis, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    A computer program is described in detail for laminar, transitional, and/or turbulent boundary-layer flows of non-reacting (perfect gas) and reacting gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium. An implicit finite difference scheme was developed for both two dimensional and axisymmetric flows over bodies, and in rocket nozzles and hypervelocity wind tunnel nozzles. The program, program subroutines, variables, and input and output data are described. Also included is the output from a sample calculation of fully developed turbulent, perfect gas flow over a flat plate. Input data coding forms and a FORTRAN source listing of the program are included. A method is discussed for obtaining thermodynamic and transport property data which are required to perform boundary-layer calculations for reacting gases in chemical equilibrium.

  19. Promoting Supportive Relationships in Youth Programs: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat D. Duerden

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although research suggests that positive contact with non-parental adults is developmentally beneficial for youth; many adolescents do not have access to such relationships. It is important that adults structure existing relationships to optimize positive youth development. Relationships with adults, who support youth’s needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence, provide youth with scaffolding as they navigate their way through adolescence. Self-Determination Theory offers a straight-forward approach to understanding the elements of contexts that best promote the development of supportive relationships. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature concerning youth-adult relationships, including their associated prevalence and developmental benefits across multiple contexts. These findings are then integrated into a framework of best practices for developing and supporting positive youth relationships with adults within youth program settings. Several theory-based recommendations are offered for youth program administrators and staff who wish to improve youth-adult relationships in their programs.

  20. An empirical examination among Canadian teachers of determinants of the need for employees' assistance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron; Schwartz, Hanit

    2002-06-01

    The goal of this study was to propose and test a model of the determinants of the need for employees' assistance programs. The research model proposed six independent variables related to employees' assistance programs: organizational support, personal coping, negative spillover, occupational commitment, job satisfaction, and tenure. The model proposed that the relationship between the independent variables and the need for employees' assistance programs was not direct but was mediated by work-nonwork conflict and job stress. Questionnaires were mailed to employees of a school district in western Canada, and 300 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 42%. The research model received modest support from the data. Some of the fit indices were not as strong as expected. On the other hand, the conceptual model was supported.

  1. Physico-mathematical modeling methods for the pressure distribution determination in the gas-dynamic bearing gap of the ball gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatovskaya Anastasiya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The considering problem in the article connects with solution methods of the specific questions in gas-dynamic lubrication theory. The comparative analysis of analytical and numerical methods for the calculating gas-dynamic bearing characteristics is provided. The main applying aspects of them for the solving of specific gas lubrication theory points are presented. This research is carried out for the investigated gap bearing geometry for the designed ball gyroscope construction. The main mathematical equation and results of developed numerical simulation for the pressure distribution determination are shown.

  2. Determining Safety Inspection Thresholds for Employee Incentives Programs on Construction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparer, Emily; Dennerlein, Jack

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project was to evaluate approaches of determining the numerical value of a safety inspection score that would activate a reward in an employee safety incentive program. Safety inspections are a reflection of the physical working conditions at a construction site and provide a safety score that can be used in incentive programs to reward workers. Yet it is unclear what level of safety should be used when implementing this kind of program. This study explored five ways of grouping safety inspection data collected during 19 months at Harvard University-owned construction projects. Each approach grouped the data by one of the following: owner, general contractor, project, trade, or subcontractor. The median value for each grouping provided the threshold score. These five approaches were then applied to data from a completed project in order to calculate the frequency and distribution of rewards in a monthly safety incentive program. The application of each approach was evaluated qualitatively for consistency, competitiveness, attainability, and fairness. The owner-specific approach resulted in a threshold score of 96.3% and met all of the qualitative evaluation goals. It had the most competitive reward distribution (only 1/3 of the project duration) yet it was also attainable. By treating all workers equally and maintaining the same value throughout the project duration, this approach was fair and consistent. The owner-based approach for threshold determination can be used by owners or general contractors when creating leading indicator incentives programs and by researchers in future studies on incentive program effectiveness.

  3. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume III. Demonstration plant environmental analysis (Deliverable No. 27)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    An Environmental Report on the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Demonstration Plant was prepared for submission to the US Department of Energy under Contract ET-77-C-01-2582. This document is Volume III of a three-volume Environmental Report. Volume I consists of the Summary, Introduction and the Description of the Proposed Action. Volume II consists of the Description of the Existing Environment. Volume III contains the Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Action, Mitigating Measures and Alternatives to the Proposed Action.

  4. Mars exploration program analysis group goal one: determine if life ever arose on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M; Westall, Frances

    2010-11-01

    The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) maintains a standing document that articulates scientific community goals, objectives, and priorities for mission-enabled Mars science. Each of the goals articulated within the document is periodically revisited and updated. The astrobiology-related Goal One, "Determine if life ever arose on Mars," has recently undergone such revision. The finalized revision, which appears in the version of the MEPAG Goals Document posted on September 24, 2010, is presented here.

  5. Primer on gas integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

  6. Solvency Assessment of the Oil and Gas Enterprises for Implementation of the Ecological Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheveleva Anastasia, V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the major adverse macroeconomic factors which influenced formation of negative tendencies on world and domestic the raw markets are considered. Against decline in the rate of national currency and falling of prices of oil, the simultaneous increase in volumes of production with the accompanying decrease in volumes of investment into branches especially guards. All this leads to that for economy of expenses, the oil and gas companies start cutting down those items of expenditure which directly don't affect production. Costs of performance of actions for environment protection that is a notable reason for concern also belong to such types of expenses. In this regard possibility of the company in time and in time to fulfill the obligations, existence at not temporarily free money, is some pledge of that the company even in difficult economic conditions will be able to fulfill the obligations. Therefore in this research the analysis of liquidity of three largest oil and gas companies of Russia for the purpose of identification most and the least solvent company is carried out.

  7. A new Masters program in Greenhouse Gas Management and Accounting at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, R. T.; Ogle, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Management guru Peter Drucker said that "what gets measured gets managed." But the unstated implication is that what doesn't get measured doesn't get managed. Accurate quantification of greenhouse gas mitigation efforts is central to the clean technology sector. Very soon professionals of all kinds (business people, accountants, lawyers) will need to understand carbon accounting and crediting. Over the next few decades food production is expected to double and energy production must triple in order to meet growing global demands; sustainable management of land use and agricultural systems will be critical. The food and energy supply challenges are inextricably linked to the challenge of limiting anthropogenic impacts on climate by reducing the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. To avoid serious disruption of the climate system and stabilize GHG concentrations, society must move aggressively to avoid emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O and to actively draw down CO2 already in the atmosphere. A new cadre of technically adept professionals is needed to meet these challenges. We describe a new professional Masters degree in greenhouse gas management and accounting at Colorado State University. This effort leverages existing, internationally-recognized expertise from across campus and partners from agencies and industry, enabling students from diverse backgrounds to develop the skills needed to fill this emerging demand.

  8. Spectrophotometric flow-injection determination of sulphite in white wines involving gas diffusion through a concentric tubular membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo Denise

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow-injection system is proposed for the spectrophotometric determination of sulphite in white wines. The method involves analyte conversion to SO2, gas diffusion through a Teflon® semi-permeable membrane, collection into an alkaline stream (pH 8, reaction with Malachite green (MG and monitoring at 620 nm. With a concentric tubular membrane, the system design was simplified. Influence of reagent concentrations, pH of donor and acceptor streams, temperature, timing, surfactant addition and presence of potential interfering species of the wine matrix were investigated. A pronounced (ca. 100% enhancement in sensitivity was noted by adding cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC. The proposed system is robust and baseline drift is not observed during 4 h operating periods. Only 400 muL of sample and 0.32 mg MG are required per determination. The system handles 30 samples per hour, yielding precise results (r.s.d. < 0.015 for 1.0 - 20.0 mg L-1 SO2 in agreement with those obtained by an alternative procedure.

  9. Sulfur and Iron Speciation in Gas-rich Impact-melt Glasses from Basaltic Shergottites Determined by Microxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S. R.; Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur is abundantly present as sulfate near Martian surface based on chemical and mineralogical investigations on soils and rocks in Viking, Pathfinder and MER missions. Jarosite is identified by Mossbauer studies on rocks at Meridian and Gusev, whereas MgSO4 is deduced from MgO - SO3 correlations in Pathfinder MER and Viking soils. Other sulfate minerals such as gypsum and alunogen/ S-rich aluminosilicates and halides are detected only in martian meteorites such as shergottites and nakhlites using SEM/FE-SEM and EMPA techniques. Because sulfur has the capacity to occur in multiple valence states, determination of sulfur speciation (sulfide/ sulfate) in secondary mineral assemblages in soils and rocks near Mars surface may help us understand whether the fluid-rock interactions occurred under oxidizing or reducing conditions. To understand the implications of these observations for the formation of the Gas-rich Impact-melt (GRIM) glasses, we determined the oxidation state of Fe in the GRIM glasses using Fe K micro-XANES techniques.

  10. New method for determination of epichlorohydrin in epoxy-coated cans by oxolane derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jun Hyun; Lee, Young Ja; Park, Hyun Jin

    2008-08-01

    A new method was developed for the determination of epichlorohydrin (ECH) in food contact surface of epoxy-coated cans. The oxolane derivative, which produced by reaction of epoxy moiety in ECH with cyclopentanone in the presence of borontrifluoride-diethyletherate, was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS). 1,2-Epoxyhexane was used as internal standard (IS), which produced an oxolane derivative under the same reaction mechanism as ECH. The developed method was validated with 1 ng ml(-1) of limit of detection (LOD, surface area related 20 ng dm(-2)), >0.999 of linearity. Good precision, which was tested both in terms of intra-day repeatability and inter-day reproducibility, and 97.3-102.7% of good recoveries were obtained on three spiked levels of 5.2, 40.3 and 149.1 ng ml(-1). The excellent validation data suggests that this method is more simple, quick and effective than the official method in European Committee for Standardization (CEN) to determine the residual amount of ECH in food contact materials for food law compliance test. The residual amount of ECH for 13 epoxy-coated can samples was analyzed, and none of the samples was found to be detectable levels of ECH in epoxy-coated cans.

  11. [Determination of low-carbon alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Qingqing; Wu, Peng; Shi, Yulin; Bai, Yu; Long, Yinhua

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of low-carbon (C1-C8) alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was developed by gas chromatography. It included the optimization of separation conditions, the precision and accuracy of determination, and the use of correction factors of the analytes to ethanol for quantification. The aqueous products showed that the correlation coefficients for ethanol in different content ranges were above 0.99, which means it had good linear correlations. The spiked recoveries in the aqueous samples of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were from 93.4% to 109.6%. The accuracy of the method can satisfy the requirement for the analysis of the aqueous samples of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The results showed that the total mass fractions of the major low-carbon alcohols, aldehydes, ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were about 3%-12%, and the contents of ethanol were the highest (about 1.7%-7.3%). The largest share of the total proportion was n-alcohols, followed by isomeric alcohols, aldehydes and ketones were the lowest. This method is simple, fast, and has great significance for the analysis of important components in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

  12. Static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in canned vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2016-07-08

    Canned vegetables appear to be a possible exposure pathway for hazardous disinfection by-products due to the use of sanitizers and treated water by the canning industry in the preparation of these foods. This work reports on two static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for the simultaneous determination of 10 trihalomethanes (THMs) and 13 haloacetic acids (HAAs) in both solid and liquid phases of the canned vegetables. Both methods carry out the whole process (including the leaching of target analytes from the vegetable), derivatization of HAAs and volatilization of THMs and HAA esters, in a single step within a static headspace unit. The methods proposed provide an efficient and simple tool for the determination of regulated disinfection by-products in canned vegetables. Average limits of detection for THMs and HAAs were 0.19 and 0.45μg/kg, respectively, in the solid phase of canned vegetables, and 0.05 and 0.09μg/L, respectively, in the liquid phase. Satisfactory recoveries (90-99%) and precision, calculated as relative standard deviations (RSD≤10%), were obtained in both phases of canned vegetables. The methods proposed were applied for the analysis of frequently-used canned vegetables and confirmed the presence of up to 3 THMs and 5 HAAs at microgram per kilogram or liter levels in both phases of the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins in leather products by solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiya; Wan, Xin; Li, Lixia; Wang, Chengyun; Jin, Shupei; Xing, Jun

    2014-10-01

    The short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are the additives frequently used in the leather production in China, but they have been put into the list of forbidden chemicals issued by European Union recently. In fact, there is not a commonly recognized method for the determination of the SCCPs in the leather products due to the serious matrix interferences from the leather products and the complex chemical structures of the SCCPs. A method of solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS) was established for the determination of the SCCPs in the leather products after the optimization of the SPE conditions. It was found that the interferences from the leather products were thor- oughly separated from the analyte of the SCCPs on a home-made solid phase extraction (SPE) column filled with silica packing while eluted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane-methylene chloride (2:1, v/v). With this method, the recoveries for the SCCPs spiked in the real leather samples varied from 90.47% to 99.00% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6.7%, and the limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.069 and 0.110 mg/kg. This method is suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis of SCCPs in the leather products.

  14. Gas chromatographic flow method for the preconcentration and simultaneous determination of antioxidant and preservative additives in fatty foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Gallego, M; Valcárcel, M

    1999-07-02

    A partially automated gas chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of antioxidants (tert.-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-p-hydroxytoluene, tert.-butylhydroquinone, alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl acetate) and preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid and their esters) in fatty foods without derivatization is reported. About 95% of triglycerides from lipid material are avoided by manually extracting the samples with a mixture of solvents and the remaining by using a continuous solid-phase extraction system. By using aqueous sample solutions (in 0.1 M HNO3), XAD-2 sorbent and selective elution with 200 microliters of 2-propanol, only ca. 0.03% of total triglycerides present in the original sample remains in the final extract. Manual injection of the extract into a GC-flame ionization detection allows the additives to be determine at concentrations in the range 0.5-100 micrograms/ml with a high precision (ca. 3%). Mass spectrometry in the conventional electron impact mode, in conjunction with library search, permits the unequivocal identification of all the additives. Margarine, oil, cheese, pâté and sauce samples were analysed in this way, all with good results.

  15. Trace determination of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A in the atmosphere by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Zhiyong [GKSS Research Centre, Institute for Coastal Research, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany) and Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt at Main, Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Analytical Environmental Chemistry, Georg-Voigt-Str. 14, 60054 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: zhiyong.xie@gkss.de; Ebinghaus, Ralf [GKSS Research Centre, Institute for Coastal Research, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Lohmann, Rainer [Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882-1197 (United States); Heemken, Olaf [LAVES, Philosophenweg 36/38, D-26121 Oldenburg (Germany); Caba, Armando [GKSS Research Centre, Institute for Coastal Research, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Puettmann, Wilhelm [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt at Main, Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Analytical Environmental Chemistry, Georg-Voigt-Str. 14, 60054 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2007-02-19

    A simple and effective method has been developed for analysis of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in environmental samples by using modified soxhlet extraction in combination with silica gel clean-up, derivatization with silylation reagent and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). Satisfactory recoveries were achieved for the large volume sampling, soxhlet extraction and silica gel clean-up. The overall recovery is 79 {+-} 1%. The derivatization procedure is simple and fast, and produces stable TBBPA derivative. GC-MS with electronic impact (EI) ionization mode shows better detection power than using negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode. EI gives a method detection limit of 0.04 pg m{sup -3} and enables to determine trace TBBPA in ambient air in remote area. The method was successfully applied to the determination of TBBPA in atmospheric samples collected over land and coastal regions. The concentrations of TBBPA ranged from below the method detection limit (0.04 pg m{sup -3}) to 0.85 pg m{sup -3}. A declining trend with increasing latitude was present from the Wadden Sea to the Arctic. The atmospheric occurrence of TBBPA in the Arctic is significant and might imply that TBBPA has long-range transport potential.

  16. Determination of breath isoprene and acetone concentration with a needle-type extraction device in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Ikuo; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Okamoto, Mitsuyoshi; Sakamaki, Hiroyuki; Hosoe, Masahiko; Ishiguro, Motoyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-20

    Isoprene in human breath is said to be related to cholesterol metabolism, and the possibility of the correlations with some clinical parameters has been studied. However, at this stage, no clear benefit of breath isoprene has been reported for clinical diagnosis. In this work, isoprene and acetone concentrations were measured in the breath of healthy and obese subjects using a needle-type extraction device for subsequent analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the possibility of these compounds as an indicator of possible diseases. After measuring intraday and interday variations of isoprene and acetone concentrations in breath samples of healthy subjects, their concentrations were also determined in 80 healthy and 17 obese subjects. In addition, correlation between these breath concentrations and the blood tests result was studied for these healthy and obese subjects. The results indicated successful determination of breath isoprene and acetone in this work, however, no clear correlation was observed between these measured values and the blood test results. Breath isoprene concentration may not be a useful indicator for obesity or hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Determination of bisphenol A from toys and food contact materials by derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonggang; Zhang, Yanyan; Gao, Jianguo; Zhang, Huiling; Zheng, Lisha; Chen, Jing

    2012-10-01

    A method was developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in toys and food contact materials. The BPA was extracted with Soxhlet extraction method from the sample and reacted with acetic anhydride. The final product was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). To achieve the optimum derivatization performance, the derivatization time and dosage of derivatization reagent etc. were investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the final product was stable and the peak shape was good. The linearity of the derivative was good in the range of 0.05 to 50 mg/L with the correlation coefficient (r2) above 0.999. The recoveries ranged from 80% to 93% at the spiked levels of 0.05, 1.00, 10.00 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 3.7%. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 10 microg/kg. The method is accurate and has high recovery. The method is suitable for the inspection of bisphenol A in toys and food contact materials.

  18. A membraneless gas-diffusion unit-multisyringe flow injection spectrophotometric method for ammonium determination in untreated environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M Inês G S; Estela, José Manuel; Segundo, Marcela A; Cerdà, Víctor

    2011-06-15

    A new design of a membraneless gas-diffusion (MGD) unit coupled to a multisyringe flow injection system is proposed. The spectrophotometric determination of ammonium using an acid-base indicator was chosen to show the feasibility of this approach. Hence, in alkaline medium, ammonium ions are transformed into ammonia (donor channel) which diffuses through the headspace into the acceptor stream (bromothymol blue solution), causing a pH change and subsequently a colour change. The exploitation of the enhanced potentialities of this re-designed MGD device was the main purpose of the present work. Hence, several strategies concerning flow management were studied seeking to characterize and improve the analytical features of the methodology and moreover, untreated environmental samples were analysed without previous filtration. Consequently, stopped flow in acceptor channel with continuous flow in donor channel was chosen for the application to wastewater and spiked river water samples. A linear concentration range between 10.0 and 50.0 mg L(-1) of NH(4)(+), a limit of detection of 2.20 mg L(-1) and a determination frequency of 11h(-1) were obtained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of volatile organic compounds in eucalyptus fast pyrolysis bio-oil by full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski Lima, Nathalya; Romualdo Lopes, André; Gimenes Guerrero, Palimecio; Itsuo Yamamoto, Carlos; Augusto Hansel, Fabricio

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports a full evaporation (FE) headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for the determination of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in bio-oil (i.e. methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetic acid and furfural). The method uses a 4μL sample of bio-oil in a headspace vial (ca. 20mL). Complete evaporation of the compounds was achieved after seven minutes at 90°C. The method showed good precision and accuracy for methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetic acid. The recovery of furfural was low (74.3%). The results showed that the protocol can be applied for the determination of methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetic acid in bio-oil. Detection limits ranged from 0.13 to 0.16μg. Acetic acid was the dominant analyte in the heavy bio-oil and light bio-oil analysis (113. 3 and 85.1µgmg(-1), respectively), followed by methanol, ethanol, and acetone. The polymerisation of furfural was suspected as the cause of its poor quantification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in food dressing by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunzhou; Mei, Yong; Chen, Lin

    2006-06-02

    A facile headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure using 85 microm polyacrylate (PA) fiber is presented for the simultaneous determination of preservatives (sorbic and benzoic acids) in food dressing, including Thousand Island Dressing, HellMANN'S Salad Dressing and Tomato Ketchup, by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID). The method presented preserves the advantages typical of HS-SPME such as simplicity, low intensity of labor, low cost and solvent free. The main factors affecting the HS-SPME process, such as extraction temperature and time, desorption temperature and time, the acidity and salt concentration of the solution, were optimized. Limits of detection (LODs) of the method were 2.00 microg/L for sorbic acid and 1.22 microg/L for benzoic acid. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for quintuplicate analyses at three concentration levels of 0.10, 2.0 and 20 mg/L ranged between 3.86 and 14.8%. The method also showed good linearity n a range from 0.02 to 40 mg/L with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9986 for sorbic acid and 0.9994 for benzoic acid. Recoveries for the two analytes in all the samples tested ranged from 83.44 to 113.2%. Practical applicability was demonstrated through the simultaneous determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in the three complex samples.

  1. Determination of Priority Study Areas for Coupling CO2 Storage and CH4 Gas Hydrates Recovery in the Portuguese Offshore Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Bernardes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas hydrates in sub-seabed sediments is an unexploited source of energy with estimated reserves larger than those of conventional oil. One of the methods for recovering methane from gas hydrates involves injection of Carbon Dioxide (CO2, causing the dissociation of methane and storing CO2. The occurrence of gas hydrates offshore Portugal is well known associated to mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz. This article presents a determination of the areas with conditions for the formation of biogenic gas hydrates in Portugal’s mainland geological continental margin and assesses their overlap with CO2 hydrates stability zones defined in previous studies. The gas hydrates stability areas are defined using a transfer function recently published by other authors and takes into account the sedimentation rate, the particulate organic carbon content and the thickness of the gas hydrate stability zone. An equilibrium equation for gas hydrates, function of temperature and pressure, was adjusted using non-linear regression and the maximum stability zone thickness was found to be 798 m. The gas hydrates inventory was conducted in a Geographic Information System (GIS environment and a full compaction scenario was adopted, with localized vertical flow assumed in the accrecionary wedge where mud volcanoes occur. Four areas where temperature and pressure conditions may exist for formation of gas hydrates were defined at an average of 60 km from Portugal’s mainland coastline. Two of those areas coincide with CO2 hydrates stability areas previously defined and should be the subject of further research to evaluate the occurrence of gas hydrate and the possibility of its recovery coupled with CO2 storage in sub-seabed sediments.

  2. HTGR Gas Turbine Program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Information on the HTGR-GT program is presented concerning systems design methods; systems dynamics methods; alternate design; miscellaneous controls and auxiliary systems; structural mechanics; shielding analysis; licensing; safety; availability; reactor turbine system integration with plant; PCRV liners, penetrations, and closures; PCRV structures; thermal barrier; reactor internals; turbomachinery; turbomachine remote maintenance; control valve; heat exchangers; plant protection system; and plant control system.

  3. Spillover Effects of Voluntary Environmental Programs on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Lessons from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Irene; Husted, Bryan W.; Montiel, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    We compare the environmental performance of voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) with different attributes. Using club theory, we argue that the differential performance of VEPs is due in part to their specific design attributes that will either enhance or diminish their ability to improve both targeted and untargeted environmental impacts. We…

  4. 76 FR 50129 - Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ..., disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities... rule will not have disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects on... October 11, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 75 Environmental protection, Acid rain, Administrative...

  5. Determination of the source area of the Ya13-1 gas pool in the Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, X.M.; Xiong, M.; Tian, H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Institute of Geochemistry; Wilkins, R.W.T. [CSIRO Petroleum, North Ryde (Australia); Huang, B.J. [CNOOC Ltd., Zhanjiang (China). Technology Dept.; Tang, Y.C. [California Institute of Technology, Walnut, CA (United States). Petroleum Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2006-09-15

    The Yal3-l gas field is the largest and earliest commercial gas field discovered in the Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea. Recent work has indicated the gas source to be a series of black mudstones in the Yacheng Formation of Eocene-Oligocene age in the Yanan Depression, Qiongdongnan Basin. However, there are no data indicating the effective source area. In this paper, methane generation kinetics and carbon isotopic fractionation kinetics were combined with fluid inclusion data to investigate the effective source area and gas migration and accumulation efficiency. Fluid inclusions from the gas reservoir rocks homogenize in the range of 118-173 degrees C. By combining the fluid inclusion data with the thermal history of the reservoir, the filling of the gas pool is deduced to have occurred from 2 Mabp to present. The results from geological models of gas generation and methane carbon isotopic fractionation of the source rock vary widely from the depression center to the position of the structure. The source rock has a methane fractional conversion ranging from 0.10 to 1.0, and the generated gas has predicted ({sup 13}C{sub 1} values in the range from -26.0 per 1000 to -42.0 per 1000. Compared with the ({sup 13}C{sub 1} values of gas from the gas pool, these models indicate that an effective gas source rock area is located in the slope area of the Yanan Depression, with a present burial depth of 4000-5500 m. On this basis, a model showing the gas generation, migration and accumulation for the Ya13-1 gas pool is proposed. It is believed that the methods and the models developed in this paper are important guides to further research and exploration for natural gases in the Yinggehai-Qiongdongnan Basin. (Author)

  6. Determination of suitability of natural Polish resources for production of ceramic proppants applied in gas exploration from European shale formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, Joanna; Mizera, Jaroslaw

    2017-04-01

    Poland is one of few European countries undertaking innovative research towards effective exploration of hydrocarbons form shale deposits. With regard for strict geological conditions, which occur during hydraulic fracturing, it is required to apply ceramic proppants enhancing extraction of shale gas. Ceramic proppants are granules (16/30 - 70/120 Mesh) classified as propping agents. These granules located in the newly created fissures (due to injected high pressure fluid) in the shale rock, act as a prop, what enables gas flow up the well. It occurs if the proppants can resist high stress of the closing fractures. Commonly applied proppants are quartz sands used only for shallow reservoirs and fissile shales (in the USA). Whereas, the ceramic granules are proper for extraction of gas on the high depths at hard geomechanical conditions (in Europe) to increase output even by 30 - 50%. In comparison to other propping materials, this kind of proppants predominate with mechanical strength, smoother surface, lower solubility in acids and also high stability in water. Such parameters can be available through proper raw materials selection to further proppants production. The Polish ceramic proppants are produced from natural resources as kaolin, bauxite and white clay mixed with water and binders. Afterwards, the slurries are subjected to granulation in a mechanical granulator and sintered at high temperatures (1200 - 1550°C). Taking into consideration presence of geomechanical barriers, that prevent fracture propagation beyond shale formations, it is crucial to determine quality of applied natural deposits. Next step is to optimize the proppants production and select the best kind of granules, what was the aim of this research. Utility of the raw materials was estimated on basis of their particle size distribution, bulk density, specific surface area (BET) and thermal analysis (thermogravimetry). Morphology and shape were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM

  7. First in situ determination of gas transport coefficients (DO2, DAr and DN2) from bulk gas concentration measurements (O2, N2, Ar) in natural sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabeck, O.; Delille, B.; Rysgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    bubbles escaping from the brine to the atmosphere—as the ice gets more permeable during melt—could be responsible for the previously reported high transport coefficients. These results underline that when there is no convective transport within the sea ice, the transport of gas by diffusion through...

  8. Temperature-programmable resistively heated micromachined gas chromatography and differential mobility spectrometry detection for the determination of non-sulfur odorants in natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, J; Gras, R; Cortes, H J; Shellie, R A

    2013-03-19

    A portable, fast gas chromatographic method for the direct measurement of the parts per billion level of sulfur-free odorants in commercially available natural gas is introduced. The approach incorporates a resistively heated, temperature-programmable silicon micromachined gas chromatograph that employs a standard capillary column for the fast separation of methyl and ethyl acrylate from the natural gas matrix. The separation approach is coupled to a micromachined differential mobility detector to enhance analyte detectability, and the overall selectivity obtained against the matrix is described. A complete analysis can be conducted in less than 70 s. Furthermore, these two compounds can be measured accurately in the presence of other common volatile sulfur-based odorants such as alkyl mercaptans and alkyl sulfides. Repeatability of less than 3% RSD (n = 20) over a range from 0.5 to 5 ppm was obtained with a limit of detection for the target compounds at 50 ppb (v/v) and a linear range from 0.5 to 50 ppm with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.997.

  9. Surface Energy Determined by Inverse Gas Chromatography as a Tool to Investigate Particulate Interactions in Dry Powder Inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamal C; Tucker, Ian G; Stewart, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) usually contain drug particles <6 µm which agglomerate and/ or adhere on the surfaces of large carriers particles. The detachment of drug particles from carriers and de-agglomeration of drug particles into primary particles is essential for drug deposition in the deep lung. These processes are influenced by the surface energy of particles. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) has been used to determine the surface energy of powder particles used in DPI to characterize materials and to understand aerosolization behaviour. Early studies used an infinite dilution technique to determine nonpolar surface energy and free energy of adsorption for polar interactions separately. Although some correlations were observed with the change in nonpolar surface energy before and after micronization, milling and storage, a lack of consistency in the change of free energy of adsorption was common. Moreover, a consistent relationship between complex de-agglomeration behaviour and surface energy has not been established and there are even some examples of negative correlation. In fact, nonpolar surface energy at infinite dilution is an incomplete representation of powder surface characteristics. The techniques for measuring polar surface energy, total surface energy and surface energy distribution have provided more revealing information about surface energetics of powders. Surface energy distributions determined by IGC or surface energy analyser have been successfully used to understand energetic heterogeneity of surfaces, characterize different polymorphs and understand changes due to micronization, structural relaxation, dry coating and storage. Efforts have been made to utilize surface energy distribution data to calculate powder strength distribution and to explain complex de-agglomeration behaviour of DPI formulations.

  10. [Determination of organic phosphorus pesticide residues in scallion by gas chromatography coupled with microwave clean-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Li, An; Li, Haiyan; Tong, Kexing; Zhou, Lili; Zhou, Huimin; Zhao, Tong

    2007-05-01

    A method for the determination of organic phosphorus pesticide residues is described. It covers 25 residues in scallion including dichlorvos, ethoprophos, phorate, diazinon, disulfoton, dimethoate, pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion, fenitrothion, parathion, chlorfenvinphos, ethion, EPN, dyfonate, chlorpyrifos-methyl, parathion-methyl, fenthion, quinalphos, gardona, methidathion, carbophenothion, phosmet, phosalone, and coumaphos. After the scallion samples were heated for 30 s in microwave oven, the residues were extracted with acetonitrile, and then the organic phase was salted out from the matrix. As a result, most of the interfering impurities were abolished in the heating process. In this study, these pesticides were categorized into two groups for analysis. The gas chromatographic analysis was performed on a capillary column (DB-1701, 30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm) and determined with a flame photometric detector. Linear correlation coefficients of the 25 organic phosphorus pesticides were not lower than 0.991 0 and the linear ranges for most of the compounds were between 0.1 to 5.0 mg/L. The detection limits were between 0.025 and 0.200 mg/L. In recovery study, average recoveries ranged from 85.2% to 119.6% at the fortification levels of 0.05, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg and the relative standard deviations were in the range of 2.1% and 14.8%. The method is a simple, rapid and highly efficient one to determine organic phosphorus pesticide residues in scallion.

  11. Simultaneous determination of eugenol, isoeugenol and methyleugenol in fish fillet using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Changliang; Liu, Qi; Li, Liudong; Chen, Jiewen; Wang, Xunuo; Huang, Ke

    2016-09-15

    Gas chromatography (GC) coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) operated in electron ionization mode (EI) has been shown to have advantages in the trace analysis of chemical compounds. Employing the instrument, a method has been built to simultaneously determine eugenol, isoeugenol' and methyleugenol, which have been widely used as fish anesthetic, in the fish fillet. Procedure for the sample preparation was achieved by using hexane extraction followed by phenyl solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, which was free of such steps as rotary evaporation and nitrogen blowing by taking the volatility of eugenol and its isomers into consideration. The method was validated by conducting recovery studies on fortified fish fillet samples at four concentrations. The linearity in the range of 5-500μg·L(-1) was forced through the origin giving a coefficient of determination (r(2)) greater than 0.9982. Limits of detection (LODs) for eugenol, isoeugenol' and methyleugenol were 0.4, 1.2' and 0.2μg·kg(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.2, 4' and 0.7μg·kg(-1) for eugenol, isoeugenol' and methyleugenol, respectively. The recoveries for eugenol and its isomers ranged from 76.4 to 99.9% with relative standard deviations (RSD) in a range from 2.18 to 15.5%. This method is quick, simple and suitable for determining the residues of eugenol, isoeugenol and methyleugenol simultaneously in batch samples of fish fillet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of ORNL-TSF shielding experiments for the gas-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L.S.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Muckenthaler, F.J.; Slater, C.O.

    1982-01-01

    During the period between 1975 and 1980 a series of experiments was performed at the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility in support of the shield design for a 300-MW(e) Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Demonstration Plant. This report reviews the experiments and calculations, which included studies of: (1) neutron streaming in the helium coolant passageways in the GCFR core; (2) the effectiveness of the shield designed to protect the reactor grid plate from radiation damage; (3) the adequacy of the radial shield in protecting the PCRV (prestressed concrete reactor vessel) from radiation damage; (4) neutron streaming between abutting sections of the radial shield; and (5) the effectiveness of the exit shield in reducing the neutron fluxes in the upper plenum region of the reactor.

  13. Quantitative Detection of Trace Explosive Vapors by Programmed Temperature Desorption Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher R.; Lubrano, Adam; Woytowitz, Morgan; Giordano, Braden C.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The direct liquid deposition of solution standards onto sorbent-filled thermal desorption tubes is used for the quantitative analysis of trace explosive vapor samples. The direct liquid deposition method yields a higher fidelity between the analysis of vapor samples and the analysis of solution standards than using separate injection methods for vapors and solutions, i.e., samples collected on vapor collection tubes and standards prepared in solution vials. Additionally, the method can account for instrumentation losses, which makes it ideal for minimizing variability and quantitative trace chemical detection. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector is an instrumentation configuration sensitive to nitro-energetics, such as TNT and RDX, due to their relatively high electron affinity. However, vapor quantitation of these compounds is difficult without viable vapor standards. Thus, we eliminate the requirement for vapor standards by combining the sensitivity of the instrumentation with a direct liquid deposition protocol to analyze trace explosive vapor samples. PMID:25145416

  14. Youth-Led Community Arts Hubs: Self-Determined Learning in an Out-of-School Time (OST) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauseman, David Cameron

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from qualitative case studies of three youth-led community arts hubs, a program that is rooted in, and utilizes a self-determined learning approach. Qualitative case studies of three program sites sought to generate meaningful data that could lead to rapid ongoing program development and inform the development and…

  15. A Study to Determine the Need for Development of a Vocational Education Program in Solar Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. Paul; Orsak, Charles G.

    To determine the need for the development of a vocational education program in solar energy, an advisory committee considered opportunities for solar energy technicians and the need for the development of training programs and curricula and formulated recommendations for a program and curriculum. They concluded that the immediate need for persons…

  16. 23 CFR 661.23 - How will a bridge project be programmed for funding once eligibility has been determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.23 How will a bridge project be programmed for funding once eligibility has been determined? (a) All projects will be... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will a bridge project be programmed for funding once...

  17. A proposal for location and optimization of gas detectors using mathematic programming and computational fluid dynamics; Uma proposta para otimizacao e localizacao de detectores de gas utilizando programacao matematica e fluidodinamica computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, Savio S.V. [Det Norske Veritas PRINCIPIA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, worry about produce under safe conditions increased. This compromising with environment and safety systems is somehow careless regarding mathematics models in order to foreseen day by day production scenarios. The present paper suggests a methodology based on computational fluid dynamics and mathematics programming using graph theory to optimize gas detectors location on offshore facility plant. (author)

  18. Fittino, a program for determining MSSM parameters from collider observables using an iterative method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, P.; Desch, K.; Wienemann, P.

    2006-01-01

    Provided that Supersymmetry (SUSY) is realized, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the future International Linear Collider (ILC) may provide a wealth of precise data from SUSY processes. An important task will be to extract the Lagrangian parameters. On this basis the goal is to uncover the underlying symmetry breaking mechanism from the measured observables. In order to determine the SUSY parameters, the program Fittino has been developed. It uses an iterative fitting technique and a Simulated Annealing algorithm to determine the SUSY parameters directly from the observables without any a priori knowledge of the parameters, using all available loop-corrections to masses and couplings. Simulated Annealing is implemented as a stable and efficient method for finding the optimal parameter values. The theoretical predictions can be provided from any program with SUSY Les Houches Accord interface. As fit result, a set of parameters including the full error matrix and two-dimensional uncertainty contours are obtained. Pull distributions can automatically be created and allow an independent cross-check of the fit results and possible systematic shifts in the parameter determination. A determination of the importance of the individual observables for the measurement of each parameter can be performed after the fit. A flexible user interface is implemented, allowing a wide range of different types of observables and a wide range of parameters to be used. Program summaryProgram title: Fittino Catalogue identifier: ADWN Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWN Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License Programming language:C++ Computer: any computer Operating system: Linux and other Unix flavors RAM: ca. 22 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 111 962 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 006 727 Distribution format: tar.gz Number of processors used: 1 External routines: The ROOT data analysis

  19. Advanced industrial gas turbine technology readiness demonstration program. Phase II. Final report: compressor rig fabrication assembly and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, J. K.; Smith, J. D.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a component technology demonstration program to fabricate, assemble and test an advanced axial/centrifugal compressor are presented. This work was conducted to demonstrate the utilization of advanced aircraft gas turbine cooling and high pressure compressor technology to improve the performance and reliability of future industrial gas turbines. Specific objectives of the compressor component testing were to demonstrate 18:1 pressure ratio on a single spool at 90% polytropic efficiency with 80% fewer airfoils as compared to current industrial gas turbine compressors. The compressor design configuration utilizes low aspect ratio/highly-loaded axial compressor blading combined with a centrifugal backend stage to achieve the 18:1 design pressure ratio in only 7 stages and 281 axial compressor airfoils. Initial testing of the compressor test rig was conducted with a vaneless centrifugal stage diffuser to allow documentation of the axial compressor performance. Peak design speed axial compressor performance demonstrated was 91.8% polytropic efficiency at 6.5:1 pressure ratio. Subsequent documentation of the combined axial/centrifugal performance with a centrifugal stage pipe diffuser resulted in the demonstration of 91.5% polytropic efficiency and 14% stall margin at the 18:1 overall compressor design pressure ratio. The demonstrated performance not only exceeded the contract performance goals, but also represents the highest known demonstrated compressor performance in this pressure ratio and flow class. The performance demonstrated is particularly significant in that it was accomplished at airfoil loading levels approximately 15% higher than that of current production engine compressor designs. The test results provide conclusive verification of the advanced low aspect ratio axial compressor and centrifugal stage technologies utilized.

  20. Determination and maintenance of DE minimis risk for migration of residual tritium (3H) from the 1969 Project Rulison nuclear test to nearby hydraulically fractured natural gas wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jeffrey I; Chapman, Jenny B

    2013-05-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was a proof-of-concept experiment that was conducted under the Plowshare Program in 1969 in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin in west-central Colorado. Today, commercial production of natural gas is possible from low permeability, natural gas bearing formations like that of the Williams Fork Formation using modern hydraulic fracturing techniques. With natural gas exploration and production active in the Project Rulison area, this human health risk assessment was performed in order to add a human health perspective for site stewardship. Tritium (H) is the radionuclide of concern with respect to potential induced migration from the test cavity leading to subsequent exposure during gas-flaring activities. This analysis assumes gas flaring would occur for up to 30 d and produce atmospheric H activity concentrations either as low as 2.2 × 10 Bq m (6 × 10 pCi m) from the minimum detectable activity concentration in produced water or as high as 20.7 Bq m (560 pCi m), which equals the highest atmospheric measurement reported during gas-flaring operations conducted at the time of Project Rulison. The lifetime morbidity (fatal and nonfatal) cancer risks calculated for adults (residents and workers) and children (residents) from inhalation and dermal exposures to such activity concentrations are all below 1 × 10 and considered de minimis. The implications for monitoring production water for conforming health-protective, risk-based action levels also are examined.