Programming for the Newton software development with NewtonScript
McKeehan, Julie
1994-01-01
Programming for the Newton: Software Development with NewtonScript focuses on the processes, approaches, operations, and principles involved in software development with NewtonScript.The publication first elaborates on Newton application design, views on the Newton, and protos. Discussions focus on system protos, creating and using user protos, linking and naming templates, creating the views of WaiterHelper, Newton application designs, and life cycle of an application. The text then elaborates on the fundamentals of NewtonScript, inheritance in NewtonScript, and view system and messages. Topi
NEWTPOIS- NEWTON POISSON DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM
Bowerman, P. N.
1994-01-01
The cumulative poisson distribution program, NEWTPOIS, is one of two programs which make calculations involving cumulative poisson distributions. Both programs, NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715) and CUMPOIS (NPO-17714), can be used independently of one another. NEWTPOIS determines percentiles for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and calculates percentiles for chi-square distributions with even degrees of freedom. It can be used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. NEWTPOIS determines the Poisson parameter (lambda), that is; the mean (or expected) number of events occurring in a given unit of time, area, or space. Given that the user already knows the cumulative probability for a specific number of occurrences (n) it is usually a simple matter of substitution into the Poisson distribution summation to arrive at lambda. However, direct calculation of the Poisson parameter becomes difficult for small positive values of n and unmanageable for large values. NEWTPOIS uses Newton's iteration method to extract lambda from the initial value condition of the Poisson distribution where n=0, taking successive estimations until some user specified error term (epsilon) is reached. The NEWTPOIS program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly on most C compilers. The program format is interactive, accepting epsilon, n, and the cumulative probability of the occurrence of n as inputs. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 30K. NEWTPOIS was developed in 1988.
Newton/Poisson-Distribution Program
Bowerman, Paul N.; Scheuer, Ernest M.
1990-01-01
NEWTPOIS, one of two computer programs making calculations involving cumulative Poisson distributions. NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715) and CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) used independently of one another. NEWTPOIS determines Poisson parameter for given cumulative probability, from which one obtains percentiles for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and percentiles for X(sup2) distributions with even degrees of freedom. Used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. Program written in C.
Mathews, John H.
1989-01-01
Describes Newton's method to locate roots of an equation using the Newton-Raphson iteration formula. Develops an adaptive method overcoming limitations of the iteration method. Provides the algorithm and computer program of the adaptive Newton-Raphson method. (YP)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zahra Roshani
2012-03-01
practitioner and life satisfaction. (P=0.07 Conclusion: osteoarthrities, heart diseases, Hypertention and diabet are the most common diseases in the elderly staffs in IRIB. According to this study, there is a significant relation between prevalence of common diseases and health related variable. therfore through implementation of such programs like: changing life style, regular and periodic clinical examination ,changing diet habit, we can identification of these diseases in the primary stage and preventation of disability in the future will be possible.
A Smooth Newton Method for Nonlinear Programming Problems with Inequality Constraints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasile Moraru
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a reformulation of the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT system associated nonlinear programming problem into an equivalent system of smooth equations. Classical Newton method is applied to solve the system of equations. The superlinear convergence of the primal sequence, generated by proposed method, is proved. The preliminary numerical results with a problems test set are presented.
DAMPAK PROGRAM RESITASI TERHADAP PERUBAHAN KONSEPTUAL MAHASISWA PADA TOPIK HUKUM III NEWTON
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ida Bagus Rini Jayanti
2016-02-01
Melalui penelitian ini telah dikembangkan program resitasi berbantuan komputer berisi 9 soal-soal konseptual dalam bentuk pilihan ganda beserta balikan langsung. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk menyelidiki dampak program tersebut terhadap penguasaan konsep dan perubahan konsep mahasiswa mengenai hukum III Newton. Data diambil melalui pretes berupa tes pilihan ganda yang diberikan setelah pembahasan topik kinematika (satu dan dua dimensi dan dinamika partikel (hukum-hukum Newton tentang gaya dan gerak dan postes diberikan setelah menggunakan program resitasi. Program digunakan mahasiswa selama seminggu secara offline. Subjek penelitian terdiri atas 35 mahasiswa tahun pertama Program Studi Pendidikan Fisika Universitas Negeri Malang yang sedang menempuh mata kuliah Fisika Dasar I. Hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa penguasaan konsep mahasiswa secara keseluruhan meningkat secara signifikan dengan nilai N-gain sebesar 0.31 dan perubahan konsep mahasiswa semakin baik dengan meningkatnya jumlah mahasiswa yang memiliki pemahaman mantap dan pemahaman sebagian, serta berkurangnya jumlah mahasiswa yang mengalami miskonsepsi dan yang tidak paham.
Quasi-Newton Methods for Solving Nonlinear Programming Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.Moraru
1996-03-01
Full Text Available In the present paper the problem of constrained equality optimization is reduced to sequential solving a series of problems of quadratic programming. The Hessian of the Lagrangian is approximated by a sequence of symmetric positive definite matrices. The matrix approximation is updated at every iteration by a Gram- Schmidt modified algorithm. We establish that methods is locally convergent and the sequence {xk}converges to the solution a two-step superlinear rate.
1985-07-01
representation for the Newton search direction associated with the subproblem. In Section 3, we show a formal equivalence between the Newton search... Metod Rewriting (2.9) in terms of a vector ri defined by Dr. = -pp, we see that r. and r stisfy (I DAT)-(m) (D - . ( It follows that r. is the solution...Mountain View, California. Tomlin, J. A. and Welch, J. S. (1983). Formal optimization of some reduced linear programming problems, Math. Prog. 27, pp. 232
Tapia, R. A.; Vanrooy, D. L.
1976-01-01
A quasi-Newton method is presented for minimizing a nonlinear function while constraining the variables to be nonnegative and sum to one. The nonnegativity constraints were eliminated by working with the squares of the variables and the resulting problem was solved using Tapia's general theory of quasi-Newton methods for constrained optimization. A user's guide for a computer program implementing this algorithm is provided.
Gompertz: A Scilab Program for Estimating Gompertz Curve Using Gauss-Newton Method of Least Squares
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Surajit Ghosh Dastidar
2006-04-01
Full Text Available A computer program for estimating Gompertz curve using Gauss-Newton method of least squares is described in detail. It is based on the estimation technique proposed in Reddy (1985. The program is developed using Scilab (version 3.1.1, a freely available scientific software package that can be downloaded from http://www.scilab.org/. Data is to be fed into the program from an external disk file which should be in Microsoft Excel format. The output will contain sample size, tolerance limit, a list of initial as well as the final estimate of the parameters, standard errors, value of Gauss-Normal equations namely GN1 GN2 and GN3, No. of iterations, variance(σ2, Durbin-Watson statistic, goodness of fit measures such as R2, D value, covariance matrix and residuals. It also displays a graphical output of the estimated curve vis a vis the observed curve. It is an improved version of the program proposed in Dastidar (2005.
Gompertz: A Scilab Program for Estimating Gompertz Curve Using Gauss-Newton Method of Least Squares
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Surajit Ghosh Dastidar
2006-04-01
Full Text Available A computer program for estimating Gompertz curve using Gauss-Newton method of least squares is described in detail. It is based on the estimation technique proposed in Reddy (1985. The program is developed using Scilab (version 3.1.1, a freely available scientific software package that can be downloaded from http://www.scilab.org/. Data is to be fed into the program from an external disk file which should be in Microsoft Excel format. The output will contain sample size, tolerance limit, a list of initial as well as the final estimate of the parameters, standard errors, value of Gauss-Normal equations namely GN1 GN2 and GN3 , No. of iterations, variance(σ2 , Durbin-Watson statistic, goodness of fit measures such as R2 , D value, covariance matrix and residuals. It also displays a graphical output of the estimated curve vis a vis the observed curve. It is an improved version of the program proposed in Dastidar (2005.
XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory Guest Observer program (AO-1) at CASA
Skinner, Stephen L.
2003-01-01
In this research program, we obtained and analyzed X-ray observations of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 110 (HD 165688) using the XMM-Newton space-based observatory. Radio observations were also obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope located in New Mexico and operated by the Natl. Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). This star was targeted for observations primarily because it is believed to be a single WR star without a companion. Single WR stars are thought to emit X-rays from cool plasma in shocks distributed throughout their powerful stellar winds. However, there has been little observational work done to test this idea since single WR stars are relatively weak X-ray sources and have been difficult to detect with previous generation telescopes. The launch of XMM-Newton provides a new telescope that is much more sensitive than its predecessors, allowing single WR stars to be studied in detail for the first time. X-ray emission was clearly detected from WR 110. Analysis of its spectrum yields a surprising result. Its X-ray emitting plasma is distributed over a range of temperatures and is dominated by relatively cool plasma with a characteristic temperature T is approximately 6 million K. Such plasma can be explained by existing theoretical wind shock models. However, the spectrum also shows hotter plasma whose temperature is uncertain but is thought to be in excess of T approximately 30 million K. The origin of this hotter plasma is yet unknown, but possible mechanisms are identified
Hendry, Archibald W.
2007-01-01
Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…
Haberman, Shelby J.
2013-01-01
A general program for item-response analysis is described that uses the stabilized Newton-Raphson algorithm. This program is written to be compliant with Fortran 2003 standards and is sufficiently general to handle independent variables, multidimensional ability parameters, and matrix sampling. The ability variables may be either polytomous or…
Abrashkevich, Alexander; Puzynin, I. V.
2004-01-01
A FORTRAN program is presented which solves a system of nonlinear simultaneous equations using the continuous analog of Newton's method (CANM). The user has the option of either to provide a subroutine which calculates the Jacobian matrix or allow the program to calculate it by a forward-difference approximation. Five iterative schemes using different algorithms of determining adaptive step size of the CANM process are implemented in the program. Program summaryTitle of program: CANM Catalogue number: ADSN Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSN Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Computers: IBM RS/6000 Model 320H, SGI Origin2000, SGI Octane, HP 9000/755, Intel Pentium IV PC Installation: Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Operating systems under which the program has been tested: IRIX64 6.1, 6.4 and 6.5, AIX 3.4, HP-UX 9.01, Linux 2.4.7 Programming language used: FORTRAN 90 Memory required to execute with typical data: depends on the number of nonlinear equations in a system. Test run requires 80 KB No. of bits in distributed program including test data, etc.: 15283 Distribution format: tar gz format No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1794 Peripherals used: line printer, scratch disc store External subprograms used: DGECO and DGESL [1] Keywords: nonlinear equations, Newton's method, continuous analog of Newton's method, continuous parameter, evolutionary differential equation, Euler's method Nature of physical problem: System of nonlinear simultaneous equations F i(x 1,x 2,…,x n)=0,1⩽i⩽n, is numerically solved. It can be written in vector form as F( X)= 0, X∈ Rn, where F : Rn→ Rn is a twice continuously differentiable function with domain and range in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The solutions of such systems of
The XMM-Newton Very Large Program on Cosmology with High-Redshift Quasars
Risaliti, G.
2017-10-01
The non-linear relation between the X-ray and UV emission in quasars can be used to estimate the distance of quasars with a precision of 0.2 dex. Based on this property, we built a Hubble Diagram of quasars up to z˜6. This provides a new way to test the cosmological model at high redshift, and to measure the cosmological parameters. So far, we filled the Hubble Diagram with SDSS quasars with serendipitous XMM observation. This is an efficient method up to z˜2-2.5, but at higher redshifts pointed observations are needed in order to constrain the cosmological models. XMM-Newton will observe 30 optically bright quasars at z 3, allowing to measure the expansion rate of the Universe at z=3 with a 8% precision. This will provide a tight test of the standard LCDM model, and an improvement of the constraints on the possible evolution of the equation of state of the dark energy.
Walker, H. F.
1978-01-01
The problem to be solved is formulated precisely and the introduction of quasi-Newton methods is motivated by considering the classical Newton and secant methods and their properties. Three highly successful quasi-Newton methods are surveyed: Broyden's method for the solution of general nonlinear equations, and the Davidon-Fletcher-Powell and Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno procedures for unconstrained minimization. Finally, the properties of these methods are compared to those of Newton's method and UHMLE in potential applications to maximum-likelihood estimation of parameters in mixture distributions.
Microcomputer-Assisted Mathematics. Roots: Newton's Method.
Kimberling, Clark
1985-01-01
Discusses Newton's method for approximating the roots of functions, indicating that students who program in BASIC can learn and appreciate the method by writing their own programs. Includes a hypothetical dialogue between teacher and student about the topic; sample program listings; and problems assigned to students who have written programs. (JN)
Isaac Newton's sinister heraldry
Jenkins, Alejandro
2013-01-01
After Isaac Newton was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 he adopted an unusual coat of arms: a pair of human tibiae crossed on a black background, like a pirate flag without the skull. After some general reflections on Newton's monumental scientific achievements and on his rather enigmatic life, we investigate the story behind his coat of arms. We also discuss how that simple heraldic design illustrates the concept of chirality, which would later play an important role in the philosophical arguments about Newton's conception of space, as well as in the development of modern chemistry and particle physics.
Chaitanya, T. Sai; Kumar, Rajiv; Krishna, V. Sai; Anandh, B Shankar; Umesh, K S
2010-01-01
In an earlier work (Shankar kumar Jha, A Vyas, O S K S Sastri, Rajkumar Jain & K S Umesh, 'Determination of wavelength of laser light using Modified Newton's rings setup', Physics Education, vol. 22, no.3, 195-202(2005)) reported by our group, a version of Newton's rings experiment called Modified Newton's rings was proposed. The present work is an extension of this work. Here, a general formula for wavelength has been derived, applicable for a plane of observation at any distance. A relation...
May, Andrew
2015-01-01
Isaac Newton had an extraordinary idea. He believed the physical universe and everything in it could be described in exact detail using mathematical relationships. He formulated a law of gravity that explained why objects fall downwards, how the moon causes the tides, and why planets and comets orbit the sun. While Newton's work has been added to over the years, his basic approach remains at the heart of the scientific worldview. Yet Newton's own had little in common with that of a modern scientist. He believed the universe was created to a precise and rational design - a design that was fully
The Celestial Mechanics of Newton
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tation, and highlights some applications to celes- tial mechanics found in Newton's Principia. 1. Introduction. Newton's Principia consists of three books; the third dealing with the The System of the World puts forth. Newton's views on celestial mechanics. This third book is indeed the heart of Newton's "natural philosophy".
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wheeler, James T
2007-01-01
.... Applying this principle to Newton's law with the simplest measurement theory leads to Lagrangian mechanics, while use of conformal measurement theory leads to Hamiltonian mechanics.PACS Nos.: 45.20.Jj, 11.25.Hf, 45.10...
Hall, Alfred Rupert
1982-01-01
The near century (1630–1720) that separates the important astronomical findings of Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) and the vastly influential mathematical work of Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) represents a pivotal stage of transition in the history of science. Tracing the revolution in physics initiated by Galileo and culminating in Newton's achievements, this book surveys the work of Huygens, Leeuwenhoek, Boyle, Descartes, and others. 35 illustrations.
Universality of Newton's method
Ramm, A. G.
2009-01-01
Convergence of the classical Newton's method and its DSM version for solving operator equations $F(u)=h$ is proved without any smoothness assumptions on $F'(u)$. It is proved that every solvable equation $F(u)=f$ can be solved by Newton's method if the initial approximation is sufficiently close to the solution and $||[F'(y)]^{-1}||\\leq m$, where $m>0$ is a constant.
González S., Fabio
2015-01-01
La labor de Newton en el campo de la física, una de las piedras angulares en que se fundamenta esta ciencia, se caracteriza por el hecho de que a partir de unos enunciados básicos explica los diversos fenómenos que estudia la mecánica. Entre las grandes contribuciones de Newton se pueden citar: el descubrimiento de la ley de la gravitación universal, el enunciado de las leyes del movimiento, el teorema del binomio, la formulación básica del cálculo diferencial e integral, así-como algunos tra...
Turning around Newton's Second Law
Goff, John Eric
2004-01-01
Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.
Newton's Contributions to Optics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Newton's epochal work on dynamics and gravitation some- times tends to eclipse his great contributions to optics. Also, his work in optics is rivalled by equally significant work by his contemporaries, especially Huygens. Yet his creativity is apparent, even in ideas and models in optics that were later abandoned in science. 1.
2008-01-01
Isaac Newton, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.
Voltaire-Newton... Renversant!
2004-01-01
The encounter, even improbable, between François Marie Arouet, said Voltaire, and Isaac Newton could occur only in Pays de Gex, near his city... It's indeed right above of the accelerator, in Saint-Genis, that the meeting between this two "monsters" of the 18e century took place
Cox, Carol
2001-01-01
Presents the Isaac Newton Olympics in which students complete a hands-on activity at seven stations and evaluate what they have learned in the activity and how it is related to real life. Includes both student and teacher instructions for three of the activities. (YDS)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Lewis, Prof. Gilbert Newton. Date of birth: 25 October 1875. Date of death: 24 March 1946. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on ...
Newton's Contributions to Optics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Newton's Contributions to Optics. Arvind Kumar. General Article Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 10-20. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0010-0020. Keywords.
Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"
Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer
2012-01-01
Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…
Kasturiarachi, A. Bathi
2002-01-01
Using Newton's method as an intermediate step, we introduce an iterative method that approximates numerically the solution of f(x) = 0. The method is essentially a leap-frog Newton's method. The order of convergence of the proposed method at a simple root is cubic and the computational efficiency in general is less, but close to that of Newton's…
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Sysala, Stanislav
2015-01-01
Roč. 70, č. 11 (2015), s. 2621-2637 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : system of nonlinear equations * Newton method * load increment method * elastoplasticity Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122115003818
Herbert, Dexter (Editor)
1992-01-01
In this 'Liftoff to Learning' series video, astronauts (Charles Veach, Gregory Harbaugh, Donald McMonagle, Michael Coats, L. Blaine Hammond, Guion Bluford, Richard Hieb) from the STS-39 Mission use physical experiments and computer animation to explain how weightlessness and gravity affects everything and everyone onboard the Space Shuttle. The physics behind the differences between weight and mass, and the concepts of 'free fall', are demonstrated along with explanations and experiments of Sir Issac Newton's three laws of motion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of complex cubic polynomials have been studied extensively in the recent years. The main interest in this work is to focus on the Julia sets in the dynamical plane, and then is consecrated to the study of several topics in more detail. Newton's method is considered since it is the main tool for finding solutions to equations, which leads to some fantastic images when it is applied to complex functions and gives rise to a chaotic sequence.
Structural Optimization Using the Newton Modified Barrier Method
Khot, N. S.; Polyak, R. A.; Schneur, R.; Berke, L.
1995-01-01
The Newton Modified Barrier Method (NMBM) is applied to structural optimization problems with large a number of design variables and constraints. This nonlinear mathematical programming algorithm was based on the Modified Barrier Function (MBF) theory and the Newton method for unconstrained optimization. The distinctive feature of the NMBM method is the rate of convergence that is due to the fact that the design remains in the Newton area after each Lagrange multiplier update. This convergence characteristic is illustrated by application to structural problems with a varying number of design variables and constraints. The results are compared with those obtained by optimality criteria (OC) methods and by the ASTROS program.
Verlet, Loup
1993-01-01
En 1936, une vente publique ramena au jour le contenu d'une malle où Newton avait enfermé ses manuscrits. Ô surprise, les travaux du savant y voisinaient avec les spéculations de l'exégète et de l'alchimiste. Ce n'est pas seulement la face cachée d'un exceptionnel génie scientifique qui nous était ainsi révélée, mais, au-delà du mystère d'un homme, le secret partage qui gouverne notre univers, comme le montre cette lecture originale de la naissance de la physique moderne.Dans quel monde suis-je tombé ? Pourquoi les choses sont-elles ainsi ? Comment faire avec ? Questions lancinantes de l'enfant quand la mère fait défaut, du chercheur face à la nature qui se dérobe. La réponse, Newton sait où la trouver : Dieu le Père, à jamais insaisissable, est présent «partout et toujours», Il se révèle par la bouche des prophètes, se devine dans les arcanes de l'alchimie, se manifeste par les lois admirables qui règlent le cours ordinaire des choses. Ses écrits de l'ombre l'attestent, Newton ...
Westfall, Richard S
1994-01-01
Le plus célèbre des savants, Isaac Newton, est aussi celui qui a le plus de biographes. Avant même sa mort, en 1727, l'un d'eux publiait un récit de la vie du grand homme. Richard Westfall, universitaire américain, est aujourd'hui le meilleur connaisseur d'un personnage en tout point extraordinaire, dont Aldous Huxley disait : « En tant qu'homme, c'est un fiasco ; en tant que monstre, il est superbe ! » Découvrant à 24 ans la loi de la gravitation universelle, établissant peu après les lois de l'optique tout en poursuivant des études alchimiques et théologiques, cet homme capable de rester des jours entiers sans manger ni dormir, absorbé par les énigmes du savoir, connaît une grave dépression dont il réchappe de justesse... pour se consacrer à l'économie de son pays : il devient directeur de la Monnaie de Londres, organisant une impitoyable chasse aux faux-monnayeurs ! L'image d'Épinal de Newton regardant une pomme tomber sort enrichie et complexifiée de ce livre fruit d'une vie de reche...
Isaac Newton: Man, Myth, and Mathematics.
Rickey, V. Frederick
1987-01-01
This article was written in part to celebrate the anniversaries of landmark mathematical works by Newton and Descartes. It's other purpose is to dispel some myths about Sir Isaac Newton and to encourage readers to read Newton's works. (PK)
Newton flows for elliptic functions
Helminck, G.F.; Twilt, F.
2015-01-01
Newton flows are dynamical systems generated by a continuous, desingularized Newton method for mappings from a Euclidean space to itself. We focus on the special case of meromorphic functions on the complex plane. Inspired by the analogy between the rational (complex) and the elliptic (i.e., doubly
Edme Mariotte and Newton's Cradle
Cross, Rod
2012-01-01
The first recorded experiments describing the phenomena made popular by Newton's cradle appear to be those conducted by Edme Mariotte around 1670. He was quoted in Newton's "Principia," along with Wren, Wallis, and Huygens, as having conducted pioneering experiments on the collisions of pendulum balls. Each of these authors concluded that momentum…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. Venter
1964-03-01
Full Text Available Die geweldige oplewing van die Christelike wetenskaps- gedagte in ons geeslose tyd, is ongetwyfeld ’n haas onverklaar- bare verskynsel. Dwarsdeur die eeue het Christene ook wetenskap beoefen saam met ongelowiges, maar dit was eers in ons leeftyd dat die principia van die Christelike religie ook vrugbaar gemaak is vir die wetenskapsbeoefening. In hierdie verband sal die name van Dooyeweerd, Vollenhoven, Stoker e.a. steeds met eer vermeld word. Natuurlik het belydende Christene ook voorheen wel deeglik saamgewerk aan die gebou van die wetenskap. Die intieme verband tussen religie, wysbegeerte en wetenskaps beoefening is toe egter nog nie suiwer ingesien nie. Uit hier die tydperk dateer die arbeid van sir Isaac Newton.
Fractal aspects and convergence of Newton`s method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drexler, M. [Oxford Univ. Computing Lab. (United Kingdom)
1996-12-31
Newton`s Method is a widely established iterative algorithm for solving non-linear systems. Its appeal lies in its great simplicity, easy generalization to multiple dimensions and a quadratic local convergence rate. Despite these features, little is known about its global behavior. In this paper, we will explain a seemingly random global convergence pattern using fractal concepts and show that the behavior of the residual is entirely explicable. We will also establish quantitative results for the convergence rates. Knowing the mechanism of fractal generation, we present a stabilization to the orthodox Newton method that remedies the fractal behavior and improves convergence.
Introducing Newton and classical physics
Rankin, William
2002-01-01
The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".
XMM-Newton publication statistics
Ness, J.-U.; Parmar, A. N.; Valencic, L. A.; Smith, R.; Loiseau, N.; Salama, A.; Ehle, M.; Schartel, N.
2014-02-01
We assessed the scientific productivity of XMM-Newton by examining XMM-Newton publications and data usage statistics. We analyse 3272 refereed papers, published until the end of 2012, that directly use XMM-Newton data. The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) was used to provide additional information on each paper including the number of citations. For each paper, the XMM-Newton observation identifiers and instruments used to provide the scientific results were determined. The identifiers were used to access the XMM-{Newton} Science Archive (XSA) to provide detailed information on the observations themselves and on the original proposals. The information obtained from these sources was then combined to allow the scientific productivity of the mission to be assessed. Since around three years after the launch of XMM-Newton there have been around 300 refereed papers per year that directly use XMM-Newton data. After more than 13 years in operation, this rate shows no evidence that it is decreasing. Since 2002, around 100 scientists per year become lead authors for the first time on a refereed paper which directly uses XMM-Newton data. Each refereed XMM-Newton paper receives around four citations per year in the first few years with a long-term citation rate of three citations per year, more than five years after publication. About half of the articles citing XMM-Newton articles are not primarily X-ray observational papers. The distribution of elapsed time between observations taken under the Guest Observer programme and first article peaks at 2 years with a possible second peak at 3.25 years. Observations taken under the Target of Opportunity programme are published significantly faster, after one year on average. The fraction of science time taken until the end of 2009 that has been used in at least one article is {˜ 90} %. Most observations were used more than once, yielding on average a factor of two in usage on available observing time per year. About 20 % of
Alquimia: Isaac Newton revisitado Alchemy: Isaac Newton Revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reginaldo Carmello Corrêa de Moraes
1997-01-01
Full Text Available Nota sobre publicações recentes que revelam aspectos pouco conhecidos da biblioteca de Newton - os numerosos textos religiosos, místicos e herméticos. Os biógrafos de Newton resistiram muito até admitir que os escritos esotéricos fossem genuíno interesse do sábio e que tivessem importância para entender sua trajetória intelectual. As publicações aqui indicadas afirmam o contrário, seguindo trilha aberta por ensaio pioneiro de J. M. Keynes (1946.A note on recent books about an unexplored side of Newtons library: religious, mystical and hermetic texts. Newton's biographers had resisted so much to believe that esoteric writings were in Newtons field of interest. Even if they recognized that, they didn't believe those strange works were important elements to understand his intellectual trajectory. The studies we mention here are saying just the opposite thing, exploring the way opened by the pioneer essay of J. M. Keynes (1946.
Calder, Lucy; Lahav, Ofer
2008-02-01
Dark energy is one of the biggest mysteries in science. In this article the origin of the concept is traced as far back as Newton and Hooke in the 17th century. Newton considered, along with the inverse-square law, a force of attraction that varies linearly with distance. A direct link can be made between this term and Einstein's cosmological constant, ∧, and this leads to a possible relation between ∧ and the total mass of the universe. Mach's influence on Einstein is discussed and the convoluted history of ∧ throughout the last 90 years is coherently presented.
Newton's apple Isaac Newton and the English scientific renaissance
Aughton, Peter
2003-01-01
In the aftermath of the English Civil War, the Restoration overturned England's medieval outlook and a new way of looking at the world allowed the genius of Isaac Newton (b. 1642) and his contemporaries to flourish. Newton had a long and eventful life apart from his scentific discoveries. He was born at the beginnings of the Civil War, his studies were disrupted by the twin disasters of the Great Plague and the Fire of London; a brilliant and enigmatic genius, Newton dabbled in alchemy, wrote over a million words on the Bible, quarrelled with his contemporaries and spent his last years as Master of the Royal Mint as well as President of the Royal Society. This book sets Newton's life and work against this dramatic intellectual rebirth; among his friends and contemporaries were Samuel Pepys, the colourful diarist, John Evelyn, the eccentric antiquarian, the astronomers Edmund Halley and John Flamsteed, and Christopher Wren, the greatest architect of his age. They were all instrumental in the founding of the Ro...
Black Hole Results from XMM-Newton
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norbert Schartel
2014-12-01
Full Text Available XMM-Newton is one of the most successful science missions of the European Space Agency. Since 2003 every year about 300 articles are published in refereed journals making directly use of XMM-Newton data. All XMM-Newton calls for observing proposals are highly oversubscribed by factors of six and more. In the following some scientic highlights of XMM-Newton observations of black holes are summarized.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the enunciation of the law of gravitation by Newton. In one bold step it unified phenomena as diverse as apples falling from trees and the motion of planets in their orbits. The profundity of the law is masked by the simplicity of its expression: Two point masses attract each other by a force whose magnitude is proportional to ...
Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited
Vollmer, M.
2009-01-01
The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…
Dynamic Newton-Puiseux Theorem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mannaa, Bassel; Coquand, Thierry
2013-01-01
A constructive version of Newton-Puiseux theorem for computing the Puiseux expansions of algebraic curves is presented. The proof is based on a classical proof by Abhyankar. Algebraic numbers are evaluated dynamically; hence the base field need not be algebraically closed and a factorization...
The Celestial Mechanics of Newton
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. The Celestial Mechanics of Newton. Dipankar Bhattacharya. General Article Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 35-44. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0035-0044 ...
Atomism from Newton to Dalton.
Schofield, Robert E.
1981-01-01
Indicates that although Newton's achievements were rooted in an atomistic theory of matter resembling aspects of modern nuclear physics, Dalton developed his chemical atomism on the basis of the character of the gross behavior of substances rather than their particulate nature. (Author/SK)
POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum
Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita
2010-01-01
The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…
Newton's method in the context of gradients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John W. Neuberger
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This paper gives a common theoretical treatment for gradient and Newton type methods for general classes of problems. First, for Euler-Lagrange equations Newton's method is characterized as an (asymptotically optimal variable steepest descent method. Second, Sobolev gradient type minimization is developed for general problems using a continuous Newton method which takes into account a "boundary condition" operator.
Newton's Principia: Myth and Reality
Smith, George
2016-03-01
Myths about Newton's Principia abound. Some of them, such as the myth that the whole book was initially developed using the calculus and then transformed into a geometric mathematics, stem from remarks he made during the priority controversy with Leibniz over the calculus. Some of the most persistent, and misleading, arose from failures to read the book with care. Among the latter are the myth that he devised his theory of gravity in order to explain the already established ``laws'' of Kepler, and that in doing so he took himself to be establishing that Keplerian motion is ``absolute,'' if not with respect to ``absolute space,'' then at least with respect to the fixed stars taken as what came later to be known as an inertial frame. The talk will replace these two myths with the reality of what Newton took himself to have established.
[Isaac Newton's Anguli Contactus method].
Wawrzycki, Jarosław
2014-01-01
In this paper we discuss the geometrical method for calculating the curvature of a class of curves from the third Book of Isaac Newton's Principia. The method involves any curve which is generated from an elementary curve (actually from any curve whose curvature we known of) by means of transformation increasing the polar angular coordinate in a constant ratio, but unchanging the polar radial angular coordinate.
2003-01-01
MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-418, 11 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows part of a dark-floored valley system in northern Newton Crater. The valley might have been originally formed by liquid water; the dark material is probably sand that has blown into the valley in more recent times. The picture was acquired earlier this week on July 6, 2003, and is located near 39.2oS, 157.9oW. The picture covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schunk, P.R.; Sackinger, P.A.; Rao, R.R. [and others
1996-01-01
GOMA is a two- and three-dimensional finite element program which excels in analyses of manufacturing processes, particularly those involving free or moving interfaces. Specifically, the full-Newton-coupled heat, mass, momentum, and pseudo-solid mesh motion algorithm makes GOMA ideally suited for simulating processes in which the bulk fluid transport is closely coupled to the interfacial physics. Examples include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, soldering, crystal growth, and solid-network or solution film drying. The code is based on the premise that any boundary can be (1) moving or free, with an apriori unknown position dictated by the distinguishing physics, (2) fixed, according to a global analytical representation, or (3) moving in time and space under user-prescribed kinematics. The goal is to enable the user to predict boundary position or motion simultaneously with the physics of the problem being analyzed and to pursue geometrical design studies and fluid-structure interaction problems. The moving mesh algorithm treats the entire domain as a computational Lagrangian solid that deforms subject to the physical principles which dictate boundary position. As an added benefit, the same Lagrangian solid mechanics can be exploited to solve multi-field problems for which the solid motion and stresses interact with other transport phenomena, either within the same material phase (e.g. shrinking coating) or in neighboring material phases (e.g. flexible blade coating). Thus, analyses of many fluid-structure interaction problems and deformable porous media problems are accessible. This document serves as a user`s guide and reference for GOMA and provides a brief overview of GOMA`s capabilities, theoretical background, and classes of problems for which it is targeted.
A View of Newton as a Mathematician
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
to the invention of calculus by Newton, and con- sider his other mathematical contributions, to bi- nomial theorem and infinite series, cubics, theory of equations and imaginary roots. As the devel- opment of calculus and its enormous applications are well known, we will not discuss much about it. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) ...
3, 2, 1 ... Discovering Newton's Laws
Lutz, Joe; Sylvester, Kevin; Oliver, Keith; Herrington, Deborah
2017-01-01
"For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction." "Except when a bug hits your car window, the car must exert more force on the bug because Newton's laws only apply in the physics classroom, right?" Students in our classrooms were able to pick out definitions as well as examples of Newton's three laws; they could…
Happy Balls, Unhappy Balls, and Newton's Cradle
Kagan, David
2010-01-01
The intricacies of Newton's Cradle are well covered in the literature going as far back as the time of Newton! These discussions generally center on the highly elastic collisions of metal spheres. Thanks to the invention of happy and unhappy balls, you can build and study the interaction of less elastic systems (see Fig. 1).
Newton's method for stochastic functional differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monika Wrzosek
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this article, we apply Newton's method to stochastic functional differential equations. The first part concerns a first-order convergence. We formulate a Gronwall-type inequality which plays an important role in the proof of the convergence theorem for the Newton method. In the second part a probabilistic second-order convergence is studied.
The Newton Modified Barrier Method for QP Problems
Melman, A.; Polyak, R.
1996-01-01
The Modified Barrier Functions (MBF) have elements of both Classical Lagrangians (CL) and Classical Barrier Functions (CBF). The MBF methods find an unconstrained minimizer of some smooth barrier function in primal space and then update the Lagrange multipliers, while the barrier parameter either remains fixed or can be updated at each step. The numerical realization of the MBF method leads to the Newton MBF method, where the primal minimizer is found by using Newton's method. This minimizer is then used to update the Lagrange multipliers. In this paper, we examine the Newton MBF method for the Quadratic Programming (QP) problem. It will be shown that under standard second-order optimality conditions, there is a ball around the primal solution and a cut cone in the dual space such that for a set of Lagrange multipliers in this cut cone, the method converges quadratically to the primal minimizer from any point in the aforementioned ball, and continues to do so after each Lagrange multiplier update. The Lagrange multipliers remain within the cut cone and converge linearly to their optimal values. Any point in this ball will be called a "hot start". Starting at such a "hot start", at most Omicron(1n 1n epsilon(exp -1)) Newton steps are sufficient to perform the primal minimization which is necessary for the Lagrange multiplier update. Here, epsilon > 0 is the desired accuracy. Because of the linear convergence of the Lagrange multipliers, this means that only Omicron(1n epsilon(exp -1))omicron(ln 1n epsilon(exp-1)) Newton steps are required to reach an epsilon-approximation to the solution from any "hot start". In order to reach the "hot start", one has to perform Omicron(square root(m) 1n C) Newton steps, where m characterizes the size of the problem and C > 0 is the condition number of the QP problem. This condition number will be characterized explicitly in terms of key parameters of the QP problem, which in turn depend on the input data and the size of the problem.
27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9... Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundary of the Malibu-Newton...
On divisorial filtrations associated with Newton diagrams
Ebeling, Wolfgang; Gusein-Zade, Sabir M.
2010-01-01
We consider divisorial filtration on the rings of functions on hypersurface singularities associated with Newton diagrams and their analogues for plane curve singularities. We compute the multi-variable Poincar\\'e series for the latter ones.
Apparatus for Teaching Physics: Giant Newton's Rings.
Cheung, Kai-yin; Mak, Se-yuen
1996-01-01
Describes a modification of the traditional demonstration of Newton's rings that magnifies the scale of the interference pattern so that the demonstration can be used for the whole class or for semiquantitative measurements in any high school laboratory. (JRH)
Discovery Science: Newton All around You.
Prigo, Robert; Humphrey, Gregg
1993-01-01
Presents activities for helping elementary students learn about Newton's third law of motion. Several activity cards demonstrate the concept of the law of action and reaction. The activities require only inexpensive materials that can be found around the house. (SM)
Raju, C. K.
1991-01-01
A study of time in Newtonian physics is presented. Newton's laws of motion, falsifiability and physical theories, laws of motion and law of gravitation, and Laplace's demon are discussed. Short bibliographic sketches of Laplace and Karl Popper are included. (KR)
On Newton's method for Riccati equation solution
Sandell, N. R., Jr.
1974-01-01
It is shown that the assumptions of controllability and observability in two theorems of Kleinman (1968, 1970) concerning Newton's method for the Ricatti equation can be weakened to stabilizability and detectability. Empirically, this has been known for some time.
On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies
Auzzi, Roberto; Baiguera, Stefano; Nardelli, Giuseppe
2016-02-01
We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2 + 1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z = 2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3 + 1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.
On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Auzzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia,Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Baiguera, Stefano [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Nardelli, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); TIFPA - INFN, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento,38123 Povo (Italy)
2016-02-01
We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.
Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method
Doikov, Nikita
2018-02-12
We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\epsilon)$, ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\sqrt{\\\\epsilon})$ and ${\\\\cal O}(\\\\log (1/\\\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.
Subsampled Hessian Newton Methods for Supervised Learning.
Wang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Chun-Heng; Lin, Chih-Jen
2015-08-01
Newton methods can be applied in many supervised learning approaches. However, for large-scale data, the use of the whole Hessian matrix can be time-consuming. Recently, subsampled Newton methods have been proposed to reduce the computational time by using only a subset of data for calculating an approximation of the Hessian matrix. Unfortunately, we find that in some situations, the running speed is worse than the standard Newton method because cheaper but less accurate search directions are used. In this work, we propose some novel techniques to improve the existing subsampled Hessian Newton method. The main idea is to solve a two-dimensional subproblem per iteration to adjust the search direction to better minimize the second-order approximation of the function value. We prove the theoretical convergence of the proposed method. Experiments on logistic regression, linear SVM, maximum entropy, and deep networks indicate that our techniques significantly reduce the running time of the subsampled Hessian Newton method. The resulting algorithm becomes a compelling alternative to the standard Newton method for large-scale data classification.
Newton's gift how Sir Isaac Newton unlocked the system of the world
Berlinski, David
2000-01-01
Sir Isaac Newton, creator of the first and perhaps most important scientific theory, is a giant of the scientific era. Despite this, he has remained inaccessible to most modern readers, indisputably great but undeniably remote. In this witty, engaging, and often moving examination of Newton's life, David Berlinski recovers the man behind the mathematical breakthroughs. The story carries the reader from Newton's unremarkable childhood to his awkward undergraduate days at Cambridge through the astonishing year in which, working alone, he laid the foundation for his system of the world, his Principia Mathematica, and to the subsequent monumental feuds that poisoned his soul and wearied his supporters. An edifying appreciation of Newton's greatest accomplishment, Newton's Gift is also a touching celebration of a transcendent man.
Ducheyne, Steffen
2017-04-01
In this paper I will probe into Herman Boerhaave's (1668-1738) appropriation of Isaac Newton's natural philosophy. It will be shown that Newton's work served multiple purposes in Boerhaave's oeuvre, for he appropriated Newton's work differently in different contexts and in different episodes in his career. Three important episodes in, and contexts of, Boerhaave's appropriation of Newton's natural philosophical ideas and methods will be considered: 1710-11, the time of his often neglected lectures on the place of physics in medicine; 1715, when he delivered his most famous rectorial address; and, finally, 1731/2, in publishing his Elementa chemiae. Along the way, I will spell out the implications of Boerhaave's case for our understanding of the reception, or use, of Newton's ideas more generally.
The history of Newton's apple tree
Keesing, R. G.
1998-05-01
This article contains a brief introduction to Newton's early life to put into context the subsequent events in this narrative. It is followed by a summary of accounts of Newton's famous story of his discovery of universal gravitation which was occasioned by the fall of an apple in the year 1665/6. Evidence of Newton's friendship with a prosperous Yorkshire family who planted an apple tree arbour in the early years of the eighteenth century to celebrate his discovery is presented. A considerable amount of new and unpublished pictorial and documentary material is included relating to a particular apple tree which grew in the garden of Woolsthorpe Manor (Newton's birthplace) and which blew down in a storm before the year 1816. Evidence is then presented which describes how this tree was chosen to be the focus of Newton's account. Details of the propagation of the apple tree growing in the garden at Woolsthorpe in the early part of the last century are then discussed, and the results of a dendrochronological study of two of these trees is presented. It is then pointed out that there is considerable evidence to show that the apple tree presently growing at Woolsthorpe and known as 'Newton's apple tree' is in fact the same specimen which was identified in the middle of the eighteenth century and which may now be 350 years old. In conclusion early results from a radiocarbon dating study being carried out at the University of Oxford on core samples from the Woolsthorpe tree lend support to the contention that the present tree is one and the same as that identified as Newton's apple tree more than 200 years ago. Very recently genetic fingerprinting techniques have been used in an attempt to identify from which sources the various 'Newton apple trees' planted throughout the world originate. The tentative result of this work suggests that there are two separate varieties of apple tree in existence which have been accepted as 'the tree'. One may conclude that at least some of
3, 2, 1 … Discovering Newton's Laws
Lutz, Joe; Sylvester, Kevin; Oliver, Keith; Herrington, Deborah
2017-03-01
"For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction." "Except when a bug hits your car window, the car must exert more force on the bug because Newton's laws only apply in the physics classroom, right?" Students in our classrooms were able to pick out definitions as well as examples of Newton's three laws; they could recite the laws and even solve for force, mass, and acceleration. However, when given "real world" questions, they would quickly revert to naive explanations. This frustration led to an examination of our approach to teaching Newton's laws. Like many, we taught Newton's laws in their numerical order—first, second, and then third. Students read about the laws, copied definitions, and became proficient with vocabulary before they applied the laws in a lab setting. This paper discusses how we transformed our teaching of Newton's laws by flipping the order (3, 2, 1) and putting the activity before concept, as well as how these changes affected student outcomes.
Isaac Newton and the astronomical refraction.
Lehn, Waldemar H
2008-12-01
In a short interval toward the end of 1694, Isaac Newton developed two mathematical models for the theory of the astronomical refraction and calculated two refraction tables, but did not publish his theory. Much effort has been expended, starting with Biot in 1836, in the attempt to identify the methods and equations that Newton used. In contrast to previous work, a closed form solution is identified for the refraction integral that reproduces the table for his first model (in which density decays linearly with elevation). The parameters of his second model, which includes the exponential variation of pressure in an isothermal atmosphere, have also been identified by reproducing his results. The implication is clear that in each case Newton had derived exactly the correct equations for the astronomical refraction; furthermore, he was the first to do so.
Newton-Cartan gravity and torsion
Bergshoeff, Eric; Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; Romano, Luca; Rosseel, Jan
2017-10-01
We compare the gauging of the Bargmann algebra, for the case of arbitrary torsion, with the result that one obtains from a null-reduction of General Relativity. Whereas the two procedures lead to the same result for Newton-Cartan geometry with arbitrary torsion, the null-reduction of the Einstein equations necessarily leads to Newton-Cartan gravity with zero torsion. We show, for three space-time dimensions, how Newton-Cartan gravity with arbitrary torsion can be obtained by starting from a Schrödinger field theory with dynamical exponent z = 2 for a complex compensating scalar and next coupling this field theory to a z = 2 Schrödinger geometry with arbitrary torsion. The latter theory can be obtained from either a gauging of the Schrödinger algebra, for arbitrary torsion, or from a null-reduction of conformal gravity.
XMM-Newton Mobile Web Application
Ibarra, A.; Kennedy, M.; Rodríguez, P.; Hernández, C.; Saxton, R.; Gabriel, C.
2013-10-01
We present the first XMM-Newton web mobile application, coded using new web technologies such as HTML5, the Query mobile framework, and D3 JavaScript data-driven library. This new web mobile application focuses on re-formatted contents extracted directly from the XMM-Newton web, optimizing the contents for mobile devices. The main goals of this development were to reach all kind of handheld devices and operating systems, while minimizing software maintenance. The application therefore has been developed as a web mobile implementation rather than a more costly native application. New functionality will be added regularly.
Weaker conditions for the convergence of Newton's method
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Argyros, Ioannis K; Hilout, SaiD
2012-01-01
Newton's method is often used for solving nonlinear equations. In this paper, we show that Newton's method converges under weaker convergence criteria than those given in earlier studies, such as Argyros (2004...
Newton's Metaphysics of Space as God's Emanative Effect
Jacquette, Dale
2014-09-01
In several of his writings, Isaac Newton proposed that physical space is God's "emanative effect" or "sensorium," revealing something interesting about the metaphysics underlying his mathematical physics. Newton's conjectures depart from Plato and Aristotle's metaphysics of space and from classical and Cambridge Neoplatonism. Present-day philosophical concepts of supervenience clarify Newton's ideas about space and offer a portrait of Newton not only as a mathematical physicist but an independent-minded rationalist philosopher.
Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms
Liu, Lulu
2015-06-02
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.
British physics Newton's law of funding
2007-01-01
In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.
Magnetic Levitation and Newton's Third Law
Aguilar, Horacio Munguia
2007-01-01
Newton's third law is often misunderstood by students and even their professors, as has already been pointed out in the literature. Application of the law in the context of electromagnetism can be especially problematic, because the idea that the forces of "action" and "reaction" are equal and opposite independent of the medium through which they…
Newton's First Law: A Learning Cycle Approach
McCarthy, Deborah
2005-01-01
To demonstrate how Newton's first law of motion applies to students' everyday lives, the author developed a learning cycle series of activities on inertia. The discrepant event at the heart of these activities is sure to elicit wide-eyed stares and puzzled looks from students, but also promote critical thinking and help bring an abstract concept…
Newton's Law: Not so Simple after All
Robertson, William C.; Gallagher, Jeremiah; Miller, William
2004-01-01
One of the most basic concepts related to force and motion is Newton's first law, which essentially states, "An object at rest tends to remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion in a straight line tends to remain in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an unbalanced force." Judging by the time and space…
Andringa, Roel; Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Rosseel, Jan; Sezgin, Ergin
2013-01-01
We construct a supersymmetric extension of three-dimensional Newton-Cartan gravity by gauging a super-Bargmann algebra. In order to obtain a non-trivial supersymmetric extension of the Bargmann algebra one needs at least two supersymmetries leading to a N = 2 super-Bargmann algebra. Due to the fact
From Newton's bucket to rotating polygons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bach, B.; Linnartz, E. C.; Vested, Malene Louise Hovgaard
2014-01-01
and move from a rigidly rotating 'Newton's bucket' flow to one where bottom and cylinder wall are rotating oppositely and the surface is strongly turbulent but flat on average. Between those two extremes, we find polygonal states for which the rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken. We investigate...
A View of Newton as a Mathematician
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. A View of Newton as a Mathematician. A K Nandakumaran. General Article Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 45-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0045-0055 ...
Isaac Newton and the Royal Mint
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Isaac Newton and the Royal Mint. Biman Nath. Article-in-a-Box Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 6-7. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0006-0007. Author Affiliations.
On the convergence of inexact Newton methods
Idema, R.; Lahaye, D.J.P.; Vuik, C.
2011-01-01
The inexact Newton method is widely used to solve systems of non-linear equations. It is well-known that forcing terms should be chosen relatively large at the start of the process, and be made smaller during the iteration process. This paper explores the mechanics behind this behavior theoretically
Constructs and Attributes in Test Validity: Reflections on Newton's Account
Markus, Keith A.
2012-01-01
I congratulate Paul E. Newton on a thoughtful and evenhanded contribution to test validity theory. I especially appreciate the evident care that went into interpreting the various authors whose work Newton discusses. I found many useful insights along with the few minor points with which I might quibble. I comment on three aspects of Newton's…
Newton flows for elliptic functions: A pilot study
Twilt, F.; Helminck, G.F.; Snuverink, M.; van den Brug, L.
2008-01-01
Elliptic Newton flows are generated by a continuous, desingularized Newton method for doubly periodic meromorphic functions on the complex plane. In the special case, where the functions underlying these elliptic Newton flows are of second-order, we introduce various, closely related, concepts of
Larger Convergence Zones for Newton's Method
Campbell, C. W.
1986-01-01
Iterative technique applies over wider range of initial guesses. New theorem describes convergence zone of Newton's iterative method for finding zeros of real function. Involves two points, Xp and Xp*, called primary conjugate points. If exact solution lies between these points (Xp is less than Xz is less than Xp*) and no other conjugate points in interval, then according to theorem, subsequent iterations will converge upon exact solution if initial guess lies in interval.
Life after Newton: an ecological metaphysic.
Ulanowicz, R E
1999-05-01
Ecology may indeed be 'deep', as some have maintained, but perhaps much of the mystery surrounding it owes more simply to the dissonance between ecological notions and the fundamentals of the modern synthesis. Comparison of the axioms supporting the Newtonian world view with those underlying the organicist and stochastic metaphors that motivate much of ecosystems science reveals strong disagreements--especially regarding the nature of the causes of events and the scalar domains over which these causes can operate. The late Karl Popper held that the causal closure forced by our mechanical perspective on nature frustrates our attempts to achieve an 'evolutionary theory of knowledge.' He suggested that the Newtonian concept of 'force' must be generalized to encompass the contingencies that arise in evolutionary processes. His reformulation of force as 'propensity' leads quite naturally to a generalization of Newton's laws for ecology. The revised tenets appear, however, to exhibit more scope and allow for change to arise from within a system. Although Newton's laws survive (albeit in altered form) within a coalescing ecological metaphysic, the axioms that Enlightenment thinkers appended to Newton's work seem ill-suited for ecology and perhaps should yield to a new and coherent set of assumptions on how to view the processes of nature.
NEWTON'S SECOND LAW OF MOTION, F=MA; EULER'S OR NEWTON'S?
Ajay Sharma
2017-01-01
Objective: F =ma is taught as Newton’s second law of motion all over the world. But it was given by Euler in 1775, forty-eight years after the death of Newton. It is debated here with scientific logic. Methods/Statistical analysis: The discussion partially deals with history of science so various aspects are quoted from original references. Newton did not give any equation in the Principia for second, third laws motion and law of gravitation. Conceptually, in Newton’s time, neither accele...
Low-rank Quasi-Newton updates for Robust Jacobian lagging in Newton methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, J.; Brune, P. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)
2013-07-01
Newton-Krylov methods are standard tools for solving nonlinear problems. A common approach is to 'lag' the Jacobian when assembly or preconditioner setup is computationally expensive, in exchange for some degradation in the convergence rate and robustness. We show that this degradation may be partially mitigated by using the lagged Jacobian as an initial operator in a quasi-Newton method, which applies unassembled low-rank updates to the Jacobian until the next full reassembly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on problems in glaciology and elasticity. (authors)
"To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.
Schilt, Cornelis J
2016-01-01
When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics.
Toward milli-Newton electro- and magneto-static microactuators
Fan, Long-Sheng
1993-06-01
Microtechnologies can potentially push integrated electro- and magnetostatic actuators toward the regime where constant forces in the order of milli-Newton (or torques in the order of micro-Newton meter) can be generated with constant inputs within a volume of 1.0 x 1.0 x 0.02 mm with 'conventional' technology. 'Micro' actuators are, by definition, actuators with dimensions confined within a millimeter cube. Integrated microactuators based on electrostatics typically have force/torque in the order of sub-micro-Newton (sub-nano-Newton meter). These devices are capable of moving small objects at MHz frequencies. On the other hand, suppose we want to move a one cubic millimeter object around with 100 G acceleration; a few milli-Newton force will be required. Thus, milli-Newton microactuators are very desirable for some immediate applications, and it challenges micromechanical researchers to develop new process technologies, designs, and materials toward this goal.
Hukum Newton Tentang Gerak Dalam Ruang Fase Tak Komutatif
PURWANTO Joko
2014-01-01
In this paper, the Newton's law of motions in a noncomutative phase space has been investigated. Its show that correction to the Newton's first and second law appear if we assume that the phase space has symplectic structure consistent with the rules of comutation of the noncomutative quantum mechanics. In the free particle and harmonic oscillator case the equations of motion are derived on basis of the modified Newton's second law in a noncomutative phase space.
Newton's law in braneworlds with an infinite extra dimension
Ito, Masato
2001-01-01
We study the behavior of the four$-$dimensional Newton's law in warped braneworlds. The setup considered here is a $(3+n)$-brane embedded in $(5+n)$ dimensions, where $n$ extra dimensions are compactified and a dimension is infinite. We show that the wave function of gravity is described in terms of the Bessel functions of $(2+n/2)$-order and that estimate the correction to Newton's law. In particular, the Newton's law for $n=1$ can be exactly obtained.
Semilocal Convergence Analysis for Inexact Newton Method under Weak Condition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiubin Xu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Under the hypothesis that the first derivative satisfies some kind of weak Lipschitz conditions, a new semilocal convergence theorem for inexact Newton method is presented. Unified convergence criteria ensuring the convergence of inexact Newton method are also established. Applications to some special cases such as the Kantorovich type conditions and γ-Conditions are provided and some well-known convergence theorems for Newton's method are obtained as corollaries.
NITSOL: A Newton iterative solver for nonlinear systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pernice, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Walker, H.F. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)
1996-12-31
Newton iterative methods, also known as truncated Newton methods, are implementations of Newton`s method in which the linear systems that characterize Newton steps are solved approximately using iterative linear algebra methods. Here, we outline a well-developed Newton iterative algorithm together with a Fortran implementation called NITSOL. The basic algorithm is an inexact Newton method globalized by backtracking, in which each initial trial step is determined by applying an iterative linear solver until an inexact Newton criterion is satisfied. In the implementation, the user can specify inexact Newton criteria in several ways and select an iterative linear solver from among several popular {open_quotes}transpose-free{close_quotes} Krylov subspace methods. Jacobian-vector products used by the Krylov solver can be either evaluated analytically with a user-supplied routine or approximated using finite differences of function values. A flexible interface permits a wide variety of preconditioning strategies and allows the user to define a preconditioner and optionally update it periodically. We give details of these and other features and demonstrate the performance of the implementation on a representative set of test problems.
A geometric Newton method for Oja's vector field.
Absil, P A; Ishteva, M; De Lathauwer, L; Van Huffel, S
2009-05-01
Newton's method for solving the matrix equation F(X) identical to AX-XX(T) AX = 0 runs up against the fact that its zeros are not isolated. This is due to a symmetry of F by the action of the orthogonal group. We show how differential-geometric techniques can be exploited to remove this symmetry and obtain a "geometric" Newton algorithm that finds the zeros of F. The geometric Newton method does not suffer from the degeneracy issue that stands in the way of the original Newton method.
Student conception and perception of Newton's law
Handhika, Jeffry; Cari, C.; Soeparmi, A.; Sunarno, Widha
2016-02-01
This research aims to reveal the student's conception and perception of Newton's Law. Method of this research is qualitative with the sample is taken using purposive sampling consist of second semester (25 students), fourth semester (26 students), sixth semester VI (25 students), and eight semester (18 students) IKIP PGRI MADIUN, which have taken the first basic physics and mechanics courses The data was collected with essay questions, interview, and FCI test. It can be concluded that Mathematical language (symbol and visual) perception and intuition influence students conception. The results of analysis showed that an incorrect conception arises because students do not understand the language of physics and mathematics correctly.
The Newton papers the strange and true odyssey of Isaac Newton's manuscripts
Dry, Sarah
2014-01-01
When Isaac Newton died at 85 without a will on March 20, 1727, he left a mass of disorganized papers-upwards of 8 million words-that presented an immediate challenge to his heirs. Most of these writings, on subjects ranging from secret alchemical formulas to impassioned rejections of the Holy Trinity to notes and calculations on his core discoveries in calculus, universal gravitation, and optics, were summarily dismissed by his heirs as "not fit to be printed." Rabidly heretical, alchemically obsessed, and possibly even mad, the Newton presented in these papers threatened to undermine not just his personal reputation but the status of science itself. As a result, the private papers of the world's greatest scientist remained hidden to all but a select few for over two hundred years. In The Newton Papers, Sarah Dry divulges the story of how this secret archive finally came to light-and the complex and contradictory man it revealed. Covering a broad swath of history, Dry explores who controlled Newton's legacy, ...
Newton\\'s equation of motion in the gravitational field of an oblate ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we derived Newton's equation of motion for a satellite in the gravitational scalar field of a uniformly rotating, oblate spheriodal Earth using spheriodal coordinates. The resulting equation is solved for the corresponding precession and the result compared with similar ones. JONAMP Vol. 11 2007: pp. 279-286 ...
The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey. VII. The third XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rosen, S.R; Webb, N.A; Watson, M.G; Ballet, J; Barret, D; Braito, V; Carrera, F.J; Ceballos, M.T; Coriat, M; Della Ceca, R; Denkinson, G; Esquej, P; Farrell, S.A; Freyberg, M; Grisé, F; Guillout, P; Heil, L; Law-Green, D; Lamer, G; Lin, D; Martino, R; Michel, L; Motch, C; Nebot Gomez-Moran, A; Page, C.G; Page, K; Page, M; Pakull, M.W; Pye, J; Read, A; Rodriguez, P; Sakano, M; Saxton, R; Schwope, A; Scott, A.E; Sturm, R; Traulsen, I; Yershov, V; Zolotukhin, I; Koliopanos, F
2016-01-01
... (30' across in full field mode) of the X-ray cameras on board the European Space Agency X-ray observatory XMM-Newton, each individual pointing can result in the detection of hundreds of X-ray sources, most of which are newly discovered...
Newton's Telescope in Print: the Role of Images in the Reception of Newton's Instrument
Dupré, Sven|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/23478055X
2008-01-01
While Newton tried to make his telescope into a proof of the supremacy of his theory of colours over older theories, his instrument was welcomed as a way to shorten telescopes, not as a way to solve the problem of chromatic aberration. This paper argues that the image published together with the
MODFLOW-NWT, A Newton formulation for MODFLOW-2005
Niswonger, Richard G.; Panday, Sorab; Ibaraki, Motomu
2011-01-01
This report documents a Newton formulation of MODFLOW-2005, called MODFLOW-NWT. MODFLOW-NWT is a standalone program that is intended for solving problems involving drying and rewetting nonlinearities of the unconfined groundwater-flow equation. MODFLOW-NWT must be used with the Upstream-Weighting (UPW) Package for calculating intercell conductances in a different manner than is done in the Block-Centered Flow (BCF), Layer Property Flow (LPF), or Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF; Anderman and Hill, 2000) Packages. The UPW Package treats nonlinearities of cell drying and rewetting by use of a continuous function of groundwater head, rather than the discrete approach of drying and rewetting that is used by the BCF, LPF, and HUF Packages. This further enables application of the Newton formulation for unconfined groundwater-flow problems because conductance derivatives required by the Newton method are smooth over the full range of head for a model cell. The NWT linearization approach generates an asymmetric matrix, which is different from the standard MODFLOW formulation that generates a symmetric matrix. Because all linear solvers presently available for use with MODFLOW-2005 solve only symmetric matrices, MODFLOW-NWT includes two previously developed asymmetric matrix-solver options. The matrix-solver options include a generalized-minimum-residual (GMRES) Solver and an Orthomin / stabilized conjugate-gradient (CGSTAB) Solver. The GMRES Solver is documented in a previously published report, such that only a brief description and input instructions are provided in this report. However, the CGSTAB Solver (called XMD) is documented in this report. Flow-property input for the UPW Package is designed based on the LPF Package and material-property input is identical to that for the LPF Package except that the rewetting and vertical-conductance correction options of the LPF Package are not available with the UPW Package. Input files constructed for the LPF Package can be used
2000-02-01
many years of work. They are all that we hoped they would be. In the LMC we can see the elements, which go to make up new stars and planets, being released in giant stellar explosions. We can even see the creation of new stars going on, using elements scattered through space by previous stellar explosions. This is what we built the EPIC cameras for and they are really fulfilling their promise" Multiwavelength views of Hickson Group 16 The HCG-16 viewed by EPIC and by the Optical Monitor in the visible and ultraviolet wavelengths is one of approximately a hundred compact galaxy clusters listed by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the 1980s. The criteria for the Hickson cluster groups included their compactness, their isolation from other galaxies and a limited magnitude range between their members. Most Hicksons are very faint, but a few can be observed with modest aperture telescopes. Galaxies in Hickson groups have a high probability of interacting. Their study has shed light on the question of galactic evolution and the effects of interaction. Investigation into their gravitational behaviour has also significantly contributed to our understanding of "dark matter", the mysterious matter that most astronomers feel comprises well over 90% of our universe. Observation of celestial objects from space over a range of X-ray, ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, is a unique feature of the XMM-Newton mission. The EPIC-PN view of the Hickson 16 group shows a handful of bright X-sources and in the background more than a hundred faint X-ray sources that XMM-Newton is revealing for the first time. Juxtaposing the X-ray view of HCG 16 with that of the Optical Monitor reveals one of the great strengths of XMM-Newton in being able to routinely compare the optical, ultraviolet and X-ray properties of objects. Many of the X-ray sources are revealed as elongated "fuzzy blobs" coincident with some of the optical galaxies. Routine access to ultraviolet images is a first for the mission
The Infinite Universe of Einstein and Newton
Bruce, Barry
2003-04-01
Einstein's field equations for general relativity are solved for a static, phinfinite, isotropic and homogeneous Universe. One of the three solutions found, the ``infinite closed universe'', is shown to fit the data for the Hubble diagram better than the Big Bang model. Using general relativity, the force of gravity between two point particles is found. Utilizing this force and the infinite closed universe model, the force of gravity on a point particle in arbitrary motion due to the uniform mass density of the universe is calculated by an integration. This force is found to be equal to the force of inertia. In addition, the calculation explains Newton's First Law and the equivalence of inertial mass and gravitational mass. Lastly, Newton's Third Law is elicited by the extension of Einstein's general relativity to two-body interactions. These results show that the cosmological redshift and the physics that we know are the result of the uniform mass distribution of an infinite closed universe and gravity alone.
Newton iterative methods for large scale nonlinear systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, H.F.; Turner, K.
1993-01-01
Objective is to develop robust, efficient Newton iterative methods for general large scale problems well suited for discretizations of partial differential equations, integral equations, and other continuous problems. A concomitant objective is to develop improved iterative linear algebra methods. We first outline research on Newton iterative methods and then review work on iterative linear algebra methods. (DLC)
On the Shoulders of Sir Isaac Newton and Arthur Storer
Martin, Helen E.; Evans-Gondo, Bonita
2013-01-01
Helen E. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…
Newton's Path to Universal Gravitation: The Role of the Pendulum
Boulos, Pierre J.
2006-01-01
Much attention has been given to Newton's argument for Universal Gravitation in Book III of the "Principia". Newton brings an impressive array of phenomena, along with the three laws of motion, and his rules for reasoning to deduce Universal Gravitation. At the centre of this argument is the famous "moon test". Here it is the empirical evidence…
Consequences That Cannot Be Avoided: A Response to Paul Newton
Bennett, Randy Elliot
2012-01-01
This article presents the author's response to Paul E. Newton's paper titled "Clarifying the Consensus Definition of Validity" ("Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," 2012). Newton's paper offers an interesting and constructive discussion about how people think about validity. In this reaction, the author comments on some of…
Can Newton's Third Law Be "Derived" from the Second?
Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Harrington, James
2017-01-01
Newton's laws have engendered much discussion over several centuries. Today, the internet is awash with a plethora of information on this topic. We find many references to Newton's laws, often discussions of various types of misunderstandings and ways to explain them. Here we present an intriguing example that shows an assumption hidden in…
A Combinatorial Classification of Postcritically Fixed Newton Maps
Rückert, Johannes
2007-01-01
We give a combinatorial classification for the class of postcritically fixed Newton maps of polynomials and indicate potential for extensions. As our main tool, we show that for a large class of Newton maps that includes all hyperbolic ones, every component of the basin of an attracting fixed point can be connected to infinity through a finite chain of such components.
Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods in unstructured grid Euler flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keyes, D.E. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
1996-12-31
Newton-Krylov methods and Krylov-Schwarz (domain decomposition) methods have begun to become established in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) over the past decade. The former employ a Krylov method inside of Newton`s method in a Jacobian-free manner, through directional differencing. The latter employ an overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition to derive a preconditioner for the Krylov accelerator that relies primarily on local information, for data-parallel concurrency. They may be composed as Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) methods, which seem particularly well suited for solving nonlinear elliptic systems in high-latency, distributed-memory environments. We give a brief description of this family of algorithms, with an emphasis on domain decomposition iterative aspects. We then describe numerical simulations with Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods on an aerodynamic application emphasizing comparisons with a standard defect-correction approach and subdomain preconditioner consistency.
2010-07-15
...--Newton County, GA; Great Walton Railroad Company-- Discontinuance of Operations Exemption--Newton County... Newton, Ga., and the end of the line at milepost E 80.70 at Covington, Ga., in Newton County, Ga. The...
Newton`s iteration for inversion of Cauchy-like and other structured matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, V.Y. [Lehman College, Bronx, NY (United States); Zheng, Ailong; Huang, Xiaohan; Dias, O. [CUNY, New York, NY (United States)
1996-12-31
We specify some initial assumptions that guarantee rapid refinement of a rough initial approximation to the inverse of a Cauchy-like matrix, by mean of our new modification of Newton`s iteration, where the input, output, and all the auxiliary matrices are represented with their short generators defined by the associated scaling operators. The computations are performed fast since they are confined to operations with short generators of the given and computed matrices. Because of the known correlations among various structured matrices, the algorithm is immediately extended to rapid refinement of rough initial approximations to the inverses of Vandermonde-like, Chebyshev-Vandermonde-like and Toeplitz-like matrices, where again, the computations are confined to operations with short generators of the involved matrices.
DC Proximal Newton for Nonconvex Optimization Problems.
Rakotomamonjy, Alain; Flamary, Rémi; Gasso, Gilles
2016-03-01
We introduce a novel algorithm for solving learning problems where both the loss function and the regularizer are nonconvex but belong to the class of difference of convex (DC) functions. Our contribution is a new general purpose proximal Newton algorithm that is able to deal with such a situation. The algorithm consists in obtaining a descent direction from an approximation of the loss function and then in performing a line search to ensure a sufficient descent. A theoretical analysis is provided showing that the iterates of the proposed algorithm admit as limit points stationary points of the DC objective function. Numerical experiments show that our approach is more efficient than the current state of the art for a problem with a convex loss function and a nonconvex regularizer. We have also illustrated the benefit of our algorithm in high-dimensional transductive learning problem where both the loss function and regularizers are nonconvex.
Goethe's Exposure of Newton's theory a polemic on Newton's theory of light and colour
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von
2016-01-01
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, although best known for his literary work, was also a keen and outspoken natural scientist. In the second polemic part of Zur Farbenlehre (Theory of Colours), for example, Goethe attacked Isaac Newton's ground-breaking revelation that light is heterogeneous and not immutable, as was previously thought.This polemic was unanimously rejected by the physicists of the day, and has often been omitted from compendia of Goethe's works. Indeed, although Goethe repeated all of Newton's key experiments, he was never able to achieve the same results. Many reasons have been proposed for this, ranging from the psychological — such as a blind hatred of Newtonism, self-deceit and paranoid psychosis — to accusations of incapability — Goethe simply did not understand the experiments. Yet Goethe was never to be dissuaded from this passionate conviction.This translation of Goethe's second polemic, published for the first time in English, makes it clear that Goethe did understand the thrust of Ne...
Catch a falling apple: Isaac Newton and myths of genius.
Fara, P
1999-01-01
Newton has become a legendary figure belonging to the distant past rather than a historical person who lived at a specific time. Historians and scientists have constantly reinterpreted many anecdotal tales describing Newton's achievements and behaviour, but the most famous concerns the falling apple in his country garden. Newton's apple conjures up multiple allegorical resonances, and examining its historical accuracy is less important than uncovering the mythical truths embedded within this symbol. Because interest groups fashion different collective versions of the past, analysing mythical tales can reveal fundamental yet conflicting attitudes towards science and its practices.
Various Newton-type iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manoj Kumar
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to introduce and investigate new ninth and seventh order convergent Newton-type iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations. The ninth order convergent Newton-type iterative method is made derivative free to obtain seventh-order convergent Newton-type iterative method. These new with and without derivative methods have efficiency indices 1.5518 and 1.6266, respectively. The error equations are used to establish the order of convergence of these proposed iterative methods. Finally, various numerical comparisons are implemented by MATLAB to demonstrate the performance of the developed methods.
Phaseless Recovery Using the Gauss-Newton Method
Gao, Bing; Xu, Zhiqiang
2017-11-01
In this paper, we develop a concrete algorithm for phase retrieval, which we refer to as Gauss-Newton algorithm. In short, this algorithm starts with a good initial estimation, which is obtained by a modified spectral method, and then update the iteration point by a Gauss-Newton iteration step. We prove that a re-sampled version of this algorithm quadratically converges to the solution for the real case with the number of random measurements being nearly minimal. Numerical experiments also show that Gauss-Newton method has better performance over the other algorithms.
Water Rockets. Get Funny With Newton's Laws
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Roca Vicent
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The study of the movement of the rocket has been used for decades to encourage students in the study of physics. This system has an undeniable interest to introduce concepts such as properties of gases, laws of Newton, exchange between different types of energy and its conservation or fluid mechanics. Our works has been to build and launch these rockets in different educational levels and in each of these ones have introduced the part of Physics more suited to the knowledge of our students. The aim of the learning experience is to launch the rocket as far as possible and learn to predict the travelled distance, using Newton's laws and fluid mechanics. After experimentation we demonstrated to be able to control the parameters that improve the performance of our rocket, such as the fill factor, the volume and mass of the empty bottle, liquid density, launch angle, pressure prior air release. In addition, it is a fun experience can be attached to all levels of education in primary and high school.
Tornadogenesis Versus Newton's Third Law of Motion
Hardwig, R. B.
2015-12-01
For over 90 years scientists have tried to explain how tornadoes form and function. The present general consensus is that a tornado is just a function of the thunderstorm. Much research has been done to find the answer and numerous articles and papers have been written, all to no avail. This research explores the fact that a tornado cannot be just a function of a thunderstorm, as there is no opposite force within the thunderstorm to the air drawn up by the tornado, so there must be some external force involved in a tornado's formation. To have compliance with Newton's Third Law of Motion we must see an equal downforce or some other force within the thunderstorm, to that drawn up by the tornado. And if there was a downforce, that force would be virtually as damaging as the tornado itself. But we don't see this downforce or any other opposing force within the thunderstorm. Therefore, we must look for some other force that could cause a tornado's formation. And if that opposing force is not within the thunderstorm we need to be looking for some external force, outside the thunderstorm, that could cause a tornado. Also the fact that we have Waterspouts, Landspouts and Gustnadoes all without a thunderstorm, but since they all look and function just like a tornado, tells us that there must be some other force that is responsible for causing a tornado just like a Waterspout, Landspout or Gustnado. My research shows that there is one other force of energy that could cause all of these vortexes and is most likely the source of energy for a tornado's formation. That force is the High Velocity Overhead Jet Stream. My research shows a direct relationship between the High Velocity Overhead Jet Stream and Tornadogenesis as well as Waterspouts, Landspouts and Gustnadoes. Therefore, with the High Velocity Overhead Jet Stream providing the Action, at its interface with the tornado in the stratosphere, the Reaction is what we see on the ground as a tornado. With this explanation we
Emilie du Châtelet between Leibniz and Newton
Hagengruber, Ruth
2012-01-01
This book describes Emilie du Chatelet known as "Emilia Newtonmania", and her innovative and outstanding position within the controversy between Newton and Leibniz, one of the fundamental scientific discourses of her time.
Computing modified Newton directions using a partial Cholesky factorization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forsgren, A. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics; Gill, P.E. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Murray, W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Systems Optimization Lab.
1993-03-01
The effectiveness of Newton`s method for finding an unconstrained minimizer of a strictly convex twice continuously differentiable function has prompted the proposal of various modified Newton inetliods for the nonconvex case. Linesearch modified Newton methods utilize a linear combination of a descent direction and a direction of negative curvature. If these directions are sufficient in a certain sense, and a suitable linesearch is used, the resulting method will generate limit points that satisfy the second-order necessary conditions for optimality. We propose an efficient method for computing a descent direction and a direction of negative curvature that is based on a partial Cholesky factorization of the Hessian. This factorization not only gives theoretically satisfactory directions, but also requires only a partial pivoting strategy, i.e., the equivalent of only two rows of the Schur complement need be examined at each step.
Space and motion in nature and Scripture: Galileo, Descartes, Newton.
Janiak, Andrew
2015-06-01
In the Scholium to the Definitions in Principia mathematica, Newton departs from his main task of discussing space, time and motion by suddenly mentioning the proper method for interpreting Scripture. This is surprising, and it has long been ignored by scholars. In this paper, I argue that the Scripture passage in the Scholium is actually far from incidental: it reflects Newton's substantive concern, one evident in correspondence and manuscripts from the 1680s, that any general understanding of space, time and motion must enable readers to recognize the veracity of Biblical claims about natural phenomena, including the motion of the earth. This substantive concern sheds new light on an aspect of Newton's project in the Scholium. It also underscores Newton's originality in dealing with the famous problem of reconciling theological and philosophical conceptions of nature in the seventeenth century. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Newton Decatur AL water sample polyfluor compound discovery
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All the pertinent information for recreation of the published (hopefully) tables and figures. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Newton, S.,...
Local Convergence and Radius of Convergence for Modified Newton Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Măruşter Ştefan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We investigate the local convergence of modified Newton method, i.e., the classical Newton method in which the derivative is periodically re-evaluated. Based on the convergence properties of Picard iteration for demicontractive mappings, we give an algorithm to estimate the local radius of convergence for considered method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm gives estimated radii which are very close to or even equal with the best ones.
A Newton multigrid method for the Euler equations
Childs, R. E.; Pulliam, T. H.
1984-01-01
A multigrid method is used to apply Newton's method to the Euler equations in a two dimensional curvilinear coordinate system. The objective is to obtain rapid convergence for steady state problems. Solutions computed with the method evolve in a non-time-like manner. Stable pressure distributions typically develop in eight to ten Newton-multigrid steps, which is equivalent to the computational work of about 70 iterations with a factored implicit algorithm.
Approximations of continuous Newton's method: An extension of Cayley's problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jon Jacobsen
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Continuous Newton's Method refers to a certain dynamical system whose associated flow generically tends to the roots of a given polynomial. An Euler approximation of this system, with step size $h=1$, yields the discrete Newton's method algorithm for finding roots. In this note we contrast Euler approximations with several different approximations of the continuous ODE system and, using computer experiments, consider their impact on the associated fractal basin boundaries of the roots.
Insect Flight: From Newton's Law to Neurons
Wang, Z. Jane
2016-03-01
Why do animals move the way they do? Bacteria, insects, birds, and fish share with us the necessity to move so as to live. Although each organism follows its own evolutionary course, it also obeys a set of common laws. At the very least, the movement of animals, like that of planets, is governed by Newton's law: All things fall. On Earth, most things fall in air or water, and their motions are thus subject to the laws of hydrodynamics. Through trial and error, animals have found ways to interact with fluid so they can float, drift, swim, sail, glide, soar, and fly. This elementary struggle to escape the fate of falling shapes the development of motors, sensors, and mind. Perhaps we can deduce parts of their neural computations by understanding what animals must do so as not to fall. Here I discuss recent developments along this line of inquiry in the case of insect flight. Asking how often a fly must sense its orientation in order to balance in air has shed new light on the role of motor neurons and steering muscles responsible for flight stability.
Systemic venous drainage: can we help Newton?
Corno, Antonio F
2007-06-01
In recent years substantial progress occurred in the techniques of cardiopulmonary bypass, but the factor potentially limiting the flexibility of cardiopulmonary bypass remains the drainage of the systemic venous return. In the daily clinical practice of cardiac surgery, the amount of systemic venous return on cardiopulmonary bypass is directly correlated with the amount of the pump flow. As a consequence, the pump flow is limited by the amount of venous return that the pump is receiving. On cardiopulmonary bypass the amount of venous drainage depends upon the central venous pressure, the height differential between patient and inlet of the venous line into the venous reservoir, and the resistance in the venous cannula(s) and circuit. The factors determining the venous return to be taken into consideration in cardiac surgery are the following: (a) characteristics of the individual patient; (b) type of planned surgical procedure; (c) type of venous cannula(s); (d) type of circuit for cardiopulmonary bypass; (e) strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass; (f) use of accessory mechanical systems to increased the systemic venous return. The careful pre-operative evaluation of all the elements affecting the systemic venous drainage, including the characteristics of the individual patient and the type of required surgical procedure, the choice of the best strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the use of the most advanced materials and tools, can provide a systemic venous drainage substantially better than what it would be allowed by the simple "Law of universal gravitation" by Isaac Newton.
Newton-Cartan Gravity in Noninertial Reference Frames
Rodriguez, Leo; St. Germaine-Fuller, James; Wickramasekara, Sujeev
2015-03-01
We study Newton-Cartan gravity under transformations into all noninertial, nonrelativistic reference frames. These transformations form an infinite dimensional Lie group, called the Galilean line group, which contains as a subgroup the Galilei group. The fictitious forces of noninertial reference frames are encoded in the Cartan connection transformed under the Galilean line group. These fictitious forces, which are coordinate effects, do not contribute to the Ricci tensor. Only the 00-component of the Ricci tensor is non-zero and equals (4 π times) the matter density in all reference frames. While the Ricci field equation and Gauss' law are fulfilled by the physical matter density in inertial and linearly accelerating reference frames, in rotating reference frames Gauss' law holds for an effective mass density that differs from the physical matter density. This effective density has its origin in the simulated magnetic field of rotating frames, highlighting a striking difference between linearly and rotationally accelerating frames. The equations governing the simulated fields have the same form as Maxwell's equations, a surprising result given that these equations obey special relativity (and U (1) -gauge symmetry), rather than Galilean symmetry. This work was supported in part by the HHMI Undergraduate Science Education Award 52006298 and the Grinnell College Academic Affairs' CSFS and MAP programs.
Nazé, Yaël
2012-12-01
In his Chronology, Newton uses astronomical "evidence" to support its extreme rejuvenation of ancient times. These elements, having a scientific varnish, provide some credibility to the work. They have been fiercely debated for a century, with a gradual undermining of Newton's assumptions. However, this has not dented the prestige of the English scientist. Dans sa Chronologie, Newton utilise des "preuves" astronomiques pour appuyer son rajeunissement extreme des epoques anciennes. Ces elements, au vernis scientifique, donnent une credibilite certaine a l'ensemble. Ils ont donc ete aprement discutes, les debats sapant petit a petit les hypotheses du savant anglais pour finalement porter un coup mortel a l'ensemble. Cela n'a toutefois pas entame le prestige du savant anglais.
The RNA Newton polytope and learnability of energy parameters.
Forouzmand, Elmirasadat; Chitsaz, Hamidreza
2013-07-01
Computational RNA structure prediction is a mature important problem that has received a new wave of attention with the discovery of regulatory non-coding RNAs and the advent of high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. Despite nearly two score years of research on RNA secondary structure and RNA-RNA interaction prediction, the accuracy of the state-of-the-art algorithms are still far from satisfactory. So far, researchers have proposed increasingly complex energy models and improved parameter estimation methods, experimental and/or computational, in anticipation of endowing their methods with enough power to solve the problem. The output has disappointingly been only modest improvements, not matching the expectations. Even recent massively featured machine learning approaches were not able to break the barrier. Why is that? The first step toward high-accuracy structure prediction is to pick an energy model that is inherently capable of predicting each and every one of known structures to date. In this article, we introduce the notion of learnability of the parameters of an energy model as a measure of such an inherent capability. We say that the parameters of an energy model are learnable iff there exists at least one set of such parameters that renders every known RNA structure to date the minimum free energy structure. We derive a necessary condition for the learnability and give a dynamic programming algorithm to assess it. Our algorithm computes the convex hull of the feature vectors of all feasible structures in the ensemble of a given input sequence. Interestingly, that convex hull coincides with the Newton polytope of the partition function as a polynomial in energy parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach toward computing the RNA Newton polytope and a systematic assessment of the inherent capabilities of an energy model. The worst case complexity of our algorithm is exponential in the number of features. However, dimensionality
Improved Power Flow Algorithm for VSC-HVDC System Based on High-Order Newton-Type Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanfang Wei
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Voltage source converter (VSC based high-voltage direct-current (HVDC system is a new transmission technique, which has the most promising applications in the fields of power systems and power electronics. Considering the importance of power flow analysis of the VSC-HVDC system for its utilization and exploitation, the improved power flow algorithms for VSC-HVDC system based on third-order and sixth-order Newton-type method are presented. The steady power model of VSC-HVDC system is introduced firstly. Then the derivation solving formats of multivariable matrix for third-order and sixth-order Newton-type power flow method of VSC-HVDC system are given. The formats have the feature of third-order and sixth-order convergence based on Newton method. Further, based on the automatic differentiation technology and third-order Newton method, a new improved algorithm is given, which will help in improving the program development, computation efficiency, maintainability, and flexibility of the power flow. Simulations of AC/DC power systems in two-terminal, multi-terminal, and multi-infeed DC with VSC-HVDC are carried out for the modified IEEE bus systems, which show the effectiveness and practicality of the presented algorithms for VSC-HVDC system.
Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space
Temiz, B. K.; Yavuz, A.
2014-07-01
Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonas Asprion
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The numerical solution of optimal control problems by direct collocation is a widely used approach. Quasi-Newton approximations of the Hessian of the Lagrangian of the resulting nonlinear program are also common practice. We illustrate that the transcribed problem is separable with respect to the primal variables and propose the application of dense quasi-Newton updates to the small diagonal blocks of the Hessian. This approach resolves memory limitations, preserves the correct sparsity pattern, and generates more accurate curvature information. The effectiveness of this improvement when applied to engineering problems is demonstrated. As an example, the fuel-optimal and emission-constrained control of a turbocharged diesel engine is considered. First results indicate a significantly faster convergence of the nonlinear program solver when the method proposed is used instead of the standard quasi-Newton approximation.
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-01-06
Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-05-04
Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.
Bohlin transformation: the hidden symmetry that connects Hooke to Newton
Saggio, Maria Luisa
2013-01-01
Hooke's name is familiar to students of mechanics thanks to the law of force that bears his name. Less well-known is the influence his findings had on the founder of mechanics, Isaac Newton. In a lecture given some twenty years ago, W Arnol'd pointed out the outstanding contribution to science made by Hooke, and also noted the controversial issue of the attribution of important discoveries to Newton that were actually inspired by Hooke. It therefore seems ironic that the two most famous force laws, named after Hooke and Newton, are two geometrical aspects of the same law. This relationship, together with other illuminating aspects of Newtonian mechanics, is described in Arnol'd's book and is worth remembering in standard physics courses. In this didactical paper the duality of the two forces is expounded and an account of the more recent contributions to the subject is given.
Newton slopes for Artin-Schreier-Witt towers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davis, Christopher; Wan, Daqing; Xiao, Liang
2016-01-01
We fix a monic polynomial f(x)∈Fq[x] over a finite field and consider the Artin-Schreier-Witt tower defined by f(x); this is a tower of curves ⋯→Cm→Cm−1→⋯→C0=A1, with total Galois group Zp. We study the Newton slopes of zeta functions of this tower of curves. This reduces to the study of the Newton...... slopes of L-functions associated to characters of the Galois group of this tower. We prove that, when the conductor of the character is large enough, the Newton slopes of the L-function form arithmetic progressions which are independent of the conductor of the character. As a corollary, we obtain...
Gravitational anomalies on the Newton-Cartan background
Fernandes, Karan; Mitra, Arpita
2017-10-01
We derive the trace and diffeomorphism anomalies of the Schrödinger field minimally coupled to the Newton-Cartan background using Fujikawa's path integral approach. This approach, in particular, enables us to calculate the one-loop contributions due to all the fields of the Newton-Cartan structure. We determine the coefficients and demonstrate that gravitational anomalies for this theory always arise in odd dimensions. Because of the gauge field contribution of the background, we find that in 2 +1 dimensions, the trace anomaly contains terms which have a form similar to that of the 1 +1 and 3 +1 dimensional relativistic trace anomalies. The term similar to the 1 +1 dimensional relativistic trace anomaly provides a type A contribution on Newton-Cartan backgrounds which satisfy the Frobenius condition, in contrast with the result of Lifshitz spacetimes. As an application, we demonstrate that the coefficient of this term satisfies a c-theorem condition.
Computing modified Newton directions using a partial Cholesky factorization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forsgren, A. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics); Gill, P.E. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)); Murray, W. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Systems Optimization Lab.)
1993-03-01
The effectiveness of Newton's method for finding an unconstrained minimizer of a strictly convex twice continuously differentiable function has prompted the proposal of various modified Newton inetliods for the nonconvex case. Linesearch modified Newton methods utilize a linear combination of a descent direction and a direction of negative curvature. If these directions are sufficient in a certain sense, and a suitable linesearch is used, the resulting method will generate limit points that satisfy the second-order necessary conditions for optimality. We propose an efficient method for computing a descent direction and a direction of negative curvature that is based on a partial Cholesky factorization of the Hessian. This factorization not only gives theoretically satisfactory directions, but also requires only a partial pivoting strategy, i.e., the equivalent of only two rows of the Schur complement need be examined at each step.
Newton's First Law: Text, Translations, Interpretations and Physics Education
Galili, Igal; Tseitlin, Michael
The translation from Latin of Newton's First Law (NFL) was considered in a historical perspective. The study showed that Newton's original yields two versions of complementary meanings, one temporal and the other quantitative. The latter is especially important in presenting the idea of inertia of massive bodies, and a new paradigm of understanding motion. The presentation of NFL in physics textbooks was reviewed and a decline in the status of NFL in the physics curriculum was noted. As a rule, if quoted at all, NFL is presented in its temporal form, while the quantitative form does not appear. Normally, NFL is interpreted as a special case: a trivial deduction from Newton's Second Law. Some advanced textbooks replace NFL by a modernized claim, which abandons its original meaning. We advocate the importance and nontrivial meaning of NFL, and call for its `rehabilitation' in physics instruction within the discourse mode of education.
Local convergence of exact and inexact Newton's methods for subanalytic
Catherine Cabuzel; Alain Pietrus; Steeve Burnet
2015-01-01
This paper deals with the study of an iterative method for solving a variational inclusion of the form 0 ∈ f (x)+F (x) where f is a locally Lipschitz subanalytic function and F is a set-valued map from Rn to the closed subsets of Rn. To this inclusion, we firstly associate a Newton then secondly an Inexact Newton type sequence and with some semistability and hemistability properties of the solution x∗ of the previous inclusion, we prove the existence of a sequence which is locally superlinear...
Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven
2016-01-01
with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite......We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...
Cohen–Macaulayness and computation of Newton graded toric rings
Schulze, Mathias; Walther, Uli
2009-01-01
Let $H$ be a positive semigroup in $\\mathbb{Z}^d$ generated by $A$, and let $K[H]$ be the associated semigroup ring over a field $K$. We investigate heredity of the Cohen-Macaulay property from $K[H]$ to both its $A$-Newton graded ring and to its face rings. We show by example that neither one inherits in general the Cohen-Macaulay property. On the positive side we show that for every $H$ there exist generating sets $A$ for which the Newton graduation preserves Cohen-Macaulayness. This gives ...
Newton's theory of the atmospheric refraction of light
Nauenberg, Michael
2017-12-01
Newton's unpublished theory for the trajectory of a light beam in a medium with varying index of refraction and spherical symmetry is reconstructed. He assumed that light consisted of particles (corpuscles), and derived Snell's refraction law from the assumption that the velocity of these corpuscles is proportional to the index of refraction of the medium, and the acceleration is proportional to its gradient. Surprisingly, Newton's theory leads to a relation for the refraction of light in such a medium that is identically the same as the modern theory based on the wave theory of light.
Classical mechanics from Newton to Einstein : a modern introduction
McCall, Martin
2011-01-01
This new edition of Classical Mechanics, aimed at undergraduate physics and engineering students, presents in a user-friendly style an authoritative approach to the complementary subjects of classical mechanics and relativity. The text starts with a careful look at Newton's Laws, before applying them in one dimension to oscillations and collisions. More advanced applications - including gravitational orbits and rigid body dynamics - are discussed after the limitations of Newton's inertial frames have been highlighted through an exposition of Einstein's Special Relativity. Examples gi
PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: 'Lady Newton' - an eighteenth century Marquise
Badilescu, Simona
1996-07-01
The contribution of Voltaire and Mme du ChÃ¢telet to the diffusion of Newtonian physics in eighteenth century France is outlined. Their most important writings in the realm of physics (Philosophical Letters, Elements de la philosophie de Newton, Institutions de Physique) are analysed and the impact of the new ideas on the traditional Cartesian physics is emphasized. The genesis of the first French translation of Newton's Principia is described. The usefulness of the historically connected stories in the teaching of physics is envisaged.
Convergence of Newton's method for a single real equation
Campbell, C. W.
1985-01-01
Newton's method for finding the zeroes of a single real function is investigated in some detail. Convergence is generally checked using the Contraction Mapping Theorem which yields sufficient but not necessary conditions for convergence of the general single point iteration method. The resulting convergence intervals are frequently considerably smaller than actual convergence zones. For a specific single point iteration method, such as Newton's method, better estimates of regions of convergence should be possible. A technique is described which, under certain conditions (frequently satisfied by well behaved functions) gives much larger zones where convergence is guaranteed.
DE NEWTON A EINSTEIN: A DEBATE EL DESTINO DEL UNIVERSO
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ROGELIO PARREIRA
2010-01-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se describe la historia del pensamiento científico en términos de las teorías de la inercia, el espacio absoluto, la relatividad y la gravitación; de cómo Newton utilizó el trabajo de los primeros investigadores en sus teorías, y Einstein las teorías de Newton en la suya, para tratar de explicar el destino del universo. Es la descripción de un proceso revolucionario del conocimiento científico, y sus aportes al desarrollo de muchos otros campos del saber
Fara, Patricia
2015-04-13
Isaac Newton's reputation was initially established by his 1672 paper on the refraction of light through a prism; this is now seen as a ground-breaking account and the foundation of modern optics. In it, he claimed to refute Cartesian ideas of light modification by definitively demonstrating that the refrangibility of a ray is linked to its colour, hence arguing that colour is an intrinsic property of light and does not arise from passing through a medium. Newton's later significance as a world-famous scientific genius and the apparent confirmation of his experimental results have tended to obscure the realities of his reception at the time. This paper explores the rhetorical strategies Newton deployed to convince his audience that his conclusions were certain and unchallengeable. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.
Bellon, Richard
2014-01-01
For Victorian men of science, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century represented a moral awakening. Great theoretical triumphs of inductive science flowed directly from a philosophical spirit that embraced the virtues of self-discipline, courage, patience and humility. Isaac Newton exemplified this union of moral and intellectual excellence. This, at least, was the story crafted by scientific leaders like David Brewster, Thomas Chalmers, John Herschel, Adam Sedgwick and William Whewell. Not everyone accepted this reading of history. Evangelicals who decried the 'materialism' of mainstream science assigned a different meaning to Newton's legacy on behalf of their 'scriptural' alternative. High-church critics of science like John Henry Newman, on the other hand, denied that Newton's secular achievements carried any moral significance at all. These debates over Newtonian standards of philosophical behavior had a decisive influence on Charles Darwin as he developed his theory of evolution by natural selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
From Newton to Mandelbrot a primer in theoretical physics with fractals for the Macintosh
Stauffer, Dietrich
1996-01-01
From Newton to Mandelbrot A Primer in Theoretical Physics with Fractals for the Macintosh ( ) takes the student on a tour of the most important landmarks of theoretical physics classical, quantum, and statistical mechanics, relativity, electrodynamics, and, the most modern and exciting of all, the physics of fractals The treatment is confined to the essentials of each area, and short computer programs, numerous problems, and beautiful color illustrations round off this unusual textbook Ideally suited for a one-year course in theoretical physics it will also prove useful in preparing and revising for exams This edition is corrected and includes a new appendix on elementary particle physics, answers to all short questions, and a Macintosh diskette where a selection of executable programs exploring the fractal concept can be found The Diskette The program FRACTAL DIMENSION can be used on any 68030-, 68040,- or PowerPC-based Macintosh with 4 Mb RAM and 256 color display running System 67 - 75 - Sierpinski gasket ...
Can Newton's Third Law Be "Derived" from the Second?
Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Harrington, James
2017-04-01
Newton's laws have engendered much discussion over several centuries. Today, the internet is awash with a plethora of information on this topic. We find many references to Newton's laws, often discussions of various types of misunderstandings and ways to explain them. Here we present an intriguing example that shows an assumption hidden in Newton's third law that is often overlooked. As is well known, the first law defines an inertial frame of reference and the second law determines the acceleration of a particle in such a frame due to an external force. The third law describes forces exerted on each other in a two-particle system, and allows us to extend the second law to a system of particles. Students are often taught that the three laws are independent. Here we present an example that challenges this assumption. At first glance, it seems to show that, at least for a special case, the third law follows from the second law. However, a careful examination of the assumptions demonstrates that is not quite the case. Ultimately, the example does illustrate the significance of the concept of mass in linking Newton's dynamical principles.
Newton's Laws, Euler's Laws and the Speed of Light
Whitaker, Stephen
2009-01-01
Chemical engineering students begin their studies of mechanics in a department of physics where they are introduced to the mechanics of Newton. The approach presented by physicists differs in both perspective and substance from that encountered in chemical engineering courses where Euler's laws provide the foundation for studies of fluid and solid…
Would Issac Newton make a good family doc?
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Susman, Jeff
2005-01-01
... Katerndahl--with all due respect to Sir Isaac Newton--helps translate the latest thinking about nonlinearity in medicine and offers suggestions on how to incorporate these phenomena in patient care. Whether faced with the resistant patient with diabetes mellitus, the critically ill individual in the ICU, or the person like Joe who has a...
James Newton Howard: JAMs with TRI-M.
Reninger, Rosemary D.
2000-01-01
Presents an interview with James Newton Howard, a film composer. Provides background information on Howard. Addresses topics such as his most challenging and rewarding scores, his musical background, and the benefits of being associated with the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP). (CMK)
Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function.
Podoleanu, A G; Dobre, G M; Webb, D J; Jackson, D A
1996-11-01
We show that, with suitable optics in the arm of a Michelson interferometer, orthogonal galvo-scanning mirrors build a sampling function in the form of Newton rings when the two interferometer arms are matched. Using a low-coherence source, one can obtain transversal depth-resolved images. A fast display procedure using a storage oscilloscope was devised based on this method.
Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function
Podoleanu, Adiran G.; George M. Dobre; Webb, David J; Jackson, David A.
1996-01-01
We show that, with suitable optics in the arm of a Michelson interferometer, orthogonal galvo-scanning mirrors build a sampling function in the form of Newton rings when the two interferometer arms are matched. Using a low-coherence source, one can obtain transversal depth-resolved images. A fast display procedure using a storage oscilloscope was devised based on this method.
Proving Newton Right or Wrong with Blur Photography
Davidhazy, Andrew
2012-01-01
Sir Isaac Newton determined that the acceleration constant for gravity was 32 ft./per/sec/sec. This is a fact that most students become familiar with over time and through various means. This article describes how this can be demonstrated in a technology classroom using simple photographic equipment. (Contains 5 figures.)
Medium-resolution isaac newton telescope library of empirical spectra
Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Peletier, R. F.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.; Cardiel, N.; Cenarro, A. J.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Gorgas, J.; Selam, S.; Vazdekis, A.
2006-01-01
A new stellar library developed for stellar population synthesis modelling is presented. The library consists of 985 stars spanning a large range in atmospheric parameters. The spectra were obtained at the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and cover the range lambda lambda 3525-7500 angstrom at 2.3
A Magnetic Set-Up to Help Teach Newton's Laws
Panijpan, Bhinyo; Sujarittham, Thanida; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Tanamatayarat, Jintawat; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai
2009-01-01
A set-up comprising a magnetic disc, a solenoid and a mechanical balance was used to teach first-year physics students Newton's third law with the help of a free body diagram. The image of a floating magnet immobilized by the solenoid's repulsive force should help dispel a common misconception of students as regards the first law: that stationary…
Demonstrating Kinematics and Newton's Laws in a Jump
Kamela, Martin
2007-01-01
When students begin the study of Newton's laws they are generally comfortable with static equilibrium type problems, but dynamic examples where forces are not constant are more challenging. The class exercise presented here helps students to develop an intuitive grasp of both the position-velocity-acceleration relation and the force-acceleration…
Torsional Newton-Cartan geometry and the Schrodinger algebra
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hartong, Jelle; Rosseel, Jan
2015-01-01
We show that by gauging the Schrodinger algebra with critical exponent z and imposing suitable curvature constraints, that make diffeomorphisms equivalent to time and space translations, one obtains a geometric structure known as (twistless) torsional Newton-Cartan geometry (TTNC). This is a version
Newton-Cartan supergravity with torsion and Schrodinger supergravity
Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas
2015-01-01
We derive a torsionfull version of three-dimensional N - 2 Newton-Cartan supergravity using a non-relativistic notion of the superconformal tensor calculus. The "superconformal" theory that we start with is Schrodinger supergravity which we obtain by gauging the Schrodinger superalgebra. We present
Gamow on Newton: Another Look at Centripetal Acceleration
Corrao, Christian
2012-01-01
Presented here is an adaptation of George Gamow's derivation of the centripetal acceleration formula as it applies to Earth's orbiting Moon. The derivation appears in Gamows short but engaging book "Gravity", first published in 1962, and is essentially a distillation of Newton's work. While "TPT" contributors have offered several insightful…
Assessment and Learning of Qualitative Physics in Newton's Playground
Shute, Valerie J.; Ventura, Matthew; Kim, Yoon Jeon
2013-01-01
Digital games are very popular in modern culture. The authors are examining ways to leverage these engaging environments to assess and support student competencies. The authors examine gameplay and learning using a physics game they developed called Newton's Playground. The sample consisted of 167 eighth- and ninth-grade students who played…
Visualizing and Understanding the Components of Lagrange and Newton Interpolation
Yang, Yajun; Gordon, Sheldon P.
2016-01-01
This article takes a close look at Lagrange and Newton interpolation by graphically examining the component functions of each of these formulas. Although interpolation methods are often considered simply to be computational procedures, we demonstrate how the components of the polynomial terms in these formulas provide insight into where these…
Accelerating Inexact Newton Schemes for Large Systems of Nonlinear Equations
Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G.; Vorst, H.A. van der
Classical iteration methods for linear systems, such as Jacobi iteration, can be accelerated considerably by Krylov subspace methods like GMRES. In this paper, we describe how inexact Newton methods for nonlinear problems can be accelerated in a similar way and how this leads to a general
Dramatic (and Simple!) Demonstration of Newton's Third Law
Feldman, Gerald
2011-01-01
An operational understanding of Newton's third law is often elusive for students. Typical examples of this concept are given for contact forces that are closer to the students' everyday experience. While this is a good thing in general, the reaction force can sometimes be taken for granted, and the students can miss the opportunity to really think…
Newton's Radii, Maupertuis' Arc Length, and Voltaire's Giant
Simoson, Andrew J.
2011-01-01
Given two arc length measurements along the perimeter of an ellipse--one taken near the long diameter, the other taken anywhere else--how do you find the lengths of major and minor axes? This was a problem of great interest from the time of Newton's "Principia" until the mid-eighteenth century when France launched twin geodesic…
Heat kernel for Newton-Cartan trace anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Auzzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Musei 41, Brescia, 25121 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, Perugia, 06123 (Italy); Nardelli, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Musei 41, Brescia, 25121 (Italy); TIFPA - INFN, Università di Trento,c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Povo, TN, 38123 (Italy)
2016-07-11
We compute the leading part of the trace anomaly for a free non-relativistic scalar in 2+1 dimensions coupled to a background Newton-Cartan metric. The anomaly is proportional to 1/m, where m is the mass of the scalar. We comment on the implications of a conjectured a-theorem for non-relativistic theories with boost invariance.
The continuous, desingularized Newton method for meromorphic functions
Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.
For any (nonconstant) meromorphic function, we present a real analytic dynamical system, which may be interpreted as an infinitesimal version of Newton's method for finding its zeros. A fairly complete description of the local and global features of the phase portrait of such a system is obtained
An improved generalized Newton method for absolute value equations.
Feng, Jingmei; Liu, Sanyang
2016-01-01
In this paper, we suggest and analyze an improved generalized Newton method for solving the NP-hard absolute value equations [Formula: see text] when the singular values of A exceed 1. We show that the global and local quadratic convergence of the proposed method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method and the high accuracy of calculation.
Newton polygon strata in the moduli space of abelian varieties
Oort, F.
2001-01-01
We consider p-divisible groups (also called Barsotti-Tate groups) in characteristic p, abelian varieties, their deformations, and we draw some conclusions. For a p-divisible group in characteristic p, we can define its Newton polygon. This is invariant under isogeny. For an abelian variety the
Families of p-divisible groups with constant Newton polygon
Oort, F.; Zink, T.
2002-01-01
Let X be a p-divisible group with constant Newton polygon over a normal noetherian scheme S. We prove that there exists an isogeny to X -> Y such that Y admits a slope filltration. In case S is regular this was proved by N.Katz for dim S=1 and by T.Zink for dim S >_1
Rate of convergence of k-step Newton estimators to efficient likelihood estimators
Steve Verrill
2007-01-01
We make use of Cramer conditions together with the well-known local quadratic convergence of Newton?s method to establish the asymptotic closeness of k-step Newton estimators to efficient likelihood estimators. In Verrill and Johnson [2007. Confidence bounds and hypothesis tests for normal distribution coefficients of variation. USDA Forest Products Laboratory Research...
How Two Differing Portraits of Newton Can Teach Us about the Cultural Context of Science
Tucci, Pasquale
2015-01-01
Like several scientists, Isaac Newton has been represented many times over many different periods, and portraits of Newton were often commissioned by the scientist himself. These portraits tell us a lot about the scientist, the artist and the cultural context. This article examines two very different portraits of Newton that were realized more…
On the classification of plane graphs representing structurally stable rational Newton flows
Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.
1991-01-01
We study certain plane graphs, called Newton graphs, representing a special class of dynamical systems which are closely related to Newton's iteration method for finding zeros of (rational) functions defined on the complex plane. These Newton graphs are defined in terms of nonvanishing angles
The Cooling Law and the Search for a Good Temperature Scale, from Newton to Dalton
Besson, Ugo
2011-01-01
The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and…
Chandra and XMM–Newton Observations of H 2 O Maser Galaxy ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... For H2O megamaser galaxy Mrk 348, Chandra and XMM–Newton data are analysed. The nuclear fitting results of XMM–Newton data suggest the possible existence of a heavily obscured AGN. But the nuclear spectrum extracted from Chandra cannot be well-fitted by the best fitting model for XMM–Newton.
Generalized Least Squares and Newton's Method Algorithms for Nonlinear Root-Solving Applications
Younes, Ahmad Bani; Turner, James
2013-12-01
Many problems in science and engineering must solve nonlinear necessary conditions. For example, a standard problem in optimization involves solving for the roots of nonlinear functions defined by f( x) = 0, where x is the unknown variable. Classically one develops a first-order Taylor series model that defines the necessary condition that must be iteratively refined. The standard assumption is that the correction terms are small. Two classes of problems arise: (1) non-square systems that lead to least-squares solutions, and (2) square systems that are often handled by Newton-like methods. The accuracy of the starting guess impacts the number of iteration cycles required. To handle more nonlinear problems, both approaches are generalized to account for first- through fourth-order approximations. Computational differentiation tools are used for automatically formulating and numerically computing the partial derivatives. Two solution approaches are presented for inverting the tensor-valued necessary condition: (1) an integrated Legendre transformation, homotopy method, and high-order vector reversion of series algorithm; and (2) a computational differentiation-based generalized linear algebra approach. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate generalized multilinear Least-Squares and Newton-Raphson Methods. Accelerated convergence rates are demonstrated for scalar and vector root-solving problems. The integration of generalized algorithms and automatic differentiation is expected to have broad potential for impacting the design and use of mathematical programming tools for knowledge discovery applications in science and engineering.
Female body as a fetish in Helmut Newton's photography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pantović Katarina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper illuminates some of the principles by which Helmut Newton's photographic poetics functions. It is examined from the perspectives of recent art history, feminist critique and psychoanalytic theory. His photographs came to a standstill not far from pornography, yet they stayed within the jet-set community, reflecting at the same time the sexual revolution in the 60s and 70s of the twentieth century and the rising of the fashion and film industries and other Western emancipatory movements. Newton's obscure photojournalism provoked conventions, presenting the female body as a fetish and object of erotic pleasure, affirming, nonetheless, a new feminine self-consciousness and freedom. Thus, he constituted modern eroticism by connecting fetishism, voyeurism and sadomasochism, creating a provocative hybrid photography that embraced fashion, eroticism and portrait, hence documenting, in highly stylistic manner, the decadency and eccentricity of the lifestyle of the rich.
Special relativity, electrodynamics, and general relativity from Newton to Einstein
Kogut, John B
2018-01-01
Special Relativity, Electrodynamics and General Relativity: From Newton to Einstein, Second Edition, is intended to teach (astro)physics, astronomy, and cosmology students how to think about special and general relativity in a fundamental, but accessible, way. Designed to render any reader a "master of relativity," everything on the subject is comprehensible and derivable from first principles. The book emphasizes problem solving, contains abundant problem sets, and is conveniently organized to meet the needs of both student and instructor. Fully revised, updated and expanded second edition Includes new chapters on magnetism as a consequence of relativity and electromagnetism Contains many improved and more engaging figures Uses less algebra resulting in more efficient derivations Enlarged discussion of dynamics and the relativistic version of Newton's second law
Newton law in covariant unimodular $F(R)$ gravity
Nojiri, S; Oikonomou, V K
2016-01-01
We propose a covariant ghost-free unimodular $F(R)$ gravity theory, which contains a three-form field and study its structure using the analogy of the proposed theory with a quantum system which describes a charged particle in uniform magnetic field. Newton's law in non-covariant unimodular $F(R)$ gravity as well as in unimodular Einstein gravity is derived and it is shown to be just the same as in General Relativity. The derivation of Newton's law in covariant unimodular $F(R)$ gravity shows that it is modified precisely in the same way as in the ordinary $F(R)$ theory. We also demonstrate that the cosmology of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background, is equivalent in the non-covariant and covariant formulations of unimodular $F(R)$ theory.
Transient Newton rings in dielectrics upon fs laser ablation
Garcia-Lechuga, Mario; Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier
2014-01-01
We report the appearance of transient Newton rings in dielectrics (sapphire and lead-oxide glass) during ablation with single fs laser pulses. Employing femtosecond microscopy with 800 nm excitation and 400 nm illumination, we observe a characteristic ring pattern that dynamically changes for increasing delay times between pump and probe pulse. Such transient Newton rings have been previously observed in metals and semiconductors at fluences above the ablation threshold and were related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front surface of the ablating layer and at the interface of the non-ablating substrate. Yet, it had been generally assumed that this phenomenon cannot be (and has not been) observed in dielectrics due to the different ablation mechanism and optical properties of dielectrics. The fact that we are able to observe them has important consequences for the comprehension of the ablation mechanisms in dielectrics and provides a new method for investigating these mechanisms in ...
A Newton Algorithm for Multivariate Total Least Squares Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WANG Leyang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In order to improve calculation efficiency of parameter estimation, an algorithm for multivariate weighted total least squares adjustment based on Newton method is derived. The relationship between the solution of this algorithm and that of multivariate weighted total least squares adjustment based on Lagrange multipliers method is analyzed. According to propagation of cofactor, 16 computational formulae of cofactor matrices of multivariate total least squares adjustment are also listed. The new algorithm could solve adjustment problems containing correlation between observation matrix and coefficient matrix. And it can also deal with their stochastic elements and deterministic elements with only one cofactor matrix. The results illustrate that the Newton algorithm for multivariate total least squares problems could be practiced and have higher convergence rate.
Gullies and Layers in Crater Wall in Newton
2002-01-01
This dramatic view of gullies emergent from layered outcrops occurs on the wall of a crater within the much larger impact basin, Newton. Newton Crater and its surrounding terrain exhibit many examples of gullies on the walls of craters and troughs. The gullies exhibit meandering channels with fan-shaped aprons of debris located downslope. The gullies are considered to have been formed by erosion--both from a fluid (such as water) running downslope, and by slumping and landsliding processes driven by the force of gravity. This picture was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) in March 2001; it is illuminated from the upper left and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across.
A New Sparse Quasi-Newton Update Method
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Minghou Cheng
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Based on the idea of maximum determinant positive definite matrix completion, Yamashita proposed a sparse quasi-Newton update, called MCQN, for unconstrained optimization problems with sparse Hessian structures. Such an MCQN update keeps the sparsity structure of the Hessian while relaxing the secant condition. In this paper, we propose an alternative to the MCQN update, in which the quasi-Newton matrix satisfies the secant condition, but does not have the same sparsity structure as the Hessian in general. Our numerical results demonstrate the usefulness of the new MCQN update with the BFGS formula for a collection of test problems. A local and superlinear convergence analysis is also provided for the new MCQN update with the DFP formula.
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.goedecker@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Alireza Ghasemi, S. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, IR-Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roy, Shantanu [Computational and Systems Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)
2015-01-21
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods.
Conference | From Newton to Hawking and beyond | 28 May
2013-01-01
From Newton to Hawking and beyond: Why disability equality is relevant to the world of particle physics, Dr Tom Shakespeare. Tuesday, 28 May 2013 - 11.30 am - 1 pm Main Auditorium – Room 500-1-001 Conference organised by the CERN Diversity Programme English with French interpretation According to the recent world report on disability, 15% of the world’s population is disabled. Among that group could be numbered famous physicists such as Isaac Newton and Paul Dirac, neither of whom could be classed as “neuro-typical”, and Stephen Hawking. This presentation will provide some basic data about global disability, and the socially imposed barriers which disabled people face. It will also include some stories about high achieving people with disabilities. Finally, some practical suggestions will be offered on how to respect and include people with disabilities in the workplace. Tom Shakespeare is a social sci...
Non-relativistic conformal symmetries and Newton-Cartan structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duval, C [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Luminy, Case 907 F-13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Horvathy, P A [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et de Physique Theorique Universite de Tours, Parc de Grandmont F-37200 Tours (France)], E-mail: duval@cpt.univ-mrs.fr, E-mail: horvathy@lmpt.univ-tours.fr
2009-11-20
This paper provides us with a unifying classification of the conformal infinitesimal symmetries of non-relativistic Newton-Cartan spacetime. The Lie algebras of non-relativistic conformal transformations are introduced via the Galilei structure. They form a family of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras labeled by a rational 'dynamical exponent', z. The Schroedinger-Virasoro algebra of Henkel et al corresponds to z = 2. Viewed as projective Newton-Cartan symmetries, they yield, for timelike geodesics, the usual Schroedinger Lie algebra, for which z = 2. For lightlike geodesics, they yield, in turn, the Conformal Galilean Algebra (CGA) of Lukierski, Stichel and Zakrzewski (alias 'alt' of Henkel), with z = 1. Physical systems realizing these symmetries include, e.g. classical systems of massive and massless non-relativistic particles, and also hydrodynamics, as well as Galilean electromagnetism.
Implementing WebQuest Based Instruction on Newton's Second Law
Gokalp, Muhammed Sait; Sharma, Manjula; Johnston, Ian; Sharma, Mia
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate how WebQuests can be used in physics classes for teaching specific concepts. The study had three stages. The first stage was to develop a WebQuest on Newton's second law. The second stage involved developing a lesson plan to implement the WebQuest in class. In the final stage, the WebQuest was…
Newton's second law and the multiplication of distributions
Sarrico, C. O. R.; Paiva, A.
2018-01-01
Newton's second law is applied to study the motion of a particle subjected to a time dependent impulsive force containing a Dirac delta distribution. Within this setting, we prove that this problem can be rigorously solved neither by limit processes nor by using the theory of distributions (limited to the classical Schwartz products). However, using a distributional multiplication, not defined by a limit process, a rigorous solution emerges.
The XMM-Newton Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud
Haberl, F.; Sturm, R.; Ballet, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Coe, M. J.; Corbet, R.; Ehle, M.; Filipovic, M. D.; Gilfanov, M.;
2012-01-01
Context. Although numerous archival XMM-Newton observations existed towards the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) before 2009, only a fraction of the whole galaxy had been covered. Aims. Between May 2009 and March 2010, we carried out an XMM-Newton survey of the SMC, to ensure a complete coverage of both its bar and wing. Thirty-three observations of 30 different fields with a total exposure of about one Ms filled the previously missing parts. Methods. We systematically processed all available SMC data from the European Photon Imaging Camera. After rejecting observations with very high background, we included 53 archival and the 33 survey observations. We produced images in five different energy bands. We applied astrometric boresight corrections using secure identifications of X-ray sources and combined all the images to produce a mosaic covering the main body of the SMC. Results. We present an overview of the XMM-Newton observations, describe their analysis, and summarize our first results, which will be presented in detail in follow-up papers. Here, we mainly focus on extended X-ray sources, such as supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies, that are seen in our X-ray images. Conclusions. Our XMM-Newton survey represents the deepest complete survey of the SMC in the 0.15-12.0 keV X-ray band. We propose three new SNRs that have low surface brightnesses of a few 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 arcmin-2 and large extents. In addition, several known remnants appear larger than previously measured at either X-rays or other wavelengths extending the size distribution of SMC SNRs to larger values.
Convergence Analysis for the Multiplicative Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithm
Liu, Lulu
2016-10-26
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm, based on decomposition by field type rather than by subdomain, was recently introduced to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities. This paper provides a convergence analysis of the MSPIN algorithm. Under reasonable assumptions, it is shown that MSPIN is locally convergent, and desired superlinear or even quadratic convergence can be obtained when the forcing terms are picked suitably.
Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven
2016-01-01
We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....
A new Newton-like method for solving nonlinear equations.
Saheya, B; Chen, Guo-Qing; Sui, Yun-Kang; Wu, Cai-Ying
2016-01-01
This paper presents an iterative scheme for solving nonline ar equations. We establish a new rational approximation model with linear numerator and denominator which has generalizes the local linear model. We then employ the new approximation for nonlinear equations and propose an improved Newton's method to solve it. The new method revises the Jacobian matrix by a rank one matrix each iteration and obtains the quadratic convergence property. The numerical performance and comparison show that the proposed method is efficient.
Derivation of special relativity from Maxwell and Newton.
Dunstan, D J
2008-05-28
Special relativity derives directly from the principle of relativity and from Newton's laws of motion with a single undetermined parameter, which is found from Faraday's and Ampère's experimental work and from Maxwell's own introduction of the displacement current to be the -c(-2) term in the Lorentz transformations. The axiom of the constancy of the speed of light is quite unnecessary. The behaviour and the mechanism of the propagation of light are not at the foundations of special relativity.
The Schrödinger-Newton equation and its foundations
Bahrami, Mohammad; Großardt, André; Donadi, Sandro; Bassi, Angelo
2014-11-01
The necessity of quantising the gravitational field is still subject to an open debate. In this paper we compare the approach of quantum gravity, with that of a fundamentally semi-classical theory of gravity, in the weak-field non-relativistic limit. We show that, while in the former case the Schrödinger equation stays linear, in the latter case one ends up with the so-called Schrödinger-Newton equation, which involves a nonlinear, non-local gravitational contribution. We further discuss that the Schrödinger-Newton equation does not describe the collapse of the wave-function, although it was initially proposed for exactly this purpose. Together with the standard collapse postulate, fundamentally semi-classical gravity gives rise to superluminal signalling. A consistent fundamentally semi-classical theory of gravity can therefore only be achieved together with a suitable prescription of the wave-function collapse. We further discuss, how collapse models avoid such superluminal signalling and compare the nonlinearities appearing in these models with those in the Schrödinger-Newton equation.
Modified Block Newton method for the lambda modes problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
González-Pintor, S., E-mail: segonpin@isirym.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ginestar, D., E-mail: dginestar@mat.upv.es [Instituto de Matemática Multidisciplinar, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Verdú, G., E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)
2013-06-15
Highlights: ► The Modal Method is based on expanding the solution in a set of dominant modes. ► Updating the set of dominant modes improve its performance. ► A Modified Block Newton Method, which use previous calculated modes, is proposed. ► The method exhibits a very good local convergence with few iterations. ► Good performance results are also obtained for heavy perturbations. -- Abstract: To study the behaviour of nuclear power reactors it is necessary to solve the time dependent neutron diffusion equation using either a rectangular mesh for PWR and BWR reactors or a hexagonal mesh for VVER reactors. This problem can be solved by means of a modal method, which uses a set of dominant modes to expand the neutron flux. For the transient calculations using the modal method with a moderate number of modes, these modes must be updated each time step to maintain the accuracy of the solution. The updating modes process is also interesting to study perturbed configurations of a reactor. A Modified Block Newton method is studied to update the modes. The performance of the Newton method has been tested for a steady state perturbation analysis of two 2D hexagonal reactors, a perturbed configuration of the IAEA PWR 3D reactor and two configurations associated with a boron dilution transient in a BWR reactor.
One hundred years of pressure hydrostatics from Stevin to Newton
Chalmers, Alan F
2017-01-01
This monograph investigates the development of hydrostatics as a science. In the process, it sheds new light on the nature of science and its origins in the Scientific Revolution. Readers will come to see that the history of hydrostatics reveals subtle ways in which the science of the seventeenth century differed from previous periods. The key, the author argues, is the new insights into the concept of pressure that emerged during the Scientific Revolution. This came about due to contributions from such figures as Simon Stevin, Pascal, Boyle and Newton. The author compares their work with Galileo and Descartes, neither of whom grasped the need for a new conception of pressure. As a result, their contributions to hydrostatics were unproductive. The story ends with Newton insofar as his version of hydrostatics set the subject on its modern course. He articulated a technical notion of pressure that was up to the task. Newton compared the mathematical way in hydrostatics and the experimental way, and sided with t...
Judaism in the theology of Sir Isaac Newton
Goldish, Matt
1998-01-01
This book is based on my doctoral dissertation from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1996) of the same title. As a master's student, working on an entirely different project, I was well aware that many of Newton's theological manuscripts were located in our own Jewish National and University Library, but I was under the mistaken assumption that scores of highly qualified scholars must be assiduously scouring them and publishing their results. It never occurred to me to look at them at all until, having fmished my master's, I spoke to Professor David Katz at Tel-Aviv University about an idea I had for doctoral research. Professor Katz informed me that the project I had suggested was one which he himself had just fmished, but that I might be interested in working on the famous Newton manuscripts in the context of a project being organized by him, Richard Popkin, James Force, and the late Betty Jo Teeter Dobbs, to study and publish Newton's theological material. I asked him whether he was not sending me into ...
NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of Luminous, Heavily Obscured, WISE-Selected Quasars at z ~ 2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stern, D.; Lansbury, G. B.; Assef, Roberto J.
2014-01-01
faintly detected by XMM-Newton. A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection. The X-ray data require gas column densities N(H)>1e24 /cm2, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton-thick, luminous quasars. The discovery of a significant population......We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected AGN at z~2 in a broad X-ray band (0.1 - 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4um (W1) and 4.6um (W2) bands but bright at 12um...... L(sun). The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10)~4e45 erg/s for typical quasar templates. These are amongst the most luminous AGN known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grozdanko Grbesa
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The behavior characterized by enmity towards one’s own being, where urges for auto-destructive aggression overcome the instincts for self-preservation is seen only in the human species. In order to understand fully such an act we must recognize the complex dynamics of intra-psychic occurrences, sometimes initiated years before the tragic event. The nature of these auto-destructive events is most often impulsive. On the other hand, parasuicide is any auto-destructive behavior without a fatal outcome. From a clinical point of view, this is less a syndrome within an already present psychopathology and more a way of coping with an unbearable crisis and an expression of person’s psychological breakdown.In recent years, in our country, we have noticed an increase in parasuicidal behavior, mostly among younger and middle-aged population. The most common form of this behavior is the self-administration of medicaments and poisonous substances (corrosive agents and pesticides, and they are all initially treated at Toxicology department of Endocrinology Clinic. Regular psychiatric consultations at this Clinic enabled us to follow this phenomenon, with purpose of establishing psychopathological and social factors leading to this kind of behavior. We presented data from year 2003 concerning suicidal patients treated at Department of Toxicology at Institute for Mental Health in order to highlight the key characteristics of this phenomenon in our community.
Spectral analysis of the Double Pulsar PSR J0737-3039 with XMM-Newton
Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Iacolina, M.
2014-07-01
Since its discovery in 2003, the first and unique Double Pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 retains all the attention. This exciting system is composed of two neutron stars: a recycled 23 ms pulsar and a younger pulsar with a period of 2.8 s, revolving in a tight orbit in 2.4 hr. It is the only binary system in which both neutron stars have been detected as radio pulsars. The high-energy study of this system is extremely interesting to understand the physics of the magnetosphere emissions/interactions of both pulsars. We present the spectral analysis of the two XMM-Newton "Large Programs" performed in 2006 and 2011, which result in a total exposure time of about 600 ks.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silcowitz, Morten; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny
2009-01-01
contact response. In this paper, we present a new approach to contact force determination. We reformulate the contact force problem as a nonlinear root search problem, using a Fischer function. We solve this problem using a generalized Newton method. Our new Fischer - Newton method shows improved...... qualities for specific configurations where the most widespread alternative, the Projected Gauss-Seidel method, fails. Experiments show superior convergence properties of the exact Fischer - Newton method....
A Two-Point Newton Method Suitable for Nonconvergent Cases and with Super-Quadratic Convergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ababu Teklemariam Tiruneh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available An iterative formula based on Newton’s method alone is presented for the iterative solutions of equations that ensures convergence in cases where the traditional Newton Method may fail to converge to the desired root. In addition, the method has super-quadratic convergence of order 2.414 (i.e., . Newton method is said to fail in certain cases leading to oscillation, divergence to increasingly large number, or offshooting away to another root further from the desired domain or offshooting to an invalid domain where the function may not be defined. In addition when the derivative at the iteration point is zero, Newton method stalls. In most of these cases, hybrids of several methods such as Newton, bisection, and secant methods are suggested as substitute methods and Newton method is essentially blended with other methods or altogether abandoned. This paper argues that a solution is still possible in most of these cases by the application of Newton method alone without resorting to other methods and with the same computational effort (two functional evaluations per iteration like the traditional Newton method. In addition, the proposed modified formula based on Newton method has better convergence characteristics than the traditional Newton method.
Keynes, Newton and the Royal Society: the events of 1942 and 1943.
Kuehn, Daniel
2013-03-20
Most discussions of John Maynard Keynes's activities in connection with Newton are restricted to the sale in 1936 at Sotheby's of Newton's Portsmouth Papers and to Keynes's 1946 essay 'Newton, the Man'. This paper provides a history of Keynes's Newton-related work in the interim, highlighting especially the events of 1942 and 1943, which were particularly relevant to the Royal Society's role in the domestic and international promotion of Newton's legacy. During this period, Keynes lectured twice on Newton, leaving notes that would later be read by his brother Geoffrey in the famous commemoration of the Newton tercentenary in 1946. In 1943 Keynes assisted the Royal Society in its recognition of the Soviet celebrations and in the acquisition and preservation of more of the Newton library. In each instance Keynes took the opportunity to promote his interpretation of Newton as 'the last of the magicians': a scientist who had one foot in the pre-modern world and whose approach to understanding the world was as much intuitive as it was methodical.
Measurements of Newton's gravitational constant and the length of day
Anderson, JD; Schubert, G; Trimble, V.; Feldman, DE
2015-01-01
Copyright © EPLA, 2015. About a dozen measurements of Newton's gravitational constant, G, since 1962 have yielded values that differ by far more than their reported random plus systematic errors. We find that these values for G are oscillatory in nature, with a period of P = 5.899 ± 0.062 yr, an amplitude of (1.619 ± 0.103) × 10 -14 m 3 kg -1 s -2 , and mean-value crossings in 1994 and 1997. However, we do not suggest that...
Newton rings on the surface of implanted intraocular lenses.
Okada, K; Sagawa, H
1989-01-01
Using clinical specular microscopy, we studied a postoperative cellular reaction on the anterior surface of implanted artificial intraocular lenses in living human eyes. An amorphous coating filled the spaces between fibroblast-like cells, histiocytes, and foreign body giant cells in 29 of 118 eyes. In most cases the coating was observed as interference fringes (Newton rings). We observed the rings from seven to 63 days after surgery. Clinically, the patients did not show any visual disturbance at the time of these observations. With time, fibroblast-like cells decreased in number. By two months after surgery, most of the cells on the implants had already disappeared.
The calculus gallery masterpieces from Newton to Lebesgue
Dunham, William
2008-01-01
More than three centuries after its creation, calculus remains a dazzling intellectual achievement and the gateway into higher mathematics. This book charts its growth and development by sampling from the work of some of its foremost practitioners, beginning with Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the late seventeenth century and continuing to Henri Lebesgue at the dawn of the twentieth--mathematicians whose achievements are comparable to those of Bach in music or Shakespeare in literature. William Dunham lucidly presents the definitions, theorems, and proofs. ""Students of literat
From the Landgrave in Kassel to Isaac Newton
Høg, E.
2018-01-01
Landgrave Wilhelm IV established in 1560 the first permanent astronomical observatory in Europe. When he met the young Tycho Brahe in 1575 he recognized the genius and recommended him warmly to the Danish king Frederik II. Wilhelm and Tycho must share the credit for renewing astronomy with very accurate observations of positions of stars by new instrumentation and new methods. Tycho's observations of planets during 20 years enabled Johannes Kepler to derive the laws of planetary motion. These laws set Isaac Newton in a position to publish the laws of physical motion and universal gravitation in 1687 - the basis for the technical revolution.
Examination of Newton's Method Used for Indirect Frequency Offset Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Dzubera
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the topic of an indirect carrier frequency offset estimation and elimination. The main goal is to modify a conventional method as an attempt to develop a different approach and then to compare the performance of the modified method with the performance of the conventional one. The conventional approach is here represented by the gradient optimization method called the steepest descent. It is the base for the modification which utilizes Newton's method for the indirect carrier offset estimation. Both algorithms are implemented as phase-locked loops in a model of communication system. The simulation is processed in Matlab.
XMM-Newton Observations of Two Candidate Supernova Remnants
Kargaltsev, O.; Schmitt, B. M.; Pavlov, G. G.; Misanovic, Z.
2011-01-01
Candidate supernova remnants G23.5+0.1 and G25.5+0.0 were observed by XMM-Newton in the course of a snap-shot survey of plerionic and composite SNRs in the Galactic plane. In the field of G23.5+0.1, we detected an extended source, ~3' in diameter, which we tentatively interpret as a pulsar-wind nebula (PWN) of the middle-aged radio pulsar B1830-08. Our analysis suggests an association between PSR B1830-08 and the surrounding diffuse radio emission. If the radio emission is due to the SNR, the...
Diffeomorphic registration using geodesic shooting and Gauss–Newton optimisation
Ashburner, John; Friston, Karl J.
2011-01-01
This paper presents a nonlinear image registration algorithm based on the setting of Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM), but with a more efficient optimisation scheme — both in terms of memory required and the number of iterations required to reach convergence. Rather than perform a variational optimisation on a series of velocity fields, the algorithm is formulated to use a geodesic shooting procedure, so that only an initial velocity is estimated. A Gauss–Newton optimisation strategy is used to achieve faster convergence. The algorithm was evaluated using freely available manually labelled datasets, and found to compare favourably with other inter-subject registration algorithms evaluated using the same data. PMID:21216294
Primordial perturbations in a rainbow universe with running Newton constant
Brighenti, Francesco; Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, Joao
2017-03-01
We compute the spectral index of primordial perturbations in a rainbow universe. We allow the Newton constant G to run at (super-) Planckian energies and we consider both vacuum and thermal perturbations. If the rainbow metric is the one associated to a generalized Horava-Lifshitz dispersion relation, we find that only when G tends asymptotically to 0 can one match the observed value of the spectral index and solve the horizon problem, both for vacuum and thermal perturbations. For vacuum fluctuations the observational constraints imply that the primordial universe expansion can be both accelerating or decelerating, while in the case of thermal perturbations only decelerating expansion is allowed.
ESA's XMM-Newton gains deep insights into the distant Universe
2003-07-01
more tightly packed. Marguerite Pierre, CEA Saclay, France, with a European and Chilean team, used this ability to search for remote clusters of galaxies and map out their distribution. The work heralds a new era of studying the distant Universe. The optical identification of clusters shows only the galaxies themselves. However, X-rays show the gas in between the galaxies - which is where most of the matter in a cluster resides. This is like going from seeing a city at night, where you only see the lighted windows, to seeing it during the daytime, when you finally get to see the buildings themselves. Tracking down the clusters is a painstaking, multi-step process. In tandem with XMM-Newton, the team uses the four-metre Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, to take an optical snapshot of the same region of space. A tailor-made computer programme combs the XMM-Newton data looking for concentrations of X-rays that suggest large, extended structures. These are the clusters and they represent only about 10% of the detected X-ray sources (the others are mostly distant active galaxies). When the program finds a cluster, it zooms in on that region and converts the XMM-Newton data into a contour map of X-ray intensity, which it then superimposes on the CFHT optical image. The astronomers use this to check if anything is visible within the X-ray emission. If it is, the work then shifts to one of the world's largest telescopes, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope where the astronomers identify the individual galaxies in the cluster and take 'redshift' measurements. These give a measurement of the cluster's distance. In this way, Pierre and colleagues are mapping the distribution of galaxy clusters of the distant Universe, for the first time in astronomy. "Galaxy clusters are the largest concentrations of matter in the Universe and XMM-Newton is extremely efficient at finding them," says Pierre. Although the task is still a work in
Newton da Costa e a Filosofia da Quase-Verdade
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Décio Krause
2009-08-01
Full Text Available This paper intends to introduce the three issues of Principia which will appear in a sequel honoring Newton da Costa’s 80th birthday. Instead of presenting the papers one by one, as it is common in presentations such as this one, we have left the papers speak by themselves, and instead we have preferred to present to the Brazilian readers, specialty to our students, some aspects of Newton da Costa’s conception of science and of the scientific activity, grounded on the concept of quasi-truth, which he contributed to develop in a rigorous way. Da Costa is known as one of the founding fathers of paraconsistent logic, but his contributions go also to the foundations of physics, theoretical computation, model theory, algebraic logic, lattice theory, applications of non-classical logics to law and technology, etc. But perhaps his main contribution was to provide a basis for the birth of a school of logic in our country (Brazil, serving as teacher and inspiring new researchers for generations. It is a pleasure to have had so enthusiastic acceptation from the editors of Principia to organize these volumes. I would like to thank the contributors and the editors of Principia, specially Prof. Cezar Mortari for his help in organizing the issue.
Laurent Guiraud
2000-01-01
A CD with the wishes for the 21st century from thousands of readers of the science magazine "Newton", was buried at the Atlas construction site on 16.03.2000 (handling the CD: Giorgio Riviecco, Editor of "Newton")
Newton iterative methods for large scale nonlinear systems. Progress report, 1992--1993
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, H.F.; Turner, K.
1993-06-01
Objective is to develop robust, efficient Newton iterative methods for general large scale problems well suited for discretizations of partial differential equations, integral equations, and other continuous problems. A concomitant objective is to develop improved iterative linear algebra methods. We first outline research on Newton iterative methods and then review work on iterative linear algebra methods. (DLC)
Steinberg, Melvin S.; And Others
Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the "Principia." This paper compares Newton's pre-"Principia" beliefs, based upon his writings,…
Disk-galaxy density distribution from orbital speeds using Newton's law
Nicholson, Kenneth F.
2000-01-01
Given the dimensions (including thickness) of an axisymmetric galaxy, Newton's law is used in integral form to find the density distributions required to match a wide range of orbital speed profiles. Newton's law is not modified and no dark matter halos are required. The speed distributiions can have extreme shapes if they are reasonably smooth. Several examples are given.
Disk-galaxy density distribution from orbital speeds using Newton's law, version 1.1
Nicholson, Kenneth F.
2000-01-01
Given the dimensions(including thickness) of an axisymmetric galaxy, Newton's law is used in integral form to find the density distributions required to match a wide range of orbital speed profiles. Newton's law is not modified and no dark-matter halos are required. The speed distributions can have extreme shapes if they are reasonably smooth. Several examples are given.
Third-Order Newton-Type Methods Combined with Vector Extrapolation for Solving Nonlinear Systems
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Wen Zhou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We present a third-order method for solving the systems of nonlinear equations. This method is a Newton-type scheme with the vector extrapolation. We establish the local and semilocal convergence of this method. Numerical results show that the composite method is more robust and efficient than a number of Newton-type methods with the other vector extrapolations.
Teaching Newton's Third Law of Motion in the Presence of Student Preconception
Poon, C. H.
2006-01-01
The concept of interaction that underlies Newton's Laws of Motion is compared with the students' commonsense ideas of force and motion. An approach to teaching Newton's Third Law of Motion is suggested that focuses on refining the student's intuitive thinking on the nature of interaction.
Cool in the Kitchen: Radiation, Conduction, and the Newton "Hot Block" Experiment.
Silverman, Mark P.; Silverman, Christopher R.
2000-01-01
Discusses the history of the development of Newton's Law of Cooling. Describes an experiment conducted in the kitchen that is designed to test the rate of cooling of a hot block of iron. Finds that Newton's law does not represent very well the mechanism of heat loss. (Contains over 10 references.) (WRM)
Weight, the Normal Force and Newton's Third Law: Dislodging a Deeply Embedded Misconception
Low, David; Wilson, Kate
2017-01-01
On entry to university, high-achieving physics students from all across Australia struggle to identify Newton's third law force pairs. In particular, less than one in ten can correctly identify the Newton's third law reaction pair to the weight of (gravitational force acting on) an object. Most students incorrectly identify the normal force on the…
78 FR 43273 - Central of Georgia Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Newton County, Ga.
2013-07-19
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Central of Georgia Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Newton County... the intersection of Washington Street SW., and Turner Lake Road SW., in Covington), in Newton County...
A New Newton-Like Iterative Method for Roots of Analytic Functions
Otolorin, Olayiwola
2005-01-01
A new Newton-like iterative formula for the solution of non-linear equations is proposed. To derive the formula, the convergence criteria of the one-parameter iteration formula, and also the quasilinearization in the derivation of Newton's formula are reviewed. The result is a new formula which eliminates the limitations of other methods. There is…
Method for reducing Newton's rings pattern in the scanned image reproduced with film scanners
Lu, Ming-feng; Ni, Guo-qiang; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Feng; Tao, Ran; Yuan, Jun
2013-12-01
Newton's rings pattern always blurs the scanned image when scanning a film using a film scanner. Such phenomenon is a kind of equal thickness interference, which is caused by the air layer between the film and the glass of the scanner. A lot of methods were proposed to prevent the interference, such as film holder, anti-Newton's rings glass and emulsion direct imaging technology, etc. Those methods are expensive and lack of flexibility. In this paper, Newton's rings pattern is proved to be a 2-D chirp signal. Then, the fractional Fourier transform, which can be understood as the chirp-based decomposition, is introduced to process Newton's rings pattern. A digital filtering method in the fractional Fourier domain is proposed to reduce the Newton's rings pattern. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by simulation. Compared with the traditional optical method, the proposed method is more flexible and low cost.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fu Yuhua
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy, and "Quad-stage" (Four stages is the expansion of Hegel’s triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis of development. Applying Neutrosophy and "Quad-stage" method, the purposes of this paper are expanding Newton Mechanics and making it become New Newton Mechanics (NNW taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. In this paper the examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law by using the law of conservation of energy, and proves that there is not the contradiction between the original law of gravity and the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space, derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal
Various representations of the quantity Newton called inertial mass
Fry, J L
2012-01-01
Newton introduced the concept of mass in his {\\it Principia} and gave an intuitive explanation for what it meant. Centuries have passed and physicists as well as philosophers still argue over its meaning. Three types of mass are generally identified: inertial mass, active gravitational mass and passive gravitational mass. In addition to the question of what role mass plays in dynamical equations and why, the origin of the particular amount of matter associated with an elementary particle as a consequence of fundamental fields has long been a topic of research and discussion. In this paper, various representations of inertial mass are discussed within the framework of fundamental (either Galilean or Poincar\\'e invariant) dynamical equations of waves and point particles. It is shown that the derived equations have mass-like and mass parameters for waves and point particles, respectively, and that the physical meaning of these parameters sheds a new light on the fundamental problem of the nature of inertial mass...
Nonrelativistic fluids on scale covariant Newton-Cartan backgrounds
Mitra, Arpita
2017-12-01
The nonrelativistic covariant framework for fields is extended to investigate fields and fluids on scale covariant curved backgrounds. The scale covariant Newton-Cartan background is constructed using the localization of space-time symmetries of nonrelativistic fields in flat space. Following this, we provide a Weyl covariant formalism which can be used to study scale invariant fluids. By considering ideal fluids as an example, we describe its thermodynamic and hydrodynamic properties and explicitly demonstrate that it satisfies the local second law of thermodynamics. As a further application, we consider the low energy description of Hall fluids. Specifically, we find that the gauge fields for scale transformations lead to corrections of the Wen-Zee and Berry phase terms contained in the effective action.
XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF THE {alpha} PERSEI CLUSTER
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Pillitteri, Ignazio [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 6, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Evans, Nancy Remage [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wolk, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 70, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bruck Syal, Megan, E-mail: ipillitteri@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Box 1846, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)
2013-05-15
We report on the analysis of an archival observation of part of the {alpha} Persei cluster obtained with XMM-Newton. We detected 102 X-ray sources in the band 0.3-8.0 keV, of which 39 of them are associated with the cluster as evidenced by appropriate magnitudes and colors from Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. We extend the X-ray luminosity distribution (XLD) for M dwarfs, to add to the XLD found for hotter dwarfs from spatially extensive surveys of the whole cluster by ROSAT. Some of the hotter stars are identified as a background, possible slightly older group of stars at a distance of approximately 500 pc.
Shearlet-Wavelet Regularized Semismooth Newton Iteration for Image Restoration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Ding
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Image normally has both dots-like and curve structures. But the traditional wavelet or multidirectional wave (ridgelet, contourlet, curvelet, etc. could only restore one of these structures efficiently so that the restoration results for complex images are unsatisfactory. For the image restoration, this paper adopted a strategy of combined shearlet and wavelet frame and proposed a new restoration method. Theoretically, image sparse representation of dots-like and curve structures could be achieved by shearlet and wavelet, respectively. Under the L1 regularization, the two frame-sparse structures could show their respective advantages and efficiently restore the two structures. In order to achieve superlinear convergence, this paper applied semismooth Newton method based on subgradient to solve objective functional without differentiability. Finally, through numerical results, the effectiveness of this strategy was validated, which presented outstanding advantages for any individual frame alone. Some detailed information that could not be restored in individual frame could be clearly demonstrated with this strategy.
Renormalization Group Running of Newton's G: The Static Isotropic Case
Hamber, H W; Hamber, Herbert W.; Williams, Ruth M.
2007-01-01
Corrections are computed to the classical static isotropic solution of general relativity, arising from non-perturbative quantum gravity effects. A slow rise of the effective gravitational coupling with distance is shown to involve a genuinely non-perturbative scale, closely connected with the gravitational vacuum condensate, and thereby, it is argued, related to the observed effective cosmological constant. Several analogies between the proposed vacuum condensate picture of quantum gravitation, and non-perturbative aspects of vacuum condensation in strongly coupled non-abelian gauge theories are developed. In contrast to phenomenological approaches, the underlying functional integral formulation of the theory severely constrains possible scenarios for the renormalization group evolution of couplings. The expected running of Newton's constant $G$ is compared to known vacuum polarization induced effects in QED and QCD. The general analysis is then extended to a set of covariant non-local effective field equati...
The XMM-Newton View of Wolf-Rayet Bubbles
Guerrero, M.; Toala, J.
2017-10-01
The powerful stellar winds of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars blow large bubble into the circumstellar material ejected in previous phases of stellar evolution. The shock of those stellar winds produces X-ray-emitting hot plasmas which tells us about the diffusion of processed material onto the interstellar medium, about processes of heat conduction and turbulent mixing at the interface, about the late stages of stellar evolution, and about the shaping of the circumstellar environment, just before supernova explosions. The unique sensitivity of XMM-Newton has been key for the detection, mapping and spectral analysis of the X-ray emission from the hot bubbles around WR stars. These observations underscore the importance of the structure of the interstellar medium around massive stars, but they have also unveiled unknown phenomena, such as blowouts of hot gas into the interstellar medium or spatially-resolved spectral properties of the hot gas, which disclose inhomogeneous chemical abundances and physical properties across these bubbles.
Analysis of the XMM-Newton observations of IC443
Greco, E.; Miceli, M.; Peres, G.; Orlando, S.; Troja, E.; Bocchino, F.
2017-10-01
We analyze for the first time the full set of archive XMM-Newton EPIC observations of the Galactic Supernova Remnant IC 443. We aim at identifying the contribution of the shocked ejecta and interstellar medium and at the describing the physical and chemical properties of the shocked plasma. We also aim at addressing the presence of overionized plasma and its physical origin. We trace the morphology of Si- and S-rich ejecta with unprecedented spatial resolution, by adopting a novel method to produce maps of equivalent width. We describe in detail the method adopted and the results obtained and present preliminary results of a spatially resolved spectral analysis performed on selected regions, chosen on the basis of our image analysis.
Applicability of Newton's law of cooling in monetary economics
Todorović, Jadranka Đurović; Tomić, Zoran; Denić, Nebojša; Petković, Dalibor; Kojić, Nenad; Petrović, Jelena; Petković, Biljana
2018-03-01
Inflation is a phenomenon which attracts the attention of many researchers. Inflation is not a recent date phenomenon, but it has existed ever since money emerged in world's first economies. With the development of economy and market, inflation developed as well. Today, even though there is a considerable number of research papers on inflation, there is still not enough knowledge about all factors which might cause inflation, and influence its evolution and dynamics. Regression analysis is a powerful statistical tool which might help analyse a vast amount of data on inflation, and provide an answer to the question about the factors of inflation, as well as the way those factors influence it. In this article Newton's Law of Cooling was applied to determine the long-term dynamics of monetary aggregates and inflation in Serbia and Croatia.
Characterization of AGN from the XMM-Newton Slew Survey
Starling, R. L. C.; Wildy, C.; Wiersema, K.; Mateos, S.; Saxton, R. D.; Read, A. M.; Mingo, B.
2017-06-01
We present optical spectroscopy of candidate active galactic nuclei (AGN) pinpointed by a Swift follow-up campaign on unidentified transients in the XMM-Newton Slew Survey, increasing the completeness of the identifications of AGN in the Survey. Our Swift follow-up campaign identified 17 X-ray Telescope-detected candidate AGN, of which 9 were selected for optical follow-up and a further two were confirmed as AGN elsewhere. Using data obtained at the William Herschel Telescope, Very Large Telescope and New Technology Telescope, we find AGN features in seven of the candidates. We classify six as Seyfert types 1.0-1.5, with broad-line region velocities spanning 2000-12000 km s-1, and identify one as a possible type II AGN, consistent with the lack of a soft band X-ray detection in the Slew Survey. The virial black hole mass estimates for the sample lie between 1× 108 and 3× 109 M⊙, with one source likely emitting close to its Eddington rate, LBol/LEdd ˜ 0.9. We find a wide redshift range 0.08 < z < 0.9 for the nine now confirmed AGN drawn from the unidentified Slew Survey sample. One source remaining unclassified shows outbursts rarely seen before in AGN. We conclude that AGN discovered in this way are consistent with the largely non-varying, Slew-selected, known AGN population. We also find parallels with XMM-Newton Bright Serendipitous Survey AGN selected from pointed observations, and postulate that shallow X-ray surveys select AGN drawn from the same populations that have been characterized in deeper X-ray-selected samples.
B stars seen at high resolution by XMM-Newton
Cazorla, Constantin; Nazé, Yaël
2017-12-01
We report on the properties of 11 early B stars observed with gratings on board XMM-Newton and Chandra, thereby doubling the number of B stars analysed at high resolution. The spectra typically appear soft, with temperatures of 0.2-0.6 keV, and moderately bright (log [LX/LBOL] -7) with lower values for later type stars. In line with previous studies, we also find an absence of circumstellar absorption, negligible line broadening, no line shift, and formation radii in the range 2-7 R⋆. From the X-ray brightnesses, we derived the hot mass-loss rate for each of our targets and compared these values to predictions or values derived in the optical domain: in some cases, the hot fraction of the wind can be non-negligible. The derived X-ray abundances were compared to values obtained from the optical data, with a fair agreement found between them. Finally, half of the sample presents temporal variations, either in the long-term, short-term, or both. In particular, HD 44743 is found to be the second example of an X-ray pulsator, and we detect a flare-like activity in the binary HD 79351, which also displays a high-energy tail and one of the brightest X-ray emissions in the sample. Based on observations collected with the ESA science mission XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and the USA (NASA).
Brandt, William
Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are among the most extreme physical environments in the Universe, and it now appears that feedback from AGN winds and jets plays a critical role in the evolution of typical massive galaxies and larger-scale structures. This proposal requests funding to support work on two XMM-Newton guest investigator projects that have already won competitive observing time to study quasars, the most luminous examples of AGNs. The first project is an approved XMM-Newton Large Program that won 350 ks of priority A observation time in AO-9. This project involves an ambitious long-look observation that will obtain the first high-quality grating spectroscopy of a mini-Broad Absorption Line (mini-BAL) quasar, with the aim of assessing the kinetic luminosity of its outflow (the target is PG 1114+445). Grating spectroscopy of a small sample of local Seyfert galaxies has led to highly regarded accurate determinations of their wind properties. The planned extension of grating spectroscopy to the first mini-BAL quasar level AGN will determine if the outflow becomes as powerful as proposed in current AGN feedback scenarios. The 375,000 count EPIC CCD spectra from this long-look will enable unprecedented complementary studies of high-energy absorption features and iron K emission. The data for this project will be gathered over the coming year starting in 2010 May. The second project is an investigation of X-ray absorption in the most-distant radio-loud quasars. Here we are extending our systematic X-ray studies of the most-distant known quasars with XMM-Newton spectroscopy of typical radio-loud quasars (RLQs) at z ~ 4- 5. Our targets are more representative of the overall RLQ population than the small number of highly radio-loud blazars studied at these redshifts. We will search for X-ray absorption in the quasars' environments to determine if it is common among typical RLQs at the highest redshifts. We will also measure X-ray continuum shapes and search for
How two differing portraits of Newton can teach us about the cultural context of science
Tucci, Pasquale
2015-07-01
Like several scientists, Isaac Newton has been represented many times over many different periods, and portraits of Newton were often commissioned by the scientist himself. These portraits tell us a lot about the scientist, the artist and the cultural context. This article examines two very different portraits of Newton that were realized more than a century apart, to show how the observer’s attention can be focused on the history of physics, the history of art, their relationships and the use of the history of science in science education.
A Line Search Multilevel Truncated Newton Algorithm for Computing the Optical Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lluís Garrido
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We describe the implementation details and give the experimental results of three optimization algorithms for dense optical flow computation. In particular, using a line search strategy, we evaluate the performance of the unilevel truncated Newton method (LSTN, a multiresolution truncated Newton (MR/LSTN and a full multigrid truncated Newton (FMG/LSTN. We use three image sequences and four models of optical flow for performance evaluation. The FMG/LSTN algorithm is shown to lead to better optical flow estimation with less computational work than both the LSTN and MR/LSTN algorithms.
On-the-fly XMM-Newton Spacecraft Data Reduction on the Grid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ibarra
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We present the results of the first prototype of a XMM-Newton pipeline processing task, parallelized at a CCD level, which can be run in a Grid system. By using the Grid Way application and the XMM-Newton Science Archive system, the processing of the XMM-Newton data is distributed across the Virtual Organization (VO constituted by three different research centres: ESAC (European Space Astronomy Centre, ESTEC (the European Space research and TEchnology Centre and UCM (Complutense University of Madrid. The proposed application workflow adjusts well to the Grid environment, making use of the massive parallel resources in a flexible and adaptive fashion.
A Newton method for solving continuous multiple material minimum compliance problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stolpe, M; Stegmann, Jan
This paper presents an implementation of an active-set line-search Newton method intended for solving large-scale instances of a class of multiple material minimum compliance problems. The problem is modeled with a convex objective function and linear constraints. At each iteration of the Newton....... Computational experiments with a branch and bound method indicate that the proposed Newton method can, on most instances in the test-set, take advantage of the available starting point information in an enumeration tree and resolve the relaxations after branching with few additional function evaluations...
A Newton method for solving continuous multiple material minimum compliance problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stolpe, Mathias; Stegmann, Jan
2007-01-01
This paper presents an implementation of an active-set line-search Newton method intended for solving large-scale instances of a class of multiple material minimum compliance problems. The problem is modeled with a convex objective function and linear constraints. At each iteration of the Newton....... Computational experiments with a branch and bound method indicate that the proposed Newton method can, on most instances in the test-set, take advantage of the available starting point information in an enumeration tree and resolve the relaxations after branching with few additional function evaluations...
Sparse contrast-source inversion using linear-shrinkage-enhanced inexact Newton method
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-07-01
A contrast-source inversion scheme is proposed for microwave imaging of domains with sparse content. The scheme uses inexact Newton and linear shrinkage methods to account for the nonlinearity and ill-posedness of the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem, respectively. Thresholded shrinkage iterations are accelerated using a preconditioning technique. Additionally, during Newton iterations, the weight of the penalty term is reduced consistently with the quadratic convergence of the Newton method to increase accuracy and efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.
A Newton-Like Trust Region Method for Large-Scale Unconstrained Nonconvex Minimization
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Yang Weiwei
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new Newton-like method for large-scale unconstrained nonconvex minimization. And a new straightforward limited memory quasi-Newton updating based on the modified quasi-Newton equation is deduced to construct the trust region subproblem, in which the information of both the function value and gradient is used to construct approximate Hessian. The global convergence of the algorithm is proved. Numerical results indicate that the proposed method is competitive and efficient on some classical large-scale nonconvex test problems.
XMM-Newton On-demand Reprocessing Using SaaS Technology
Ibarra, A.; Fajersztejn, N.; Loiseau, N.; Gabriel, C.
2014-05-01
We present here the architectural design of the new on-the-fly reprocessing capabilities that will be soon developed and implemented in the new XMM-Newton Science Operation Centre. The inclusion of processing capabilities into the archive, as we plan, will be possible thanks to the recent refurbishment of the XMM-Newton science archive, its alignment with the latest web technologies and the XMM-Newton Remote Interface for Science Analysis (RISA), a revolutionary idea of providing processing capabilities through internet services.
Observations of AA Tau requested to schedule XMM-Newton
Waagen, Elizabeth O.
2013-08-01
Dr. Hans Moritz Guenther (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) has requested nightly observations of the classical T Tauri star AA Tau in order to schedule x-ray observations with XMM-Newton that have been planned for between 2013 August 15 and September 15. The purpose of the AAVSO observations is to determine whether AA Tau is at a suitable magnitude for the satellite observations. Taurus is difficult to observe during this time period but that is exactly why AAVSO assistance is needed! AA Tau is a morning object, and also, many of the professional ground-based telescopes are offline because of the US southwest monsoon season. Since it is critical to know the brightness of AA Tau, AAVSO observations will be truly essential. Nightly visual and snapshot (not more than once per night) observations beginning now and continuing through September 20 are needed. Coverage beginning ahead of the XMM window is requested because there is a one- to two-week lead time for the target to be inserted into the telescope schedule. Continuing the nightly observations a few days beyond the end of the XMM window will give better optical context for the x-ray data. AA Tau ranges between ~12.8V and ~16.1V; since December 2011 or earlier it has been at ~14.5V. The most recent observation in the AAVSO International Database shows it at 14.779V on 2013 Feb 5 (J. Roe, Bourbon, MO). Dr. Guenther writes, "AA Tau is surrounded by a thick accretion disk which is seen nearly edge-on. For decades the light curve of AA Tau showed regular eclipsing events when the accretion funnel rotated through the line of sight. However, earlier this year J. Bouvier and his group found that this behavior changed dramatically: AA Tau now seems to be deeply absorbed all the time (V band 14.5 mag). In collaboration with this group we will perform X-ray observations of AA Tau with the XMM-Newton satellite." Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plo! tter (http
Beyond Descartes and Newton: Recovering life and humanity.
Kauffman, Stuart A; Gare, Arran
2015-12-01
Attempts to 'naturalize' phenomenology challenge both traditional phenomenology and traditional approaches to cognitive science. They challenge Edmund Husserl's rejection of naturalism and his attempt to establish phenomenology as a foundational transcendental discipline, and they challenge efforts to explain cognition through mainstream science. While appearing to be a retreat from the bold claims made for phenomenology, it is really its triumph. Naturalized phenomenology is spearheading a successful challenge to the heritage of Cartesian dualism. This converges with the reaction against Cartesian thought within science itself. Descartes divided the universe between res cogitans, thinking substances, and res extensa, the mechanical world. The latter won with Newton and we have, in most of objective science since, literally lost our mind, hence our humanity. Despite Darwin, biologists remain children of Newton, and dream of a grand theory that is epistemologically complete and would allow lawful entailment of the evolution of the biosphere. This dream is no longer tenable. We now have to recognize that science and scientists are within and part of the world we are striving to comprehend, as proponents of endophysics have argued, and that physics, biology and mathematics have to be reconceived accordingly. Interpreting quantum mechanics from this perspective is shown to both illuminate conscious experience and reveal new paths for its further development. In biology we must now justify the use of the word "function". As we shall see, we cannot prestate the ever new biological functions that arise and constitute the very phase space of evolution. Hence, we cannot mathematize the detailed becoming of the biosphere, nor write differential equations for functional variables we do not know ahead of time, nor integrate those equations, so no laws "entail" evolution. The dream of a grand theory fails. In place of entailing laws, a post-entailing law explanatory framework
Gauld, Colin F.
2009-01-01
Books I and III of Newton's "Principia" develop Newton's dynamical theory and show how it explains a number of celestial phenomena. Book II has received little attention from historians or educators because it does not play a major role in Newton's argument. However, it is in Book II that we see most clearly Newton both as a theoretician and an…
Fara, Patricia
2015-01-01
Isaac Newton's reputation was initially established by his 1672 paper on the refraction of light through a prism; this is now seen as a ground-breaking account and the foundation of modern optics. In it, he claimed to refute Cartesian ideas of light modification by definitively demonstrating that the refrangibility of a ray is linked to its colour, hence arguing that colour is an intrinsic property of light and does not arise from passing through a medium. Newton's later significance as a world-famous scientific genius and the apparent confirmation of his experimental results have tended to obscure the realities of his reception at the time. This paper explores the rhetorical strategies Newton deployed to convince his audience that his conclusions were certain and unchallengeable. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750143
Modified Newton's Law of Gravitation due to Minimal Length in Quantum Gravity
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Farag Ali, Ahmed; Tawfik, A
2013-01-01
.... Therefore, we obtain a modified Newton's law of gravitation. Surprisingly, this modification agrees with different sign with the prediction of Randall-Sundrum II model which contains one uncompactified extra dimension...
Colloid micro-Newton thruster development for the ST7-DRS and LISA missions
Ziemer, John K.; Gamero-Castano, Manuel; Hruby, Vlad; Spence, Doug; Demmons, Nate; McCormick, Ryan; Roy, Tom
2005-01-01
We present recent progress and development of the Busek Colloid Micro-Newton Thruster (CMNT) for the Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS) and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Missions.
Astronomical and Cosmological Symbolism in Art Dedicated to Newton and Einstein
Sinclair, R.
2013-04-01
Separated by two and a half centuries, Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) had profound impacts on our understanding of the universe. Newton established our understanding of universal gravitation, which was recast almost beyond recognition by Einstein. Both discovered basic patterns behind astronomical phenomena and became the best-known scientists of their respective periods. I will describe here how artists of the 18th and 20th centuries represented the achievements of Newton and Einstein. Representations of Newton express reverence, almost an apotheosis, portraying him as the creator of the universe. Einstein, in a different age, is represented often as a comic figure, and only rarely do we find art that hints at the profound view of the universe he developed.
Revisiting Newton's rings with a plasmonic optical flat for high-accuracy surface inspection
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Yun Zheng; Jie Bian; Xiao-long Wang; Ju-xiu Liu; Peng Feng; Hai-xiong Ge; Olivier J F Martin; Wei-hua Zhang
2016-01-01
.... Optical couplings between an Au nanodisk array and an Au thin lm were measured quantitatively using two different techniques, namely, the classical Newtons rings method and a closed-loop nano-positioning system...
Isaac Newton learns Hebrew: Samuel Johnson's Nova cubi Hebræi tabella
Joalland, Michael; Mandelbrote, Scott
2016-01-01
This article concerns the earliest evidence for Isaac Newton's use of Hebrew: a manuscript copy by Newton of part of a work intended to provide a reader of the Hebrew alphabet with the ability to identify or memorize more than 1000 words and to begin to master the conjugations of the Hebrew verb. In describing the content of this unpublished manuscript and establishing its source and original author for the first time, we suggest how and when Newton may have initially become acquainted with the language. Finally, basing our discussion in part on an examination of the reading marks that Newton left in the surviving copies of Hebrew grammars and lexicons that he owned, we will argue that his interest in Hebrew was not intended to achieve linguistic proficiency but remained limited to particular theological queries of singular concern.
Isaac Newton's scientific method turning data into evidence about gravity and cosmology
Harper, William L.
2014-01-01
Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, but also have those phenomena accurately measure the parameters which explain them. Harper explores the ways in which Newton's method aims to turn theoretical questions into ones which can be answered empirically by measurement from phenomena, and to establish that propositions inferred from phenomena are provisionally accepted as guides to further research. This methodology, guided by its rich ideal of empirical success, supports a conception of scientific progress that does not require construing it as progr...
Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.
Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others
1988-01-01
Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)
2016 Newton County, Georgia ADS100 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-foot pixel resolution, natural color orthoimages covering Newton County, Georgia. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...
Investigating the origin of X-ray variability through XMM-Newton and WISE data
Zaino, A.; Vignali, C.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Ballo, L.
2017-10-01
An efficient diagnostic method to find local (zmethod outlined above using the latest 3XMM and WISE data, and I investigated its potentialities in finding interesting spectrally variable (including changing-look) XMM-Newton sources.
Newton's method: A link between continuous and discrete solutions of nonlinear problems
Thurston, G. A.
1980-01-01
Newton's method for nonlinear mechanics problems replaces the governing nonlinear equations by an iterative sequence of linear equations. When the linear equations are linear differential equations, the equations are usually solved by numerical methods. The iterative sequence in Newton's method can exhibit poor convergence properties when the nonlinear problem has multiple solutions for a fixed set of parameters, unless the iterative sequences are aimed at solving for each solution separately. The theory of the linear differential operators is often a better guide for solution strategies in applying Newton's method than the theory of linear algebra associated with the numerical analogs of the differential operators. In fact, the theory for the differential operators can suggest the choice of numerical linear operators. In this paper the method of variation of parameters from the theory of linear ordinary differential equations is examined in detail in the context of Newton's method to demonstrate how it might be used as a guide for numerical solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanjeev Kumar
2011-01-01
Full Text Available One-parameter families of Newton's iterative method for the solution of nonlinear equations and its extension to unconstrained optimization problems are presented in the paper. These methods are derived by implementing approximations through a straight line and through a parabolic curve in the vicinity of the root. The presented variants are found to yield better performance than Newton's method, in addition that they overcome its limitations.
Newton-Krylov-BDDC solvers for nonlinear cardiac mechanics
Pavarino, L.F.
2015-07-18
The aim of this work is to design and study a Balancing Domain Decomposition by Constraints (BDDC) solver for the nonlinear elasticity system modeling the mechanical deformation of cardiac tissue. The contraction–relaxation process in the myocardium is induced by the generation and spread of the bioelectrical excitation throughout the tissue and it is mathematically described by the coupling of cardiac electro-mechanical models consisting of systems of partial and ordinary differential equations. In this study, the discretization of the electro-mechanical models is performed by Q1 finite elements in space and semi-implicit finite difference schemes in time, leading to the solution of a large-scale linear system for the bioelectrical potentials and a nonlinear system for the mechanical deformation at each time step of the simulation. The parallel mechanical solver proposed in this paper consists in solving the nonlinear system with a Newton-Krylov-BDDC method, based on the parallel solution of local mechanical problems and a coarse problem for the so-called primal unknowns. Three-dimensional parallel numerical tests on different machines show that the proposed parallel solver is scalable in the number of subdomains, quasi-optimal in the ratio of subdomain to mesh sizes, and robust with respect to tissue anisotropy.
Quasi-Newton Exploration of Implicitly Constrained Manifolds
Tang, Chengcheng
2011-08-01
A family of methods for the efficient update of second order approximations of a constraint manifold is proposed in this thesis. The concept of such a constraint manifold corresponds to an abstract space prescribed by implicit nonlinear constraints, which can be a set of objects satisfying certain desired properties. This concept has a variety of applications, and it has been successfully introduced to fabrication-aware architectural design as a shape space consisting of all the implementable designs. The local approximation of such a manifold can be first order, in the tangent space, or second order, in the osculating surface, with higher precision. For a nonlinearly constrained manifold with rather high dimension and codimension, the computation of second order approximants (osculants) is time consuming. In this thesis, a type of so-called quasi-Newton manifold exploration methods which approximate the new osculants by updating the ones of a neighbor point by 1st-order information is introduced. The procedures are discussed in detail and the examples implemented to visually verify the methods are illustrated.
HARPS3 for a roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope
Thompson, Samantha J.; Queloz, Didier; Baraffe, Isabelle; Brake, Martyn; Dolgopolov, Andrey; Fisher, Martin; Fleury, Michel; Geelhoed, Joost; Hall, Richard; González Hernández, Jonay I.; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramón; Naylor, Tim; Pepe, Francesco; Piskunov, Nikolai; Rebolo, Rafael; Sander, Louis; Ségransan, Damien; Seneta, Eugene; Sing, David; Snellen, Ignas; Snik, Frans; Spronck, Julien; Stempels, Eric; Sun, Xiaowei; Santana Tschudi, Samuel; Young, John
2016-08-01
We present a description of a new instrument development, HARPS3, planned to be installed on an upgraded and roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope by end-2018. HARPS3 will be a high resolution (R≃115,000) echelle spectrograph with a wavelength range from 380-690 nm. It is being built as part of the Terra Hunting Experiment - a future 10- year radial velocity measurement programme to discover Earth-like exoplanets. The instrument design is based on the successful HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6m ESO telescope and HARPS-N on the TNG telescope. The main changes to the design in HARPS3 will be: a customised fibre adapter at the Cassegrain focus providing a stabilised beam feed and on-sky fibre diameter ≍1:4 arcsec, the implementation of a new continuous ow cryostat to keep the CCD temperature very stable, detailed characterisation of the HARPS3 CCD to map the effective pixel positions and thus provide an improved accuracy wavelength solution, an optimised integrated polarimeter and the instrument integrated into a robotic operation. The robotic operation will optimise our programme which requires our target stars to be measured on a nightly basis. We present an overview of the entire project, including a description of our anticipated robotic operation.
Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert Nourgaliev; Mark Christon; J. Bakosi
2012-09-01
The purpose of the present document is to formulate Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov algorithm for approximate projection method used in Hydra-TH code. Hydra-TH is developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under the auspices of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light-Water Reactors (CASL) for thermal-hydraulics applications ranging from grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) to multiphase flow subcooled boiling. Currently, Hydra-TH is based on the semi-implicit projection method, which provides an excellent platform for simulation of transient single-phase thermalhydraulics problems. This algorithm however is not efficient when applied for very slow or steady-state problems, as well as for highly nonlinear multiphase problems relevant to nuclear reactor thermalhydraulics with boiling and condensation. These applications require fully-implicit tightly-coupling algorithms. The major technical contribution of the present report is the formulation of fully-implicit projection algorithm which will fulfill this purpose. This includes the definition of non-linear residuals used for GMRES-based linear iterations, as well as physics-based preconditioning techniques.
Solving Cocoa Pod Sigmoid Growth Model with Newton Raphson Method
Chang, Albert Ling Sheng; Maisin, Navies
Cocoa pod growth modelling are useful in crop management, pest and disease management and yield forecasting. Recently, the Beta Growth Function has been used to determine the pod growth model due to its unique for the plant organ growth which is zero growth rate at both the start and end of a precisely defined growth period. Specific pod size (7cm to 10cm in length) is useful in cocoa pod borer (CPB) management for pod sleeving or pesticide spraying. The Beta Growth Function is well-fitted to the pods growth data of four different cocoa clones under non-linear function with time (t) as its independent variable which measured pod length and diameter weekly started at 8 weeks after fertilization occur until pods ripen. However, the same pod length among the clones did not indicate the same pod age since the morphological characteristics for cocoa pods vary among the clones. Depending on pod size for all the clones as guideline in CPB management did not give information on pod age, therefore it is important to study the pod age at specific pod sizes on different clones. Hence, Newton Raphson method is used to solve the non-linear equation of the Beta Growth Function of four different group of cocoa pod at specific pod size.
Milgrom's revision of cosmic dynamics: Amending Newton's laws or Keplers?
Felten, J. E.
1983-01-01
Milgrom's recent revision of Newtonian dynamics was introduced to eliminate the inference that large quantities of invisible mass exist in galaxies. Simple examples show that a Milgrom acceleration, in the form presented so far, imply other far-reaching changes in dynamics. The momentum of an isolated system is not conserved, and the usual theorem for center-of-mass motion of any system does not hold. Naive applications require extreme caution. The model fails to provide a complete description of particle dynamics and should be thought of as a revision of Kepler's laws rather than Newton's. The Milgrom acceleration also implies fundamental changes in cosmology. A quasi-Newtonian calculation adapted from Newtonian cosmology suggests that a Milgrom universe will recollapse even if the classical closure parameter theta is less than 1. The solution, however, fails to satisfy the cosmological principle. Reasons for the breakdown of this calculation are examined. A theory of gravitation needed before the behavior of a Milgrom universe can be predicted.
Unsteady Newton-Busemann flow theory. I - Airfoils
Hui, W. H.; Tobak, M.
1981-01-01
Newtonian flow theory for unsteady flow at very high Mach numbers is completed by the addition of a centrifugal force correction to the impact pressures. The correction term is the unsteady counterpart of Busemann's centrifugal force correction to impact pressures in steady flow. For airfoils of arbitary shape, exact formulas for the unsteady pressure and stiffness and damping-in-pitch derivatives are obtained in closed form, which require only numerical quadratures of terms involving the airfoil shape. They are applicable to airfoils of arbitrary thickness having sharp or blunt leading edges. For wedges and thin airfoils these formulas are greatly simplified, and it is proved that the pitching motions of thin airfoils of convex shape and of wedges of arbitrary thickness are always dynamically stable according to Newton-Busemann theory. Leading-edge bluntness is shown to have a favorable effect on the dynamic stability; on the other hand, airfoils of concave shape tend toward dynamic instability over a range of axis positions if the surface curvature exceeds a certain limit. As a byproduct, it is also shown that a pressure formula recently given by Barron and Mandl for unsteady Newtonian flow over a pitching power-law shaped airfoil is erroneous and that their conclusion regarding the effect of pivot position on the dynamic stability is misleading.
Milgrom's revision of Newton's laws - Dynamical and cosmological consequences
Felten, J. E.
1984-01-01
Milgrom's (1983) recent revision of Newtonian dynamics was introduced to eliminate the inference that large quantities of invisible mass exist in galaxies. It is shown by simple examples that a Milgrom acceleration, in the form presented so far, implies other far-reaching changes in dynamics. The momentum of an isolated system is not conserved, and the usual theorem for center-of-mass motion of any system does not hold. Naive applications require extreme caution. The model fails to provide a complete description of particle dynamics and should be thought of as a revision of Kepler's laws rather than Newton's. The Milgrom acceleration also implies fundamental changes in cosmology. A quasi-Newtonian calculation adapted from Newtonian cosmology suggests that a 'Milgrom universe' will recollapse even if the classical closure parameter Omega is much less than unity. The solution, however, fails to satisfy the cosmological principle. Reasons for the breakdown of this calculation are examined. A new theory of gravitation will be needed before the behavior of a Milgrom universe can be predicted.
A preconditioned inexact newton method for nonlinear sparse electromagnetic imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2015-03-01
A nonlinear inversion scheme for the electromagnetic microwave imaging of domains with sparse content is proposed. Scattering equations are constructed using a contrast-source (CS) formulation. The proposed method uses an inexact Newton (IN) scheme to tackle the nonlinearity of these equations. At every IN iteration, a system of equations, which involves the Frechet derivative (FD) matrix of the CS operator, is solved for the IN step. A sparsity constraint is enforced on the solution via thresholded Landweber iterations, and the convergence is significantly increased using a preconditioner that levels the FD matrix\\'s singular values associated with contrast and equivalent currents. To increase the accuracy, the weight of the regularization\\'s penalty term is reduced during the IN iterations consistently with the scheme\\'s quadratic convergence. At the end of each IN iteration, an additional thresholding, which removes small \\'ripples\\' that are produced by the IN step, is applied to maintain the solution\\'s sparsity. Numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method in recovering sparse and discontinuous dielectric profiles with high contrast values.
A Catalog of Galaxy Clusters Observed by XMM-Newton
Snowden, S. L.; Mushotzky, R. M.; Kuntz, K. D.; Davis, David S.
2007-01-01
Images and the radial profiles of the temperature, abundance, and brightness for 70 clusters of galaxies observed by XMM-Newton are presented along with a detailed discussion of the data reduction and analysis methods, including background modeling, which were used in the processing. Proper consideration of the various background components is vital to extend the reliable determination of cluster parameters to the largest possible cluster radii. The various components of the background including the quiescent particle background, cosmic diffuse emission, soft proton contamination, and solar wind charge exchange emission are discussed along with suggested means of their identification, filtering, and/or their modeling and subtraction. Every component is spectrally variable, sometimes significantly so, and all components except the cosmic background are temporally variable as well. The distributions of the events over the FOV vary between the components, and some distributions vary with energy. The scientific results from observations of low surface brightness objects and the diffuse background itself can be strongly affected by these background components and therefore great care should be taken in their consideration.
XMM-Newton Observations of Four Millisecond Pulsars
Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.
2005-01-01
I present an analysis of the XMM-Newton observations of four millisecond pulsars, J0437-4715, J2124-3358, J1024-0719, and J0034-0534. The new data provide strong evidence of thermal emission in the X-ray flux detected from the first three objects. This thermal component is best interpreted as radiation from pulsar polar caps covered with a nonmagnetic hydrogen atmosphere. A nonthermal power-law component, dominating at energies E greater than or equal to 3 keV, can also be present in the detected X-ray emission. For PSR J0437-4715, the timing analysis reveals that the shape and pulsed fraction of the pulsar light curves are energy dependent. This, together with the results obtained from the phase-resolved spectroscopy, supports the two-component (thermal plus nonthermal) interpretation of the pulsar's X-ray radiation. Highly significant pulsations have been found in the X-ray flux of PSRs 52124-3358 and 51024-0719. For PSR 50034-0534, a possible X-ray counterpart of the radio pulsar has been suggested. The inferred properties of the detected thermal emission are compared with predictions of radio pulsar models.
First Observation of Jupiter by XMM-Newton
Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Ramsay, G.; Rodriquez, P.; Soria, R.; Waite, J. H., Jr.
2004-01-01
We present the first X-ray observation of Jupiter by XMM-Newton. Images taken with the EPIC cameras show prominent emission, essentially all confined to the 0.2-2.0 keV band, from the planet s auroral spots; their spectra can be modelled with a combination of unresolved emission lines of highly ionised oxygen (OW and O W) , and a pseudo-continuum which may also be due to the superposition of many weak lines. A 2.8 enhancement in the RGS spectrum at 21-22 A (-0.57 keV) is consistent with an O W identification. Our spectral analysis supports the hypothesis that Jupiter s auroral emissions originate from the capture and acceleration of solar wind ions in the planet s magnetosphere, followed by X-ray production by charge exchange. The X-ray flux of the North spot is modulated at Jupiter s rotation period. We do not detect evidence for the -45 min X-ray oscillations observed by C W r u more than two years earlier. Emission from the equatorial regions of the planet s disk is also observed. Its spectrum is consistent with that of scattered solar X-rays.
XMM-Newton X-Ray Observation of Jupiter
Waite, J. Hunter
2005-01-01
Soft X-ray emission has been observed from the disk of both Jupiter and Saturn as well as from the auroral regions of these planets. The low-latitude disk emission as observed by ROSAT, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton appears to be uniformly distributed across the disk and to be correlated with solar activity. These characteristics suggest that the disk x-rays are produced by: (1) the elastic scattering of solar X-rays by atmospheric neutrals and (2) the absorption of solar X-rays in the carbon K-shell followed by fluorescent emission. The carbon atoms are found in methane molecules located below the homopause. In this paper we present the results of calculations of the scattering albedo for soft x-rays. We also show the calculated x-ray intensity for a range of atmospheric abundances for Jupiter and Saturn and for a number of solar irradiance spectra. The model calculations are compared with recent x-ray observations of Jupiter and Saturn. We conclude that the emission of soft x-rays from the disks of Jupiter and Saturn can be largely explained by the scattering and fluorescence of soft x-rays. We suggest that measured x-ray intensities from the disk regions of Jupiter
A numerical study of the Schroedinger-Newton equations
Harrison, R I
2001-01-01
and added perturbations oscillate at frequencies determined by the linear perturbation theory. The higher states are shown to be unstable, emitting scatter and leaving a rescaled ground state. The rate at which they decay is controlled by the complex eigenvalues of the linear perturbation. Next we consider adding another dimension in two different ways: by considering the axisymmetric case and the 2-D equations. The stationary solutions are found. We modify the evolution method and find that the higher states are unstable. In 2-D case we consider rigidly rotating solutions and show they exist and are unstable. The Schroedinger-Newton (S-N) equations were proposed by Penrose [18] as a model for gravitational collapse of the wave-function. The potential in the Schroedinger equation is the gravity due to the density of vertical bar psi vertical bar sup 2 , where psi is the wave-function. As with normal Quantum Mechanics the probability, momentum and angular momentum are conserved. We first consider the spherical...
XMM-Newton studies of Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Ambrosino, William; Guinan, E. F.; Maggi, Pierre; Haberl, Frank
2014-01-01
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are leading contributors to the energy balance, chemical enrichment, and mixing of the interstellar medium (ISM). The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) hosts a large sample of SNRs. The close proximity of the LMC (~50 kpc), combined with moderate foreground ISM absorption, makes it an ideal target for studying these significant objects. In the course of an X-ray survey of the LMC, the space-borne observatory XMM-Newton discovered several new SNRs. A sample of previously known SNRs was observed for the first time with modern X-ray instruments as well. We used these new data to perform X-ray imaging and spectral analyses. We measure properties of the sample such as temperature, composition, and age. Based on the local stellar populations, we also discuss the nature of their parent supernovae. This research is supported by the Villanova Undergraduate Research Fellows (VURF), the Max Planck Society (MPG), and the DAAD-RISE scholarship program. We also acknowledge support from NSF/RUI Grant AST 1009903 to Villanova University.
Measurements of Newton's gravitational constant and the length of day
Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Trimble, V.; Feldman, M. R.
2015-04-01
About a dozen measurements of Newton's gravitational constant, G, since 1962 have yielded values that differ by far more than their reported random plus systematic errors. We find that these values for G are oscillatory in nature, with a period of P = 5.899 +/- 0.062 \\text{yr} , an amplitude of (1.619 +/- 0.103) × 10-14 \\text{m}3 \\text{kg}-1 \\text{s}-2 , and mean-value crossings in 1994 and 1997. However, we do not suggest that G is actually varying by this much, this quickly, but instead that something in the measurement process varies. Of other recently reported results, to the best of our knowledge, the only measurement with the same period and phase is the Length of Day (LOD —defined as a frequency measurement such that a positive increase in LOD values means slower Earth rotation rates and therefore longer days). The aforementioned period is also about half of a solar activity cycle, but the correlation is far less convincing. The 5.9 year periodic signal in LOD has previously been interpreted as due to fluid core motions and inner-core coupling. We report the G/LOD correlation, whose statistical significance is 0.99764 assuming no difference in phase, without claiming to have any satisfactory explanation for it. Least unlikely, perhaps, are currents in the Earth's fluid core that change both its moment of inertia (affecting LOD) and the circumstances in which the Earth-based experiments measure G. In this case, there might be correlations with terrestrial-magnetic-field measurements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julian Chaur González
2017-12-01
base their forms mainly on simple geometric volumes. The project that concerns us will be the Isaac Newton cenotaph, a giant axial symmetric vault with a very small thickness in some points. With the use of the Maple calculation program, a mathematical analysis program combined with CAD / CAM technology based on the existing drawings of this project, we will check the geometric and structural stability of this vault. With this we will show the possibilities of application of the geometric calculation programs to historical and theoretical structural models, as a much more visible and didactic tool than the usual numerical calculations. The visualization of the efforts that result in the different keystones of the vault, together with the understanding and verification of the axial symmetrical functioning of the model, will be decisive when understanding the functioning of this structural system and will resolve the main doubt that concerns us. Could Newton's cenotaph be built? Is it geometrically and materially speaking a stable construction?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suci Furwati
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Students who have good conceptual acquisition will be able to represent the concept by using multi representation. This study aims to determine the improvement of students' understanding of the concept of Newton's Law material, and the quality of representation used in solving problems on Newton's Law material. The results showed that the concept acquisition of students increased from the average of 35.32 to 78.97 with an effect size of 2.66 (strong and N-gain of 0.68 (medium. The quality of each type of student representation also increased from level 1 and level 2 up to level 3. Key Words: concept aquisition, represetation quality, multi representation learning, Newton’s Law Abstrak: Siswa yang memiliki penguasaan konsep yang baik akan mampu merepresentasikan konsep dengan menggunakan multi representasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan pemahaman konsep siswa SMP pada materi Hukum Newton, dan kualitas representasi yang digunakan dalam menyelesaikan masalah pada materi Hukum Newton. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penguasaan konsep siswa meningkat dari rata-rata 35,32 menjadi 78,97 dengan effect size sebesar 2,66 (kuat dan N-gain sebesar 0,68 (sedang. Kualitas tiap jenis representasi siswa juga mengalami peningkatan dari level 1 dan level 2 naik menjadi level 3. Kata kunci: hukum Newton, kualitas representasi, pemahaman konsep, pembelajaran multi representasi
The Newtonian Moment - Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture
Feingold, Mordechai
2004-12-01
Isaac Newton is a legendary figure whose mythical dimension threatens to overshadow the actual man. The story of the apple falling from the tree may or may not be true, but Isaac Newton's revolutionary discoveries and their importance to the Enlightenment era and beyond are undeniable. The Newtonian Moment , a companion volume to a forthcoming exhibition by the New York Public Library, investigates the effect that Newton's theories and discoveries had, not only on the growth of science, but also on the very shape of modern culture and thought. Newton's scientific work at Cambridge was groundbreaking. From his optical experiments with prisms during the 1660s to the publication of both Principia (1687) and Opticks (1704), Newton's achievements were widely disseminated, inciting tremendous interest and excitement. Newtonianism developed into a worldview marked by many tensions: between modernity and the old guard, between the humanities and science, and the public battles between great minds. The Newtonian Moment illuminates the many facets of his colossal accomplishments, as well as the debates over the kind of knowledge that his accomplishments engendered. The book contributes to a greater understanding of the world today by offering a panoramic view of the profound impact of Newtonianism on the science, literature, art, and religion of the Enlightenment. Copiously illustrated with items drawn from the collections of the New York Public Library as well as numerous other libraries and museums, The Newtonian Moment enlightens its audience with a guided and in-depth look at the man, his world, and his enduring legacy.
XMM-Newton Observation of the Intermediate Polar XY Ari
Zengin Camurdan, Dicle; Balman, Solen; Burwitz, Vadim
2016-07-01
XY Ari is a rare Intermediate Polar which shows deep X-ray eclipses and has no optical counterpart due to the high visual extinction. We present results from a detailed analysis of an unpublished archival observation using XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and MOS data covering to more than five orbital periods in a quiescent state of XY Ari. The X-ray orbital modulation and spin pulse variations were investigated in 0.2-10 keV energy band and also in different energy bands (i.e. 0.3-1.5, 1.6-3.0, 3.1-10 keV). The EPIC light curves folded at the spin phases show a double peak profile as expected from double pole accretion. However, a detailed analysis showed that the relative peak heights of the spin profiles, corresponding to different time intervals, vary during the entire observation which may be a result of small accretion rate differences or variable scattering from the weaker pole. We modeled the time-averaged spectrum with single- and multi-temperature optically thin thermal plasma emission (e.g. MEKAL APEC/VAPEC, CEVMKL, MKCFLOW/VMKCFLOW) in XSPEC to derive spectral parameters. The simultaneously fitted EPIC spectra with a double MEKALs model yield plasma temperatures of kT_{MEKAL}=39-44 keV and kT_{MEKAL}=0.3-2.21 keV with a solar metal abundance of 0.52-71 (for higher MEKAL temperature). We find an intrinsic, partial covering absorption about N _{H}=2.9-5.5x10 ^{22} cm ^{-2}. In addition, Gaussian lines at the Fe line energies 6.4 and 6.7 keV, were also included in the fit. We will discuss different model fits and the accretion geometry of the system. The X-ray luminosity of the source is ˜2x10 ^{32} erg/sec in the 0.2-10.0 keV range assuming a 270 pc distance.
XMM-Newton Observations of Solar Wind Charge Exchange Emission
Snowden, S. L.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.
2004-01-01
We present an XMM-Newton spectrum of diffuse X-ray emission from within the solar system. The spectrum is dominated by O VII and O VIII lines at 0.57 keV and 0.65 keV, O VIII (and possibly Fe XVII) lines at approximately 0.8 keV, Ne IX lines at approximately 0.92 keV, and Mg XI lines at approximately 1.35 keV. This spectrum is consistent with what is expected from charge exchange emission between the highly ionized solar wind and either interstellar neutrals in the heliosphere or material from Earth's exosphere. The emission is clearly seen as a low-energy ( E less than 1.5 keV) spectral enhancement in one of a series of observations of the Hubble Deep Field North. The X-ray enhancement is concurrent with an enhancement in the solar wind measured by the ACE satellite. The solar wind enhancement reaches a flux level an order of magnitude more intense than typical fluxes at 1 AU, and has ion ratios with significantly enhanced higher ionization states. Whereas observations of the solar wind plasma made at a single point reflect only local conditions which may only be representative of solar wind properties with spatial scales ranging from less than half of an Earth radii (approximately 10 s) to 100 Earth radii, X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange are remote sensing measurements which may provide observations which are significantly more global in character. Besides being of interest in its own right for studies of the solar system, this emission can have significant consequences for observations of more cosmological objects. It can provide emission lines at zero redshift which are of particular interest (e.g., O VII and O VIII) in studies of diffuse thermal emission, and which can therefore act as contamination in objects which cover the entire detector field of view. We propose the use of solar wind monitoring data, such as from the ACE and Wind spacecraft, as a diagnostic to screen for such possibilities.
Stirring Astronomy into Theology: Sir Isaac Newton on the Date of the Passion of Christ
Belenkiy, Ari
2008-01-01
It is known that Sir Isaac Newton suggested a date for the Passion of Christ in the posthumously published "Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John" (1733). What was not known is that the first attempts to find that date were made during the early period of his life. The Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem contains two undated drafts in Latin under the same title, "Rules for the Determination of Easter", grouped as Yahuda MS 24E. The earlier draft contains multiple references to the virtually forgotten "De Annis Christi" (1649), written by Villum Lange, the 17th century Danish astronomer and theologian, who might have been Newton's first mentor on the Jewish calendar tradition. The second draft shows not only Newton's close acquaintance with Maimonides' theory of first lunar visibility, but also his attempt to simplify the latter's criteria by introducing different, more practical parameters. These "astronomical exercises", announced in a 1673 book, were likel...
The transformation of two-tier test into four-tier test on Newton's laws concepts
Fratiwi, Nuzulira Janeusse; Kaniawati, Ida; Suhendi, Endi; Suyana, Iyon; Samsudin, Achmad
2017-05-01
This research is based on other forms of diagnostic tests in the format of two-tier test about the concept of Newton's Laws that the development still not yet well. Therefore, must be done a research to transform two-tier test into the four-tier test that refers to Kaltakci criteria. To achieve the purpose, the researchers used the 4D model (Defining, Designing, Developing, and Disseminating) as a method of research. The participants are 25 students at one of the senior high schools in Bandung. The result is the development of two-tier test format intothe four-tier test formatabout Newton's Laws concept. At the disseminating, there are obtained the category of students who scientific knowledge, misconceptions, and errors of the Newton's Laws concepts. The research will be the reference or preliminary research to conduct further research.
Einstein's equations from Einstein's inertial motion and Newton's law for relative acceleration
Schmid, Christoph
2016-01-01
We show that Einstein's $R^{\\hat{0} \\hat{0}}$ equation for nonrelativistic matter and strong gravitational fields is identical with Newton's equation for relative radial acceleration of neighbouring freefalling particles, spherically averaged. These laws are explicitely identical with primary observer's (1) space-time slicing by radial 4-geodesics, (2) radially parallel Local Ortho-Normal Bases, LONBs, (3) Riemann normal 3-coordinates. Hats on indices denote LONBs. General relativity follows from Newton's law of relative acceleration, Einstein's inertial motion, Lorentz covariance, and energy-momentum conservation combined with Bianchi identity. The gravitational field equation of Newton-Gauss and Einstein's $R^{\\hat{0} \\hat{0}}$ equation are identical and linear in gravitational field for an inertial primary observer.--- Einstein's equivalence between fictitious forces and gravitational forces is formulated as equivalence theorem in the equations of motion. With this, the gravitational field equation of 19th...
A novel method of Newton iteration-based interval analysis for multidisciplinary systems
Wang, Lei; Xiong, Chuang; Wang, RuiXing; Wang, XiaoJun; Wu, Di
2017-09-01
A Newton iteration-based interval uncertainty analysis method (NI-IUAM) is proposed to analyze the propagating effect of interval uncertainty in multidisciplinary systems. NI-IUAM decomposes one multidisciplinary system into single disciplines and utilizes a Newton iteration equation to obtain the upper and lower bounds of coupled state variables at each iterative step. NI-IUAM only needs to determine the bounds of uncertain parameters and does not require specific distribution formats. In this way, NI-IUAM may greatly reduce the necessity for raw data. In addition, NI-IUAM can accelerate the convergence process as a result of the super-linear convergence of Newton iteration. The applicability of the proposed method is discussed, in particular that solutions obtained in each discipline must be compatible in multidisciplinary systems. The validity and efficiency of NI-IUAM is demonstrated by both numerical and engineering examples.
Newton, Goethe and the process of perception: an approach to design
Platts, Jim
2006-06-01
Whereas Newton traced a beam of white light passing through a prism and fanning out into the colours of the rainbow as it was refracted, Goethe looked through a prism and was concerned with understanding what his eye subjectively saw. He created a sequence of experiments which produced what appeared to be anomalies in Newton's theory. What he was carefully illustrating concerns limitations accepted when following a scientifically objective approach. Newton was concerned with the description of 'facts' derived from the analysis of observations. Goethe was concerned with the synthesis of meaning. He then went on to describe subjective techniques for training 'the mind's eye' to work efficiently in the subjective world of the imagination. Derided as 'not science', what he was actually describing is the skill which is central to creative design.
Newton and the counterfeiter the unknown detective career of the world's greatest scientist
Levenson, Thomas
2010-01-01
In 1695, Isaac Newton-already renowned as the greatest mind of his age-made a surprising career change. He left quiet Cambridge, where he had lived for thirty years and made his earth-shattering discoveries, and moved to London to take up the post of Warden of His Majesty's Mint. Newton was preceded to the city by a genius of another kind, the budding criminal William Chaloner. Thanks to his preternatural skills as a counterfeiter, Chaloner was rapidly rising in London's highly competitive underworld, at a time when organized law enforcement was all but unknown and money in the modern sense was just coming into being. Then he crossed paths with the formidable new warden. In the courts and streets of London-and amid the tremors of a world being transformed by the ideas Newton himself had set in motion-the two played out an epic game of cat and mouse.
The role of competing knowledge structures in undermining learning: Newton's second and third laws
Low, David J.; Wilson, Kate F.
2017-01-01
We investigate the development of student understanding of Newton's laws using a pre-instruction test (the Force Concept Inventory), followed by a series of post-instruction tests and interviews. While some students' somewhat naive, pre-existing models of Newton's third law are largely eliminated following a semester of teaching, we find that a particular inconsistent model is highly resilient to, and may even be strengthened by, instruction. If test items contain words that cue students to think of Newton's second law, then students are more likely to apply a "net force" approach to solving problems, even if it is inappropriate to do so. Additional instruction, reinforcing physical concepts in multiple settings and from multiple sources, appears to help students develop a more connected and consistent level of understanding. We recommend explicitly encouraging students to check their work for consistency with physical principles, along with the standard checks for dimensionality and order of magnitude, to encourage reflective and rigorous problem solving.
Application of Newton's method to the postbuckling of rings under pressure loadings
Thurston, Gaylen A.
1989-01-01
The postbuckling response of circular rings (or long cylinders) is examined. The rings are subjected to four types of external pressure loadings; each type of pressure is defined by its magnitude and direction at points on the buckled ring. Newton's method is applied to the nonlinear differential equations of the exact inextensional theory for the ring problem. A zeroth approximation for the solution of the nonlinear equations, based on the mode shape corresponding to the first buckling pressure, is derived in closed form for each of the four types of pressure. The zeroth approximation is used to start the iteration cycle in Newton's method to compute numerical solutions of the nonlinear equations. The zeroth approximations for the postbuckling pressure-deflection curves are compared with the converged solutions from Newton's method and with similar results reported in the literature.
Delivery of Colloid Micro-Newton Thrusters for the Space Technology 7 Mission
Ziemer, John K.; Randolph, Thomas M.; Franklin, Garth W.; Hruby, Vlad; Spence, Douglas; Demmons, Nathaniel; Roy, Thomas; Ehrbar, Eric; Zwahlen, Jurg; Martin, Roy;
2008-01-01
Two flight-qualified clusters of four Colloid Micro-Newton Thruster (CMNT) systems have been delivered to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The clusters will provide precise spacecraft control for the drag-free technology demonstration mission, Space Technology 7 (ST7). The ST7 mission is sponsored by the NASA New Millennium Program and will demonstrate precision formation flying technologies for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The ST7 disturbance reduction system (DRS) will be on the ESA LISA Pathfinder spacecraft using the European gravitational reference sensor (GRS) as part of the ESA LISA Technology Package (LTP). Developed by Busek Co. Inc., with support from JPL in design and testing, the CMNT has been developed over the last six years into a flight-ready and flight-qualified microthruster system, the first of its kind. Recent flight-unit qualification tests have included vibration and thermal vacuum environmental testing, as well as performance verification and acceptance tests. All tests have been completed successfully prior to delivery to JPL. Delivery of the first flight unit occurred in February of 2008 with the second unit following in May of 2008. Since arrival at JPL, the units have successfully passed through mass distribution, magnetic, and EMI/EMC measurements and tests as part of the integration and test (I&T) activities including the integrated avionics unit (IAU). Flight software sequences have been tested and validated with the full flight DRS instrument successfully to the extent possible in ground testing, including full functional and 72 hour autonomous operations tests. Delivery of the cluster assemblies along with the IAU to ESA for integration into the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft is planned for the summer of 2008 with a planned launch and flight demonstration in late 2010.
Convergence and Applications of a Gossip-Based Gauss-Newton Algorithm
Li, Xiao; Scaglione, Anna
2013-11-01
The Gauss-Newton algorithm is a popular and efficient centralized method for solving non-linear least squares problems. In this paper, we propose a multi-agent distributed version of this algorithm, named Gossip-based Gauss-Newton (GGN) algorithm, which can be applied in general problems with non-convex objectives. Furthermore, we analyze and present sufficient conditions for its convergence and show numerically that the GGN algorithm achieves performance comparable to the centralized algorithm, with graceful degradation in case of network failures. More importantly, the GGN algorithm provides significant performance gains compared to other distributed first order methods.
Chandra and XMM–Newton Observations of H2O Maser Galaxy Mrk ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
For its relative lower resolution (∼ 6 ), XMM–Newton. 16:20.0. 8:20.0. 19.0. 18.0 ... can not resolve these two nucleus. It also shows the extended ... Chandra and XMM–Newton Observations. 181. 10. 0.01. 2×10 3. 5×10 3. 0.02 normaliz ed counts s. 1 ke. V. 1. 0.5. 1. 1.5. 2. 2.5. 0. 5×10 3. 0.01 residuals. Energy (keV). (c). 10.
¿Fue Darwin el Newton de la brizna de hierba?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustavo Caponi
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Ratifying Haeckel and contradicting Kant’s negative prophesy, in this paper I try to show that Darwin was, really, the Newton of the blade of grass. Darwin showed how the configurations according to goals of the living beings, could be explained from a naturalistic point of view, without having to postulate the existence of an intentional agent that had arranged or prearranged then. This achievement, nevertheless, was obtained by a way that Kant could not foresee and that Haeckel could not understand: Darwin came there showing that there was more natural science than that Newton, Kant and Haeckel could conceive.
MPPT for Photovoltaic Modules via Newton-Like Extremum Seeking Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramon Leyva
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The paper adapts the Newton-like Extremum-Seeking Control technique to extract the maximum power from photovoltaic panels. This technique uses the gradient and Hessian of the panel characteristic in order to approximate the operating point to its optimum. The paper describes in detail the gradient and Hessian estimations carried out by means of sinusoidal dithering signals. Furthermore, we compare the proposed technique with the common Extremum Seeking Control that only uses the gradient. The comparison is done by means of PSIM simulations and it shows the different transient behaviors and the faster response of the Newton-like Extremum-Seeking Control solution.
Producción de entropía y ley de enfriamiento de newton
Barragán, Daniel
2010-01-01
Para un sistema con una fuente interna de generación de calor se analizan, en el marco de la termodinámica de los procesos irreversibles, las ecuaciones evolutivas que describen la transferencia de calor según la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. A partir del balance de flujo de entropía se muestra que la generación de entropía no es mínima en el estado estacionario descrito por la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. Igualmente, se discute cómo realizar el balance de flujos en el sistema, su conex...
Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and Nustar
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zoghbi, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C.
2014-01-01
MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using...... Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above...
Planck intermediate results I. Further validation of new Planck clusters with XMM-Newton
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aghanim, N.; Collaboration, Planck; Arnaud, M.
2012-01-01
We present further results from the ongoing XMM-Newton validation follow-up of Planck cluster candidates, detailing X-ray observations of eleven candidates detected at a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.5 ... of candidates previously confirmed with XMM-Newton. The X-ray and optical redshifts for a total of 20 clusters are found to be in excellent agreement. We also show that useful lower limits can be put on cluster redshifts using X-ray data only via the use of the Y-X vs. Y-SZ and X-ray flux F-X vs. Y-SZ relations....
Analysis of XMM-Newton Data from Extended Sources and the Diffuse X-Ray Background
Snowden, Steven
2011-01-01
Reduction of X-ray data from extended objects and the diffuse background is a complicated process that requires attention to the details of the instrumental response as well as an understanding of the multiple background components. We present methods and software that we have developed to reduce data from XMM-Newton EPIC imaging observations for both the MOS and PN instruments. The software has now been included in the Science Analysis System (SAS) package available through the XMM-Newton Science Operations Center (SOC).
Torsional Newton-Cartan gravity from the large c expansion of general relativity
Van den Bleeken, Dieter
2017-09-01
We revisit the manifestly covariant large c expansion of general relativity, c being the speed of light. Assuming the relativistic connection has no pole in c-2 , this expansion is known to reproduce Newton-Cartan gravity and a covariant version of post-Newtonian corrections to it. We show that relaxing this assumption leads to the inclusion of twistless torsion in the effective non-relativistic theory. We argue that the resulting twistless torsion Newton-Cartan theory is an effective description of a non-relativistic regime of general relativity that extends Newtonian physics by including strong gravitational time dilation.
Producción de entropía y ley de enfriamiento de Newton
Daniel Barragán
2009-01-01
Para un sistema con una fuente interna de generación de calor se analizan, en el marco de la termodinámica de los procesos irreversibles, las ecuaciones evolutivas que describen la transferencia de calor según la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. A partir del balance de flujo de entropía se muestra que la generación de entropía no es mínima en el estado estacionario descrito por la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. Igualmente, se discute cómo realizar el balance de flujos en el sistema, su conex...
Recovering galaxy cluster gas density profiles with XMM-Newton and Chandra
Bartalucci, I.; Arnaud, M.; Pratt, G. W.; Vikhlinin, A.; Pointecouteau, E.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Mazzotta, P.; Andrade-Santos, F.
2017-12-01
We examined the reconstruction of galaxy cluster radial density profiles obtained from Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations, using high quality data for a sample of twelve objects covering a range of morphologies and redshifts. By comparing the results obtained from the two observatories and by varying key aspects of the analysis procedure, we examined the impact of instrumental effects and of differences in the methodology used in the recovery of the density profiles. We find that the final density profile shape is particularly robust. We adapted the photon weighting vignetting correction method developed for XMM-Newton for use with Chandra data, and confirm that the resulting Chandra profiles are consistent with those corrected a posteriori for vignetting effects. Profiles obtained from direct deprojection and those derived using parametric models are consistent at the 1% level. At radii larger than 6″, the agreement between Chandra and XMM-Newton is better than 1%, confirming an excellent understanding of the XMM-Newton PSF. Furthermore, we find no significant energy dependence. The impact of the well-known offset between Chandra and XMM-Newton gas temperature determinations on the density profiles is found to be negligible. However, we find an overall normalisation offset in density profiles of the order of 2.5%, which is linked to absolute flux cross-calibration issues. As a final result, the weighted ratios of Chandra to XMM-Newton gas masses computed at R2500 and R500 are r = 1.03 ± 0.01 and r = 1.03 ± 0.03, respectively. Our study confirms that the radial density profiles are robustly recovered, and that any differences between Chandra and XMM-Newton can be constrained to the 2.5% level, regardless of the exact data analysis details. These encouraging results open the way for the true combination of X-ray observations of galaxy clusters, fully leveraging the high resolution of Chandra and the high throughput of XMM-Newton.
Stirring Astronomy into Theology: Sir Isaac Newton on the Date of the Passion of Christ
Belenkiy, Ari; Echagüe, Eduardo Vila
2007-08-01
It is known that Sir Isaac Newton suggested a date for the Passion of Christ in the posthumously published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733). [This fact was revived recently in Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 32, Sept 1991]. What was not known is that the first attempts to find that date were made during the early period of his life. The Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem contains two drafts in Latin, grouped as Yahuda MS 24E under the same title, Rules for the Determination of Easter, which cast some light on Newton's life in the late 1660s - early 1670s. The earlier draft contains multiple references to the virtually forgotten De Annis Christi (1649), written by Villem Lange, the 17th century Danish astronomer and theologian, who might have been Newton's first mentor on the Jewish calendar tradition. The second draft shows not only Newton's close acquaintance with Maimonides' theory of lunar visibility, but also his attempts to simplify the latter's criteria by introducing different parameters. These “astronomical exercises”, announced in a 1673 book, were intended to appear as an appendix to Nicholas Mercator's 1676 book. Both of Yahuda 24E's drafts carry an astronomical table with the solar and lunar positions for the years 30-37 AD, which Newton used to decide on the date of the Passion. The Ordinary Least Squares regression method sends a dubious message; applied to the table's lunar data, OLS strongly suggests a pre-Tychonic origin. The table shows little correlation with solar data coming from Ptolemy, al-Battani, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Philip van Lansbergen, Thomas Streete, John Flamsteed, or Newton's own 1702 lunar theory; however, its lunar positions display very high correlations with the Prutenic tables, which were based on Copernicus' De Revolutionibus. Surprisingly, the solar table comes from either 1651 Harmonicon Coeleste or 1669 Astronomia Britannica by
Gauld, Colin F.
2010-01-01
Newton's experiments into the resistance which fluids offer to moving bodies provide some insight into the way he related theory and experiment. His theory demonstrates a way of thought typical of 17th century physics and his experiments are simple enough to be replicated by present day students. Newton's investigations using pendulums were…
Mardis; Sibert
1998-02-01
Ab initio force field parameters are refined using modifications to Newton's method in which a figure of merit function is approximated as a Taylor Series truncated at second order. We investigate two versions of Newton's method: the Discrete Newton method where the Hessian is approximated by finite differences and the Gauss-Newton method where the Hessian is approximated as the product of first derivatives. The applicability of both rests on the capability of current ab initio methods to calculate quartic force fields that accurately reproduce experimental observables such as band centers and inertial constants. As examples, we calculate refined potential energy surfaces for CO2 and H2CO. We show that an algorithm depending solely on Newton's methods requires only a small number of iterations. Additionally, Newton-based methods provide a great deal of information about the sensitivity of the force field parameters to the observables being fit. We also demonstrate that the less computationally demanding Gauss-Newton method gives results similar to the less approximate Discrete Newton method. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. Copyright 1998Academic Press
XMM-Newton Survey of Globular Cluster Ultracompact Binaries
Chakrabarty, Deepto
2005-01-01
Our program consisted of an observation of a single source, 4U 0513-40, which we had previously identified as a candidate ultracompact binary (a system with an orbital period below 1 hour). Several other known or suspected ultracompact binaries have shown unusual elemental abundance ratios in their X-ray spectra. In this program, however, our observation found no unusual abundance ratios in the spectrum of 4U 0513-40. This result was included, along with results from a separate Chandra program, in a paper submitted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal.
XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the Carina nebula
Albacete Colombo, J. F.; Méndez, M.; Morrell, N. I.
2003-01-01
We use new XMM-Newton observations to perform a detailed X-ray analysis of the Carina nebula region in the 0.3-12 keV energy range. Our source detection yields 80 discrete X-ray sources, from which about 20 per cent seem not to have optical counterparts. To get an idea of the energy spectrum of
Newton Power Flow Methods for Unbalanced Three-Phase Distribution Networks
Sereeter, B.; Vuik, C.; Witteveen, C.
2017-01-01
Two mismatch functions (power or current) and three coordinates (polar, Cartesian andcomplex form) result in six versions of the Newton–Raphson method for the solution of powerflow problems. In this paper, five new versions of the Newton power flow method developed forsingle-phase problems in our
Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton
Jonker, P.G.; Kaastra, J.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070911134; Méndez, M.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.
2008-01-01
We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the
Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton
Kaastra, J.; Mendez, M.; In 't Zand, J. J. M.; Jonker, P.G.
We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agung Wahyu Nurcahyo
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the increase in problem-solving abilities Newton's laws of motion and students' perceptions of cooperative problem solving (CPS learning. Analysis of the data is based on the student's written answers to the five problems, the results of questionnaires and interviews. This study concluded that: (1 learning CPS make a strong impact (d-effect size = 1.81 to increase problem-solving ability of students Newton's laws of motion, (2 cooperation in the learning group CPS makes the problem easier to solve and misconceptions can be corrected. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah hukum gerak Newton, kesulitan yang dialami, dan persepsi mahasiswa terhadap pembelajaran cooperative problem solving (CPS. Analisa data didasarkan pada jawaban tertulis mahasiswa terhadap lima permasalahan, hasil angket dan wawancara. Penelitian ini berkesimpulan bahwa (1 pembelajaran CPS memberikan dampak yang kuat (d-effect size=1,81 terhadap peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah hukum gerak Newton mahasiswa dan (2 kerjasama kelompok dalam pembelajaran CPS membuat permasalahan lebih mudah dipecahkan dan miskonsepsi dapat diperbaiki.
Is classical mechanics based on Newton's laws or Eulers analytical equations?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.Iro
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In an example I illustrate how my picture of physics is enriched due to my frequent conversations with Reinhard Folk. The subject is: Who wrote down the basic equations of motion of classical mechanics for the first time? (To be sure, it was not Newton.
Revisiting the Mathematisation Thesis. Galileo, Descartes, Newton, and the Language of Nature
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kvasz, Ladislav
2016-01-01
Roč. 30, č. 4 (2016), s. 399-406 ISSN 0269-8595 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : mathematization of motion * Koyré * Galilei * Newton Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology
Groping Toward Linear Regression Analysis: Newton's Analysis of Hipparchus' Equinox Observations
Belenkiy, Ari
2008-01-01
In 1700, Newton, in designing a new universal calendar contained in the manuscripts known as Yahuda MS 24 from Jewish National and University Library at Jerusalem and analyzed in our recent article in Notes & Records Royal Society (59 (3), Sept 2005, pp. 223-54), attempted to compute the length of the tropical year using the ancient equinox observations reported by a famous Greek astronomer Hipparchus of Rhodes, ten in number. Though Newton had a very thin sample of data, he obtained a tropical year only a few seconds longer than the correct length. The reason lies in Newton's application of a technique similar to modern regression analysis. Actually he wrote down the first of the two so-called "normal equations" known from the Ordinary Least Squares method. Newton also had a vague understanding of qualitative variables. This paper concludes by discussing open historico-astronomical problems related to the inclination of the Earth's axis of rotation. In particular, ignorance about the long-range variation...
From standard monomial theory to semi-toric degenerations via Newton-Okounkov bodies
Fang, Xin; Littelmann, Peter
2017-01-01
The Hodge algebra structures on the homogeneous coordinate rings of Grassmann varieties provide semi-toric degenerations of these varieties. In this paper we construct these semi-toric degenerations using quasi-valuations and triangulations of Newton-Okounkov bodies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Fiorentino
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This contribution investigates a hidden and surely singular – but far from marginal – aspect of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century, in other words the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. First of all, this work analyzes the situation immediately before the advent of the fathers of the 17th Century Scientific Revolution like Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton, starting from the Council of Trent. This reconstruction aims to throw light on the particular way that Galileo and Newton intended to approach the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures with respect to the main tendencies of the Catholic Reformation of biblical hermeneutics. Their way is important both in itself and in relation to the Scientific Revolution. In itself because Galileo and Newton elaborate original theories that are not entirely in agreement with the predominant views and that are decidedly no less interesting than their pure scientific theories. In relation to the Scientific Revolution because the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures is addressed in an original fashion by both Galileo and Newton, also with the intent of facilitating the spread and approval of their own scientific theories in their respective socio-cultural environments. The primacy of nature is not manifested only in contrast to and outside the book of Scriptures, but conditions the Book of Scriptures, locating it within a precise cultural perspective and religious sense that are by no means contrary to Galileo and Newton’s views.
Newton's Investigation of Light and Color: Historical and Experimental Notes. Experiment No. 7.
Devons, Samuel
The life and work of Isaac Newton and his investigations of light and color are described in detail. Notes include preliminary observations of chromatic dispersion; dispersion by an equilateral prism; the "Experimentum Crucos" or the composite nature of white light; the nature of colored light and illumination; transmissions and reflections; and…
Devons, Samuel
This paper attempts to promote an understanding of physics through its history and replication of the oscillation experiments of Isaac Newton and Daniel Bernoulli from the 17th and 18th centuries. The experiments described can be treated at a level of sophistication to suit the interests and capabilities of the student. Reproductions in the…
Learning, Retention, and Forgetting of Newton's Third Law throughout University Physics
Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.; Dymek, Stephanie; Clark, Jessica; Sun, Yifei
2012-01-01
We present data from a between-student study on student response to questions on Newton's third law given in two introductory calculus-based physics classes (Mechanics and Electromagnetism) at a large northeastern university. Construction of a response curve reveals subtle dynamics in student learning not capturable by pretesting and post-testing.…
Changing the Order of Newton's Laws--Why & How the Third Law Should Be First
Stocklmayer, Sue; Rayner, John P.; Gore, Michael M.
2012-01-01
Newton's laws are difficult both for teachers and students at all levels. This is still the case despite a long history of critique of the laws as presented in the classroom. For example, more than 50 years ago Eisenbud and Weinstock proposed reformulations of the laws that put them on a sounder, more logically consistent base than is presented in…
The Effect of Group Work on Misconceptions of 9th Grade Students about Newton's Laws
Ergin, Serap
2016-01-01
In this study, the effect of group work and traditional method on 9th grade students' misconceptions about Newton Laws was investigated. The study was conducted in three classes in an Anatolian Vocational High School in Ankara/Turkey in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. Two of these classes were chosen as the experimental group and…
Q-Step methods for Newton-Jacobi operator equation | Uwasmusi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper considers the Newton-Jacobi operator equation for the solution of nonlinear systems of equations. Special attention is paid to the computational part of this method with particular reference to the q-step methods. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 8 2004: pp. 237-241 ...
Robert Newton Peck and Shaker Beliefs: A Day the Truth Would Die.
Sullivan, Michael
1997-01-01
Raises issues about the obligation of an author to depict ethnic or religious groups such as the Shakers in accurate terms. Takes issues with Robert Newton Peck's "A Day No Pigs Would Die," charging that it presents an almost libelous picture of the Shakers. Reviews Shaker history and culture. (TB)
Teaching Newton's Laws with the iPod Touch in Conceptual Physics
Kelly, Angela M.
2011-01-01
One of the greatest challenges in teaching physics is helping students achieve a conceptual understanding of Newton's laws. I find that students fresh from middle school can sometimes recite the laws verbatim ("An object in motion stays in motion..." and "For every action..."), but they rarely demonstrate a working knowledge of…
Introducing the Notion of Bare and Effective Mass via Newton's Second Law of Motion
Pinto, Marcus Benghi
2007-01-01
The concepts of bare and effective mass are widely used within modern physics. Their meaning is discussed in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses such as solid state physics, nuclear physics and quantum field theory. Here I discuss how these concepts may be introduced together with the discussion of Newton's second law of motion. The…
Experimentally Building a Qualitative Understanding of Newton's Second Law
Gates, Joshua
2014-01-01
Newton's second law is one of the cornerstones of the introductory physics curriculum, but it can still trouble a large number of students well after its introduction, hobbling their ability to apply the concept to problem solving and to related concepts, such as momentum, circular motion, and orbits. While there are several possibilities for…
Lazy Days: An Active Way to Put Newton's First Law into Motion (or Rest)
Roemmele, Christopher; Sederberg, David
2017-01-01
Students are better able to understand Newton's first law when they build from their own personal experiences of bicycling, skateboarding, or riding in a car. Most have experienced a tumble when their skateboard or bicycle comes to an abrupt stop. Alternately in a car, your body continues moving when the brakes are applied and you feel the force…
Deductive Reasoning to Teach Newton's Law of Motion
Lee, Han Su; Park, Jongwon
2013-01-01
Finding out about and then understanding the forces acting on a moving object, based on a description of the change in motion of this object, is an important part of the conceptual understanding of Newton's law of motion. Using Hempel's deductive-normative model for scientific explanation, we developed a deductive explanation task (DET),…
Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding and Model of Understanding about Newton's Laws of Motion
Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Devecioglu, Yasemin
2010-01-01
This study was conducted to determine the level of student teachers' understandings of Newton's laws of motion and relating these levels to identify student teachers' models of understanding. An achievement test composed of two parts comprising 12 open ended questions was constructed and given to 45 pre-service classroom teachers. The first part…
Kocakulah, Mustafa Sabri
2010-01-01
This study aims to develop and apply a rubric to evaluate the solutions of pre-service primary science teachers to questions about Newton's Laws of Motion. Two groups were taught the topic using the same teaching methods and administered four questions before and after teaching. Furthermore, 76 students in the experiment group were instructed…
Historical Development of Newton's Laws of Motion and Suggestions for Teaching Content
Chang, Wheijen; Bell, Beverley; Jones, Allister
2014-01-01
A review of the history of Newton's Laws of Motion illustrates that the historical development gradually shifted away from intuitive experiences and daily life conventions towards a scientific regulated perspective. Three stages of the historical development are discussed, i.e. prior to the Principia, the 3rd (last) edition of the Principia,…
Full-Newton step interior-point methods for conic optimization
Mansouri, H.
2008-01-01
In the theory of polynomial-time interior-point methods (IPMs) two important classes of methods are distinguished: small-update and large-update methods, respectively. Small-update IPMs have the best theoretical iteration bound and IPMs with full-Newton steps belong to this class of methods. Within
Design of reciprocal unit based on the Newton-Raphson approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gundersen, Anders Torp; Winther-Almstrup, Rasmus; Boesen, Michael
A design of a reciprocal unit based on Newton-Raphson approximation is described and implemented. We present two different designs for single precisions where one of them is extremely fast but the trade-off is an increase in area. The solution behind the fast design is that the design is fully...
An Information Integration Study on the Intuitive Physics of the Newton's Cradle
De Sá Teixeira, Nuno Alexandre; Oliveira, Armando Mónica; Silva, Ana Duarte
2014-01-01
Newton's cradle, a device consisting of a chain of steel balls suspended in alignment, has been used extensively in physics teaching to demonstrate the principles of conservation of momentum and kinetic energy in elastic collisions. The apparent simplicity of the device allows one to test commonly hold views regarding the intuitive understanding…
Newton-sor iterative method for solving the two-dimensional porous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we consider the application of the Newton-SOR iterative method in obtaining the approximate solution of the two-dimensional porous medium equation (2D PME). The nonlinear finite difference approximation equation to the 2D PME is derived by using the implicit finite difference scheme. The developed ...
Chandra and XMM–Newton Observations of H 2 O Maser Galaxy ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
For H2O megamaser galaxy Mrk 266, its Chandra and XMM–Newton data are analyzed here. It shows existence of two obscured nuclei (separation is ∼ 5''). Our preferred model, the high energy reflected model can fit the hard component of both nuclei spectra well.
Zhou, Shaona; Zhang, Chunbin; Xiao, Hua
2015-01-01
In the past three decades, previous researches showed that students had various misconceptions of Newton's Third Law. The present study focused on students' difficulties in identifying the third-law force pair in gravity interaction situations. An instrument involving contexts with gravity and non-gravity associated interactions was designed and…
Harmonic Issues Assessment on PWM VSC-Based Controlled Microgrids using Newton Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agundis-Tinajero, Gibran; Segundo-Ramirez, Juan; Peña-Gallardo, Rafael
2017-01-01
This paper presents the application of Newton-based methods in the time-domain for the computation of the periodic steady state solutions of microgrids with multiple distributed generation units, harmonic stability and power quality analysis. Explicit representation of the commutation process...
Guidelines for Interactive Reliability-Based Structural Optimization using Quasi-Newton Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, C.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
Guidelines for interactive reliability-based structural optimization problems are outlined in terms of modifications of standard quasi-Newton algorithms. The proposed modifications minimize the condition number of the approximate Hessian matrix in each iteration, restrict the relative and absolute...
Simultaneous observations of the quasar 3C 273 with INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and RXTE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Beckmann, V.; Bourban, G.
2003-01-01
INTEGRAL has observed the bright quasar 3C 273 on 3 epochs in January 2003 as one of the first observations of the open programme. The observation on January 5 was simultaneous with RXTE and XMM-Newton observations. We present here a first analysis of the continuum emission as observed by these 3...
Quasi-Newton methods for solving non-smooth multiobjective optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Najmeh Hoseini Monjezi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a quasi-Newton type algorithm for non-smooth multiobjective optimization is presented. In this algorithm, in every iteration a quadratic subproblem solves until a critical point is reached. Moreover, the global convergence of the algorithm is established under suitable assumptions
Kreeft, J.J.; Weghs, M.; Van Zuijlen, A.H.; Bijl, H.
2011-01-01
Two reduced order models are presented for the simulation of physically strong coupled fluid-structure interaction problem, based on computationally partitioned flow and structure solvers. The reduced order models used are a class of quasi-Newton coupling methods to obtain a stable solution and to
An Overview of Some Practical Quasi-Newton Methods for Unconstrained Optimization
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M. Al-Baali
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Quasi-Newton methods are among the most practical and efficient iterative methods for solving unconstrained minimization problems. In this paper we give an overview of some of these methods with focus primarily on the Hessian approximation updates and modifications aimed at improving their performance.
Newton on Objects Moving in a Fluid--The Penetration Length
Saslow, Wayne M.; Lu, Hong
2008-01-01
We solve for the motion of an object with initial velocity v[subscript 0] and subject only to the combined drag of forces linear and quadratic in the velocity. This problem was treated briefly by Newton, after he developed a theoretical argument for the quadratic term, which we now know is characteristic of turbulent flow. Linear drag introduces a…
The XID Results Database of the XMM-Newton Survey Science Center
Michel, L.; Motch, C.
2011-07-01
(Written on behalf of the Survey Science Center of the XMM-Newton satellite) The Survey Science Center (SSC) of the XMM-Newton satellite has carried out several large optical campaigns aiming at the spectroscopic identification of samples of about a thousand X-ray sources at various X-ray flux levels and towards different Galactic directions. In addition, the SSC has obtained multi-color wide-field imaging for hundreds of XMM-Newton fields. Building learning samples for the statistical identification of all 2XMM sources was one of the main drivers for undertaking these observing campaigns. However, as demonstrated by the amount of papers published, these collections of data also constitute a very valuable resource which can be used for addressing a wide range of astrophysical issues. We describe the content and architecture of the XID results database recently opened by the SSC and containing a first installment of these data. The interface provides easy selection and browsing through catalogs and access to all optical images and spectral data associated with any given X-ray source as well as all relevant XMM-Newton data. The database was created using the database generator Saada and, together with the XCat-DB already deployed at the Observatoire de Strasbourg, provides another example of the flexibility, ease of use and scalability offered by Saada.
Contact angles in thin liquid films III. Interaction forces in Newton black soap films
Feijter, J.A. de; Vrij, A.
The interaction parameters of Newton black soap films stabilized by NaDS, as derived from contact angle experiments, have been interpretated in terms of the structure and the interaction forces in the films. From the film thickness and the difference between the surface excess of the salt in the
Planck intermediate results: IV. the XMM-Newton validation programme for new Planck galaxy clusters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bartlett, J.G.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.
2013-01-01
We present the final results from the XMM-Newton validation follow-up of new Planck galaxy cluster candidates. We observed 15 new candidates, detected with signal-to-noise ratios between 4.0 and 6.1 in the 15.5-month nominal Planck survey. The candidates were selected using ancillary data flags d...
On an new Open type variant of Newton´s method
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Kumar Manoj
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to introduce and investigate a new Open type variant of Newton's method for solving nonlinear equations. The order of convergence of the proposed method is three. In addition to numerical tests verifying the theory, a comparison of the results for the proposed method and some of the existing ones have also been given.
A New Approach for Solving Dual Fuzzy Nonlinear Equations Using Broyden's and Newton's Methods
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M. Y. Waziri
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new approach for solving dual fuzzy nonlinear equations. In this approach, we use Newton's method for initial iteration and Broyden's method for the rest of the iterations. The fuzzy coefficients are presented in parametric form. Numerical results on well-known benchmark fuzzy nonlinear equations are reported to authenticate the effectiveness and efficiency of the approach.
Newton's method for nonlinear stochastic wave equations driven by one-dimensional Brownian motion.
Leszczynski, Henryk; Wrzosek, Monika
2017-02-01
We consider nonlinear stochastic wave equations driven by one-dimensional white noise with respect to time. The existence of solutions is proved by means of Picard iterations. Next we apply Newton's method. Moreover, a second-order convergence in a probabilistic sense is demonstrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuo Amano
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Kawabata and Yamada [5] proposed an implicit Newton's method for nonlinear stochastic differential equations and proved its convergence. Later Amano [2] gave an explicit formulation of method and showed its direct error estimate. In this article, we prove a probabilistic second-order error estimate which has been an open problem since 1991.
2010-07-01
... Demonstrating Compliance With 40 CFR 60.43 for the Newton Power Station of Central Illinois Public Service... for the Newton Power Station of Central Illinois Public Service Company 1. Designation of Affected...) Newton Power Station in Jasper County, Illinois. Each of these units is subject to the Standards of...
An experimental test of Newton's law of gravitation for small accelerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert, Sven
2011-10-15
The experiment presented in this thesis has been designed to test Newton's law of gravitation in the limit of small accelerations caused by weak gravitational forces. It is located at DESY, Hamburg, and is a modification of an experiment that was carried out in Wuppertal, Germany, until 2002 in order to measure the gravitational constant G. The idea of testing Newton's law in the case of small accelerations emerged from the question whether the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies can be traced back to Dark Matter or to a law of gravitation that deviates from Newton on cosmic scales like e.g. MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics). The core of this experiment is a microwave resonator which is formed by two spherical concave mirrors that are suspended as pendulums. Masses between 1 and 9 kg symmetrically change their distance to the mirrors from far to near positions. Due to the increased gravitational force the mirrors are pulled apart and the length of the resonator increases. This causes a shift of the resonance frequency which can be translated into a shift of the mirror distance. The small masses are sources of weak gravitational forces and cause accelerations on the mirrors of about 10{sup -10} m/s{sup 2}. These forces are comparable to those between stars on cosmic scales and the accelerations are in the vicinity of the characteristic acceleration of MOND a{sub 0} {approx} 1.2.10{sup -10} m/s{sup 2}, where deviations from Newton's law are expected. Thus Newton's law could be directly checked for correctness under these conditions. First measurements show that due to the sensitivity of this experiment many systematic influences have to be accounted for in order to get consistent results. Newton's law has been confirmed with an accuracy of 3%. MOND has also been checked. In order to be able to distinguish Newton from MOND with other interpolation functions the accuracy of the experiment has to be improved. (orig.)
Imbalance of Ecosystems and the Modified Newton's 3 Laws of Change
Lin, H.
2013-12-01
Sustainability calls for the unity of human knowledge that bridges the present "two cultures" gulf between the sciences and the humanities, and the transition from the age of machine to the age of the environment quests for harmony with nature (so-called eco-civilization). Ecosystems are fundamentally different from machines, where individual components contain complex organisms instead of identical nonliving entities. Because of heterogeneity, diversity, self-organization, and openness, imbalances abound in nature. These are reflected in entropy increase over time (S > 0) and gradient persistence over space (F > 0). In this paper, three modified Newton's laws of change for ecosystems are suggested, and examples of imbalances from landscape-soil-water-ecosystem-climate will be illustrated. ● Newton's 1st law of motion: ∑F=0 → dv/dt=0. i.e., if net force acting on an object is zero, then the object's velocity remains unchanged. Modified Newton's 1st law of change (imbalance #1): ∑F>0 → dv/dt≥0. i.e., unavoidable forcing exists in nature (∑F>0), thus change always happens; however, with inertia/resistance in some systems or minimum threshold needed to change, dv/dt≥0. ● Newton's 2nd law of motion: ∑F=ma. i.e., acceleration is inversely proportional to body mass. Modified Newton's 2nd law of change (imbalance #2): ∑F≠ma. i.e., either 1) it is hard to make change because of resilience, self-adjustment, nonlinearity of interactions-feedbacks in living systems (∑F≥ma), or 2) there is possible threshold behavior or sudden collapse of a system (∑Fchange (imbalance #3): ∑F(a,b)≠-∑F(b,a). i.e., to every action, there is an opposite but not necessarily equal reaction (because of energy dissipation and/or self-organization, among other factors).
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sebastián Molina Betancur
2014-01-01
Some experts on Newton have argued that the methodology that he uses to demonstrate the existence of force is based on his mathematical approach to the phenomena of movement, which has come to be...
Students’ representation about Newton law: consequences of “zero intuition”
Handhika, Jeffry; Cari, C.; Suparmi, A.
2017-01-01
Newton’s laws can represent in the language of verbal, mathematical, physical, and visual. Students who understood concept would express the concepts in various representations consistently. In this research, a mathematical presentation used to reveal the student’s concept understanding about Newton first law. The results showed that 21.87% of the students changed the mathematical presentation of Newton’s first law ≤ft( {\\sum {F = 0} } \\right) into verbal representation incorrectly. Changing the mathematical form of Newton’s first law into the form of ≤ft( {0 = \\sum {F} } \\right) caused the percentage of students who did not respond increased, further concluded that “zero intuition” in the equation of Newton first law caused misconceptions.
The Newton constant and gravitational waves in some vector field adjusting mechanisms
Santillán, Osvaldo P.; Scornavacche, Marina
2017-10-01
At the present, there exist some Lorentz breaking scenarios which explain the smallness of the cosmological constant at the present era [1]–[2]. An important aspect to analyze is the propagation of gravitational waves and the screening or enhancement of the Newton constant GN in these models. The problem is that the Lorentz symmetry breaking terms may induce an unacceptable value of the Newton constant GN or introduce longitudinal modes in the gravitational wave propagation. Furthermore this breaking may spoil the standard dispersion relation ω=ck. In [3] the authors have presented a model suggesting that the behavior of the gravitational constant is correct for asymptotic times. In the present work, an explicit checking is made and we finally agree with these claims. Furthermore, it is suggested that the gravitational waves are also well behaved for large times. In the process, some new models with the same behavior are obtained, thus enlarging the list of possible adjustment mechanisms.
Isaac newton et la gravitation universelle un scientifique au tempérament rageur
Mettra, Pierre
2015-01-01
Découvrez enfin tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur Newton et la théorie de la gravitation universelle en moins d'une heure ! Figure incontournable de l'histoire des sciences, Isaac Newton bouleverse le monde avec sa théorie de la gravitation universelle. Secrètement passionné d'alchimie, il fait accomplir à l'optique et à l'analyse mathématique d'incroyables progrès, devenant aux yeux de ses contemporains l'un des savants les plus novateurs et les plus respectés au monde, ce que la postérité ne démentira pas.Ce livre vous permettra d'en savoir plus sur : La vie de New
How to manage a revolution: Isaac Newton in the early twentieth century
Clarke, Imogen
2014-01-01
In the first half of the twentieth century, dramatic developments in physics came to be viewed as revolutionary, apparently requiring a complete overthrow of previous theories. British physicists were keen to promote quantum physics and relativity theory as exciting and new, but the rhetoric of revolution threatened science's claim to stability and its prestigious connections with Isaac Newton. This was particularly problematic in the first decades of the twentieth century, within the broader context of political turmoil, world war, and the emergence of modernist art and literature. This article examines how physicists responded to their cultural and political environment and worked to maintain disciplinary connections with Isaac Newton, emphasizing the importance of both the old and the new. In doing so they attempted to make the physics ‘revolution’ more palatable to a British public seeking a sense of permanence in a rapidly changing world.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehiddin Al-Baali
2012-04-01
Full Text Available A class of damped quasi-Newton methods for nonlinear optimization has recently been proposed by extending the damped-technique of Powell for the BFGS method to the Broyden family of quasi-Newton methods. It has been shown that this damped class has the global and superlinear convergence property that a restricted class of 'undamped' methods has for convex objective functions in unconstrained optimization. To test this result, we applied several members of the Broyden family and their corresponding damped methods to a simple quadratic function and observed several useful features of the damped-technique. These observations and other numerical experiences are described in this paper. The important role of the damped-technique is shown not only for enforcing the above convergence property, but also for improving the performance of efficient, inefficient and divergent undamped methods substantially (significantly in the latter case. Thus, some appropriate ways for employing the damped-technique are suggested.
Newton-Krylov-Schwarz algorithms for the 2D full potential equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cai, Xiao-Chuan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gropp, W.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Keyes, D.E. [Old Dominion Univ. Norfolk, VA (United States)] [and others
1996-12-31
We study parallel two-level overlapping Schwarz algorithms for solving nonlinear finite element problems, in particular, for the full potential equation of aerodynamics discretized in two dimensions with bilinear elements. The main algorithm, Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS), employs an inexact finite-difference Newton method and a Krylov space iterative method, with a two-level overlapping Schwarz method as a preconditioner. We demonstrate that NKS, combined with a density upwinding continuation strategy for problems with weak shocks, can be made robust for this class of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic nonlinear partial differential equations, with proper specification of several parameters. We study upwinding parameters, inner convergence tolerance, coarse grid density, subdomain overlap, and the level of fill-in in the incomplete factorization, and report favorable choices for numerical convergence rate and overall execution time on a distributed-memory parallel computer.
Easy XMM-Newton Data Analysis with the Streamlined ABC Guide!
Valencic, Lynne A.; Snowden, Steven L.; Pence, William D.
2016-01-01
The US XMM-Newton GOF has streamlined the time-honored XMM-Newton ABC Guide, making it easier to find and use what users may need to analyze their data. It takes into account what type of data a user might have, if they want to reduce the data on their own machine or over the internet with Web Hera, and if they prefer to use the command window or a GUI. The GOF has also included an introduction to analyzing EPIC and RGS spectra, and PN Timing mode data. The guide is provided for free to students, educators, and researchers for educational and research purposes. Try it out at: http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/xmm/sl/intro.html
Newton-Type Iteration for Tikhonov Regularization of Nonlinear Ill-Posed Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santhosh George
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Recently in the work of George, 2010, we considered a modified Gauss-Newton method for approximate solution of a nonlinear ill-posed operator equation F(x=y, where F:D(F⊆X→Y is a nonlinear operator between the Hilbert spaces X and Y. The analysis in George, 2010 was carried out using a majorizing sequence. In this paper, we consider also the modified Gauss-Newton method, but the convergence analysis and the error estimate are obtained by analyzing the odd and even terms of the sequence separately. We use the adaptive method in the work of Pereverzev and Schock, 2005 for choosing the regularization parameter. The optimality of this method is proved under a general source condition. A numerical example of nonlinear integral equation shows the performance of this procedure.
Joint XMM-Newton, Chandra, and RXTE Observations of Cyg X-1 at Phase Zero
Pottschmidt, Katja
2008-01-01
We present first results of simultaneous observations of the high mass X-ray binary Cyg X-1 for 50 ks with XMM-Newton, Chandra-HETGS and RXTE in 2008 April. The observations are centered on phase 0 of the 5.6 d orbit when pronounced dips in the X-ray emission from the black hole are known to occur. The dips are due to highly variable absorption in the accretion stream from the O-star companion to the black hole. Compared to previous high resolution spectroscopy studies of the dip and non-dip emission with Chandra, the addition of XMM-Newton data allows for a better determination of the continuum, especially through the broad iron line region (with RXTE constraining the greater than 10 keV continuum).
Interpolation bias for the inverse compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm in digital image correlation
Su, Yong; Zhang, Qingchuan; Xu, Xiaohai; Gao, Zeren; Wu, Shangquan
2018-01-01
It is believed that the classic forward additive Newton-Raphson (FA-NR) algorithm and the recently introduced inverse compositional Gauss-Newton (IC-GN) algorithm give rise to roughly equal interpolation bias. Questioning the correctness of this statement, this paper presents a thorough analysis of interpolation bias for the IC-GN algorithm. A theoretical model is built to analytically characterize the dependence of interpolation bias upon speckle image, target image interpolation, and reference image gradient estimation. The interpolation biases of the FA-NR algorithm and the IC-GN algorithm can be significantly different, whose relative difference can exceed 80%. For the IC-GN algorithm, the gradient estimator can strongly affect the interpolation bias; the relative difference can reach 178%. Since the mean bias errors are insensitive to image noise, the theoretical model proposed remains valid in the presence of noise. To provide more implementation details, source codes are uploaded as a supplement.
Modeling of hydrogen-assisted cracking in iron crystal using a quasi-Newton method.
Telitchev, Igor Ye; Vinogradov, Oleg
2008-07-01
A Quasi-Newton method was applied in the context of a molecular statics approach to simulate the phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement of an iron lattice. The atomic system is treated as a truss-type structure. The interatomic forces between the hydrogen-iron and the iron-iron atoms are defined by Morse and modified Morse potential functions, respectively. Two-dimensional hexagonal and 3D bcc crystal structures were subjected to tensile numerical tests. It was shown that the Inverse Broyden's Algorithm-a quasi-Newton method-provides a computationally efficient technique for modeling of the hydrogen-assisted cracking in iron crystal. Simulation results demonstrate that atoms of hydrogen placed near the crack tip produce a strong deformation and crack propagation effect in iron lattice, leading to a decrease in the residual strength of numerically tested samples.
Pendulums, Pedagogy, and Matter: Lessons from the Editing of Newton's Principia
Biener, Zvi; Smeenk, Chris
Teaching Newtonian physics involves the replacement of students'' ideas about physical situations with precise concepts appropriate for mathematical applications. This paper focuses on the concepts of `matter'' and `mass''. We suggest that students, like some pre-Newtonian scientists we examine, use these terms in a way that conflicts with their Newtonian meaning. Specifically, `matter''and `mass'' indicate to them the sorts of things that are tangible,bulky, and take up space. In Newtonian mechanics, however, the terms are defined by Newton's Second Law: `mass'' is simply a measure of the acceleration generated by an impressed force. We examine the relationship between these conceptions as it was discussed by Newton and his editor, Roger Cotes, when analyzing a series of pendulum experiments. We suggest that these experiments, as well as more sophisticated computer simulations, can be used in the classroom to sufficiently differentiate the colloquial and precise meaning of these terms.
Producción de entropía y ley de enfriamiento de Newton
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Barragán
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Para un sistema con una fuente interna de generación de calor se analizan, en el marco de la termodinámica de los procesos irreversibles, las ecuaciones evolutivas que describen la transferencia de calor según la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. A partir del balance de flujo de entropía se muestra que la generación de entropía no es mínima en el estado estacionario descrito por la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. Igualmente, se discute cómo realizar el balance de flujos en el sistema, su conexión con los parámetros de control y su futura aplicación a procesos de optimización basados en la segunda ley de la termodinámica.
Ismail, Mohd Arfian; Deris, Safaai; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Abdullah, Afnizanfaizal
2015-01-01
This paper presents an in silico optimization method of metabolic pathway production. The metabolic pathway can be represented by a mathematical model known as the generalized mass action model, which leads to a complex nonlinear equations system. The optimization process becomes difficult when steady state and the constraints of the components in the metabolic pathway are involved. To deal with this situation, this paper presents an in silico optimization method, namely the Newton Cooperative Genetic Algorithm (NCGA). The NCGA used Newton method in dealing with the metabolic pathway, and then integrated genetic algorithm and cooperative co-evolutionary algorithm. The proposed method was experimentally applied on the benchmark metabolic pathways, and the results showed that the NCGA achieved better results compared to the existing methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haris Rosdianto
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh model generative learning terhadap hasil belajar ranah kognitif siswa pada materi Hukum Newton. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian pre eksprimental dengan rancangan One Group Pretest Posttest Design. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas VIII MTs Makarim Al-akhlak Kota Singkawang. Dikarenakan kelas VIII hanya terdiri atas satu kelas, maka teknik sampling yang digunakan adalah sampling jenuh. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan berupa tes pilihan ganda. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji paired t-test. Dari hasil perhitungan diperoleh nilai –thitung < -ttabel yaitu -18,03 < -2,160, maka H0 ditolak dan Ha diterima pada taraf signifikansi α = 0,05. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh model generative learning terhadap hasil belajar ranah kognitif siswa pada materi Hukum Newton.
A Family of Newton Type Iterative Methods for Solving Nonlinear Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaofeng Wang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a general family of n-point Newton type iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations is constructed by using direct Hermite interpolation. The order of convergence of the new n-point iterative methods without memory is 2n requiring the evaluations of n functions and one first-order derivative in per full iteration, which implies that this family is optimal according to Kung and Traub’s conjecture (1974. Its error equations and asymptotic convergence constants are obtained. The n-point iterative methods with memory are obtained by using a self-accelerating parameter, which achieve much faster convergence than the corresponding n-point methods without memory. The increase of convergence order is attained without any additional calculations so that the n-point Newton type iterative methods with memory possess a very high computational efficiency. Numerical examples are demonstrated to confirm theoretical results.
A comparison of different quasi-newton acceleration methods for partitioned multi-physics codes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Haelterman, R
2018-02-01
Full Text Available K,s = Argmax{|〈ı j,δxs〉|; j = 1, . . . ,mn}. (Kˆ′1) −1 is typically set to be −I, 2. The Inverse Column-Updating method (ICU) is a quasi-Newton method that was introduced by Martinez and Zambaldi [23, 26]. It uses a rank-one update such that the column.... Numeri- cal Linear Algebra with Applications, 16/3, pp. 197–221 (2009). 12. A. Friedlander, M.A. Gomes-Ruggiero, D.N. Kozakevich, J.M. Martinez, S.A. dos Santos, Solving nonlinear systems of equations by means of quasi-Newton methods with a nonmono- tone...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Pozzi, Federica; Lombardi, John R; Leona, Marco
2013-01-01
Winsor and Newton Ltd. has been one of the main fine art products providers since its establishment in 1832, being responsible for the manufacture of a wide assortment of materials ranging from oils and pigments to brushes and papers...
XMM-Newton observations of CYGNUS X-1
Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Miller, Jon
2005-01-01
Observations of Cygnus X-1 were first attempted under this program in the spring of 2004, but were complicated by instrumental flaring problems. Successful observations were completed in the fall of 2004, and processed data were delivered to the PI in the winter and spring of 2005. Thus, focused work on this data was only possible starting in 2005. A preliminary reduction and analysis of data from the EPIC CCD cameras and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer has been made. The EPIC spectra reveal the best example of a broadened, relativistic iron emission line yet found in Cygnus X-1. The Oxygen K-shell region has been shown to be a very complex wavelength range in numerous spectra of accreting sources, but the RGS spectra reveal this region in great detail and will be important in understanding the wind from the 0-type donor star that is focused onto the black hole in Cygnus X-1.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diogenes Filho
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The use of software in chemical calculations is a constant reality in both laboratories as well as in simulation processes of chemical transformations. Around addition, this publication discusses the use of the computer program in Scilab problems of chemical origin, especially in the case of calculating the molar volume of gas van der Waals forces. Discussions on the results of the use of this program with a view to the tools available for the calculation of a polynomial provide satisfactory conclusions on the use of mathematical methods in Physical Chemistry, especially the Newton-Raphson method.
Application of a modified semismooth Newton method to some elasto-plastic problems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sysala, Stanislav
2012-01-01
Roč. 82, č. 10 (2012), s. 2004-2021 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/09/1830 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : elasto-plasticity * hardening * Incremental finite element method * Semismooth Newton method * damping Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378475412001292
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fattebert, J
2008-07-29
We describe an iterative algorithm to solve electronic structure problems in Density Functional Theory. The approach is presented as a Subspace Accelerated Inexact Newton (SAIN) solver for the non-linear Kohn-Sham equations. It is related to a class of iterative algorithms known as RMM-DIIS in the electronic structure community. The method is illustrated with examples of real applications using a finite difference discretization and multigrid preconditioning.
Study on registration method based on Gauss-Newton iteration algorithm for augmented reality system
Li, Yu; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian
2004-03-01
Three key technologies influence the performance of current AR (Augmented Reality) system, namely image grabbing, accurate registration and binocular stereovision. This paper studies a vision-based AR system and its setup, presents an image grabbing solution using an IEEE 1394 interface, discusses the binocular stereovision technology and develops an effective Gauss-Newton iteration algorithm for registration. Experiment results show that the proposed method is computationally efficient and accurate.
Ten Years of Monitoring 3C 273 with XMM–Newton Liu Liu ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We present ten years optical/UV/X-ray observations of 3C. 273 performed using XMM–Newton between 2000 and 2009. The short- time scale variability behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray light curves may suggest different origins of the soft/hard X-ray emissions. We fit well the 0.2–10 keV X-ray spectrum with a ...
Ten Years of Monitoring 3C 273 with XMM–Newton
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... We present ten years optical/UV/X-ray observations of 3C 273 performed using XMM–Newton between 2000 and 2009. The short-time scale variability behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray light curves may suggest different origins of the soft/hard X-ray emissions. We fit well the 0.2–10 keV X-ray spectrum ...
Exploring the Diffuse X-ray Emission of Supernova Remnant Kesteven 69 with XMM-Newton
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyoung-Ae Seo
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We have investigated the X-ray emission from the shock-heated plasma of the Galactic supernova remnant Kesteven 69 with XMM-Newton. Assuming the plasma is at collisional ionization equilibrium, a plasma temperature and a column absorption are found to be kT ~ 0.62 keV and NH ~ 2.85 ×1022 cm-2 respectively by imaging spectroscopy. Together with the deduced emission measure, we place constraints on its Sedov parameters.
Conceptual and Laboratory Exercise to Apply Newton's Second Law to a System of Many Forces
Mungan, Carl E.
2012-01-01
A pair of objects on an inclined plane are connected together by a string. The upper object is then connected to a fixed post via a spring. The situation is first analysed as a classroom exercise in using free-body diagrams to solve Newton's second law for a system of objects upon which many different kinds of force are acting (string tension,…
Semi-Smooth Newton Method for Solving 2D Contact Problems with Tresca and Coulomb Friction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kristina Motyckova
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The contribution deals with contact problems for two elastic bodies with friction. After the description of the problem we present its discretization based on linear or bilinear finite elements. The semi--smooth Newton method is used to find the solution, from which we derive active sets algorithms. Finally, we arrive at the globally convergent dual implementation of the algorithms in terms of the Langrange multipliers for the Tresca problem. Numerical experiments conclude the paper.
On Newton-Kantorovich Method for Solving the Nonlinear Operator Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hameed Husam Hameed
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We develop the Newton-Kantorovich method to solve the system of 2×2 nonlinear Volterra integral equations where the unknown function is in logarithmic form. A new majorant function is introduced which leads to the increment of the convergence interval. The existence and uniqueness of approximate solution are proved and a numerical example is provided to show the validation of the method.
XMM-Newton, RXTE, and Radio Observations of CYGNUS X-1
Miller, Jon; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)
2005-01-01
XMM-Newton observations of this target were not made successfully until October 2004, due to problems of high background and instrumental flaring in the prior observability windows. Processed data for analysis was delivered a few months after the observations. Thus, work on these observations is beginning now, in the spring of 2005. A preliminary analysis of these observations reveals a complex spectrum, with relativistic emission line features. Detailed modeling and interpretation of this data will be completed over several months.
One biquaternion model of electro-gravimagnetic field. Field analogues of Newton laws
Alexeyeva, Lyudmila A.
2007-01-01
Using the biquaternions algebra with involution and mutual quaternional gradients the equations of one model of electro-gravimagnetic (EGM) field are constructed on the base of Hamilton form of Maxwell equations. For this field the hypothesis of equivalence of magnetic charge to gravitational mass is implied. The equations of interaction of generated by different charges and currents EGM-fields are built. On its base the analogies of three Newton's laws are obtained. The laws of transformatio...
The XMM-Newton Science Archive and its integration into ESASky
Loiseau, N.; Baines, D.; Colomo, E.; Giordano, F.; Merín, B.; Racero, E.; Rodríguez, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarmiento, M.
2017-07-01
We describe the variety of functionalities of the XSA (XMM-Newton Science Archive) that allow to search and access the XMM-Newton data and catalogues. The web interface http://nxsa.esac.esa.int/ is very flexible allowing different kinds of searches by a single position or target name, or by a list of targets, with several selecting options (target type, text in the abstract, etc.), and with several display options. The resulting data can be easily broadcast to Virtual Observatory (VO) facilities for a first look analysis, or for cross-matching the results with info from other observatories. Direct access via URL or command line are also possible for scripts usage, or to link XMM-Newton data from other interfaces like Vizier, ADS, etc. The full metadata content of the XSA can be queried through the TAP (Table access Protocol) via ADQL (Astronomical Data Query Language). We present also the roadmap for future improvements of the XSA including the integration of the Upper Limit server, the on-the-fly data analysis, and the interactive visualization of EPIC sources spectra and light curves and RGS spectra, among other advanced features. Within this modern visualization philosophy XSA is also being integrated into ESASky (http://sky.esa.int). ESASky is the science-driven multi-wavelength discovery portal for all the ESA Astronomy Missions (Integral, HST, Herschel, Suzaku, Planck, etc.), and other space and ground telescope data. The system offers progressive multi-resolution all-sky projections of full mission datasets using HiPS, a new generation of HEALPix projections developed by CDS, precise footprints to connect to individual observations, and direct access to science-ready data from the underlying mission specific science archives. XMM-Newton EPIC and OM all-sky HiPS maps, catalogues and links to the observations are available through ESASky.
An analysis of the convergence of Newton iterations for solving elliptic Kepler's equation
Elipe, A.; Montijano, J. I.; Rández, L.; Calvo, M.
2017-12-01
In this note a study of the convergence properties of some starters E_0 = E_0(e,M) in the eccentricity-mean anomaly variables for solving the elliptic Kepler's equation (KE) by Newton's method is presented. By using a Wang Xinghua's theorem (Xinghua in Math Comput 68(225):169-186, 1999) on best possible error bounds in the solution of nonlinear equations by Newton's method, we obtain for each starter E_0(e,M) a set of values (e,M) \\in [0, 1) × [0, π ] that lead to the q-convergence in the sense that Newton's sequence (E_n)_{n ≥ 0} generated from E_0 = E_0(e,M) is well defined, converges to the exact solution E^* = E^*(e,M) of KE and further \\vert E_n - E^* \\vert ≤ q^{2^n -1} \\vert E_0 - E^* \\vert holds for all n ≥ 0. This study completes in some sense the results derived by Avendaño et al. (Celest Mech Dyn Astron 119:27-44, 2014) by using Smale's α -test with q=1/2. Also since in KE the convergence rate of Newton's method tends to zero as e → 0, we show that the error estimates given in the Wang Xinghua's theorem for KE can also be used to determine sets of q-convergence with q = e^k \\widetilde{q} for all e \\in [0,1) and a fixed \\widetilde{q} ≤ 1. Some remarks on the use of this theorem to derive a priori estimates of the error \\vert E_n - E^* \\vert after n Kepler's iterations are given. Finally, a posteriori bounds of this error that can be used to a dynamical estimation of the error are also obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos E. Cadenas R.
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this work a new family of Newton-Halley type methods for solving nonlinear equations is presented. the dynamics of the Newton-Halley family is analyzed for the class of quadratic polynomials and the convergence is established. We find the fixed and critical points. The stable and unstable behaviors are studied. The parameter space associated with the family is studied and finally, some dynamical planes that show different aspects of the dynamics of this family are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos E. Cadenas R.
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, a new family of Newton-Chebyshev type methods for solving nonlinear equations is presented. The dynamics of the Newton-Chebyshev family for the class of quadratic polynomials is analyzed and the convergence is established. We find the fixed and critical points. The stable and unstable behaviors are studied. The parameter space associated with the family is studied and finally, some dynamical planes that show different aspects of the dynamics of this family are presented.
An XMM-Newton Science Archive for next decade, and its integration into ESASky
Loiseau, N.; Baines, D.; Rodriguez, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarmiento, M.; Colomo, E.; Merin, B.; Giordano, F.; Racero, E.; Migliari, S.
2016-06-01
We will present a roadmap for the next decade improvements of the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA), as planned for an always faster and more user friendly access to all XMM-Newton data. This plan includes the integration of the Upper Limit server, an interactive visualization of EPIC and RGS spectra, on-the-fly data analysis, among other advanced features. Within this philosophy XSA is also being integrated into ESASky, the science-driven discovery portal for all the ESA Astronomy Missions. A first public beta release of the ESASky service has been already released at the end of 2015. It is currently featuring an interface for exploration of the multi-wavelength sky and for single and/or multiple target searches of science-ready data. The system offers progressive multi-resolution all-sky projections of full mission datasets using a new generation of HEALPix projections called HiPS, developed at the CDS; detailed geometrical footprints to connect the all-sky mosaics to individual observations; and direct access to science-ready data at the underlying mission-specific science archives. New XMM-Newton EPIC and OM all-sky HiPS maps, catalogues and links to the observations are available through ESASky, together with INTEGRAL, HST, Herschel, Planck and other future data.
Hořava-Lifshitz gravity from dynamical Newton-Cartan geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartong, Jelle [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes, Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Obers, Niels A. [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)
2015-07-29
Recently it has been established that torsional Newton-Cartan (TNC) geometry is the appropriate geometrical framework to which non-relativistic field theories couple. We show that when these geometries are made dynamical they give rise to Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. Projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical Newton-Cartan (NC) geometry without torsion and non-projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical NC geometry with twistless torsion (hypersurface orthogonal foliation). We build a precise dictionary relating all fields (including the scalar khronon), their transformations and other properties in both HL gravity and dynamical TNC geometry. We use TNC invariance to construct the effective action for dynamical twistless torsional Newton-Cartan geometries in 2+1 dimensions for dynamical exponent 1
Improved FRFT-based method for estimating the physical parameters from Newton's rings
Wu, Jin-Min; Lu, Ming-Feng; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yang
2017-04-01
Newton's rings are often encountered in interferometry, and in analyzing them, we can estimate the physical parameters, such as curvature radius and the rings' center. The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is capable of estimating these physical parameters from the rings despite noise and obstacles, but there is still a small deviation between the estimated coordinates of the rings' center and the actual values. The least-squares fitting method is popularly used for its accuracy but it is easily affected by the initial values. Nevertheless, with the estimated results from the FRFT, it is easy to meet the requirements of initial values. In this paper, the proposed method combines the advantages of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) with the least-squares fitting method in analyzing Newton's rings fringe patterns. Its performance is assessed by analyzing simulated and actual Newton's rings images. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of estimating the parameters in the presence of noise and obstacles. Under the same conditions, the estimation results are better than those obtained with the original FRFT-based method, especially for the rings' center. Some applications are shown to illustrate that the improved FRFT-based method is an important technique for interferometric measurements.
Digging deeper: Towards a catalogue of detections from stacked XMM-Newton observations
Traulsen, I.; Schwope, A.; Lamer, G.; XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre Consortium, o.
2017-10-01
About one third of the sky area covered by the XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes was observed more than once. The XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre Consortium (SSC) has been generating catalogues of individual detections in all publicly available XMM-Newton observations and matched catalogues of unique sources from them. The most recent incarnation is 3XMM-DR7. We present a new standardized approach to source detection on stacked images of multiple pointings. It aims at achieving ultimate sensitivity on repeatedly observed sky areas. The method has entered the Science Analysis System (SAS) as a new task and will be used to publish a catalogue of stacked detections from overlapping observations. Our first proto-catalogue is based on 736 individual observations grouped into 278 stacks with a minimum overlap of 80% in area between contributing observations. It comprises approximately 26000 unique sources, an increase of at least 5% over the summed detections in individual pointings, and shows that the new approach gives higher sensitivity, improved source parameters, and likely fewer spurious detections.
Was Newton right? A search for non-Newtonian behavior of weak-field gravity
Boynton, Paul; Moore, Michael; Newman, Riley; Berg, Eric; Bonicalzi, Ricco; McKenney, Keven
2014-06-01
Empirical tests of Einstein's metric theory of gravitation, even in the non-relativistic, weak-field limit, could play an important role in judging theory-driven extensions of the current Standard Model of fundamental interactions. Guided by Galileo's work and his own experiments, Newton formulated a theory of gravity in which the force of attraction between two bodies is independent of composition and proportional to the inertia of each, thereby transparently satisfying Galileo's empirically informed conjecture regarding the Universality of Free Fall. Similarly, Einstein honored the manifest success of Newton's theory by assuring that the linearized equations of GTR matched the Newtonian formalism under "classical" conditions. Each of these steps, however, was explicitly an approximation raised to the status of principle. Perhaps, at some level, Newtonian gravity does not accurately describe the physical interaction between uncharged, unmagnetized, macroscopic bits of ordinary matter. What if Newton were wrong? Detecting any significant deviation from Newtonian behavior, no matter how small, could provide new insights and possibly reveal new physics. In the context of physics as an empirical science, for us this yet unanswered question constitutes sufficient motivation to attempt precision measurements of the kind described here. In this paper we report the current status of a project to search for violation of the Newtonian inverse square law of gravity.
A long XMM-Newton campaign on the mode-switching radio pulsar PSR B0943+10
Mereghetti, S.
2017-10-01
Observations obtained in the last years challenged the widespread notion that rotation-powered neutron stars are steady X-ray emitters. Besides the few pulsars showing "magnetar-like" activity, in at least one remarkable object, PSR B0943+10, significant variations, correlated to radio-mode switching have been discovered. Their study opens a new window to investigate the processes responsible for the pulsar radio and high-energy emission. An XMM-Newton Large Program, with simultaneous radio observations with LOFAR, LWA and Arecibo, allowed us to detect X-ray pulsations also during the fainter state and to better constrain the spectral and variability properties of PSR B0943+10. In both radio states the pulsed emission can be described by a thermal blackbody with temperature of a few 10^6 K and the unpulsed emission by a power-law. We discuss a scenario in which both unpulsed non-thermal emission, likely of magnetospheric origin, and pulsed thermal emission from a small polar cap (˜1500 m^2) with a strong non-dipolar field (˜10^{14} G), are present during both modes and vary in intensity in a correlated way. This is broadly consistent with the predictions of the partially screened gap model and does not necessarily imply global magnetospheric rearrangements to explain the mode switching.
Wang, Chun-yu; He, Lin; Li, Yan; Shuai, Chang-geng
2018-01-01
In engineering applications, ship machinery vibration may be induced by multiple rotational machines sharing a common vibration isolation platform and operating at the same time, and multiple sinusoidal components may be excited. These components may be located at frequencies with large differences or at very close frequencies. A multi-reference filtered-x Newton narrowband (MRFx-Newton) algorithm is proposed to control these multiple sinusoidal components in an MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) system, especially for those located at very close frequencies. The proposed MRFx-Newton algorithm can decouple and suppress multiple sinusoidal components located in the same narrow frequency band even though such components cannot be separated from each other by a narrowband-pass filter. Like the Fx-Newton algorithm, good real-time performance is also achieved by the faster convergence speed brought by the 2nd-order inverse secondary-path filter in the time domain. Experiments are also conducted to verify the feasibility and test the performance of the proposed algorithm installed in an active-passive vibration isolation system in suppressing the vibration excited by an artificial source and air compressor/s. The results show that the proposed algorithm not only has comparable convergence rate as the Fx-Newton algorithm but also has better real-time performance and robustness than the Fx-Newton algorithm in active control of the vibration induced by multiple sound sources/rotational machines working on a shared platform.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, William W.; Stern, Daniel; Craig, William W.
2014-01-01
We present the results of the first large program of broadband ULX observations with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku, yielding high-quality spectra and timing measurements from 0.3-30 keV in 6 ULXs, providing powerful information for understanding the accretion modes and nature of the central BHs...
Generalized semi-infinite programming: Numerical aspects
Still, Georg J.
1998-01-01
Generalized semi-infinite optimization problems (GSIP) are considered. It is investigated how the numerical methods for standard semi-infinite programming (SIP) can be extended to GSIP. Newton methods can be extended immediately. For discretization methods the situation is more complicated. These
Newton de Macedo : da filosofia da história para a sociologia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro Baptista
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In the present text we present the culminant place of sociology in the Reform of the Higher Education in Philosophy attempted by Leonardo Coimbra in 1919, the time in which, as Minister for Instruction, he creates the Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto (FLUP. Such a position is inscribed in the relevant interest showed for sociology, not only following the positivist tradition of the eighteen hundreds, but especially of the Portuguese Renaissance, movement that aspired to rise above it. Thus, we inform that, although the project of inscription of sociology in the philosophy’s curriculum of FLUP did not take place for political reasons, authors such as Georg Simmel were studied in detail, mainly after the critique of the philosophy of history. Newton de Macedo, historian and philosopher, is his main scholar: he shows how history as a science tends to progress from the level of historiography to the level of sociology, since historic facts should be inscribed in the category of social facts. Besides his attention to Vieira de Almeida’s scheme on historic causality, where he identi?es three phases of research, Newton de Macedo develops a critique of the naturalist and scientist visions of social phenomena produced by different positivist authors. On the other hand, when discussing the sociological thought of Durkheim, also well known in the primitive FLUP, he seems to identify himself with it. Focused on the ruins of post-war, Newton, as well as Leonardo Coimbra, produces a very critical reading of positivism (not without considering that it was a good epistemological standing point for work and has as main purpose the research for new bases for the construction of new values needed to ?ll the dangerous moral void left by belligerent barbarity. The text reveals the exceptional international and up-to-date openness of FLUP (1919-1931 in a national philosophical academic panorama closed to contemporary novelty and to the world
An Inexact Newton-Krylov Algorithm for Constrained Diffeomorphic Image Registration.
Mang, Andreas; Biros, George
We propose numerical algorithms for solving large deformation diffeomorphic image registration problems. We formulate the nonrigid image registration problem as a problem of optimal control. This leads to an infinite-dimensional partial differential equation (PDE) constrained optimization problem. The PDE constraint consists, in its simplest form, of a hyperbolic transport equation for the evolution of the image intensity. The control variable is the velocity field. Tikhonov regularization on the control ensures well-posedness. We consider standard smoothness regularization based on H(1)- or H(2)-seminorms. We augment this regularization scheme with a constraint on the divergence of the velocity field (control variable) rendering the deformation incompressible (Stokes regularization scheme) and thus ensuring that the determinant of the deformation gradient is equal to one, up to the numerical error. We use a Fourier pseudospectral discretization in space and a Chebyshev pseudospectral discretization in time. The latter allows us to reduce the number of unknowns and enables the time-adaptive inversion for nonstationary velocity fields. We use a preconditioned, globalized, matrix-free, inexact Newton-Krylov method for numerical optimization. A parameter continuation is designed to estimate an optimal regularization parameter. Regularity is ensured by controlling the geometric properties of the deformation field. Overall, we arrive at a black-box solver that exploits computational tools that are precisely tailored for solving the optimality system. We study spectral properties of the Hessian, grid convergence, numerical accuracy, computational efficiency, and deformation regularity of our scheme. We compare the designed Newton-Krylov methods with a globalized Picard method (preconditioned gradient descent). We study the influence of a varying number of unknowns in time. The reported results demonstrate excellent numerical accuracy, guaranteed local deformation
A Newton-Krylov solver with a loosely-coupled turbulence model for aerodynamic flows
Blanco, Max
Computational solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations have proven to be a useful tool in the design of aircraft. A Newton-Krylov flow solver for unstructured grids is developed in order to demonstrate that a formulation in which the mean-flow and turbulence mechanism equations are loosely coupled can be more economical than a similar fully-coupled formulation. The Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are derived for steady two-dimensional flows, and the turbulence mechanism is described. These equations constitute a model of the physics of aerodynamic flows. The model is validated against experimental data. The objective of this thesis is to examine a means to improve the iterative process by which the solutions are generated. The Newton-Krylov iteration is selected in order to refine the solution, and its features examined. The authors of current Newton-Krylov techniques have fully coupled the turbulence mechanism to the Navier-Stokes equations. A contrast and comparison study made here between the fully-coupled formulation and a loosely-coupled alternative favours the latter. An 'equivalent function evaluation' metric is selected for comparison purposes, and is assessed by means of diverse computers. Published results which use the metric are located, and the present loosely-coupled formulation for unstructured grids is found to be significantly faster in this metric than similar fully-coupled formulations. The advantages of the loosely-coupled formulation with respect to the fully-coupled formulation are stated and future avenues for exploitation of the proposed technology are examined. Appendices consist of: a formalism for the Favre average and consequences of its derivation; a short tract on Taylor series; and an essay on the Frechet differential.
Communication: Newton homotopies for sampling stationary points of potential energy landscapes
Mehta, Dhagash; Chen, Tianran; Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Wales, David J.
2014-09-01
One of the most challenging and frequently arising problems in many areas of science is to find solutions of a system of multivariate nonlinear equations. There are several numerical methods that can find many (or all if the system is small enough) solutions but they all exhibit characteristic problems. Moreover, traditional methods can break down if the system contains singular solutions. Here, we propose an efficient implementation of Newton homotopies, which can sample a large number of the stationary points of complicated many-body potentials. We demonstrate how the procedure works by applying it to the nearest-neighbor ϕ4 model and atomic clusters.
Special features of Newton-type fringe formation in a diffraction interferometer
Koronkevich, Voldemar P.; Lenkova, Galina A.; Matochkin, Aleksey E.
2006-01-01
An interferometer with a Fresnel zone plate located in the center of curvature of a concave mirror was studied. Attention was paid to the unique features of the interference field, which has a special point at which the path difference is equal to zero, thereby allowing for the observation of Newton-type fringes in white and quasi-monochromatic light. The conditions necessary for reducing the instrumental error to values less than lambda/20 were determined. Methods for suppressing noise and destructive interference patterns were also found. Metrological tests were carried out, and they proved the possibility of using this interferometer for industrial testing of spherical and parabolic mirrors.
Newton Method to Recover the Phase Accumulated during MRI Data Acquisition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oh-In Kwon
2012-01-01
Full Text Available For an internal conductivity image, magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT injects an electric current into an object and measures the induced magnetic flux density, which appears in the phase part of the acquired MR image data. To maximize signal intensity, the injected current nonlinear encoding (ICNE method extends the duration of the current injection until the end of the MR data reading. It disturbs the usual linear encoding of the MR k-space data used in the inverse Fourier transform. In this study, we estimate the magnetic flux density, which is recoverable from nonlinearly encoded MR k-space data by applying a Newton method.
Nano-Newton force based pseudoferroelectric Al-doped ZnO/Si switchable diode
Kumar, Mohit; Som, Tapobrata
2017-10-01
We demonstrate a polarization-mediated tunable nanoscale charge transport in Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film using conductive atomic force microscopy. In fact, we show that charge transport across an AZO film can be tuned by applying an external nano-Newton force, which confirms the presence of polarization in the film. In addition, we also demonstrate the role of polarization on the inhomogeneous work function using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The observed experimental result is attributed to defect-induced polarization in AZO film and will be a step forward to fabricate mechanical force tunable diode.
Spectral variability analysis of an XMM-Newton observation of Ark 564
Brinkmann, W.; Papadakis, I. E.; Raeth, C.
2007-01-01
We present a spectral variability analysis of the X-ray emission of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy Ark 564 using the data from a ~100 ks XMM-Newton observation. Taking advantage of the high sensitivity of this long observation and the simple spectral shape of Ark 564, we determine accurately the spectral variability patterns in the source. We use standard cross-correlation methods to investigate the correlations between the soft and hard energy band light curves. We also generated 200 energ...
A multigrid algorithm for steady transonic potential flows around aerofoils using Newton iteration
Boestoel, J. W.
1981-01-01
The application of multigrid relaxation to transonic potential flow calculation was investigated. Conservative potential flows around aerofoils were taken as test problems. The solution algorithm was based on Newton iteration. It was found that the iteration to the circulation has to be kept outside the multigrid algorithm. To obtain meaningful norms of residuals, difference formulas with asymptotic scaling were introduced. Nonlinear instability problems were solved by upwind differencing using mass flux vector splitting instead of artificial viscosity or artificial density. It is suggested that the algorithms efficiency be increased by improving the iteration on the shock positions even though this is a highly nonlinear process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mishra Vinod
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical Laplace transform method is applied to approximate the solution of nonlinear (quadratic Riccati differential equations mingled with Adomian decomposition method. A new technique is proposed in this work by reintroducing the unknown function in Adomian polynomial with that of well known Newton-Raphson formula. The solutions obtained by the iterative algorithm are exhibited in an infinite series. The simplicity and efficacy of method is manifested with some examples in which comparisons are made among the exact solutions, ADM (Adomian decomposition method, HPM (Homotopy perturbation method, Taylor series method and the proposed scheme.
The Burst Spectra of EXO 0748-676 during a Long 2003 XMM-Newton Observation
Cottam, J.; Paerels, F.; Méndez, M.; Boirin, L.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Kuulkers, E.; Miller, J. M.
2007-01-01
Gravitationally redshifted absorption lines from highly ionized iron have been previously identified in the burst spectra of the neutron star in EXO 0748-676. To repeat this detection we obtained a long, nearly 600 ks observation of the source with XMM-Newton in 2003. The spectral features seen in the burst spectra from the initial data are not reproduced in the burst spectra from this new data. In this paper we present the spectra from the 2003 observations and discuss the sensitivity of the...
NEWTON, EINSTEIN AND HAWKING EXPLAIN DARK ENERGY, DARK MATTER AND COSMIC MYSTERIES.pdf
Bartlett, Rodney
2016-01-01
The idea of gravitational-electromagnetic coupling producing mass, first hinted at by Albert Einstein, allows Isaac Newton's laws of motion and gravitation to be looked at differently. In turn, this gives a new perspective on dark energy, dark matter and expansion of the universe. The work of Stephen Hawking also proved essential to writing this article, which grew out of a discussion I started on the vixra forums (Ramanujan/Einstein are lucky they lived b4 modern "science" - http://vixra.fre...
Da maçã de Eva à maçã de Newton
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José Antônio Zago
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo demonstrar como o aristotelismo foi reconstruído a partir do século XIII por Santo Tomás de Aquino para dar respaldo racional e filosófico à teologia católica e como a física e a cosmologia aristotélicas foram, no decorrer do tempo, descontruídas conforme a construção da ciência moderna (do século XVI ao século XVIII com destaque para Francis Bacon, Copérnico, Kleper, Galileu e Newton.
Symbiotic Stars in X-rays. II. Faint Sources Detected with XMM-Newton and Chandra
Nunez, N. E.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I.; Mukai, K.
2014-01-01
We report the detection from four symbiotic stars that were not known to be X-ray sources. These four object show a ß-type X-ray spectrum, that is, their spectra can be modeled with an absorbed optically thin thermal emission with temperatures of a few million degrees. Photometric series obtained with the Optical Monitor on board XMM-Newton from V2416 Sgr and NSV 25735 support the proposed scenario where the X-ray emission is produced in a shock-heated region inside the symbiotic nebulae.
Efficient calculation of the Gauss-Newton approximation of the Hessian matrix in neural networks.
Fairbank, Michael; Alonso, Eduardo
2012-03-01
The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithm is a popular algorithm for training neural networks; however, for large neural networks, it becomes prohibitively expensive in terms of running time and memory requirements. The most time-critical step of the algorithm is the calculation of the Gauss-Newton matrix, which is formed by multiplying two large Jacobian matrices together. We propose a method that uses backpropagation to reduce the time of this matrix-matrix multiplication. This reduces the overall asymptotic running time of the LM algorithm by a factor of the order of the number of output nodes in the neural network.
Teaching Newton´s laws active learning methodology in tenth-grade
Moreno, Jholman Andres; Martínez Velásquez, Nasly Yanira
2017-01-01
Este documento presenta los resultados de la implementación de la unidad didáctica para la enseñanza de las leyes de Newton bajo la Metodología de Aprendizaje Activo en el grado 10-6 en la Institución Educativa Colegio Departamental La Esperanza de Villavicencio. La metodología empleada fue la Investigación Acción, basada en cuatro pilares fundamentales: planear, actuar, observar y reflexionar, proceso cíclico que busca desde la interpretación de un aspecto social producir un cambio positivo...
Una formula cambia il mondo Newton, Einstein e la teoria della relatività
Fritzsch, Harald
1992-01-01
"Newton non poté contenere il nervosismo, si alzò di scatto e andò alla finestra. Fissò per un istante la strada affollata. "Che cosa ne ha fatto dello spazio e del tempo, Einstein? Prima modifica la struttura del tempo, la cui misura dipende dall'osservatore, adesso anche lo spazio viene degradato in modo analogo. Ho l'impressione che non sia praticamente rimasto nulla dello spazio e del tempo assoluti, protagonisti dei miei Principia: spazio e tempo sono relativi, assoggettati al capriccio dell'osservatore!""...
Fritzsch, Harald
2014-01-01
This book provides a broad introduction into the field of particle physics for the general reader through virtual discussions among prominent physicists, Albert Einstein, Murray Gell-Mann, Issac Newton and a modern physicists. Matter is composed of quarks and electrons. The electrons interact with the atomic nuclei by the exchange of photons. The forces between the quarks are generated by the exchange of gluons, which leads to the confinement of the quarks. The weak bosons provide the weak forces among the leptons and quarks. The book is suitable for non-experts in physics. Readership: General readers, students and researchers in physics.
Generación de fractales a partir del método de Newton
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María José Marín
2013-06-01
Full Text Available A large number of fractals known, as Julia fractals and Mandelbrot, can be generated from an iterative method. In this paper we present a virtual laboratory developed as a Graphical User Interface (GUI of Matlab that allows us to study and visualize in real time the relationship between Newton iterative methods of two variables and the generation of fractals. The main objective is to allow Technical School students in Numerical Computation subjects to acquire the skills to generate fractals and interpret their plots in terms of the convergence or divergence speed of the sequence of iterated.
Adaptive quasi-Newton algorithm for source extraction via CCA approach.
Zhang, Wei-Tao; Lou, Shun-Tian; Feng, Da-Zheng
2014-04-01
This paper addresses the problem of adaptive source extraction via the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) approach. Based on Liu's analysis of CCA approach, we propose a new criterion for source extraction, which is proved to be equivalent to the CCA criterion. Then, a fast and efficient online algorithm using quasi-Newton iteration is developed. The stability of the algorithm is also analyzed using Lyapunov's method, which shows that the proposed algorithm asymptotically converges to the global minimum of the criterion. Simulation results are presented to prove our theoretical analysis and demonstrate the merits of the proposed algorithm in terms of convergence speed and successful rate for source extraction.
Supernova remnants and candidates detected in the XMM-Newton M31 large survey
Sasaki, Manami; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Haberl, Frank; Hatzidimitriou, Despina; Stiele, Holger; Williams, Benjamin; Kong, Albert; Kolb, Ulrich
2012-01-01
We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) and candidates in M31 identified in the XMM-Newton large programme survey of M31. SNRs are among the bright X-ray sources in a galaxy. They are good indicators of recent star formation activities of a galaxy and of the interstellar environment in which they evolve. By combining the X-ray data of sources in M31 with optical data as well as with optical and radio catalogues, we aim to compile a complete, revised list of SNRs emitting X-rays i...
Westfall, Richard S
2007-01-01
Definitive, concise, and very interesting... From William Shakespeare to Winston Churchill, the Very Interesting People series provides authoritative bite-sized biographies of Britain's most fascinating historical figures - people whose influence and importance have stood the test of time. Each book in the series is based upon the biographical entry from the world-famous Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. -
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vivek S Borkar1. School of Technology and Computer Science Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400 005, India. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 1. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 1. January 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special ...
Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Smith, Randall K.; Edgar, Richard J.; Kuntz, Kip D.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Snowden, Steven L.
2010-01-01
We present the first analysis of an XMM-Newton observation of the nearby molecular cloud MBM 12. We find that in the direction of MBM 12 the total O VII (0.57 keV) triplet emission is 1.8(+0.5/-0.6) photons/sq cm/s/sr (or Line Units - LU) while for the O VIII (0.65 keV) line emission we find a 3(sigma) upper limit of Newton observations. This comparison provides new constraints on the relative heliospheric and Local Bubble contributions to the local diffuse X-ray background. The heliospheric SWCX model predicts 0.82 LU for O VII, which accounts for approx. 46+/-15% of the observed value, and 0.33 LU for the O VIII line emission consistent with the XMM-Newton observed value. We discuss our results in combination with previous observations of the MBM 12 with CHANDRA and Suzaku.
Bailey, Harry E.; Beam, Richard M.
1991-01-01
Finite-difference approximations for steady-state compressible Navier-Stokes equations, whose two spatial dimensions are written in generalized curvilinear coordinates and strong conservation-law form, are presently solved by means of Newton's method in order to obtain a lifting-airfoil flow field under subsonic and transonnic conditions. In addition to ascertaining the computational requirements of an initial guess ensuring convergence and the degree of computational efficiency obtainable via the approximate Newton method's freezing of the Jacobian matrices, attention is given to the need for auxiliary methods assessing the temporal stability of steady-state solutions. It is demonstrated that nonunique solutions of the finite-difference equations are obtainable by Newton's method in conjunction with a continuation method.
Teaching Newton's 3rd law of motion using learning by design approach
Aquino, Jiezel G.; Caliguid, Mariel P.; Buan, Amelia T.; Magsayod, Joy R.; Lahoylahoy, Myrna E.
2018-01-01
This paper presents the process and implementation of Learning by Design Approach in teaching Newton's 3rd Law of Motion. A lesson activity from integrative STEM education was adapted, modified and enhanced through pilot testing. After revisions, the implementation was done to one class. The respondent's prior knowledge was first assessed by a pretest. PPIT (present the scenario, plan, implement and test) was the framework followed in the implementation of Learning by Design. Worksheets were then utilized to measure their conceptual understanding and perception. A score guide was also used to evaluate the student's output. Paired t-test analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the pretest and posttest achievement scores. This implies that the performance of the students have improved during the implementation of the Learning by Design. The Analysis of variance also depicts that the low, average and high benefited in the Learning by Design approach. The results of this study suggests that Learning by Design is an effective approach in teaching Newton's 3rd Law of Motion and thus be used in a Science classroom.
X-ray reflectivity investigation of Newton and common black films
Benattar, J. J.; Schalchli, A.; Bélorgey, O.
1992-06-01
In the present paper we show that X-ray reflectivity provides a new means of studying black films of soap which are the ultimate stage of thinning soap films. We have thus solved a structural problem which dates is back over three centuries old: the Newton black film has a sandwich structure which does not contain an aqueous core but only contains a hydration layer of the polar heads. We have also investigated the thicker common black films as a function of the ionic strength and of the drainage of water on a nanometric scale. Dans cet article nous montrons que la réflectivité des rayons X est un nouveau moyen d'aborder l'étude des films noirs de savon qui sont les étapes ultimes d'une bulle après l'écoulement de l'eau. Nous avons pu résoudre ainsi un problème structural qui date de plus de trois sièlces: le film noir de Newton est une structure sandwich qui ne contient pas d'eau mais une couche d'hydratation des têtes polaires. Nous avons également étudié les films noirs communs, plus épais, en fonction de la force ionique ainsi que les problèmes d'écoulement à une échelle nanométrique.
A Perturbation Based Chaotic System Exploiting the Quasi-Newton Method for Global Optimization
Tatsumi, Keiji; Tanino, Tetsuzo
The chaotic system has been exploited in metaheuristic methods of solving continuous global optimization problems. Recently, the gradient method with perturbation (GP) was proposed, which was derived from the steepest descent method for the problem with additional perturbation terms, and it was reported that chaotic metaheuristics with the GP have good performances of solving some benchmark problems. Moreover, the sufficient condition of its parameter values was theoretically shown under which its updating system is chaotic. However, the sufficient condition of its chaoticity and the width of strange attractor around each local minimum, which are important properties for exploiting the chaotic system in optimization, deeply depend on the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix of the objective function at the local minimum. Thus, if the eigenvalues of different local minima are widely different from each other, or if it is different in different problems, such properties can cause the difficulty of selecting appropriate parameter values for an effective search. Therefore, in this paper, we propose modified GPs based on the quasi-Newton method instead of the steepest descent method, where their chaoticities and the width of strange attractor do not depend on the eigenvalue of the Hessian matrix at any local minimum due to the scale invariant of the quasi-Newton method. In addition, we empirically demonstrate that the parameter selection of the proposed methods is easier than the original GP, especially with respect to the step-size, and the chaotic metaheuristics with the proposed methods can find better solutions for some multimodal functions.
INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations of the weak gamma-ray burst GRB 030227
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mereghetti, S.; Gotz, D.; Tiengo, A.
2003-01-01
We present International Gamma-Ray Astrophysical Laboratory ( INTEGRAL) and XMM-Newton observations of the prompt gamma-ray emission and the X-ray afterglow of GRB 030227, the first gamma-ray burst for which the quick localization obtained with the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System has led to the disco......We present International Gamma-Ray Astrophysical Laboratory ( INTEGRAL) and XMM-Newton observations of the prompt gamma-ray emission and the X-ray afterglow of GRB 030227, the first gamma-ray burst for which the quick localization obtained with the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System has led...... to the discovery of X-ray and optical afterglows. GRB 030227 had a duration of about 20 s and a peak flux of similar to1.1 photons cm(-2) s(-1) in the 20-200 keV energy range. The time-averaged spectrum can be fitted by a single power law with photon index similar to2, and we find some evidence for a hard......-to-soft spectral evolution. The X-ray afterglow has been detected starting only 8 hr after the prompt emission, with a 0.2-10 keV flux decreasing as t(-1) from 1.3 x 10(-12) to 5 x 10(-13) ergs cm(-2) s(-1). The afterglow spectrum is well described by a power law with photon index modified by a 1.94 +/- 0...
The XMM-Newton View of the x<0.4 Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium
Nicastro, F.
2017-10-01
We present preliminary results from the whole 1.6 Ms XMM-Newton observation of the z>0.4 Blazar 1ES 1553+113. The final 1.6 Ms spectrum of 1ES 1553+113 has reached a 90% sensitivity of 4 mA to absorption line equivalent width. In the XMM-Newton and Chandra grating archives such sensitivities are reached only in the spectra of the brightest blazar in the Universe, Mkn 421, which however explores a line-of-sight pathlength >10 times shorter than that seen against 1ES 1553+113. According to the most conservative theoretical predictions at least 2 WHIM OVII Ka absorbers should have been detected down to these sensitivities and up to such pathlengths. However, the RGS spectrum of 1ES 1553+113, which clearly detects several all the expected Galactic absorption lines down to such sensitivities and hints to a bunch of even weaker Galactic transitions, does not show any intervening absorption line securely identifiable with WHIM. This clearly questions predictions at a significance larger than 90% and opens a number of questions that desperately need to be properly investigated and possibly addressed, both theoretically and observationally, before the advent of the next generation of high-resolution X-ray spectrometers.
A Novel Parameter Estimation Method for Muskingum Model Using New Newton-Type Trust Region Algorithm
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Zhou Sheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Parameters estimation of Muskingum model is very significative in both exploitation and utilization of water resources and hydrological forecasting. The optimal results of parameters directly affect the accuracy of flood forecasting. This paper considers the parameters estimation problem of Muskingum model from the following two aspects. Firstly, based on the general trapezoid formulas, a class of new discretization methods including a parameter θ to approximate Muskingum model is presented. The accuracy of these methods is second-order, when θ≠1/3. Particularly, if we choose θ=1/3, the accuracy of the presented method can be improved to third-order. Secondly, according to the Newton-type trust region algorithm, a new Newton-type trust region algorithm is given to obtain the parameters of Muskingum model. This method can avoid high dependence on the initial parameters. The average absolute errors (AAE and the average relative errors (ARE of the proposed algorithm of parameters estimation for Muskingum model are 8.208122 and 2.462438%, respectively, where θ=1/3. It is shown from these results that the presented algorithm has higher forecasting accuracy and wider practicability than other methods.
Was Newton right? A search for non-Newtonian behavior of weak-field gravity
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Boynton Paul
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Empirical tests of Einstein’s metric theory of gravitation, even in the non-relativistic, weak-field limit, could play an important role in judging theory-driven extensions of the current Standard Model of fundamental interactions. Guided by Galileo's work and his own experiments, Newton formulated a theory of gravity in which the force of attraction between two bodies is independent of composition and proportional to the inertia of each, thereby transparently satisfying Galileo's empirically informed conjecture regarding the Universality of Free Fall. Similarly, Einstein honored the manifest success of Newton’s theory by assuring that the linearized equations of GTR matched the Newtonian formalism under “classical” conditions. Each of these steps, however, was explicitly an approximation raised to the status of principle. Perhaps, at some level, Newtonian gravity does not accurately describe the physical interaction between uncharged, unmagnetized, macroscopic bits of ordinary matter. What if Newton were wrong? Detecting any significant deviation from Newtonian behavior, no matter how small, could provide new insights and possibly reveal new physics. In the context of physics as an empirical science, for us this yet unanswered question constitutes sufficient motivation to attempt precision measurements of the kind described here. In this paper we report the current status of a project to search for violation of the Newtonian inverse square law of gravity.
Globalized Newton-Krylov-Schwarz Algorithms and Software for Parallel Implicit CFD
Gropp, W. D.; Keyes, D. E.; McInnes, L. C.; Tidriri, M. D.
1998-01-01
Implicit solution methods are important in applications modeled by PDEs with disparate temporal and spatial scales. Because such applications require high resolution with reasonable turnaround, "routine" parallelization is essential. The pseudo-transient matrix-free Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (Psi-NKS) algorithmic framework is presented as an answer. We show that, for the classical problem of three-dimensional transonic Euler flow about an M6 wing, Psi-NKS can simultaneously deliver: globalized, asymptotically rapid convergence through adaptive pseudo- transient continuation and Newton's method-, reasonable parallelizability for an implicit method through deferred synchronization and favorable communication-to-computation scaling in the Krylov linear solver; and high per- processor performance through attention to distributed memory and cache locality, especially through the Schwarz preconditioner. Two discouraging features of Psi-NKS methods are their sensitivity to the coding of the underlying PDE discretization and the large number of parameters that must be selected to govern convergence. We therefore distill several recommendations from our experience and from our reading of the literature on various algorithmic components of Psi-NKS, and we describe a freely available, MPI-based portable parallel software implementation of the solver employed here.
PENGGUNAAN ALGORITMA NEWTON – RAPHSON UNTUK MEMBUAT SOFTWARE PENENTUAN DOSIS OBAT
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Ibnu Gunawan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available USCPACK Software from University of Carolina is one of the pioneers of computerized drug dosage system. This software uses Bayesian method. The algorithm that used in this software is known as NPEM (Non Parametric Expectation Maximization. After knowing how USCPACK work, then we made new software that has the same use like USCPACK but with new algorithm that different from NPEM. These paper will describe the how to make the software based on NPAG algorithm. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Software USCPACK buatan University of Carolina merupakan salah satu pelopor dimungkinkannya penentuan dosis obat persatuan waktu tertentu untuk pasien secara umum menggunakan komputer. Software ini bekerja dengan menggunakan metode dasar Bayesian. Algoritma yang digunakan oleh software ini adalah NPEM (Non Parametric Expectation Maximization. Setelah mengetahui cara kerja dari USCPACK maka dibuatlah sebuah software pendosisan obat menggunakan algoritma non parametrik lain selain NPEM. Paper ini akan membahas pembuatan software pendosisan obat menggunakan algoritma newton – raphson dalam penentuan dosis obat terkomputerisasi. Kata kunci: Pendosisan terkomputerisasi, optimasi, Bayesian, NPEM, Newton Raphson,USCPACK
An XMM-Newton Study of the Bright Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy Arakelian 564
Brandt, Niel
2004-01-01
We report on two XMM-Newton observations of the bright Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy Ark 564 taken one year apart (2000 June and 2001 June). The 0.6-10 keV continuum is well described by a soft blackbody component (kT - 140-150 eV) plus a steep power law (Gamma - 2.50-2.55). No significant spectral changes are observed between the two observations, although the X-ray flux in the second observation is - 40-50 per cent lower. In both observations we detect a significant absorption edge at a rest-frame energy of - 0.73 keV, corresponding to 0 VII. The presence of the absorption feature is confirmed by a simultaneous Chandra grating observation in 2000 June, although the best-fitting edge threshold is at a slightly lower energy in the Chandra data, possibly because of a different parameterization of the underlying X-ray continuum. We find tentative evidence for a broad iron emission line in the 2000 June observation. The results from an analysis of the power spectral density (PSD) function are also presented. The present XMM-Newton data support the idea that the PSD shows two breaks, although the location of the high-frequency break requires further constraints.
XMM-Newton study of the supersoft symbiotic system Draco C1
Saeedi, Sara; Sasaki, Manami; Ducci, Lorenzo
2018-01-01
We present the results of the analysis of thirty-one XMM-Newton observations of the symbiotic star Draco C1 located in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. This object had been identified as a supersoft source based on ROSAT data. We analysed X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and optical data taken with XMM-Newton in order to obtain the physical parameters and the geometry of the system. We have also performed the first X-ray timing analysis of Draco C1. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted with a blackbody model with a temperature of (1.8 ± 0.3) × 105 K. We obtained a bolometric luminosity of ≳1038 erg s-1 for the white dwarf. The X-ray spectrum and luminosity suggest stable nuclear burning on the surface of the white dwarf. The low column density derived from the X-ray spectrum is consistent with the lack of nebular lines found in previous UV studies. The long-term variability in the optical and the UV suggests that the system is not observed face-on and that the variability is caused by the reflection effect. For the red giant companion, we estimate a radius of ∼110 R⊙ and an upper limit ≲1.5 M⊙ for its mass assuming Roche lobe overflow.
Triggered high-state simultaneous XMM-Newton/NuSTAR observations of AM Herculis
Schwope, A.; Worpel, H.; Traulsen, I.
2017-10-01
We report on simultaneous XMM-Newton/NuSTAR observations of the prototypical polar AM Herculis. The observations were triggered by an optical monitoring programme indicating a stable high accretion state. For the first time, AM Herculis could be observed in its reversed mode of accretion with imaging CCDs and full phase coverage for several subsequent binary cycles. The observations revealed several novelties: (1) Ultraviolet, soft and hard X-ray light curves displayed a complete new morphology; (2) a spectral analysis of the soft flares originating from the secondary (far) pole was possible for the first time; (3) extended phases of complete soft X-ray absorption were indicating a complex distribution of cold intra-binary matter; (4) the joint NuSTAR/XMM-Newton spectrum revealed the Compton reflection hump due to scattered radiation from the white-dwarf surface; (5) the Fe-line complex thought to originate from the main (regular) pole showed pronounced dissimilarities with its behavior in the regular accretion mode in year 2005.
Liu, Lulu
2013-01-01
The fully implicit approach is attractive in reservoir simulation for reasons of numerical stability and the avoidance of splitting errors when solving multiphase flow problems, but a large nonlinear system must be solved at each time step, so efficient and robust numerical methods are required to treat the nonlinearity. The Additive Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton (ASPIN) framework, as an option for the outermost solver, successfully handles strong nonlinearities in computational fluid dynamics, but is barely explored for the highly nonlinear models of complex multiphase flow with capillarity, heterogeneity, and complex geometry. In this paper, the fully implicit ASPIN method is demonstrated for a finite volume discretization based on incompressible two-phase reservoir simulators in the presence of capillary forces and gravity. Numerical experiments show that the number of global nonlinear iterations is not only scalable with respect to the number of processors, but also significantly reduced compared with the standard inexact Newton method with a backtracking technique. Moreover, the ASPIN method, in contrast with the IMPES method, saves overall execution time because of the savings in timestep size.
1979-08-01
theorem of Kantoravich [531 as given by Henrici [541, An additional discussion of the theorem and its application to the ! 1 I 29 Newton method may be...is a matrix, then n I1-11 - max . lb I (3.13) 1i n j1 bij We next cite the following lemma due to Banach ( Henrici [54], pp. 365). Lemma: Let B be a...details of this proof here; it may be found in Henrici 54], pp. 366. Let us determine how this theorem applies to the modified Newton method as compared
XMM-Newton detects X-ray 'solar cycle' in distant star
2004-05-01
The Sun as observed by SOHO hi-res Size hi-res: 708 Kb The Sun as observed by SOHO The Sun as observed by the ESA/NASA SOHO observatory near the minimum of the solar cycle (left) and near its maximum (right). The signs of solar activity near the maximum are clearly seen. New XMM-Newton observations suggest that this behaviour may be typical of stars like the Sun, such as HD 81809 in the constellation Hydra. Solar flare - 4 November 2003 The huge flare produced on 4 November 2003 This image of the Sun, obtained by the ESA/NASA SOHO observatory, shows the powerful X-ray flare that took place on 4 November 2003. The associated coronal mass ejection, coming out of the Sun at a speed of 8.2 million kilometres per hour, hit the Earth several hours later and caused disruptions to telecommunication and power distribution lines. New XMM-Newton observations suggest that this behaviour may be typical of stars like the Sun, such as HD 81809 in the constellation Hydra. Since the time Galileo discovered sunspots, in 1610, astronomers have measured their number, size and location on the disc of the Sun. Sunspots are relatively cooler areas on the Sun that are observed as dark patches. Their number rises and falls with the level of activity of the Sun in a cycle of about 11 years. When the Sun is very active, large-scale phenomena take place, such as the flares and coronal mass ejections observed by the ESA/NASA solar observatory SOHO. These events release a large amount of energy and charged particles that hit the Earth and can cause powerful magnetic storms, affecting radio communications, power distribution lines and even our weather and climate. During the solar cycle, the X-ray emission from the Sun varies by a large amount (about a factor of 100) and is strongest when the cycle is at its peak and the surface of the Sun is covered by the largest number of spots. ESA's X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton, has now shown for the first time that this cyclic X-ray behaviour is common to
Mehta, Dhagash; Chen, Tianran; Morgan, John W. R.; Wales, David J.
2015-12-01
The comment notes that the Newton homotopy (NH) and Newton trajectory (NT) methods are related. By describing recent implementations of the NH method, we clarify the similarities and differences between the two approaches. The possible synergy between NH, NT and other flow methods could suggest further developments in mathematics and chemistry.
The distance and internal composition of the neutron star in EXO 0748-676 with XMM-Newton
Zhang, Guobao; Mendez, Mariano; Jonker, Peter; Hiemstra, Beike
Recently, the neutron star X-ray binary EXO 0748-676 underwent a transition to quiescence. We analysed an XMM-Newton observation of this source in quiescence, where we fitted the spectrum with two different neutron star atmosphere models. From the fits we constrained the allowed parameter space in
The cooling, mass and radius of the neutron star in EXO 0748-676 in quiescence with XMM-Newton
Cheng, Zheng; Méndez, Mariano; Díaz-Trigo, María; Costantini, Elisa
2017-01-01
We analyse four XMM-Newton observations of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676 in quiescence. We fit the spectra with an absorbed neutron-star atmosphere model, without the need for a high-energy (power-law) component; with a 95 per cent confidence the power law contributes less than
Ultraviolet and X-ray variability of NGC 4051 over 45 days with XMM-Newton and Swift
Alston, W.N.; Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.
2013-01-01
We analyse 15 XMM-Newton observations of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4051 obtained over 45 d to determine the ultraviolet (UV) light curve variability characteristics and search for correlated UV/X-ray emission. The UV light curve shows variability on all time-scales, however with lower fractional rms
A long XMM-Newton observation of an extreme narrow-line Seyfert 1: PG 1244+026
Jin, C.; Done, C.; Middleton, M.; Ward, M.
2013-01-01
We explore the origin of the strong soft X-ray excess in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies using spectral-timing information from a 120 ks XMM-Newton observation of PG 1244+026. Spectral fitting alone cannot distinguish between a true additional soft X-ray continuum component and strongly
Savinainen, Antti; Mäkynen, Asko; Nieminen, Pasi; Viiri, Jouni
2017-01-01
This paper presents a research-based teaching-learning sequence (TLS) that focuses on the notion of interaction in teaching Newton's third law (N3 law) which is, as earlier studies have shown, a challenging topic for students to learn. The TLS made systematic use of a visual representation tool--an interaction diagram (ID)--highlighting…
An X-Ray Investigation of the NGC346 Field in the SMC (3): XMM-Newton Data
Naze, Yael; Manfroid, Jean; Corcoran, Michael F.; Stevens, Ian R.
2004-01-01
We present new XMM-Newton results on the field around the NGC346 star cluster in the SMC. This continues and extends previously published work on Chandra observations of the same field. The two XMM-Newton observations were obtained, respectively, six months before and six months after the previously published Chandra data. Of the 51 X-ray sources detected with XMM-Newton, 29 were already detected with Chandru. Comparing the properties of these X-ray sources in each of our three datasets has enabled us to investigate their variability on times scales of a year. Changes in the flux levels and/or spectral properties were observed for 21 of these sources. In addition, we discovered long-term variations in the X-ray properties of the peculiar system HD5980, a luminous blue variable star, that is likely to be a colliding wind binary system, which displays the largest luminosity during the first XMM-Newton observation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Walton, D. J.; Risaliti, G.; Harrison, F. A.
2014-01-01
We present a spectral analysis of four coordinated NuSTAR+XMM-Newton observations of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365. These exhibit an extreme level of spectral variability, which is primarily due to variable line-of-sight absorption, revealing relatively unobscured states in this source for the first...
The Broadband Spectral Variability of MCG-6-30-15 Observed by NUSTAR and XMM-NEWTON
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Miniutti, G.
2014-01-01
MCG-6-30-15, at a distance of 37 Mpc (z = 0.008), is the archetypical Seyfert 1 galaxy showing very broad Fe K alpha emission. We present results from a joint NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observational campaign that, for the first time, allows a sensitive, time-resolved spectral analysis from 0.35 keV up...
The multi-layer variable absorbers in NGC 1365 revealed by XMM-Newton and NuSTAR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rivers, E.; Risaliti, G.; Walton, D. J.
2015-01-01
Between 2012 July and 2013 February, NuSTAR and XMM-Newton performed four long-look joint observations of the type 1.8 Seyfert, NGC 1365. We have analyzed the variable absorption seen in these observations in order to characterize the geometry of the absorbing material. Two of the observations...
Bramley, Tom
2012-01-01
There is something about the topic of validity that seems to provoke dissatisfaction in many of those who encounter it--a sense that something is not right, and that something needs to be done to sort it out. Paul E. Newton in his target essay does not attempt a radical reconstruction of the validity edifice. His position is that the "consensus…
Zhou, Fangqin
2014-01-01
We study the local convergence properties of inexact Newton-Gauss method for singular systems of equations. Unified estimates of radius of convergence balls for one kind of singular systems of equations with constant rank derivatives are obtained. Application to the Smale point estimate theory is provided and some important known results are extended and/or improved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Strykowski, Gabriel; Larsen, Jacob Norby
2000-01-01
In this paper we advocate the use of Newton's law of gravitational attraction to ensure perfect consistency between gravity and height data. Starting with the absolute gravity on the topography we decompose this signal into a number of quantities associated with physics of the system. To model gr...
Improved Full-Newton Step O(nL) Infeasible Interior-Point Method for Linear Optimization
Gu, G.; Mansouri, H.; Zangiabadi, M.; Bai, Y.Q.; Roos, C.
2009-01-01
We present several improvements of the full-Newton step infeasible interior-point method for linear optimization introduced by Roos (SIAM J. Optim. 16(4):1110–1136, 2006). Each main step of the method consists of a feasibility step and several centering steps. We use a more natural feasibility step,
S.-C. Fang; J. Han; Z. Huang (Zhen); S.I. Birbil (Ilker)
2002-01-01
textabstractBy using a smooth entropy function to approximate the non-smooth max-type function, a vertical linear complementarity problem (VLCP) can be treated as a family of parameterized smooth equations. A Newton-type method with a testing procedure is proposed to solve such a system. We show
S.I. Birbil (Ilker); S-C. Fang (Shu-Cherng); J. Han
2002-01-01
textabstractBy using a smooth entropy function to approximate the non-smooth max-type function, a vertical linear complementarity problem (VLCP) can be treated as a family of parameterized smooth equations. A Newton-type method with a testing procedure is proposed to solve such a system. We show
Zhou, Fangqin
2014-01-01
We study the local convergence properties of inexact Newton-Gauss method for singular systems of equations. Unified estimates of radius of convergence balls for one kind of singular systems of equations with constant rank derivatives are obtained. Application to the Smale point estimate theory is provided and some important known results are extended and/or improved. PMID:24790580
Using the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor to Study Cluster Galaxy Evolution
Miller, Neal A.; O'Steen, Richard; Yen, Steffi; Kuntz, K. D.; Hammer, Derek
2012-02-01
We explore the application of XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) ultraviolet (UV) data to study galaxy evolution. Our sample is constructed as the intersection of all Abell clusters with z indicative of differences in star formation history. This is particularly true for UVW1 data, as the relative abundance of data collected using this filter and its depth make it an attractive choice. Available tools that use stellar synthesis libraries to fit the UV and optical photometric data may also be used, thereby better describing star formation history within the past billion years and providing estimates of total stellar mass that include contributions from young stars. Finally, color-color diagrams that include XMM-OM UV data appear useful to the photometric identification of both extragalactic and stellar sources.
Exploring the potential energy landscape of the Thomson problem via Newton homotopies
Mehta, Dhagash; Chen, Tianran; Morgan, John W. R.; Wales, David J.
2015-05-01
Locating the stationary points of a real-valued multivariate potential energy function is an important problem in many areas of science. This task generally amounts to solving simultaneous nonlinear systems of equations. While there are several numerical methods that can find many or all stationary points, they each exhibit characteristic problems. Moreover, traditional methods tend to perform poorly near degenerate stationary points with additional zero Hessian eigenvalues. We propose an efficient and robust implementation of the Newton homotopy method, which is capable of quickly sampling a large number of stationary points of a wide range of indices, as well as degenerate stationary points. We demonstrate our approach by applying it to the Thomson problem. We also briefly discuss a possible connection between the present work and Smale's 7th problem.
Multivariate Monte Carlo Methods for the Reflection Grating Spectrometers on XMM-Newton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterson, J.
2004-11-10
We propose a novel multivariate Monte Carlo method as an efficient and flexible approach to analyzing extended X-ray sources with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on XMM Newton. A multi-dimensional interpolation method is used to efficiently calculate the response function for the RGS in conjunction with an arbitrary spatially-varying spectral model. Several methods of event comparison that effectively compare the multivariate RGS data are discussed. The use of a multi-dimensional instrument Monte Carlo also creates many opportunities for the use of complex astrophysical Monte Carlo calculations in diffuse X-ray spectroscopy. The methods presented here could be generalized to other X-ray instruments as well.
Cross-calibrating XMM-Newton's EPIC effective areas for a default empirical correction
Heinitz, C.; Smith, M.; Tenzer, C.; Stuhlinger, M.; Santangelo, A.
2017-10-01
Since SAS version 14.0, there is an option available to XMM-Newton users to apply an empirical on-axis effective area correction to reconcile the three EPIC cameras amongst themselves via an energy-dependent multiplicative factor. However, CORRAREA, which is the corresponding extension in the XMM calibration files, is currently only implemented as a non-default tool as it is not yet considered fully validated and requires recalibration. The goal is to make CORRAREA a default correction, for which we perform the necessary data reduction, spectral fitting and analysis, including an automation of the process as far as possible for testing purposes and future updates. This poster introduces the project and shows the current status of the recalibration. Further development of the tool is intended to bring the EPIC cameras in line with instruments on other observatories.
Stand-alone differential capacitance force sensors with sub-nano-newton sensitivity
Ye, Jilong; Sun, Taotao; Huang, Dong; Li, Zhihong; Lin, Li
2017-09-01
This paper presents structure design, microfabrication processes, calibration techniques and experimental results of differential capacitance force sensors with features of sub-nano-newton sensitivity, up to 10 000 Hz sampling rate, and applicability as stand-alone devices. The representative sensor demonstrates a force resolution of 0.11 nN at a 19 Hz sampling rate or 1.47 nN at 10 000 Hz. A novel asymmetric differential capacitance structure proposed results in remarkable increase in the ratio of measurement range to resolution in comparison with traditional symmetric structure. In addition, the stiction between silicon and glass caused by the capillary force during dicing is eliminated by the use of hydrophobization treatment. Such a treatment is essential to successfully fabricate structures with a large ratio of overlapped area to gap in silicon/glass anodic bonding processes.
Neutron Stars and Black Holes New clues from Chandra and XMM-Newton
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2002-01-01
Neutron stars and black holes, the most compact astrophysical objects, have become observable in many different ways during the last few decades. We will first review the phenomenology and properties of neutron stars and black holes (stellar and supermassive) as derived from multiwavelength observatories. Recently much progress has been made by means of the new powerful X-ray observatories Chandra and XMM-Newton which provide a substantial increase in sensitivity as well as spectral and angular resolution compared with previous satellites like ROSAT and ASCA. We shall discuss in more detail two recent topics: (1) The attempts to use X-ray spectroscopy for measuring the radii of neutron stars which depend on the equation of state at supranuclear densities. Have quark stars been detected? (2) The diagnostics of the strong gravity regions around supermassive black holes using X-ray spectroscopy.
Newton-Gauss Algorithm of Robust Weighted Total Least Squares Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WANG Bin
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Based on the Newton-Gauss iterative algorithm of weighted total least squares (WTLS, a robust WTLS (RWTLS model is presented. The model utilizes the standardized residuals to construct the weight factor function and the square root of the variance component estimator with robustness is obtained by introducing the median method. Therefore, the robustness in both the observation and structure spaces can be simultaneously achieved. To obtain standardized residuals, the linearly approximate cofactor propagation law is employed to derive the expression of the cofactor matrix of WTLS residuals. The iterative calculation steps for RWTLS are also described. The experiment indicates that the model proposed in this paper exhibits satisfactory robustness for gross errors handling problem of WTLS, the obtained parameters have no significant difference with the results of WTLS without gross errors. Therefore, it is superior to the robust weighted total least squares model directly constructed with residuals.
Jean-Paul Marat (1743-1793, cientista e tradutor de Newton
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tosi Lucía
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Although Jean Paul Marat (1743-1793 is known as a political activist and as a founder of the controversial journal L'Ami du Peuple during the French Revolution, an important period of his life was spent as a medical practionner, and as a scientist. In 1765 he went to England, where he remained for eleven years mostly dedicated to medical practice and publications on that subject and on political and moral questions. Returning to France in 1776 he iniciated his researches on fire, electricity and light, that lasted practically until the French Revolution. In 1787 he published a translation of Newton's Opticks. In this article we describe in some detail his medical and scientific practice giving particular emphasis to his experiments on optics and to his theory about colors which strongly departs from newtonian theory, fully accepted by the French scientific community of the time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Fei
2014-08-01
Full Text Available For the vector attitude determination, the traditional optimal algorithms which are based on quaternion estimator (QUEST measurement noise model are complicated for just two observations. In our application, the magnetometer and accelerometer are not two comparable kinds of sensors and both are not small field-of-view sensors as well. So in this paper a new unit measurement model is derived. According to the Wahba problem, the optimal weights for each measurement are obtained by the error variance researches. Then an improved quaternion Gauss–Newton method is presented and adopted to acquire attitude. Eventually, simulation results and experimental validation employed to test the proposed method demonstrate the usefulness of the improved algorithm.
‘Bobo-Newton Syndrome’: An Unwanted Gift from Man’s Best Friend
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kristin Y Popiel
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a facultative Gram-negative bacillus that is typically a constituent of the oral flora of dogs and cats. It was first isolated by Bobo and Newton in 1976 from a man presenting with meningitis following a dog bite. Transmission to humans follows various animal-related injuries, which may be gross or subtle. C canimorsus can cause a spectrum of syndromes ranging from skin and soft tissue infection to invasive disease such as meningitis or endocarditis. The present article reports a case of C canimorsus meningitis in a patient with the classic risk factor of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Clinical suspicion was confirmed by culture and genetic identification of the blood isolate. The present article reviews the Capnocytophaga genus, the clinical syndromes most commonly associated with this zoonotic organism, its laboratory identification and treatment.
Unsteady Newton-Busemann flow theory. Part 2: Bodies of revolution
Hui, W. H.; Tobak, M.
1981-01-01
Newtonian flow theory for unsteady flow past oscillating bodies of revolution at very high Mach numbers is completed by adding a centrifugal force correction to the impact pressures. Exact formulas for the unsteady pressure and the stability derivatives are obtained in closed form and are applicable to bodies of revolution that have arbitrary shapes, arbitrary thicknesses, and either sharp or blunt noses. The centrifugal force correction arising from the curved trajectories followed by the fluid particles in unsteady flow cannot be neglected even for the case of a circular cone. With this correction, the present theory is in excellent agreement with experimental results for sharp cones and for cones with small nose bluntness; gives poor agreement with the results of experiments in air for bodies with moderate or large nose bluntness. The pitching motions of slender power-law bodies of revulution are shown to be always dynamically stable according to Newton-Busemann theory.
A Semismooth Newton Method for Nonlinear Parameter Identification Problems with Impulsive Noise
Clason, Christian
2012-01-01
This work is concerned with nonlinear parameter identification in partial differential equations subject to impulsive noise. To cope with the non-Gaussian nature of the noise, we consider a model with L 1 fitting. However, the nonsmoothness of the problem makes its efficient numerical solution challenging. By approximating this problem using a family of smoothed functionals, a semismooth Newton method becomes applicable. In particular, its superlinear convergence is proved under a second-order condition. The convergence of the solution to the approximating problem as the smoothing parameter goes to zero is shown. A strategy for adaptively selecting the regularization parameter based on a balancing principle is suggested. The efficiency of the method is illustrated on several benchmark inverse problems of recovering coefficients in elliptic differential equations, for which one- and two-dimensional numerical examples are presented. © by SIAM.
XMM-Newton Observation of Fe K(alpha) Emission from a BAL QSO: Mrk 231
Turner, T. J.; Kraemer, S. B.
2003-01-01
We present results from a 20 ksec XMM-Newton observation of Mrk 231. EPIC spectral data reveal strong line emission due to Fe K alpha, which has rarely been detected in this class, as BAL QSOs are very faint in the X-ray band. The line energy is consistent with an origin in neutral Fe. The width of the line is equivalent to a velocity dispersion approximately 18,000 kilometers per second and thus the line may be attributed to transmission and/or reflection from a distribution of emitting clouds. If, instead, the line originates in the accretion disk then the line strength and flat X-ray continuum support some contribution from a reflected component, although the data disfavor a model where the hard X-ray band is purely reflected X-rays. The line parameters are similar to those obtained for the Fe Ka line detected in another BAL QSO, H1413 + 117.
On the Reversibility of Newton-Raphson Root-Finding Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL; Wright, John P [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL
2008-07-01
Reversibility of a computational method is the ability to execute the method forward as well as backward. Reversible computational methods are generally useful in undoing incorrect computation in a speculative execution setting designed for efficient parallel processing. Here, reversibility is explored of a common component in scientific codes, namely, the Newton-Raphson root-finding method. A reverse method is proposed that is aimed at retracing the sequence of points that are visited by the forward method during forward iterations. When given the root, along with the number of iterations, of the forward method, this reverse method is aimed at backtracking along the reverse sequence of points to finally recover the original starting point of the forward method. The operation of this reverse method is illustrated on a few example functions, serving to highlight the method's strengths and shortcomings.
A quasi-Newton algorithm for large-scale nonlinear equations
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Linghua Huang
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the algorithm for large-scale nonlinear equations is designed by the following steps: (i a conjugate gradient (CG algorithm is designed as a sub-algorithm to obtain the initial points of the main algorithm, where the sub-algorithm’s initial point does not have any restrictions; (ii a quasi-Newton algorithm with the initial points given by sub-algorithm is defined as main algorithm, where a new nonmonotone line search technique is presented to get the step length α k $\\alpha_{k}$ . The given nonmonotone line search technique can avoid computing the Jacobian matrix. The global convergence and the 1 + q $1+q$ -order convergent rate of the main algorithm are established under suitable conditions. Numerical results show that the proposed method is competitive with a similar method for large-scale problems.
A Gauss-Newton approach to joint image registration and intensity correction.
Ebrahimi, Mehran; Lausch, Anthony; Martel, Anne L
2013-12-01
We develop a new efficient numerical methodology for automated simultaneous registration and intensity correction of images. The approach separates the intensity correction term from the images being registered in a regularized expression. Our formulation is consistent with the existing non-parametric image registration techniques, however, an extra additive intensity correction term is carried throughout. An objective functional is formed for which the corresponding Hessian and Jacobian is computed and employed in a multi-level Gauss-Newton minimization approach. In this paper, our experiments are based on elastic regularization on the transformation and total variation on the intensity correction. Validations on dynamic contrast enhanced MR abdominal images for both real and simulated data verified the efficacy of the model. The pursued approach is flexible in which we can exploit various forms of regularization on the transformation and the intensity correction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Modeling quantum mechanical scattering with continuous analogue of the newton method
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Algirdas Deveikis
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Computational modelling of potential and resonant scattering for short range and Coulomb potentials was investigated in this study. The resonant scattering problem is formulated with the short range potential composed of a spherically symmetric square well and spherically symmetric square barrier. An iteration scheme of a continuous analogue of the Newton method for continuous spectral problem with correct asymptotic in uncoupled partial waves has been developed. The nonlinear representation of the scattering problem for the normalized radial Schrödinger equation is solved numerically using the difference sweep technique. The second order accuracy scheme developed allow to find scattering phases and wave functions as well as investigate their numerical evolution. The scattering phases and wave functions dependence on the scattering problem parameters have been studied.
Chen, Guangye; Leibs, Christopher A; Knoll, Dana A; Taitano, William
2013-01-01
A recent proof-of-principle study proposes an energy- and charge-conserving, nonlinearly implicit electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in one dimension [Chen et al, J. Comput. Phys., 230 (2011) 7018]. The algorithm in the reference employs an unpreconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, which ensures nonlinear convergence at every timestep (resolving the dynamical timescale of interest). Kinetic enslavement, which is one key component of the algorithm, not only enables fully implicit PIC a practical approach, but also allows preconditioning the kinetic solver with a fluid approximation. This study proposes such a preconditioner, in which the linearized moment equations are closed with moments computed from particles. Effective acceleration of the linear GMRES solve is demonstrated, on both uniform and non-uniform meshes. The algorithm performance is largely insensitive to the electron-ion mass ratio. Numerical experiments are performed on a 1D multi-scale ion acoustic wave test problem.
MRI-based electric properties tomography with a quasi-Newton approach
Rahimov, Anar; Litman, Amélie; Ferrand, Guillaume
2017-10-01
Magnetic resonance electric properties tomography is a non-destructive imaging modality that maps the spatial distribution of the electrical conductivity and permittivity of the human body using standard clinical magnetic resonance imaging systems. From the B_1+ magnetic field maps and the local form of the Maxwell equations, several schemes have been derived to provide direct approximated formulas but they suffer from instabilities. In this paper, we propose to address it as an inverse problem solved by a constrained optimization algorithm where we exploit the weak formulation of the electric Helmholtz equation and a Lagrangian approach. We derive the associated adjoint field equation and employ a quasi-Newton minimization scheme. We also take advantage of a regularisation strategy based on geometrical a priori information for defining large zones into which the electric parameters are known to be piece-wise constant.
Analysis of Accuracy and Epoch on Back-propagation BFGS Quasi-Newton
Silaban, Herlan; Zarlis, Muhammad; Sawaluddin
2017-12-01
Back-propagation is one of the learning algorithms on artificial neural networks that have been widely used to solve various problems, such as pattern recognition, prediction and classification. The Back-propagation architecture will affect the outcome of learning processed. BFGS Quasi-Newton is one of the functions that can be used to change the weight of back-propagation. This research tested some back-propagation architectures using classical back-propagation and back-propagation with BFGS. There are 7 architectures that have been tested on glass dataset with various numbers of neurons, 6 architectures with 1 hidden layer and 1 architecture with 2 hidden layers. BP with BFGS improves the convergence of the learning process. The average improvement convergence is 98.34%. BP with BFGS is more optimal on architectures with smaller number of neurons with decreased epoch number is 94.37% with the increase of accuracy about 0.5%.
ASCAL: A Microcomputer Program for Estimating Logistic IRT Item Parameters.
Vale, C. David; Gialluca, Kathleen A.
ASCAL is a microcomputer-based program for calibrating items according to the three-parameter logistic model of item response theory. It uses a modified multivariate Newton-Raphson procedure for estimating item parameters. This study evaluated this procedure using Monte Carlo Simulation Techniques. The current version of ASCAL was then compared to…
Primal-Dual Method of Solving Convex Quadratic Programming Problems
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V. Moraru
2000-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a primal-dual method for solving quadratic programming problems. The method is based on finding an exact solution of a finite sequence of unconstrained quadratic prigraamming problems and on finding an aproximative solution of constrained minimization problem with simple constraints. The subproblem with simple constraints is solved by the interior-reflective Newton's method [6].
An XMM-Newton Monitoring Campaign of the Accretion Flow in IGRJ16318-4848
Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Nicastro, Fabrizio
2005-01-01
This grant is associated to a successful XMM-Newton-AO3 observational proposal to monitor the spectrum of the X-ray loud component of the recently discovered binary system IGR J16138-4848, to study the conditions of the accretion flows (and their evolution) in binary system. All four EPIC-PN and MOS observations of the target have now been performed (the last one of the 4, only 3 months ago). The four observations were logarithmically spaced, so to cover timescales from days to months. Data from all four pointings have now been reduced, using the XMM-Newton data reduction pipeline, and spectra and lightcurves from the target have been extracted. For the first three observations we have already performed the observation-by-observation data analysis, by fitting the single EPIC spectra with spectral models that include an intrinsic continuum power law (reduced at low energy by neutral absorption), a 6.4 keV iron emission line (detected in all spectra with varying intensity) and a Compton-reflection component. A Compton reflection component is also detected in all spectra, although at lower significance. The analysis of the fourth and last observation of our monitoring campaign has just recently begun. Next, we will (1) stack together the four observations of IGR J16138-4848, to obtain high-accuracy estimates of the average spectral parameters of this object; and then (2) proceed to the time-evolving analysis, of the three spectral parameters: (a) Gamma (the slope of the intrinsic continuum), (b) W(FeK), the equivalent width of the 6.4 keV Iron emission line, and (c) R, the relative amount of Compton reflection. Through this time-resolved spectroscopic analysis we hope to constrain (a) the physical state of the accreting matter and its relation with the X-ray output, and (b) the evolution of the accretion flow geometry, distribution and covering factor.
Supernova remnants in M33: X-ray properties as observed by XMM-Newton
Garofali, Kristen; Williams, Benjamin F.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Wold, Brian; Haberl, Frank; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Winkler, P. Frank; Gross, Jacob
2017-11-01
We have carried out a study of the X-ray properties of the supernova remnant (SNR) population in M33 with XMM-Newton, comprising deep observations of eight fields in M33 covering all of the area within the D25 contours, and with a typical luminosity of 7.1 × 1034 erg s-1 (0.2-2.0 keV). Here, we report our work to characterize the X-ray properties of the previously identified SNRs in M33, as well as our search for new X-ray detected SNRs. With our deep observations and large field of view we have detected 105 SNRs at the 3σ level, of which 54 SNRs are newly detected in X-rays, and three are newly discovered SNRs. Combining XMM-Newton data with deep Chandra survey data allows detailed spectral fitting of 15 SNRs, for which we have measured temperatures, ionization time-scales and individual abundances. This large sample of SNRs allows us to construct an X-ray luminosity function, and compare its shape to luminosity functions from host galaxies of differing metallicities and star formation rates to look for environmental effects on SNR properties. We conclude that while metallicity may play a role in SNR population characteristics, differing star formation histories on short time-scales, and small-scale environmental effects appear to cause more significant differences between X-ray luminosity distributions. In addition, we analyse the X-ray detectability of SNRs, and find that in M33 SNRs with higher [S II]/H α ratios, as well as those with smaller galactocentric distances, are more detectable in X-rays.