Sample records for program design considerations

  1. Exercise program design considerations for head and neck cancer survivors. (United States)

    Midgley, Adrian W; Lowe, Derek; Levy, Andrew R; Mepani, Vishal; Rogers, Simon N


    The present study aimed to establish exercise preferences, barriers, and perceived benefits among head and neck cancer survivors, as well as their level of interest in participating in an exercise program. Patients treated for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck between 2010 and 2014 were identified from the hospital database and sent a postal questionnaire pack to establish exercise preferences, barriers, perceived benefits, current physical activity levels, and quality of life. A postal reminder was sent to non-responders 4 weeks later. The survey comprised 1021 eligible patients of which 437 (43%) responded [74% male, median (interquartile range) age, 66 (60-73) years]. Of the respondents, 30% said 'Yes' they would be interested in participating in an exercise program and 34% said 'Maybe'. The most common exercise preferences were a frequency of three times per week, moderate-intensity, and 15-29 min per bout. The most popular exercise types were walking (68%), flexibility exercises (35%), water activites/swimming (33%), cycling (31%), and weight machines (19%). Home (55%), outdoors (46%) and health club/gym (33%) were the most common preferred choices for where to regularly exercise. Percieved exercise benefits relating to improved physical attributes were commonly cited, whereas potential social and work-related benefits were less well-acknowledged. The most commonly cited exercise barriers were dry mouth or throat (40%), fatigue (37%), shortness of breath (30%), muscle weakness (28%) difficulty swallowing (25%), and shoulder weakness and pain (24%). The present findings inform the design of exercise programs for head and neck cancer survivors.

  2. Microcomputer Program Design Considerations for the Novice User (United States)


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  3. Value of Solar. Program Design and Implementation Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mike [Solar Electric Power Association, Washington, D.C. (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidovich, Ted [Solar Electric Power Association, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sterling, John [Solar Electric Power Association, Washington, D.C. (United States); Makhyoun, Miriam [Solar Electric Power Association, Washington, D.C. (United States)


    Here, we present an analysis that assesses the potential market type that might form in the United States under a VOS rate, given current national average solar costs and various incentive scenarios, for the most populous city in each state. Three hypothetical VOS tariffs were developed, based on assumptions of avoided fuel costs, avoided capacity, environmental benefits, and line losses, to represent a of range of possible VOS rates. The levelized cost of solar in 50 locations is calculated using NREL’s System Advisor Model (SAM) using input assumptions regarding system size, resource quality, avoided capacity (aka capacity factor) and a variety of incentives. Comparing the solar costs with the hypothetical VOS rates illustrates the various market types that may form under a VOS program, in different locations.

  4. Design Considerations in Development of a Mobile Health Intervention Program: The TEXT ME and TEXTMEDS Experience. (United States)

    Thakkar, Jay; Barry, Tony; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Redfern, Julie; McEwan, Alistair L; Rodgers, Anthony; Chow, Clara K


    Mobile health (mHealth) has huge potential to deliver preventative health services. However, there is paucity of literature on theoretical constructs, technical, practical, and regulatory considerations that enable delivery of such services. The objective of this study was to outline the key considerations in the development of a text message-based mHealth program; thus providing broad recommendations and guidance to future researchers designing similar programs. We describe the key considerations in designing the intervention with respect to functionality, technical infrastructure, data management, software components, regulatory requirements, and operationalization. We also illustrate some of the potential issues and decision points utilizing our experience of developing text message (short message service, SMS) management systems to support 2 large randomized controlled trials: TEXT messages to improve MEDication adherence & Secondary prevention (TEXTMEDS) and Tobacco, EXercise and dieT MEssages (TEXT ME). The steps identified in the development process were: (1) background research and development of the text message bank based on scientific evidence and disease-specific guidelines, (2) pilot testing with target audience and incorporating feedback, (3) software-hardware customization to enable delivery of complex personalized programs using prespecified algorithms, and (4) legal and regulatory considerations. Additional considerations in developing text message management systems include: balancing the use of customized versus preexisting software systems, the level of automation versus need for human inputs, monitoring, ensuring data security, interface flexibility, and the ability for upscaling. A merging of expertise in clinical and behavioral sciences, health and research data management systems, software engineering, and mobile phone regulatory requirements is essential to develop a platform to deliver and manage support programs to hundreds of

  5. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  6. Design and Curriculum Considerations for a Computer Graphics Program in the Arts. (United States)

    Leeman, Ruedy W.

    This history and state-of-the-art review of computer graphics describes computer graphics programs and proposed programs at Sheridan College (Canada), the Rhode Island School of Design, the University of Oregon, Northern Illinois University, and Ohio State University. These programs are discussed in terms of their philosophy, curriculum, student…

  7. Design Considerations for Internet-Delivered Self-Management Programs for Adults With Hearing Impairment. (United States)

    Preminger, Jill E; Rothpletz, Ann M


    Hearing impairment (HI) is a chronic condition; thus, even with treatment, residual participation restrictions and activity limitations typically remain. Individuals must learn to self-manage their HI. The purpose of this research note is to review components of successful Internet-based self-management programs and to evaluate group auditory rehabilitation (AR) programs with varying content, in order to make recommendations for the design of future Internet-based self-management programs. Effect sizes for changes in HI-specific quality of life following group AR activities from 4 published studies were calculated to determine if effect size varied systematically as a function of group activities. These findings are described using a self-management framework. Successful group AR activities include (a) psychosocial activities to promote role management, emotional management, and social support; (b) informational lectures and group discussion to promote education; (c) communication strategy exercises to promote self-efficacy and self-management skills; and (d) the inclusion of a frequent communication partner to promote social support and self-tailoring. It is recommended that future Internet-based self-management programs focus on the mechanisms of social support and education to promote learning and self-management skills. Future research will determine if these AR activities may be implemented effectively via the Internet.

  8. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.


    When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding...... the consequence that the user does not have to specify any start guesses, etc.The design approach developed have resulted in a number of simulation tools which allow users with limited theoretical knowledge about refrigeration systems, mathematical models and simulation to use them while the expert users still...

  9. Program Design Considerations for Leadership Training for Dental and Dental Hygiene Students (United States)

    Taichman, Russell S.; Parkinson, Joseph W.; Nelson, Bonnie A.; Nordquist, Barbara; Ferguson-Young, Daphne C.; Thompson, Joseph F.


    Since leadership is an essential part of the oral health professions, oral health educators can play an essential role in establishing a culture of leadership and in mentoring students to prepare them for future leadership roles within the profession. However, leadership training for oral health professionals is a relatively new concept and is frequently not found within dental and dental hygiene curricula. The purpose of this article is to propose several models for leadership training that are specific to the oral health professions. The authors hope that providing an overview of leadership programs in academic dental institutions will encourage all U.S. and Canadian dental schools to begin developing a culture that promotes leadership development. PMID:22319084

  10. Equipoise: ethical, scientific, and clinical trial design considerations for compatible pair participation in kidney exchange programs. (United States)

    Cuffy, M C; Ratner, L E; Siegler, M; Woodle, E S


    Compatible living donor/recipient pair participation (CPP) in kidney exchange (KE) transplantation may substantially increase transplant volumes and significantly mitigate the O blood group donor shortage in KE. Initial ethical analysis did not support CPP for two primary reasons: (1) KE would be "unbalanced," and (2) the possibility of undue influence experienced by the compatible pair living donor. Recent developments with CPP (modeling studies and small clinical experiences), have demonstrated substantial potential for increasing KE volumes. This encouraged us to reconsider initial ethical concerns, with a focus on the potential for a design of a prospective CPP clinical trial. This ethical reconsideration led us to conclude that the concept of unbalanced kidney exchanges (manifested primarily by differential benefit between compatible and incompatible pairs) is no longer as clear cut as originally conceived. In addition, application of two concepts substantially diminishes ethical concerns including: (1) "quasi-compatible" pairs, and (2) a priori definition of mitigating factors. We conclude that genuine uncertainty exists regarding whether kidney exchange is best performed with or without compatible pair participation and that a clinical trial is therefore warranted. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Accessing Secondary Markets as a Capital Source for Energy Efficiency Finance Programs: Program Design Considerations for Policymakers and Administrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, E. Fadrhonc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Estimates of the total opportunity for investment in cost-effective energy efficiency in the United States are typically in the range of several hundred billion dollars (Choi Granade, et al., 2009 and Fulton & Brandenburg, 2012).1,2 To access this potential, many state policymakers and utility regulators have established aggressive energy efficiency savings targets. Current levels of taxpayer and utility bill-payer funding for energy efficiency is only a small fraction of the total investment needed to meet these targets (SEE Action Financing Solutions Working Group, 2013). Given this challenge, some energy efficiency program administrators are working to access private capital sources with the aim of amplifying the funds available for investment. In this context, efficient access to secondary market capital has been advanced as one important enabler of the energy efficiency industry “at scale.”3 The question of what role secondary markets can play in bringing energy efficiency to scale is largely untested despite extensive attention from media, technical publications, advocates, and others. Only a handful of transactions of energy efficiency loan products have been executed to date, and it is too soon to draw robust conclusions from these deals. At the same time, energy efficiency program administrators and policymakers face very real decisions regarding whether and how to access secondary markets as part of their energy efficiency deployment strategy.

  12. Design considerations for slurry bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappi, M.E. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Waterways Experiment Station; Banerji, S.K.; Bajpai, R.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)


    Slurry treatment is an innovative approach for bioremediation of contaminated soils under controlled conditions of pH, temperature, and nutrients. This treatment of excavated soils permits better control of environmental conditions than in landfarming, composting, and biocell units, and therefore may achieve accelerated rates of decontamination. Bioslurry reactors have been used to remediate a variety of contaminants, such as soils and sludges from refinery wastes, wood-preserving wastes, wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls and halogenated solvents. Key considerations in design of such reactors involve meeting the oxygen requirements for biodegradation, preventing the settling of soil particles, efficient mixing of additives, and control of foaming. The aspects of reactor design, specifically agitation system have been discussed in this paper.

  13. Design considerations for a theory-driven exergame-based rehabilitation program to improve walking of persons with stroke. (United States)

    Wüest, Seline; van de Langenberg, Rolf; de Bruin, Eling D


    Virtual rehabilitation approaches for promoting motor recovery has attracted considerable attention in recent years. It appears to be a useful tool to provide beneficial and motivational rehabilitation conditions. Following a stroke, hemiparesis is one of the most disabling impairments and, therefore, many affected people often show substantial deficits in walking abilities. Hence, one of the major goals of stroke rehabilitation is to improve patients' gait characteristics and hence to regain their highest possible level of walking ability. Because previous studies indicate a relationship between walking and balance ability, this article proposes a stroke rehabilitation program that targets balance impairments to improve walking in stroke survivors. Most currently, available stroke rehabilitation programs lack a theory-driven, feasible template consistent with widely accepted motor learning principles and theories in rehabilitation. To address this hiatus, we explore the potential of a set of virtual reality games specifically developed for stroke rehabilitation and ordered according to an established two-dimensional motor skill classification taxonomy. We argue that the ensuing "exergame"-based rehabilitation program warrants individually tailored balance progression in a learning environment that allows variable practice and hence optimizes the recovery of walking ability.

  14. Cognitive Considerations in Display Design. (United States)

    Simcox, William

    This investigation of the encoding features of graphs begins with a description of a cognitive framework which allows designers to factor into the process of designing displays how people interpret the information found and what display properties are responsible for this interpretation. The framework also provides a performance measure for use in…

  15. Analytical considerations for study design (United States)

    Barry R. Noon; William M. Block


    Studies of the foraging behaviors of birds have been largely descriptive and comparative. One might then expect studies with similar objectives to have similar study designs but that is not the case. Papers in this symposium that focused specifically on study design contain a diversity of biological perspectives. Similarly, there is no accord among statisticians on...

  16. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study. (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L


    Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one's needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety. Results generally did not vary by stage of

  17. Mechanical considerations and design skills.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvis, Robert L.


    The purpose of the report is to provide experienced-based insights into design processes that will benefit designers beginning their employment at Sandia National Laboratories or those assuming new design responsibilities. The main purpose of this document is to provide engineers with the practical aspects of system design. The material discussed here may not be new to some readers, but some of it was to me. Transforming an idea to a design to solve a problem is a skill, and skills are similar to history lessons. We gain these skills from experience, and many of us have not been fortunate enough to grow in an environment that provided the skills that we now need. I was fortunate to grow up on a farm where we had to learn how to maintain and operate several different kinds of engines and machines. If you are like me, my formal experience is partially based upon the two universities from which I graduated, where few practical applications of the technologies were taught. What was taught was mainly theoretical, and few instructors had practical experience to offer the students. I understand this, as students have their hands full just to learn the theoretical. The practical part was mainly left up to 'on the job experience'. However, I believe it is better to learn the practical applications early and apply them quickly 'on the job'. System design engineers need to know several technical things, both in and out of their field of expertise. An engineer is not expected to know everything, but he should know when to ask an expert for assistance. This 'expert' can be in any field, whether it is in analyses, drafting, machining, material properties, testing, etc. The best expert is a person who has practical experience in the area of needed information, and consulting with that individual can be the best and quickest way for one to learn. If the information provided here can improve your design skills and save one design from having a problem

  18. Design considerations for healthcare simulation facilities. (United States)

    Seropian, Michael; Lavey, Robert


    The number of simulation facilities across the United States and internationally is growing rapidly. The capital investment required can be substantive regardless of size. This article focuses on ways to optimize expenditures and maximize utility. Several key factors will play decisive roles in the successful launch of a new simulation facility. Mission/vision, budget, functional need, and space are partners in determining the final design of the simulation facility. Ideally, the budget is based on the functional requirements and desired capacity; but when this is not the case, of course, the owner must prioritize the needs of the new center. The type of space allocated for the facility is also critical and can seriously impact the budget because renovating a space that is fitted for another purpose versus constructing the center in an open shell space can add considerable cost. A well-balanced design team led by a diligent and knowledgeable project manager who can keep the team focused is integral to the success of designing and constructing a new facility. Users should inform themselves about each of the issues that a design team may consider to ensure that the issues are resolved in a way that meets the needs and vision of the program(s). A simulation facility, such as any education facility, should be built around the concepts of the overall mission, vision, and values of the institution(s) and stakeholder(s). For any new educational facility to be a success, the thoughts, ideas, and creativity of the owner, users, and stakeholders must find its way into the ultimate built environment. The experience base of simulation facility design is fragmented and not standardized. Therefore, we live at a time where the risk of ineffective design is higher than one would like given the costs involved. It behooves the owner to set parameters with the planning and design team that they want a balanced, controlled, collaborative, and inclusive design process.

  19. Evaluation of a marketing program designed to increase consumer consideration of energy-efficient products in Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A demonstration marketing program to sensitize Denver homeowners to incorporate the energy cost of ownership orientation in their decision process regarding purchase of energy-efficient products is described. Personal interviews with Denver homeowners were conducted. A first survey established a baseline for consumer awareness and acceptance of energy conservation and conservation-related products and provided information which could be utilized in developing marketing strategies related to energy conservation and the concept of energy cost of ownership. A second survey measured shifts in awareness and attitudes which might have occurred as a result of the marketing demonstration program. The methodology and results of the evaluation are discussed in detail. The Denver Test Market Media Campaign conducted through multi-media advertising and public relations campaigns to sensitize the residents to the positive consideraton of energy-efficient products is described. (MCW)

  20. Designing computer programs

    CERN Document Server

    Haigh, Jim


    This is a book for students at every level who are learning to program for the first time - and for the considerable number who learned how to program but were never taught to structure their programs. The author presents a simple set of guidelines that show the programmer how to design in a manageable structure from the outset. The method is suitable for most languages, and is based on the widely used 'JSP' method, to which the student may easily progress if it is needed at a later stage.Most language specific texts contain very little if any information on design, whilst books on des

  1. Planning for cancer control programs: Leadership considerations. (United States)

    French, John; Sutcliffe, Simon B


    Cancer is a significant challenge globally. Reducing the impact of cancer requires a program and plans that address the main aspects of cancer from prevention through to end-of-life care. This article summarizes the requirements of a robust cancer control program and outlines the contextual and leadership considerations that are required to ensure that the planning and implementation of a control program can achieve improved cancer outcomes.

  2. Design Criteria Based on Aesthetic Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl


    Aesthetic criteria for designs are often debated in a very subjective manner which makes it difficult to reach consensus. In order to have a more rational and transparent process, in particular in industrial design, we propose a procedure based on Baumgarten's aesthetic considerations and Thommesen...

  3. Design considerations for space flight hardware (United States)

    Glover, Daniel


    The environmental and design constraints are reviewed along with some insight into the established design and quality assurance practices that apply to low earth orbit (LEO) space flight hardware. It is intended as an introduction for people unfamiliar with space flight considerations. Some basic data and a bibliography are included.

  4. Implantable intraocular pressure monitoring systems: Design considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad


    Design considerations and limitations of implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) systems are presented in this paper. Detailed comparison with the state of the art is performed to highlight the benefits and challenges of the proposed design. The system-on-chip, presented here, is battery free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. This low-cost design, in standard CMOS process, does not require any external components or bond wires to function. This paper provides useful insights to the designers of implantable wireless sensors in terms of design choices and associated tradeoffs. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Design considerations for a gas microcontroller (United States)

    Ritter, D. A.


    Some of the design problems that are now being addressed in consideration of a microcontroller for the upcoming GAS payload are discussed. Microcontrollers will be used to run the experiments and to collect and store the data from those experiments. Some of the requirements for a microcontroller are to be small, lightweight, have low power consumption, and high reliability. Some of the solutions that were developed to meet these design requirements are discussed. At present, the experiment is still in the design stage and the final design may change from what is presented here. The search for new integrated circuits which will do all that is needed all in one package continues.

  6. Bioreactor design considerations for hollow organs. (United States)

    Fish, Jeff; Halberstadt, Craig; McCoy, Darell W; Robbins, Neil


    There are many important considerations in the design, construction, and use of a bioreactor for growing hollow organs such as vessels, gastrointestinal tissue, esophagus, and others. The growth of new organs requires a specialized container that provides sterility and an environment conducive to cell-seeding and attachment onto a three-dimensional bioabsorbable porous scaffold, incubation, maturation, and shipping for implantation. The materials' selection, dimensions, manufacturing, testing, and use of the bioreactor are all factors that should be considered in designing a bioreactor for the development of hollow organs.

  7. Design considerations for piezoelectric polymer ultrasound transducers. (United States)

    Brown, L F


    Much work has been published on the design of ultrasound transducers using piezoelectric ceramics, but a great deal of this work does not apply when using the piezoelectric polymers because of their unique electrical and mechanical properties. The purpose of this paper is to review and present new insight into seven important considerations for the design of active piezoelectric polymer ultrasound transducers: piezoelectric polymer materials selection, transducer construction and packaging requirements, materials characterization and modeling, film thickness and active area design, electroding selection, backing material design, and front protection/matching layer design. Besides reviewing these design considerations, this paper also presents new insight into the design of active piezoelectric polymer ultrasonic transducers. The design and fabrication of an immersible ultrasonic transducer, which has no adhesive layer between the active element and backing layer, is included. The transducer features direct deposition of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer onto an insulated aluminum backing substrate. Pulse-echo tests indicated a minimum insertion loss of 37 dB and -6 dB bandwidth of 9.8 to 22 MHz (71%). The use of polymer wear-protection/quarter-wave matching layers is also discussed. Test results on a P(VDF-TrFE) transducer showed that a Mylar/sup TM/ front layer provided a slight increase in pulse-echo amplitude of 15% (or 1.2 dB) and an increase in -6 dB pulse-echo fractional bandwidth from 86 to 95%. Theoretical derivations are reported for optimizing the active area of the piezoelectric polymer element for maximum power transfer at resonance. These derivations are extended to the special case for a low profile (i.e., thin) shielded transducer. A method for modeling the non-linear loading effects of a commercial pulser-receiver is also included.

  8. Considerations in Adapting Clinical Trial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. James Hung


    Full Text Available The concept of adaptation of trial design during the course of a clinical trial has recently drawn much interest from the pharmaceutical industry. The interest arises partly because statistical decision trees employed to address multiple complex clinical hypotheses within a clinical trial are increasingly complex, and the statistical information generated from learning data prior to designing the trial is often insufficient to provide informative guidance for planning a pivotal trial. While the conventional fixed designs, which usually permit no modification influenced by the internal trial data of key design specifications, often cannot cover the range of complex statistical decision trees that must be prespecified in the study protocol, it seems natural to consider modifications of trial design at some point in the trial. In regulatory practice, some adjustments to study protocols are mostly made known to regulatory agencies in the form of so-called protocol amendments. However, such design modifications may demand careful consideration in dealing with any biases that may be caused by the adaptation, and may impede the interpretability of trial results.

  9. Design Considerations for Artificial Pancreas Pivotal Studies. (United States)

    Russell, Steven J; Beck, Roy W


    The development of artificial pancreas systems has evolved to the point that pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety are in progress or soon to be initiated. These pivotal studies are intended to provide the necessary data to gain clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, coverage by payers, and adoption by patients and clinicians. Although there will not be one design that is appropriate for every system, there are certain aspects of protocol design that will be considerations in all pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety. One key aspect of study design is the intervention to be used by the control group. A case can be made that the control group should use the currently available best technology, which is sensor-augmented pump therapy. However, an equally, if not more, compelling case can be made that the control intervention should be usual care. In this Perspective, we elaborate on this issue and provide a pragmatic approach to the design of clinical trials of artificial pancreas systems. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Focusing the Sun: State Considerations for Designing Community Solar Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shah, Monisha R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report summarizes outcomes from the National Community Solar Partnership State Best Practices working group by identifying key differences in state policies that enable community solar and illustrating how various policy design approaches may impact the market. For the latter question, it is too early to quantify a relationship between policy design and market impacts, because most state programs have not been fully implemented. So, the authors conducted interviews with 19 subject matter experts, including project developers, regulators, and utilities to better understand how various policy design approaches may impact community solar markets. These perspectives, along with those gleaned from the working group and relevant literature were synthesized to identify key considerations for policymakers designing community solar programs. Though state community solar policies vary in numerous ways, the report focuses on the following critical elements: program cap, project size cap, subscriber location requirements, subscriber eligibility requirements, low- and moderate-income stipulations, and subscriber compensation.

  11. Design considerations of new oil tankers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, F.H.; Crighton, L.J.


    The 1978 Protocols to MARPOL 1973 (Inter. Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) and SOLAS 1974 (Int. Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) will have a considerable effect upon the design and construction of new crude carriers and products tankers. This article attempts to highlight those aspects of the Protocols having the greatest effect on the design of new tankers. A number of designs have been chosen, ranging from 20,000 tons deadweight to 200,000 tons deadweight, to demonstrate the problems associated with optimizing the positioning of longitudinal and transverse bulkheads within the cargo tank/segregated ballast spaces, to meet the Protective Location requirements for segregated ballast and maximum oil outflow limitations laid down in MARPOL 1973 and the 1978 Protocol. The paper also considers the problems associated with draught, trim, freeboard, stability and tonnage for the chosen designs as required by the appropriate Conventions, and the effect the 1978 Protocols have upon these requirements. The new requirements for Crude Oil Washing and Inert Gas installations are also commented upon together with a section describing possible pumping and piping arrangements.

  12. LBB considerations for a new plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swamy, S.A.; Mandava, P.R.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    The leak-before-break (LBB) methodology is accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of Double-Ended Guillotine Breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. This is the result of extensive research, development, and rigorous evaluations by the NRC and the commercial nuclear power industry since the early 1970s. The DEGB postulation is responsible for the many hundreds of pipe whip restraints and jet shields found in commercial nuclear plants. These restraints and jet shields not only cost many millions of dollars, but also cause plant congestion leading to reduced reliability in inservice inspection and increased man-rem exposure. While use of leak-before-break technology saved hundreds of millions of dollars in backfit costs to many operating Westinghouse plants, value-impacts resulting from the application of this technology for future plants are greater on a per plant basis. These benefits will be highlighted in this paper. The LBB technology has been applied extensively to high energy piping systems in operating plants. However, there are differences between the application of LBB technology to an operating plant and to a new plant design. In this paper an approach is proposed which is suitable for application of LBB to a new plant design such as the Westinghouse AP600. The approach is based on generating Bounding Analyses Curves (BAC) for the candidate piping systems. The general methodology and criteria used for developing the BACs are based on modified GDC-4 and Standard Review Plan (SRP) 3.6.3. The BAC allows advance evaluation of the piping system from the LBB standpoint thereby assuring LBB conformance for the piping system. The piping designer can use the results of the BACs to determine acceptability of design loads and make modifications (in terms of piping layout and support configurations) as necessary at the design stage to assure LBB for the, piping systems under consideration.

  13. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems (United States)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.


    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.

  14. Design Considerations for Developing Biodegradable Magnesium Implants (United States)

    Brar, Harpreet S.; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Manuel, Michele V.

    The integration of biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants into the human body is a complex undertaking that faces major challenges. The complexity arises from the fact that biomaterials must meet both engineering and physiological requirements to ensure the desired properties. Historically, efforts have been focused on the behavior of commercial magnesium alloys in biological environments and their resultant effect on cell-mediated processes. Developing causal relationships between alloy chemistry and micro structure, and its effect on cellular behavior can be a difficult and time intensive process. A systems design approach driven by thermodynamics has the power to provide significant contributions in developing the next generation of magnesium alloy implants with controlled degradability, biocompatibility, and optimized mechanical properties, at reduced time and cost. This approach couples experimental research with theory and mechanistic modeling for the accelerated development of materials. The aim of this article is to enumerate this strategy, design considerations and hurdles for developing new magnesium alloys for use as biodegradable implant materials [1].

  15. Educating speech-language pathologists for the 21st century: course design considerations for a distance education Master of Speech Pathology program. (United States)

    McCormack, Jane; Easton, Catherine; Morkel-Kingsbury, Lenni


    The landscape of tertiary education is changing. Developments in information and communications technology have created new ways of engaging with subject material and supporting students on their learning journeys. Therefore, it is timely to reconsider and re-imagine the education of speech-language pathology (SLP) students within this new learning space. In this paper, we outline the design of a new Master of Speech Pathology course being offered by distance education at Charles Sturt University (CSU) in Australia. We discuss the catalyst for the course and the commitments of the SLP team at CSU, then describe the curriculum design process, focusing on the pedagogical approach and the learning and teaching strategies utilised in the course delivery. We explain how the learning and teaching strategies have been selected to support students' online learning experience and enable greater interaction between students and the subject material, with students and subject experts, and among student groups. Finally, we highlight some of the challenges in designing and delivering a distance education SLP program and identify future directions for educating students in an online world. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Educational Design & ECOP: Considerations and propositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan


    This presentation addresses foundational ideas about educational design, specifically: About design • What is educational design (research)? • What supports curriculum design? About designers • What are common designer struggles? • What can we learn from expert designers? • What are

  17. Design Considerations for Proposed Fermilab Integrable RCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander


    Integrable optics is an innovation in particle accelerator design that provides strong nonlinear focusing while avoiding parametric resonances. One promising application of integrable optics is to overcome the traditional limits on accelerator intensity imposed by betatron tune-spread and collective instabilities. The efficacy of high-intensity integrable accelerators will be undergo comprehensive testing over the next several years at the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) and the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER). We propose an integrable Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron (iRCS) as a replacement for the Fermilab Booster to achieve multi-MW beam power for the Fermilab high-energy neutrino program. We provide a overview of the machine parameters and discuss an approach to lattice optimization. Integrable optics requires arcs with integer-pi phase advance followed by drifts with matched beta functions. We provide an example integrable lattice with features of a modern RCS - long dispersion-free drifts, low momentum compaction, superperiodicity, chromaticity correction, separate-function magnets, and bounded beta functions.

  18. Planning and design considerations in karst terrain (United States)

    Fischer, J. A.; Greene, R. W.; Ottoson, R. S.; Graham, T. C.


    This article discusses the various steps that the authors feel are necessary to the successful progression of an engineered project sited in karst terrain. The procedures require a multidisciplined approach with liaison and cooperation among the various parties to the project. Initially, the prospective owner must have sufficient understanding of the potential engineering problems to incorporate the engineering geologist into the early stages of any planned acquisition. The first step in an investigation should include a review of the available geologic information, aerial photo interpretation, consultation with the State Geological Survey, and a geologic reconnaissance of the prospective site and surrounding area. A go-no-go decision as to purchase can often been made at an early time. Although, in some instances, more study is needed for a particularly intriguing property. The second stage should consider the various planning alternatives that are feasible based upon the limited available information. At this stage planning/purchase decisions can be made as to purchasing options, value of the property, design constraints, and the possible economic penalties that could be associated with the potential site construction. Various planning and construction alternatives should be considered in this phase of the work. The third stage should include a site investigation program of moderate size, consisting of test pits and/or exploratory borings. The borings should be drilled using water as the drilling fluid, with an experienced crew and qualified technical inspection. The authors find the use of geophysical techniques can be extremely misleading unless used in conjunction with exploratory drilling. Successful evaluations using geophysical procedures occur only under ideal conditions. The geotechnical viability of the plan and preliminary design should be investigated in the fourth phase. Additionally, the physical parameters required for the design of structures

  19. A Multilevel Consideration of Service Design Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpen, Ingo; Gemser, Gerda; Calabretta, Giulia


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to advance the current understanding of organisational conditions that facilitate service design. Specifically, the focus is on organisational capabilities, interactive practices and individual abilities as units of analysis across service system levels....... Grounded in design principles, the paper conceptualises and delineates illustrative service design conditions and introduces a respective service design capability-practice-ability (CPA) portfolio. In doing so, an emerging microfoundations perspective in the context of service design is advanced. Design....../methodology/approach: Conceptual paper. Findings: This paper identifies and delineates a CPA that contributes to service design and ultimately customer experiences. The service design CPA consists of six illustrative constellations of service design capabilities, practices and abilities, which operate on different organisational...

  20. Instructional design considerations promoting engineering design self-efficacy (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew M.

    Engineering design activities are frequently included in technology and engineering classrooms. These activities provide an open-ended context for practicing critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, and innovation---collectively part of the 21st Century Skills which are increasingly needed for success in the workplace. Self-efficacy is a perceptual belief that impacts learning and behavior. It has been shown to directly impact each of these 21st Century Skills but its relation to engineering design is only recently being studied. The purpose of this study was to examine how instructional considerations made when implementing engineering design activities might affect student self-efficacy outcomes in a middle school engineering classroom. Student responses to two self-efficacy inventories related to design, the Engineering Design Self-Efficacy Instrument and Creative Thinking Self-Efficacy Inventory, were collected before and after participation in an engineering design curriculum. Students were also answered questions on specific factors of their experience during the curriculum which teachers may exhibit control over: teamwork and feedback. Results were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired and independent t-tests, and structural equation modeling to better understand patterns for self-efficacy beliefs in students. Results suggested that design self-efficacy and creative thinking self-efficacy are significantly correlated, r(1541) = .783, p creative thinking self-efficacy: strategies encouraging self-efficacy in these domains may be transferrable. Instructors are made aware of the significant impact of classroom strategies for increasing self-efficacy and given specific recommendations related to teamwork and feedback to support students. Finally, although there were weaknesses in the study related to the survey administration, future research opportunities are presented which may build from this work.

  1. Design Consideration for Nonlead Piezoelectric Transformers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Priya, Shashank


    .... Hence, if similar design such as Rosen-type is employed for designing the transformer with nonlead material then gain and output power of the transformer will be significantly inferior and below...

  2. Design Considerations for Fusible Heat Sink (United States)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Sheth, Rubik B.


    Traditionally radiator designs are based off a passive or flow through design depending on vehicle requirements. For cyclical heat loads, a novel idea of combining a full flow through radiator to a phase change material is currently being investigated. The flow through radiator can be designed for an average heat load while the phase change material can be used as a source of supplemental heat rejections when vehicle heat loads go above the average load. Furthermore, by using water as the phase change material, harmful radiation protection can be provided to the crew. This paper discusses numerous trades conducted to understand the most optimal fusible heat sink design for a particular heat load. Trades include configuration concepts, amount of phase change needed for supplemental heat rejection, and the form of interstitial material needed for optimal performance. These trades were used to culminate to a fusible heat sink design. The paper will discuss design parameters taken into account to develop an engineering development unit.

  3. Mechatronic Design - Still a Considerable Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane


    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order to investigate, if the challenges...... can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during the design task...


    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...


    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  6. Carbon Taxes. A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Hillary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  7. Carbon Taxes: A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, J.; Bird, L.; Smith, H.


    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  8. Design considerations for liquid crystal contact lenses (United States)

    Bailey, J.; Kaur, S.; Morgan, P. B.; Gleeson, H. F.; Clamp, J. H.; Jones, J. C.


    Switchable liquid crystal contact lenses with electrically controllable focal powers have previously been investigated as an alternative to bifocal contact lenses and spectacles for the correction of presbyopia. The simplest lens design uses a meniscus shaped cavity within the lens to contain the liquid crystal. The design of such a lens is considered in detail, including the nematic alignment and electrodes materials. The organic transparent conductor PEDOT:PSS was used as both electrode and planar alignment. Four different configurations are considered, using both planar and homeotropic orientations with either homogenous or axial alignment. Controllable switching of the focal power was demonstrated for each mode and focal power changes of up to ΔP  =  3.3  ±  0.2 D achieved. Such lens designs offer significant potential for a novel form of correction for this common visual problem.

  9. Computational Protein Design with Explicit Consideration of Surface Hydrophobic Patches (United States)

    Jacak, Ron; Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Kuhlman, Brian


    De novo protein design requires the identification of amino-acid sequences that favor the target folded conformation and are soluble in water. One strategy for promoting solubility is to disallow hydrophobic residues on the protein surface during design. However, naturally occurring proteins often have hydrophobic amino acids on their surface that contribute to protein stability via the partial burial of hydrophobic surface area or play a key role in the formation of protein-protein interactions. A less restrictive approach for surface design that is used by the modeling program Rosetta is to parameterize the energy function so that the number of hydrophobic amino acids designed on the protein surface is similar to what is observed in naturally occurring monomeric proteins. Previous studies with Rosetta have shown that this limits surface hydrophobics to the naturally occurring frequency (~28%) but that it does not prevent the formation of hydrophobic patches that are considerably larger than those observed in naturally occurring proteins. Here, we describe a new score term that explicitly detects and penalizes the formation of hydrophobic patches during computational protein design. With the new term we are able to design protein surfaces that include hydrophobic amino acids at naturally occurring frequencies, but do not have large hydrophobic patches. By adjusting the strength of the new score term the emphasis of surface redesigns can be switched between maintaining solubility and maximizing folding free energy. PMID:22223219

  10. Service-Learning Instructional Design Considerations (United States)

    Maddrell, Jennifer


    This paper explores the design of "service-learning" experiences to engage college students in the real-world application of course subject matter. Service learning is an educational approach that combines community service, academic coursework, and work-based applied learning. Based on data gathered during a series of recent interviews…

  11. The LACIE data bases: Design considerations (United States)

    Westberry, L. E. (Principal Investigator)


    The implementation of direct access storage devices for LACIE is discussed with emphasis on the storage and retrieval of image data. Topics covered include the definition of the problem, the solution methodology (design decisions), the initial operational structure, and the modifications which were incorporated. Some conclusions and projections of future problems to be solved are also presented.

  12. Design considerations for tropical forest inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Edward McRoberts


    Full Text Available Forests contribute substantially to maintaining the global greenhouse gas balance, primarily because among the five economic sectors identified by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, only the forestry sector has the potential to remove greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere. In this context, development of national forest carbon accounting systems, particularly in countries with tropical forests, has emerged as an international priority. Because these systems are often developed as components of or in parallel with national forest inventories, a brief review of statistical issues related to the development of forest ground sampling designs is provided. This overview addresses not only the primary issues of plot configurations and sampling designs, but also to a lesser extent the emerging roles of remote sensing and uncertainty assessment. Basic inventory principles are illustrated for two case studies, the national forest inventory of Brazil with special emphasis on the state of Santa Catarina, and an inventory for Tanzania.

  13. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations. (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M


    To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's 'effectiveness' as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons.

  14. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations


    Brown, Christopher J.; Cheng, James M


    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing w...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norica-Felicia BUCUR


    Full Text Available Studies and articles that focus on describing and classifying foreign language syllabuses are dominated by the product / process dichotomy. Nevertheless, this is not always the case, as there are authors who, apparently, use other criteria to produce their own taxonomy. Thus, this paper attempts to provide a brief chronological outline of the various descriptions found in the syllabus design literature, so that the principles underlying the proposed taxonomies could be identified and critical comparisons could be performed.

  16. Controller Design Considerations for ACM APFC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Abramovitz


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with performance of the current shaping network in Average Current Mode (ACM Active Power Factor Correction (APFC systems. Theoretical expressions for the ripple components are derived. Then, ripple interaction and impact on the current loop reference signal are investigated. A modification of the controller network is suggested that results in an improved Total Harmonic Distortion (THD. Design guidelines are suggested. The theoretical predictions were validated by simulation.

  17. Multifrequency Arrays: Design and Cost Considerations (United States)


    other surveillance systems engineers and designers working in the field. The report was approved for publication 8 July 1975. "^——* ..^ia...m.ii.w MmmwmMm . wmw .■;.. w w»» n\\iM.Limm.smP^mmm^^mmm. is a compromise which must be made after considering scan angle and effects due to phase...Oct 1970. 26. Saad, T., The Microwave Engineers ’ Technical and Buyers’ Guide, p 30, 1970. 27. Naval Electronics Laboratory Center Technical Note

  18. Trajectory Design Considerations for Exploration Mission 1 (United States)

    Dawn, Timothy F.; Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Batcha, Amelia L.; Williams, Jacob; Pedrotty, Samuel M.


    Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will be the first mission to send an uncrewed Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to cislunar space in the fall of 2019. EM-1 was originally conceived as a lunar free-return mission, but was later changed to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) mission as a precursor to the Asteroid Redirect Mission. To understand the required mission performance (i.e., propellant requirement), a series of trajectory optimization runs was conducted using JSC's Copernicus spacecraft trajectory optimization tool. In order for the runs to be done in a timely manner, it was necessary to employ a parallelization approach on a computing cluster using a new trajectory scan tool written in Python. Details of the scan tool are provided and how it is used to perform the scans and post-process the results. Initially, a scan of daily due east launched EM-1 DRO missions in 2018 was made. Valid mission opportunities are ones that do not exceed the useable propellant available to perform the required burns. The initial scan data showed the propellant and delta-V performance patterns for each launch period. As questions were raised from different subsystems (e.g., power, thermal, communications, flight operations, etc.), the mission parameters or data that were of interest to them were added to the scan output data file. The additional data includes: (1) local launch and landing times in relation to sunrise and sunset, (2) length of eclipse periods during the in-space portion of the mission, (3) Earth line of sight from cislunar space, (4) Deep Space Network field of view looking towards cislunar space, and (5) variation of the downrange distance from Earth entry interface to splashdown. Mission design trades can also be performed based on the information that the additional data shows. For example, if the landing is in darkness, but the recovery operations team desires a landing in daylight, then an analysis is performed to determine how to change the mission design

  19. Design considerations for parallel graphics libraries (United States)

    Crockett, Thomas W.


    Applications which run on parallel supercomputers are often characterized by massive datasets. Converting these vast collections of numbers to visual form has proven to be a powerful aid to comprehension. For a variety of reasons, it may be desirable to provide this visual feedback at runtime. One way to accomplish this is to exploit the available parallelism to perform graphics operations in place. In order to do this, we need appropriate parallel rendering algorithms and library interfaces. This paper provides a tutorial introduction to some of the issues which arise in designing parallel graphics libraries and their underlying rendering algorithms. The focus is on polygon rendering for distributed memory message-passing systems. We illustrate our discussion with examples from PGL, a parallel graphics library which has been developed on the Intel family of parallel systems.

  20. Cultural considerations when designing entrepreneurial pedagogies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Ian Keith; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée


    We assume that cultural variables influence the effectiveness of entrepreneurship pedagogy and as such there is need for cultural sensitivity in the design and implementation of entrepreneurship teaching progammes. With this in mind, we set out to examine whether the approaches and methods used...... teach entrepreneurship are culturally-based. We systematically searched the extant literature for evidence to verify our assumption. The search was conducted in two phases. In phase one we searched 79 articles to identify the major approaches and methods used in entrepreneurship. Experiential, learner......) that discussed the use of the approaches and methods we previously identified in different cultural settings. Hostede cultural dimensions of individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, masculinity-femininity and long term orientation-short term orientation to frame the discussion...

  1. Design considerations for partial neutralization acid injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, T.R.; Van der Cook, R.E.


    It is currently estimated that, after vacuum evaporator-crystallizer of Hanford liquid wastes on the order of 10 million gallons of caustic residual liquor will remain. Partial Neutralization, the continuous addition of nitric acid to the slurry is being developed to allow additional volume reduction and reduce interim storage costs. Tests revealed that acid and liquor compositions as well as nozzle design are significant factors in the concentration of NO/sub x/ in the mild steel vessel vent system. The available literature information relating to mixing of up to 20 gallons per minute of acid with 14,000 gallons per minute of slurry is presented. Very rapid and thorough mixing of the injected acid is required, since reaction of even 0.1 percent of the injected acid with sodium nitrite in the slurry would yield unacceptable levels of NO/sub x/ in the vessel vent system. The mixing time calculated by a method developed herein was used to evaluate the proposed conceptual mixing nozzle.

  2. Design of a Blended Learning Environment: Considerations and Implementation Issues (United States)

    Gedik, Nuray; Kiraz, Ercan; Ozden, M. Yasar


    This study identified critical issues in the design of a blended learning environment by examining basic design considerations and implementation issues. Following a design-based research approach with the phenomenological tradition of qualitative research, the study investigated instructor experiences relating to the design, development, and…

  3. Digital libraries philosophies, technical design considerations, and example scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, David


    An unparalleled overview of current design considerations for your digital library! Digital Libraries: Philosophies, Technical Design Considerations, and Example Scenarios is a balanced overview of public services, collection development, administration, and systems support, for digital libraries, with advice on adopting the latest technologies that appear on the scene. As a professional in the library and information science field, you will benefit from this special issue that serves as an overview of selected directions, trends, possibilities, limitations, enhancements, design principals, an

  4. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.


    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  5. Design Considerations for a Launch Vehicle Development Flight Instrumentation System (United States)

    Johnson, Martin L.; Crawford, Kevin


    When embarking into the design of a new launch vehicle, engineering models of expected vehicle performance are always generated. While many models are well established and understood, some models contain design features that are only marginally known. Unfortunately, these analytical models produce uncertainties in design margins. The best way to answer these analytical issues is with vehicle level testing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration respond to these uncertainties by using a vehicle level system called the Development Flight Instrumentation, or DFI. This DFI system can be simple to implement, with only a few measurements, or it may be a sophisticated system with hundreds of measurement and video, without a recording capability. From experience with DFI systems, DFI never goes away. The system is renamed and allowed to continue, in most cases. Proper system design can aid the transition to future data requirements. This paper will discuss design features that need to be considered when developing a DFI system for a launch vehicle. It will briefly review the data acquisition units, sensors, multiplexers and recorders, telemetry components and harnessing. It will present a reasonable set of requirements which should be implemented in the beginning of the program in order to start the design. It will discuss a simplistic DFI architecture that could be the basis for the next NASA launch vehicle. This will be followed by a discussion of the "experiences gained" from a past DFI system implementation, such as the very successful Ares I-X test flight. Application of these design considerations may not work for every situation, but they may direct a path toward success or at least make one pause and ask the right questions.

  6. Creating New Allied Health Programs: Considerations and Constraints. (United States)

    Malone, Pat

    Factors that distinguish the health disciplines from the traditional and career-oriented disciplines, trends that will affect the allied health disciplines, and considerations for the development of new allied health education programs are considered. Topics of consideration include: start-up and continuation costs, advantages and disadvantages of…

  7. Hydroelastic inflatable boats: relevant literature and new design considerations


    Halswell, P.; Wilson, P. A.; Taunton, D.J.; Austen, S.


    Inflatable boats are considerably more flexible than conventional metal or composite vessels. The RNLI have developed an inflatable boat, the IB1, with improved performance which has been attributed to its flexibility or hydroelasticity. Current design methodologies for planing vessels predict the performance assuming it is rigid. Designing an entirely hydroelastic boat presents completely new design challenges and will require new design methodologies in the future. This paper considers how ...

  8. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C


    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations...... for clinical trials investigating the prevention of chronic pain. We present general design considerations for prevention trials in populations that are at relatively high risk for developing chronic pain. Specific design considerations included subject identification, timing and duration of treatment...... element exposure), and are chronically painful conditions that are treated with a range of interventions. Improvements in the design of chronic pain prevention trials could improve assay sensitivity and thus accelerate the identification of efficacious interventions. Such interventions would have...

  9. Computerized Adaptive Testing System Design: Preliminary Design Considerations. (United States)

    Croll, Paul R.

    A functional design model for a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system was developed and presented through a series of hierarchy plus input-process-output (HIPO) diagrams. System functions were translated into system structure: specifically, into 34 software components. Implementation of the design in a physical system was addressed through…

  10. Consideration from a PBL perspective designing a virtual workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Bygholm, Ann


    of the virtual workshop design within the frame of PBL. The intention with the virtual workshop was to give participants experiences within different media and use of these in pedagogical settings. Focusing on both synchronous and asynchronous communication tools combined with different types of embedded...... assignments. The design has tight and clear standards concentrated within only one week, as to give the participants opportunity to generate experiences in a considerable focus of collaboration, group work and different media supporting the assignments. In this paper we will elaborate the considerations......, expectations and feedback from this virtual event....

  11. Spectrum analysis on quality requirements consideration in software design documents. (United States)

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Umemura, Masahiro; Ogata, Shinpei; Kaijiri, Kenji


    Software quality requirements defined in the requirements analysis stage should be implemented in the final products, such as source codes and system deployment. To guarantee this meta-requirement, quality requirements should be considered in the intermediate stages, such as the design stage or the architectural definition stage. We propose a novel method for checking whether quality requirements are considered in the design stage. In this method, a technique called "spectrum analysis for quality requirements" is applied not only to requirements specifications but also to design documents. The technique enables us to derive the spectrum of a document, and quality requirements considerations in the document are numerically represented in the spectrum. We can thus objectively identify whether the considerations of quality requirements in a requirements document are adapted to its design document. To validate the method, we applied it to commercial software systems with the help of a supporting tool, and we confirmed that the method worked well.

  12. Design Considerations for the 4GLS XUV-FEL

    CERN Document Server

    McNeil, B W J


    An XUV Free-Electron Laser operating in the photon energy range 10-100eV is a key component of the proposed 4th Generation Light Source (4GLS) at Daresbury Laboratory in the UK. The current design proposal is an amplifier FEL seeded by a Higher Harmonic Generation (HHG) source. In this paper we present and discuss the considerations that led to the current design. We also present 3D simulation results that illustrate the potential radiation output characteristics.

  13. Beyond Informed Consent: Ethical Considerations in the Design and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beyond Informed Consent: Ethical Considerations in the Design and Implementation of Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Among Adolescents. ... Ces besoins comprennent les questions d'infections sexuellement transmissibles, le VIH, le sida, les résultats défavorables de la grossesse, la communauté, la famille ...

  14. Considerations in designing an evaluation system for adaptive delta management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, L.M.; Maat, J.; Haasnoot, M.; Kwakkel, J.H.


    New planning approaches put new requirements on evaluation. A recent innovation in the water domain is adaptive delta management (ADM). ADM supports long-term planning in the face of uncertainty. This paper discusses the main considerations for the design of an evaluation system for ADM, departing

  15. Lunar Module Electrical Power System Design Considerations and Failure Modes (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael


    This slide presentation reviews the design and redesign considerations of the Apollo lunar module electrical power system. Included in the work are graphics showing the lunar module power system. It describes the in-flight failures, and the lessons learned from these failures.

  16. The Design Consideration for Game-Based Learning (United States)

    Liang, Chaoyun; Lee, Yuan-Zone; Chou, Wen-Shou


    The integration of game playing with online education has recently become one of the most discussed issues in the e-learning field for its potentially positive impact on the development of related industries and on the social lives of young people. In this article, the authors propose a set of design considerations to assist game-based learning…

  17. Scientific, statistical, practical, and regulatory considerations in design space development. (United States)

    Debevec, Veronika; Srčič, Stanko; Horvat, Matej


    The quality by design (QbD) paradigm guides the pharmaceutical industry towards improved understanding of products and processes, and at the same time facilitates a high degree of manufacturing and regulatory flexibility throughout the establishment of the design space. This review article presents scientific, statistical and regulatory considerations in design space development. All key development milestones, starting with planning, selection of factors, experimental execution, data analysis, model development and assessment, verification, and validation, and ending with design space submission, are presented and discussed. The focus is especially on frequently ignored topics, like management of factors and CQAs that will not be included in experimental design, evaluation of risk of failure on design space edges, or modeling scale-up strategy. Moreover, development of a design space that is independent of manufacturing scale is proposed as the preferred approach.

  18. Habitat Design Considerations for Implementing Solar Particle Event Radiation Protection (United States)

    Simon, Mathew A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Walker, Steven A.


    Radiation protection is an important habitat design consideration for human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. Fortunately, radiation shelter concepts can effectively reduce astronaut exposure for the relatively low proton energies of solar particle events, enabling moderate duration missions of several months before astronaut exposure (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event) approaches radiation exposure limits. In order to minimize habitat mass for increasingly challenging missions, design of radiation shelters must minimize dedicated, single-purpose shielding mass by leveraging the design and placement of habitat subsystems, accommodations, and consumables. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems RadWorks Storm Shelter Team has recently designed and performed radiation analysis on several low dedicated mass shelter concepts for a year-long mission. This paper describes habitat design considerations identified during the study's radiation analysis. These considerations include placement of the shelter within a habitat for improved protection, integration of human factors guidance for sizing shelters, identification of potential opportunities for habitat subsystems to compromise on individual subsystem performances for overall vehicle mass reductions, and pre-configuration of shelter components for reduced deployment times.

  19. Design Considerations of Permanent Magnet Transverse Flux Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen


    Permanent magnet transverse flux machine (PMTFM) is well known for its high torque density and is interested in various direct-drive applications. Due to its complicated 3-D flux components, design and design optimization of a PMTFM is more difficult and time consuming than for radial flux...... electrical machines. This paper addresses two important design considerations for PMTFM—the influence of permanent magnet leakage flux, which plays an important role in the determination of machine output torque, and the leakage inductance. A new simple method to provide a quick estimation of the armature...

  20. Design Considerations for a Flexible Multigrid Preconditioning Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Gaidamour


    Full Text Available MueLu is a library within the Trilinos software project [An overview of Trilinos, Technical Report SAND2003-2927, Sandia National Laboratories, 2003] and provides a framework for parallel multigrid preconditioning methods for large sparse linear systems. While providing efficient implementations of modern multigrid methods based on smoothed aggregation and energy minimization concepts, MueLu is designed to be customized and extended. This article gives an overview of design considerations for the MueLu package: user interfaces, internal design, data management, usage of modern software constructs, leveraging Trilinos capabilities, linear algebra operations and advanced application.

  1. Design considerations for energy efficient, resilient, multi-layer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Hansen, Line Pyndt; Ruepp, Sarah Renée


    This work investigates different network design considerations with respect to energy-efficiency, under green-field resilient multi-layer network deployment. The problem of energy efficient, reliable multi-layer network design is known to result in different trade-offs between key performance...... in multi-layer networks and performance measures such as network resource utilization, availability, agility to traffic fluctuations and energy consumption. A green-field network deployment scenario is considered, where different resiliency methods, design methodologies and grooming strategies are applied...

  2. Design for Additive Manufacturing: Trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Moroni, Giovanni; Vaneker, Tom


    The past few decades have seen substantial growth in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies. However, this growth has mainly been process-driven. The evolution of engineering design to take advantage of the possibilities afforded by AM and to manage the constraints associated with the technology...... has lagged behind. This paper presents the major opportunities, constraints, and economic considerations for Design for Additive Manufacturing. It explores issues related to design and redesign for direct and indirect AM production. It also highlights key industrial applications, outlines future...... challenges, and identifies promising directions for research and the exploitation of AM's full potential in industry....

  3. Students' guide to program design

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Lesley Anne


    Students' Guide to Program Design is a textbook on program design. This textbook approaches program design by using structures programming techniques and pseudocode to develop a solution algorithm. Divided into 10 chapters, the book begins with a basic explanation of structured programming techniques, top-down development, and modular design. This discussion is followed by detailed concepts of the syntax of pseudocode; methods of defining the problem; the application of basic control structures in the development of the solution algorithm; desk checking techniques; hierarchy charts; and module

  4. Design considerations and operational performance of Anaerobic Digester: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Ahmad Mir


    Full Text Available Due to the decline in fossil fuel reservoirs, the researchers emphasized more on the production of biogas from organic waste. Producing the renewable energy from biodegradable waste helps to overcome the energy crisis and solid waste management, done by anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion is controlled breakdown of organic matter into methane gas (60%, carbon dioxide (40%, trace components along with digested used as soil conditioner. However there is vast dearth of literature regarding the design considerations. The batch digestion system yields a cost-effective and economically viable means for conversion of the food waste to useful energy. It is therefore recommended that such process can be increasingly employed in order to get and simultaneously protect the environment .This paper aims to draw key analysis and concern about the design considerations, analysis of gas production, substrates and inoculums utilization, uses and impacts of biogas.

  5. Biomechanics of injury prediction for anthropomorphic manikins - preliminary design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, A.E. [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States)


    The anthropomorphic manikins are used in automobile safety research as well as in aerospace related applications. There is now a strong need to advance the biomechanics knowledge to determine appropriate criteria for injury likelihood prediction as functions of manikin-measured responses. In this paper, three regions of a manikin, namely, the head, knee joint, and lumbar spine are taken as examples to introduce preliminary design considerations for injury prediction by means of responses of theoretical models and strategically placed sensing devices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINTILIE Alexandru


    Full Text Available In recent years, Low Cost CAD systems are widespread in the technical world. Currently, the highest-rated CAD system is AutoCAD due to the fact that in association with AutoLISP programming language covered a broad range of production needs. As a high-level programming language, AutoLISP provides an easy and efficient programming technique that leads to automation and parameterization of AutoCAD commands and reduces the time spending for designing the drawings. This paper aims to highlight the advantages of using AutoLISP programming environment in the 2D drafting and 3D modeling using AutoCAD tools.

  7. Kinematic design considerations for minimally invasive surgical robots: an overview. (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-Hsing; Dai, Jian S; Dasgupta, Prokar


    Kinematic design is a predominant phase in the design of robotic manipulators for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). However, an extensive overview of the kinematic design issues for MIS robots is not yet available to both mechanisms and robotics communities. Hundreds of archival reports and articles on robotic systems for MIS are reviewed and studied. In particular, the kinematic design considerations and mechanism development described in the literature for existing robots are focused on. The general kinematic design goals, design requirements, and design preferences for MIS robots are defined. An MIS-specialized mechanism, namely the remote center-of-motion (RCM) mechanism, is revisited and studied. Accordingly, based on the RCM mechanism types, a classification for MIS robots is provided. A comparison between eight different RCM types is given. Finally, several open challenges for the kinematic design of MIS robotic manipulators are discussed. This work provides a detailed survey of the kinematic design of MIS robots, addresses the research opportunity in MIS robots for kinematicians, and clarifies the kinematic point of view to MIS robots as a reference for the medical community. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design. (United States)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M; Anderson, Andrew R; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F


    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Benefits of Operational Consideration into the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Design of Spacecraft (United States)

    Morris, Mark C.; Holt, Greg N.


    The following paper points out historical examples where operational consideration into the GN&C design could have helped avoid operational complexity, reduce costs, ensure the ability for a GN&C system to be able to adapt to failures, and in some cases might have helped save mission objectives. A costly repeat of mistakes could befall a program if previous operational lessons, especially from operators of vehicles with similar GN&C systems, are not considered during the GN&C design phase of spacecraft. The information gained from operational consideration during the design can lead to improvements of the design, allow less ground support during operations, and prevent repetition of previous mistakes. However, this benefit can only occur if spacecraft operators adequately capture lessons learned that would improve future designs for operations and those who are designing spacecraft incorporate inputs from those that have previously operated similar GN&C systems.

  10. Design Considerations for Large Mass Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.; Orrell, John L.


    Summary The objective of this document is to present the designers of the next generation of large-mass, ultra-low background experiments with lessons learned and design strategies from previous experimental work. Design issues divided by topic into mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements are addressed. Large mass low-background experiments have been recognized by the scientific community as appropriate tools to aid in the refinement of the standard model. The design of these experiments is very costly and a rigorous engineering review is required for their success. The extreme conditions that the components of the experiment must withstand (heavy shielding, vacuum/pressure and temperature gradients), in combination with unprecedented noise levels, necessitate engineering guidance to support quality construction and safe operating conditions. Physical properties and analytical results of typical construction materials are presented. Design considerations for achieving ultra-low-noise data acquisition systems are addressed. Five large-mass, low-background conceptual designs for the one-tonne scale germanium experiment are proposed and analyzed. The result is a series of recommendations for future experiments engineering and for the Majorana simulation task group to evaluate the different design approaches.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARSAN Lucian


    Full Text Available The paper presents some considerations about the necessity of evaluating the environmental impact of a product during its entire life. The present situation (economic, social and ecologic imposes solutions to reduce this impact as a result of an analysis performed during all stages of the life cycle. This paper focuses on design solutions with consequences in the last stage, the end-of-life. Reusing products, with, or without remanufacturing and recycling the materials from products that cannot be reused represent some options analysed in this paper. The end-of-life options should be known even from the beginning of the design process and should be included as design objectives or, at least as constrictions. Considering them as human needs would naturally include them in the requirements list.

  12. Some design considerations for ceramic components in heat engine applications (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, John P.


    The design methodology for brittle material structures which is being developed and used at the Lewis Research Center for sizing ceramic components in heat engine applications is reviewed. Theoretical aspects of designing with structural ceramics are discussed, and a general purpose reliability program for predicting fast fracture response due to volume distributed flaws is described. Statistical treatment of brittle behavior, based on the Weibull model, is reviewed and its advantages, as well as drawbacks, are listed. A mechanistic statistical fracture theory, proposed by Batdorf to overcome the Weibull model limitations and based on Griffith fracture mechanics, is summarized. Failure probability predictions are made for rotating annular Si3N4 disks using various fracture models, and the results are compared to actual failure data. The application of these design methods to Government funded ceramics engine demonstration programs is surveyed. The uncertainty in observed component performance emphasizes the need for proof testing and improved nondestructive evaluation to guarantee adequate structural integrity.

  13. ASF Design Considerations for Radarsat/ERS-2 (United States)

    Cuddy, D.; Bicknell, T.; Tankenson, M.


    This paper examines the requirements and the design considerations of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ground data system for the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks (UAF) for the new era of Radarsat/ERS-2 missions. These include a new data acquisition planning capability to manage more satellites with global planning and to manage more than one instrument mode; a new archive strategy that is cheaper, faster, and better; a product generation system to produce data on demand and to produce data for the varied instruments and modes; and a product verification ability for the new and old products. In response to these new functional requirements, JPL is using a design approach that emphasizes an open systems, client/server architecture based on industry standards and commercial off-the-shelf technology.

  14. Design considerations for developing biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants (United States)

    Brar, Harpreet S.; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Manuel, Michele V.


    The integration of biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants into the human body is a complex undertaking that faces major challenges. Candidate biomaterials must meet both engineering and physiological requirements to ensure the desired properties. Historically, efforts have been focused on the behavior of commercial magnesium alloys in biological environments and their resultant effect on cell-mediated processes. Developing causal relationships between alloy chemistry and microstructure, and effects as a cellular behavior can be a difficult and time-intensive process. A systems design approach has the power to provide significant contributions in the development of the next generation of magnesium alloy implants with controlled degradability, biocompatibility, and optimized mechanical properties, at reduced time and cost. This approach couples experimental research with theory and mechanistic modeling for the accelerated development of materials. The aim of this article is to enumerate this strategy, design considerations, and hurdles for developing new cast magnesium alloys for use as biodegradable implant materials.

  15. Dosimeter Design Program (United States)


    didn’t require radiation hardened electronics. The second dosimeter was created to fly in a much higher environment so it was designed to operate with... radiation hardened electronics. The developed dosimeter system is called the Radiation Hazard Assessment System (RHAS). The RHAS was developed to...dosimeter that is not radiation hardened . The team will work to create a dosimeter design using parts that are not radiation hardened . This will

  16. The Design Board Program. (United States)

    Rosner, Jerome

    This paper describes a visual-motor training program that has been successfully implemented with children aged 3-11. Various studies related to the development of children's visual-motor skills are reviewed and a rationale associated with the teaching of appropriate visual-motor processes is explained. Application of this rationale to the visual…

  17. Design considerations and tradeoffs for passive RFID tags (United States)

    Hussien, Faisal A.; Turker, Didem Z.; Srinivasan, Rangakrishnan; Mobarak, Mohamed S.; Cortes, Fernando P.; Sanchez-Sinencio, Edgar


    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in a variety of tracking, security and tagging applications. Their operation in non line-of-sight environments makes them superior over similar devices such as barcode and infrared tags. RFID systems span a wide range of applications: medical history storage, dental prosthesis tracking, oil drilling pipe and concrete stress monitoring, toll ways services, animal tracking applications, etc. Passive RFID tags generate their power from the incoming signal; therefore, they do not require a power source. Accordingly, minimizing the power consumption and the implementation area are usually the main design considerations. This paper presents a complete analysis on designing a passive RFID tag. A system design methodology is introduced including the main issues and tradeoffs between different design parameters. The uplink modulation techniques used (ASK, PSK, FSK, and PWM) are illustrated showing how to choose the appropriate signaling scheme for a specific data rate, a certain distance of operation and a limited power consumption budget. An antenna system (transmitter and receiver) is proposed providing the maximum distance of operation with the transmitted power stated by FCC regulations. The backscatter modulation scheme used in the downlink is shown whether to be ASK-BM or PSK-BM and the differences between them are discussed. The key building blocks such as the charge pump, voltage reference, and the regulator used to generate the DC supply voltage from the incoming RF signal are discussed along with their design tradeoffs. A complete architecture for a passive RFID tag is provided as an example to illustrate the proposed RFID tag design methodology.

  18. Mission Design and Simulation Considerations for ADReS-A (United States)

    Peters, S.; Förstner, R.; Fiedler, H.


    Space debris in general has become a major problem for modern space activities. Guidelines to mitigate the threat have been recommended, better prediction models are developed and an advanced observation of objects orbiting Earth is in progress. And still - without the implementation of active debris removal (ADR), the number of debris in space will exponentially increase. To support the ongoing research on ADR-missions, this paper presents the updated mission design of ADReS-A (Autonomous Debris Removal Satellite - #A) - one possible concept for the multiple active removal of large debris in Low Earth orbit, in this case especially of rocket bodies of the SL-8-type. ADReS-A as chaser satellite is supported by at least 5 de-orbit kits, allowing for the same number of targets to be removed. While ADReS-A is conceived for handling of the target, the kit's task is the controlled re-entry of the designated rocket body. The presented mission design forms the basis for the simulation environment in progress. The simulation shall serve as testbed to test multiple scenarios in terms of approach and abort optimization or different tumbling modes of the target. The ultimate goal is the test of autonomous behaviors of the spacecraft in case of unforeseen failures during the approach phase. Considerations to create a simulation for the described mission are presented and discussed. A first visualization of pre-calculated aboard trajectories can be found at the end of this paper.

  19. Design considerations in an active medical product safety monitoring system. (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J; Fireman, Bruce; Ryan, Patrick B; Maclure, Malcolm; Gerhard, Tobias; Toh, Sengwee; Rassen, Jeremy A; Nelson, Jennifer C; Schneeweiss, Sebastian


    Active medical product monitoring systems, such as the Sentinel System, will utilize electronic healthcare data captured during routine health care. Safety signals that arise from these data may be spurious because of chance or bias, particularly confounding bias, given the observational nature of the data. Applying appropriate monitoring designs can filter out many false-positive and false-negative associations from the outset. Designs can be classified by whether they produce estimates based on between-person or within-person comparisons. In deciding which approach is more suitable for a given monitoring scenario, stakeholders must consider the characteristics of the monitored product, characteristics of the health outcome of interest (HOI), and characteristics of the potential link between these. Specifically, three factors drive design decisions: (i) strength of within-person and between-person confounding; (ii) whether circumstances exist that may predispose to misclassification of exposure or misclassification of the timing of the HOI; and (iii) whether the exposure of interest is predominantly transient or sustained. Additional design considerations include whether to focus on new users, the availability of appropriate active comparators, the presence of an exposure time trend, and the measure of association of interest. When the key assumptions of self-controlled designs are fulfilled (i.e., lack of within-person, time-varying confounding; abrupt HOI onset; and transient exposure), within-person comparisons are preferred because they inherently avoid confounding by fixed factors. The cohort approach generally is preferred in other situations and particularly when timing of exposure or outcome is uncertain because cohort approaches are less vulnerable to biases resulting from misclassification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Antenna design considerations for MIMO TV white-space handsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki; Alrabadi, Osama; De Carvalho, Elisabeth


    The trend in wireless communication is to provide high-speed services utilizing MIMO antenna systems. Moreover, cognitive radio (CR) technology targets to exploit the so-called TV white space (TVWS) utilizing tunable antennas operating over vacant TV bands. The joint requirements for cognition...... and spatial multiplexing expressed by sufficient antenna matching and decoupling bandwidth, frequency agility over the TVWS as well as minimum occupying space and complexity impose significant challenges to antenna engineers. The paper discusses the major design considerations for compact TVWS terminals...... and presents a promising approach that empowers the TVWS device with CR-MIMO capabilities under modern smartphone size constraints. The idea is to aggregate a pair of antennas per communication port for a) providing attractive bandwidth properties across the desired TV bands and b) isolating the communication...

  1. Narcissus considerations in optical designs for infrared staring arrays (United States)

    Scherr, Lawrence M.; Orlando, Harold J.; Hall, James T.; Godfrey, Thomas E.


    Narcissus is a stray light problem for infrared imaging sensors. Control of narcissus is a requirement for designing scanning sensors and narcissus analysis tools are available in some optical raytrace programs. These tools have not been optimized for staring sensors. Narcissus is assumed to be unimportant in staring array designs because the shading effects can be removed by offset correction of the detector array data. This would be sufficient for sensors which meet the following conditions: (1) calibrated at the entrance aperture, (2) operate at a constant optical housing temperature, (3) no movement of lenses for focus or change in field of view. Narcissus may be noticeable for sensors not meeting these conditions. We have developed procedures for applying existing narcissus analysis tools to staring sensors. A staring array prototype FLIR has been analyzed. Laboratory tests have confirmed the narcissus analysis.

  2. Standard guide for general design considerations for hot cell equipment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this guide is to provide general design and operating considerations for the safe and dependable operation of remotely operated hot cell equipment. Hot cell equipment is hardware used to handle, process, or analyze nuclear or radioactive material in a shielded room. The equipment is placed behind radiation shield walls and cannot be directly accessed by the operators or by maintenance personnel because of the radiation exposure hazards. Therefore, the equipment is operated remotely, either with or without the aid of viewing. 1.1.2 This guide may apply to equipment in other radioactive remotely operated facilities such as suited entry repair areas, canyons or caves, but does not apply to equipment used in commercial power reactors. 1.1.3 This guide does not apply to equipment used in gloveboxes. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This guide is intended for persons who are tasked with the planning, design, procurement, fabrication, installation, or testing of equipment used in rem...

  3. Turbomachinery design considerations for the nuclear HTGR-GT power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C.F.; Smith, M.J.


    For several years, design studies have been under way in the USA on a nuclear closed-cycle gas turbine plant (HTGR-GT). Design aspects of the helium turbomachine portion of these studies are presented. Gas dynamic and mechanical design considerations are presented for helium turbomachines in the 400-MW(e) (non-intercooled) and 600-MW(e) (intercooled) power range. Design of the turbomachine is a key element in the overall power plant program effort, which is currently directed toward the selection of a reference HTGR-GT commercial plant configuration for the US utility market. A conservative design approach has been emphasized to provide maximum safety and durability. The studies presented for the integrated plant concept outline the necessary close working relationship between the reactor primary system and turbomachine designers.

  4. Design consideration for design a flat and ring plastics part using Solidworks software (United States)

    Amran, M. A. M.; Faizal, K. M.; Salleh, M. S.; Sulaiman, M. A.; Mohamad, E.


    Various considerations on design of plastic injection moulded parts were applied in initial stage to prevent any defects of end products. Therefore, the objective of this project is to design the plastic injection moulded part by taking consideration on several factors such as draft angle, corner radius and location of gate. In this project, flat plastic part, ring plastic part, core inserts for flat and ring plastic part were designed using SolidWorks software. The plastic part was drawn in sketching mode then the 3D modeling of solid part was generated using various commands. Considerations of plastic part such as draft angle and corner radius with location of gate was considered in the design stage. Finally, it was successfully designed the two plastic parts with their respectively insert by using SolidWorks software. The flat plastic part and ring plastic part were designed for the purpose for future researches for study the weld lines, meld lines, air trapped and geometrical size of the product. Thus, by designing the flat plastic part and ring plastic part having core insert on each part, the completed mould design of two plate mould can be considered. This is because, plastic injection parts are needed to be designed properly in order to neglect any defect when the mould was made.

  5. Quasi-experimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations. (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Schillinger, Dean; Shiboski, Stephen


    Although randomized controlled trials are often a gold standard for determining intervention effects, in the area of practice-based research (PBR), there are many situations in which individual randomization is not possible. Alternative approaches to evaluating interventions have received increased attention, particularly those that can retain elements of randomization such that they can be considered "controlled" trials. Methodological design elements and practical implementation considerations for two quasi-experimental design approaches that have considerable promise in PBR settings--the stepped-wedge design, and a variant of this design, a wait-list cross-over design, are presented along with a case study from a recent PBR intervention for patients with diabetes. PBR-relevant design features include: creation of a cohort over time that collects control data but allows all participants (clusters or patients) to receive the intervention; staggered introduction of clusters; multiple data collection points; and one-way cross-over into the intervention arm. Practical considerations include: randomization versus stratification, training run in phases; and extended time period for overall study completion. Several design features of practice based research studies can be adapted to local circumstances yet retain elements to improve methodological rigor. Studies that utilize these methods, such as the stepped-wedge design and the wait-list cross-over design, can increase the evidence base for controlled studies conducted within the complex environment of PBR.

  6. Physics Design Considerations for Diagnostic X Electron Beam Transport System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y-J


    The Diagnostic X (D-X) beamlines will transport the DARHT-II beam from the end of the accelerator to the Diagnostic X firing point providing four lines of sight for x-ray radiography. The design goal for the Diagnostic X beamline is to deliver four x-ray pulses with the DARHT-II dose format and time integrated spot size on each line of sight. The D-X beamline's final focus should be compatible with a range of first conjugates from 1 m-5 m. Furthermore, the D-X beamline operational parameters and the beamline layout should not preclude a possible upgrade to additional lines of sight. The DARHT-II accelerator is designed to deliver beams at a rate of 1 pulse per minute or less. Tuning the D-X beamline with several hundred optical elements would be time consuming. Therefore, minimizing the required number of tuning shots for the D-X beamline is also an important design goal. Many different beamline configurations may be able to accomplish these design objectives, and high beam quality (i.e., high current and low emittance) must be maintained throughout the chosen beamline configuration in order to achieve the DARHT-II x-ray dose format. In general, the longer the distance a beam travels, the harder it is to preserve the beam quality. Therefore, from the point of view of maintaining beam quality, it is highly desirable to minimize the beamline length. Lastly, modification to the DARHT-II building and the downstream transport should be minimized. Several processes can degrade beam quality by increasing the beam emittance, increasing the time-varying transverse beam motion, creating a beam halo, or creating a time-varying beam envelope. In this report, we consider those processes in the passive magnet lattice beamline and indicate how they constrain the beamline design. The physics design considerations for the active components such as the kicker system will be discussed in Ref. 2. In Sec. I, we discuss how beam emittance affects the x-ray forward dose. We also

  7. Design control considerations for biologic-device combination products. (United States)

    Anderson, Dave; Liu, Roger; Anand Subramony, J; Cammack, Jon


    Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic medical products that combine drugs, devices, and/or biological products with one another. Historically, biologics development involved identifying efficacious doses administered to patients intravenously or perhaps by a syringe. Until fairly recently, there has been limited focus on developing an accompanying medical device, such as a prefilled syringe or auto-injector, to enable easy and more efficient delivery. For the last several years, and looking forward, where there may be little to distinguish biologics medicines with relatively similar efficacy profiles, the biotechnology market is beginning to differentiate products by patient-focused, biologic-device based combination products. As innovative as biologic-device combination products are, they can pose considerable development, regulatory, and commercialization challenges due to unique physicochemical properties and special clinical considerations (e.g., dosing volumes, frequency, co-medications, etc.) of the biologic medicine. A biologic-device combination product is a marriage between two partners with "cultural differences," so to speak. There are clear differences in the development, review, and commercialization processes of the biologic and the device. When these two cultures come together in a combination product, developers and reviewers must find ways to address the design controls and risk management processes of both the biologic and device, and knit them into a single entity with supporting product approval documentation. Moreover, digital medicine and connected health trends are pushing the boundaries of combination product development and regulations even further. Despite an admirable cooperation between industry and FDA in recent years, unique product configurations and design features have resulted in review challenges. These challenges have prompted agency reviewers to modernize consultation processes, while at the same time, promoting

  8. Electrical design considerations for a 40MHz gas ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datte, P.; Manfredi, P.F.; Millaud, J.E.; Turner, W.C.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, L.; Speziali, V.; Traversi, G.


    The front IR quadrupole absorbers (TAS) and the IR neutral particle absorbers (TAN) in the high luminosity insertions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) each absorb approximately 1.8 TeV of forward collision products on average per pp interaction ({approx}235W at design luminosity 1034cm-2s-1). This secondary particle flux can be exploited to provide a useful storage ring operations tool for optimization of luminosity. A novel segmented, multi-gap, pressurized gas ionization chambers is being developed for sampling the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The ionization chamber must be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40MHz. The ionization chamber is segmented into quadrants; each quadrant consists of sixty (40x40)mm2 Cu plates 1.0mm thick, with 0.5mm gaps. The 0.5mm gap width has been chosen so that the time for the ionization electrons to drift across the gap, is short enough to produce at the output of the shaping amplifier, a signal that returns to the base line is less than the 25ns bunch spacing of the LHC. From noise considerations in the presence of a cable the stack of plates are connected electrically 10 in parallel, 6 in series to achieve an equivalent detector capacitance Cd{approx}50pF. This type connection forms an electrode inductive Le and electrode capacitive Ce network that must be optimized to transfer charge from the chamber to the sensing amplifier. This paper describes the design of the collection electrodes optimized for 40 MHz operation.

  9. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael


    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  10. Design Consideration on the ACTS T1-VSAT (United States)

    Lilley, Richard D.; Robinson, Dennis D.


    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was developed by NASA as an experimental platform to demonstrate to industry the high risk technologies need for the next generation of communication satellites. The ACTS contains many state-of-the-art technologies including time division multiple accessing, adaptive error correction coding, multiple electronically steerable hopping beam antennas, spectrally efficient SMSK modulation, demand assignment multiple access protocol and on-board baseband circuit switching. An integral part of this testbed is the ACTS T1-very small aperture terminal (VSAT). The requirements imposed on the T1-VSAT demanded numerous design tradeoffs; balancing risk, cost, and implementation. Some of these considerations include: the method used for determining link quality, the development of a low cost and reliable Ka-band high power amplifier, the integration and testing environment for use in development and production and the low cost signal processing solution to high rate burst data. This paper discusses the tradeoffs considered in the selected implementation and the results obtained over the past two years of operation. Recommendations for improvements are also included.

  11. 'More effort and more time.' Considerations in the establishment of interprofessional education programs in the workplace. (United States)

    Kent, Fiona; Nankervis, Katrina; Johnson, Christina; Hodgkinson, Marisa; Baulch, Julie; Haines, Terry


    The argument for integrating interprofessional education (IPE) activities into the workplace has been made concurrently with the call for collaborative clinical practice. An exploratory case study investigation of existing activities in a large metropolitan health care network was undertaken to inform the development of future IPE initiatives. Purposive sampling invited clinicians involved in the design or delivery of workplace IPE activities to participate in a semi-structured interview to discuss their existing programs and the opportunities and challenges facing future work. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and thematically analysed. In total, 15 clinicians were interviewed representing medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, psychology, social work and speech pathology. The IPE programs identified included one medical and midwifery student workshop, several dedicated new graduate or intern programs combining the professions and multiple continuing professional development programs. Three dominant themes were identified to inform the development of future work: clinician factors, organisational factors and IPE considerations. In addition to the cultural, physical and logistical challenges associated with education that integrates professions in the workplace, the time required for the design and delivery of integrated team training should be accounted for when establishing such programs. Considerations for sustainability include ongoing investment in education skills for clinicians, establishment of dedicated education roles and expansion of existing education activities.

  12. Programming languages for circuit design. (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Yordanov, Boyan


    This chapter provides an overview of a programming language for Genetic Engineering of Cells (GEC). A GEC program specifies a genetic circuit at a high level of abstraction through constraints on otherwise unspecified DNA parts. The GEC compiler then selects parts which satisfy the constraints from a given parts database. GEC further provides more conventional programming language constructs for abstraction, e.g., through modularity. The GEC language and compiler is available through a Web tool which also provides functionality, e.g., for simulation of designed circuits.

  13. Design Minimalism in Robotics Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Cowley


    Full Text Available With the increasing use of general robotic platforms in different application scenarios, modularity and reusability have become key issues in effective robotics programming. In this paper, we present a minimalist approach for designing robot software, in which very simple modules, with well designed interfaces and very little redundancy can be connected through a strongly typed framework to specify and execute different robotics tasks.

  14. Design Minimalism in Robotics Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Cowley


    Full Text Available With the increasing use of general robotic platforms in different application scenarios, modularity and reusability have become key issues in effective robotics programming. In this paper, we present a minimalist approach for designing robot software, in which very simple modules, with well designed interfaces and very little redundancy can be connected through a strongly typed framework to specify and execute different robotics tasks.

  15. Considerations for designing robotic upper limb rehabilitation devices (United States)

    Nadas, I.; Vaida, C.; Gherman, B.; Pisla, D.; Carbone, G.


    The present study highlights the advantages of robotic systems for post-stroke rehabilitation of the upper limb. The latest demographic studies illustrate a continuous increase of the average life span, which leads to a continuous increase of stroke incidents and patients requiring rehabilitation. Some studies estimate that by 2030 the number of physical therapists will be insufficient for the patients requiring physical rehabilitation, imposing a shift in the current methodologies. A viable option is the implementation of robotic systems that assist the patient in performing rehabilitation exercises, the physical therapist role being to establish the therapeutic program for each patient and monitor their individual progress. Using a set of clinical measurements for the upper limb motions, the analysis of rehabilitation robotic systems provides a comparative study between the motions required by clinicians and the ones that robotic systems perform for different therapeutic exercises. A critical analysis of existing robots is performed using several classifications: mechanical design, assistance type, actuation and power transmission, control systems and human robot interaction (HRI) strategies. This classification will determine a set of pre-requirements for the definition of new concepts and efficient solutions for robotic assisted rehabilitation therapy.

  16. Zebrafish housing systems: a review of basic operating principles and considerations for design and functionality. (United States)

    Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy


    The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that can be housed in a given space footprint, and they are thus able to support large and diverse research programs. This review is designed to provide managers, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other parties responsible for care and use of these animals with a comprehensive overview of the basic operating and design principles of zebrafish housing systems. This information can be used to help plan the construction of new facilities and/or the upgrade and maintenance of existing operations.

  17. 57 Culture Consideration in the Design of Government Housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    A study to investigate the extent to which design and planning have considered culture of the target users was carried out on three ... estate developers to consider cultural traits in housing design and development. Key words: Culture, Estates, .... collection of information on design and user satisfaction issues. The three ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUCA Mioara


    Full Text Available Considering the quick development in technology, it is more and more necessary to place the problem of studying the effects of the emotions created, both in terms of design and ergonomics. Recently, designers and ergonomists study this domain and try to communicate emotion through the products they design, in order to capture the immediate attention of the customer. In this paper, we start from the presentation of emotion, including the professional environment and then we continue to analyse the relationship between emotions, ergonomics and design, developing the arguments in terms of collaboration between ergonomists and designers.

  19. Design considerations for HFQ® hot stamped aluminium structural panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Alistair


    Full Text Available HFQ is a deep drawing process for alloyed aluminium sheet that can be used to produce complex-stamped forms while maintaining the high-strength of 6xxx and 7xxx alloys. By adopting a strategy to design for HFQ at the platform level, designers can reduce part count (thereby reducing cost and weight, reduce gauge (thereby reducing weight, and improve part packaging. Two simple design examples are given to assist designers in evolving traditionally formed panel designs to HFQ formed solutions. Example features are used to illustrate the effect of geometry, thickness and strength on the final structural component.

  20. Essential design considerations for microporous implants: preliminary communication.


    Cameron, H. U.


    The introduction of microporous metallic implants into which bone can grow to stabilize the implant has necessitated considerable work prior to clinical studies. Ten years of bench and animal testing have resulted in a clinically available prosthesis with a multilayer porous coating with a pore size of 50-300 mu. Initial clinical trials with a 50-100 mu hip prosthesis indicated the necessity to increase the pore size to 300 mu and clinical studies of such prostheses are at present underway.

  1. Consideration of an applied model of public health program infrastructure. (United States)

    Lavinghouze, René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia; Ottoson, Judith


    Systemic infrastructure is key to public health achievements. Individual public health program infrastructure feeds into this larger system. Although program infrastructure is rarely defined, it needs to be operationalized for effective implementation and evaluation. The Ecological Model of Infrastructure (EMI) is one approach to defining program infrastructure. The EMI consists of 5 core (Leadership, Partnerships, State Plans, Engaged Data, and Managed Resources) and 2 supporting (Strategic Understanding and Tactical Action) elements that are enveloped in a program's context. We conducted a literature search across public health programs to determine support for the EMI. Four of the core elements were consistently addressed, and the other EMI elements were intermittently addressed. The EMI provides an initial and partial model for understanding program infrastructure, but additional work is needed to identify evidence-based indicators of infrastructure elements that can be used to measure success and link infrastructure to public health outcomes, capacity, and sustainability.

  2. WSDOT chip seals : optimal timing, design and construction considerations. (United States)


    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) does not have sufficient pavement : preservation funding to keep up with inflation and pavement needs. This has caused WSDOT to : emphasize in its preservation program lower-cost options such ...

  3. Design considerations in the development of a spherical mobile robot (United States)

    Das, Tuhin; Mukherjee, Ranjan; Yuksel, H.


    The design problems in the development of a spherical mobile robot are discussed in this paper. These problems include dynamics and design of the propulsion mechanism, motion planning and control problems, actuator selection and sensor placement, design and fabrication of the exo-skeleton, and other issues related to power management and computing. Each of the problems are discussed in brief and presented in relation to the spherical mobile robot currently under development at Michigan State University.

  4. Practical Considerations in Financing Required Postdoctoral General Dentistry Programs. (United States)

    Myall, Robert W. T.


    General and specific issues to be considered in examining program financing options are discussed, including perceptions of patient needs, faculty's role in patient care, public health policy, links with the patient care delivery system, the patient mix, resident stipends, and program management alternatives. (MSE)

  5. Trajectory Design Considerations for Small Body Touch-and-Go (United States)

    Wallace, Mark; Broschart, Stephen; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Bhaskharan, Shyam; Cangahuala, Alberto


    Outline: (1) Trajectory Description (2) Design Drivers: (2a) Dynamics (2b) Environment (2c) Spacecraft and Ground and System Capabilities (2d) Mission Objectives (3) Design Choices (4) Historical Precedents (5) Case Studies. What is Touch-and-Go (TAG)? (1) Descent to the surface (2) Brief contact (3) Ascends to a safe distance

  6. Synchronous E-Learning: Reflections and Design Considerations (United States)

    Tabak, Filiz; Rampal, Rohit


    This paper is a personal reflection on the design, development, and delivery of online synchronous conferencing as a pedagogical tool complementing traditional, face-to-face content delivery and learning. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how instructors can combine collaborative and virtual learning principles in course design. In…

  7. Feed-in Tariffs: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    In recent years, feed-in tariff (FIT) activity has focused primarily on revisions to current policies, underscoring the need for stable and predictable, yet flexible, policy environments. This policy brief provides a primer on key FIT design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific FIT policy design.

  8. Renewable Electricity Standards: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    In widespread use globally, renewable electricity standards (RES) are one of the most widely adopted renewable energy policies and a critical regulatory vehicle to accelerate renewable energy deployment. This policy brief provides an introduction to key RES design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific RES policy design.

  9. Design and control considerations for industrial and space manipulators (United States)

    Whitney, D. E.; Book, W. J.; Lynch, P. M.


    This paper is a progress report summarizing theoretical and practical results concerning integration of design and control aspects of manipulator arms for industrial or space applications. The relationships between task specifications, gross motions, fine motions, actuator type and location, size and strength of structural members, control servos and strategies, and overall design evaluation are briefly discussed, with some technical examples.

  10. Weight Consideration in the Design of Absorber Plates | Dama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary investigation (that has to supported later by economic analysis) on the design of an absorber plate for use in a liquid-cooled flat plate solar collector is considered. The objective of the design is to maximize collector efficiency factor, F', while simultaneously minimizing the plate weight. By varying the plate ...

  11. Timelines Revisited: A Design Space and Considerations for Expressive Storytelling. (United States)

    Brehmer, Matthew; Lee, Bongshin; Bach, Benjamin; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Munzner, Tamara


    There are many ways to visualize event sequences as timelines. In a storytelling context where the intent is to convey multiple narrative points, a richer set of timeline designs may be more appropriate than the narrow range that has been used for exploratory data analysis by the research community. Informed by a survey of 263 timelines, we present a design space for storytelling with timelines that balances expressiveness and effectiveness, identifying 14 design choices characterized by three dimensions: representation, scale, and layout. Twenty combinations of these choices are viable timeline designs that can be matched to different narrative points, while smooth animated transitions between narrative points allow for the presentation of a cohesive story, an important aspect of both interactive storytelling and data videos. We further validate this design space by realizing the full set of viable timeline designs and transitions in a proof-of-concept sandbox implementation that we used to produce seven example timeline stories. Ultimately, this work is intended to inform and inspire the design of future tools for storytelling with timelines.

  12. Designing and Programming CICS Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Horswill, John


    CICS is an application server that delivers industrial-strength, online transaction management for critical enterprise applications. Proven in the market for over 30 years with many of the world's leading businesses, CICS enables today's customers to modernize and extend their applications to take advantage of the opportunities provided by e-business while maximizing the benefits of their existing investments. Designing and Programming CICS Applications will benefit a diverse audience. It introduces new users of IBM's mainframe (OS/390) to CICS features. It shows experienced users how t

  13. On-chip antenna: Practical design and characterization considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif


    This paper highlights the challenges of an emergent field, namely, on-chip antenna design. Consistent with the RF System-on-Chip (SoC) concept, co-design strategy for circuits and on-chip antennas is described. A number of design and layout issues, arising from the highly integrated nature of this kind of systems, are discussed. The characterization difficulties related to on-chip antennas radiation properties are also highlighted. Finally, a novel on-wafer test fixture is proposed to measure the gain and radiation pattern of the on-chip antennas in the anechoic chamber.

  14. Utility Green Tariff Programs: Considerations for Federal Agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny


    This FEMP First Thursday presentation will explain the concept of a utility green tariff, how it differs from a green pricing program, and what questions federal agencies should have about participating.

  15. Practical considerations for adaptive trial design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Pinheiro, José; Kuznetsova, Olga


    This edited volume is a definitive text on adaptive clinical trial designs from creation and customization to utilization. As this book covers the full spectrum of topics involved in the adaptive designs arena, it will serve as a valuable reference for researchers working in industry, government and academia. The target audience is anyone involved in the planning and execution of clinical trials, in particular, statisticians, clinicians, pharmacometricians, clinical operation specialists, drug supply managers, and infrastructure providers.  In spite of the increased efficiency of adaptive trials in saving costs and time, ultimately getting drugs to patients sooner, their adoption in clinical development is still relatively low.  One of the chief reasons is the higher complexity of adaptive design trials as compared to traditional trials. Barriers to the use of clinical trials with adaptive features include the concerns about the integrity of study design and conduct, the risk of regulatory non-acceptance, t...

  16. Geothermal FIT Design: International Experience and U.S. Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickerson, W.; Gifford, J.; Grace, R.; Cory, K.


    Developing power plants is a risky endeavor, whether conventional or renewable generation. Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies can be designed to address some of these risks, and their design can be tailored to geothermal electric plant development. Geothermal projects face risks similar to other generation project development, including finding buyers for power, ensuring adequate transmission capacity, competing to supply electricity and/or renewable energy certificates (RECs), securing reliable revenue streams, navigating the legal issues related to project development, and reacting to changes in existing regulations or incentives. Although FITs have not been created specifically for geothermal in the United States to date, a variety of FIT design options could reduce geothermal power plant development risks and are explored. This analysis focuses on the design of FIT incentive policies for geothermal electric projects and how FITs can be used to reduce risks (excluding drilling unproductive exploratory wells).

  17. The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial: Design Considerations and Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedman, Deborah I; McDermott, Michael P; Kieburtz, Karl; Kupersmith, Mark; Stoutenburg, Ann; Keltner, John L; Feldon, Steven E; Schron, Eleanor; Corbett, James J; Wall, Michael


    BACKGROUND:The objectives of this study were to present the rationale for the main aspects of the study design and describe the trial methodology for the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT...

  18. Design Considerations for Economically Competitive Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao


    The technological viability of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) has been established by various experimental and prototype (demonstration) reactors such as EBR-II, FFTF, Phénix, JOYO, BN-600 etc. However, the economic competitiveness of SFR has not been proven yet. The perceived high cost premium of SFRs over LWRs has been the primary impediment to the commercial expansion of SFR technologies. In this paper, cost reduction options are discussed for advanced SFR designs. These include a hybrid loop-pool design to optimize the primary system, multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle for the power conversion system and the potential for suppression of intermediate heat transport system. The design options for the fully passive decay heat removal systems are also thoroughly examined. These include direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS), reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) and the newly proposed pool reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) in the context of the hybrid loop-pool design.

  19. Material Control and Accounting Design Considerations for High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trond Bjornard; John Hockert


    The subject of this report is domestic safeguards and security by design (2SBD) for high-temperature gas reactors, focusing on material control and accountability (MC&A). The motivation for the report is to provide 2SBD support to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, which was launched by Congress in 2005. This introductory section will provide some background on the NGNP project and an overview of the 2SBD concept. The remaining chapters focus specifically on design aspects of the candidate high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) relevant to MC&A, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements, and proposed MC&A approaches for the two major HTGR reactor types: pebble bed and prismatic. Of the prismatic type, two candidates are under consideration: (1) GA's GT-MHR (Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor), and (2) the Modular High-Temperature Reactor (M-HTR), a derivative of Areva's Antares reactor. The future of the pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) for NGNP is uncertain, as the PBMR consortium partners (Westinghouse, PBMR [Pty] and The Shaw Group) were unable to agree on the path forward for NGNP during 2010. However, during the technology assessment of the conceptual design phase (Phase 1) of the NGNP project, AREVA provided design information and technology assessment of their pebble bed fueled plant design called the HTR-Module concept. AREVA does not intend to pursue this design for NGNP, preferring instead a modular reactor based on the prismatic Antares concept. Since MC&A relevant design information is available for both pebble concepts, the pebble-bed HTGRs considered in this report are: (1) Westinghouse PBMR; and (2) AREVA HTR-Module. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) sponsors the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program (FCR&D), which contains an element specifically focused on the domestic (or state) aspects of SBD. This Material Protection, Control and Accountancy Technology (MPACT) program supports the present work

  20. Boundary-Crossing Competence: Theoretical Considerations and Educational Design (United States)

    Walker, Dana; Nocon, Honorine


    This article provides a conceptual account and empirical analyses of the development of "boundary-crossing competence"--the ability to function competently in multiple contexts--using representative cases from two after-school programs with immigrant and low-socioeconomic status students. Our findings suggest that organizational designs…

  1. Design Considerations for Integrating Twitter into an Online Course (United States)

    Rohr, Linda E.; Costello, Jane; Hawkins, Thomas


    While the use of Twitter for communication and assessment activities in online courses is not new, it has not been without its challenges. This is increasingly true of high enrolment courses. The use of a Twitter Evaluation application which leverages a Learning Management System's (LMS's) application programming interface (API) provides a…

  2. Initial MPTS study results: Design considerations and issues (United States)

    Maynard, O. E.


    One of the key issues identified during investigations of microwave power transmission systems from 1965 to 1976 was the need to assure that the billions of diodes on ground-based rectennas are sufficiently reliable to support long life times of approximately 30 years. Major systems studies conducted focused on waveguides; radio frequency interference and biological considerations; the relationship between performance, weight, and cost; risk assessment; crossed field directional amplifier noise; a 48 kW klystron; effects of the environment on propagation and phase control; rectenna technology; a rationale for the ground power density region; alternate technologies for orbital assembly; ionospheric effects and phase control; and reception conversion (rf to dc collector/converter).

  3. [Clinical studies in oncology. Relevance, design, ethical considerations]. (United States)

    Wörmann, B; Wulf, G; Hiddemann, W


    Clinical research in oncology includes the evaluation of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic parameters in order to establish standards for the different tumor entities. Prerequisite is the retrospective and prospective analysis of large patient groups with established statistical methods. New potentially better strategies have to be compared in randomised studies with the respective "gold standard". The central role of clinical studies for evaluation and optimisation of therapy can be considered as moral obligation to included the maximal possible number of patients in clinical studies. However, only a small number of tumor patients in Germany is treated in controlled clinical studies. Reasons are lack of organisational structures, but also ethical considerations. In this article several models for clinical studies are discussed with respect to their statistical significance, indication, and potential ethical objections. Aim of the discussion is to increase the acceptance of the necessity of clinical studies for evaluation and optimisation of therapeutic options in oncology.

  4. System design considerations for fast-neutron interrogation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklich, B.J.; Curry, B.P.; Fink, C.L.; Smith, D.L.; Yule, T.J.


    Nonintrusive interrogation techniques that employ fast neutrons are of interest because of their sensitivity to light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The primary requirement of a fast-neutron inspection system is to determine the value of atomic densities, or their ratios, over a volumetric grid superimposed on the object being interrogated. There are a wide variety of fast-neutron techniques that can provide this information. The differences between the various nuclear systems can be considered in light of the trade-offs relative to the performance requirements for each system`s components. Given a set of performance criteria, the operational requirements of the proposed nuclear systems may also differ. For instance, resolution standards will drive scanning times and tomographic requirements, both of which vary for the different approaches. We are modelling a number of the fast-neutron interrogation techniques currently under consideration, to include Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS), Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA), and its variant, 14-MeV Associated Particle Imaging (API). The goals of this effort are to determine the component requirements for each technique, identify trade-offs that system performance standards impose upon those component requirements, and assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches. In determining the component requirements, we will consider how they are driven by system performance standards, such as image resolution, scanning time, and statistical uncertainty. In considering the trade-offs between system components, we concentrate primarily on those which are common to all approaches, for example: source characteristics versus detector array requirements. We will then use the analysis to propose some figures-of-merit that enable performance comparisons between the various fast-neutron systems under consideration. The status of this ongoing effort is presented.

  5. Aerodynamic design considerations for efficient high-lift supersonic wings (United States)

    Miller, D. S.; Wood, R. M.


    A previously developed technique for selecting a design space for efficient supersonic wings is reviewed; this design-space concept is expanded to include thickness and camber effects and is evaluated for cambered wings at high-lift conditions. The original design-space formulation was based on experimental upper-surface and lower-surface normal-force characteristics for flat, uncambered delta wings; it is shown that these general characteristics hold for various thickness distributions and for various amounts of leading-edge camber. The original design-space formulation was also based on the assumption that the combination of Mach number and leading-edge sweep which would produce an equal division of flat-wing lift between the upper and lower surface would also be the proper combination to give the best cambered-wing performance. Using drag-due-to-lift factor as a measure of performance, for high-lift conditions cambered-wing performance is shown to significantly increase as conditions approach the design space; this correlation is demonstrated for both subcritical and supercritical flows.

  6. Magnet Design Considerations for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kessel, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); El-Guebaly, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States) Fusion Technology Institute; Titus, P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)


    The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a nuclear confinement facility that provides a fusion environment with components of the reactor integrated together to bridge the technical gaps of burning plasma and nuclear science between the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the demonstration power plant (DEMO). Compared with ITER, the FNSF is smaller in size but generates much higher magnetic field, i.e., 30 times higher neutron fluence with three orders of magnitude longer plasma operation at higher operating temperatures for structures surrounding the plasma. Input parameters to the magnet design from system code analysis include magnetic field of 7.5 T at the plasma center with a plasma major radius of 4.8 m and a minor radius of 1.2 m and a peak field of 15.5 T on the toroidal field (TF) coils for the FNSF. Both low-temperature superconductors (LTS) and high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are considered for the FNSF magnet design based on the state-of-the-art fusion magnet technology. The higher magnetic field can be achieved by using the high-performance ternary restacked-rod process Nb3Sn strands for TF magnets. The circular cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) design similar to ITER magnets and a high-aspect-ratio rectangular CICC design are evaluated for FNSF magnets, but low-activation-jacket materials may need to be selected. The conductor design concept and TF coil winding pack composition and dimension based on the horizontal maintenance schemes are discussed. Neutron radiation limits for the LTS and HTS superconductors and electrical insulation materials are also reviewed based on the available materials previously tested. The material radiation limits for FNSF magnets are defined as part of the conceptual design studies for FNSF magnets.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work.

  8. Cognitive considerations for helmet-mounted display design (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Rash, Clarence E.


    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) are designed as a tool to increase performance. To achieve this, there must be an accurate transfer of information from the HMD to the user. Ideally, an HMD would be designed to accommodate the abilities and limitations of users' cognitive processes. It is not enough for the information (whether visual, auditory, or tactual) to be displayed; the information must be perceived, attended, remembered, and organized in a way that guides appropriate decision-making, judgment, and action. Following a general overview, specific subtopics of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, knowledge, decision-making, and problem solving are explored within the context of HMDs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEIDONI Nadina


    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects related to the design of a trade fair stand, advertising a company specialized in the fabrication of corrugated fibre board packaging. The first section reviews shortly the main features of the industrial design. The second section deals with the structural conception of successful trade shows. Further, the importance of the package in the marketing matters is addressed. In this context corrugated fibreboard, as secondary or tertiary material is essential. In the final section, a comparison between two trade fair stands, representing a corrugated fibreboard company are presented.

  10. Design Considerations for the Brushless Doubly-Fed (Induction) Machine


    McMahon, R A; Mathekga, M. E.; Wang, X.; Tatlow, M. R.


    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from The Institution of Engineering and Technology via A design procedure for the Brushless Doubly Fed machine is based on equations derived from a simplified equivalent circuit. The method allows the many variables in the design of this machine to be handled in straightforward way. Relationships are given for the division of slot area between the two stator windings and for the...

  11. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter


    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  12. Mems Electromagnetic Micro Relays Overview and Design Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraini Dahari, Thurai Vinay and Dinesh Sood


    Full Text Available Miniature electromagnetic relay matrices capable of switching currents up to one ampere range are  widely used in commercial applications such as instrumentation and telecommunication. Traditionally these devices have been fabricated from a number of discrete components, however in recent years the emergence of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS technology has opened up the possibility for batch fabrication of microrelays at much reduced unit cost. While several electromagnetic microrelay designs have been successfully developed and commercialized for use as individual units, development work on electromagnetic microrelay matrices where individual relays can be selectively switched on and off have been fewer and less successful. Due to inherent limitations of the micromachining processes, significant dimensional and material property variations occur among individual relays in a matrix. These variations severely limit the tolerance window and hence the reliability of operation of the device. After reviewing existing designs of electromagnetic microrelays, a set of desirable design features that would make the electromagnetic microrelay more robust are identified.  A novel design incorporating these features is proposed and preliminary results of ANSYS1 simulation studies are presented.Keywords: MEMS, microrelay and electromagnetic

  13. Engineering considerations for the design of dust collection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, L.T. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)


    This article describes solutions to the handling of dusts and pulverized coal spillage in fossil fueled power plants. The topics of the article include mitigating the chances for explosion and fire, ventilation, system design criteria, applicable regulations and codes, duct location criteria, separation criteria, fire protection and smoke control, and material handling facilities.

  14. Easier Said than Done: Practical Considerations in User Interface Design. (United States)

    Crow, Raymond W., Jr.; Starbird, Robert F.


    Describes the redesign of a CD-ROM database interface by the Congressional Information Service (CIS) that addressed the needs of novice, casual, and expert searchers in academic libraries. Topics discussed include the user profile, the task profile, redesign goals, interaction style, menu design and implementation, system structure and the search…

  15. Acoustical Considerations in Planning and Design of Library Facilities. (United States)

    Wrightson, Denelle; Wrightson, John M.


    Discusses acoustical demands in public libraries to consider during the design and construction process of new or renovated library space. Topics include intrusive noises; overly reverberant spaces; lack of speech privacy; sound transmission class; noise criteria; reverberation time and noise reduction coefficient; space planning; sound systems;…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bearing on the actual useful energy gain by a solar collector is called the collector efficiency factor, usually designated by F'. This indicates that one of the factors on which the collection efficiency of the solar collector depends on is F'. Duffie & Beckmann (l) have shown the variation of collector efficiency factor, F', with tube ...

  17. Culture Consideration in the Design of Government Housing Estates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to investigate the extent to which design and planning have considered culture of the target users was carried out on three selected government-built estates in ... So also, majority of the houses have been modified through the provisions of additional facilities in order to accommodate cultural issues of value to the ...

  18. User-centric design considerations for women's functional protective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... comfort, protection and garment fit. Subsequently, a boosted self-confidence and higher levels of motivation occasioned by a positive body image would validate the efficacy of the intended ergonomic design intervention. Keywords: 3D scanning; body image; clothing fit; construction industry; ergonomics; protective wear ...

  19. Design for Additive Manufacturing: Trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tompson, M.K.; Moroni, G.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.; Fadel, G.; Campbell, I.; Gibson, I.; Bernard, A.; Schulz, J.; Graf, P.; Ahuja, B.; Martina, F.


    The past few decades have seen substantial growth in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies. However, this growth has mainly been process-driven. The evolution of engineering design to take advantage of the possibilities afforded by AM and to manage the constraints associated with the technology

  20. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components (United States)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron


    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  1. Design considerations for CALL based upon evaluation criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... be included in a needs analysis for CALL evaluation, the rubric is presented. The author then illustrates how the evaluation criteria in the rubric can be used in the design of a new CALL system. Keywords: Software evaluation, CALL, language laboratory, MarkWrite, writing across the curriculum, software development ...

  2. Design considerations for genetic linkage and association studies. (United States)

    Nsengimana, Jérémie; Bishop, D Timothy


    This chapter describes the main issues that genetic epidemiologists usually consider in the design of linkage and association studies. For linkage, we briefly consider the situation of rare, highly penetrant alleles showing a disease pattern consistent with Mendelian inheritance investigated through parametric methods in large pedigrees or with autozygosity mapping in inbred families, and we then turn our focus to the most common design, affected sibling pairs, of more relevance for common, complex diseases. Theoretical and more practical power and sample size calculations are provided as a function of the strength of the genetic effect being investigated. We also discuss the impact of other determinants of statistical power such as disease heterogeneity, pedigree, and genotyping errors, as well as the effect of the type and density of genetic markers. Linkage studies should be as large as possible to have sufficient power in relation to the expected genetic effect size. Segregation analysis, a formal statistical technique to describe the underlying genetic susceptibility, may assist in the estimation of the relevant parameters to apply, for instance. However, segregation analyses estimate the total genetic component rather than a single-locus effect. Locus heterogeneity should be considered when power is estimated and at the analysis stage, i.e. assuming smaller locus effect than the total the genetic component from segregation studies. Disease heterogeneity should be minimised by considering subtypes if they are well defined or by otherwise collecting known sources of heterogeneity and adjusting for them as covariates; the power will depend upon the relationship between the disease subtype and the underlying genotypes. Ultimately, identifying susceptibility alleles of modest effects (e.g. RR≤1.5) requires a number of families that seem unfeasible in a single study. Meta-analysis and data pooling between different research groups can provide a sizeable study

  3. Flexible energy-storage devices: design consideration and recent progress. (United States)

    Wang, Xianfu; Lu, Xihong; Liu, Bin; Chen, Di; Tong, Yexiang; Shen, Guozhen


    Flexible energy-storage devices are attracting increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility, shape diversity, light weight, and so on; these properties enable applications in portable, flexible, and even wearable electronic devices, including soft electronic products, roll-up displays, and wearable devices. Consequently, considerable effort has been made in recent years to fulfill the requirements of future flexible energy-storage devices, and much progress has been witnessed. This review describes the most recent advances in flexible energy-storage devices, including flexible lithium-ion batteries and flexible supercapacitors. The latest successful examples in flexible lithium-ion batteries and their technological innovations and challenges are reviewed first. This is followed by a detailed overview of the recent progress in flexible supercapacitors based on carbon materials and a number of composites and flexible micro-supercapacitors. Some of the latest achievements regarding interesting integrated energy-storage systems are also reviewed. Further research direction is also proposed to surpass existing technological bottle-necks and realize idealized flexible energy-storage devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eSerrano


    Full Text Available Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s, thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s, which phenotypically resemble mutation(s of the encoding gene(s. A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1 a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2 a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3 an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound’s mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects.

  5. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology. (United States)

    Serrano, Mario; Kombrink, Erich; Meesters, Christian


    Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s), thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s), which phenotypically resemble mutation(s) of the encoding gene(s). A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1) a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2) a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3) an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound's mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects.

  6. Design Considerations for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cebeci


    Full Text Available Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources. The photovoltaic (PV cell systems are used to convert solar energy into electricity. PV systems are divided into two as fixed systems and tracking systems. Fixed systems are mounted at a certain tilt with horizontal to make full use of sunlight. The tilt angle of PV arrays in a fixed system depends on the location and time. If this tilt angle is determined well, the amount of insolation and the energy that is generated increases. When a stand-alone PV cell system is being chosen, certain design operations should be implemented. The number of modules and batteries needed for any system should be calculated by means of the amount of load, insolation level, module characteristics, etc. The design of system is finalized according to the energy demand.

  7. Physics Design Considerations for Diagnostic X Beam Transport System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y-J; Paul, A C


    Diagnostic X (D-X) transport system would extract the beam from the downstream transport line of the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-II[1]) and transport this beam to the D-X firing point via four branches of the beamline in order to provide four lines of sight for x-ray radiography. The design goal is to generate four DARHT-II-like x-ray pulses on each line of sight. In this paper, we discuss several potential beam quality degradation processes in the passive magnet lattice beamline and indicate how they constrain the D-X beamline design parameters, such as the background pressure, the pipe size, and the pipe material.

  8. Design considerations for large roof-integrated photovoltaic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropp, M.E.; Begovic, M.; Rohatgi, A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Long, R. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States). Office of Facilities


    This paper describes calculations and modeling used in the design of the photovoltaic (PV) array built on the roof of the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center, the aquatic sports venue for the 1996 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The software package PVFORM (version 3.3) was extensively utilized; because of its importance to this work, it is thoroughly reviewed here. Procedures required to adapt PVFORM to this particular installation are described. The expected behavior and performance of the system, including maximum power output, annual energy output and maximum expected temperature, are then presented, and the use of this information in making informed design decisions is described. Finally, since the orientation of the PV array is not optimal, the effect of the unoptimized array orientation on the system`s performance is quantified. (author)

  9. Design considerations for achieving high vacuum integrity in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, G.M.; Haines, J.R.


    Achieving high vacuum integrity in fusion devices requires close attention to both the overall system configuration and the design details of joints and seals. This paper describes the factors in selecting the system configuration, from a vacuum standpoint, for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) DCT-8 Tokamak device. The DCT-8 (driven current tokamak) is the eighth design in a series of tokamak concepts defined to cover the magnetic confinement and development gap between the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). Leak detection concept development is considered a vital activity, as well as the definition of a configuration that minimizes the consequences of leaks. A major part of the vacuum boundaries of the magnet system and the plasma system is common. For the major penetrations, primary and secondary seals are provided with vacuum control over the region between seals. The intent is to instrument these cavities and provide automated recordings of these measurements for leak maintenance.

  10. KPG oral exams: task design considerations and actual performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Nteliou


    Full Text Available This paper presents a task analysis model that has been designed for the oral tasks of the Greek State Exams for foreign language certification (known as KPG. The theoretical background of the model is based on the systemic functional approach to language use as well as on the notion of genre as both process and product. The purpose of this paper is to show how the model has been applied to describe and analyze the tasks designed for the KPG oral exams at levels B1 and B2. The analysis of the oral task rubrics shows that the generic process specified by the task is likely to lead test takers to particular lexicogrammatical choices, which, in turn, cause differences in the expected language performance. Implications for future research, language teaching and testing are mentioned.

  11. Hemodynamics in Idealized Stented Coronary Arteries: Important Stent Design Considerations. (United States)

    Beier, Susann; Ormiston, John; Webster, Mark; Cater, John; Norris, Stuart; Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Young, Alistair; Cowan, Brett


    Stent induced hemodynamic changes in the coronary arteries are associated with higher risk of adverse clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of stent design on wall shear stress (WSS), time average WSS, and WSS gradient (WSSG), in idealized stent geometries using computational fluid dynamics. Strut spacing, thickness, luminal protrusion, and malapposition were systematically investigated and a comparison made between two commercially available stents (Omega and Biomatrix). Narrower strut spacing led to larger areas of adverse low WSS and high WSSG but these effects were mitigated when strut size was reduced, particularly for WSSG. Local hemodynamics worsened with luminal protrusion of the stent and with stent malapposition, adverse high WSS and WSSG were identified around peak flow and throughout the cardiac cycle respectively. For the Biomatrix stent, the adverse effect of thicker struts was mitigated by greater strut spacing, radial cell offset and flow-aligned struts. In conclusion, adverse hemodynamic effects of specific design features (such as strut size and narrow spacing) can be mitigated when combined with other hemodynamically beneficial design features but increased luminal protrusion can worsen the stent's hemodynamic profile significantly.

  12. Some considerations about the theory of intelligent design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The so-called theory of intelligent design (ID has gained a growing reputation in the Anglo-Saxon culture, becoming a subject of public debate. The approaches that constitute the core of this proposal, however, have been poorly characterized and systematized. The three most significant authors of ID are certainly Michael Behe, William Dembski and Stephen Meyer. Beyond the differences that can be distinguished in the work of each of them, the central fact in their arguments is the complexity of living organisms, which according to these authors, escapes any kind of natural explanation. In effect, according to the authors of ID, the irreducible complexity that can be detected in the natural world would allow to infer design in a scientifically valid way, even though many of them prefer to remain silent regarding the identity and attributes of the designer. We think that under this proposal, remains a deep epistemological confusion, since its very structure combines methodologies that are beyond the scope of historical and natural evolutionary theories. We also reject the claim that ID is a legitimate scientific theory, because it does not exhibit the classical characteristics that a scientific kind of knowledge must have.

  13. The design considerations for full-color e-paper (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Ru; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Li


    Electrophoretic display (EPD) has been widely used in e-paper applications because of its flexibility, low power consumption, good sunlight visibility. The commercial success of monochromic EPD has boosted the development of full- color EPD to further satisfy people's demand for various applications. However, many challenges shall be overcome before commercializing it. In this paper, we will introduce the EPD's fundamental operation, the design of driving waveform for optimizing the opto-electronic performance, and the strategies for achieving full-color EPD as well as a color EPD prototype fabricated by transfer method.

  14. Seniors and technology, ergonomic needs and design considerations. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Claudia Isabel Rojas


    This work is based on the ergonomic approach and the principles of universal design, with the aim of establishing the cognitive design features that interfaces must comply, for older adults achieve a good performance during their interaction with technological aids. Describes the analysis of exploratory experiences with a group of 17 older adults was aimed first to establish the main barriers to implementation that arise during these activities, and secondly to set the variables to be addressed and the procedure required to develop depth study, where the relationship establish between the quality of the stimuli and the level of performance achieved in the implementation of older adults with interfaces, observing each of the cognitive functions that promote independence, attention, motivation, memory these processes. The study in depth, looking for describe gaps and mismatches encountered during execution, which hamper the harmonious interaction processes through participatory methodological approach that allows to specify requirements for the creation of stimulating interfaces for cognitive skills and committed with the levels of autonomy of the elderly.

  15. General theoretical considerations on nanowire solar cell designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandala, A. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Betti, T. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Split (Croatia); Fontcuberta i Morral, A.


    We propose two novel solar cell designs, tapping the advantages of semiconductor nanowires. A silicon (Si) tandem cell can be achieved by growing sub-5 nm p-n junction in the radial direction of the Si nanowires on a planar crystalline Si cell. For series connected sub-cells, based on a size-band gap dependence obtained from Quantum Monte Carlo calculations, we obtained the maximum detailed balance limit of efficiency to be 48% and 37% for concentrated and unconcentrated sunlight, respectively, for a nanowire diameter of 3.6 nm. The same efficiency would be obtained if the top tandem cell would be composed of AlGaAs nanowires, with an Al content of 19%. Ultra-high efficiencies could be achieved by a radial p-n junction nanowire tandem cell, since it could enable growth of lattice mismatched sub-cells whose band gap energies can be optimized and secondly, due to decoupling of carrier collection and light absorption. However, for a parallel connection of the sub cells, we show that the detailed balance limit of efficiency for the tandem cell will always be lower than an optimized single junction. Finally, we discuss future challenges and directions in realizing the designs. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Design Considerations for Space Transfer Vehicles Using Solar Thermal Propulsion (United States)

    Emrich, William J.


    The economical deployment of satellites to high energy earth orbits is crucial to the ultimate success of this nations commerical space ventures and is highly desirable for deep space planetary missions requiring earth escape trajectories. Upper stage space transfer vehicles needed to accomplish this task should ideally be simple, robust, and highly efficient. In this regard, solar thermal propulsion is particularly well suited to those missions where high thrust is not a requirement. The Marshall Space Flight Center is , therefore, currently engaged in defining a transfer vehicle employing solar thermal propulsion capable of transferring a 1000 lb. payload from low Earth orbit (LEO) to a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) using a Lockheed launch vehicle (LLV3) with three Castors and a large shroud. The current design uses liquid hydrogen as the propellant and employs two inflatable 16 x 24 feet eliptical off-axis parabolic solar collectors to focus sunlight onto a tungsten/rhenium windowless black body type absorber. The concentration factor on this design is projected to be approximately 1800:1 for the primary collector and 2.42:1 for the secondary collector for an overall concentration factor of nearly 4400:1. The engine, which is about twice as efficient as the best currently available chemical engines, produces two pounds of thrust with a specific impulse (Isp) of 860 sec. Transfer times to GEO are projected to be on the order of one month. The launch and deployed configurations of the solar thermal upper stage (STUS) are depicted.

  17. System-Level Design Considerations for Carbon Nanotube Electromechanical Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kauth


    Full Text Available Despite an evermore complete plethora of complex domain-specific semiempirical models, no succinct recipe for large-scale carbon nanotube electromechanical systems design has been formulated. To combine the benefits of these highly sensitive miniaturized mechanical sensors with the vast functionalities available in electronics, we identify a reduced key parameter set of carbon nanotube properties, nanoelectromechanical system design, and operation that steers the sensor’s performance towards system applications, based on open- and closed-loop topologies. Suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes are reviewed in terms of their electromechanical properties with the objective of evaluating orders of magnitude of the electrical actuation and detection mechanisms. Open-loop time-averaging and 1ω or 2ω mixing methods are completed by a new 4ω actuation and detection technique. A discussion on their extension to closed-loop topologies and system applications concludes the analysis, covering signal-to-noise ratio, and the capability to spectrally isolate the motional information from parasitical feedthrough by contemporary electronic read-out techniques.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Douglas W.


    High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) are fueled with tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated nuclear fuel particles embedded in a carbon-graphite fuel body. TRISO coatings consist of four layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide that are deposited on uranium ceramic fuel kernels (350µm – 500µm diameters) in a concatenated series of batch depositions. Each layer has dedicated functions such that the finished fuel particle has its own integral containment to minimize and control the release of fission products into the fuel body and reactor core. The TRISO coatings are the primary containment structure in the HTGR reactor and must have very high uniformity and integrity. To ensure high quality TRISO coatings, the four layers are deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using high purity precursors and are applied in a concatenated succession of batch operations before the finished product is unloaded from the coating furnace. These depositions take place at temperatures ranging from 1230°C to 1550°C and use three different gas compositions, while the fuel particle diameters double, their density drops from 11.1 g/cm3 to 3.0 g/cm3, and the bed volume increases more than 8-fold. All this is accomplished without the aid of sight ports or internal instrumentation that could cause chemical contamination within the layers or mechanical damage to thin layers in the early stages of each layer deposition. The converging section of the furnace retort was specifically designed to prevent bed stagnation that would lead to unacceptably high defect fractions and facilitate bed circulation to avoid large variability in coating layer dimensions and properties. The gas injection nozzle was designed to protect precursor gases from becoming overheated prior to injection, to induce bed spouting and preclude bed stagnation in the bottom of the retort. Furthermore, the retort and injection nozzle designs minimize buildup of pyrocarbon and silicon carbide on the

  19. Considerations of Protein Subpockets in Fragment-Based Drug Design. (United States)

    Bartolowits, Matthew; Davisson, V Jo


    While the fragment-based drug design approach continues to gain importance, gaps in the tools and methods available in the identification and accurate utilization of protein subpockets have limited the scope. The importance of these features of small molecule-protein recognition is highlighted with several examples. A generalized solution for the identification of subpockets and corresponding chemical fragments remains elusive, but there are numerous advancements in methods that can be used in combination to address subpockets. Finally, additional examples of approaches that consider the relative importance of small-molecule co-dependence of protein conformations are highlighted to emphasize an increased significance of subpockets, especially at protein interfaces. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Design Considerations for Optimized Lateral Spring Structures for Wearable Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.


    The market for wearable electronics has been gaining momentum in the recent years. For completely electronic wearable textiles with integrated sensors, actuators, computing units and communication circuitry, it is important that there is significant stretchability. This stretchability can be obtained by introducing periodic stretchable structures between the electronic circuits. In this work, we derive the equations and constraints governing the stretchability in horseshoe lateral spring structures. We have derived the optimum design and the parameters therein, to help develop the best spring structures for a given stretchability. We have also developed a figure of merit, called area efficiency of stretchability, to compare all twodimensional stretchable systems. Finally, we experimentally verify the validity of our equations by fabricating a metal/polymer bilayer thin film based stretchable horseshoe lateral spring structures. We obtain a stretchability of 1.875 which is comparable to the theoretical maxima of 2.01 for the given parameters.

  1. Design considerations for solar furnace focal zone apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, R.H. Jr.; Knasel, T.M.; McDonnell, M.; Gordon, B.; Woods, S.; Malinowski, R.


    Science Applications, Inc. has used the principal solar furnaces in conjunction with its study of the effect of high thermal fluxes and fluences on soil surfaces for the Defense Nuclear Agency. Apparatus to perform these tests has evolved from tests on the furnaces at the White Sands Missile Range, Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta; Centre National de Recherche Scientifique in Font Romeu, France; and Kirtland AFB, NM over the past 6 years. The apparatus is still evolving as it is adapted to additional furnaces and to obtain a greater variety of data. The evolution of the apparatus is traced to illustrate the interaction of experiment objectives; furnace capabilities, configuration, and support; apparatus design; data collection; and response to lessons learned.

  2. Visual display aid for orbital maneuvering - Design considerations (United States)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.


    This paper describes the development of an interactive proximity operations planning system that allows on-site planning of fuel-efficient multiburn maneuvers in a potential multispacecraft environment. Although this display system most directly assists planning by providing visual feedback to aid visualization of the trajectories and constraints, its most significant features include: (1) the use of an 'inverse dynamics' algorithm that removes control nonlinearities facing the operator, and (2) a trajectory planning technique that separates, through a 'geometric spreadsheet', the normally coupled complex problems of planning orbital maneuvers and allows solution by an iterative sequence of simple independent actions. The visual feedback of trajectory shapes and operational constraints, provided by user-transparent and continuously active background computations, allows the operator to make fast, iterative design changes that rapidly converge to fuel-efficient solutions. The planning tool provides an example of operator-assisted optimization of nonlinear cost functions.

  3. Technicon H*1 Hematology System: Optical Design Considerations (United States)

    Colella, G. M.; Tycko, D. H.; Groner, W.


    The Technicon H*1 systemTM is a clinical laboratory flow cytometer which performs a complete hematology profile, providing quantitative information on the various types of cells in a blood sample. A light-scattering method, using a HeNe laser, determines in a single flow channel the red cell count, platelet count, and the distributions of red cell volume, red cell hemoglobin concentration, and platelet volume. To accomplish this the scattered light from each red cell in the sample is measured in real time at two angular intervals. The cell volume and the hemoglobin concentration within the cell are derived from these two measurements. Severe accuracy and precision specifications are placed on the medically important red cell count (RBC) and the mean red cell volume (MCV). From the point of view of optical system design, the dominant factor is the requirement that RBC and MCV have precision and accuracy of the order of 2%. Signal-to-noise and scattering-angle definition requirements dictated the choice of a HeNe laser light source. The optics includes an illumination system for producing a sharply defined, uniformly illuminated scattering region and a detection system which must accurately define the accepted scattering angles. In previous cytometric methods for determining MCV only a single quantity was measured for each cell. Such methods cannot disentangle the independent effects of cell size and hemoglobin concentration on the measurement, thus compromising MCV accuracy. The present double-angle scattering method overcomes this accuracy problem. The H*1 red cell method, the supporting optical design and data demonstrating that the use of this technique eliminates interference between the observed red cell indices are presented.

  4. Materials for Consideration in Standardized Canister Design Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Enos, David George; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest


    This document identifies materials and material mitigation processes that might be used in new designs for standardized canisters for storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. It also addresses potential corrosion issues with existing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) that could be addressed in new canister designs. The major potential corrosion risk during storage is stress corrosion cracking of the weld regions on the 304 SS/316 SS canister shell due to deliquescence of chloride salts on the surface. Two approaches are proposed to alleviate this potential risk. First, the existing canister materials (304 and 316 SS) could be used, but the welds mitigated to relieve residual stresses and/or sensitization. Alternatively, more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic or duplex stainless steels, could be used. Experimental testing is needed to verify that these alternatives would successfully reduce the risk of stress corrosion cracking during fuel storage. For disposal in a geologic repository, the canister will be enclosed in a corrosion-resistant or corrosion-allowance overpack that will provide barrier capability and mechanical strength. The canister shell will no longer have a barrier function and its containment integrity can be ignored. The basket and neutron absorbers within the canister have the important role of limiting the possibility of post-closure criticality. The time period for corrosion is much longer in the post-closure period, and one major unanswered question is whether the basket materials will corrode slowly enough to maintain structural integrity for at least 10,000 years. Whereas there is extensive literature on stainless steels, this evaluation recommends testing of 304 and 316 SS, and more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic, duplex, and super-duplex stainless steels, at repository-relevant physical and chemical conditions. Both general and localized corrosion testing methods would be used to

  5. Deployment history and design considerations for space reactor power systems (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.


    The history of the deployment of nuclear reactors in Earth orbits is reviewed with emphases on lessons learned and the operation and safety experiences. The former Soviet Union's "BUK" power systems, with SiGe thermoelectric conversion and fast neutron energy spectrum reactors, powered a total of 31 Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellites (RORSATs) from 1970 to 1988 in 260 km orbit. Two of the former Soviet Union's TOPAZ reactors, with in-core thermionic conversion and epithermal neutron energy spectrum, powered two Cosmos missions launched in 1987 in ˜800 km orbit. The US' SNAP-10A system, with SiGe energy conversion and a thermal neutron energy spectrum reactor, was launched in 1965 in 1300 km orbit. The three reactor systems used liquid NaK-78 coolant, stainless steel structure and highly enriched uranium fuel (90-96 wt%) and operated at a reactor exit temperature of 833-973 K. The BUK reactors used U-Mo fuel rods, TOPAZ used UO 2 fuel rods and four ZrH moderator disks, and the SNAP-10A used moderated U-ZrH fuel rods. These low power space reactor systems were designed for short missions (˜0.5 kW e and ˜1 year for SNAP-10A, <3.0 kW e and <6 months for BUK, and ˜5.5 kW e and up to 1 year for TOPAZ). The deactivated BUK reactors at the end of mission, which varied in duration from a few hours to ˜4.5 months, were boosted into ˜800 km storage orbit with a decay life of more than 600 year. The ejection of the last 16 BUK reactor fuel cores caused significant contamination of Earth orbits with NaK droplets that varied in sizes from a few microns to 5 cm. Power systems to enhance or enable future interplanetary exploration, in-situ resources utilization on Mars and the Moon, and civilian missions in 1000-3000 km orbits would generate significantly more power of 10's to 100's kW e for 5-10 years, or even longer. A number of design options to enhance the operation reliability and safety of these high power space reactor power systems are presented and discussed.

  6. Trophic magnification factors: considerations of ecology, ecosystems, and study design. (United States)

    Borgå, Katrine; Kidd, Karen A; Muir, Derek C G; Berglund, Olof; Conder, Jason M; Gobas, Frank A P C; Kucklick, John; Malm, Olaf; Powell, David E


    Recent reviews by researchers from academia, industry, and government have revealed that the criteria used by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants under the United Nations Environment Programme are not always able to identify the actual bioaccumulative capacity of some substances, by use of chemical properties such as the octanol-water partitioning coefficient. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were suggested as a more reliable tool for bioaccumulation assessment of chemicals that have been in commerce long enough to be quantitatively measured in environmental samples. TMFs are increasingly used to quantify biomagnification and represent the average diet-to-consumer transfer of a chemical through food webs. They differ from biomagnification factors, which apply to individual species and can be highly variable between predator-prey combinations. The TMF is calculated from the slope of a regression between the chemical concentration and trophic level of organisms in the food web. The trophic level can be determined from stable N isotope ratios (δ(15) N). In this article, we give the background for the development of TMFs, identify and discuss impacts of ecosystem and ecological variables on their values, and discuss challenges and uncertainties associated with contaminant measurements and the use of δ(15) N for trophic level estimations. Recommendations are provided for experimental design, data treatment, and statistical analyses, including advice for users on reporting and interpreting TMF data. Interspecies intrinsic ecological and organismal properties such as thermoregulation, reproductive status, migration, and age, particularly among species at higher trophic levels with high contaminant concentrations, can influence the TMF (i.e., regression slope). Following recommendations herein for study design, empirical TMFs are likely to be useful for understanding the food web biomagnification potential of chemicals, where the target is to

  7. Design Considerations for RNA Spherical Nucleic Acids (SNAs). (United States)

    Barnaby, Stacey N; Perelman, Grant A; Kohlstedt, Kevin L; Chinen, Alyssa B; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A


    Ribonucleic acids (RNAs) are key components in many cellular processes such as cell division, differentiation, growth, aging, and death. RNA spherical nucleic acids (RNA-SNAs), which consist of dense shells of double-stranded RNA on nanoparticle surfaces, are powerful and promising therapeutic modalities because they confer advantages over linear RNA such as high cellular uptake and enhanced stability. Due to their three-dimensional shell of oligonucleotides, SNAs, in comparison to linear nucleic acids, interact with the biological environment in unique ways. Herein, the modularity of the RNA-SNA is used to systematically study structure-function relationships in order to understand how the oligonucleotide shell affects interactions with a specific type of biological environment, namely, one that contains serum nucleases. We use a combination of experiment and theory to determine the key architectural properties (i.e., sequence, density, spacer moiety, and backfill molecule) that affect how RNA-SNAs interact with serum nucleases. These data establish a set of design parameters for SNA architectures that are optimized in terms of stability.

  8. Harmonic filter design consideration for a tire-rubber factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebardast, A. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Abhar Branch]|[Sharif Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtari, H. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Nonlinear loads and arc furnace loads are the main sources of harmonic currents in power distribution systems. Harmonic currents can cause reductions in system efficiency, and shorten the lifespan of transformers and capacitor banks. This paper provided details of a filter designed to attenuate harmonic currents at a tire company in Iran. The tire company was supplied by 3 distribution transformers and an emergency transformer. Main supply was through a 132 kV/20 kV transformer, which was connected to 2 A and B stations. The AC/DC drivers generated harmonics. Harmonic measurements were performed to determine the type and size of the required filters. A summary of site harmonic measurements was provided. A passive filter was placed at a medium voltage location. A sensitivity analysis was then performed in order to assess loading effects on filter performance. The analysis was performed on all possible configurations in the plant, including load change, capacitor bank step change, and transformer energization. Resonance conditions were also examined. Results showed that attention must be paid to the filter component rating in addition to potential resonant conditions. It was concluded that resonant conditions alter when system operating conditions change. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Safety considerations in the design of Spacelab refrigerator/freezer (United States)

    Hye, A.


    A vapor compression refrigerator/freezer has been designed for Spacelab to conduct life sciences experiments. It is equipped with different safety features to eliminate all probable types of failures. The whole Freon loop is enclosed in a second containment so that any leakage of Freon can be contained. The unit is provided with an 'Emergency On' switch to actuate during backup mode which provides the spacecraft power directly to the compressor and the cooling fans while removing the power supply and all normal control elements from the circuit. During this mode, the compressor runs continuously when operating as a freezer (-22 C) and is controlled by a thermostat to cycle when operating as a refrigerator (4 C). It has a push button switch at the front panel to momentarily power the thermometer by a battery to monitor the inside temperature during an emergency. It has a door switch which shuts off the internal cooling fans when the door is opened. All the important critical performance data will be downlinked through a data connector to monitor during mission.

  10. Design Considerations for the LHC 200 MHz RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Kindermann, H P; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Marque, S; Tückmantel, Joachim


    The longitudinal beam transfer from the SPS into the LHC 400 MHz buckets will not be free of losses without a lower frequency capture system and a fast longitudinal damping system in LHC. We present a complete study of a combined system using four identical copper cavities at 200 MHz delivering 3 MV total CW voltage and having still enough bandwidth to achieve fast longitudinal damping. The shape of a cavity was designed according to the accelerating mode performance, its tuning and the higher order mode spectrum with respect to the LHC beam lines and their possible attenuation. The possibility to park the cavities during coast was included. The local heat load and the corresponding cooling water distribution as well as deformations were studied and techniques to build the cavity with all ports at low cost are proposed. The parameters of the RF generators, couplers and detuning are determined. Simulations of the total LHC RF system incorporating real delays, generator bandwidth and the control loops confirm t...

  11. Nuclear Design Considerations for Z-IFE Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R; Schmitt, R C; Abbott, R P; Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S


    Z-pinch driven IFE (Z-IFE) requires the design of a repetitive target insertion system that allows coupling of the pulsed power to the target with adequate standoff, and a chamber that can withstand blast and radiation effects from large yield targets. The present strategy for Z-IFE is to use high yield targets ({approx}2-3 GJ/shot), low repetition rate per chamber ({approx}0.1 Hz), and 10 chambers per power plant. In this study, we propose an alternative power plant configuration that uses very high yield targets (20 GJ/shot) in a single chamber operating at 0.1 Hz. A thick-liquid-wall chamber is proposed to absorb the target emission (x-rays, debris and neutrons) and mitigate the blast effects on the chamber wall. The target is attached to the end of a conical shaped Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) made from a solid coolant (e.g., frozen flibe), or a material that is easily separable from the coolant (e.g., steel). The RTL/target assembly is inserted through a single opening at the top of the chamber for each shot. This study looks at the RTL material choice from a safety and environmental point of view. Materials were assessed according to waste disposal rating (WDR) and contact dose rate (CDR). Neutronics calculations, using the TART2002 Monte Carlo code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), were performed for the RTL and Z-IFE chamber, and key results reported here.

  12. Planning considerations for a Mars Sample Receiving Facility: summary and interpretation of three design studies. (United States)

    Beaty, David W; Allen, Carlton C; Bass, Deborah S; Buxbaum, Karen L; Campbell, James K; Lindstrom, David J; Miller, Sylvia L; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A


    It has been widely understood for many years that an essential component of a Mars Sample Return mission is a Sample Receiving Facility (SRF). The purpose of such a facility would be to take delivery of the flight hardware that lands on Earth, open the spacecraft and extract the sample container and samples, and conduct an agreed-upon test protocol, while ensuring strict containment and contamination control of the samples while in the SRF. Any samples that are found to be non-hazardous (or are rendered non-hazardous by sterilization) would then be transferred to long-term curation. Although the general concept of an SRF is relatively straightforward, there has been considerable discussion about implementation planning. The Mars Exploration Program carried out an analysis of the attributes of an SRF to establish its scope, including minimum size and functionality, budgetary requirements (capital cost, operating costs, cost profile), and development schedule. The approach was to arrange for three independent design studies, each led by an architectural design firm, and compare the results. While there were many design elements in common identified by each study team, there were significant differences in the way human operators were to interact with the systems. In aggregate, the design studies provided insight into the attributes of a future SRF and the complex factors to consider for future programmatic planning.

  13. Laser safety considerations for a mobile laser program (United States)

    Flor, Mary


    An increased demand for advanced laser technology, especially in the area of cutaneous and cosmetic procedures has prompted physicians to use mobile laser services. Utilization of a mobile laser service allows physicians to provide the latest treatments for their patients while minimizing overhead costs. The high capital expense of laser systems is often beyond the financial means of individual clinicians, group practices, free-standing clinics and smaller community hospitals. Historically rapid technology turnover with laser technology places additional risk which is unacceptable to many institutions. In addition, health care reform is mandating consolidation of equipment within health care groups to keep costs at a minimum. In 1994, Abbott Northwestern Hospital organized an in-house mobile laser technology service which employs a group of experienced laser specialists to deliver and support laser treatments for hospital outreach and other regional physicians and health care facilities. Many of the hospital's internal safety standards and policies are applicable to the mobile environment. A significant challenge is client compliance because of the delicate balance of managing risk while avoiding being viewed as a regulator. The clinics and hospitals are assessed prior to service to assure minimum laser safety standards for both the patient and the staff. A major component in assessing new sites is to inform them of applicable regulatory standards and their obligations to assure optimum laser safety. In service training is provided and hospital and procedures are freely shared to assist the client in establishing a safe laser environment. Physician and nursing preceptor programs are also made available.

  14. Engineering Design by Geometric Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hui Huang


    Full Text Available A geometric program (GP is a type of mathematical optimization problem characterized by objective and constraint functions, where all functions are of signomial form. The importance of GP comes from two relatively recent developments: (i new methods can solve even large-scale GP extremely efficiently and reliably; (ii a number of practical problems have recently been found to be equivalent to or approximated by GP. This study proposes an optimization approach for solving GP. Our approach is first to convert all signomial terms in GP into convex and concave terms. Then the concave terms are further treated with the proposed piecewise linearization method where only binary variables are used. It has the following features: (i it offers more convenient and efficient means of expressing a piecewise linear function; (ii fewer 0-1 variables are used; (iii the computational results show that the proposed method is much more efficient and faster than the conventional one, especially when the number of break points becomes large. In addition, the engineering design problems are illustrated to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed methods.

  15. Some considerations for establishing seismic design criteria for nuclear plant piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.P. [Energy Technology Engineering Center, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Chokshi, N.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) is providing assistance to the U.S. NRC in developing regulatory positions on the seismic analysis of piping. As part of this effort, ETEC previously performed reviews of the ASME Code, Section III piping seismic design criteria as revised by the 1994 Addenda. These revised criteria were based on evaluations by the ASME Special Task Group on Integrated Piping Criteria (STGIPC) and the Technical Core Group (TCG) of the Advanced Reactor Corporation (ARC) of the earlier joint Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/NRC Piping & Fitting Dynamic Reliability (PFDR) program. Previous ETEC evaluations reported at the 23rd WRSM of seismic margins associated with the revised criteria are reviewed. These evaluations had concluded, in part, that although margins for the timed PFDR tests appeared acceptable (>2), margins in detuned tests could be unacceptable (<1). This conclusion was based primarily on margin reduction factors (MRFs) developed by the ASME STGIPC and ARC/TCG from realistic analyses of PFDR test 36. This paper reports more recent results including: (1) an approach developed for establishing appropriate seismic margins based on PRA considerations, (2) independent assessments of frequency effects on margins, (3) the development of margins based on failure mode considerations, and (4) the implications of Code Section III rules for Section XI.

  16. Considerations for The Instruction Of Research Methodologies In Graduate-Level Distance Education Degree Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cleveland-INNERS


    Full Text Available Considerations for The Instruction Of Research Methodologies In Graduate-Level Distance Education Degree Programs Tom JONES, Ph.D. Associate Professor Centre for Distance Education Athabasca University, CANADA M. Cleveland-INNERS, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Centre for Distance Education Athabasca University, CANADA ABSTRACT The growth of basic and applied research activity in distance education requires redirection on several fronts, including the instruction of research methods in the education of graduate students. The majority of graduate students in distance education are practitioners whose goals range from carrying out original research to acquiring the concepts and skills necessary to become a practitioner. We argue that the best foundation for achieving both of those goals in distance education is developed by means of an understanding and internalization of sound research design methodologies, primarily acquired by formal instruction, and that an emphasis on research in graduate programs in distance education will encourage theory development. This paper presents the rationale for a general curricular model that attempts to address the sets of research competencies for graduate students in graduate-level distance education programs while at the same time moving students toward an appreciation and understanding of the epistemological foundations for social science research.

  17. Market Aspects of an Interior Design Program. (United States)

    Gold, Judy E.

    A project was conducted to evaluate a proposed interior design program in order to determine the marketability (job availability in the field of interior design and home furnishings merchandising) and the feasibility (educational requirements for entrance into the interior design and home furnishings merchandising job market) of the program. To…

  18. 77 FR 74196 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Product Design To Minimize Medication... (United States)


    ... Product Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance for industry entitled ``Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication Errors... using a systems approach to minimize medication errors relating to product design. The draft guidance...

  19. Advanced turbocharger design study program (United States)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.


    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  20. Design Considerations for Post-Acute Care mHealth: Patient Perspectives. (United States)

    Sanger, Patrick; Hartzler, Andrea; Lober, William B; Evans, Heather L; Pratt, Wanda


    Many current mobile health applications ("apps") and most previous research have been directed at management of chronic illnesses. However, little is known about patient preferences and design considerations for apps intended to help in a post-acute setting. Our team is developing an mHealth platform to engage patients in wound tracking to identify and manage surgical site infections (SSI) after hospital discharge. Post-discharge SSIs are a major source of morbidity and expense, and occur at a critical care transition when patients are physically and emotionally stressed. Through interviews with surgical patients who experienced SSI, we derived design considerations for such a post-acute care app. Key design qualities include: meeting basic accessibility, usability and security needs; encouraging patient-centeredness; facilitating better, more predictable communication; and supporting personalized management by providers. We illustrate our application of these guiding design considerations and propose a new framework for mHealth design based on illness duration and intensity.

  1. Design Considerations for Smoking Cessation Apps: Feedback From Nicotine Dependence Treatment Providers and Smokers. (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Hartzler, Andrea L; Catz, Sheryl L


    less important than other features. Despite these similarities, the groups had significantly different opinions about the relative importance of various features. In particular, providers rated privacy as the most important feature, whereas smokers rated low cost and the ability to adaptively tailor content as the most important features. Smoking cessation apps hold great promise as intervention tools but only if they engage users and appropriately treat nicotine dependence. Intervention development should take into consideration the perspectives of both treatment experts and smokers. This paper highlights important perspectives from each of these groups to be considered when designing future app-based smoking cessation programs.

  2. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 4: IPAD system design (United States)

    Goldfarb, W.; Carpenter, L. C.; Redhed, D. D.; Hansen, S. D.; Anderson, L. O.; Kawaguchi, A. S.


    The computing system design of IPAD is described and the requirements which form the basis for the system design are discussed. The system is presented in terms of a functional design description and technical design specifications. The functional design specifications give the detailed description of the system design using top-down structured programming methodology. Human behavioral characteristics, which specify the system design at the user interface, security considerations, and standards for system design, implementation, and maintenance are also part of the technical design specifications. Detailed specifications of the two most common computing system types in use by the major aerospace companies which could support the IPAD system design are presented. The report of a study to investigate migration of IPAD software between the two candidate 3rd generation host computing systems and from these systems to a 4th generation system is included.

  3. Electronic automation of LRFD design programs. (United States)


    The study provided electronic programs to WisDOT for designing pre-stressed girders and piers using the Load : Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) methodology. The software provided is intended to ease the transition to : LRFD for WisDOT design engineers...

  4. Human engineering design considerations for the use of signal color enhancement in ASW displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.W.


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was requested to examine and define man-machine limits as part of the Office of Naval Technology's High Gain Initiative program (HGI). As an initial investigative area, LLNL's Systems and Human Performance effort focused upon color display interfaces and the use of color enhancement techniques to define human and system interface limits in signal detection and discrimination tasks. The knowledgeable and prudent use of color in different types of display is believed to facilitate human visual detection, discrimination and recognition in complex visual tasks. The consideration and understanding of the complex set of interacting variables associated with the prudent use of color is essential to optimize human performance, especially in the ASW community. The designers of advanced display technology and signal processing algorithms may be eventually called upon to present pre-processed information to ASW operators and researchers using the latest color enhancement techniques. These techniques, however, may be limited if one does not understand the complexity and limits of human information processing which reflects the assessed state of knowledge relevant to the use of color in displays. The initial sections of this report discuss various aspects of color presentation and the problems typically encountered, while the last section deals with a specific research proposal required to further our understanding and proper use of color enhancement methods.

  5. Evolution of design considerations in complex craniofacial reconstruction using patient-specific implants. (United States)

    Peel, Sean; Bhatia, Satyajeet; Eggbeer, Dominic; Morris, Daniel S; Hayhurst, Caroline


    Previously published evidence has established major clinical benefits from using computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and additive manufacturing to produce patient-specific devices. These include cutting guides, drilling guides, positioning guides, and implants. However, custom devices produced using these methods are still not in routine use, particularly by the UK National Health Service. Oft-cited reasons for this slow uptake include the following: a higher up-front cost than conventionally fabricated devices, material-choice uncertainty, and a lack of long-term follow-up due to their relatively recent introduction. This article identifies a further gap in current knowledge - that of design rules, or key specification considerations for complex computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing/additive manufacturing devices. This research begins to address the gap by combining a detailed review of the literature with first-hand experience of interdisciplinary collaboration on five craniofacial patient case studies. In each patient case, bony lesions in the orbito-temporal region were segmented, excised, and reconstructed in the virtual environment. Three cases translated these digital plans into theatre via polymer surgical guides. Four cases utilised additive manufacturing to fabricate titanium implants. One implant was machined from polyether ether ketone. From the literature, articles with relevant abstracts were analysed to extract design considerations. In all, 19 frequently recurring design considerations were extracted from previous publications. Nine new design considerations were extracted from the case studies - on the basis of subjective clinical evaluation. These were synthesised to produce a design considerations framework to assist clinicians with prescribing and design engineers with modelling. Promising avenues for further research are proposed.

  6. Marketing Executive MBA Programs: A Comparison of Student and Sponsoring Organization Decision Considerations. (United States)

    Carrel, Ann E.; Schoenbachler, Denise D.


    Surveyed students and supporting organizations about their decision considerations regarding enrolling in and supporting an executive master of business administration (EMBA) program. The findings from this studyprovide direction for EMBA directors in strengthening recruiting efforts toward both students and organization sponsors. (EV)

  7. Material Programming: A New Interaction Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki


    We propose the notion of material programming as a new practice for designing future interactive artifacts. Material programming would be a way for the interaction designer to better explore the dynamics of the materials at hand and through that familiarity be able to compose more sophisticated...... and complex temporal forms in their designs. As such it would blur the boundaries between programming and crafting these new smart and computational materials. We envision a material programming practice developed around physical tools (e.g. Fig 1) that draw on bodily skills and experiences (Fig 2) while...... enabling actions performed directly on the material with immediate effects (no program vs. execution mode). Finally, the tools would enable one layer of abstraction and as such encompass the potential of the computational materials but not that of possibly adjacent computers, which could run more complex...

  8. Considerations for Professional Development Program that guides the teacher to reconceptualize teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ravanal


    Full Text Available The demands for quality education undoubtedly emphasize the role of the teacher, therefore, there must be a contribution to its development from programs that focus on professional requirements and needs as required for quality education. In this context, a system of professional development that emphasizes the updating and improvement of teacher on discipline and teaching techniques as suggested by public policy in Chile, perhaps, is not a plausible solution to promote quality education, due to the technical rationality that guides it. The article seeks to contribute to the discussion on the pedagogical content knowledge as a hub for professional development biology teacher for its high incidence in teaching. Attention is paid to the aspects involved in professional development and professional teaching knowledge as a necessary requirement for teaching. Some considerations for the design of a professional development model to guide teachers to change their personal epistemology for a new conceptualization of pedagogical practice, including proposed: 1 work with teachers from their professional concerns at a cognitive level, contextual and situated, 2 to promote reflection activity that encourages transit between staff, sources, practical and result of teaching domains, 3 to discuss theoretically the new questions to face the difficulties of teaching and re-structure the pedagogical content knowledge of teacher.

  9. Instructional Design of a Programming Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Bennedsen, Jens


    object-oriented programming course is designed according to results of cognitive science and educational psychology in general and cognitive load theory and cognitive skill acquisition in particular; the principal techniques applied are: worked examples, scaffolding, faded guidance, cognitive...

  10. Regulatory considerations for developing drugs for rare diseases: orphan designations and early phase clinical trials. (United States)

    Pariser, Anne R; Xu, Kui; Milto, John; Coté, Timothy R


    The development of drug and biological products intended to treat rare diseases (Orphan diseases) is one of the fastest growing areas of clinical research, and also one of the most challenging. This article provides an introduction to two important regulatory considerations for Orphan drugs: Orphan status designations and general considerations for the administration of investigational agents in early phase clinical trials. Incentives available to orphan drug developers under the Orphan Drug Act (ODA) and requirements for obtaining an orphan status designation are discussed. An introductory overview of ethical and statutory considerations for investigational drugs, requirements for initiating investigational new drug applications (INDs), and sources of information and advice from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are also described.

  11. Research design considerations for single-dose analgesic clinical trials in acute pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Stephen A; Desjardins, Paul J; Turk, Dennis C


    This article summarizes the results of a meeting convened by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) on key considerations and best practices governing the design of acute pain clinical trials. We discuss the role of early phase clinical trials......, including pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) trials, and the value of including both placebo and active standards of comparison in acute pain trials. This article focuses on single-dose and short-duration trials with emphasis on the perioperative and study design factors that influence assay...... sensitivity. Recommendations are presented on assessment measures, study designs, and operational factors. Although most of the methodological advances have come from studies of postoperative pain after dental impaction, bunionectomy, and other surgeries, the design considerations discussed are applicable...

  12. Research design considerations for single-dose analgesic clinical trials in acute pain: IMMPACT recommendations. (United States)

    Cooper, Stephen A; Desjardins, Paul J; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H; Katz, Nathaniel P; Kehlet, Henrik; Ballantyne, Jane C; Burke, Laurie B; Carragee, Eugene; Cowan, Penney; Croll, Scott; Dionne, Raymond A; Farrar, John T; Gilron, Ian; Gordon, Debra B; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Kalso, Eija A; Kerns, Robert D; McDermott, Michael P; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Royal, Mike A; Segerdahl, Märta; Stauffer, Joseph W; Todd, Knox H; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Wallace, Mark S; West, Christine; White, Richard E; Wu, Christopher


    This article summarizes the results of a meeting convened by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) on key considerations and best practices governing the design of acute pain clinical trials. We discuss the role of early phase clinical trials, including pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) trials, and the value of including both placebo and active standards of comparison in acute pain trials. This article focuses on single-dose and short-duration trials with emphasis on the perioperative and study design factors that influence assay sensitivity. Recommendations are presented on assessment measures, study designs, and operational factors. Although most of the methodological advances have come from studies of postoperative pain after dental impaction, bunionectomy, and other surgeries, the design considerations discussed are applicable to many other acute pain studies conducted in different settings.

  13. Some Considerations Regarding the Design and Implementation of Data Warehouse in Insurance Broker Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Manole


    Full Text Available This paper describes a proposal for a data warehouse model, designed for the use in the management of insurance brokerage companies. The model aims to provide information to the leadership of such companies, beyond the classical knowledge drawn from current activity reports. Also, the design process took into consideration the characteristics of the business model analysed. The model is then “exploited” by making some analyses on the data loaded.

  14. 77 FR 74195 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Design Considerations for... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Design Considerations for Devices Intended for Home Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  15. Designing Academic Leadership Minor Programs: Emerging Models (United States)

    Diallo, Lamine; Gerhardt, Kris


    With a growing number of leadership programs in universities and colleges in North America, leadership educators and researchers are engaged in a wide ranging dialogue to propose clear processes, content, and designs for providing academic leadership education. This research analyzes the curriculum design of 52 institutions offering a "Minor…



    Dimla, Eric


    Design of the cooling system in the thermoplastic injection moulding process is one of the most important steps during mould design. It has a direct influence on the quality of the parts produced, and thereby impinges on the cycle time. Cooling channel design has traditionally been limited to comparatively simple configurations due to the main process for manufacturing being restricted to the drilling of straight holes. Nowadays, with the emergence and rapid uptake of 3D printing, complex sha...

  17. Understanding Effective Higher Education Programs in Prisons: Considerations from the Incarcerated Individuals Program in North Carolina (United States)

    Anders, Allison Daniel; Noblit, George W.


    The North Carolina Workplace and Community Transition Youth Offender Program (YOP), recently renamed the Incarcerated Individuals Program (IPP), has proven to be effective in terms of its growth and expansion, the support of education directors across the correctional facilities, university collaboration, student evaluations, and a low recidivism…

  18. Precision and cost considerations for two-stage sampling in a panelized forest inventory design. (United States)

    Westfall, James A; Lister, Andrew J; Scott, Charles T


    Due to the relatively high cost of measuring sample plots in forest inventories, considerable attention is given to sampling and plot designs during the forest inventory planning phase. A two-stage design can be efficient from a field work perspective as spatially proximate plots are grouped into work zones. A comparison between subsampling with units of unequal size (SUUS) and a simple random sample (SRS) design in a panelized framework assessed the statistical and economic implications of using the SUUS design for a case study in the Northeastern USA. The sampling errors for estimates of forest land area and biomass were approximately 1.5-2.2 times larger with SUUS prior to completion of the inventory cycle. Considerable sampling error reductions were realized by using the zones within a post-stratified sampling paradigm; however, post-stratification of plots in the SRS design always provided smaller sampling errors in comparison. Cost differences between the two designs indicated the SUUS design could reduce the field work expense by 2-7 %. The results also suggest the SUUS design may provide substantial economic advantage for tropical forest inventories, where remote areas, poor access, and lower wages are typically encountered.

  19. Design Considerations of Very Low Profile Coupled Inductors for Flexible Photovoltaic Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Acanski, M; Popovic, J


    different with the traditional magnetic approaches. Accordingly, this paper enables original design considerations as a guideline for sandwiched coupled inductor. In order to reduce the high frequency eddy current effect in sandwich core structure, section III initiates a discussion with adjustable core...... important design issues for the sandwich core structure including self-inductance, leakage inductance, eddy current effect and core loss are analyzed in-depth in this work. Since the non-uniform flux is distributed in the core plates, the parameters calculation and the design considerations are completely......Power converters with flexible PCB integrated magnetic components are highly demanded in future photovoltaic (PV) applications, resulting in a higher power density. In this paper, a 1.5-mm thickness integrated coupled inductor with planar sandwich core structure is under investigation. Several...

  20. Design considerations for residential solar heating and cooling systems utilizing evacuated tube solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D. S.; Ward, J. C.


    As solar heating systems become a commercial reality, greater efforts are now being employed to incorporate solar cooling components in order to obtain a complete solar heating and cooling system, and thus take advantage of the cost-effectiveness of year-round use of the solar equipment. The solar heating and cooling system design presented incorporates design considerations which have been obtained from previous experimental efforts utilizing evacuated tube solar collectors. These advanced collectors are capable of significantly higher efficiencies, even at the higher temperatures required for solar cooling operation. Most of the considerations presented are based on the experience gained in the design and performance of the solar heating and cooling systems for CSU Solar Houses I through IV.

  1. Web-based assessments of physical activity in youth: considerations for design and scale calibration. (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J


    This paper describes the design and methods involved in calibrating a Web-based self-report instrument to estimate physical activity behavior. The limitations of self-report measures are well known, but calibration methods enable the reported information to be equated to estimates obtained from objective data. This paper summarizes design considerations for effective development and calibration of physical activity self-report measures. Each of the design considerations is put into context and followed by a practical application based on our ongoing calibration research with a promising online self-report tool called the Youth Activity Profile (YAP). We first describe the overall concept of calibration and how this influences the selection of appropriate self-report tools for this population. We point out the advantages and disadvantages of different monitoring devices since the choice of the criterion measure and the strategies used to minimize error in the measure can dramatically improve the quality of the data. We summarize strategies to ensure quality control in data collection and discuss analytical considerations involved in group- vs individual-level inference. For cross-validation procedures, we describe the advantages of equivalence testing procedures that directly test and quantify agreement. Lastly, we introduce the unique challenges encountered when transitioning from paper to a Web-based tool. The Web offers considerable potential for broad adoption but an iterative calibration approach focused on continued refinement is needed to ensure that estimates are generalizable across individuals, regions, seasons and countries.

  2. Design Considerations of a Transverse Flux Machine for Direct-Drive Wind Turbine Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, Tausif; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard


    This paper presents the design considerations of a double-sided transverse flux machine (TFM) for direct-drive wind turbine applications. The TFM has a modular structure with quasi-U stator cores and ring windings. The rotor is constructed with ferrite magnets in a flux-concentrating arrangement to achieve high air gap flux density. The design considerations for this TFM with respect to initial sizing, pole number selection, key design ratios, and pole shaping are presented in this paper. Pole number selection is critical in the design process of a TFM because it affects both the torque density and power factor under fixed magnetic and changing electrical loading. Several key design ratios are introduced to facilitate the design procedure. The effect of pole shaping on back-emf and inductance is also analyzed. These investigations provide guidance toward the required design of a TFM for direct-drive applications. The analyses are carried out using analytical and three-dimensional finite element analysis. A prototype is under construction for experimental verification.

  3. Design Considerations of a Transverse Flux Machine for Direct-Drive Wind Turbine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, Tausif; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard


    This paper presents the design considerations of a double-sided transverse flux machine (TFM) for direct-drive wind turbine applications. The TFM has a modular structure with quasi-U stator cores and ring windings. The rotor is constructed with ferrite magnets in a flux-concentrating arrangement to achieve high air gap flux density. The design considerations for this TFM with respect to initial sizing, pole number selection, key design ratios, and pole shaping are presented in this paper. Pole number selection is critical in the design process of a TFM because it affects both the torque density and power factor under fixed magnetic and changing electrical loading. Several key design ratios are introduced to facilitate the design procedure. The effect of pole shaping on back-emf and inductance is also analyzed. These investigations provide guidance toward the required design of a TFM for direct-drive applications. The analyses are carried out using analytical and three-dimensional finite element analysis. A prototype is under construction for experimental verification.

  4. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations (United States)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Turk, Dennis C.; Farrar, John T.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Gilron, Ian; Markman, John D.; Oaklander, Anne Louise; Polydefkis, Michael J.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Robinson, James P.; Woolf, Clifford J.; Ziegler, Dan; Ashburn, Michael A.; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; George, Steven Z.; Goli, Veeraindar; Graff, Ole X.; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W.; Katz, Joel; Kehlet, Henrik; Kitt, Rachel A.; Kopecky, Ernest A.; Malamut, Richard; McDermott, Michael P.; Palmer, Pamela; Rappaport, Bob A.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Steigerwald, Ilona; Tobias, Jeffrey; Walco, Gary A.


    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations for clinical trials investigating the prevention of chronic pain. We present general design considerations for prevention trials in populations that are at relatively high risk for developing chronic pain. Specific design considerations included subject identification, timing and duration of treatment, outcomes, timing of assessment, and adjusting for risk factors in the analyses. We provide a detailed examination of 4 models of chronic pain prevention (i.e., chronic post-surgical pain, postherpetic neuralgia, chronic low back pain, and painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). The issues discussed can, in many instances, be extrapolated to other chronic pain conditions. These examples were selected because they are representative models of primary and secondary prevention, reflect persistent pain resulting from multiple insults (i.e., surgery, viral infection, injury, and toxic/noxious element exposure), and are chronically painful conditions that are treated with a range of interventions. Improvements in the design of chronic pain prevention trials could improve assay sensitivity and thus accelerate the identification of efficacious interventions. Such interventions would have the potential to reduce the prevalence of chronic pain in the population. Additionally, standardization of outcomes in prevention clinical trials will facilitate meta-analyses and systematic reviews and improve detection of preventive strategies emerging from clinical trials. PMID:25887465

  5. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations. (United States)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C; Farrar, John T; Fillingim, Roger B; Gilron, Ian; Markman, John D; Oaklander, Anne Louise; Polydefkis, Michael J; Raja, Srinivasa N; Robinson, James P; Woolf, Clifford J; Ziegler, Dan; Ashburn, Michael A; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; George, Steven Z; Goli, Veeraindar; Graff, Ole X; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Katz, Joel; Kehlet, Henrik; Kitt, Rachel A; Kopecky, Ernest A; Malamut, Richard; McDermott, Michael P; Palmer, Pamela; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Steigerwald, Ilona; Tobias, Jeffrey; Walco, Gary A


    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations for clinical trials investigating the prevention of chronic pain. We present general design considerations for prevention trials in populations that are at relatively high risk for developing chronic pain. Specific design considerations included subject identification, timing and duration of treatment, outcomes, timing of assessment, and adjusting for risk factors in the analyses. We provide a detailed examination of 4 models of chronic pain prevention (ie, chronic postsurgical pain, postherpetic neuralgia, chronic low back pain, and painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). The issues discussed can, in many instances, be extrapolated to other chronic pain conditions. These examples were selected because they are representative models of primary and secondary prevention, reflect persistent pain resulting from multiple insults (ie, surgery, viral infection, injury, and toxic or noxious element exposure), and are chronically painful conditions that are treated with a range of interventions. Improvements in the design of chronic pain prevention trials could improve assay sensitivity and thus accelerate the identification of efficacious interventions. Such interventions would have the potential to reduce the prevalence of chronic pain in the population. Additionally, standardization of outcomes in prevention clinical trials will facilitate meta-analyses and systematic reviews and improve detection of preventive strategies emerging from clinical trials.

  6. Residential hospice environments: evidence-based architectural and landscape design considerations. (United States)

    Verderber, Stephen


    The residential hospice care movement is increasingly accepted and supported globally, and yet, unfortunately, the amount of literature on best practices in the planning and design of residential hospice facilities and adjacent outdoor spaces remains relatively small. This paper reports on a compendium of architectural and landscape design considerations that reflect the fundamental dimensions of the residential hospice experience: site and context, arrival spaces, communal and private spaces of the residential milieu, transitional spaces, and nature connectivity. Additionally, key staffing and administrative ramifications of this built-environment compendium are addressed, as are prognostications and challenges for the future.

  7. Single-case research design in pediatric psychology: considerations regarding data analysis. (United States)

    Cohen, Lindsey L; Feinstein, Amanda; Masuda, Akihiko; Vowles, Kevin E


    Single-case research allows for an examination of behavior and can demonstrate the functional relation between intervention and outcome in pediatric psychology. This review highlights key assumptions, methodological and design considerations, and options for data analysis. Single-case methodology and guidelines are reviewed with an in-depth focus on visual and statistical analyses. Guidelines allow for the careful evaluation of design quality and visual analysis. A number of statistical techniques have been introduced to supplement visual analysis, but to date, there is no consensus on their recommended use in single-case research design. Single-case methodology is invaluable for advancing pediatric psychology science and practice, and guidelines have been introduced to enhance the consistency, validity, and reliability of these studies. Experts generally agree that visual inspection is the optimal method of analysis in single-case design; however, statistical approaches are becoming increasingly evaluated and used to augment data interpretation.

  8. Advanced Design Program (ARIES) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillack, Mark [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    Progress is reported for the ARIES 3-year research program at UC San Diego, including three main tasks: 1. Completion of ARIES research on PMI/PFC issues. 2. Detailed engineering design and analysis of divertors and first wall/blankets. 3. Mission & requirements of FNSF.

  9. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: A government overview (United States)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.


    NASA-Langley, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work has been done by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program has been made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

  10. Global Rating of Change Scales: A Review of Strengths and Weaknesses and Considerations for Design (United States)

    Kamper, Steven J; Maher, Christopher G; Mackay, Grant


    Most clinicians ask their patients to rate whether their health condition has improved or deteriorated over time and then use this information to guide management decisions. Many studies also use patient-rated change as an outcome measure to determine the efficacy of a particular treatment. Global rating of change (GRC) scales provide a method of obtaining this information in a manner that is quick, flexible, and efficient. As with any outcome measure, however, meaningful interpretation of results can only be undertaken with due consideration of the clinimetric properties, strengths, and weaknesses of the instrument. The purpose of this article is to summarize this information to assist appropriate interpretation of the GRC results and to provide evidence-informed advice to guide design and administration of GRC scales. These considerations are relevant and applicable to the use of GRC scales both in the clinic and in research. PMID:20046623

  11. Designing a leadership development program for surgeons. (United States)

    Jaffe, Gregory A; Pradarelli, Jason C; Lemak, Christy Harris; Mulholland, Michael W; Dimick, Justin B


    Although numerous leadership development programs (LDPs) exist in health care, no programs have been specifically designed to meet the needs of surgeons. This study aimed to elicit practicing surgeons' motivations and desired goals for leadership training to design an evidence-based LDP in surgery. At a large academic health center, we conducted semistructured interviews with 24 surgical faculty members who voluntarily applied and were selected for participation in a newly created LDP. Transcriptions of the interviews were analyzed using analyst triangulation and thematic coding to extract major themes regarding surgeons' motivations and perceived needs for leadership knowledge and skills. Themes from interview responses were then used to design the program curriculum specifically to meet the leadership needs of surgical faculty. Three major themes emerged regarding surgeons' motivations for seeking leadership training: (1) Recognizing key gaps in their formal preparation for leadership roles; (2) Exhibiting an appetite for personal self-improvement; and (3) Seeking leadership guidance for career advancement. Participants' interviews revealed four specific domains of knowledge and skills that they indicated as desired takeaways from a LDP: (1) leadership and communication; (2) team building; (3) business acumen/finance; and (4) greater understanding of the health care context. Interviews with surgical faculty members identified gaps in prior leadership training and demonstrated concrete motivations and specific goals for participating in a formal leadership program. A LDP that is specifically tailored to address the needs of surgical faculty may benefit surgeons at a personal and institutional level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Design considerations for teleoperation systems operating in gas-tight argon cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungnam Yu


    Full Text Available In the nuclear industry, mechanical engineers spend a significant portion of their time designing equipment such as manipulators, bogies, mechanical grippers, and so on. Some customized designs can be considered as standard mechanical equipment in this area, although it is not unusual to find that an existing design cannot simply be copied from one project to another. Varied performance requirements can dictate that redesign, often quite extensive redesign, is required. However, if something similar has been done before, engineers could use that as a starting point for the new project. In this regard, this study presents several guidelines inspired by previous design knowledge for similar development cases. Moreover, this study presents more detailed suggestions such as design guidelines for an argon-based hot cell atmosphere and design experience for a large-scale practical hot cell facility. Design considerations and case studies dealt with in this study are dedicated to teleoperation manipulators that are used at a large-scale argon cell facility for pyroprocess integrated inactive demonstration (PRIDE, at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. In particular, for case studies to support the suggested recommendations, a fabricated telemanipulator system for PRIDE is introduced, and several kinds of experimental results associated with it are presented.

  13. Design Considerations for a PEBB-Based Marx-Topology ILC Klystron Modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macken, K.; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.A.; Nguyen, M.N.; Tang, T.; /SLAC


    The concept of Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) has its origin in the U.S. Navy during the last decade of the past century. As compared to a more conventional or classical design approach, a PEBB-oriented design approach combines various potential advantages such as increased modularity, high availability and simplified serviceability. This relatively new design paradigm for power conversion has progressively matured since then and its underlying philosophy has been clearly and successfully demonstrated in a number of real-world applications. Therefore, this approach has been adopted here to design a Marx-topology modulator for an International Linear Collider (ILC) environment where easy serviceability and high availability are crucial. This paper describes various aspects relating to the design of a 32-cell Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator. The concept of nested droop correction is introduced and illustrated. Several design considerations including cosmic ray withstand, power cycling capability, fault tolerance, etc., are discussed. Details of the design of a Marx cell PEBB are included.

  14. System and antenna design considerations for highly elliptical orbits as applied to the proposed Archimedes Constellation (United States)

    Paynter, C.; Cuchanski, M.


    The paper discusses various aspects of the system design for a satellite in a highly elliptical inclined orbit, and presents a number of antenna design options for the proposed Archimedes mission. A satellite constellation was studied for the provision of multi media communication services in the L and S Band for northern latitudes. The inclined elliptical orbit would allow coverage of Europe, America, and East Asia. Using Canada and North America as the baseline coverage area, this paper addresses system considerations such as the satellite configuration and pointing, beam configuration, and requirements for antennas. A trade-off is performed among several antenna candidates including a direct radiating array, a focal-fed reflector, and a single reflector imaging system. Antenna geometry, performance, and beam forming methods are described. The impact of the designs on the antenna deployment is discussed.

  15. So, you want to design an acute mental health inpatient unit: physical issues for consideration. (United States)

    Arya, Dinesh


    The aim of this paper is to explore important considerations when planning an acute mental health inpatient unit. Planning a mental health acute inpatient facility should be about more than just building a beautiful, fabulous facility. A novel architectural design, fancy gadgets, safe tapware, new lounge suites, good light and air circulation are all incredibly important and good architects and designers can inform us about new developments in architecture and design that we must incorporate in our design plans. However, to design a facility that is right for tomorrow, it is also important to spend time trying to understand what happens in the facility and how the new facility is going to make things different and better. Planning of a health facility should be about creating an environment that is not only pleasant, comfortable and safe but also one that would enable and facilitate better care. It is important to map processes before rather than after building a facility, so that this process mapping can inform design and we do not keep falling into the trap of building a beautiful new facility but losing the opportunity to make care better.

  16. Design Considerations and Experimental Verification of a Rail Brake Armature Based on Linear Induction Motor Technology (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    This paper describes the design considerations and experimental verification of an LIM rail brake armature. In order to generate power and maximize the braking force density despite the limited area between the armature and the rail and the limited space available for installation, we studied a design method that is suitable for designing an LIM rail brake armature; we considered adoption of a ring winding structure. To examine the validity of the proposed design method, we developed a prototype ring winding armature for the rail brakes and examined its electromagnetic characteristics in a dynamic test system with roller rigs. By repeating various tests, we confirmed that unnecessary magnetic field components, which were expected to be present under high speed running condition or when a ring winding armature was used, were not present. Further, the necessary magnetic field component and braking force attained the desired values. These studies have helped us to develop a basic design method that is suitable for designing the LIM rail brake armatures.

  17. Design considerations for a time-resolved tomographic diagnostic at DARHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris I. Kaufman, Daniel Frayer, Wendi Dreesen, Douglas Johnson, Alfred Meidinger


    An instrument has been developed to acquire time-resolved tomographic data from the electron beam at the DARHT [Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test] facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The instrument contains four optical lines of sight that view a single tilted object. The lens design optically integrates along one optical axis for each line of sight. These images are relayed via fiber optic arrays to streak cameras, and the recorded streaks are used to reconstruct the original two-dimensional data. Installation of this instrument into the facility requires automation of both the optomechanical adjustments and calibration of the instrument in a constrained space. Additional design considerations include compound tilts on the object and image planes.

  18. Design Considerations for Scalable High-Performance Vision Systems Embedded in Industrial Print Inspection Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rössler Peter


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a scalable high-performance vision system which is used in the application area of optical print inspection. The system is able to process hundreds of megabytes of image data per second coming from several high-speed/high-resolution cameras. Due to performance requirements, some functionality has been implemented on dedicated hardware based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA, which is coupled to a high-end digital signal processor (DSP. The paper discusses design considerations like partitioning of image processing algorithms between hardware and software. The main chapters focus on functionality implemented on the FPGA, including low-level image processing algorithms (flat-field correction, image pyramid generation, neighborhood operations and advanced processing units (programmable arithmetic unit, geometry unit. Verification issues for the complex system are also addressed. The paper concludes with a summary of the FPGA resource usage and some performance results.

  19. Reliable Thermoelectric Module Design under Opposing Requirements from Structural and Thermoelectric Considerations (United States)

    Karri, Naveen K.; Mo, Changki


    Structural reliability of thermoelectric generation (TEG) systems still remains an issue, especially for applications such as large-scale industrial or automobile exhaust heat recovery, in which TEG systems are subject to dynamic loads and thermal cycling. Traditional thermoelectric (TE) system design and optimization techniques, focused on performance alone, could result in designs that may fail during operation as the geometric requirements for optimal performance (especially the power) are often in conflict with the requirements for mechanical reliability. This study focused on reducing the thermomechanical stresses in a TEG system without compromising the optimized system performance. Finite element simulations were carried out to study the effect of TE element (leg) geometry such as leg length and cross-sectional shape under constrained material volume requirements. Results indicated that the element length has a major influence on the element stresses whereas regular cross-sectional shapes have minor influence. The impact of TE element stresses on the mechanical reliability is evaluated using brittle material failure theory based on Weibull analysis. An alternate couple configuration that relies on the industry practice of redundant element design is investigated. Results showed that the alternate configuration considerably reduced the TE element and metallization stresses, thereby enhancing the structural reliability, with little trade-off in the optimized performance. The proposed alternate configuration could serve as a potential design modification for improving the reliability of systems optimized for thermoelectric performance.

  20. Global benefit-risk assessment in designing clinical trials and some statistical considerations of the method. (United States)

    Pritchett, Yili Lu; Tamura, Roy


    When characterizing a therapy, the efficacy and the safety are two major aspects under consideration. In prescribing a therapy to a patient, a clinician puts the two aspects together and makes a decision based on a consolidated thought process. The global benefit-risk (GBR) measures proposed by Chuang-Stein et al. (Stat. Med. 1991; 10:1349-1359) are useful in facilitating the thinking, and creating the framework for making statistical comparisons based on benefit-risk point of view. This article describes how a GBR linear score was defined and used as the primary outcome measure in a clinical trial design. The robustness of the definitions of 'benefit' and 'risk' are evaluated using different criteria. The sensitivity of the pre-specified weights is also analyzed using alternative weights; one of those was determined by the relative to an identified distribution integral transformation approach (Biometrics 1958; 14:18-38). Statistical considerations are illustrated using pooled data from clinical trials studying antidepressant. The pros and cons for using GBR assessments in the setting of clinical trials are discussed.

  1. Regulatory Considerations in the Design and Manufacturing of Implantable 3D-Printed Medical Devices. (United States)

    Morrison, Robert J; Kashlan, Khaled N; Flanangan, Colleen L; Wright, Jeanne K; Green, Glenn E; Hollister, Scott J; Weatherwax, Kevin J


    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, or additive manufacturing, technology has rapidly penetrated the medical device industry over the past several years, and innovative groups have harnessed it to create devices with unique composition, structure, and customizability. These distinctive capabilities afforded by 3D printing have introduced new regulatory challenges. The customizability of 3D-printed devices introduces new complexities when drafting a design control model for FDA consideration of market approval. The customizability and unique build processes of 3D-printed medical devices pose unique challenges in meeting regulatory standards related to the manufacturing quality assurance. Consistent material powder properties and optimal printing parameters such as build orientation and laser power must be addressed and communicated to the FDA to ensure a quality build. Postprinting considerations unique to 3D-printed devices, such as cleaning, finishing and sterilization are also discussed. In this manuscript we illustrate how such regulatory hurdles can be navigated by discussing our experience with our group's 3D-printed bioresorbable implantable device. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Regulatory Considerations in the Design and Manufacturing of Implantable 3D‐Printed Medical Devices (United States)

    Morrison, Robert J.; Kashlan, Khaled N.; Flanangan, Colleen L.; Wright, Jeanne K.; Green, Glenn E.; Hollister, Scott J.


    Abstract Three‐dimensional (3D) printing, or additive manufacturing, technology has rapidly penetrated the medical device industry over the past several years, and innovative groups have harnessed it to create devices with unique composition, structure, and customizability. These distinctive capabilities afforded by 3D printing have introduced new regulatory challenges. The customizability of 3D‐printed devices introduces new complexities when drafting a design control model for FDA consideration of market approval. The customizability and unique build processes of 3D‐printed medical devices pose unique challenges in meeting regulatory standards related to the manufacturing quality assurance. Consistent material powder properties and optimal printing parameters such as build orientation and laser power must be addressed and communicated to the FDA to ensure a quality build. Postprinting considerations unique to 3D‐printed devices, such as cleaning, finishing and sterilization are also discussed. In this manuscript we illustrate how such regulatory hurdles can be navigated by discussing our experience with our group's 3D‐printed bioresorbable implantable device. PMID:26243449

  3. Robust Control Design via Linear Programming (United States)

    Keel, L. H.; Bhattacharyya, S. P.


    This paper deals with the problem of synthesizing or designing a feedback controller of fixed dynamic order. The closed loop specifications considered here are given in terms of a target performance vector representing a desired set of closed loop transfer functions connecting various signals. In general these point targets are unattainable with a fixed order controller. By enlarging the target from a fixed point set to an interval set the solvability conditions with a fixed order controller are relaxed and a solution is more easily enabled. Results from the parametric robust control literature can be used to design the interval target family so that the performance deterioration is acceptable, even when plant uncertainty is present. It is shown that it is possible to devise a computationally simple linear programming approach that attempts to meet the desired closed loop specifications.

  4. Bioequivalence study designs for generic solid oral anticancer drug products: scientific and regulatory considerations. (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjeet; Chaurasia, Chandra S; Davit, Barbara M; Conner, Dale P


    The demonstration of bioequivalence (BE) between the test and reference products is an integral part of generic drug approval process. A sound BE study design is pivotal to the successful demonstration of BE of generic drugs to their corresponding reference listed drug product. Generally, BE of systemically acting oral dosage forms is demonstrated in a crossover, single-dose in vivo study in healthy subjects. The determination of BE of solid oral anticancer drug products is associated with its own unique challenges due to the serious safety risks involved. Unlike typical BE study in healthy subjects, the safety issues often necessitate conducting BE studies in cancer patients. Such BE studies of an anticancer drug should be conducted without disturbing the patients' therapeutic dosing regimen. Attributes such as drug permeability and solubility, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimen, and approved therapeutic indication(s) are considered in the BE study design of solid anticancer drug products. To streamline the drug approval process, the Division of Bioequivalence posts the Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products guidances on the FDA public website. The objective of this article is to illustrate the scientific and regulatory considerations in the design of BE studies for generic solid oral anticancer drug products through examples. © 2013, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. [Design considerations for clinical data management in an integrated remote medical system]. (United States)

    Bautu, E; Bautu, A; Ciorap, R; Pomazan, V M; Petcu, L C


    In this paper, we present a proposal for the design of a telemedicine system. The system (called SIMPA) will be used for noninvasive monitoring of some vital parameters of patients with chronic diseases. The telemedicine system contains a fixed unit and some mobile units. The mobile unit contains various sensors used to gather data about vital biosignals, a transceiver and a medical processor. On the fixed unit side, the host transceiver must be compatible with the mobile transceiver. On the server side, an application analyzes and processes the data and further stores it in dedicated databases. The database support for the telemedicine application is ensured by open source technologies and already available communication infrastructures (GSM networks). The requirements for the application were thoroughly analyzed and the Entity-Relationship diagram of the system was designed and translated into relational model. SIMPA will be implemented using only free and open source technologies, which will ensure a low cost and improved extensibility and portability. We presented some design considerations for a low-cost telemedicine system. The system will help optimize medical decisions and will increase the quality of the medical act and lower the cost, to the ultimate benefit of the patient.

  6. Sodium effects on mechanical performance and consideration in high temperature structural design for advanced reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K., E-mail: natesan@anl.go [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li Meimei; Chopra, O.K.; Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    Sodium environmental effects are key limiting factors in the high temperature structural design of advanced sodium-cooled reactors. A guideline is needed to incorporate environmental effects in the ASME design rules to improve the performance reliability over long operating times. This paper summarizes the influence of sodium exposure on mechanical performance of selected austenitic stainless and ferritic/martensitic steels. Focus is on Type 316SS and mod.9Cr-1Mo. The sodium effects were evaluated by comparing the mechanical properties data in air and sodium. Carburization and decarburization were found to be the key factors that determine the tensile and creep properties of the steels. A beneficial effect of sodium exposure on fatigue life was observed under fully reversed cyclic loading in both austenitic stainless steels and ferritic/martensitic steels. However, when hold time was applied during cyclic loading, the fatigue life was significantly reduced. Based on the mechanical performance of the steels in sodium, consideration of sodium effects in high temperature structural design of advanced fast reactors is discussed.

  7. Carbon dioxide mineralization process design and evaluation: concepts, case studies, and considerations. (United States)

    Yuen, Yeo Tze; Sharratt, Paul N; Jie, Bu


    Numerous carbon dioxide mineralization (CM) processes have been proposed to overcome the slow rate of natural weathering of silicate minerals. Ten of these proposals are mentioned in this article. The proposals are described in terms of the four major areas relating to CM process design: pre-treatment, purification, carbonation, and reagent recycling operations. Any known specifics based on probable or representative operating and reaction conditions are listed, and basic analysis of the strengths and shortcomings associated with the individual process designs are given in this article. The processes typically employ physical or chemical pseudo-catalytic methods to enhance the rate of carbon dioxide mineralization; however, both methods have its own associated advantages and problems. To examine the feasibility of a CM process, three key aspects should be included in the evaluation criteria: energy use, operational considerations as well as product value and economics. Recommendations regarding the optimal level of emphasis and implementation of measures to control these aspects are given, and these will depend very much on the desired process objectives. Ultimately, a mix-and-match approach to process design might be required to provide viable and economic proposals for CM processes.

  8. Hypnosis in the Treatment of Depression: Considerations in Research Design and Methods (United States)

    McCann, Barbara S.; Landes, Sara J.


    Depressive disorders constitute a serious problem in the United States. The appearance of practice guidelines and lists of evidenced based therapies suggests that adequate treatments for depression exist. However, a careful consideration of what we do and do not know about the treatment of depression leaves plenty of room for improved approaches to addressing this condition. Although there has been a dearth of research on the treatment of depression using hypnosis, there are several compelling arguments for the inclusion of hypnotic approaches in the array of strategies for dealing with depression. However, traditional “gold standard” research methods, namely randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have many potential shortcomings for identifying the potential impact of hypnosis on depression. Other strategies, notably single-case design and benchmarking approaches, may offer a more practical solution to the problem of determining “what works for depression.” PMID:20390688

  9. Towards multifocal ultrasonic neural stimulation II: design considerations for an acoustic retinal prosthesis (United States)

    Naor, Omer; Hertzberg, Yoni; Zemel, Esther; Kimmel, Eitan; Shoham, Shy


    Ultrasound waves, widely used as a non-invasive diagnostic modality, were recently shown to stimulate neuronal activity. Functionally meaningful stimulation, as is required in order to form a unified percept, requires the dynamic generation of simultaneous stimulation patterns. In this paper, we examine the general feasibility and properties of an acoustic retinal prosthesis, a new vision restoration strategy that will combine ultrasonic neuro-stimulation and ultrasonic field sculpting technology towards non-invasive artificial stimulation of surviving neurons in a degenerating retina. We explain the conceptual framework for such a device, study its feasibility in an in vivo ultrasonic retinal stimulation study and discuss the associated design considerations and tradeoffs. Finally, we simulate and experimentally validate a new holographic method—the angular spectrum-GSW—for efficient generation of uniform and accurate continuous ultrasound patterns. This method provides a powerful, flexible solution to the problem of projecting complex acoustic images onto structures like the retina.

  10. Conducting Internet-based HIV/STD prevention survey research: considerations in design and evaluation. (United States)

    Pequegnat, Willo; Rosser, B R Simon; Bowen, Anne M; Bull, Sheana S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Bockting, Walter O; Elford, Jonathan; Fishbein, Martin; Gurak, Laura; Horvath, Keith; Konstan, Joseph; Noar, Seth M; Ross, Michael W; Sherr, Lorraine; Spiegel, David; Zimmerman, Rick


    The aim of this paper is to advance rigorous Internet-based HIV/STD Prevention quantitative research by providing guidance to fellow researchers, faculty supervising graduates, human subjects' committees, and review groups about some of the most common and challenging questions about Internet-based HIV prevention quantitative research. The authors represent several research groups who have gained experience conducting some of the first Internet-based HIV/STD prevention quantitative surveys in the US and elsewhere. Sixteen questions specific to Internet-based HIV prevention survey research are identified. To aid rigorous development and review of applications, these questions are organized around six common criteria used in federal review groups in the US: significance, innovation, approach (broken down further by research design, formative development, procedures, sampling considerations, and data collection); investigator, environment and human subjects' issues. Strategies promoting minority participant recruitment, minimizing attrition, validating participants, and compensating participants are discussed. Throughout, the implications on budget and realistic timetabling are identified.

  11. Facts learnt from the Hanshin-Awaji disaster and consideration on design basis earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Heki [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper will deal with how to establish the concept of the design basis earthquake for critical industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants in consideration of disasters induced by the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake (Southern Hyogo-prefecture Earthquake-1995), so-called Kobe earthquake. The author once discussed various DBEs at 7 WCEE. At that time, the author assumed that the strongest effective PGA would be 0.7 G, and compared to the values of accelerations to a structure obtained by various codes in Japan and other countries. The maximum PGA observed by an instrument at the Southern Hyogo-pref. Earthquake-1995 exceeded the previous assumption of the author, even though the evaluation results of the previous paper had been pessimistic. According to the experience of Kobe event, the author will point out the necessity of the third earthquake S{sub s} adding to S{sub 1} and S{sub 2}, previous DBEs. (author)

  12. Partners in Care: Design Considerations for Caregivers and Patients During a Hospital Stay (United States)

    Miller, Andrew D.; Mishra, Sonali R.; Kendall, Logan; Haldar, Shefali; Pollack, Ari H.; Pratt, Wanda


    Informal caregivers, such as close friends and family, play an important role in a hospital patient’s care. Although CSCW researchers have shown the potential for social computing technologies to help patients and their caregivers manage chronic conditions and support health behavior change, few studies focus on caregivers’ role during a multi-day hospital stay. To explore this space, we conducted an interview and observation study of patients and caregivers in the inpatient setting. In this paper, we describe how caregivers and patients coordinate and collaborate to manage patients’ care and wellbeing during a hospital stay. We define and describe five roles caregivers adopt: companion, assistant, representative, navigator, and planner, and show how patients and caregivers negotiate these roles and responsibilities throughout a hospital stay. Finally, we identify key design considerations for technology to support patients and caregivers during a hospital stay. PMID:27148596

  13. A bridge with a view, a view with a bridge : Identifying design considerations for bridges to strengthen regional identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.E.P.; van der Hoeven, F.D.


    This paper discusses design considerations for creating high quality infrastructural artefacts with an emphasis on bridges. The authors pursue a design study and analysis approach to highlight the specifics of infrastructure design for regional identity, based on their own work on a bridge

  14. New Incremental Actuators based on Electro-active Polymer: Conceptual, Control, and Driver Design Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe


    This paper presents an overview of the widely usedconventional linear actuator technologies and existing electroactivepolymer based linear and rotary actuators. It also providesthe conceptual, control and driver design considerations for anew dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP) based...

  15. Design Considerations for Attitude State Awareness and Prevention of Entry into Unusual Attitudes (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Nicholas, Stephanie N.; Kiggins, Daniel; Verstynen, Harry; Hubbs, Clay; Wilkerson, James


    Loss of control - inflight (LOC-I) has historically represented the largest category of commercial aviation fatal accidents. A review of the worldwide transport airplane accidents (2001-2010) evinced that loss of attitude or energy state awareness was responsible for a large majority of the LOC-I events. A Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) study of 18 worldwide loss-of-control accidents and incidents determined that flight crew loss of attitude awareness or energy state awareness due to lack of external visual reference cues was a significant causal factor in 17 of the 18 reviewed flights. CAST recommended that "Virtual Day-Visual Meteorological Condition" (Virtual Day-VMC) displays be developed to provide the visual cues necessary to prevent loss-of-control resulting from flight crew spatial disorientation and loss of energy state awareness. Synthetic vision or equivalent systems (SVS) were identified for a design "safety enhancement" (SE-200). Part of this SE involves the conduct of research for developing minimum aviation system performance standards (MASPS) for these flight deck display technologies to aid flight crew attitude and energy state awareness similar to that of a virtual day-VMC-like environment. This paper will describe a novel experimental approach to evaluating a flight crew's ability to maintain attitude awareness and to prevent entry into unusual attitudes across several SVS optical flow design considerations. Flight crews were subjected to compound-event scenarios designed to elicit channelized attention and startle/surprise within the crew. These high-fidelity scenarios, designed from real-world events, enable evaluation of the efficacy of SVS at improving flight crew attitude awareness to reduce the occurrence of LOC-I incidents in commercial flight operations.

  16. Design considerations, architecture, and use of the Mini-Sentinel distributed data system. (United States)

    Curtis, Lesley H; Weiner, Mark G; Boudreau, Denise M; Cooper, William O; Daniel, Gregory W; Nair, Vinit P; Raebel, Marsha A; Beaulieu, Nicolas U; Rosofsky, Robert; Woodworth, Tiffany S; Brown, Jeffrey S


    We describe the design, implementation, and use of a large, multiorganizational distributed database developed to support the Mini-Sentinel Pilot Program of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). As envisioned by the US FDA, this implementation will inform and facilitate the development of an active surveillance system for monitoring the safety of medical products (drugs, biologics, and devices) in the USA. A common data model was designed to address the priorities of the Mini-Sentinel Pilot and to leverage the experience and data of participating organizations and data partners. A review of existing common data models informed the process. Each participating organization designed a process to extract, transform, and load its source data, applying the common data model to create the Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database. Transformed data were characterized and evaluated using a series of programs developed centrally and executed locally by participating organizations. A secure communications portal was designed to facilitate queries of the Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database and transfer of confidential data, analytic tools were developed to facilitate rapid response to common questions, and distributed querying software was implemented to facilitate rapid querying of summary data. As of July 2011, information on 99,260,976 health plan members was included in the Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database. The database includes 316,009,067 person-years of observation time, with members contributing, on average, 27.0 months of observation time. All data partners have successfully executed distributed code and returned findings to the Mini-Sentinel Operations Center. This work demonstrates the feasibility of building a large, multiorganizational distributed data system in which organizations retain possession of their data that are used in an active surveillance system. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Stability of spoil piles at two coal mines in Turkey: Geotechnical characterization and design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasmer, O.; Ulusay, R. [Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering


    One of the major problems in surface mining of coal is the stability of disposed overburden materials. Geotechnical considerations are thus very important in rational planning for disposal, reclamation, treatment, and utilization of mine waste material. The subject of this study is the stability of spoil piles at open pit coal mines located in the Central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal is produced from two adjacent open pits. While a large portion of the spoil piles dumped at the Central Pit has experienced slope failure, no spoil pile instability has been experienced at the South Pit. This article outlines the results of field and laboratory investigations to describe the mechanism of the spoil pile failure in the Central Pit and the geotechnical design considerations for the spoil piles at the South Pit based on the experience gained from the previous spoil failures. Limit equilibrium analysis carried out for the large-scale spoil failure indicated that deep-seated sliding along the interface between underclay and dragline spoil piles and rotational slip through the overburden spoil material may be all occurring simultaneously as water migrates through these areas. Sensitivity analyses revealed that spoil pile instability is not expected at the South Pit when the current spoil placement method is used as long as the generation of high water pressures in the spoil piles is not permitted. Comparisons between the results of finite element analysis and long-term monitoring data also confirmed the results of sensitivity analyses and indicated a vertical deformation associated with compaction of the spoil material.

  18. Controller design approach based on linear programming. (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryo; Shibasaki, Hiroki; Ogawa, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa


    This study explains and demonstrates the design method for a control system with a load disturbance observer. Observer gains are determined by linear programming (LP) in terms of the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion and the final-value theorem. In addition, the control model has a feedback structure, and feedback gains are determined to be the linear quadratic regulator. The simulation results confirmed that compared with the conventional method, the output estimated by our proposed method converges to a reference input faster when a load disturbance is added to a control system. In addition, we also confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method by performing an experiment with a DC motor. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  19. Design considerations for a steam-injection pilot with in-situ foaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, M.H.; Sanyal, S.K.; Horn, A.J.


    This report reviews the necessary aspects of the planning, operation, evaluation, environmental impact and cost to implement a field pilot of steam injection with in-situ foaming. The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI) is planning to implement such a pilot in Kern County, California. The cost of the pilot will be shared by the US Department of Energy and an oil company. Some important aspects of drilling and completion programs and their specifications, permits from regulatory bodies, and downhole tools to improve steam stimulation are discussed. The essential surface facilities which include water treatment plant, steam generator, demulsifier and dehydrator are considered. The necessary laboratory research in support of the pilot has been recommended. The formation evaluation and reservoir engineering effort for the pilot has been divided into three phases: reservoir definition, reservoir monitoring and post-pilot study. Appropriate techniques applicable to each phase of the test have been discussed. The environmental impact regulations as related to the steam injection process have been considered. In particular, the environmental problems associated with the burning of crude oil and desulfurization of flue gas have been discussed. Other environmental considerations such as solid and liquid waste disposal, health and safety are also discussed. An estimate of the cost of this field test is presented. Three scenarii (for pilots with high, medium, and low investment potentials, respectively) are presented. Since this report was prepared, a specific site for the supri pilot has been chosen. Appendices G and H present the details on this site.

  20. Sampling design considerations for demographic studies: a case of colonial seabirds. (United States)

    Kendall, William L; Converse, Sarah J; Doherty, Paul F; Naughton, Maura B; Anders, Angela; Hines, James E; Flint, Elizabeth


    For the purposes of making many informed conservation decisions, the main goal for data collection is to assess population status and allow prediction of the consequences of candidate management actions. Reducing the bias and variance of estimates of population parameters reduces uncertainty in population status and projections, thereby reducing the overall uncertainty under which a population manager must make a decision. In capture-recapture studies, imperfect detection of individuals, unobservable life-history states, local movement outside study areas, and tag loss can cause bias or precision problems with estimates of population parameters. Furthermore, excessive disturbance to individuals during capture-recapture sampling may be of concern because disturbance may have demographic consequences. We address these problems using as an example a monitoring program for Black-footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) and Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) nesting populations in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. To mitigate these estimation problems, we describe a synergistic combination of sampling design and modeling approaches. Solutions include multiple capture periods per season and multistate, robust design statistical models, dead recoveries and incidental observations, telemetry and data loggers, buffer areas around study plots to neutralize the effect of local movements outside study plots, and double banding and statistical models that account for band loss. We also present a variation on the robust capture-recapture design and a corresponding statistical model that minimizes disturbance to individuals. For the albatross case study, this less invasive robust design was more time efficient and, when used in combination with a traditional robust design, reduced the standard error of detection probability by 14% with only two hours of additional effort in the field. These field techniques and associated modeling approaches are applicable to studies of

  1. Sampling design considerations for demographic studies: a case of colonial seabirds (United States)

    Kendall, William L.; Converse, Sarah J.; Doherty, Paul F.; Naughton, Maura B.; Anders, Angela; Hines, James E.; Flint, Elizabeth


    For the purposes of making many informed conservation decisions, the main goal for data collection is to assess population status and allow prediction of the consequences of candidate management actions. Reducing the bias and variance of estimates of population parameters reduces uncertainty in population status and projections, thereby reducing the overall uncertainty under which a population manager must make a decision. In capture-recapture studies, imperfect detection of individuals, unobservable life-history states, local movement outside study areas, and tag loss can cause bias or precision problems with estimates of population parameters. Furthermore, excessive disturbance to individuals during capture?recapture sampling may be of concern because disturbance may have demographic consequences. We address these problems using as an example a monitoring program for Black-footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) and Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) nesting populations in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. To mitigate these estimation problems, we describe a synergistic combination of sampling design and modeling approaches. Solutions include multiple capture periods per season and multistate, robust design statistical models, dead recoveries and incidental observations, telemetry and data loggers, buffer areas around study plots to neutralize the effect of local movements outside study plots, and double banding and statistical models that account for band loss. We also present a variation on the robust capture?recapture design and a corresponding statistical model that minimizes disturbance to individuals. For the albatross case study, this less invasive robust design was more time efficient and, when used in combination with a traditional robust design, reduced the standard error of detection probability by 14% with only two hours of additional effort in the field. These field techniques and associated modeling approaches are applicable to studies of

  2. 78 FR 69690 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of... (United States)


    ... of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Extension of Comment Period... assist in designing early-phase clinical trials of CGT products. In the notice, we requested comments on... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Cellular...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂRCUŞ Liviu


    Full Text Available The high demands for cheap footwear can only be satisfied by mass fabrication. Costumed footwear would represent a regress, despite the advantages that it brings. This paper regards mainly the demands that mass footwear requires, in order to maintain the health of the foot. The desire to maintain the foot shape and functionality requires certain last forms and fabrication algorithms. We analyze certain aspects referring to: the correct design of the inner sole, insuring the flexibility of the lower part of the footwear by choosing the right type of materials and confection systems, choosing the right height of the heel, setting the adequate shape by increasing the number of different shoe sizes. In order to give a loose space to the adults’ toes, where they are not pressed, but have a complete range of motion, the orthopedists and the last specialists have set several requirements for building the contour of the inner sole. The technique of building a bond between the footwear forepart and the inferior ensemble is dependent to the purpose and partially to the fashion demands of the shoe. The sole shape is influenced by the buyers, as seen by the development of the ex-flex footwear. There must be noted that in this case, the work of the model designer coincides with the exigencies of the specialist in footwear health. With the help of certain functional considerations and of several mechanical calculations, it can be proven that a heel with a height of 3 cm does not necessarily have a negative impact on the foot health. This is why even the orthopedics consider this limit as acceptable. Higher heels must be avoided if we want to maintain a normal function and development of the foot.

  4. Policy, systems, and environmental change in the Mississippi Delta: considerations for evaluation design. (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C; Honeycutt, Sally; Davis, Melvin; Dauria, Emily; Berg, Carla; Dove, Cassandra; Gamble, Abigail; Hawkins, Jackie


    Community-level policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies may offer an economical and sustainable approach to chronic disease prevention. The rapidly growing number of untested but promising PSE strategies currently underway offers an exciting opportunity to establish practice-based evidence for this approach. This article presents lessons learned from an evaluation of a community-based PSE initiative targeting stroke and cardiovascular disease prevention in the Mississippi Delta. Its purpose is to describe one approach to evaluating this type of PSE initiative, to stimulate discussion about best practices for evaluating PSE strategies, and to inform future evaluation and research efforts to expand practice-based evidence. The evaluation used a descriptive mixed-methods design and focused on the second year of a multisectoral, multiyear initiative. Cross-sectional data were collected in the summer and fall of 2010 using four data collection instruments: a grantee interview guide (n = 32), a health council member survey (n = 256), an organizational survey (n = 60), and a grantee progress report (n = 26). Fifty-eight PSE changes were assessed across five sectors: health, faith, education, worksite, and community/city government. PSE strategies aligned with increased access to physical activity opportunities, healthy food and beverage options, quality health care, and reduced exposure to tobacco. Results showed that grantees were successful in completing a series of steps toward PSE change and that sector-specific initiatives resulted in a range of PSE changes that were completed or in progress. Considerations for designing evaluations of community-based PSE initiatives are discussed. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. Design considerations for open-well microfluidic platforms for hypoxic cell studies. (United States)

    Byrne, Matthew B; Leslie, Matthew T; Patel, Heeral S; Gaskins, H Rex; Kenis, Paul J A


    Regions of hypoxia are common in solid tumors and are associated with enhanced malignancy, metastasis, and chemo/radio resistance. Real-time hypoxic cellular experimentation is challenging due to the constant need for oxygen control. Most microfluidic platforms developed thus far for hypoxic cell studies are burdened by complex design parameters and are difficult to use for uninitiated investigators. However, open-well microfluidic platforms enable short and long term hypoxic cell studies with an ease of use workflow. Specifically, open-well platforms enable manipulation and addition of cells, media, and reagents using a micropipette for hypoxic cell studies in tunable dissolved oxygen concentrations as low 0.3 mg/l. We analyzed design considerations for open-well microfluidic platforms such as media height, membrane thickness, and impermeable barriers to determine their effects on the amount of dissolved oxygen within the platform. The oxygen concentration was determined by experimental measurements and computational simulations. To examine cell behavior under controlled oxygen conditions, hypoxia-induced changes to hypoxia inducible factor activity and the mitochondrial redox environment were studied. A fluorescent reporter construct was used to monitor the stabilization of hypoxia inducible factors 1α and 2α throughout chronic hypoxia. Reporter construct fluorescence intensity inversely correlated with dissolved oxygen in the medium, as expected. Additionally, the glutathione redox poise of the mitochondrial matrix in living cancer cells was monitored throughout acute hypoxia with a genetically encoded redox probe and was observed to undergo a reductive response to hypoxia. Overall, these studies validate an easy to use open-well platform suitable for studying complex cell behaviors in hypoxia.

  6. Methodological and ethical considerations in designing an Internet study of quality of life: a discussion paper. (United States)

    Holmes, Susan


    Use of the Internet in research is a relatively new phenomenon offering a potentially valuable research resource that, although increasingly used, appears largely untapped in nursing and healthcare more generally. This paper discusses methodological and ethical issues that need consideration when designing an Internet-based study concluding that, in general, online research methods are simply adaptations of traditional methods of data collection. Issues such as the representativeness of the data and ethical concerns are discussed. It considers whether the ethical dilemmas faced by online researchers differ from those faced by those seeking to use other, more 'traditional' approaches. Using the example of a study that employed the Internet as a means of distributing questionnaires, this paper shows that this can be an efficient and effective means of gathering data from a geographically dispersed sample. Furthermore, since typewritten data is obtained in the same format from all respondents, the need for transcription and the potential for error are reduced potentially enhancing the quality of any such study.

  7. Design and implementation considerations for a personalized patient education system in burn care. (United States)

    Doupi, Persephone; van der Lei, Johan


    Patient education is a significant factor in the provision of health care services, contributing to improved disease management and health care outcomes. Personalization has been suggested as a means for increasing patient education effectiveness and computer-based approaches have been explored as a possible means of achieving this goal. The success and capabilities of the resulting applications have been restricted by the absence of a direct link to patient data and the reliance on locally produced written material, which is expensive to produce, update and tailor. In our research project STructured Evaluated Personalized Patient Support (STEPPS), we are investigating the potential of a novel strategy for personalized or tailored patient education, based on the integration of electronic patient record data and material derived from online health information resources. In this paper we present an overview of the pertinent technical issues and the way we have addressed them in the context of our development work in the domain of burn care. Further, we discuss how the choices made in the design of the system interrelate with the considerations for its implementation in health care practice settings.

  8. Antibiotic-free selection in E. coli: new considerations for optimal design and improved production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peubez Isabelle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing regulatory requirements to which biological agents are subjected will have a great impact in the field of industrial protein expression and production. There is an expectation that in a near future, there may be "zero tolerance" towards antibiotic-based selection and production systems. Besides the antibiotic itself, the antibiotic resistance gene is an important consideration. The complete absence of antibiotic-resistance gene being the only way to ensure that there is no propagation in the environment or transfer of resistance to pathogenic strains. Results In a first step, we have designed a series of vectors, containing a stabilization element allowing a complete elimination of antibiotics during fermentation. Vectors were further improved in order to include alternative selection means such as the well known poison/antidote stabilization system. Eventually we propose an elegant positive pressure of selection ensuring the elimination of the antibiotic-resistance gene through homologous recombination. In addition, we have shown that the presence of an antibiotic resistance gene can indirectly reduce the amount of expressed protein, since even in absence of selection pressure the gene would be transcribed and account for an additional stress for the host during the fermentation process. Conclusions We propose a general strategy combining plasmid stabilization and antibiotic-free selection. The proposed host/vector system, completely devoid of antibiotic resistance gene at the end of construction, has the additional advantage of improving recombinant protein expression and/or plasmid recovery.

  9. Integrating computer programs for engineering analysis and design (United States)

    Wilhite, A. W.; Crisp, V. K.; Johnson, S. C.


    The design of a third-generation system for integrating computer programs for engineering and design has been developed for the Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design (AVID) system. This system consists of an engineering data management system, program interface software, a user interface, and a geometry system. A relational information system (ARIS) was developed specifically for the computer-aided engineering system. It is used for a repository of design data that are communicated between analysis programs, for a dictionary that describes these design data, for a directory that describes the analysis programs, and for other system functions. A method is described for interfacing independent analysis programs into a loosely-coupled design system. This method emphasizes an interactive extension of analysis techniques and manipulation of design data. Also, integrity mechanisms exist to maintain database correctness for multidisciplinary design tasks by an individual or a team of specialists. Finally, a prototype user interface program has been developed to aid in system utilization.

  10. Client Perspectives on Desirable Attributes and Skills of Veterinary Technologists in Australia: Considerations for Curriculum Design. (United States)

    Clarke, Patricia M; Al-Alawneh, John; Pitt, Rachael E; Schull, Daniel N; Coleman, Glen T


    Client or service user perspectives are important when designing curricula for professional programs. In the case of veterinary technology, an emerging profession in the veterinary field in Australasia, client views on desirable graduate attributes, skills, and knowledge have not yet been explored. This study reports on a survey of 441 veterinary clients (with 104 responses) from four veterinary practices in Brisbane, Queensland, conducted between October 2008 and February 2009. The included veterinary practices provided clinical placements for veterinary technology undergraduates and employment for veterinary technology graduates (2003-2007). Client socio-demographic data along with ratings of the importance of a range of technical (veterinary nursing) skills, emotional intelligence, and professional attributes for veterinary technology graduates were collected and analyzed. Overall, the majority of clients viewed technical skills, emotional intelligence, and professional attributes as important in the clinical practice of veterinary technology graduates with whom they interacted in the veterinary practice. Client interviews (n=3) contextualized the survey data and also showed that clients attached importance to graduates demonstrating professional competence. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four distinct groupings of clients within the data based on their differing perceptions. Using a multivariable proportional-odds regression model, it was also found that some client differences were influenced by demographic factors such as gender, age, and number of visits annually. For example, the odds of female clients valuing emotionality and sociability were greater than males. These findings provide useful data for the design of a professionalizing and market-driven veterinary technology curriculum.

  11. C-A1-03: Considerations in the Design and Use of an Oracle-based Virtual Data Warehouse (United States)

    Bredfeldt, Christine; McFarland, Lela


    Background/Aims The amount of clinical data available for research is growing exponentially. As it grows, increasing the efficiency of both data storage and data access becomes critical. Relational database management systems (rDBMS) such as Oracle are ideal solutions for managing longitudinal clinical data because they support large-scale data storage and highly efficient data retrieval. In addition, they can greatly simplify the management of large data warehouses, including security management and regular data refreshes. However, the HMORN Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) was originally designed based on SAS datasets, and this design choice has a number of implications for both the design and use of an Oracle-based VDW. From a design standpoint, VDW tables are designed as flat SAS datasets, which do not take full advantage of Oracle indexing capabilities. From a data retrieval standpoint, standard VDW SAS scripts do not take advantage of SAS pass-through SQL capabilities to enable Oracle to perform the processing required to narrow datasets to the population of interest. Methods Beginning in 2009, the research department at Kaiser Permanente in the Mid-Atlantic States (KPMA) has developed an Oracle-based VDW according to the HMORN v3 specifications. In order to take advantage of the strengths of relational databases, KPMA introduced an interface layer to the VDW data, using views to provide access to standardized VDW variables. In addition, KPMA has developed SAS programs that provide access to SQL pass-through processing for first-pass data extraction into SAS VDW datasets for processing by standard VDW scripts. Results We discuss both the design and performance considerations specific to the KPMA Oracle-based VDW. We benchmarked performance of the Oracle-based VDW using both standard VDW scripts and an initial pre-processing layer to evaluate speed and accuracy of data return. Conclusions Adapting the VDW for deployment in an Oracle environment required minor

  12. Engaging military parents in a home-based reintegration program: a consideration of strategies. (United States)

    Ross, Abigail M; DeVoe, Ellen R


    For more than a decade, the long wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have placed tremendous and cumulative strain on U.S. military personnel and their families. The high operational tempo, length, and number of deployments-and greater in-theater exposure to threat-have resulted in well-documented psychological health concerns among service members and veterans. In addition, there is increasing and compelling evidence describing the significant deleterious impact of the deployment cycle on family members, including children, in military-connected families. However, rates of engagement and service utilization in prevention and intervention services continue to lag far below apparent need among service members and their families, because of both practical and psychological barriers. The authors describe the dynamic and ultimately successful process of engaging military families with young children in a home-based reintegration program designed to support parenting and strengthen parent-child relationships as service member parents move back into family life. In addition to the integration of existing evidence-based engagement strategies, the authors applied a strengths-based approach to working with military families and worked from a community-based participatory foundation to enhance family engagement and program completion. Implications for engagement of military personnel and their loved ones are discussed.

  13. Establishing an Integrative Medicine Program Within an Academic Health Center: Essential Considerations. (United States)

    Eisenberg, David M; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Post, Diana E; Hrbek, Andrea L; O'Connor, Bonnie B; Osypiuk, Kamila; Wayne, Peter M; Buring, Julie E; Levy, Donald B


    Integrative medicine (IM) refers to the combination of conventional and "complementary" medical services (e.g., chiropractic, acupuncture, massage, mindfulness training). More than half of all medical schools in the United States and Canada have programs in IM, and more than 30 academic health centers currently deliver multidisciplinary IM care. What remains unclear, however, is the ideal delivery model (or models) whereby individuals can responsibly access IM care safely, effectively, and reproducibly in a coordinated and cost-effective way.Current models of IM across existing clinical centers vary tremendously in their organizational settings, principal clinical focus, and services provided; practitioner team composition and training; incorporation of research activities and educational programs; and administrative organization (e.g., reporting structure, use of medical records, scope of clinical practice) and financial strategies (i.e., specific business plans and models for sustainability).In this article, the authors address these important strategic issues by sharing lessons learned from the design and implementation of an IM facility within an academic teaching hospital, the Brigham and Women's Hospital at Harvard Medical School; and review alternative options based on information about IM centers across the United States.The authors conclude that there is currently no consensus as to how integrative care models should be optimally organized, implemented, replicated, assessed, and funded. The time may be right for prospective research in "best practices" across emerging models of IM care nationally in an effort to standardize, refine, and replicate them in preparation for rigorous cost-effectiveness evaluations.

  14. The SDSS-IV MaNGA Sample: Design, Optimization, and Usage Considerations (United States)

    Wake, David A.; Bundy, Kevin; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Yan, Renbin; Blanton, Michael R.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Drory, Niv; Jones, Amy; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Law, David R.; Li, Cheng; MacDonald, Nicholas; Masters, Karen; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Brownstein, Joel R.


    We describe the sample design for the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey and present the final properties of the main samples along with important considerations for using these samples for science. Our target selection criteria were developed while simultaneously optimizing the size distribution of the MaNGA integral field units (IFUs), the IFU allocation strategy, and the target density to produce a survey defined in terms of maximizing signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and sample size. Our selection strategy makes use of redshift limits that only depend on I-band absolute magnitude (M I ), or, for a small subset of our sample, M I and color (NUV - I). Such a strategy ensures that all galaxies span the same range in angular size irrespective of luminosity and are therefore covered evenly by the adopted range of IFU sizes. We define three samples: the Primary and Secondary samples are selected to have a flat number density with respect to M I and are targeted to have spectroscopic coverage to 1.5 and 2.5 effective radii (R e ), respectively. The Color-Enhanced supplement increases the number of galaxies in the low-density regions of color-magnitude space by extending the redshift limits of the Primary sample in the appropriate color bins. The samples cover the stellar mass range 5× {10}8≤slant {M}* ≤slant 3× {10}11 {M}⊙ {h}-2 and are sampled at median physical resolutions of 1.37 and 2.5 kpc for the Primary and Secondary samples, respectively. We provide weights that will statistically correct for our luminosity and color-dependent selection function and IFU allocation strategy, thus correcting the observed sample to a volume-limited sample.

  15. Design considerations for micro nuclear reactors to supply power to off-grid mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gihm, B.; Cooper, G.; Morettin, D.; De Koning, P., E-mail: [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Carreau, M. [Hatch Ltd., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sarvinis, J. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)


    Nuclear technology vendors have been proposing to develop small scale nuclear reactors to supply power and heat to remote industrial operations such as a mining site. Based on extensive experience in integrating different power generation technologies with captive mining power systems, Hatch examined the technical requirements of small scale nuclear reactor application in remote mine power generation. Mining power systems have unique characteristics and challenges that set them apart from utility grid connected power systems. Key examples of such unique characteristics are: A small number of large motor loads such as hoists, pumps, shovels, pumps and crushers represent a large fraction of the peak load. These equipment may cause significant load fluctuations and put the power systems under high stress; There is no organic demand growth (i.e., the load growth occurs as a step increase); and, The extreme environmental conditions and remoteness of the sites introduce a set of operational challenges and require specialized planning. This paper presents real remote mine operation data to demonstrate the load profile of remote mining sites. The operation characteristics and performance requirements of diesel reciprocating engines are discussed, which have to be matched or exceeded by a small scale nuclear power plant if it is to be a viable technical alternative to diesel power. The power quality control options from wind power integration in isolated grids are discussed as a parallel can be drawn between wind and nuclear power application in remote mine power systems. Finally the authors provided a list of technical constraints and design considerations for very small modular reactor development. (author)

  16. Optical Telescope System-Level Design Considerations for a Space-Based Gravitational Wave Mission (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Sankar, Shannon R.


    The study of the Universe through gravitational waves will yield a revolutionary new perspective on the Universe, which has been intensely studied using electromagnetic signals in many wavelength bands. A space-based gravitational wave observatory will enable access to a rich array of astrophysical sources in the measurement band from 0.1 to 100 mHz, and nicely complement observations from ground-based detectors as well as pulsar timing arrays by sampling a different range of compact object masses and astrophysical processes. The observatory measures gravitational radiation by precisely monitoring the tiny change in the proper distance between pairs of freely falling proof masses. These masses are separated by millions of kilometers and, using a laser heterodyne interferometric technique, the change in their proper separation is detected to approx. 10 pm over timescales of 1000 seconds, a fractional precision of better than one part in 10(exp 19). Optical telescopes are essential for the implementation of this precision displacement measurement. In this paper we describe some of the key system level design considerations for the telescope subsystem in a mission context. The reference mission for this purpose is taken to be the enhanced Laser Interferometry Space Antenna mission (eLISA), a strong candidate for the European Space Agency's Cosmic Visions L3 launch opportunity in 2034. We will review the flow-down of observatory level requirements to the telescope subsystem, particularly pertaining to the effects of telescope dimensional stability and scattered light suppression, two performance specifications which are somewhat different from the usual requirements for an image forming telescope.

  17. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Bruno


    The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two

  18. A CAD (Classroom Assessment Design) of a Computer Programming Course (United States)

    Hawi, Nazir S.


    This paper presents a CAD (classroom assessment design) of an entry-level undergraduate computer programming course "Computer Programming I". CAD has been the product of a long experience in teaching computer programming courses including teaching "Computer Programming I" 22 times. Each semester, CAD is evaluated and modified…

  19. Considerations for the Placement of Youth with EBD in Alternative Education Programs (United States)

    Atkins, Trent; Bartuska, Jamie


    Alternative education programs (also called alternative schools) first appeared on the American landscape in the 1960s. Despite the proliferation of these programs, a generic description of what constitutes an alternative education program, historically, has been elusive. Most alternative education programs have the general criteria of serving…

  20. Principal considerations for the contemporary high-fidelity endovascular simulator design used in training and evaluation. (United States)

    Eslahpazir, Benjamin A; Goldstone, Jerry; Allemang, Matthew T; Wang, John C; Kashyap, Vikram S


    -fidelity reproductions of the endovascular environment. We have found that all of the commercially available devices incorporate the necessary features for a high-fidelity experience: (1) haptic technology, (2) vessel reconstruction, (3) physiology feedback, and (4) performance feedback. Significant variations in design do exist and may influence differences in skill development, evaluation, or cost. However, further validation of these differences is still needed and would benefit program directors interested in expanding these platforms for vascular training and certification as this technology matures. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Soft error rate simulation and initial design considerations of neutron intercepting silicon chip (NISC) (United States)

    Celik, Cihangir

    -scale technologies. Prevention of SEEs has been studied and applied in the semiconductor industry by including radiation protection precautions in the system architecture or by using corrective algorithms in the system operation. Decreasing 10B content (20%of natural boron) in the natural boron of Borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) layers that are conventionally used in the fabrication of semiconductor devices was one of the major radiation protection approaches for the system architecture. Neutron interaction in the BPSG layer was the origin of the SEEs because of the 10B (n,alpha) 7Li reaction products. Both of the particles produced have the capability of ionization in the silicon substrate region, whose thickness is comparable to the ranges of these particles. Using the soft error phenomenon in exactly the opposite manner of the semiconductor industry can provide a new neutron detection system based on the SERs in the semiconductor memories. By investigating the soft error mechanisms in the available semiconductor memories and enhancing the soft error occurrences in these devices, one can convert all memory using intelligent systems into portable, power efficient, directiondependent neutron detectors. The Neutron Intercepting Silicon Chip (NISC) project aims to achieve this goal by introducing 10B-enriched BPSG layers to the semiconductor memory architectures. This research addresses the development of a simulation tool, the NISC Soft Error Analysis Tool (NISCSAT), for soft error modeling and analysis in the semiconductor memories to provide basic design considerations for the NISC. NISCSAT performs particle transport and calculates the soft error probabilities, or SER, depending on energy depositions of the particles in a given memory node model of the NISC. Soft error measurements were performed with commercially available, off-the-shelf semiconductor memories and microprocessors to observe soft error variations with the neutron flux and memory supply voltage. Measurement

  2. Lean line layouts in highly automated machining environments : ensuring consideration to important aspects when designing line layouts


    Vallander, Karolina; Lindblom, Malin


    In order to create a machining line layout that supports the principles of lean a systematic approach is needed to ensure that a wide range of factors are taken into consideration. Despite this, many companies today design new layouts mainly considering delivery times of machines and equipment, and available space in the factory. A combined literature and case study has aimed to identify the most important factors in a lean line layout and a supporting structure to apply these in the design o...

  3. Design considerations for a large-scale image-based text search engine in historical manuscript collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schomaker, Lambertus


    This article gives an overview of design considerations for a handwriting search engine based on pattern recognition and high-performance computing, “Monk”. In order to satisfy multiple and often conflicting technological requirements, an architecture is used which heavily relies on high-performance

  4. Consideration and modeling of use processes in computer-aided conceptueal design : A state of the art review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegte, W.F.; Horváth, I.


    If conceptual modeling and simulation of consumer durables could include consideration of use processes, designers could more successfully anticipate the interaction ofproducts with users in a use environment. This is the basic idea behind our research into computer-aided modeling and forecasting

  5. Alternative utility conservation program designs: an evaluation based on case study program experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitler, V.


    Utilities around the nation are promoting residential conservation through a variety of program activities, ranging from customer education programs to financial incentive programs to direct installation programs. This report was undertaken to evaluate some of these alternative program designs, to compare their achievements against those of the RCS program, and to suggest program planning directions that seem most promising. Interviews with program managers were used to elucidate the rationale behind the alternative programs and to discuss program effectiveness. The experiences of nine utilities and one nonutility organization are reviewed. Program managers' opinions about RCS and their experiences with thirteen other programs are summarized. The effectiveness of the alternative program designs are compared and some implications for conservation program planning and implementation are highlighted.

  6. Computer program for machine design of Cassegrain feed systems (United States)

    Potter, P. D.


    Program designs the feed system geometry and the subreflector surface, with the main reflector configuration and frequency of operation as input data. Although the feedhorn is not designed, its required gain, beamwidth, and approximate radiation pattern are specified.

  7. Principles of Designing and Implementing Agricultural Extension Programs for Reducing Post-harvest Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. McNamara


    Full Text Available Post-harvest losses represent a significant threat to food security and farmer incomes worldwide. It is an inefficiency in the global food production system that is avoidable. In deducing principles of designing and implementing agricultural extension programs to reduce post-harvest losses, valuable lessons can be gleaned from the handful of previous extension projects and programs addressing post-harvest loss. Abstracting principles from previous experiences and using this to inform future post-harvest loss prevention programs is an evidence-based approach to arrive at solutions to this problem. This paper reviews extension programs for post-harvest loss prevention, before presenting key principles abstracted from the review that should be taken into consideration for future post-harvest loss prevention programs. This paper aims to contribute to knowledge on the role of agricultural extension in the design of post-harvest loss reduction efforts in developing countries.

  8. Some Sociological Contexts for Consideration When Designing a School Puberty/Sexuality Curriculum (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.


    Sociological contexts are key factors in education and schooling. Contemporary contexts of world-view, or "Weltanschauungen," such as human rights, public health, demographics, biosocial factors including earlier puberty and a developmentalist approach, and technological connectivity, warrant significant professional consideration by…

  9. A Visual Haptic System for Children with Learning Disabilities: Software and Hardware Design Considerations (United States)

    Subrahmaniyan, Neeraja; Krishnaswamy, Swetha; Chowriappa, Ashirwad; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Bisantz, Ann; Shriber, Linda; Kesavadas, Thenkurussi


    Research has shown that children with learning disabilities exhibit considerable challenges with visual motor integration. While there are specialized Occupational Therapy interventions aimed at visual motor integration, computer games and virtual toys have now become increasingly popular, forming an integral part of children's learning and play.…

  10. Design Considerations for Implementing a Shipboard Computer Supported Command Management System (United States)


    considerations that must also be taken into account when selecting a system. Reference 1 provides a comprehensive checklist for utilization in system...In Implementing a Data Processing System Un a Hnicompu^er," Hashers Tresis, "WEar^cn "School or Finance an^Tommerce, 1974. 16. Sperry Onivac, Dse of

  11. Design Patterns for Functional Strategic Programming


    Laemmel, Ralf; Visser, Joost


    In previous work, we introduced the fundamentals and a supporting combinator library for \\emph{strategic programming}. This an idiom for generic programming based on the notion of a \\emph{functional strategy}: a first-class generic function that cannot only be applied to terms of any type, but which also allows generic traversal into subterms and can be customized with type-specific behaviour. This paper seeks to provide practicing functional programmers with pragmatic guidance in crafting th...

  12. Design and fabrication of an automated temperature programmed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    *For correspondence. Design and fabrication of an automated temperature programmed reaction system to evaluate 3-way catalysts ... Since the design of the first desorption system by Cvetonovic and Amenomiya,1 .... tored by a software program through PC via RS232 interface. Typical heating rates range from 5°C min–1.

  13. A Course on Operational Considerations in Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. Student Manual. (United States)

    Stottler, Stag and Associates, San Antonio, TX.

    This manual was designed to furnish information for upgrading the design of wastewater treatment plant facilities and to serve as a resource for establishing criteria for upgrading these plants. The manual also furnishes information for modifying plant design to compensate for current organic and hydraulic overloads and/or to meet more stringent…

  14. Designated-driver programs: college students' experiences and opinions. (United States)

    Glascoff, M A; Knight, S M; Jenkins, L K


    We investigated the experiences and opinions of college students regarding the use of designated drivers. Although using designated drivers appeared to be common, results indicated that in many instances the designated driver did not abstain from drinking alcoholic beverages. The opinions of the participants indicated that the nondrivers in a drinking group may in fact drink more when there is a designated driver. Our findings lead us to question the overall value of currently practiced designated-driver programs for college student drinkers. Developing programs on how to be a designated driver are among our recommendations.

  15. Design Considerations of Help Options in Computer-Based L2 Listening Materials Informed by Participatory Design (United States)

    Cárdenas-Claros, Mónica Stella


    This paper reports on the findings of two qualitative exploratory studies that sought to investigate design features of help options in computer-based L2 listening materials. Informed by principles of participatory design, language learners, software designers, language teachers, and a computer programmer worked collaboratively in a series of…

  16. Material Programming: a Design Practice for Computational Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki


    In this paper we propose the notion of material programming as a future design practice for computational composites. Material programming would be a way for the interaction designer to better explore the dynamic potential of computational materials at hand and through that familiarity be able...... to compose more sophisticated and complex temporal forms in their designs. The contribution of the paper is an analysis of qualities that we find a material programming practice would and should support: designs grounded in material properties and experiences, embodied programming practice, real-time on......-site explorations, and finally a reasonable level of complexity in couplings between input and output. We propose material programming knowing that the technology and materials are not entirely ready to support this practice yet, however, we are certain they will be and that the interaction design community...

  17. Design of a Single Motor Based Leg Structure with the Consideration of Inherent Mechanical Stability (United States)

    Taha Manzoor, Muhammad; Sohail, Umer; Noor-e-Mustafa; Nizami, Muhammad Hamza Asif; Ayaz, Yasar


    The fundamental aspect of designing a legged robot is constructing a leg design that is robust and presents a simple control problem. In this paper, we have successfully designed a robotic leg based on a unique four bar mechanism with only one motor per leg. The leg design parameters used in our platform are extracted from design principles used in biological systems, multiple iterations and previous research findings. These principles guide a robotic leg to have minimal mechanical passive impedance, low leg mass and inertia, a suitable foot trajectory utilizing a practical balance between leg kinematics and robot usage, and the resultant inherent mechanical stability. The designed platform also exhibits the key feature of self-locking. Theoretical tools and software iterations were used to derive these practical features and yield an intuitive sense of the required leg design parameters.

  18. Measurement: Five Considerations to Add Even More Impact to Your Program (United States)

    Hurrell, Derek


    In this article, the author looks at some key considerations which have proven to be very useful in the teaching of measurement in the primary classroom. Five ideas that can form the basis of focusing on measurement to access other strands of the mathematics curriculum are then examined.

  19. Documentation of Calculation Program and Guideline for Optimal Window Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Svendsen, Svend

    . A user-friendly calculation program based on simple input data has recently been developed to assist engineers and architects during the process of selecting suitable windows for residential building design. The program is organised in four steps, which together represent an analysis of how windows...... in a specific building design perform with regard to energy consumption, thermal indoor environment, and cost. The analyses in the steps gradually increase in level of detail and support the design decisions throughout the design process. This document presents work done to validate the program and demonstrates...

  20. Important considerations for designing and reporting epidemiologic and clinical studies in dental traumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O


    The purpose of this article is to suggest important considerations for epidemiologic and clinical studies in the field of dental traumatology. The article is based on the authors' experiences from research in this field and editorial board work for the scientific journal Dental Traumatology. Exam....... Examples are given of issues where development is important. The importance of planning ahead of the study and consulting with experts in other fields is emphasized....

  1. Designing Games, Designing Roles: A Study of Youth Agency in an Urban Informal Education Program (United States)

    Sheridan, Kimberly M.; Clark, Kevin; Williams, Asia


    Collaboration (GDMC), an informal education program in 3D computer modeling and 2D interactive game design serving primarily African American youth aged 7 to 19 years in the Washington, D.C. metro area, transformed from a program designed and taught by adults to one designed and taught by youth. In Year 1, 8% of youth participants held a…

  2. Design and analysis of environmental monitoring programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophaven, Søren Nymand


    can handle missing data values and utilize the spatial and temporal correlation in data. Modelling results can be used to improve reporting on the state of the marine environment in the Kattegat. The thesis also focus on design of monitoring networks, from which geostatistics can be successfully...... applied. Existing design methods are reviewed, and based on these a new Bayesian geostatistical design approach is suggested. This focus on constructing monitoring networks which are efficient for computing spatial predictions, while taking the uncertainties of the parameters in the geostatistical model...... into account. Thus, it serves as a compromise between existing methods. The space-time model approaches and geostatistical design methods used in this thesis are generally applicable, i.e. with minor modifications they could equally well be applied within areas such as soil and air pollution. In Danish: Denne...

  3. Program Design With Abstract Data Types (United States)


    be converted at another time (and possibly by others) into an implementation. Programming languages which provide data type facilities to varying... mechinisms in order to have some syntactic base upon which to build. MMM ——. »-«—. - ■ - ~- 12 4.1) Arrays In the past, an orroy has

  4. Fundamental Elements of Transition Program Design (United States)

    Karmelita, Courtney


    Adult learners require supports and services to help them successfully transition into taking on the demands and expectations of college students. Transition programs have grown in popularity as a means to aid adult learners as they transition to higher education. Unfortunately, previous research on adult learner participation in transition…

  5. Cost-Benefit Considerations of New Careers Programs. Career Options Research and Development. (United States)

    Soong, Robert K.; And Others

    Since the early 1960's, new programs have been developed to prepare poor people for jobs in hospitals, schools, social agencies, and community centers offering human services. To ascertain the cost effectiveness of these programs the Career Options Research and Development (CORD) Project focused on the need for cost and benefit studies that…

  6. (U) Design Considerations for Obtaining Deep Release in Reacted Epon 828

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lang, John Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, Langdon Stanford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Our document summarizes results from one-dimensional calculations performed to investigate the release behavior of reacted Epon 828. Two design goals were set, (1) the product phase had to be achieved upon the initial shock loading, and (2) a deep release state could be achieved. Both transmission and front surface impact geometry were investigated. Moreover, the two design criteria were met with the front surface impact design employing a modi ed projectile.

  7. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Harte


    Full Text Available Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications.

  8. Design Considerations to Enhance the Safety of Patient Compartments in Ambulance Transporters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byran, Eyal; Gilad, Issachar


    .... The workplace ergonomics of the interior of the passenger cabin is lacking. This article discusses an improved ergonomic interior design based on study findings, observations and subjective perception...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giuca Simona-Mihaela;


    .... While identifying the optimal product and price strategy and designing the product catalogue structure, the marketing specialist should definitely consider existing portfolio behaviour and estimate...

  10. 76 FR 24820 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Review of Major Changes in Program Design and... (United States)


    ... Assistance Program: Review of Major Changes in Program Design and Management Evaluation Systems AGENCY: Food... Rulemaking (NPRM) proposes to amend the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) (formerly the Food... Nutrition Assistance Program, Food and Nutrition Service, 3101 Park Center Drive, Room 810, Alexandria...

  11. Early-Stage Design Considerations for the Energy-Efficiency of High-Rise Office Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raji, B.; Tenpierik, M.J.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.


    Decisions made at early stages of the design are of the utmost importance for the energy-efficiency of buildings. Wrong decisions and design failures related to a building’s general layout, shape, façade transparency or orientation can increase the operational energy tremendously. These failures can

  12. Safety and Comfort for Moon and MARS Habitats: Key Design Considerations (United States)

    Volkova, T. V.; Bannova, O. K.


    Safety requirements are critical in designing for any extreme environment and especially for habitats in space and on Moon or Mars. But safety alone is not enough when designing for long-term missions in extreme environments on Earth and in space.

  13. Effort and effectiveness considerations in computational design evaluation: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, Ardeshir; El-Bellahy, Shukri [Department of Building Physics and Building Ecology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria)


    Computational building evaluation tools have the potential to provide an effective means to support informed design decision making. Computational modeling, however, comes with a cost. Thereby, the most important cost factor is not software acquisition, but the time needed for learning and using the software. The extent of required time and effort is believed to be one of the main hindrances toward the pervasive use of computational building performance assessment tools by designers: Currently, modeling applications are mostly used, if at all, in the later stages of design and by specialists, rather than architects. However, few studies have explicitly dealt with the ascertainment and quantification of the actual effort needed to understand, master, and apply computational building evaluation tools. Thus, little factual information is available as to the cost and burden of computational building evaluation and its effectiveness in building design support. In this context, the present paper describes a case study, whose motivation was to estimate the time and effort needed by novice designers to computationally evaluate the performance of building designs. A group of senior architecture students participated in the study, learning and using a software application to assess the energy performance of six project submissions for a school building design competition. The outcome of this study (time investment ranges for various components of the modeling activity) was evaluated and further extrapolated to estimate the effort needed for a more comprehensive computational assessment of the environmental performance of these designs. (author)

  14. Settlement of Thick Clay Deposits under Piled-Raft Foundation and Design Considerations (Pile Dimensions)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee K.Y


    .... Practical design of piled raft foundations is made for the light bridges and five story buildings on thick clay deposits to discuss the long-term settlement, and it is found that the piled raft is well applicable and effective on thick clay deposits, and that differential settlements of the foundation should be managed by designing the configuration of pile lengths and spacing.

  15. Magnetic design consideration of a Magnetic Lead Screw with Halbach Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Berg, Nick Ilsø; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    This paper presents the novel design of a Magnetic Lead Screw (MLS) with magnetic thread of Halbach Arrays. The MLS where designed and build, tests indicated a stall force which where 12 % lower than calculated in 3D FE. This is explained by demagnetization of the magnet during stall, the behavior...

  16. Game Programming Course - Creative Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaak Henno


    Full Text Available Rapid developments of the Electronic Entertainment - computer and video games, virtual environments, the "Games 3.0" revolution - influences also courses about Games and Virtual Environments. In the following is discussed the course “Games and Virtual Environments” presented in the fall 2007 term in Tallinn University of Technology; the main emphasis of the course was not on programming technology, but on understanding games as a special form of communication and exploring specific features of this form.

  17. Design Patterns : Implementation in video game programming


    Le Van, Cuong


    The goal of this thesis was to develop Last Planets, a social mobile game for iOS devices. The game development theory and the design patterns are portrayed in the first part of this study. The second part presents how such theories are put into practice during the development of Last Planets. The completion of the project resulted in the launch of Last Planets during spring 2016. Multiple design patterns were chosen to be implemented within the code base. Patterns such as Observer, Strat...

  18. Engineering Materials and Machine Design Courses in ET Programs. (United States)

    Brodsky, Stanley M.


    Reports on a study designed to determine the current status of courses in engineering materials and their relationship to machine design and design project courses in mechanical engineering technology programs. Includes discussions of two recommendations of the study that were endorsed by a national conference. (TW)

  19. The design and application of shared savings programs: lessons from early adopters. (United States)

    Weissman, Joel S; Bailit, Michael; D'Andrea, Guy; Rosenthal, Meredith B


    Different forms of physician payment result in different levels of financial risk for health care payers and providers, and can affect clinical decision making and the cost of care. Shared savings programs reward providers for holding spending below specific targets, thus introducing a level of financial accountability not present in strictly volume-based payment models, such as fee-for-service. Here we examine the design and application of shared savings formulas across a range of actual programs. We also present a more detailed description of one particular shared savings program-the Massachusetts Patient-Centered Medical Home Initiative-focusing on key trade-offs between payers and providers that eventually led to agreement on specific aspects of the program. We conclude with principles for the design of future shared savings arrangements and consideration of issues that will confront decision makers as these efforts mature and expand.

  20. Some Practical Considerations for the Sponsorship of Required Postdoctoral General Dentistry Education Programs. (United States)

    Reed, Michael J.


    One issue that must be addressed in determining sponsorship of required postdoctoral dental education programs is the long-term prediction of the population to be served and the institution's ability to serve it. (MSE)

  1. Interface design and human factors considerations for model-based tight glycemic control in critical care. (United States)

    Ward, Logan; Steel, James; Le Compte, Aaron; Evans, Alicia; Tan, Chia-Siong; Penning, Sophie; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Desaive, Thomas; Chase, J Geoffrey


    Tight glycemic control (TGC) has shown benefits but has been difficult to implement. Model-based methods and computerized protocols offer the opportunity to improve TGC quality and compliance. This research presents an interface design to maximize compliance, minimize real and perceived clinical effort, and minimize error based on simple human factors and end user input. The graphical user interface (GUI) design is presented by construction based on a series of simple, short design criteria based on fundamental human factors engineering and includes the use of user feedback and focus groups comprising nursing staff at Christchurch Hospital. The overall design maximizes ease of use and minimizes (unnecessary) interaction and use. It is coupled to a protocol that allows nurse staff to select measurement intervals and thus self-manage workload. The overall GUI design is presented and requires only one data entry point per intervention cycle. The design and main interface are heavily focused on the nurse end users who are the predominant users, while additional detailed and longitudinal data, which are of interest to doctors guiding overall patient care, are available via tabs. This dichotomy of needs and interests based on the end user's immediate focus and goals shows how interfaces must adapt to offer different information to multiple types of users. The interface is designed to minimize real and perceived clinical effort, and ongoing pilot trials have reported high levels of acceptance. The overall design principles, approach, and testing methods are based on fundamental human factors principles designed to reduce user effort and error and are readily generalizable. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Establishing a new military sexual trauma treatment program: Issues and recommendations for design and implementation. (United States)

    Johnson, Nicole L; Robinett, Shelia; Smith, Lauren M; Cardin, Scott


    This article presents a review of issues and considerations when developing a comprehensive military sexual trauma (MST) treatment program. A review of the current literature was conducted, which we argue is the first step in informing programmatic design. Next, information on how to obtain local public data and then a description of how we used this information to design the new MST program at our facility are discussed. Our clinic design reflects best practice while simultaneously incorporating real-world information and will be more likely to positively influence overall care to patients. As such, we recommend that clinicians involved in clinic development will use this process as a model for successful clinic planning and program development. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Simplicity in command and control systems - A human factors consideration. [for man computer interfare design (United States)

    Chafin, R. L.


    The importance of simplicity in the man computer interface (MCI) is stressed because of the effect it has on the system containing the MCI. Results are used from an MCI study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to find an area where the system MCIs can be simplified. The circumstances under which these simplifications are appropriate are listed. The concepts of cognitive simplicity and process simplicity are presented as design alternatives for the MCI. In addition, the concepts of understandability, operation, learnability, level of learning, and usability are presented as tools for the system designer. The use of these concepts in developing a systematic MCI design is discussed.

  4. First Considerations on Beam Optics and Lattice Design for the Future Hadron-Hadron Collider FCC

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany Fernandez, R


    The present document explains the steps carried out in order to make the first design of the Future Hadron-Hadron Collider (FCC-hh) following the base line parameters that can be found in [1]. Two lattice layouts are presented, a ring collider with 12 arcs and 12 straight sections, four of them designed as interaction points, and a racetrack like collider with two arcs and two straight sections, each of them equipped with two interaction points. The lattice design presented in the paper is modular allowing the same modules be used for both layouts. The present document addresses as well the beta star reach at the interaction points.

  5. Human factors considerations in designing for infection prevention and control in neonatal care - findings from a pre-design inquiry. (United States)

    Trudel, Chantal; Cobb, Sue; Momtahan, Kathryn; Brintnell, Janet; Mitchell, Ann


    Qualitative data collection methods drawn from the early stages of human-centred design frameworks combined with thematic analysis were used to develop an understanding of infection prevention practice within an existing neonatal intensive care unit. Findings were used to generate a framework of understanding which in turn helped inform a baseline approach for future research and design development. The study revealed that a lack of clarity between infection transmission zones and a lack of design attributes needed to uphold infection prevention measures may be undermining healthcare workers' understanding and application of good practice. The issue may be further complicated by well-intentioned behavioural attitudes to meeting work objectives; undue influences from spatial constraints; the influence of inadvertent and excessive touch-based interactions; physical and/or cognitive exertion to maintain transmission barriers; and the impact of expanding job design and increased workload to supplement for lack of effective barriers. Practitioner Summary: Despite high hand hygiene compliance within a neonatal intensive care unit, healthcare workers expressed concerns about the unit design and infection prevention practice. Early inquiry methods from human-centred design and thematic analysis helped develop a framework to understand how design can be used to aid infection prevention.

  6. Program for three-phase power transformer design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivian Chiver


    Full Text Available This paper presents a program developed for designing three-phase power transformers used in power systems. The program was developed in Visual Basic because this programming language allows us to realize a friendly and suggestive interface with minimum effort. The second reason, which is the most important, is to use Visual Basic, because this language is recognized by the used finite elements analysis (FEA software, MagNet produced by Infolytica. This software package is designed for calculation of the magnetic field of electromagnetic devices and machines. The 3D components of the numerical model are carried out using CATIA program, automatically, based on the calculated main geometric data.

  7. Design of All Digital Flight Program Training Desktop Application System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu


    Full Text Available All digital flight program training desktop application system operating conditions are simple. Can make the aircraft aircrew learning theory and operation training closely. Improve the training efficiency and effectiveness. This paper studies the application field and design requirements of flight program training system. Based on the WINDOWS operating system desktop application, the design idea and system architecture of the all digital flight program training system are put forward. Flight characteristics, key airborne systems and aircraft cockpit are simulated. Finally, By comparing flight training simulator and the specific script program training system, The characteristics and advantages of the training system are analyzed in this paper.

  8. FMEA and consideration of real work situations for safer design of production systems. (United States)

    Lux, Aurélien; Mawo De Bikond, Johann; Etienne, Alain; Quillerou-Grivot, Edwige


    Production equipment designers must ensure the health and safety of future users; in this regard, they augment requirements for standardizing and controlling operator work. This contrasts with the ergonomic view of the activity, which recommends leaving operators leeway (margins for manoeuvre) in performing their task, while safeguarding their health. Following a brief analysis of design practices in the car industry, we detail how the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) approach is implemented in this sector. We then suggest an adaptation that enables designers to consider real work situations. This new protocol, namely, work situation FMEA, allows experience feedback to be used to defend the health standpoint during designer project reviews, which usually only address quality and performance issues. We subsequently illustrate the advantage of this approach using two examples of work situations at car parts manufacturers: the first from the literature and the second from an in-company industrial project.

  9. Pilot-Streaming: Design Considerations for a Stream Processing Framework for High-Performance Computing


    Andre Luckow; Peter Kasson; Shantenu Jha


    This White Paper (submitted to STREAM 2016) identifies an approach to integrate streaming data with HPC resources. The paper outlines the design of Pilot-Streaming, which extends the concept of Pilot-abstraction to streaming real-time data.

  10. Seismic Design Considerations : Volume I, Technical Approaches and Results; Volume II, Appendices II-VIII (United States)


    NJDOT has adopted AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design approved by the Highway : Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures in 2007. The main objective of research presented in this report has : been to resolve following issue...

  11. Commentary: considerations for using the 'Trials within Cohorts' design in a clinical trial of an investigational medicinal product. (United States)

    Bibby, Anna C; Torgerson, David J; Leach, Samantha; Lewis-White, Helen; Maskell, Nick A


    The 'trials within cohorts' (TwiC) design is a pragmatic approach to randomised trials in which trial participants are randomly selected from an existing cohort. The design has multiple potential benefits, including the option of conducting multiple trials within the same cohort. To date, the TwiC design methodology been used in numerous clinical settings but has never been applied to a clinical trial of an investigational medicinal product (CTIMP). We have recently secured the necessary approvals to undertake the first CTIMP using the TwiC design. In this paper, we describe some of the considerations and modifications required to ensure such a trial is compliant with Good Clinical Practice and international clinical trials regulations. We advocate using a two-stage consent process and using the consent stages to explicitly differentiate between trial participants and cohort participants who are providing control data. This distinction ensured compliance but had consequences with respect to costings, recruitment and the trial assessment schedule. We have demonstrated that it is possible to secure ethical and regulatory approval for a CTIMP TwiC. By including certain considerations at the trial design stage, we believe this pragmatic and efficient methodology could be utilised in other CTIMPs in future.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÂRSAN Lucian


    Full Text Available Electric hand-tools design is a very dynamic domain. Many companies develop their products according to the usual restrictions such as costs, aesthetics, functionality, safety, reliability etc. Ergonomics is another constriction designers should respect. In this paper some usual hand tools are analyzed based on the ergonomic principles. Also, some suggestions regarding the form improvement of the products are formulated in the paper.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The ECX Project, Brookhaven Lab's predecessor to the RHIC e-Cooler, includes a prototype RF tuner mechanism capable of both coarse and fast tuning. This tuner concept, adapted originally from a DESY design, has longer stroke and significantly higher loads attributable to the very stiff ECX cavity shape. Structural design, kinematics, controls, thermal and RF issues are discussed and certain improvements are proposed.

  14. Design and Analysis Considerations for Cluster Randomized Controlled Trials That Have a Small Number of Clusters. (United States)

    Deke, John


    Cluster randomized controlled trials (CRCTs) often require a large number of clusters in order to detect small effects with high probability. However, there are contexts where it may be possible to design a CRCT with a much smaller number of clusters (10 or fewer) and still detect meaningful effects. The objective is to offer recommendations for best practices in design and analysis for small CRCTs. I use simulations to examine alternative design and analysis approaches. Specifically, I examine (1) which analytic approaches control Type I errors at the desired rate, (2) which design and analytic approaches yield the most power, (3) what is the design effect of spurious correlations, and (4) examples of specific scenarios under which impacts of different sizes can be detected with high probability. I find that (1) mixed effects modeling and using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) on data aggregated to the cluster level both control the Type I error rate, (2) randomization within blocks is always recommended, but how best to account for blocking through covariate adjustment depends on whether the precision gains offset the degrees of freedom loss, (3) power calculations can be accurate when design effects from small sample, spurious correlations are taken into account, and (4) it is very difficult to detect small effects with just four clusters, but with six or more clusters, there are realistic circumstances under which small effects can be detected with high probability. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. 45 CFR 2522.450 - What types of programs or program models may receive special consideration in the selection process? (United States)


    ... children and youth, including mentoring of disadvantaged youth and children of prisoners; (2) Programs that... unemployment rate greater than the national average unemployment for the most recent 12 months for which State...

  16. Successful Bullying Prevention Programs: Influence of Research Design, Implementation Features, and Program Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanna Hahn Fox


    Full Text Available Bullying prevention programs have been shown to be generally effective in reducing bullying and victimization. However, the effects are relatively small in randomized experiments and greater in quasi-experimental and age-cohort designs. Programs that are more intensive and of longer duration (for both children and teachers are more effective, as are programs containing more components. Several program components are associated with large effect sizes, including parent training or meetings and teacher training. These results should inform the design and evaluation of anti-bullying programs in the future, and a system ofaccreditation of effective programs.

  17. Clutter filter design considerations for Airborne Doppler radar detection of windshear (United States)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.


    The problem of clutter rejection when processing down-looking Doppler radar returns from a low altitude airborne platform is a paramount problem. With radar as a remote sensor for detecting and predicting windshear in the vicinity of an urban airport, dynamic range requirements can exceed 50 dB because of high clutter to signal ratios. This presentation describes signal processing considerations in the presence of distributed and/or discrete clutter interference. Previous analyses have considered conventional range cell processing of radar returns from a rigidly mounted radar platform using either the Fourier or the pulse-pair method to estimate average windspeed and windspeed variation within a cell. Clutter rejection has been based largely upon analyzing a particular environment in the vicinity of the radar and employing a variety of techniques to reduce interference effects including notch filtering, Fourier domain line editing, and use of clutter maps. For the airborne environment the clutter characteristics may be somewhat different. Conventional clutter rejection methods may have to be changed and new methods will probably be required to provide useful signal to noise ratios. Various considerations are described. A major thrust has been to evaluate the effect of clutter rejection filtering upon the ability to derive useful information from the post-filter radar data. This analysis software is briefly described. Finally, some ideas for future analysis are considered including the use of adaptive filtering for clutter rejection and the estimation of windspeed spatial gradient directly from radar returns as a means of reducing the effects of clutter on the determination of a windshear hazard.

  18. Software tools to aid Pascal and Ada program design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowitz, H.T.


    This thesis describes a software tool which analyses the style and structure of Pascal and Ada programs by ensuring that some minimum design requirements are fulfilled. The tool is used in much the same way as a compiler is used to teach students the syntax of a language, only in this case issues related to the design and structure of the program are of paramount importance. The tool operates by analyzing the design and structure of a syntactically correct program, automatically generating a report detailing changes that need to be made in order to ensure that the program is structurally sound. The author discusses how the model gradually evolved from a plagiarism detection system which extracted several measurable characteristics in a program to a model that analyzed the style of Pascal programs. In order to incorporate more-sophistical concepts like data abstraction, information hiding and data protection, this model was then extended to analyze the composition of Ada programs. The Ada model takes full advantage of facilities offered in the language and by using this tool the standard and quality of written programs is raised whilst the fundamental principles of program design are grasped through a process of self-tuition.

  19. Towards Improved Considerations of Risk in Seismic Design (Plinius Medal Lecture) (United States)

    Sullivan, T. J.


    The aftermath of recent earthquakes is a reminder that seismic risk is a very relevant issue for our communities. Implicit within the seismic design standards currently in place around the world is that minimum acceptable levels of seismic risk will be ensured through design in accordance with the codes. All the same, none of the design standards specify what the minimum acceptable level of seismic risk actually is. Instead, a series of deterministic limit states are set which engineers then demonstrate are satisfied for their structure, typically through the use of elastic dynamic analyses adjusted to account for non-linear response using a set of empirical correction factors. From the early nineties the seismic engineering community has begun to recognise numerous fundamental shortcomings with such seismic design procedures in modern codes. Deficiencies include the use of elastic dynamic analysis for the prediction of inelastic force distributions, the assignment of uniform behaviour factors for structural typologies irrespective of the structural proportions and expected deformation demands, and the assumption that hysteretic properties of a structure do not affect the seismic displacement demands, amongst other things. In light of this a number of possibilities have emerged for improved control of risk through seismic design, with several innovative displacement-based seismic design methods now well developed. For a specific seismic design intensity, such methods provide a more rational means of controlling the response of a structure to satisfy performance limit states. While the development of such methodologies does mark a significant step forward for the control of seismic risk, they do not, on their own, identify the seismic risk of a newly designed structure. In the U.S. a rather elaborate performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework is under development, with the aim of providing seismic loss estimates for new buildings. The PBEE framework

  20. Design Considerations of a Slit Diaphragm Flexure Used in a Precision Mirror Gimbal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B. C., Kaufman, M. I.


    Two precision mirror gimbals were designed using slit diaphragm flexures to provide two-axis precision mirror alignment in space-limited applications. Both gimbals are currently in use in diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility: one design in the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic and the other in the Neutron Imaging System (NIS) diagnostic. The GRH gimbal has an adjustment sensitivity of 0.1 mrad about both axes and a total adjustment capability of ±6°; the NIS gimbal has an adjustment sensitivity of 0.8 μrad about both axes and a total adjustment range of ±3°. Both slit diaphragm flexures were electro-discharge machined out of high-strength titanium and utilize stainless steel stiffeners. The stiffener-flexure design results in adjustment axes with excellent orthogonality and centering with respect to the mirror in a single stage; a typical two-axis gimbal flexure requires two stages. Finite element analyses are presented for both flexure designs, and a design optimization of the GRH flexure is discussed.

  1. Developing Orthopaedic Trauma Capacity in Uganda: Considerations From the Uganda Sustainable Trauma Orthopaedic Program. (United States)

    OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A


    Uganda, like many low-income countries, has a tremendous volume of orthopaedic trauma injuries. The Uganda Sustainable Trauma Orthopaedic Program (USTOP) is a partnership between the University of British Columbia and Makerere University that was initiated in 2007 to reduce the consequences of neglected orthopaedic trauma in Uganda. USTOP works with local collaborators to build orthopaedic trauma capacity through clinical training, skills workshops, system support, technology development, and research. USTOP has maintained a multidisciplinary approach to training, involving colleagues in anaesthesia, nursing, rehabilitation, and sterile reprocessing. Since the program's inception, the number of trained orthopaedic surgeons practicing in Uganda has more than doubled. Many of these newly trained surgeons provide clinical care in the previously underserved regional hospitals. The program has also worked with collaborators to develop several technologies aimed at reducing the cost of providing orthopaedic care without compromising quality. As orthopaedic trauma capacity in Uganda advances, USTOP strives to continually evolve and provide relevant support to colleagues in Uganda.

  2. Development of integrated programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product program management systems (United States)

    Isenberg, J. M.; Southall, J. W.


    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) is a computing system to support company-wide design information processing. This document presents a brief description of the management system used to direct and control a product-oriented program. This document, together with the reference design process (CR 2981) and the manufacture interactions with the design process (CR 2982), comprises the reference information that forms the basis for specifying IPAD system requirements.

  3. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Peter N.


    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  4. Design Considerations for Wireless Charging Systems with an Analysis of Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Wang


    Full Text Available Three criteria, including charging time, effective charging capacity and charging energy efficiency, are introduced to evaluate the CC (constant current and CC/CV (constant current/constant voltage charging strategies. Because the CC strategy presents a better performance and most resonant topologies have the CC characteristic, the CC strategy is more suitable for the design of wireless charging systems than the CC/CV strategy. Then, the state space model of the receiver is built to study the system dynamic characteristics, and the design of nonuse output filter capacitors is proposed, which can improve the system power density and avoid the drop in efficiency caused by capacitor degradation. At last, an electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS based analysis method is introduced to validate that the design without output filter capacitors has no effects on the battery characteristics when the charging frequency is higher than 460 Hz. A prototype is fabricated to verify our research results.

  5. First Considerations Concerning an Optimized Cavity Design for the Main Linac of BERLinPro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Riemann, T. Weis, W. Anders, J. Knobloch, A. Neumann, H.-W. Glock, C. Potratz, U. van Rienen, F. Marhauser


    The Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project (BERLinPro) is designed to develop and demonstrate CW linac technology and expertise required to drive next-generation Energy Recovery Linacs. Strongly HOM-damped multicell 1.3 GHz cavities are required for the main linac. The optimization of the cavities presented here is primarily based on the CEBAF 1.5 GHz 5-cell high-current cavity design, including HOM waveguide couplers. The cavity was scaled to 1.3 GHz and extended to 7 cells. Modifications to the end group design have also been studied. An effort was also made to reduce the ratio Epk/Eacc while still permitting HOMs to propagate.

  6. Enviro-geotechnical considerations in waste containment system design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, H.Y.; Daniels, J.L.; Inyang, H.I. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States)


    The effectiveness of waste control facilities hinges on careful evaluation of the overall planning, analysis and design of the entire system prior to construction. At present, most work is focused on the waste controlling system itself, with little attention given to the local environmental factors surrounding the facility sites. Containment materials including geomembranes, geotextiles and clay amended soils have received intense scrutiny. This paper, however, focuses on three relatively important issues relating to the characterization of the surrounding geomedia. Leakage through naturally occurring low-permeability soil layers, shrinkages swelling, cracking and effects of dynamic loads on system components are often responsible for a waste containment breach. In this paper, these mechanisms and their synergistic effects are explained in terms of the particle energy field theory. It is hoped that this additional information may assist the designer to be aware or take precaution to design safer future waste control facilities.

  7. Settlement of Thick Clay Deposits under Piled-Raft Foundation and Design Considerations (Pile Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee K.Y.


    Full Text Available Characteristics and histories of the deltaic deposits in geotechnical perspective are studied. Geotechnical issues of clay deposits under floating foundation systems also analyzed. Theoretical expressions and parameters were examined by an experimental study and numerical analysis on the laboratory scales and field measurement in this study. Also, piled raft foundation on thick clay deposits is designated to optimize pile configuration. The predictions of settlements of piled rafts foundation are proposed based on pile dimensions by utilizing a normalized Ap/nL and Bg/Br. Practical design of piled raft foundations is made for the light bridges and five story buildings on thick clay deposits to discuss the long-term settlement, and it is found that the piled raft is well applicable and effective on thick clay deposits, and that differential settlements of the foundation should be managed by designing the configuration of pile lengths and spacing.

  8. Design considerations for community-based stream monitoring to detect changes in Pacific salmon habitats


    Cory R. Lagasse; Wanli Ou; Leah D. Honka; William I Atlas; Claire N. Hutton; Jana Kotaska; Hocking, Morgan D


    Communities in the Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia, Canada are highly dependent on Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and the watersheds that support them, yet current monitoring efforts are likely inadequate for detecting changes in stream habitats that may affect salmon populations. The Coastal First Nations Regional Monitoring System is attempting to address these information gaps through a new stream assessment program that collects baseline information and tracks changes in str...

  9. Distributed Processor/Memory Architectures Design Program (United States)


    3 Pt- Pfkieg. %lnsmul and lldl.rIftu F.7 ill e .. . . . 4. Pt- I.Ascal] And ( Globil " hl~tterti+ Viml .. .. .. . . . . 5. P- 1 0 Il.zertax I nit .. System Design Process ............... 370 162 Relationship Between the Prxce.s. Its Environment , and Its Response to the Environment and Air Force tiiandardN for components in these s.stems, suLh present standards as those for environmental and elef’trikal power interlace were

  10. Empowerment and programs designed to address domestic violence. (United States)

    Kasturirangan, Aarati


    Programs designed to address domestic violence often name empowerment of women as a major program goal. However, programs do not necessarily define what empowerment for survivors of domestic violence entails. This review examines the literature on empowerment, including characteristics of an empowerment process and critiques of empowerment. Diversity of goals for empowerment and differences in access to resources for women experiencing domestic violence are explored as two major factors that should inform program development. Recommendations are offered for developing programs to address domestic violence that support women engaged in an empowerment process.

  11. Design considerations for community-based stream monitoring to detect changes in Pacific salmon habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory R. Lagasse


    Full Text Available Communities in the Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia, Canada are highly dependent on Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. and the watersheds that support them, yet current monitoring efforts are likely inadequate for detecting changes in stream habitats that may affect salmon populations. The Coastal First Nations Regional Monitoring System is attempting to address these information gaps through a new stream assessment program that collects baseline information and tracks changes in stream habitats. Using the program's monitoring protocol, we assessed the habitat characteristics of eight streams within the Koeye and Namu watersheds, then used a statistical power simulation to determine within-stream sampling requirements for detecting changes in substrate composition that may affect salmon habitat suitability. We also assessed resource constraints and perceived threats to stream habitats via questionnaires to coastal First Nations' stewardship staff. Results suggest that the current recommended sample size of 6 within-stream transects has low statistical power for detecting biologically significant changes in fine sediment. Given limited monitoring resources, we recommend higher transect sampling intensities within productive riffle-pool streams, but an emphasis on monitoring site level characteristics, such as large woody debris and pool volume, in less productive, high gradient cascade-pool streams. Questionnaire results highlight the need for flexibility and local adaptation in monitoring efforts because of differences in resource constraints among First Nations communities. If successfully implemented, the stream assessment program can integrate local knowledge with western science to inform ecosystem-based management of watersheds within the Great Bear Rainforest.

  12. Important considerations when analyzing health survey data collected using a complex sample design. (United States)

    Sakshaug, Joseph W; West, Brady T


    Researchers often use survey data to answer important public health policy questions. Examples of common data sources used in public health research include the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the National Health Interview Survey, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. All these surveys employ a complex sample design to recruit participants into the survey. When performing secondary analyses of complex sample survey data, it is necessary to remind ourselves of the key features of these designs that must be taken into account to produce valid statistical estimates.

  13. Electrolyte Management Considerations in Modern Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium Cell and Battery Designs (United States)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.


    This paper reviews three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. Sample calculations of the concentration or volume changes that can take place within operating cells are presented. With the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery, the impact of changes of potassium ion content within a potential cell design can be estimated. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the components used in the cell or battery design.

  14. Heat exchanger design considerations for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C.F.; Vrable, D.L.; Van Hagan, T.H.; King, J.H.; Spring, A.H.


    Various aspects of the high-temperature heat exchanger conceptual designs for the gas turbine (HTGR-GT) and process heat (HTGR-PH) plants are discussed. Topics include technology background, heat exchanger types, surface geometry, thermal sizing, performance, material selection, mechanical design, fabrication, and the systems-related impact of installation and integration of the units in the prestressed concrete reactor vessel. The impact of future technology developments, such as the utilization of nonmetallic materials and advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction, is also discussed.

  15. LOFT fuel modules design, characterization, and fabrication program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M. L.


    The loss-of-fluid test (LOFT) fuel modules have evolved from a comprehensive five-year design, characterization, and fabrication program which has resulted in the accomplishment of many technical activities of interest in pressurized water reactor fuel design development and safety research. Information is presented concerning: determination of fundamental high-temperature reactor material properties; design invention related to in-core instrumentation attachment; implementation of advanced and/or unique fuel bundle characterization techniques; implementation of improved fuel bundle fabrication techniques; and planning and execution of a multimillion dollar design, characterization, and fabrication program for pressurized water reactor fuel.

  16. Early Care and Education: Policy Considerations for Ensuring High-Quality Pre-K Programs (United States)

    Best, Jane; Cohen, Courtney


    Interest in early care and education (ECE), also referred to as an early childhood education, has escalated in recent years. The interest is bipartisan, as evidenced by the multiple ECE-related bills already introduced by the 113th Congress. Further, 39 states have implemented prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. In 2013, 27 governors mentioned ECE…

  17. Mindfulness in Practice: Considerations for Implementation of Mindfulness-Based Programming for Adolescents in School Contexts (United States)

    Lawlor, Molly Steward


    Schools are considered one of the primary settings in which prevention and intervention initiatives can be implemented successfully, reaching a large number of young people. Especially when promoting social and emotional learning (SEL), many adolescents benefit from universal programs implemented in the school context. This chapter embeds…

  18. Developing a Postbasic Gerontology Program for International Learners: Considerations for the Process. (United States)

    Bolan, Christine M.


    Chilean and Canadian schools of nursing collaborated in the development of 13 self-paced print modules in gerontology with web-based components. A 6-week preceptored clinical experience followed completion of the theory portion to support learner mastery of program outcomes. The curriculum was developed using a creative, systematic approach that…

  19. Navigating Social Networking and Social Media in School Psychology: Ethical and Professional Considerations in Training Programs (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.


    Social networking and social media have undoubtedly proliferated within the past decade, allowing widespread communication and dissemination of user-generated content and information. Some psychology graduate programs, including school psychology, have started to embrace social networking and media for instructional and training purposes; however,…

  20. Dancing through Cape Coast: ethical and practical considerations for health-related service-learning programs. (United States)

    Saffran, Lise


    Short-term service-learning programs that focus on global health are expanding rapidly, spurred by students' desire to be of service in a world that has been made to seem small by new technology and universities' willingness to embrace the goal of educating global citizens. In this commentary, the author uses experiences from a recent trip she led to Ghana as a backdrop against which to explore some of the ethical and practical issues that arise when U.S. students work in health-related programs in developing countries. At minimum, the author argues, these programs should lead students to consider issues such as which basic services people are entitled to, regardless of where and in what circumstances they live, and how differences in access to social and economic resources contribute to health disparities on a global scale. She also suggests that sponsoring institutions should consider what is owed to the countries and communities in which their students learn. Finally, she underscores the circumstances under which service-learning programs can truly benefit the cause of global health.

  1. Microworlds for Learning Object-Oriented Programming: Considerations from Research to Practice (United States)

    Djelil, Fahima; Albouy-Kissi, Adelaide; Albouy-Kissi, Benjamin; Sanchez, Eric; Lavest, Jean-Marc


    Object-Oriented paradigm is a common paradigm for introductory programming courses. However, many teachers find that transitioning to teaching this paradigm is a difficult task. To overcome this complexity, many experienced teachers use microworlds to give beginner students an intuitive and rapid understanding of fundamental abstract concepts of…

  2. Applying Universal Design for Learning in Online Courses: Pedagogical and Practical Considerations (United States)

    Dell, Cindy Ann; Dell, Thomas F.; Blackwell, Terry L.


    Inclusion of the universal design for learning (UDL) model as a guiding set of principles for online curriculum development in higher education is discussed. Fundamentally, UDL provides the student with multiple means of accessing the course based on three overarching principles: presentation; action and expression; and engagement and interaction.…

  3. Prostate cancer: Important steps and considerations in the design of therapeutic vaccines. (United States)

    McArdle, Stephanie Eb; Pockley, A Graham; Gibson, Glen R; Rees, Robert C


    Vaccine-based immunotherapy can increase the overall survival of patients with advanced prostate cancer. However, the efficacy of vaccine-elicited anticancer immune responses is heavily influenced by the physical, nutritional, and psychological status of the patient. Given their importance, these parameters should be carefully considered for the design of future clinical trials testing this immunotherapeutic paradigm in prostate cancer patients.

  4. Design considerations to improve cognitive ergonomic issues of unmanned vehicle interfaces utilizing video game controllers. (United States)

    Oppold, P; Rupp, M; Mouloua, M; Hancock, P A; Martin, J


    Unmanned (UAVs, UCAVs, and UGVs) systems still have major human factors and ergonomic challenges related to the effective design of their control interface systems, crucial to their efficient operation, maintenance, and safety. Unmanned system interfaces with a human centered approach promote intuitive interfaces that are easier to learn, and reduce human errors and other cognitive ergonomic issues with interface design. Automation has shifted workload from physical to cognitive, thus control interfaces for unmanned systems need to reduce mental workload on the operators and facilitate the interaction between vehicle and operator. Two-handed video game controllers provide wide usability within the overall population, prior exposure for new operators, and a variety of interface complexity levels to match the complexity level of the task and reduce cognitive load. This paper categorizes and provides taxonomy for 121 haptic interfaces from the entertainment industry that can be utilized as control interfaces for unmanned systems. Five categories of controllers were based on the complexity of the buttons, control pads, joysticks, and switches on the controller. This allows the selection of the level of complexity needed for a specific task without creating an entirely new design or utilizing an overly complex design.

  5. Housing Arrays Following Disasters: Social Vulnerability Considerations in Designing Transitional Communities (United States)

    Spokane, Arnold R.; Mori, Yoko; Martinez, Frank


    Displacement and dislocation from homes disrupt fundamental social processes necessary for optimal community functioning. Neighborhood and community social capital, collective efficacy and place attachment are social processes that may be compromised following disaster, conflict, and upheaval. A collaborative approach to the preplanning, design,…

  6. 34 CFR 75.607 - General considerations in designing facilities and carrying out construction. (United States)


    ... architecture and design and inclusion of works of art. The grantee may not spend more than one percent of the cost of the project on inclusion of works of art. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474) ...

  7. 78 FR 66941 - Design Considerations for Pivotal Clinical Investigations for Medical Devices; Guidance for... (United States)


    ... answer different scientific questions. The guidance describes principles that should be followed for the... document describes different study design principles relevant to the development of medical device . Submit written comments to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug...

  8. Submitted for your consideration: potential advantages of a novel clinical trial design and initial patient reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Shane Loop


    Full Text Available In many circumstances, individuals do not respond identically to the same treatment. This phenomenon, which is called treatment response heterogeneity (TRH, appears to be present in treatments for many conditions, including obesity. Estimating the total amount of TRH, predicting an individual’s response, and identifying the mediators of TRH are of interest to biomedical researchers. Clinical investigators and physicians commonly postulate that some of these mediators could be genetic. Current designs can estimate TRH as a function of specific, measurable observed factors; however, they cannot estimate the total amount of TRH, nor provide reliable estimates of individual persons’ responses. We propose a new repeated randomizations design (RRD, which can be conceived as a generalization of the Balaam design, that would allow estimates of that variability and facilitate estimation of the total amount of TRH, prediction of an individual’s response, and identification of the mediators of TRH. In a pilot study, we asked 118 subjects entering a weight loss trial for their opinion of the RRD, and they stated a preference for the RRD over the conventional 2-arm parallel groups design. Research is needed as to how the RRD will work in practice and its relative statistical properties, and we invite dialogue about it.

  9. A Primer on Cabling Design and Implementation: Considerations for Decision-Makers. (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This guide for school administrators and staff is intended to be used in conjunction with the "Guidelines To Provide Uniform Wiring Service for Telecommunications in North Carolina Public Schools" as they: begin planning for cable implementation in the schools; work with architects and builders in the design and implementation of cabling…




  11. Undertaking Experiments in Social Sciences: Sequential, Multiple Time Series Designs for Consideration (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.; Ngu, Bing H.


    In social sciences, the use of stringent methodological approaches is gaining increasing emphasis. Researchers have recognized the limitations of cross-sectional, non-manipulative data in the study of causality. True experimental designs, in contrast, are preferred as they represent rigorous standards for achieving causal flows between variables.…

  12. Keeping up stories: design considerations for a police interview training game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn; Kolkmeier, Jan; Kolkmeier, Jan; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Linssen, Johannes Maria; Theune, Mariet; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    This discussion paper presents ideas for designing a serious game for tutoring police officers in training to conduct non-cooperative dialogue in police interviews. The system teaches social interactions. It simulates the social interactions of suspects in police interviews through a virtual suspect

  13. Designing Energy Supply Chains with the P-graph Framework under Cost Constraints and Sustainability Considerations (United States)

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...

  14. Design considerations for micromechanical sensors using encapsulated built-in resonant strain gauges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilmans, Harrie A.C.; Bouwstra, Siebe; Fluitman, J.H.J.; Spence, Scott L.


    This paper describes the various design aspects for micromechanical sensors consisting of a structure with encapsulated built-in resonant strain gauges. Analytical models are used to investigate the effect of device parameters on the behaviour of a pressure sensor and a force sensor. The analyses

  15. Fetal programming of CVD and renal disease: animal models and mechanistic considerations. (United States)

    Langley-Evans, Simon C


    The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis postulates that exposure to a less than optimal maternal environment during fetal development programmes physiological function, and determines risk of disease in adult life. Much evidence of such programming comes from retrospective epidemiological cohorts, which demonstrate associations between birth anthropometry and non-communicable diseases of adulthood. The assertion that variation in maternal nutrition drives these associations is supported by studies using animal models, which demonstrate that maternal under- or over-nutrition during pregnancy can programme offspring development. Typically, the offspring of animals that are undernourished in pregnancy exhibit a relatively narrow range of physiological phenotypes that includes higher blood pressure, glucose intolerance, renal insufficiency and increased adiposity. The observation that common phenotypes arise from very diverse maternal nutritional insults has led to the proposal that programming is driven by a small number of mechanistic processes. The remodelling of tissues during development as a consequence of maternal nutritional status being signalled by endocrine imbalance or key nutrients limiting processes in the fetus may lead to organs having irreversibly altered structures that may limit their function with ageing. It has been proposed that the maternal diet may impact upon epigenetic marks that determine gene expression in fetal tissues, and this may be an important mechanism connecting maternal nutrient intakes to long-term programming of offspring phenotype. The objective for this review is to provide an overview of the mechanistic basis of fetal programming, demonstrating the critical role of animal models as tools for the investigation of programming phenomena.

  16. Invited review: study design considerations for clinical research in veterinary radiology and radiation oncology. (United States)

    Scrivani, Peter V; Erb, Hollis N


    High quality clinical research is essential for advancing knowledge in the areas of veterinary radiology and radiation oncology. Types of clinical research studies may include experimental studies, method-comparison studies, and patient-based studies. Experimental studies explore issues relative to pathophysiology, patient safety, and treatment efficacy. Method-comparison studies evaluate agreement between techniques or between observers. Patient-based studies investigate naturally acquired disease and focus on questions asked in clinical practice that relate to individuals or populations (e.g., risk, accuracy, or prognosis). Careful preplanning and study design are essential in order to achieve valid results. A key point to planning studies is ensuring that the design is tailored to the study objectives. Good design includes a comprehensive literature review, asking suitable questions, selecting the proper sample population, collecting the appropriate data, performing the correct statistical analyses, and drawing conclusions supported by the available evidence. Most study designs are classified by whether they are experimental or observational, longitudinal or cross-sectional, and prospective or retrospective. Additional features (e.g., controlled, randomized, or blinded) may be described that address bias. Two related challenging aspects of study design are defining an important research question and selecting an appropriate sample population. The sample population should represent the target population as much as possible. Furthermore, when comparing groups, it is important that the groups are as alike to each other as possible except for the variables of interest. Medical images are well suited for clinical research because imaging signs are categorical or numerical variables that might be predictors or outcomes of diseases or treatments. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  17. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Summer Conference: NASA/USRA University Advanced Aeronautics Design Program and Advanced Space Design Program (United States)


    The NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program was established in 1984 as an attempt to add more and better design education to primarily undergraduate engineering programs. The original focus of the pilot program encompassing nine universities and five NASA centers was on space design. Two years later, the program was expanded to include aeronautics design with six universities and three NASA centers participating. This year marks the last of a three-year cycle of participation by forty-one universities, eight NASA centers, and one industry participant. The Advanced Space Design Program offers universities an opportunity to plan and design missions and hardware that would be of usc in the future as NASA enters a new era of exploration and discovery, while the Advanced Aeronautics Design Program generally offers opportunities for study of design problems closer to the present time, ranging from small, slow-speed vehicles to large, supersonic and hypersonic passenger transports. The systems approach to the design problem is emphasized in both the space and aeronautics projects. The student teams pursue the chosen problem during their senior year in a one- or two-semester capstone design course and submit a comprehensive written report at the conclusion of the project. Finally, student representatives from each of the universities summarize their work in oral presentations at the Annual Summer Conference, sponsored by one of the NASA centers and attended by the university faculty, NASA and USRA personnel and aerospace industry representatives. As the Advanced Design Program has grown in size, it has also matured in terms of the quality of the student projects. The present volume represents the student work accomplished during the 1992-1993 academic year reported at the Ninth Annual Summer Conference hosted by NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, June 14-18, 1993.

  18. Designing Camera Networks by Convex Quadratic Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bernard


    ​In this paper, we study the problem of automatic camera placement for computer graphics and computer vision applications. We extend the problem formulations of previous work by proposing a novel way to incorporate visibility constraints and camera-to-camera relationships. For example, the placement solution can be encouraged to have cameras that image the same important locations from different viewing directions, which can enable reconstruction and surveillance tasks to perform better. We show that the general camera placement problem can be formulated mathematically as a convex binary quadratic program (BQP) under linear constraints. Moreover, we propose an optimization strategy with a favorable trade-off between speed and solution quality. Our solution is almost as fast as a greedy treatment of the problem, but the quality is significantly higher, so much so that it is comparable to exact solutions that take orders of magnitude more computation time. Because it is computationally attractive, our method also allows users to explore the space of solutions for variations in input parameters. To evaluate its effectiveness, we show a range of 3D results on real-world floorplans (garage, hotel, mall, and airport). ​

  19. Some practical considerations in three-arm non-inferiority trial design. (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Kundu, Sudeep


    Non-inferiority trials aim to demonstrate whether an experimental therapy is not unacceptably worse than an active reference therapy already in use. When applicable, a three-arm non-inferiority trial, including an experiment therapy, an active reference therapy, and a placebo, is often recommended to assess assay sensitivity and internal validity of a trial. In this paper, we share some practical considerations based on our experience from a phase III three-arm non-inferiority trial. First, we discuss the determination of the total sample size and its optimal allocation based on the overall power of the non-inferiority testing procedure and provide ready-to-use R code for implementation. Second, we consider the non-inferiority goal of 'capturing all possibilities' and show that it naturally corresponds to a simple two-step testing procedure. Finally, using this two-step non-inferiority testing procedure as an example, we compare extensively commonly used frequentist p -value methods with the Bayesian posterior probability approach. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Fire Safety Consideration in the Pre-conceptual Design State of Pyro-Facillity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hong Rae; Seo, Seok Jun; Lee, Hyo Jik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The government, in order to solve this problem, has organized a public engagement committee and is searching for a solution. To use sustainable nuclear energy, our country is also pursuing research and development of fast breeder reactor and pyroprocessing technology in accordance with the international movement of spent fuel recycling and efforts towards nuclear non-proliferation which is centered on the development and demonstration of recycling spent fuel and fast breeder reactors. Pyro-facility has different features with nuclear power plant. In the pyroprocess, chemical and electrochemical separation were took place in the hot cells and material at risk (MAR) is distributed in many working areas. In this paper, we conducted the fire modeling of hot cells to see the stability of pyrophoric materials which is considered as one of the potential hazardous materials in the main process cell. Based on modeling results, consideration of fire safety pyrofacility will be discussed. We performed preliminary hazard analysis for pyrofacility and summarized potential fire hazard. Pyrophoric material fire is the dominant hazard in the main process hot cell and fire modeling of cable tray in the cell was analyzed to see the stability of pyrophoric materials. Analysis results clearly shows that pyrophoric materials are prone to be affected.

  1. Web-Based Engine for Program Curriculum Designers (United States)

    Hamam, H.; Loucif, S.


    Educational institutions pay careful attention to the design of program curricula, which represent a framework to meet institutional goals and missions. Of course, the success of any institution depends highly on the quality of its program curriculum. The development of such a curriculum and, more importantly, the evaluation of its quality are…

  2. Situated Research Design and Methodological Choices in Formative Program Evaluation (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan


    Design-based implementation research offers the opportunity to rethink the relationships between intervention, research, and situation to better attune research and evaluation to the program development process. Using a heuristic called the intervention development curve, I describe the rough trajectory that programs typically follow as they…

  3. Scrap your boilerplate: a practical design pattern for generic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lämmel (Ralf); S. Peyton Jones


    textabstractWe describe a design pattern for writing programs that traverse data structures built from rich mutually-recursive data types. Such programs often have a great deal of 'boilerplate' code that simply walks the structure, hiding a small amount of 'real' code that constitutes the reason for

  4. Perceptions of Interior Design Program Chairs Regarding Credentials for Faculty (United States)

    Miller, Beth R.


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether program chairs in interior design have a preferred degree credential for candidates seeking a full-time, tenure-track position or other full-time position at their institution and to determine if there is a correlation between this preference and the program chair's university's demographics,…

  5. Design considerations for an underwater soft-robot inspired from marine invertebrates. (United States)

    Krieg, Michael; Sledge, Isaac; Mohseni, Kamran


    This article serves as an overview of the unique challenges and opportunities made possible by a soft, jellyfish inspired, underwater robot. We include a description of internal pressure modeling as it relates to propulsive performance, leading to a desired energy-minimizing volume flux program. Strategies for determining optimal actuator placement derived from biological body motions are presented. In addition a feedback mechanism inspired by the epidermal line sensory system of cephalopods is presented, whereby internal pressure distribution can be used to determine pertinent deformation parameters.

  6. Software design and technical considerations for the calibration of gas process vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, S.H.


    In a new facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the volume of 35 vessels were determined. A literature search was made to determine an appropriate calibration method. When no practical non-laboratory methods providing the targeted uncertainty were found, an innovative approach was developed using the Gas Law principles and a portable, computerized data acquisition system. These vessels were calibrated in their final installed configuration. Each tank was calibrated in less than 24 hours. The system was comprised of a portable computer, pressure sensor, resistance temperature device temperature sensor, bottled nitrogen, and a mass comparator. This paper will describe the development of the calibration program.

  7. Design Considerations for Gan-Based Microinverter for Energy Storage Integration Into Ac Grid (United States)

    Kroics, K.; Zakis, J.; Suzdalenko, A.; Husev, O.


    A full bridge converter with electrolytic capacitor on the dc bus is a widely used approach for a single phase interface for renewable energy source generation or energy storage integration in the utility grid. New wide bandgap devices enable higher switching frequency, higher efficiency and higher power density. In the paper, the authors introduce the challenges associated with an increase in switching frequency of a single phase inverter and implementation of wide bandgap GaN-based transistors instead of traditional Si-based transistors. The low gate threshold voltage of GaN transistor and unique reverse conduction behaviour require different driving circuit. The design of the driver circuit and other practical issues are analysed in the paper. The paper also presents some practical results. The research results can be useful to avoid mistakes by designing GaN-based power converters as these devices become increasingly interesting for commercial applications.

  8. Design considerations for concentrating solar power tower systems employing molten salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei


    The Solar Two Project was a United States Department of Energy sponsored project operated from 1996 to 1999 to demonstrate the coupling of a solar power tower with a molten nitrate salt as a heat transfer media and for thermal storage. Over all, the Solar Two Project was very successful; however many operational challenges were encountered. In this work, the major problems encountered in operation of the Solar Two facility were evaluated and alternative technologies identified for use in a future solar power tower operating with a steam Rankine power cycle. Many of the major problems encountered can be addressed with new technologies that were not available a decade ago. These new technologies include better thermal insulation, analytical equipment, pumps and values specifically designed for molten nitrate salts, and gaskets resistant to thermal cycling and advanced equipment designs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÂRSAN Lucian


    Full Text Available Modular constructions are frequently used in industry because of their multiple advantages. Used from the antiquity as a measuring system that ensured good proportions for the objects or buildings, the module is used in present industry as a tool for improving the product maintenance, repair, upgrading, and/or recycling. Modular constructions can be assembled and disassembled easily, facilitating the postuse actions like subassemblies reuse, or materials recovering for the recycling process. An important aspect of this paper is that designers should create the modular solution even from the conceptual design stage and build a structure of functions based on well motivated arguments and which can easily be brake out according to technological possibilities, product functioning and assembly solutions.

  10. Component and System Sensitivity Considerations for Design of a Lunar ISRU Oxygen Production Plant (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Hegde, Uday G.; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo


    Component and system sensitivities of some design parameters of ISRU system components are analyzed. The differences between terrestrial and lunar excavation are discussed, and a qualitative comparison of large and small excavators is started. The effect of excavator size on the size of the ISRU plant's regolith hoppers is presented. Optimum operating conditions of both hydrogen and carbothermal reduction reactors are explored using recently developed analytical models. Design parameters such as batch size, conversion fraction, and maximum particle size are considered for a hydrogen reduction reactor while batch size, conversion fraction, number of melt zones, and methane flow rate are considered for a carbothermal reduction reactor. For both reactor types the effect of reactor operation on system energy and regolith delivery requirements is presented.

  11. Design Considerations for Gan-Based Microinverter for Energy Storage Integration Into Ac Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroics K.


    Full Text Available A full bridge converter with electrolytic capacitor on the dc bus is a widely used approach for a single phase interface for renewable energy source generation or energy storage integration in the utility grid. New wide bandgap devices enable higher switching frequency, higher efficiency and higher power density. In the paper, the authors introduce the challenges associated with an increase in switching frequency of a single phase inverter and implementation of wide bandgap GaN-based transistors instead of traditional Si-based transistors. The low gate threshold voltage of GaN transistor and unique reverse conduction behaviour require different driving circuit. The design of the driver circuit and other practical issues are analysed in the paper. The paper also presents some practical results. The research results can be useful to avoid mistakes by designing GaN-based power converters as these devices become increasingly interesting for commercial applications.

  12. Changing cluster composition in cluster randomised controlled trials: design and analysis considerations


    Corrigan, Neil; Bankart, Michael J G; Gray, Laura J; Smith, Karen L


    Background There are many methodological challenges in the conduct and analysis of cluster randomised controlled trials, but one that has received little attention is that of post-randomisation changes to cluster composition. To illustrate this, we focus on the issue of cluster merging, considering the impact on the design, analysis and interpretation of trial outcomes. Methods We explored the effects of merging clusters on study power using standard methods of power calculation. We assessed ...

  13. Design considerations of a linear generator for a range extender application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Un-Jae


    Full Text Available The free piston linear generator is a new range extender concept for the application in a full electric vehicle. The free piston engine driven linear generators can achieve high efficiency at part and full load which is suitable for the range extender application. This paper presents requirements for designing a linear generator deduced from a basic analysis of a free piston linear generator.

  14. Applying Universal Design for Learning in Online Courses:Pedagogical and Practical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Ann Dell


    Full Text Available Inclusion of the universal design for learning (UDL model as a guiding set of principles for online curriculum development in higher education is discussed. Fundamentally, UDL provides the student with multiple means of accessing the course based on three overarching principles: presentation; action and expression; and engagement and interaction. Guidelines are also provided for incorporating UDL into an online curriculum for teaching both general and diverse populations including students with disabilities.

  15. A systematic review of the literature concerning design considerations of homeliness in care homes.


    Stewart, Sally; Fleming, Anne.; Dr Banks, Pauline; Dr Kidd, Angela


    This paper aims to report the findings of a systematic review of the literature describing homeliness as a design criteria within residential care homes.\\ud Background: \\ud Caring for older people is an increasingly challenging and universal issue for society the ageing demographic crosses borders and cultures. While many countries are developing ways of supporting people in their own homes, there is also recognition of the continued need for residential care for older people. Much thinking a...

  16. Elastomeric Thermal Insulation Design Considerations in Long, Aluminized Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Martin, Heath T.


    An all-new sounding rocket was designed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center that featured an aft finocyl, aluminized solid propellant grain and silica-filled ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (SFEPDM) internal insulation. Upon the initial static firing of the first of this new design, the solid rocket motor (SRM) case failed thermally just upstream of the aft closure early in the burn time. Subsequent fluid modeling indicated that the high-velocity combustion-product jets emanating from the fin-slots in the propellant grain were likely inducing a strongly swirling flow, thus substantially increasing the severity of the convective environment on the exposed portion of the SFEPDM insulation in this region. The aft portion of the fin-slots in another of the motors were filled with propellant to eliminate the possibility of both direct jet impingement on the exposed SFEPDM and the appearance of strongly swirling flow in the aft region of the motor. When static-fired, this motor's case still failed in the same axial location, and, though somewhat later than for the first static firing, still in less than 1/3rd of the desired burn duration. These results indicate that the extreme material decomposition rates of the SFEPDM in this application are not due to gas-phase convection or shear but rather to interactions with burning aluminum or alumina slag. Further comparisons with between SFEPDM performance in this design and that in other hot-fire tests provide insight into the mechanisms of SFEPDM decomposition in SRM aft domes that can guide the upcoming redesign effort, as well as other future SRM designs. These data also highlight the current limitations of modeling elastomeric insulators solely with diffusion-controlled, gas-phase thermochemistry in SRM regions with significant viscous shear and/or condense-phase impingement or flow.

  17. Spacecraft vehicle design considerations and trades utilizing solar and nuclear reactor electric power systems (United States)

    Bailey, Patrick G.


    The status of the reviews and the work performed to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of various nuclear power systems for space mission applications in the 5-20 kWe range. The study found that, out of nine nuclear power systems studied, three could be used to replace a 10 kWe solar array power system on a representative surveillance satellite. Each of these systems could be incorporated using a boom without major specific modifications to a baseline spacecraft design.

  18. Design Considerations for Plasma Accelerators Driven by Lasers or Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Benedetti, C.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W.P.


    Plasma accelerators may be driven by the ponderomotive force of an intense laser or the space-charge force of a charged particle beam. The implications for accelerator design and the different physical mechanisms of laser-driven and beam-driven plasma acceleration are discussed. Driver propagation is examined, as well as the effects of the excited plasma wave phase velocity. The driver coupling to subsequent plasma accelerator stages for high-energy physics applications is addressed.

  19. Flexible Water Hose Failures: A Case Study and General Design Considerations


    Taylor, Richard; Eagar, Thomas W.


    Flexible water hoses (or flexible hose connectors) have become commonplace in recent years and provide a low-cost and convenient alternative to rigid pipe. Unfortunately, inadequate designs, particularly with regard to the selection of materials and material parameters, have made some hoses prone to failure. Such failures are often initiated by incidental exposure to corrosive substances commonly found in homes (including chlorides in tap water) that attack and corrode the stainless steel met...

  20. Consideration in selecting crops for the human-rated life support system: a linear programming model (United States)

    Wheeler, E. F.; Kossowski, J.; Goto, E.; Langhans, R. W.; White, G.; Albright, L. D.; Wilcox, D.

    A Linear Programming model has been constructed which aids in selecting appropriate crops for CELSS (Controlled Environment Life Support System) food production. A team of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) faculty, staff, graduate students and invited experts representing more than a dozen disciplines, provided a wide range of expertise in developing the model and the crop production program. The model incorporates nutritional content and controlled-environment based production yields of carefully chosen crops into a framework where a crop mix can be constructed to suit the astronauts' needs. The crew's nutritional requirements can be adequately satisfied with only a few crops (assuming vitamin mineral supplements are provided) but this will not be satisfactory from a culinary standpoint. This model is flexible enough that taste and variety driven food choices can be built into the model.

  1. Consideration in selecting crops for the human-rated life support system: a Linear Programming model (United States)

    Wheeler, E. F.; Kossowski, J.; Goto, E.; Langhans, R. W.; White, G.; Albright, L. D.; Wilcox, D.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)


    A Linear Programming model has been constructed which aids in selecting appropriate crops for CELSS (Controlled Environment Life Support System) food production. A team of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) faculty, staff, graduate students and invited experts representing more than a dozen disciplines, provided a wide range of expertise in developing the model and the crop production program. The model incorporates nutritional content and controlled-environment based production yields of carefully chosen crops into a framework where a crop mix can be constructed to suit the astronauts' needs. The crew's nutritional requirements can be adequately satisfied with only a few crops (assuming vitamin mineral supplements are provided) but this will not be satisfactory from a culinary standpoint. This model is flexible enough that taste and variety driven food choices can be built into the model.

  2. Creating healing intensive care unit environments: physical and psychological considerations in designing critical care areas. (United States)

    Bazuin, Doug; Cardon, Kerrie


    A number of elements contribute to a healing ICU environment. The layout of a critical care unit helps create an environment that supports caregiving, which helps alleviate a host of work-related stresses. A quieter environment, one that includes family and friends, dotted with windows and natural light, creates a space that makes people feel balanced and reassured. A healing environment responds to the needs of all the people within a critical care unit-those who receive or give care and those who support patients and staff. Critical care units should be designed to focus on healing the body, the mind, and the senses. The design and policies of that department can be created in such a way to provide a sense of calm and balance. The physical environment has an impact on patient outcomes; the psychological environment can, too. A healing ICU environment will balance both. The authors discuss the ways in which architecture, interior design, and behavior contribute to a healing ICU environment.

  3. Information architecture considerations in designing a comprehensive tuberculosis enterprise system in Western Kenya. (United States)

    Gichoya, Judy; Pearce, Chris; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini


    Kenya ranks among the twenty-two countries that collectively contribute about 80% of the world's Tuberculosis cases; with a 50-200 fold increased risk of tuberculosis in HIV infected persons versus non-HIV hosts. Contemporaneously, there is an increase in mobile penetration and its use to support healthcare throughout Africa. Many are skeptical that such m-health solutions are unsustainable and not scalable. We seek to design a scalable, pervasive m-health solution for Tuberculosis care to become a use case for sustainable and scalable health IT in limited resource settings. We combine agile design principles and user-centered design to develop the architecture needed for this initiative. Furthermore, the architecture runs on multiple devices integrated to deliver functionality critical for successful Health IT implementation in limited resource settings. It is anticipated that once fully implemented, the proposed m-health solution will facilitate superior monitoring and management of Tuberculosis and thereby reduce the alarming statistic regarding this disease in this region.

  4. Optimal design variable considerations in the use of phase change materials in indirect evaporative cooling (United States)

    Chilakapaty, Ankit Paul

    The demand for sustainable, energy efficient and cost effective heating and cooling solutions is exponentially increasing with the rapid advancement of computation and information technology. Use of latent heat storage materials also known as phase change materials (PCMs) for load leveling is an innovative solution to the data center cooling demands. These materials are commercially available in the form of microcapsules dispersed in water, referred to as the microencapsulated phase change slurries and have higher heat capacity than water. The composition and physical properties of phase change slurries play significant role in energy efficiency of the cooling systems designed implementing these PCM slurries. Objective of this project is to study the effect of PCM particle size, shape and volumetric concentration on overall heat transfer potential of the cooling systems designed with PCM slurries as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). In this study uniform volume heat source model is developed for the simulation of heat transfer potential using phase change materials in the form of bulk temperature difference in a fully developed flow through a circular duct. Results indicate the heat transfer potential increases with PCM volumetric concentration with gradually diminishing returns. Also, spherical PCM particles offer greater heat transfer potential when compared to cylindrical particles. Results of this project will aid in efficient design of cooling systems based on PCM slurries.

  5. Anthropological perspectives on money management: considerations for the design and implementation of interventions for substance abuse. (United States)

    Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth


    There remains a long-standing argument regarding the need for money management strategies to control poor spending habits among people with substance use disorders. The objective was to review issues relevant to the design and implementation of money-management-based interventions for substance abuse. Using a comparative, cross-cultural framework of anthropology, this manuscript examines three challenges for the design and implementation of money management interventions for substance abuse: (i) clients may not trust mental health centers to manage their money, (ii) clients may have different economic perspectives from clinicians and researchers, and (iii) clients may obtain substances through informal networks of exchange. This article clarifies the inherently complex symbolic and social dimensions of money and addiction and illustrates the need for researchers and clinicians to be mindful of the cultural assumptions that underlie money management interventions for substance abuse. Using an anthropological approach toward understanding the issues surrounding money management for individuals struggling with addiction and mental illness has the potential to strengthen the design and implementation of money-management-based interventions in a manner that is acceptable and meaningful for this target population.

  6. A broader consideration of human factor to enhance sustainable building design. (United States)

    Attaianese, Erminia


    The link between ergonomic/human factor and sustainability seems to be clearly evidenced mainly in relation to social dimension of sustainability, in order to contribute to assure corporate social responsibility and global value creation. But the will to establish an equilibrated connection among used resources in human activities, supported by the sustainability perspective, evidences that the contribution of ergonomics/human factors can be effectively enlarged to other aspects, especially in relation to building design. In fact a sustainable building is meant to be a building that contributes, through its characteristics and attribute, to a sustainable development by assuring, in the same time, a decrease of resources use and environmental impact and an increase of health, safety and comfort of the occupants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze in a broader sense the contribution of ergonomic/human factor to design of sustainable building, focusing how ergonomics principles, methodology and techniques can improve building design, enhancing its sustainability performance during all phases of building lifecycle.

  7. Design Considerations of a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Protective Housing for Intramuscular Pressure Measurements. (United States)

    Go, Shanette A; Jensen, Elisabeth R; O'Connor, Shawn M; Evertz, Loribeth Q; Morrow, Duane A; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L; Kaufman, Kenton R


    Intramuscular pressure (IMP), defined as skeletal muscle interstitial fluid pressure, reflects changes in individual muscle tension and may provide crucial insight into musculoskeletal biomechanics and pathologies. IMP may be measured using fiber-optic fluid pressure sensors, provided the sensor is adequately anchored to and shielded from surrounding muscle tissue. Ineffective anchoring enables sensor motion and inadequate shielding facilitates direct sensor-tissue interaction, which result in measurement artifacts and force-IMP dissociation. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of polyimide and nitinol protective housing designs to anchor pressure sensors to muscle tissue, prevent IMP measurement artifacts, and optimize the force-IMP correlation. Anchoring capacity was quantified as force required to dislodge sensors from muscle tissue. Force-IMP correlations and non-physiological measurement artifacts were quantified during isometric muscle activations of the rabbit tibialis anterior. Housing structural integrity was assessed after both anchoring and activation testing. Although there was no statistically significant difference in anchoring capacity, nitinol housings demonstrated greater structural integrity and superior force-IMP correlations. Further design improvements are needed to prevent tissue accumulation in the housing recess associated with artificially high IMP measurements. These findings emphasize fundamental protective housing design elements crucial for achieving reliable IMP measurements.

  8. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety (United States)


    Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the

  9. Research Program at Maxey Flats and Consideration of Other Shallow Land Burial Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Maxey Flats research program is a multidisciplinary, multilaboratory program with the objectives to define the radiochemical and chemical composition of leachates in the burial trenches, define the areal distribution of radionuclides on the site and the factors responsible for this distribution, define the concentrations of radionuclides in vegetation both on and offsite and the uptake of radionuclides by representative agricultural crops, define the atmospheric pathways for radionuclide transport and the mechanisms involved, determine the subsurface migration rates of radionuclides and the chemical, physical, biological, and hydrogeological factors which affect this migration. and evaluate the engineering practices which influence the seepage of surface waters into the burial trenches. The program was initiated in 1979 and a research meeting was held at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Headquarters on July 16, 1980, to report the research findings of each of the participating laboratories and universities. Important observations from the research are included in the Summary and the results reported for each of the research efforts are summarized in the individual reports that are combined to form this document.

  10. Generalized linear models and point count data: statistical considerations for the design and analysis of monitoring studies (United States)

    Nathaniel E. Seavy; Suhel Quader; John D. Alexander; C. John Ralph


    The success of avian monitoring programs to effectively guide management decisions requires that studies be efficiently designed and data be properly analyzed. A complicating factor is that point count surveys often generate data with non-normal distributional properties. In this paper we review methods of dealing with deviations from normal assumptions, and we focus...

  11. A randomized trial of the clinical utility of genetic testing for obesity: design and implementation considerations. (United States)

    Wang, Catharine; Gordon, Erynn S; Stack, Catharine B; Liu, Ching-Ti; Norkunas, Tricia; Wawak, Lisa; Christman, Michael F; Green, Robert C; Bowen, Deborah J


    Obesity rates in the United States have escalated in recent decades and present a major challenge in public health prevention efforts. Currently, testing to identify genetic risk for obesity is readily available through several direct-to-consumer companies. Despite the availability of this type of testing, there is a paucity of evidence as to whether providing people with personal genetic information on obesity risk will facilitate or impede desired behavioral responses. We describe the key issues in the design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial examining the clinical utility of providing genetic risk information for obesity. Participants are being recruited from the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative, an ongoing, longitudinal research cohort study designed to determine the utility of personal genome information in health management and clinical decision making. The primary focus of the ancillary Obesity Risk Communication Study is to determine whether genetic risk information added value to traditional communication efforts for obesity, which are based on lifestyle risk factors. The trial employs a 2 × 2 factorial design in order to examine the effects of providing genetic risk information for obesity, alone or in combination with lifestyle risk information, on participants' psychological responses, behavioral intentions, health behaviors, and weight. The factorial design generated four experimental arms based on communication of estimated risk to participants: (1) no risk feedback (control), (2) genetic risk only, (3) lifestyle risk only, and (4) both genetic and lifestyle risk (combined). Key issues in study design pertained to the selection of algorithms to estimate lifestyle risk and determination of information to be provided to participants assigned to each experimental arm to achieve a balance between clinical standards and methodological rigor. Following the launch of the trial in September 2011, implementation challenges

  12. Ethanol, Neurodevelopment, Infant and Child Health (ENRICH prospective cohort: Study design considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila N. Bakhireva


    Full Text Available Background: While intervention is the leading factor in reducing long-term disabilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, early identification of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE remains challenging. Deficits in higher-order cognitive domains (e.g. executive function might be more specific to FASD than global neurodevelopmental tests, yet these functions are not developed in very young children. Measures of early sensorimotor development may provide early indications of atypical brain development during the first two years of life. Methods: This paper describes the novel methodology of the Ethanol, Neurodevelopment, Infant and Child Health (ENRICH prospective cohort study of 120 maternal-infant pairs with a goal to identify early indices of functional brain impairment associated with PAE. The cohort is established by recruiting women early in pregnancy and classifying them into one of three study groups: patients on opioid-maintenance therapy who consume alcohol during pregnancy (Group 1, patients on opioid-maintenance therapy who abstain from alcohol during pregnancy (Group 2, and healthy controls (Group 3. After the initial prenatal assessment (Visit 1, patients are followed to Visit 2 occurring at delivery, and two comprehensive assessments of children at six (Visit 3 and 20 months (Visit 4 of age. ENRICH recruitment started in November 2013 and 87 women were recruited during the first year. During Year 1, the biospecimen (maternal whole blood, serum, urine, dry blood spots of a newborn collection rate was 100% at Visit 1, and 97.6% for those who completed Visit 2. Discussion: The tiered screening approach, evaluation of confounders, neurocognitive and magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG outcomes, and ethical considerations are discussed.

  13. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery designs (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.


    In the early 1980's the NASA Lewis group addressed the topic of designing nickel hydrogen cells for LEO applications. As published in 1984, the design addressed the topics of gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. This design effort followed principles set forth in an earlier Lewis paper that addressed the topic of pore size engineering. At about that same time, the beneficial effect on cycle life of lower electrolyte concentrations was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a Lewis funded study. A succession of life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially verified all of this earlier work. During these past two decades, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research efforts carried out at several laboratories. At The Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Zimmerman has been developing a sophisticated model of an operating nickel hydrogen cell which will be used to model certain mechanisms that have contributed to premature failures in nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. During the course of trying to understand and model abnormal nickel hydrogen cell behaviors, we have noted that not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently batteries. Several of these phenomenon have been well known in the area of alkaline fuel cells, but only recently have they been examined as they might impact alkaline cell designs. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium devices, Once these phenomenon are understood conceptually, the impact of potassium content on a potential cell design can be evaluated with the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the

  14. Study design considerations in a large COPD trial comparing effects of tiotropium with salmeterol on exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Michael Beeh


    Full Text Available Kai-Michael Beeh1, Bettina Hederer2, Thomas Glaab2, Achim Müller2, Maureen Rutten-van Moelken3, et al1insaf–Respiratory Research Institute, Wiesbaden, Germany; 2Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany; 3Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, et alAbstract: Currently available long-acting inhaled bronchodilators (tiotropium, salmeterol, formoterol have demonstrated beneficial effects on exacerbations in placebo-controlled trials. However, there have been no direct comparisons of these drugs with exacerbations as the primary outcome and consequently COPD treatment guidelines do not indicate a preference for either bronchodilator. Therefore, an international, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallelgroup clinical trial has been designed to investigate the comparative efficacy of 2 long-acting bronchodilators tiotropium 18 μg daily and salmeterol 50 μg bid on exacerbations. The trial will include at least 6800 randomized patients with diagnosis of COPD, 10 pack-year history of smoking, post-bronchodilator FEV1 ≤ 70% predicted, and a history of exacerbations in the previous year. The primary endpoint is time to first COPD exacerbation. Secondary endpoints include number of exacerbations and time to premature discontinuation of trial medication. The trial has been designed to address several of the challenges in studying exacerbations in a controlled trial by a symptom and event-based definition of exacerbations, frequent follow-up contacts, selection of time to first event as the primary endpoint and using exposure adjusted analysis when examining number of events. Other challenges in designing exacerbation trials such as differential discontinuation and follow-up of discontinued patients are discussed.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbation, salmeterol, study methodology, tiotropium

  15. Design considerations and challenges for mechanical stretch bioreactors in tissue engineering. (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Ferdous, Zannatul


    With the increase in average life expectancy and growing aging population, lack of functional grafts for replacement surgeries has become a severe problem. Engineered tissues are a promising alternative to this problem because they can mimic the physiological function of the native tissues and be cultured on demand. Cyclic stretch is important for developing many engineered tissues such as hearts, heart valves, muscles, and bones. Thus a variety of stretch bioreactors and corresponding scaffolds have been designed and tested to study the underlying mechanism of tissue formation and to optimize the mechanical conditions applied to the engineered tissues. In this review, we look at various designs of stretch bioreactors and common scaffolds and offer insights for future improvements in tissue engineering applications. First, we summarize the requirements and common configuration of stretch bioreactors. Next, we present the features of different actuating and motion transforming systems and their applications. Since most bioreactors must measure detailed distributions of loads and deformations on engineered tissues, techniques with high accuracy, precision, and frequency have been developed. We also cover the key points in designing culture chambers, nutrition exchanging systems, and regimens used for specific tissues. Since scaffolds are essential for providing biophysical microenvironments for residing cells, we discuss materials and technologies used in fabricating scaffolds to mimic anisotropic native tissues, including decellularized tissues, hydrogels, biocompatible polymers, electrospinning, and 3D bioprinting techniques. Finally, we present the potential future directions for improving stretch bioreactors and scaffolds. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:543-553, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Design considerations for micro- and nanopositioning: leveraging the latest for biophysical applications. (United States)

    Jordan, S C; Anthony, P C


    Biophysical applications ranging from fluorescence microassays to single-molecule microscopy are increasingly dependent on automated nanoscale positional control and stability. A whirlwind of motion-industry innovation has resulted in an array of new motion options offering significant improvements in application performance, reproducibility and throughput. The challenge to leverage these developments depends on researchers, engineers and motion vendors acquiring a common language of specifications and a shared understanding of the challenges posed by application needs. To assist in building this shared understanding, this article reviews today's motion technologies, beginning with a concise review of key principles of motion control focusing on applications. It progresses through illustrations of sensor/encoder technologies and servo techniques. A spectrum of classical and recent motion technologies is explored, from stepper and servo actuation of conventional microscopy stages, to advanced piezo stack nanopositioners capable of picometer precision, to novel ultrasonic resonant piezomotors and piezo-ceramic-based mechanisms capable of high-force positioning over many millimeters while providing resolutions down into the sub-nanometer range. A special emphasis is placed on the effects of integrating multiple motion technologies into an application, such as stacking a fine nanopositioner atop a long-travel stage. Examples and data are presented to clarify these issues, including important and insightful new stability measurements taken directly from an advanced optical trapping application. The important topics of software and interfacing are also explored from an applications perspective, since design-and-debugging time, synchronization capabilities and overall throughput are heavily dependent on these often-overlooked aspects of motion system design. The discussion is designed to illuminate specifications-related topics that become increasingly important as

  17. Materials design considerations involved in the fabrication of implantable bionics by metallization of ceramic substrates. (United States)

    Patel, Sunil; Guenther, Thomas; Dodds, Christopher W D; Kolke, Sergej; Privat, Karen L; Matteucci, Paul B; Suaning, Gregg J


    The Pt metallization of co-fired Al2O3/SiO2 substrates containing Pt feedthroughs was shown to be a suitable means to construct implantable bionics. The use of forge welding to join an electrode to such a metallized feedthrough was demonstrated and subsequently evaluated through the use of metallography and electron microscopy. Metallurgical phenomena involved in forge welding relevant to the fabrication of all types of biomedical implants are discussed within this paper. The affect of thermal profiles used in brazing or welding to build implantable devices from metal components is analysed and the case for considered selection of alloys in implant design is put forward.

  18. Feature-based Approach in Product Design with Energy Efficiency Consideration (United States)

    Li, D. D.; Zhang, Y. J.


    In this paper, a method to measure the energy efficiency and ecological footprint metrics of features is proposed for product design. First the energy consumption models of various manufacturing features, like cutting feature, welding feature, etc. are studied. Then, the total energy consumption of a product is modeled and estimated according to its features. Finally, feature chains that combined by several sequence features based on the producing operation orders are defined and analyzed to calculate global optimal solution. The corresponding assessment model is also proposed to estimate their energy efficiency and ecological footprint. Finally, an example is given to validate the proposed approach in the improvement of sustainability.

  19. Design considerations for CdTe Nanotetrapods as electronic devices. (United States)

    Teich-McGoldrick, S L; Bellanger, M; Caussanel, M; Tsetseris, L; Pantelides, S T; Glotzer, S C; Schrimpf, R D


    We investigate the feasibility of using CdTe nanotetrapods as circuit elements using models and simulation at multiple scales. Technology computer-aided design tools are used to simulate the electrical behavior for both metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors and junction field-effect transistors. Our results show that by varying the doping concentrations and material composition, CdTe nanotetrapods have the potential to be useful circuit elements. Monte Carlo simulations provide insight into how control over interparticle and particle-substrate interactions can lead to the directed assembly of ordered arrays of electrically gated nanotetrapods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuca Simona-Mihaela


    Full Text Available The current paper has the aim to provide guidelines for designing efficient product and price strategies, through proposed business cases which could be used especially for banking products addressed to SMEs. While identifying the optimal product and price strategy and designing the product catalogue structure, the marketing specialist should definitely consider existing portfolio behaviour and estimate the growing potential (if possible, overall portfolio, with focus on accurately defining the additional impact of the newly proposed product/ products. A business case contains estimations for results to be generated by products to be launched or optimized. This paper presents complex schemes for business case scenarios for migration of existing portfolio to the new products, but also considers new clients acquisition based on important features of the products. The pricing strategy is not a simple task to manage. Especially when speaking about transactional packages (for which the price is lower than separate services included, some segments or clusters may generate loss to the bank if they already used the services at a higher price than the one of the package. Therefore, the decision of setting up specific prices needs to be based on an accurate and complex analysis, as presented in current paper. The assumptions used in a business case need to be relevant for the entire process of designing and launching a product, therefore they can always be adjusted for better calculation of the impact. No matter if the assumptions and prices remain as in the initial proposal or not, the steps to be followed are the same. Segmentation also plays an important role in designing the product strategy, since the target for a product or product catalogue can be represented by a segment, a sub segment or a cluster of many segments. Not always the initial segmentation represents the clustering for the product strategy. Sometimes, behaviour of existing clients

  1. Target design considerations for high specific activity [{sup 11}C]O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Alexoff, D.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; McDonald, K.; Wolf, A.P.


    In the routine preparation of {sup 11}C-labeled compounds through N-[{sup 11}C]-methylation using [{sup 11}C]H{sub 3}I, total masses are always higher than synthesis mass contribution, suggesting that the target system contributes carrier carbon to the final product mass. This conclusion prompted this evaluation of target materials and target design for [{sup 11}C]O{sub 2} production. Ultimately, one is faced with the sprospect of compromising between [{sup 11}C]O{sub 2} specific activity and the amount that can be extracted from the target after a reasonable irradiation time.

  2. Practical considerations in the design and development of smartphone apps for behavior change. (United States)

    Roth, Walter R; Vilardaga, Roger; Wolfe, Nathanael; Bricker, Jonathan B; McDonell, Michael G


    The fast adoption of smartphone applications (apps) by behavioral scientists pose a new host of opportunities as well as knowledge and interdisciplinary challenges. Therefore, this brief report will discuss the lessons we have learned during the development and testing of smartphone apps for behavior change, and provide the reader with guidance and recommendations about this design and development process. We hope that the guidance and perspectives presented in this brief report will empower behavioral scientists to test the efficacy of smartphone apps for behavior change, further advance the contextual behavioral etiology of behavioral disorders and help move the field towards personalized behavior change technologies.

  3. Air Distribution in a Room and Design Considerations of Mixing Ventilation by Flow Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pedersen, D. N.


    The paper shows detailed measurements of the air distribution in a room ventilated by mixing ventilation according to the specifications given by the International Energy Agency work. (Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme, Annex 20). It describes a number of flow eleme...... elements and how they are used as design tools. The flow elements are the throw of an isothermal jet and the change in jet velocity when the jet moves from the upper to the lower part of the room. A third flow element is the penetration length of a non-isothermal wall jet....

  4. Camera trap arrays improve detection probability of wildlife: Investigating study design considerations using an empirical dataset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M O'Connor

    Full Text Available Camera trapping is a standard tool in ecological research and wildlife conservation. Study designs, particularly for small-bodied or cryptic wildlife species often attempt to boost low detection probabilities by using non-random camera placement or baited cameras, which may bias data, or incorrectly estimate detection and occupancy. We investigated the ability of non-baited, multi-camera arrays to increase detection probabilities of wildlife. Study design components were evaluated for their influence on wildlife detectability by iteratively parsing an empirical dataset (1 by different sizes of camera arrays deployed (1-10 cameras, and (2 by total season length (1-365 days. Four species from our dataset that represented a range of body sizes and differing degrees of presumed detectability based on life history traits were investigated: white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, bobcat (Lynx rufus, raccoon (Procyon lotor, and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana. For all species, increasing from a single camera to a multi-camera array significantly improved detection probability across the range of season lengths and number of study sites evaluated. The use of a two camera array increased survey detection an average of 80% (range 40-128% from the detection probability of a single camera across the four species. Species that were detected infrequently benefited most from a multiple-camera array, where the addition of up to eight cameras produced significant increases in detectability. However, for species detected at high frequencies, single cameras produced a season-long (i.e, the length of time over which cameras are deployed and actively monitored detectability greater than 0.75. These results highlight the need for researchers to be critical about camera trap study designs based on their intended target species, as detectability for each focal species responded differently to array size and season length. We suggest that researchers a priori

  5. Camera trap arrays improve detection probability of wildlife: Investigating study design considerations using an empirical dataset. (United States)

    O'Connor, Kelly M; Nathan, Lucas R; Liberati, Marjorie R; Tingley, Morgan W; Vokoun, Jason C; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G


    Camera trapping is a standard tool in ecological research and wildlife conservation. Study designs, particularly for small-bodied or cryptic wildlife species often attempt to boost low detection probabilities by using non-random camera placement or baited cameras, which may bias data, or incorrectly estimate detection and occupancy. We investigated the ability of non-baited, multi-camera arrays to increase detection probabilities of wildlife. Study design components were evaluated for their influence on wildlife detectability by iteratively parsing an empirical dataset (1) by different sizes of camera arrays deployed (1-10 cameras), and (2) by total season length (1-365 days). Four species from our dataset that represented a range of body sizes and differing degrees of presumed detectability based on life history traits were investigated: white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). For all species, increasing from a single camera to a multi-camera array significantly improved detection probability across the range of season lengths and number of study sites evaluated. The use of a two camera array increased survey detection an average of 80% (range 40-128%) from the detection probability of a single camera across the four species. Species that were detected infrequently benefited most from a multiple-camera array, where the addition of up to eight cameras produced significant increases in detectability. However, for species detected at high frequencies, single cameras produced a season-long (i.e, the length of time over which cameras are deployed and actively monitored) detectability greater than 0.75. These results highlight the need for researchers to be critical about camera trap study designs based on their intended target species, as detectability for each focal species responded differently to array size and season length. We suggest that researchers a priori identify

  6. Spectral matching consideration in the design of a novel x-ray image intensifier (United States)

    Yu, Chunyu; Chang, Benkang; Wei, Dianxiu


    In this article, a novel x-ray image intensifier is introduced. It is mainly composed of an x-ray intensifying screen and a low-light-level (L3) image intensifier. In order to obtain a bright enough image, the spectral compatibility among three different combinations of the x-ray intensifying screen and the photocathode is analyzed. The comparison indicates that a (Zn,Cd)S:Ag screen is superior to either a CaWO4 screen or a Gd2O2S :Tb screen when combined with the Super S25 photocathode and spectral compatibility analysis is a useful guide when designing an optoelectronic imaging device.

  7. System design considerations for a high-power aerospace resonant link converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahns, T.M.; De Doncker, R.W.A.A.; Szczesny, P.M.; Turnbull, F.G. [GE Corporate R and D, Schenectady, NY (United States); Radun, A.V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)


    A new variable-speed, constant-frequency (VSCF) 400 Hz aircraft generating system has been developed using an actively clamped resonant dc link converter. The design approach used to select the best configuration for the resonant converter power stage is described, including techniques for choosing power component values to meet key governing performance specifications. Interactions between the various converter components are discussed, suggesting approaches for selecting values which must meet multiple and sometimes conflicting system performance criteria. Verification is provided using a combination of simulation results and test data from a 60 kVA laboratory breadboard system.

  8. Design consideration for Tohoku light source storage ring equipped with UV free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hama, H. E-mail:; Hinode, F.; Shinto, K.; Miyamoto, A.; Tanaka, T


    An integrated photon source facility has been planed at Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University. A 1.5 GeV main ring designed as a synchrotron light source of VUV and soft X-ray region contains straight sections with very low beta function to accept high field superconducting wigglers for X-ray. One of two 8-m long straight sections is allocated for storage ring free electron laser (SRFEL) in the UV region. The beam property in the ring is evaluated and then the beam quality for the SRFEL oscillation is also discussed including possibility of coherent higher harmonic generation by showing results of numerical simulation.

  9. Computers for All Children: A Handbook for Program Design. (United States)

    Sharp, Pamela; Crist-Whitzel, Janet

    One of three publications of the Research on Equitable Access to Technology (REAT) project, this practitioner's handbook is designed to assist educators in the design and implementation of computer instruction programs for underserved groups of students, including low-income, minority, low-achieving, limited-English speaking, female, and rural…

  10. Multimedia programming using Max/MSP and TouchDesigner

    CERN Document Server

    Lechner, Patrik


    If you want to learn how to use Max 6 and/or TouchDesigner, or work in audio-visual real-time processing, this is the book for you. It is intended for intermediate users of both programs and can be helpful for artists, designers, musicians, VJs, and researchers. A basic understanding of audio principles is advantageous.

  11. Optical Design Considerations for Efficient Light Collection from Liquid Scintillation Counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.


    Liquid scintillation counters measure charged particle-emitting radioactive isotopes and are used for environmental studies, nuclear chemistry, and life science. Alpha and beta emissions arising from the material under study interact with the scintillation cocktail to produce light. The prototypical liquid scintillation counter employs low-level photon-counting detectors to measure the arrival of the scintillation light produced as a result of the dissolved material under study interacting with the scintillation cocktail. For reliable operation the counting instrument must convey the scintillation light to the detectors efficiently and predictably. Current best practices employ the use of two or more detectors for coincidence processing to discriminate true scintillation events from background events due to instrumental effects such as photomultiplier tube dark rates, tube flashing, or other light emission not generated in the scintillation cocktail vial. In low background liquid scintillation counters additional attention is paid to shielding the scintillation cocktail from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) present in the laboratory and within the instruments construction materials. Low background design is generally at odds with optimal light collection. This study presents the evolution of a light collection design for liquid scintillation counting in a low background shield. The basic approach to achieve both good light collection and a low background measurement is described. The baseline signals arising from the scintillation vial are modeled and methods to efficiently collect scintillation light are presented as part of the development of a customized low-background, high sensitivity liquid scintillation counting system.

  12. Optical design considerations for efficient light collection from liquid scintillation counters. (United States)

    Bernacki, Bruce E; Douglas, Matthew; Erchinger, Jennifer L; Fuller, Erin S; Keillor, Martin E; Morley, Shannon M; Mullen, Crystal A; Orrell, John L; Panisko, Mark E; Warren, Glen A; Wright, Michael E


    Liquid scintillation counters measure charged particle-emitting radioactive isotopes and are used for environmental studies, nuclear chemistry, and life science. Alpha and beta emissions arising from the material under study interact with the scintillation cocktail to produce light. The prototypical liquid scintillation counter employs low-level photon-counting detectors to measure the arrival of the scintillation. For reliable operation, the counting instrument must convey the scintillation light to the detectors efficiently and predictably. Current best practices employ the use of two or more detectors for coincidence processing to discriminate true scintillation events from background events due to instrumental effects such as photomultiplier tube dark rates, tube flashing, or other light emission not generated in the scintillation cocktail vial. In low-background liquid scintillation counters, additional attention is paid to shielding the scintillation cocktail from naturally occurring radioactive material present in the laboratory and within the instrument's construction materials. Low-background design is generally at odds with optimal light collection. This study presents the evolution of a light collection design for liquid scintillation counting (LSC) in a low-background shield. The basic approach to achieve both good light collection and a low-background measurement is described. The baseline signals arising from the scintillation vial are modeled and methods to efficiently collect scintillation light are presented as part of the development of a customized low-background, high-sensitivity LSC system.

  13. Finite element analysis of implant-assisted removable partial dentures: Framework design considerations. (United States)

    Shahmiri, Reza; Das, Raj


    Connecting an acrylic resin base to both a metal framework and a rigidly fixed implant may affect the rotational displacement of the prosthesis during loading. The purpose of this finite element analysis study was to analyze the effect of connecting a denture base metal framework to an implant with the aim of decreasing the rotational movement of an implant-assisted removable partial denture. A mesial occlusal rest direct retainer and a distal occlusal rest direct retainer were modeled and adapted to incorporate a modified denture base metal framework in the connection area for each model. The stress and deformation patterns of the prosthesis structure were determined using finite element analysis and compared for both situations. A maximum von Mises stress of 923 MPa was observed on the metal framework of the prosthesis with a mesial occlusal rest, and the maximum value was 1478 MPa for the distal occlusal rest. A maximum von Mises stress of 17 MPa occurred on the acrylic resin denture base for the mesial occlusal rest, and a maximum von Mises stress of 29 MPa occurred for the distal occlusal rest. The distal occlusal rest direct retainer is stiffer than the mesial design and undergoes approximately 66% less deformation. The modified denture base framework with an I-bar and distal occlusal rest design provides more effective support to the acrylic resin structure. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Small UAV Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System Design Considerations and Flight Test Results (United States)

    Sorokowski, Paul; Skoog, Mark; Burrows, Scott; Thomas, SaraKatie


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) project demonstrated several important collision avoidance technologies. First, the SUAV Auto GCAS design included capabilities to take advantage of terrain avoidance maneuvers flying turns to either side as well as straight over terrain. Second, the design also included innovative digital elevation model (DEM) scanning methods. The combination of multi-trajectory options and new scanning methods demonstrated the ability to reduce the nuisance potential of the SUAV while maintaining robust terrain avoidance. Third, the Auto GCAS algorithms were hosted on the processor inside a smartphone, providing a lightweight hardware configuration for use in either the ground control station or on board the test aircraft. Finally, compression of DEM data for the entire Earth and successful hosting of that data on the smartphone was demonstrated. The SUAV Auto GCAS project demonstrated that together these methods and technologies have the potential to dramatically reduce the number of controlled flight into terrain mishaps across a wide range of aviation platforms with similar capabilities including UAVs, general aviation aircraft, helicopters, and model aircraft.

  15. Joint pricing and production management: a geometric programming approach with consideration of cubic production cost function (United States)

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Hamidi Hesarsorkh, Aghil; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Bonyadi Naeini, Ali


    Coordination and harmony between different departments of a company can be an important factor in achieving competitive advantage if the company corrects alignment between strategies of different departments. This paper presents an integrated decision model based on recent advances of geometric programming technique. The demand of a product considers as a power function of factors such as product's price, marketing expenditures, and consumer service expenditures. Furthermore, production cost considers as a cubic power function of outputs. The model will be solved by recent advances in convex optimization tools. Finally, the solution procedure is illustrated by numerical example.

  16. Generative design visualize, program, and create with processing

    CERN Document Server

    Bohnacker, Hartmut; Laub, Julia; Lazzeroni, Claudius


    Generative design is a revolutionary new method of creating artwork, models, and animations from sets of rules, or algorithms. By using accessible programming languages such as Processing, artists and designers are producing extravagant, crystalline structures that can form the basis of anything from patterned textiles and typography to lighting, scientific diagrams, sculptures, films, and even fantastical buildings. Opening with a gallery of thirty-five illustrated case studies, Generative Design takes users through specific, practical instructions on how to create their own visual experiments by combining simple-to-use programming codes with basic design principles. A detailed handbook of advanced strategies provides visual artists with all the tools to achieve proficiency. Both a how-to manual and a showcase for recent work in this exciting new field, Generative Design is the definitive study and reference book that designers have been waiting for.

  17. Physiological and Medical Considerations of the US Army Physical Readiness Training Program (United States)


    posture and reasonable weight contril ; (3) develop proficiency in military physical skills essential to personal safety and effective, which is separate from other training, serves a different purpose-- it is designed to develop general physical fitness qualities of strength, speed...readiness training. It is especiilly important durinp basic training th:t recruits have optimal development of the general qualities of .hysicil

  18. The engineering design integration (EDIN) system. [digital computer program complex (United States)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hirsch, G. N.; Alford, G. E.; Colquitt, W. N.; Reiners, S. J.


    A digital computer program complex for the evaluation of aerospace vehicle preliminary designs is described. The system consists of a Univac 1100 series computer and peripherals using the Exec 8 operating system, a set of demand access terminals of the alphanumeric and graphics types, and a library of independent computer programs. Modification of the partial run streams, data base maintenance and construction, and control of program sequencing are provided by a data manipulation program called the DLG processor. The executive control of library program execution is performed by the Univac Exec 8 operating system through a user established run stream. A combination of demand and batch operations is employed in the evaluation of preliminary designs. Applications accomplished with the EDIN system are described.

  19. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs. (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios


    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  20. Three-dimensional biomaterial degradation - Material choice, design and extrinsic factor considerations. (United States)

    Yildirimer, Lara; Seifalian, Alexander M


    The apparent difficulty to precisely control fine-tuning of biomaterial degradation has initiated the recent paradigm shift from conventional top-down fabrication methods to more nature-inspired bottom-up assemblies. Sophistication of material fabrication techniques allows today's scientists to reach beyond conventional natural materials in order to synthesise tomorrow's 'designer material'. Material degradation into smaller components and subsequent release of encapsulated cells or cell-signalling agents have opened medically exploitable avenues, transforming the area of regenerative medicine into a dynamic and self-propagating branch of modern medicine. The aim to synthesise ever more refined scaffolding structures in order to create micro- and nanoenvironments resembling those found in natural tissues now represents an ever growing niche in the materials sciences. Recently, we have developed and conducted the world's first in-human tracheal transplantation using a non-degradable completely synthetic biomaterial. Fuelled by such clinical potential, we are currently developing a biodegradable version suitable for skin tissue engineering and paediatric applications. However, despite enormous efforts, current, as yet insurmountable challenges include precise biomaterial degradation within pre-determined spatial and temporal confines in an effort to release bio-signalling agents in such orchestrated fashion as to fully regenerate functioning tissues. In this review, the authors, almost anti-climactically, ask the readers to step out of the artificially over-constructed spiral of ever more convoluted scaffold fabrication techniques and consider the benefits of controllable bottom-up scaffold fabrication methods. It will further be investigated how scaffold designs and fabrication methods may influence degradation and subsequent release of incorporated elements. A focus will be placed on the delivery of growth factors, stem cells and therapeutic agents alone or in

  1. Environmental considerations for inclusion in program opportunity notices, requests for proposals, and environmental reports: fossil energy demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; Baird, J.N.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Berry, L.G.; Roop, R.D.; Sanders, F.S.


    This document was prepared for the Department of Energy, Division of Coal Conversion, for use in developing Program Opportunity Notices (PON), Requests for Proposals (RFP), and Environmental Reports (ER). Environmental considerations to be addressed by Offerors and Contractors are divided into three parts that correspond to the separate stages of project development: (1) the Offeror's response to the PON or RFP; (2) the Contractor's performance of baseline data collection and environmental impact assessment that results in an Environmental Report (ER) for use by DOE in the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS); and (3) the Contractor's continuance of environmental monitoring and assessment during construction and operation. Environmental analysis and environmental protection are an integral part of the Offeror's or Contractor's performance under contract to DOE. Consideration should be given to the health and socioeconomic status of man as well as to the physical and biological environment. The Offeror's or Contractor's consideration of and commitment to avoiding adverse environmental impacts must be demonstrated at every stage of the process from planning through construction and operation.

  2. Piping design considerations in a solar-Rankine power plant. [pipe size (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.


    Two of the main parameters in sizing the piping of a solar power plant are the working pressure of the vapor leaving the solar collectors, and the type of working fluid used. Numerical examples for each case are given using the graphical Moody friction charts and the analytical Darcy-Weisbach equation. Different working pressures of steam vapor in the solar collector-turbine pipe connection indicate their major role in the design. The size variation was found not to be in linear proportion to vapor density variations. On the other hand, high molecular weight organic fluids such as R-11 and R-113, when compared with water, show insignificant changes in piping sizes.

  3. Design considerations for the coherent radiator, FEL, in the MAX IV proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Werin, Sverker; Brandin, Mathias; Eriksson, Mikael; Hansen, T N; Larsson, Jörgen; Lindgren, L J; Tarawneh, Hamed


    The MAX IV proposal is a project for the next Swedish synchrotron radiation source. Currently a design study is produced with funding from the Swedish research council (VR). One half of the project will be a double storage ring (at 3 and 1.5 GeV respectively) but the other half will be a coherent radiator, FEL, based on the 3 GeV injector. The basic FEL solution will consist of a normal conducting linac at 3 GeV which feeds three seeded cascaded optical klystrons and a radiator undulator to produce radiation down to 1.5-3 nm at GW powers. To assure synchronisation the gun laser and the seed laser share initial laser and amplifier. This basic system can be enhanced in various ways which will be discussed .

  4. Guide to radiological accident considerations for siting and design of DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.C.; Graf, J.M.; Dewart, J.M.; Buhl, T.E.; Wenzel, W.J.; Walker, L.J.; Stoker, A.K.


    This guide was prepared to provide the experienced safety analyst with accident analysis guidance in greater detail than is possible in Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The guide addresses analysis of postulated serious accidents considered in the siting and selection of major design features of DOE nuclear facilities. Its scope has been limited to radiological accidents at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The analysis steps addressed in the guide lead to evaluation of radiological dose to exposed persons for comparison with siting guideline doses. Other possible consequences considered are environmental contamination, population dose, and public health effects. Choices of models and parameters leading to estimation of source terms, release fractions, reduction and removal factors, dispersion and dose factors are discussed. Although requirements for risk analysis have not been established, risk estimates are finding increased use in siting of major nuclear facilities, and are discussed in the guide. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Design considerations for a digital audio Class D output stage with emphasis on hearing aid application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter

    This work deals with power optimization of the audio signal processing back end (the interpolation filter, the ΣΔ modulator and the Class D power amplifier) as a whole. Understanding of the design parameter tradeoffs is used to derive the specifications for the back end and to understand the state...... that the switching frequency of the Class D power amplifier – the main power consumer in the back end - is minimized. • In the multistage interpolation filter the first stage is implemented as a half-band IIR filter consisting of two parallel all-pass cells. A novel approach that does not require any rigorous...... numerical techniques is proposed to quantize the filter coefficients. Together with the simple all-pass cells the resulting filter has very low hardware / power demands compared to the state-of-the-art. • The switching frequency of the Class D power amplifier is reduced at the cost of the increase...

  6. Development of the Database for Environmental Sound Research and Application (DESRA: Design, Functionality, and Retrieval Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gygi


    Full Text Available Theoretical and applied environmental sounds research is gaining prominence but progress has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, high quality, accessible database of environmental sounds. An ongoing project to develop such a resource is described, which is based upon experimental evidence as to the way we listen to sounds in the world. The database will include a large number of sounds produced by different sound sources, with a thorough background for each sound file, including experimentally obtained perceptual data. In this way DESRA can contain a wide variety of acoustic, contextual, semantic, and behavioral information related to an individual sound. It will be accessible on the Internet and will be useful to researchers, engineers, sound designers, and musicians.

  7. High temperature electrolyzer/fuel cell power cycle: Preliminary design considerations (United States)

    Morehouse, Jeffrey H.


    A model of a high temperature electrolyzer/fuel cell, hydrogen/oxygen, thermally regenerative power cycle is developed and used to simulate system performance for varying system parameters. Initial estimates of system efficiency, weight, and volume are provided for a one KWe module assuming specific electrolyzer and fuel cell characteristics, both current and future. Specific interest is placed on examining the system responses to changes in device voltage versus current density operating curves, and the associated optimum operating ranges. The performance of a solar-powered, space based system in low earth orbit is examined in terms of the light-dark periods requiring storage. The storage design tradeoffs between thermal energy, electrical energy, and hydrogen/oxygen mass storage are examined. The current technology module is based on the 1000 C solid oxide electrolyzer cell and the alkaline fuel cell. The Future Technology system examines benefits involved with developing a 1800K electrolyzer operating with an advanced fuel cell.

  8. Design Considerations for Autocalibrations of Wide-Band ΔΣ Fractional-N PLL Synthesizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Shin


    Full Text Available Autocalibration of VCO frequency and loop gain is an essential process in PLL frequency synthesizers. In a wide tuning-range fractional-N PLL frequency synthesizer, high-speed and high-precision automatic calibration is especially important for shortening the lock time and improving the phase noise. This paper reviews the design issues of the PLL auto-calibration and discusses on the limitations of the previous techniques. A very simple and efficient auto-calibration method based on a high-speed frequency-to-digital converter (FDC is proposed and verified through simulations. The proposed method is highly suited for a very wide-band ΔΣ fractional-N PLL.

  9. Design considerations for neutron activation and neutron source strength monitors for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jassby, D.L.; LeMunyan, G.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Walker, C. [ITER Joint Central Team, Garching (Germany)


    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor will require highly accurate measurements of fusion power production in time, space, and energy. Spectrometers in the neutron camera could do it all, but experience has taught us that multiple methods with redundancy and complementary uncertainties are needed. Previously, conceptual designs have been presented for time-integrated neutron activation and time-dependent neutron source strength monitors, both of which will be important parts of the integrated suite of neutron diagnostics for this purpose. The primary goals of the neutron activation system are: to maintain a robust relative measure of fusion energy production with stability and wide dynamic range; to enable an accurate absolute calibration of fusion power using neutronic techniques as successfully demonstrated on JET and TFTR; and to provide a flexible system for materials testing. The greatest difficulty is that the irradiation locations need to be close to plasma with a wide field of view. The routing of the pneumatic system is difficult because of minimum radius of curvature requirements and because of the careful need for containment of the tritium and activated air. The neutron source strength system needs to provide real-time source strength vs. time with {approximately}1 ms resolution and wide dynamic range in a robust and reliable manner with the capability to be absolutely calibrated by in-situ neutron sources as done on TFTR, JT-60U, and JET. In this paper a more detailed look at the expected neutron flux field around ITER is folded into a more complete design of the fission chamber system.

  10. Implementing a pilot leadership course for internal medicine residents: design considerations, participant impressions, and lessons learned. (United States)

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Bernard, Ken; Fraser, Traci N; Bohnen, Jordan; Zeidman, Jessica; Stone, Valerie E


    Effective clinical leadership is associated with better patient care. We implemented and evaluated a pilot clinical leadership course for second year internal medicine residents at a large United States Academic Medical Center that is part of a multi-hospital health system. The course met weekly for two to three hours during July, 2013. Sessions included large group discussions and small group reflection meetings. Topics included leadership styles, emotional intelligence, and leading clinical teams. Course materials were designed internally and featured "business school style" case studies about everyday clinical medicine which explore how leadership skills impact care delivery. Participants evaluated the course's impact and quality using a post-course survey. Questions were structured in five point likert scale and free text format. Likert scale responses were converted to a 1-5 scale (1 = strongly disagree; 3 = neither agree nor disagree; 5 = strongly agree), and means were compared to the value 3 using one-way T-tests. Responses to free text questions were analyzed using the constant comparative method. All sixteen pilot course participants completed the survey. Participants overwhelmingly agreed that the course provided content and skills relevant to their clinical responsibilities and leadership roles. Most participants also acknowledged that taking the course improved their understanding of their strengths and weaknesses as leaders, different leadership styles, and how to manage interpersonal conflict on clinical teams. 88% also reported that the course increased their interest in pursuing additional leadership training. A clinical leadership course for internal medicine residents designed by colleagues, and utilizing case studies about clinical medicine, resulted in significant self-reported improvements in clinical leadership competencies.

  11. Design considerations in a sib-pair study of linkage for susceptibility loci in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finkelstein Dianne M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern approaches to identifying new genes associated with disease allow very fine analysis of associaton and can be performed in population based case-control studies. However, the sibpair design is still valuable because it requires few assumptions other than acceptably high penetrance to identify genetic loci. Methods We conducted simulation studies to assess the impact of design factors on relative efficiency for a linkage study of colorectal cancer. We considered two test statistics, one comparing the mean IBD probability in affected pairs to its null value of 0.5, and one comparing the mean IBD probabilities between affected and discordant pairs. We varied numbers of parents available, numbers of affected and unaffected siblings, reconstructing the genotype of an unavailable affected sibling by a spouse and offspring, and elimination of sibships where the proband carries a mutation at another locus. Results Power and efficiency were most affected by the number of affected sibs, the number of sib pairs genotyped, and the risk attributable to linked and unlinked loci. Genotyping unaffected siblings added little power for low penetrance models, but improved validity of tests when there was genetic heterogeneity and for multipoint testing. The efficiency of the concordant-only test was nearly always better than the concordant-discordant test. Replacement of an unavailable affected sibling by a spouse and offspring recovered some linkage information, particularly if several offspring were available. In multipoint analysis, the concordant-only test was showed a small anticonservative bias at 5 cM, while the multipoint concordant-discordant test was generally the most powerful test, and was not biased away from the null at 5 cM. Conclusion Genotyping parents and unaffected siblings is useful for detecting genotyping errors and if allele frequencies are uncertain. If adequate allele frequency data are available, we suggest a

  12. Design Optimization of a Mecanum Wheel to Reduce Vertical Vibrations by the Consideration of Equivalent Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Jin Bae


    Full Text Available Mecanum wheels are capable of moving a vehicle to any direction instantaneously by the combination of independent wheel rotations. Because the mecanum wheel is composed of a hub and rollers, however, it has unavoidable drawbacks such as vertical and horizontal vibrations due to the sequential contacts between rollers and ground. In order to investigate the dynamic characteristics of a mecanum wheel, we made a prototype and performed experiments to measure the vertical vibrations. Interestingly, it was observed that the vertical accelerations were asymmetric with respect to the average value of signals; the vibration signals of upward and downward directions show quite different shape. This asymmetric phenomenon was confirmed through the dynamic simulations performed by RecurDyn. In addition, the peak-to-peak and RMS values of the displacements and accelerations were calculated to investigate the effects of the curvature of rollers on the vertical vibrations of the vehicle. Furthermore, we proposed a mecanum wheel having a spring to attenuate the vibrations. It was also noted that the significant reduction of the vertical accelerations was observed due to the absence of the spring. Finally, considering the equivalent stiffness of the mecanum wheel for several different fillet radii, we found the optimal geometric design which minimizes the vertical vibration of a mecanum wheel.

  13. Design considerations for space radiators based on the liquid sheet (LSR) concept (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Chubb, Donald L.


    Concept development work on space heat rejection subsystems tailored to the requirements of various space power conversion systems is proceeding over a broad front of technologies at NASA LeRC. Included are orbital and planetary surface based radiator concepts utilizing pumped loops, a variety of heat pipe radiator concepts, and the innovative liquid sheet radiator (LSR). The basic feasibility of the LSR concept was investigated in prior work which generated preliminary information indicating the suitability of the LSR concept for space power systems requiring cycle reject heat to be radiated to the space sink at low-to-mid temperatures (300 to 400 K), with silicon oils used for the radiator working fluid. This study is directed at performing a comparative examination of LSR characteristics as they affect the basic design of low earth orbit solar dynamic power conversion systems. The power systems considered were based on the closed Brayton (CBC) and the Free Piston Stirling (FPS) cycles, each with a power output of 2 kWe and using previously tested silicone oil (Dow-Corning Me2) as the radiator working fluid. Conclusions indicate that, due to its ability for direct cold end cooling, an LSR based heat rejection subsystem is far more compatible with a Stirling space power system than with a CBC, which requires LSR coupling by means of an intermediate gas/liquid heat exchanger and adjustment of cycle operating conditions.

  14. Design considerations for a novel phase-contrast adaptive-optic wavefront sensor (United States)

    Bloemhof, Eric E.; Westphal, James A.


    The wavefront sensor (WFS) is perhaps the most critical adaptive-optic subsystem, particularly for astronomical applications with natural guide stars, where current WFS sensitivity limitations seriously restrict sky coverage. In this paper, we discuss the possibility of a WFS based on a phase-contrast principle of the sort employed by Zernike for microscopy. Such a WFS would be implemented by inserting a focal-plane filter with a (pi) /2 phase-shifting central spot having a transverse size of the order of the diffraction limit. The result would be an image of the pupil in which intensity is directly proportional to the seeing- and aberration-induced phase variations over the pupil. In comparison, the signals produced by the two most common current WFS schemes, Shack-Hartmann and curvature sensing, are proportional to the phase slope and to the second derivative, respectively. The phase-contrast approach might derive some advantages stemming from its more natural match to the control eigenvectors of the electrostrictive deformable mirrors that are expected to predominate in high-order adaptive optics systems, in the same way that curvature sensors are currently well matched to bimorph mirrors. It may thus yield substantial performance improvements with simpler hardware and lighter computational loads. We examine this and other possible advantages of the phase-contrast WFS, and investigate some of the practical design issues involved in its implementation.

  15. Design considerations for the TF center conductor post for the Ignition Spherical Torus (IST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, G.R.; Haines, J.R.


    A trade-off study has been carried out to compare the differential costs of using high-strength alloy copper versus oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OFHC) copper for the center legs of the toroidal field (TF) coils of an Ignition Spherical Torus (IST). The electrical heating, temperatures, stresses, cooling requirements, material costs, pump costs, and power to drive the TF coils and pumps are all assessed for both materials for a range of compact tokamak reactors. The alloy copper material is found to result in a more compact reactor and to allow use of current densities of up to 170 MA/mS versus 40 MA/mS for the OFHC copper. The OFHC conductor system with high current density is $24 million less expensive than more conventional copper systems with 30 MA/mS. The alloy copper system costs $32 million less than conventional systems. Therefore, the alloy system offers a net savings of $8 million compared to the 50% cold-worked OFHC copper system. Although the savings are a significant fraction of the center conductor post cost, they are relatively insignificant in terms of the total device cost. It is concluded that the use of alloy copper contributes very little to the economic or technical viability of the compact IST. It is recommended that a similar systematic approach be applied to evaluating coil material and current density trade-offs for other compact copper-TF-coil tokamak designs. 9 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations. (United States)

    Turk, Dennis C; O'Connor, Alec B; Dworkin, Robert H; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P; Adams, Edgar H; Brownstein, John S; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A; Zacny, James P; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L; Webster, Lynn R; Weiss, Roger D; Wolf, Kerry


    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Because of the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability, (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation, (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse, and (4) postmarketing epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Design Considerations for Aural Vital Signs Using PZT Piezoelectric Ceramics Sensor Based on the Computerization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerapong Tantrakoon


    Full Text Available The purpose was to illustrate how system developed for measurement of the aural vital signs such as patient’s heart and lung sounds in the hospital. For heart sounds measurement must operate the frequency response between 20 – 800 Hz, and lung sounds measurement must operate the frequency response between 160 – 4,000 Hz. The method was designed PZT piezoelectric ceramics for both frequency response in the same PZT sensor. It converts a signal from aural vital sign form to voltage signal. The signal is suitably amplified and re-filtered in band pass frequency band. It is converted to digital signal by an analog to digital conversion circuitry developed for the purpose. The results were that all signals can fed to personal computer through the sound card port. With the supporting software for drawing of graphic on the screen, the signal for a specific duration is accessed and stored in the computer’s memory in term of each patient’s data. In conclusion, the data of each patient call dot pcg (.pcg for drawing graph and dot wave (.wave for sound listening or automatic sending via electronic mail to the physician for later analysis of interpreting the sounds on the basis of their time domain and frequency domain representation to diagnose heart disorders.

  18. Radiation Safety Considerations for Design of the SPEAR3 Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, Sayed H.


    The SPEAR3 storage ring at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is an upgrade of the existing SPEAR2 ring to a 3rd-generation storage ring with beam parameters of 3 GeV of electron beam energy, 18 nm-radian emittance and up to 500 mA of circulating current. While the existing injector will not be changed, the 234-m-circumference SPEAR2 ring components will be completely replaced with new components including C-shaped dipoles. The concrete shielding walls are to remain unchanged. This restriction, when considered in conjunction with the significant increase in the current and loss of self-shielding in the dipole magnets, requires careful study of the SPEAR3 shielding. This paper describes the methodology used for calculating the required shielding in a generic method. The criteria used for the design of shielding and beam loss estimates for various modes of beam operation are also presented. FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used extensively in generating source term data (dose rate as a function of angle for photons and neutrons) for both thin and thick targets. Attenuation profiles of neutrons and photons in concrete and lead shield materials are also presented. These data are being used to evaluate the shielding requirements for the lateral and ratchet walls. The current status of this approach will be discussed. Other issues presented include the use of active devices that are part of the radiation safety systems for the SPEAR3.

  19. Life cycle assessment of EPS and CPB inserts: design considerations and end of life scenarios. (United States)

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H


    Expanded polystyrene (EPS) and corrugated paperboard (CPB) are used in many industrial applications, such as containers, shock absorbers or simply as inserts. Both materials pose two different types of environmental problems. The first is the pollution and resource consumption that occur during the production of these materials; the second is the growing landfills that arise out of the excessive disposal of these packaging materials. Life cycle assessment or LCA will be introduced in this paper as a useful tool to compare the environmental performance of both EPS and CPB throughout their life cycle stages. This paper is divided into two main parts. The first part investigates the environmental impacts of the production of EPS and CPB from 'cradle-to-gate', comparing two inserts--both the original and proposed new designs. In the second part, LCA is applied to investigate various end-of-life cases for the same materials. The study will evaluate the environmental impacts of the present waste management practices in Singapore. Several 'what-if' cases are also discussed, including various percentages of landfilling and incineration. The SimaPro LCA Version 5.0 software's Eco-indicator 99 method is used to investigate the following five environmental impact categories: climate change, acidification/eutrophication, ecotoxicity, fossil fuels and respiratory inorganics.

  20. Biomechanical Considerations in the Design of High-Flexion Total Knee Replacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Kung Cheng


    Full Text Available Typically, joint arthroplasty is performed to relieve pain and improve functionality in a diseased or damaged joint. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA involves replacing the entire knee joint, both femoral and tibial surfaces, with anatomically shaped artificial components in the hope of regaining normal joint function and permitting a full range of knee flexion. In spite of the design of the prosthesis itself, the degree of flexion attainable following TKA depends on a variety of factors, such as the joint’s preoperative condition/flexion, muscle strength, and surgical technique. High-flexion knee prostheses have been developed to accommodate movements that require greater flexion than typically achievable with conventional TKA; such high flexion is especially prevalent in Asian cultures. Recently, computational techniques have been widely used for evaluating the functionality of knee prostheses and for improving biomechanical performance. To offer a better understanding of the development and evaluation techniques currently available, this paper aims to review some of the latest trends in the simulation of high-flexion knee prostheses.

  1. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations (United States)

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry


    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  2. Design considerations of a hollow microneedle-optofluidic biosensing platform incorporating enzyme-linked assays (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, Sahan A.; Padeste, Celestino; Häfeli, Urs O.; Stoeber, Boris; Cadarso, Victor J.


    A hollow metallic microneedle is integrated with microfluidics and photonic components to form a microneedle-optofluidic biosensor suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in biological fluids, like interstitial fluid, that can be collected in a painless and minimally-invasive manner. The microneedle inner lumen surface is bio-functionalized to trap and bind target analytes on-site in a sample volume as small as 0.6 nl, and houses an enzyme-linked assay on its 0.06 mm2 wall. The optofluidic components are designed to rapidly quantify target analytes present in the sample and collected in the microneedle using a simple and sensitive absorbance scheme. This contribution describes how the biosensor components were optimized to detect in vitro streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (Sav-HRP) as a model analyte over a large detection range (0–7.21 µM) and a very low limit of detection (60.2 nM). This biosensor utilizes the lowest analyte volume reported for TDM with microneedle technology, and presents significant avenues to improve current TDM methods for patients, by potentially eliminating blood draws for several drug candidates.

  3. Methodologic considerations in the design and analysis of nested case-control studies: association between cytokines and postoperative delirium. (United States)

    Ngo, Long H; Inouye, Sharon K; Jones, Richard N; Travison, Thomas G; Libermann, Towia A; Dillon, Simon T; Kuchel, George A; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha M; Alsop, David C; Marcantonio, Edward R


    The nested case-control study (NCC) design within a prospective cohort study is used when outcome data are available for all subjects, but the exposure of interest has not been collected, and is difficult or prohibitively expensive to obtain for all subjects. A NCC analysis with good matching procedures yields estimates that are as efficient and unbiased as estimates from the full cohort study. We present methodological considerations in a matched NCC design and analysis, which include the choice of match algorithms, analysis methods to evaluate the association of exposures of interest with outcomes, and consideration of overmatching. Matched, NCC design within a longitudinal observational prospective cohort study in the setting of two academic hospitals. Study participants are patients aged over 70 years who underwent scheduled major non-cardiac surgery. The primary outcome was postoperative delirium from in-hospital interviews and medical record review. The main exposure was IL-6 concentration (pg/ml) from blood sampled at three time points before delirium occurred. We used nonparametric signed ranked test to test for the median of the paired differences. We used conditional logistic regression to model the risk of IL-6 on delirium incidence. Simulation was used to generate a sample of cohort data on which unconditional multivariable logistic regression was used, and the results were compared to those of the conditional logistic regression. Partial R-square was used to assess the level of overmatching. We found that the optimal match algorithm yielded more matched pairs than the greedy algorithm. The choice of analytic strategy-whether to consider measured cytokine levels as the predictor or outcome-- yielded inferences that have different clinical interpretations but similar levels of statistical significance. Estimation results from NCC design using conditional logistic regression, and from simulated cohort design using unconditional logistic regression, were

  4. Changing cluster composition in cluster randomised controlled trials: design and analysis considerations. (United States)

    Corrigan, Neil; Bankart, Michael J G; Gray, Laura J; Smith, Karen L


    There are many methodological challenges in the conduct and analysis of cluster randomised controlled trials, but one that has received little attention is that of post-randomisation changes to cluster composition. To illustrate this, we focus on the issue of cluster merging, considering the impact on the design, analysis and interpretation of trial outcomes. We explored the effects of merging clusters on study power using standard methods of power calculation. We assessed the potential impacts on study findings of both homogeneous cluster merges (involving clusters randomised to the same arm of a trial) and heterogeneous merges (involving clusters randomised to different arms of a trial) by simulation. To determine the impact on bias and precision of treatment effect estimates, we applied standard methods of analysis to different populations under analysis. Cluster merging produced a systematic reduction in study power. This effect depended on the number of merges and was most pronounced when variability in cluster size was at its greatest. Simulations demonstrate that the impact on analysis was minimal when cluster merges were homogeneous, with impact on study power being balanced by a change in observed intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC). We found a decrease in study power when cluster merges were heterogeneous, and the estimate of treatment effect was attenuated. Examples of cluster merges found in previously published reports of cluster randomised trials were typically homogeneous rather than heterogeneous. Simulations demonstrated that trial findings in such cases would be unbiased. However, simulations also showed that any heterogeneous cluster merges would introduce bias that would be hard to quantify, as well as having negative impacts on the precision of estimates obtained. Further methodological development is warranted to better determine how to analyse such trials appropriately. Interim recommendations include avoidance of cluster merges where

  5. Considerations on Circuit Design and Data Acquisition of a Portable Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Chang


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a circuit for an inexpensive portable biosensing system based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. This portable biosensing system designed for field use is characterized by a special structure which consists of a microfluidic cell incorporating a right angle prism functionalized with a biomolecular identification membrane, a laser line generator and a data acquisition circuit board. The data structure, data memory capacity and a line charge-coupled device (CCD array with a driving circuit for collecting the photoelectric signals are intensively focused on and the high performance analog-to-digital (A/D converter is comprehensively evaluated. The interface circuit and the photoelectric signal amplifier circuit are first studied to obtain the weak signals from the line CCD array in this experiment. Quantitative measurements for validating the sensitivity of the biosensing system were implemented using ethanol solutions of various concentrations indicated by volume fractions of 5%, 8%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%, respectively, without a biomembrane immobilized on the surface of the SPR sensor. The experiments demonstrated that it is possible to detect a change in the refractive index of an ethanol solution with a sensitivity of 4.99838 × 105 ΔRU/RI in terms of the changes in delta response unit with refractive index using this SPR biosensing system, whereby the theoretical limit of detection of 3.3537 × 10−5 refractive index unit (RIU and a high linearity at the correlation coefficient of 0.98065. The results obtained from a series of tests confirmed the practicality of this cost-effective portable SPR biosensing system.

  6. Accuracy of the Missouri River Least Tern and Piping Plover Monitoring Program: considerations for the future (United States)

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Roche, Erin A.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Buhl, Thomas K.; Dovichin, Colin M.


    The upper Missouri River system provides nesting and foraging habitat for federally endangered least terns (Sternula antillarum; hereafter “terns”) and threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter “plovers”). These species are the subject of substantial management interest on the Missouri River for several reasons. First, ecosystem recovery is a goal for management agencies that seek to maintain or restore natural functions and native biological communities for the Missouri River system. Terns and plovers are recognized as important ecosystem components that are linked with the river’s ecological functions. Second, although both species breed beyond the Missouri River system, the Missouri River is one of the principal breeding areas in the Northern Great Plains; thus, the river system is a focal area for recovery actions targeted at regional population goals. Third, a Biological Opinion for Missouri River operations established annual productivity goals for terns and plovers, and the recovery plan for each species established annual population goals. Meeting these goals is a key motivation in management decision making and implementation with regard to both species. A myriad of conservation and management interests necessitate understanding numbers, distribution, and productivity of terns and plovers on the Missouri River system. To this end, a Tern and Plover Monitoring Program (TPMP) was implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (hereafter “Corps”) in 1986, and has since provided annual estimates of tern and plover numbers and productivity for five Missouri River reservoirs and four river reaches (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1993). The TPMP has served as the primary source of information about the status of terns and plovers on the Missouri River, and TPMP data have been used for a wide variety of purposes. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) was tasked by the Corps to

  7. Key issues in the design of pay for performance programs. (United States)

    Eijkenaar, Frank


    Pay for performance (P4P) is increasingly being used to stimulate healthcare providers to improve their performance. However, evidence on P4P effectiveness remains inconclusive. Flaws in program design may have contributed to this limited success. Based on a synthesis of relevant theoretical and empirical literature, this paper discusses key issues in P4P-program design. The analysis reveals that designing a fair and effective program is a complex undertaking. The following tentative conclusions are made: (1) performance is ideally defined broadly, provided that the set of measures remains comprehensible, (2) concerns that P4P encourages "selection" and "teaching to the test" should not be dismissed, (3) sophisticated risk adjustment is important, especially in outcome and resource use measures, (4) involving providers in program design is vital, (5) on balance, group incentives are preferred over individual incentives, (6) whether to use rewards or penalties is context-dependent, (7) payouts should be frequent and low-powered, (8) absolute targets are generally preferred over relative targets, (9) multiple targets are preferred over single targets, and (10) P4P should be a permanent component of provider compensation and is ideally "decoupled" form base payments. However, the design of P4P programs should be tailored to the specific setting of implementation, and empirical research is needed to confirm the conclusions.

  8. PIFCGT: A PIF autopilot design program for general aviation aircraft (United States)

    Broussard, J. R.


    This report documents the PIFCGT computer program. In FORTRAN, PIFCGT is a computer design aid for determing Proportional-Integral-Filter (PIF) control laws for aircraft autopilots implemented with a Command Generator Tracker (CGT). The program uses Linear-Quadratic-Regulator synthesis algorithms to determine feedback gains, and includes software to solve the feedforward matrix equation which is useful in determining the command generator tracker feedforward gains. The program accepts aerodynamic stability derivatives and computes the corresponding aerodynamic linear model. The nine autopilot modes that can be designed include four maneuver modes (ROLL SEL, PITCH SEL, HDG SEL, ALT SEL), four final approach models (APR GS, APR LOCI, APR LOCR, APR LOCP), and a BETA HOLD mode. The program has been compiled and executed on a CDC computer.

  9. Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT and E) Considerations for Safe and Reliable Human Rated Spacecraft Systems (United States)

    Miller, James; Leggett, Jay; Kramer-White, Julie


    A team directed by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) collected methodologies for how best to develop safe and reliable human rated systems and how to identify the drivers that provide the basis for assessing safety and reliability. The team also identified techniques, methodologies, and best practices to assure that NASA can develop safe and reliable human rated systems. The results are drawn from a wide variety of resources, from experts involved with the space program since its inception to the best-practices espoused in contemporary engineering doctrine. This report focuses on safety and reliability considerations and does not duplicate or update any existing references. Neither does it intend to replace existing standards and policy.

  10. Design and implementation of modular software for programming mobile robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Iocchi


    Full Text Available This article describes a software development toolkit for programming mobile robots, that has been used on different platforms and for different robotic applications. We address design choices, implementation issues and results in the realization of our robot programming environment, that has been devised and built from many people since 1998. We believe that the proposed framework is extremely useful not only for experienced robotic software developers, but also for students approaching robotic research projects.

  11. Design and Implementation of Modular Software for Programming Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Farinelli


    Full Text Available This article describes a software development toolkit for programming mobile robots, that has been used on different platforms and for different robotic applications. We address design choices, implementation issues and results in the realization of our robot programming environment, that has been devised and built from many people since 1998. We believe that the proposed framework is extremely useful not only for experienced robotic software developers, but also for students approaching robotic research projects.

  12. Controlled Optimal Design Program for the Logit Dose Response Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqiao Hu


    Full Text Available The assessment of dose-response is an integral component of the drug development process. Parallel dose-response studies are conducted, customarily, in preclinical and phase 1, 2 clinical trials for this purpose. Practical constraints on dose range, dose levels and dose proportions are intrinsic issues in the design of dose response studies because of drug toxicity, efficacy, FDA regulations, protocol requirements, clinical trial logistics, and marketing issues. We provide a free on-line software package called Controlled Optimal Design 2.0 for generating controlled optimal designs that can incorporate prior information and multiple objectives, and meet multiple practical constraints at the same time. Researchers can either run the web-based design program or download its stand-alone version to construct the desired multiple-objective controlled Bayesian optimal designs. Because researchers often adopt ad-hoc design schemes such as the equal allocation rules without knowing how efficient such designs would be for the design problem, the program also evaluates the efficiency of user-supplied designs.

  13. Two Programs for Supersonic Wing Design and Analysis (United States)

    Mason, W. H.; Rosen, B. S.; Grossman, B.


    COREL and W12SC3 useful in aerodynamic design and analysis of wings for supersonic speeds. COREL (Conical Relaxation) program solves nonlinear full potential equation for spanwise section of wing in crossflow plane, and option exists to correct result for nonconical geometry. W12SC3 applies lineartheory panel methods to compute solutions for wing/body configuration. Programs restricted to supersonic flows and useful for many design, analysis, and optimization applications. COREL and W12SC3 written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  14. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, I. B.; Yoon, K. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H


    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology.

  15. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S. (and others)


    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology.

  16. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, I. B.; Yoon, K. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H


    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology.

  17. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youm, Ki Un; Lee, I. B.; Youm, J. H


    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology.

  18. ActionScript 30 Design Patterns Object Oriented Programming Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, William


    If you're an experienced Flash or Flex developer ready to tackle sophisticated programming techniques with ActionScript 3.0, this hands-on introduction to design patterns takes you step by step through the process. You learn about various types of design patterns and construct small abstract examples before trying your hand at building full-fledged working applications outlined in the book.

  19. Programming as Design: The Role of Programming in Interactive Media Curriculum in Art and Design (United States)

    Amiri, Faramarz


    The number of university undergraduate courses in the area of interactive media is increasing. Many of these courses are based in the schools of art and design that have traditionally valued and focused on developing the aesthetic and artistic design skills of their students. However, because of the rapid changes in new technology the relation…

  20. Critical analysis of common canister programs: a review of cross-functional considerations and health system economics. (United States)

    Larson, Trent; Gudavalli, Ravindra; Prater, Dean; Sutton, Scott


    Respiratory inhalers constitute a large percentage of hospital pharmacy expenditures. Metered-dose inhaler (MDI) canisters usually contain enough medication to last 2 to 4 weeks, while the average hospital stay for acute hospitalizations of respiratory illnesses is only 4-5 days. Hospital pharmacies are often unable to operationalize relabeling of inhalers at discharge to meet regulatory requirements. This dilemma produces drug wastage. The common canister (CC) approach is a method some hospitals implemented in an effort to minimize the costs associated with this issue. The CC program uses a shared inhaler, an individual one-way valve holding chamber, and a cleaning protocol. This approach has been the subject of considerable controversy. Proponents of the CC approach reported considerable cost savings to their institutions. Opponents of the CC approach are not convinced the benefits outweigh even a minimal risk of cross-contamination since adherence to protocols for hand washing and disinfection of the MDI device cannot be guaranteed to be 100% (pathogens from contaminated devices can enter the respiratory tract through inhalation). Other cost containment strategies, such as unit dose nebulizers, may be useful to realize similar reductions in pharmacy drug costs while minimizing the risks of nosocomial infections and their associated medical costs. The CC strategy may be appropriate for some hospital pharmacies that face budget constraints, but a full evaluation of the risks, benefits, and potential costs should guide those who make hospital policy decisions.

  1. Designing and Managing Public Housing Self-Sufficiency Programs: The Youngs Lake Commons Program (United States)

    Kleit, Rachel Garshick


    This article evaluates an experimental public housing self-sufficiency program that encourages home ownership among low-income families. A quasi-experimental design, in combination with focus groups, records review, and key informant interviews, provides data to focus on four questions: (a) Do these programs simply accelerate move-outs for those…

  2. General Electric Company design review manual, commercial buildings. National Solar Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This manual is intended to serve as a guide to the Solar Energy Division of ERDA for preparing instructions for and evaluating the proposals resulting from the issuance of Program Opportunity Notices (PON's) for Commercial Buildings. The manual is meant to amplify Program Opportunity Notice DSE-75-2, with respect to site, building, and system selection and evaluation. The manual contains two major sections, one addressing the project concept and the other the design features. The project concept section provides for a description and evaluation of the site, the commercial building, the system application, the system predicted performance, and the long term economics of the application. The projects could be screened using the information from this section alone. Projects that remain acceptable can be further evaluated through design considerations as outlined in the second section. (WDM)

  3. Considerations for an Access-Centered Design of the Fever Thermometer in Low-Resource Settings: A Literature Review (United States)


    Background The lack of adequate information about fever in low-resource settings, its unreliable self-assessment, and poor diagnostic practices may result in delayed care and under-or-overdiagnosis of diseases such as malaria. The mismatches of existing fever thermometers in the context of use imply that the diagnostic tools and connected services need to be studied further to address the challenges of fever-related illnesses and their diagnostics. Objective This study aims to inform a product-service system approach to design a reliable and accessible fever thermometer and connected services, as well as contribute to the identification of innovative opportunities to improve health care in low-resource settings. Methods To determine what factors impede febrile people seeking health care to access adequate fever diagnostics, a literature search was conducted in Google Scholar and PubMed with relevant keywords. Next, these factors were combined with a patient journey model to design a new product-service system for fever diagnostics in low-resource settings. Results In total, 37 articles were reviewed. The five As framework was used to categorize the identified barriers. The results indicate that there is a poor distribution of reliable fever diagnostic practices among remote communities. This paper speaks to the global public health and design communities. Three complementary considerations are discussed that support the idea of a more holistic approach to the design of fever diagnostics: (1) understanding of the fever diagnostics patient journey, (2) identifying user groups of the thermometers in a specific health care system, and (3) assessing different needs and interests of the different users. Conclusions Access to basic, primary health care may be enhanced with better information and technology design made through the involvement of system users. PMID:28100439

  4. EGUN: An electron optics and gun design program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.


    The name EGUN has become commonly associated with the program also known as the SLAC Electron Trajectory Program. This document is an updated version of SLAC-226, published in 1979. The program itself has had substantial upgrading since then, but only a few new features are of much concern to the user. Most of the improvements are internal and are intended to improve speed or accuracy. EGUN is designed to compute trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic fields, including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes, as well as used specified initial conditions. Either rectangular or cylindrical symmetry may be used. In the new jargon, the program is a 2-1/2 dimension code meaning 2-D in all fields and 3-D in all particle motion. A Poisson's Equation Solver is used to find the electrostatic fields by using difference equations derived from the boundary conditions. Magnetic fields are to be specified externally, by the user, by using one of several methods including data from another program or arbitrary configurations of coils. This edition of the documentation also covers the program EGN87c, which is a recently developed version of EGUN designed to be used on the newer models of personal computers, small main frames, work stations, etc. The EGN87c program uses the programming language C which is very transportable so the program should operate on any system that supports C. Plotting routines for most common PC monitors are included, and the capability to make hard copy plots on dot-matrix printer-plotters is provided. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Mathematical-programming approaches to test item pool design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Ariel, A.


    This paper presents an approach to item pool design that has the potential to improve on the quality of current item pools in educational and psychological testing andhence to increase both measurement precision and validity. The approach consists of the application of mathematical programming

  6. Designing and Implementing Effective Adapted Physical Education Programs (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.


    "Designing and Implementing Effective Adapted Physical Education Programs" was written to assist adapted and general physical educators who are dedicated to ensuring that the physical and motor needs of all their students are addressed in physical education. While it is anticipated that adapted physical educators, where available, will typically…

  7. Processing a programming handbook for visual designers and artists

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey


    The visual arts are rapidly changing as media moves into the web, mobile devices, and architecture. When designers and artists learn the basics of writing software, they develop a new form of literacy that enables them to create new media for the present, and to imagine future media that are beyond the capacities of current software tools. This book introduces this new literacy by teaching computer programming within the context of the visual arts. It offers a comprehensive reference and text for Processing (, an open-source programming language that can be used by students, artists, designers, architects, researchers, and anyone who wants to program images, animation, and interactivity. Written by Processing's cofounders, the book offers a definitive reference for students and professionals. Tutorial chapters make up the bulk of the book; advanced professional projects from such domains as animation, performance, and installation are discussed in interviews with their creators. This secon...

  8. Intraarticular Facet Injections for Low Back Pain: Design Considerations, Consensus Methodology to Develop the Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Mars, Tom; Ellard, David R; Antrobus, James H L; Cairns, Melinda; Underwood, Martin; Haywood, Kirstie; Keohane, Susie; Sandhu, Harbinder; Griffiths, Frances


    Since the publication of guidelines by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the American Pain Society guidelines for low back pain in 2009 there have been deep divisions in the pain treatment community about the use of therapeutic intraarticular facet joint injections. While evidence for the effectiveness or not of intraarticular facet joint injections remains sparse, uncertainty will remain. The Warwick feasibility study, along with a concurrent study with a different design led by another group, aims to provide a stable platform from which the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of intraarticular facet joint injections added to normal care could be evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To reach consensus on key design considerations for the Warwick facet feasibility study from which the study protocol and working manuals will be developed. A consensus conference involving expert professionals and lay members. Preliminary work identified 5 key design considerations for deliberation at our consensus conference. Three concerned patient assessment and treatment: diagnosis of possible facet joint pain, interaarticular facet joint injection technique, and best usual care. Two concerned trial analysis: a priori sub-groups and minimally important difference and are reported elsewhere. We did systematic evidence reviews of the design considerations and summarized the evidence. Our design questions and evidence summaries were distributed to all delegates. This formed the basis for discussions on the day. Clinical experts in all aspects of facet joint injection from across the UK along with lay people were invited via relevant organizations. Nominal group technique was used in 15 facilitated initial small group discussions. Further discussion and ranking was undertaken in plenary. All small group and plenary results were recorded and checked and verified post conference. Where necessary participants were contacted via email to

  9. A Design Case Featuring the Graduate Design Studio at Indiana University Bloomington’s Human-Computer Interaction Design Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Callison


    Full Text Available In this article the author illustrates the design of a physical space that was created to serve as a performance intervention for graduate students in the Human-Computer Interaction Design (HCId program in the School of Informatics, Indiana University Bloomington. Opened in Fall 2010, the HCId Graduate Design Studio was designed to help facilitate collaboration between students and faculty in the HCId Program. An effort was made to document the Studio and students working in the Studio over an extended period of time. The author visited the Design Studio a minimum of ten times between late January and late April 2011. Visits were conducted on different days of the week (Monday - Friday and at different times of the day to capture a variety of students and activity level in the Studio. In order to gain a perspective on the two distinct groups of students who utilize the Studio, interviews of graduate students from both the HCId Master of Science and Doctoral program were conducted. In addition interviews were conducted of two other important stakeholders, the HCId Program Director and the Director of Facilities for the School of Informatics, both of whom were heavily involved in the design of the Studio. Through faculty and student interviews, text descriptions, photographs, and audio and video recordings this article addresses the design features and their impact, both successful and unsuccessful, on student and faculty collaboration of the HCId Graduate Design Studio.

  10. Development of a HFE program for an operating NPP: Balancing between existing design practices and human factors standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Leena [Nuclear and Thermal Power, Fortum (Finland); Savioja, Paula [Human Factors in Complex Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fortum (Finland)


    This paper describes HFE program development project conducted at a Finnish power company Fortum. The aim of developing a formal HFE program was to improve integration of human factors issues in design of technical systems and to systematically document the HFE process of the company. As Fortum has a long tradition of designing control room solutions, the starting point of the HFE program development was the existing own design practices. On the other hand, the aim was to create a program which would comply with international guidelines such as NUREG-0711. The program development was conducted by tracing the HFE design practices in an on-going I and C modernization project. This empirical work was carried out by interviews of designers and other HFE key stake holders. After the explication of the current practices, the gaps, overlaps and differences in relation to the international standards and guidelines were identified. Based on an analysis of current practices and guidelines and standards a new HFE process model was created. The design process model can be followed in modifications which concern systems with human user interfaces of any kind. The model consists of five separate phases which comply with the general engineering design process model utilized at the company. The HFE program is intended to be both a practical guide on how to take human factors issues into consideration in the design of NPP systems and also a tool for the management of HFE activities.

  11. Design principles for an interactive program derivation system (United States)

    Reddy, Uday S.


    The main design principles of an interactive program transformation system called FOCUS are outlined. Its important characteristics are its human-oriented deduction techniques based replacement, emphasis on small search spaces, and the use of a tree structure to organize program derivations. The tree structure presents to the user a static picture of the derivation process and promotes flexibility in the development of derivations. The system keeps track of dependencies between different parts of derivations, and records the derivation activity for later use in automatic replay.

  12. Design considerations and experimental observations for the TAMU air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system for the VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, S. A., E-mail:; Dominguez-Ontiveros, E. E., E-mail:; Alhashimi, T., E-mail:; Budd, J. L., E-mail:; Matos, M. D., E-mail:; Hassan, Y. A., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3133 (United States)


    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a promising passive decay heat removal system for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to ensure reliability of the transfer of the core residual and decay heat to the environment under all off-normal circumstances. A small scale experimental test facility was constructed at Texas A and M University (TAMU) to study pertinent multifaceted thermal hydraulic phenomena in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design based on the General Atomics (GA) concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The TAMU Air-Cooled Experimental Test Facility is ⅛ scale from the proposed GA-MHTGR design. Groundwork for experimental investigations focusing into the complex turbulence mixing flow behavior inside the upper plenum is currently underway. The following paper illustrates some of the chief design considerations used in construction of the experimental test facility, complete with an outline of the planned instrumentation and data acquisition methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to furnish some insights on the overall behavior of the air flow in the system. CFD simulations assisted the placement of the flow measurement sensors location. Preliminary experimental observations of experiments at 120oC inlet temperature suggested the presence of flow reversal for cases involving single active riser at both 5 m/s and 2.25 m/s, respectively and four active risers at 2.25 m/s. Flow reversal may lead to thermal stratification inside the upper plenum by means of steady state temperature measurements. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to furnish some insight on flow patterns and directions.

  13. Design considerations and experimental observations for the TAMU air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system for the VHTR (United States)

    Sulaiman, S. A.; Dominguez-Ontiveros, E. E.; Alhashimi, T.; Budd, J. L.; Matos, M. D.; Hassan, Y. A.


    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a promising passive decay heat removal system for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to ensure reliability of the transfer of the core residual and decay heat to the environment under all off-normal circumstances. A small scale experimental test facility was constructed at Texas A&M University (TAMU) to study pertinent multifaceted thermal hydraulic phenomena in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design based on the General Atomics (GA) concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The TAMU Air-Cooled Experimental Test Facility is ⅛ scale from the proposed GA-MHTGR design. Groundwork for experimental investigations focusing into the complex turbulence mixing flow behavior inside the upper plenum is currently underway. The following paper illustrates some of the chief design considerations used in construction of the experimental test facility, complete with an outline of the planned instrumentation and data acquisition methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to furnish some insights on the overall behavior of the air flow in the system. CFD simulations assisted the placement of the flow measurement sensors location. Preliminary experimental observations of experiments at 120oC inlet temperature suggested the presence of flow reversal for cases involving single active riser at both 5 m/s and 2.25 m/s, respectively and four active risers at 2.25 m/s. Flow reversal may lead to thermal stratification inside the upper plenum by means of steady state temperature measurements. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to furnish some insight on flow patterns and directions.

  14. Perioperative Temperature Measurement Considerations Relevant to Reporting Requirements for National Quality Programs Using Data From Anesthesia Information Management Systems. (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Hofer, Ira S; Rodriguez, Luis I; Schwenk, Eric S; Maga, Joni M; Hindman, Bradley J


    Perioperative hypothermia may increase the incidences of wound infection, blood loss, transfusion, and cardiac morbidity. U.S. national quality programs for perioperative normothermia specify the presence of at least 1 "body temperature" ≥35.5°C during the interval from 30 minutes before to 15 minutes after the anesthesia end time. Using data from 4 academic hospitals, we evaluated timing and measurement considerations relevant to the current requirements to guide hospitals wishing to report perioperative temperature measures using electronic data sources. Anesthesia information management system databases from 4 hospitals were queried to obtain intraoperative temperatures and intervals to the anesthesia end time from discontinuation of temperature monitoring, end of surgery, and extubation. Inclusion criteria included age >16 years, use of a tracheal tube or supraglottic airway, and case duration ≥60 minutes. The end-of-case temperature was determined as the maximum intraoperative temperature recorded within 30 minutes before the anesthesia end time (ie, the temperature that would be used for reporting purposes). The fractions of cases with intervals >30 minutes between the last intraoperative temperature and the anesthesia end time were determined. Among the hospitals, averages (binned by quarters) of 34.5% to 59.5% of cases had intraoperative temperature monitoring discontinued >30 minutes before the anesthesia end time. Even if temperature measurement had been continued until extubation, averages of 5.9% to 20.8% of cases would have exceeded the allowed 30-minute window. Averages of 8.9% to 21.3% of cases had end-of-case intraoperative temperatures <35.5°C (ie, a quality measure failure). Because of timing considerations, a substantial fraction of cases would have been ineligible to use the end-of-case intraoperative temperature for national quality program reporting. Thus, retrieval of postanesthesia care unit temperatures would have been necessary. A

  15. Utility Green Pricing Programs: Design, Implementation, and Consumer Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.


    The term green pricing refers to programs offered by utilities in traditionally regulated electricity markets, which allow customers to support the development of renewable energy sources by paying a small premium on their electric bills. Since the introduction of the concept in the United States, the number of unique utility green pricing programs has expanded from just a few programs in 1993 to more than 90 in 2002. About 10% of U.S. utilities offered a green pricing option to about 26 million consumers by the end of 2002. This report provides: (1) aggregate industry data on consumer response to utility programs, which indicate the collective impact of green pricing on renewable energy development nationally; and (2) market data that can be used by utilities as a benchmark for gauging the relative success of their green pricing programs. Specifically, the paper presents current data and trends in consumer response to green pricing, as measured by renewable energy sales, participants, participation rates, and new renewable energy capacity supported. It presents data on various aspects of program design and implementation, such as product pricing, ownership of supplies, retention rates, marketing costs, the effectiveness of marketing techniques, and methods of enrolling and providing value to customers.

  16. MPprimer: a program for reliable multiplex PCR primer design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaolei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplex PCR, defined as the simultaneous amplification of multiple regions of a DNA template or multiple DNA templates using more than one primer set (comprising a forward primer and a reverse primer in one tube, has been widely used in diagnostic applications of clinical and environmental microbiology studies. However, primer design for multiplex PCR is still a challenging problem and several factors need to be considered. These problems include mis-priming due to nonspecific binding to non-target DNA templates, primer dimerization, and the inability to separate and purify DNA amplicons with similar electrophoretic mobility. Results A program named MPprimer was developed to help users for reliable multiplex PCR primer design. It employs the widely used primer design program Primer3 and the primer specificity evaluation program MFEprimer to design and evaluate the candidate primers based on genomic or transcript DNA database, followed by careful examination to avoid primer dimerization. The graph-expanding algorithm derived from the greedy algorithm was used to determine the optimal primer set combinations (PSCs for multiplex PCR assay. In addition, MPprimer provides a virtual electrophotogram to help users choose the best PSC. The experimental validation from 2× to 5× plex PCR demonstrates the reliability of MPprimer. As another example, MPprimer is able to design the multiplex PCR primers for DMD (dystrophin gene which caused Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, which has 79 exons, for 20×, 20×, 20×, 14×, and 5× plex PCR reactions in five tubes to detect underlying exon deletions. Conclusions MPprimer is a valuable tool for designing specific, non-dimerizing primer set combinations with constrained amplicons size for multiplex PCR assays.

  17. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs. (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello


    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Structural Design Considerations for a 50 kW-Class Solar Array for NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Yim, John T.; Le, Dzu K.


    NASA is planning an Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) to take place in the 2020s. To enable this multi-year mission, a 40 kW class solar electric propulsion (SEP) system powered by an advanced 50 kW class solar array will be required. Powered by the SEP module (SEPM), the ARM vehicle will travel to a large near-Earth asteroid, descend to its surface, capture a multi-metric ton (t) asteroid boulder, ascend from the surface and return to the Earth-moon system to ultimately place the ARM vehicle and its captured asteroid boulder into a stable distant orbit. During the years that follow, astronauts flying in the Orion multipurpose crew vehicle (MPCV) will dock with the ARM vehicle and conduct extra-vehicular activity (EVA) operations to explore and sample the asteroid boulder. This paper will review the top structural design considerations to successfully implement this 50 kW class solar array that must meet unprecedented performance levels. These considerations include beyond state-of-the-art metrics for specific mass, specific volume, deployed area, deployed solar array wing (SAW) keep in zone (KIZ), deployed strength and deployed frequency. Analytical and design results are presented that support definition of stowed KIZ and launch restraint interface definition. An offset boom is defined to meet the deployed SAW KIZ. The resulting parametric impact of the offset boom length on spacecraft moment of inertias and deployed SAW quasistatic and dynamic load cases are also presented. Load cases include ARM spacecraft thruster plume impingement, asteroid surface operations and Orion docking operations which drive the required SAW deployed strength and damping. The authors conclude that to support NASA's ARM power needs, an advanced SAW is required with mass performance better than 125 W/kg, stowed volume better than 40 kW/cu m, a deployed area of 200 sq m (100 sq m for each of two SAWs), a deployed SAW offset distance of nominally 3-4 m, a deployed SAW quasistatic strength

  19. CR mammography: Design and implementation of a quality control program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Ramirez, A.; Brandan, M. E.; Villasenor-Navarro, Y.; Galvan, H. A.; Ruiz-Trejo, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Departamento de Radiodiagnostico, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, DF 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico)


    Despite the recent acquisition of significant quantities of computed radiography CR equipment for mammography, Mexican regulations do not specify the performance requirements for digital systems such as those of CR type. The design of a quality control program QCP specific for CR mammography systems was thus considered relevant. International protocols were taken as reference to define tests, procedures and acceptance criteria. The designed QCP was applied in three CR mammography facilities. Important deficiencies in spatial resolution, noise, image receptor homogeneity, artifacts and breast thickness compensation were detected.

  20. NASA Aeronautics Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design Fellowship Program (United States)

    Grossman, B.; Gurdal, Z.; Kapania, R. K.; Mason, W. H.; Schetz, J. A.


    This program began as a grant from NASA Headquarters, NGT-10025, which was in effect from 10/l/93 until 10/31/96. The remaining funding for this effort was transferred from NASA Headquarters to NASA Langley and a new grant NGT-1-52155 was issued covering the period II/l/96 to 5/15/99. This report serves as the final report of NGT-1-52155. For a number of years, Virginia Tech had been on the forefront of research in the area of multidisciplinary analysis and design. In June of 1994, faculty members from aerospace and ocean engineering, engineering science and mechanics, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, at Virginia Tech joined together to form the Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design (MAD) Center for Advanced Vehicles. The center was established with the single goal: to perform research that is relevant to the needs of the US industry and to foster collaboration between the university, government and industry. In October of 1994, the center was chosen by NASA headquarters as one of the five university centers to establish a fellowship program to develop a graduate program in multidisciplinary analysis and design. The fellowship program provides full stipend and tuition support for seven U. S. students per year during their graduate studies. The grant is currently being administered by the NMO Branch of NASA Langley. To advise us regarding the problems faced by the industry, an industrial advisory board has been formed consisting of representatives from industry as well as government laboratories. The present membership includes major aerospace companies: Aurora Flight Sciences, Boeing: Philadelphia, Boeing: Long Beach, Boeing: Seattle, Boeing: St. Louis, Cessna, Ford, General Electric, Hughes, Lockheed-Martin: Palo Alto, Northrop-Grumman, Sikorsky, smaller, aerospace software companies: Aerosoft, Phoenix Integration and Proteus Engineering, along with representatives from government agencies, including: NASA Ames