WorldWideScience

Sample records for program crp grass

  1. Report on the Development of a Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP) Educational Technician Program (Museum and Archive Use).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelin, Joel

    A close range photogrammetry (CRP) technician training program was developed at Miami-Dade Community College and used to teach the technology to 16 students. Although the results of the study show that it is possible to teach CRP in a two-year program, the technology is too new in the United States to support a sustaining educational program. The…

  2. hs-CRP Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be meaningful. Is hs-CRP specific for predicting heart disease? No. CRP is a marker of inflammation , a process that can affect a number of organ systems. Most studies to date have focused on heart disease , but new research shows that having CRP in ...

  3. hs-CRP Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... year than any other cause, according to the American Heart Association. A number of risk factors, such as family ... the American College of Cardiology Foundations and the American Heart Association says that hs-CRP testing may be useful ...

  4. 7 CFR 1410.22 - CRP conservation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CRP conservation plan. 1410.22 Section 1410.22... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.22 CRP conservation plan. (a) The producer shall obtain a CRP conservation plan that complies with CCC guidelines and...

  5. Benchmark problem for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coordinated research program (CRP) on gas-cooled reactor (GCR) afterheat Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Shoji; Shiina, Yasuaki; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hishida, Makoto; Sudo, Yukio

    1997-12-31

    In IAEA CRP on `Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for GCRs under Accident Conditions`, experimental data of the JAERI`s cooling panel test apparatus were selected as benchmark problems to verify the validity of computational codes for design and evaluation of the performance of heat transfer and temperature distribution of components in the cooling panel system of the HTGR. The test apparatus was composed of a pressure vessel (P.V) with 1m in diameter and 3m in height, containing heaters with the maximum heating rate of 100kW simulating decay heat, cooling panels surrounding the P.V and the reactor cavity occupied by air at the atmospheric pressure. Seven experimental data were established as benchmark problems to evaluate the effect of natural convection of superheated gas on temperature distribution of the P.V and the performance of heat transfer of both the water and the air cooling panel systems. The analytical code THANPACST2 was applied to analyze two benchmark problems to verify the validity of the analytical methods and models proposed. Under the conditions at helium gas pressure of 0.73MPa and temperature of 210degC in the P.V of the water cooling panel system, temperatures of the P.V were well estimated within the errors of -14% to +27% compared with the experimental data. The analyses indicated that the heat transferred to the cooling panel was 11.4% less than the experimental value and the heat transferred by thermal radiation was 74.4% of the total heat input. (author)

  6. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ciolli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS, a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the module interface allows the direct linking of inputs and outputs of GRASS modules to create process chains, including compatibility checks, process control and error handling. The module interface was designed to be easily extended to work with remote processing services (Web Processing Service (WPS, Web Service Definition Language (WSDL/Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. The new object-oriented Python programming API introduces an abstract layer that opens the possibility to use and access transparently the efficient raster and vector functions of GRASS that are implemented in C. The design goal was to provide an easy to use, but powerful, Python interface for users and developers who are not familiar with the programming language C and with the GRASS C-API. We demonstrate the capabilities, scalability and performance of PyGRASS with several dedicated tests and benchmarks. We compare and discuss the results of the benchmarks with dedicated C implementations.

  7. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contributions to wildlife habitat, management issues, challenges and policy choices--an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.; Vandever, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The following bibliography presents brief summaries of documents relevant to Conservation Reserve Program relations to wildlife habitat, habitat management in agriculturally dominated landscapes, and conservation policies potentially affecting wildlife habitats in agricultural ecosystems. Because the literature summaries furnished provide only sweeping overviews, users are urged to obtain and evaluate those papers appearing useful to obtain a more complete understanding of study findings and their implications to conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The bibliography contains references to reports that reach beyond topics that directly relate to the Conservation Reserve Program. Sections addressing grassland management and landowner surveys/opinions, for example, furnish information useful for enhancing development and administration of conservation policies affecting lands beyond those enrolled in conservation programs. Some sections of the bibliography (for example, agricultural conservation policy, economics, soils) are far from inclusive of all relevant material written on the subject. Hopefully, these sections will serve as fundamental introductions to related issues. In a few instances, references may be presented in more than one section of the bibliography. For example, individual papers specifically addressing both non-game and game birds are included in respective sections of the bibliography. Duplication of citations and associated notes has, however, been kept to a minimum.

  8. [Impact of metabolic syndrome on CRP levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, E; Costa, J A; Mares, S; Miralles, A; González, C; Sánchez, C; Pascual, J M

    2006-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to assess whether the metabolic syndrome (MS) and parameters involved in its diagnosis might influence serum CRP values. Cross-sectional study in outpatients of a HTA and Vascular Risk clinic. MS was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Educational Program ATP-III guidelines, and hs-CRP was analyzed by nephelometry. A total of 1,969 patients (47% male) were evaluated and distributed into four groups: 1) 1,220 non-diabetics without MS; 2) 384 non-diabetics with MS; 3) 153 diabetics without MS, and 4) 212 diabetics with MS. Patients with MS had higher CRP in both non-diabetic 3.0 (1.7-4.4) mg/l vs. 1.7 (0.9-3.4) mg/l; p=0.001 (MW), and diabetic patients: 2.8 (1.5-4.6) mg/l vs. 2.2 (0.9-4.3) mg/l; p=0.01 (MW). Diabetic patients without MS had CRP values not different to non-diabetic without MS. CRP values increased in relation to the number of parameters included in the MS from 1.7 (2.2) mg/l, in patients without any parameters, to 4.2 (2.8) mg/l in patients who fulfilled five parameters (p=0.001) (KW). In multiple regression analysis abdominal obesity (p=0.001), TG (p=0.001) and glucose (p=0.02) were associated with CRP levels after correcting for other factors. Abdominal obesity (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5-2.4; p=0.001) and TG (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1 -1.7; p=0.003), but not glucose were independent factors related to the presence of high levels of CRP (>3 mg/l) in a logistic regression analysis. Diabetic and non-diabetic patients with MS have high CRP levels. Of the five components of MS, the most closely related to CRP is abdominal obesity.

  9. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riffell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes to cover-specific CRP variables (previous research grouped all CRP practices. Changes in national trends after the initiation of the CRP were inconclusive, but we observed signficant bird-CRP relations at the state level. Most bird-CRP relations were positive, except for some species associated with habitats that CRP replaced. Practice- and configuration-specific CRP variables were related to grassland bird trends, rather than a generic measure of all CRP types combined. Considering all CRP land as a single, distinct habitat type may obscure actual relations between birds and set-aside characteristics. Understanding and predictingthe effects of set-aside programs (like CRP or agri-environment schemes on grassland birds is complex and difficult. Because available broad-scale datasets are less than adequate, studies should be conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

  10. Association of C-reactive protein (CRP) gene polymorphisms, serum CRP levels and cervical cancer prognosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polterauer, Stephan; Grimm, Christoph; Zeillinger, Robert; Heinze, Georg; Tempfer, Clemens; Reinthaller, Alexander; Hefler, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is the prototypical biomarker of inflammation. Genetic variations within the CRP gene have been shown to be associated with alterations of CRP expression and prognosis in cancer patients...

  11. Screening Study for Utilizing Feedstocks Grown on CRP Lands in a Biomass to Ethanol Production Facility: Final Subcontract Report; July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    American Coalition for Ethanol; Wu, L.

    2004-02-01

    Feasibility study for a cellulosic ethanol plant using grasses grown on Conservation Reserve Program lands in three counties of South Dakota, with several subcomponent appendices. In 1994, there were over 1.8 million acres of CRP lands in South Dakota. This represented approximately 5 percent of the total U.S. cropland enrolled in the CRP. Nearly 200,000 acres of CRP lands were concentrated in three northeastern South Dakota counties: Brown, Marshall and Day. Most of the acreage was planted in Brohm Grass and Western Switchgrass. Technology under development at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and at other institutions, is directed towards the economical production of fuel-grade ethanol from these grasses. The objective of this study is to identify and evaluate a site in northeastern South Dakota which would have the greatest potential for long-term operation of a financially attractive biomass-to-ethanol production facility. The effort shall focus on ethanol marketing issues which would provide for long-term viability of the facility, feedstock production and delivery systems (and possible alternatives), and preliminary engineering considerations for the facility, as well as developing financial pro-formas for a proposed biomass-to-ethanol production facility in northeastern South Dakota. This Final Report summarizes what was learned in the tasks of this project, pulling out the most important aspects of each of the tasks done as part of this study. For greater detail on each area it is advised that the reader refer to the entire reports which are included as appendixes.

  12. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... 003356.htm . Accessed October 2011. (© 1995–2011). Unit Code 9731: C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Serum. Mayo Clinic ...

  13. Study of CRP immobilization on nanostructured silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simion, Monica, E-mail: moni304ro@yahoo.com [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies (IMT - Bucharest), 32B Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, 72996 Bucharest (Romania); Ruta, Lavinia L.; Matache, Mihaela [University of Bucharest, Department of Chemistry, Division of Organic Chemistry, 90-92 Panduri Street, 050663 Bucharest (Romania); Kleps, Irina; Miu, Mihaela [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies (IMT - Bucharest), 32B Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, 72996 Bucharest (Romania); Paraschivescu, Codruta C. [University of Bucharest, Department of Chemistry, Division of Organic Chemistry, 90-92 Panduri Street, 050663 Bucharest (Romania); Bragaru, Adina; Ignat, Teodora [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies (IMT - Bucharest), 32B Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, 72996 Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-05-25

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a phylogenetically highly conserved plasma protein, which is widely used as an indicator of inflammatory states due to rapid increase of its plasma concentration up to 1000 times compared to normal values. Detection of CRP levels in a rapid, simultaneous and multiplex format is therefore of great interest for diagnostics. Microarray technology could provide such a multiplex format of CRP levels detection. Different nanostructured porous silicon (PS) surfaces were obtained and used for the immobilization of CRP and anti-human CRP antibodies in order to achieve an optimum microarray assay. Comparative analysis of the attachment degree and preservation of the biomolecules activity on the silicon surfaces and functionalized glass slides is also described.

  14. Kangaroo grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Aamir Saleem1, Sarwat N. Mirza1, Irshad Ahmad Khan1* and Jennifer Franklin2. 1Department of Forestry and Range Management, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University .... as soil moisture approaches field capacity (Nolan, 1994). Because Kangaroo grass grows under a wide range of conditions, it has a wide ...

  15. CRP evaluation in non-small cell lung cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aref, Hassan; Refaat, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Background: CRP is an inflammatory mediator that is shown to be elevated in different inflammatory and malignant conditions, the aim of the study to see whether the elevated serum CRP is correlated...

  16. CRP: Collaborative Research Project (A Mathematical Research Experience for Undergraduates)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Jason; Rusinko, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The "Collaborative Research Project" ("CRP")--a mathematics research experience for undergraduates--offers a large-scale collaborative experience in research for undergraduate students. CRP seeks to widen the audience of students who participate in undergraduate research in mathematics. In 2015, the inaugural CRP had 100…

  17. Lipids, atherosclerosis and CVD risk: is CRP an innocent bystander?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Zacho, J

    2009-01-01

    are consistently associated with CVD risk. A recent study showed that aggressive statin treatment caused reductions of 50% in LDL cholesterol, 37% in CRP, 44% in CVD events, and 20% in total mortality, and that the highest treatment benefits were obtained in those with the lowest achieved levels of both LDL......AIM: To evaluate recent human studies with respect to the interpretation of whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) cause cardiovascular disease (CVD), or whether elevated CRP levels more likely is an innocent bystander. DATA SYNTHESIS: Elevated CRP concentrations...... cholesterol and CRP. However, a reduction in CRP levels after statin treatment could be secondary to the reduced LDL cholesterol levels, and thereby less inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. We recently performed 4 large Mendelian randomization studies, studies that demonstrated that elevated CRP...

  18. Factors Affecting Conservation Practice Behavior of CRP Participants in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili Onianwa; Gerald Wheelock; Shannon Hendrix

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the factors that affect conservation practice choices of CRP farmers in Alabama. From over 9,000 contracts enrolled in the state between 1986 and 1995, 594 were randomly selected for the study. A multiple-regression analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results indicate that education, ratio ofcropland in CRP, farm size, gender, prior crop...

  19. Identification of the subunit of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) that functionally interacts with CytR in CRP-CytR-mediated transcriptional repression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, K L; Kallipolitis, B H; Ebright, R H

    2000-01-01

    At promoters of the Escherichia coli CytR regulon, the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) interacts with the repressor CytR to form transcriptionally inactive CRP-CytR-promoter or (CRP)(2)-CytR-promoter complexes. Here, using "oriented heterodimer" analysis, we show that only one subunit of the CRP dime...

  20. Assessing the Effects of Grass Roots Drunk Driving Prevention Programs: First Facts. Report from the Drunk Driving Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerleider, Steven; And Others

    While drunk driving has become widely recognized as a serious social problem with deadly consequences, no systematic research has been undertaken to identify the principal components of service delivery programs offered by citizen action groups in the drinking and driving movement. Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), founded in 1980, now has a…

  1. Rapid and Low-Cost CRP Measurement by Integrating a Paper-Based Microfluidic Immunoassay with Smartphone (CRP-Chip).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Meili; Wu, Jiandong; Ma, Zimin; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Zhang, Michael; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Liu, Yong; Rigatto, Claudio; Lin, Francis

    2017-03-26

    Traditional diagnostic tests for chronic diseases are expensive and require a specialized laboratory, therefore limiting their use for point-of-care (PoC) testing. To address this gap, we developed a method for rapid and low-cost C-reactive protein (CRP) detection from blood by integrating a paper-based microfluidic immunoassay with a smartphone (CRP-Chip). We chose CRP for this initial development because it is a strong biomarker of prognosis in chronic heart and kidney disease. The microfluidic immunoassay is realized by lateral flow and gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection of the target protein. The test image signal is acquired and analyzed using a commercial smartphone with an attached microlens and a 3D-printed chip-phone interface. The CRP-Chip was validated for detecting CRP in blood samples from chronic kidney disease patients and healthy subjects. The linear detection range of the CRP-Chip is up to 2 μg/mL and the detection limit is 54 ng/mL. The CRP-Chip test result yields high reproducibility and is consistent with the standard ELISA kit. A single CRP-Chip can perform the test in triplicate on a single chip within 15 min for less than 50 US cents of material cost. This CRP-Chip with attractive features of low-cost, fast test speed, and integrated easy operation with smartphones has the potential to enable future clinical PoC chronic disease diagnosis and risk stratification by parallel measurements of a panel of protein biomarkers.

  2. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bacteria from forest soils. Figure 1E also shows seasonal shifts in abundance of rhizospheric bacterial communities of the two grasses, adding yet another layer of complexity. Similar trends were evident from fungal and faunal OTUs identified in these grass rhizospheres, where many OTUs had no significant match.

  3. Absence of a positive correlation between CRP and leptin in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Najafizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Significance: We observed that the physiologic correlation between leptin and CRP and BMI and CRP was not present RA patients. This is a new study reporting the lost correlation between leptin and CRP in RA patients.

  4. Grassland bird productivity in warm season grass fields in southwest Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Carolyn M.; Ribic, Christine; Sample, David W.; Dadisman, John D.; Guttery, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Surrogate grasslands established through federal set-aside programs, such as U.S. Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), provide important habitat for grassland birds. Warm season grass CRP fields as a group have the potential for providing a continuum of habitat structure for breeding birds, depending on how the fields are managed and their floristic composition. We studied the nesting activity of four obligate grassland bird species, Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), and Henslow's Sparrow (A. henslowii), in relation to vegetative composition and fire management in warm season CRP fields in southwest Wisconsin during 2009–2011. Intraspecific variation in apparent nest density was related to the number of years since the field was burned. Apparent Grasshopper Sparrow nest density was highest in the breeding season immediately following spring burns, apparent Henslow's Sparrow nest density was highest 1 y post burn, and apparent Bobolink and Eastern Meadowlark nest densities were higher in post fire years one to three. Grasshopper Sparrow nest density was highest on sites with more diverse vegetation, specifically prairie forbs, and on sites with shorter less dense vegetation. Bobolink, Eastern Meadowlark, and Henslow's Sparrow apparent nest densities were higher on sites with deeper litter; litter was the vegetative component that was most affected by spring burns. Overall nest success was 0.487 for Bobolink (22 d nesting period), 0.478 for Eastern Meadowlark (25 d nesting period), 0.507 for Grasshopper Sparrow (22 d nesting period), and 0.151 for Henslow's Sparrow (21 d nesting period). The major nest predators were grassland-associated species: thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), American badger (Taxidea taxus), and western fox snake (Elaphe vulpina). Overall

  5. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  6. Correlation between CRP and early failure of arteriovenous fistula (AVF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavanin Zadeh, Morteza; Mohammadipour, Saman; Omrani, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF) is the ideal method of vascular access for patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Therefore it is an important part of treatment in HD. There are several observations that indicate the role of inflammation in failure of AVF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hematologic and inflammatory biomarkers in early AVF failure. This case-control study included 110 ESRD patients, whom were undergone AVF creation, divided in two groups. About 700 radius-cephalic AVF were created during these two years. We found 55 cases with AVF failure. In this study, we compared those 55 failures with 55 functional AVF which were selected using randomized sampling from the rest of patients according to age, gender, and AVF location. Levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were checked in both groups to evaluate the relation between AVF failure and CRP level before surgery. The mean±SD age of the patients was 49.7±17.28 years. CRP was positive in 34 patients (61.8%) with unsuccessful fistula function, while only 4 (7.3%) of those with successful AVF had positive CRP and the rest had negative CRP. The difference between the two groups of patients was strongly significant (pfistula function.

  7. C-reactive protein (CRP) in cerebro-vascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, C R; Courtin, C; Reinhart, W H

    1999-11-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a useful prognostic factor in coronary heart disease. It has not been previously studied in acute cerebro-vascular events, which was the topic of the present study. Patients admitted to the hospital for an acute cerebro-vascular event were prospectively investigated. C-reactive protein was determined nephelometrically. Infection or inflammation were excluded clinically and with an erythrocyte sedimentation rate brain was performed. According to initial brain imaging and the clinical course the 138 patients were divided into five groups: 20 with transient ischemic attack, 20 with reversible neurological deficit lasting less than 2 weeks, 61 with completed stroke and restitution, 16 with stroke without restitution and 21 with cerebral hemorrhage. Median CRP values (range) were 3.2 (2.4-13.5), 3.3 (2.4-39.4), 4.2 (2.4-73. 4), 3.4 (3.2-44.0) and 3.5 (2.4-104.0 mg/l), respectively with no significant differences between groups in a non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis). Risk factors for vascular disease in general and stroke in particular had no visible influence on CRP levels. No relationship was found between time interval since onset of symptoms and CRP measurement, suggesting that an acute cerebro-vascular event has little influence on CRP values. CRP is not a useful marker to predict the outcome of an acute cerebro-vascular event on hospital admission. This is in contrast to acute coronary events.

  8. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  9. Lessons learned in managing alfalfa-grass mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass-alfalfa mixtures have a number of benefits that make them attractive to producers. However, they can be problematic to establish and maintain. Research programs have made progress in understanding the benefits and challenges of alfalfa-grass mixtures. Mixtures may have greater winter survival ...

  10. Identification of the crp gene in avian Pasteurella multocida and evaluation of the effects of crp deletion on its phenotype, virulence and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Liu, Qing; Xiao, Kangpeng; Hu, Yunlong; Liu, Xueyan; Li, Yanyan; Kong, Qingke

    2016-06-24

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is an important veterinary pathogen that can cause severe diseases in a wide range of mammals and birds. The global regulator crp gene has been found to regulate the virulence of some bacteria, and crp mutants have been demonstrated to be effective attenuated vaccines against Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we first characterized the crp gene in P. multocida, and we report the effects of a crp deletion. The P. multocida crp mutant exhibited a similar lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein profile but displayed defective growth and serum complement resistance in vitro compared with the parent strain. Furthermore, crp deletion decreased virulence but did not result in full attenuation. The 50 % lethal dose (LD50) of the Δcrp mutant was 85-fold higher than that of the parent strain for intranasal infection. Transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that 92 genes were up-regulated and 94 genes were down-regulated in the absence of the crp gene. Finally, we found that intranasal immunization with the Δcrp mutant triggered both systematic and mucosal antibody responses and conferred 60 % protection against virulent P. multocida challenge in ducks. The deletion of the crp gene has an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth and bacterial resistance to serum complement in vitro. The P. multocida crp mutant was attenuated and conferred moderate protection in ducks. This work affords a platform for analyzing the function of crp and aiding the formulation of a novel vaccine against P. multocida.

  11. The 52Cr(p, γ)53Mn reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuister, P.H.

    The 52Cr(p, γ)53Mn reaction was investigated in the energy region Ep = 1.36–2.26 MeV. The resonance energies, the corresponding 53Mn excitation energies and the resonance strengths of 199 resonances, assigned to this reaction, are reported. The excitation energies and gamma-ray branchings of 13

  12. Alterations in acute-phase reactants (CRP, rheumatoid factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    regard to inflammation, healing and adaptation to training stimuli. Whilst numerous studies have shown the APP C-reactive protein (CRP) to be significantly elevated following exer- cise,18,21,26,27 there still remain a large number of acute phase reactants that have not been thoroughly investigated. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ...

  13. Correlation Between Procalcitonin and CBC, ESR, CRP, Before and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.afkham

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... It was concluded that procalcitonin and CRP is the most favorable values for confirming. SIRS diagnosis in the onset of treatment. PCT can be considered as the marker of choice for following up purposes. Key words: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), procalcitonin, toddlers, treatment.

  14. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  15. (IITA) Improved Spear Grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SproDell

    ensure food security and combat poverty (Chikoye, Avav, Ellis-Jones, Kormawa,. Udensi, Tarawali and Nielson, 2005). One of such chronic weeds that has been a menace to sustainable food production in the forest/savanna transition zone of. Nigeria is Imperata cylindrinca (spear grass) (Avav and Okereke, 1999). It is a.

  16. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Metagenomics at Grass Roots. Sudeshna ... benefit human health, agriculture, and ecosystemfunctions. This article provides a brief history of technicaladvances in metagenomics, including DNA sequencing methods,and some case studies.

  17. GRASS GERMPLASM FOR DIGESTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One procedure involved digesting grass samples in prepared cellulase solution without any pre-treatment (CSD), and the other procedure used an acid pepsin pre-treatment prior to digestion in the prepared cellulase solution (APCS). The CSD procedure in comparison to APCS generally underestimated in vitro dry matter ...

  18. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  19. Attacking invasive grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  20. Inflammation, insulin resistance, and diabetes--Mendelian randomization using CRP haplotypes points upstream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Brunner

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Raised C-reactive protein (CRP is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. According to the Mendelian randomization method, the association is likely to be causal if genetic variants that affect CRP level are associated with markers of diabetes development and diabetes. Our objective was to examine the nature of the association between CRP phenotype and diabetes development using CRP haplotypes as instrumental variables.We genotyped three tagging SNPs (CRP + 2302G > A; CRP + 1444T > C; CRP + 4899T > G in the CRP gene and measured serum CRP in 5,274 men and women at mean ages 49 and 61 y (Whitehall II Study. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c were measured at age 61 y. Diabetes was ascertained by glucose tolerance test and self-report. Common major haplotypes were strongly associated with serum CRP levels, but unrelated to obesity, blood pressure, and socioeconomic position, which may confound the association between CRP and diabetes risk. Serum CRP was associated with these potential confounding factors. After adjustment for age and sex, baseline serum CRP was associated with incident diabetes (hazard ratio = 1.39 [95% confidence interval 1.29-1.51], HOMA-IR, and HbA1c, but the associations were considerably attenuated on adjustment for potential confounding factors. In contrast, CRP haplotypes were not associated with HOMA-IR or HbA1c (p = 0.52-0.92. The associations of CRP with HOMA-IR and HbA1c were all null when examined using instrumental variables analysis, with genetic variants as the instrument for serum CRP. Instrumental variables estimates differed from the directly observed associations (p = 0.007-0.11. Pooled analysis of CRP haplotypes and diabetes in Whitehall II and Northwick Park Heart Study II produced null findings (p = 0.25-0.88. Analyses based on the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (1,923 diabetes cases, 2,932 controls using three SNPs in tight linkage disequilibrium with our

  1. Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Opiyo, Francis EO; Ekaya, Wellington N; Nyariki, Dickson M; Mureithi, Stephen Mwangi

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals. However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to me...

  2. Is serum CRP level a reliable inflammatory marker in pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Eran; Krause, Irit; Dagan, Amit; Ben-Dor, Anat; Keidar, Meital; Davidovits, Miriam

    2016-08-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that during massive proteinuria, C-reactive protein (CRP) may be lost into the urine along with other proteins, making serum CRP (sCRP) level an unreliable marker of infection severity in nephrotic syndrome (NS). Children with active NS (n = 23) were compared with two matched control groups: patients with febrile non-renal infectious disease (n = 30) and healthy subjects (n = 16). Laboratory measurements included sCRP, urine protein, creatinine, IgG, and protein electrophoresis. Urinary CRP (uCRP) was measured by ELISA. Sixty-nine patients were enrolled: 23 patients with NS, 30 patients with non-renal febrile infectious diseases, and 16 healthy children. Median uCRP concentrations were 0 mcg/gCr (0-189.7) in NS, 11 mcg/gCr (0-286) in the febrile group, and 0 mcg/gCr (0-1.8) in the healthy group. The uCRP/creatinine ratio was similar in the NS and healthy groups (p > 0.1) and significantly higher in the febrile group than the other two groups (p < 0.0001). There was no association of uCRP concentration with severity of proteinuria or IgG excretion. NS in children is not characterized by significant loss of CRP into the urine. Therefore, sCRP may serve as a reliable marker of inflammation in this setting. The significant urinary excretion of CRP in children with transient non-renal infectious disease might be attributable to CRP synthesis in renal epithelial cells.

  3. Identification of some Malaysian grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1935-01-01

    When BUSE gave an enumeration of the grasses collected by JUNGHUHN in Java and Sumatra, he mentioned under Paspalum a species, described by RETZIUS in the year 1781 as Paspalum hirsutum. BUSE identified a grass from Sumatra as being the species of RETZIUS, on account of the description, having

  4. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  5. Equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, R S; Jago, R C; Hudson, N P H

    2014-09-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS; equine dysautonomia) is a polyneuronopathy affecting both the central and the peripheral nervous systems of horses. As the name implies, EGS almost exclusively affects grazing horses, resulting in the development of a characteristic array of clinical signs, most of which can be attributed to neuronal degeneration in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. Varying disease severities occur, largely determined by the extent of neuronal degeneration in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Extensive neuronal degeneration, as seen in acute and subacute forms of EGS, results in intestinal dysmotility, the severity of which is incompatible with survival. In comparison, a proportion of chronic forms of EGS, characterised by less severe neuronal degeneration, will survive. Despite extensive research efforts since EGS was first reported over 100 years ago, the precise aetiology remains elusive. This article reviews much of the scientific literature on EGS, covering epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and aetiological hypotheses. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Computational prediction of cAMP receptor protein (CRP binding sites in cyanobacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhengchang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP, also known as catabolite gene activator protein (CAP, is an important transcriptional regulator widely distributed in many bacteria. The biological processes under the regulation of CRP are highly diverse among different groups of bacterial species. Elucidation of CRP regulons in cyanobacteria will further our understanding of the physiology and ecology of this important group of microorganisms. Previously, CRP has been experimentally studied in only two cyanobacterial strains: Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120; therefore, a systematic genome-scale study of the potential CRP target genes and binding sites in cyanobacterial genomes is urgently needed. Results We have predicted and analyzed the CRP binding sites and regulons in 12 sequenced cyanobacterial genomes using a highly effective cis-regulatory binding site scanning algorithm. Our results show that cyanobacterial CRP binding sites are very similar to those in E. coli; however, the regulons are very different from that of E. coli. Furthermore, CRP regulons in different cyanobacterial species/ecotypes are also highly diversified, ranging from photosynthesis, carbon fixation and nitrogen assimilation, to chemotaxis and signal transduction. In addition, our prediction indicates that crp genes in modern cyanobacteria are likely inherited from a common ancestral gene in their last common ancestor, and have adapted various cellular functions in different environments, while some cyanobacteria lost their crp genes as well as CRP binding sites during the course of evolution. Conclusion The CRP regulons in cyanobacteria are highly diversified, probably as a result of divergent evolution to adapt to various ecological niches. Cyanobacterial CRPs may function as lineage-specific regulators participating in various cellular processes, and are important in some lineages. However, they are dispensable in some other lineages. The

  7. CRP AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS, A NESTED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Weinstein T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CRP is a recognized marker of systemic inflammation. The degree to which CRP is associated with carotid and/or femoral intima media thickness (IMT, markers of atherosclerosis, may quantify the degree to which inflammation explains cardiovascular disease in patients with end stage renal disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between CRP and both carotid and femoral IMT in hemodialysis (HD patients. The present cross-sectional study is nested in the Sevelamer hydrochloride and ultrasound-measured femoral and carotid intima media thickness progression in end stage renal disease (SUMMER clinical trial. Carotid (common, internal and bifurcation and femoral arteries were visualized in B-mode ultrasonography. CRP was measured in serum. The study cohort included 177 HD patients (39.5% female, mean age 67.8±11.5 years. All measures of both carotid and femoral IMT were significantly, positively associated with CRP. Compared to subjects without, subjects with PVD, coronary revascularization and hypertension had significantly higher CRP levels. Conversely, subjects treated with sevelamer hydrochloride had significantly lower CRP levels than those not exposed to this medication. CRP was significantly, positively associated with serum phosphorus, calcium and PTH, and significantly inversely associated with HDL. In conclusion, CRP is significantly, positively associated with both femoral and carotid IMT and suggests an association between inflammation and atherosclerosis in HD patients.

  8. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  9. Turbulent transfer characteristics of radioiodine effluents from air to grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markee, E.H. [ARFRO, Environmental Science Services Administration, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)

  10. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  11. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  12. C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement in geriatric patients hospitalized for acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Lauretani, Fulvio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Porro, Emanuela; Fanelli, Guido; Maggio, Marcello; Meschi, Tiziana

    2017-01-01

    The physiology of inflammatory response is modified by the aging process and is substantially affected by multimorbidity and disability. Infection is the most frequent cause of acute inflammation in both adult and older subjects. C-reactive protein (CRP) is the most used biomarker of inflammation, and a substantial amount of literature has demonstrated its importance and clinical usefulness in adult subjects. However, the clinical significance of serum CRP determination has not been completely clarified in older subjects with acute infection, especially in the light of the age-related rearrangements in immunity and cytokine production. Thus, in the present review, we focus on the existing knowledge about serum CRP level interpretation in geriatric patients hospitalized with acute infection. Our aims were to determine the significance of CRP measurement at hospital admission for establishing a diagnosis of infection and/or a prognosis and to evaluate whether it is indicated to repeat hs-CRP measurements during hospital stay for monitoring disease course and, possibly, guiding the discharge timing. We concluded that CRP dosage at hospital admission is helpful to detect acute infection, and particularly sepsis, in geriatric patients, and that CRP elevation may provide valuable short-term prognostic information. At the current state of art, serial CRP measurements are instead not indicated to monitor disease course and plan hospital discharge in this setting. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cysteine-rich protein 1 (CRP1 regulates actin filament bundling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraley Tamara S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine-rich protein 1 (CRP1 is a LIM domain containing protein localized to the nucleus and the actin cytoskeleton. CRP1 has been demonstrated to bind the actin-bundling protein α-actinin and proposed to modulate the actin cytoskeleton; however, specific regulatory mechanisms have not been identified. Results CRP1 expression increased actin bundling in rat embryonic fibroblasts. Although CRP1 did not affect the bundling activity of α-actinin, CRP1 was found to stabilize the interaction of α-actinin with actin bundles and to directly bundle actin microfilaments. Using confocal and photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET microscopy, we demonstrate that there are two populations of CRP1 localized along actin stress fibers, one associated through interaction with α-actinin and one that appears to bind the actin filaments directly. Consistent with a role in regulating actin filament cross-linking, CRP1 also localized to the membrane ruffles of spreading and PDGF treated fibroblasts. Conclusion CRP1 regulates actin filament bundling by directly cross-linking actin filaments and stabilizing the interaction of α-actinin with actin filament bundles.

  14. CRP at early follicular phase of menstrual cycle can cause misinterpretation for cardiovascular risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Asli Yarci; Caglar, Gamze Sinem; Kiseli, Mine; Pabuccu, Emre; Candar, Tuba; Demirtas, Selda

    2015-12-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known marker of inflammation and infection in clinical practice. This study is designed to evaluate CRP levels in different phases of menstrual cycle, which might end up with misleading conclusions especially when used for cardiovascular risk assessment. Twenty-seven women were eligible for the cross-sectional study. Venous blood samples from each participant were collected twice during the menstrual cycle. The first sampling was held at 2nd to 5th days of the menstrual cycle for FSH, estradiol, CRP, and sedimentation, and the second was done at 21st to 24th days of the menstrual cycle for measurement of progesterone, CRP, and sedimentation values. CRP values were significantly higher in the early follicular phase compared to luteal phase (1.8 mg/L [0.3-7.67] vs. 0.7 mg/L [0.1-8.3], p menstrual cycle, sedimentation rate was similar (12.1 ± 6.7 vs. 12.3 ± 7.7; p = 0.717, respectively). CRP levels in early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (menstruation) are significantly higher than CRP levels in luteal phase of the same cycle. In reproductive age women, detection of CRP for cardiovascular risk assessment during menstruation might not be appropriate.

  15. CRP and leukocyte-count after lumbar spine surgery: fusion vs. nucleotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Clayton N; Krüger, Tobias; Westhoff, Jörn; Lüring, Christian; Weber, Oliver; Wirtz, Dieter C; Pennekamp, Peter H

    2011-08-01

    Despite the fact that C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and white blood cell (WBC) count are routine blood chemistry parameters for the early assessment of wound infection after surgical procedures, little is known about the natural history of their serum values after major and minimally invasive spinal procedures. Pre- and postoperative CRP serum levels and WBC count in 347 patients were retrospectively assessed after complication-free, single-level open posterior lumbar interlaminar fusion (PLIF) (n = 150) for disc degeneration and spinal stenosis and endoscopically assisted lumbar discectomy (n = 197) for herniated lumbar disc. Confounding variables such as overweight, ASA classification, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and perioperative antibiotics were recorded to evaluate their influence on the kinetics of CRP values and WBC count postoperatively. In both procedures, CRP peaked 2-3 days after surgery. The maximum CRP level was significantly higher after fusion: mean 127 (SD 57) (p 25 and long duration of surgery were associated with higher peak CRP values. WBC count did not show a typical and therefore interpretable profile. CRP is a predictable and responsive serum parameter in postoperative monitoring of inflammatory responses in patients undergoing spine surgery, whereas WBC kinetics is unspecific. We suggest that CRP could be measured on the day before surgery, on day 2 or 3 after surgery, and also between days 4 and 6, to aid in early detection of infectious complications.

  16. Design of cAMP-CRP-activated promoters in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, P; Holst, B; Søgaard-Andersen, L

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the deoP2 promoter of Escherichia coli to define features that are required for optimal activation by the complex of adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) and the cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Systematic mutagenesis of deoP2 shows that the distance between the CRP site and the -10...

  17. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Navarro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (−0.132, p < 0.05 with hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age.

  18. [hsCRP protein in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Urban, Mirosława; Peczyńska, Jadwiga; Koput, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    HsCRP protein is known as a novel marker of low grade inflammatory state, which characterises an atherosclerotic process in its early stages. Contrary to a large amount of data on inflammatory markers in diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome in adults, little is known so far about the inflammatory process in diabetes type 1, especially in children. The aim of the study was to estimate the level of hsCRP protein in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 depending on coexisting additional risk factors for atherosclerosis and microvascular complications. 127 children and adolescents with diabetes duration 6.7+/-3.3 years, aged 14.9+/-3.1, were studied. The control group consisted of 52 healthy children aged 14.9+/-2.8 years, matched acc. to gender. HsCRP level was assessed with use of immunoturbidymetric, latex augmented method (Tina-quant CRP (Latex) HS, Roche). HsCRP in the whole study group was nearly significantly higher compared to control group: 0.17+/-0.2 vs. 0.078+/-0.1 mg/dl, p=0.072. In diabetic hypertensive children (n=38) we found significantly higher levels of hsCRP compared to controls (0.27+/-0.3 vs. 0.07 mg/dl, p=0.008) and compared to diabetic normotensive children (0.13+/-0.22 mg/dl; p=0.024). Diabetic obese patients (n=23) had significantly higer hsCRP compared to controls (0.24+/-0.3 vs. 0.07+/-0.1 mg/dl, p=0.04). In 14 studied diabetic children we found coexisting hypertension and obesity, and we found further increase in hsCRP level - 0.28+/-0.3 mg/dl. In diabetic children with microangiopathy hsCRP level was 0.22+/-0.2 mg/dl, and it was insignificantly higher compared to controls and to diabetic children without complications. Correlation analysis showed interrelations between hsCRP and systolic blood pressure (r=0.2; p=0.04) and HbA1c (r=0.25; p=0.015). In stepwise regression analysis hsCRP was related to systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and the triglycerides level (R=0.37; p=0.003). In children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 we

  19. Correlation of CRP, fasting serum triglycerides and obesity as cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, Samar

    2014-05-01

    To determine the correlation of C-reactive protein (CRP) with fasting triglycerides (TG) among pre-obese and obese patients without established diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). A comparative cross-sectional study. Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2010. Patients with BMI > 23 kg/m2 aged between 18 - 65 years were inducted and above variables were studied. Patients with signs of fluid retention, collagen vascular disease, CAD, patients on corticosteroids, immunomodulators or lipid lowering medications and febrile patients were not recruited. Body mass index was also determined. Independent sample t-test was applied to see the mean difference of age, CRP level and triglycerides level in relation to gender. Chi-square test was used to see the association between qualitative variables. ANOVA was applied to see CRP and fasting serum TG level in relation to BMI categories. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression was applied to see the dependency of CRP and triglycerides with BMI. P-value ² 0.05 was taken as significant. Raised CRP was major finding among all groups of BMI. Most of obese and pre-obese patients were young and middle aged and belonged to pre-obese group followed by class-1 and class-2 obesity. CRP level increased with body mass index. No such trend was observed for triglycerides. There was an intermediate positive correlation between CRP and BMI and triglycerides and BMI showed a weak negative correlation. If BMI increases by 1 unit on the average, CRP rises by 0.239 times and this unit rise was significant. Whereas 1 unit rise increase in triglycerides on the average cause CRP to decrease -0.006 times but this value was insignificant. Raised CRP and high fasting TG were major findings in all age groups especially among young and middle aged people. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and raised CRP are interrelated suggesting that obesity is not only linked to hypertriglyceridemia but vascular inflammation among pre-obese and obese

  20. Haplotypes in the CRP Gene Associated with Increased BMI and Levels of CRP in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Obesity from Southwestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América Martínez-Calleja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, type 2 diabetes (T2D, obesity, and risk score of coronary heart disease. Methods. We studied 402 individuals and classified them into four groups: healthy, obese, T2D obese, and T2D without obesity, from Guerrero, Southwestern Mexico. Blood levels of CRP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocytes were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the risk score for coronary heart disease was determined by the Framingham's methodology. Results. The TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 was associated with increased body mass index and T2D patients with obesity. We found that the haplotype 2 (TGAG was associated with increased levels of CRP (β=0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.5; P=0.005 and haplotype 7 (TGGG with higher body mass index (BMI (β=0.2; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.3; P<0.001. The risk score for coronary heart disease was associated with increased levels of CRP, but not with any polymorphism or haplotype. Conclusions. The association between the TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 with obesity and the haplotype 7 with BMI may explain how obesity and genetic predisposition increase the risk of diseases such as T2D in the population of Southwestern Mexico.

  1. Comparison of the DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Ilker; Akcay-Yalbuzdag, Seniz; Ince, Bugra; Goksel-Karatepe, Altinay; Kaya, Taciser

    2015-07-01

    To compare the Disease Activity Score with 28 joint (DAS28) using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (DAS28-ESR) and DAS28 using C-reactive protein (CRP) (DAS28-CRP) with thresholds validated for DAS28-ESR in Turkish patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The DAS28 data of 112 patients with rheumatoid arthritis followed in a local outpatient clinic were used. First, the correlation between DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR and the correlation between their unique components ([0.36 × In (CRP + 1) + 0.96] and [0.70 × In (ESR)]) were analyzed. Second, a Bland-Altman plot was constructed for the evaluation of the level of agreement between DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR. Lastly, the agreement between these two methods was analyzed by κ coefficient. Although there was a strong correlation between DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR, the correlation between their unique components was fair. Although more than 95% of the point data fall between the upper and lower bounds of the limit of agreement, the percentage error (46%) was higher than the acceptable proportion of 30%. The κ coefficient of agreement between DAS28- ESR and DAS28-CRP with validated thresholds for DAS28-ESR was 0.42, which was close to the lower boundary for moderate agreement. The results of this study demonstrated that there is discordance between DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP with the validated thresholds for DAS28-ESR. Using the DAS28-CRP with threshold values validated for DAS28-ESR may lead to errors in the determination of disease activity and therefore may lead to errors in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Serum hsCRP: A Novel Marker for Prediction of Cerebrovascular Accidents (Stroke).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patgiri, Dibyaratna; Pathak, Mauchumi Saikia; Sharma, Pradeep; Kutum, Tridip; Mattack, Nirmali

    2014-12-01

    Strokes are caused by disruption of the blood supply to the brain. This may result from either blockage or rupture of a blood vessel. Yearly 15 million people worldwide suffer a stroke. India ranks second worldwide in terms of deaths from stroke. The incidence of stroke increases with age affecting the economically productive middle aged population. Hypertension and male sex are other risk factors for stroke. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein whose concentration rises in blood following inflammation. Formerly, assays for CRP detected its rise only after significant inflammation. However, recently developed high sensitivity assays (hsCRP) enable the measurement of CRP in individuals who are apparently healthy. Several studies indicate that hsCRP is elevated in individuals who are at risk of developing Coronary Artery Disease or Cerebrovascular events, the elevation may be found years before the first detection of vascular problems. In the absence of other biochemical markers, the present study aimed to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic role of hsCRP in stroke. The study consisted of 50 patients of acute stroke admitted in Gauhati Medical College and Hospital. The control population consisted of two groups - 50 age and sex matched controls with hypertension (Hypertensive control group) and 50 age and sex matched controls with no obvious disease constituted the Normal control group. hsCRP levels were measured in all the groups and compared statistically. hsCRP is an acute phase reactant whose concentration rises in stroke as well as in those at risk. The rise may be identified even before the appearance of risk factors. Hence, hsCRP may be useful as a predictive and diagnostic marker in stroke.

  3. Serum procalcitonin and CRP levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoz Galip

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both C reactive protein (CRP and procalcitonin (PCT are well known acute phase reactant proteins. CRP was reported to increase in metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes. Similarly altered level of serum PCT was found in chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis. The liver is considered the main source of CRP and a source of PCT, however, the serum PCT and CRP levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD were not compared previously. Therefore we aimed to study the diagnostic and discriminative role of serum PCT and CRP in NAFLD. Methods Fifty NAFLD cases and 50 healthy controls were included to the study. Liver function tests were measured, body mass index was calculated, and insulin resistance was determined by using a homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. Ultrasound evaluation was performed for each subject. Serum CRP was measured with nephalometric method. Serum PCT was measured with Kryptor based system. Results Serum PCT levels were similar in steatohepatitis (n 20 and simple steatosis (n 27 patients, and were not different than the control group (0.06 ± 0.01, 0.04 ± 0.01 versus 0.06 ± 0.01 ng/ml respectively. Serum CRP levels were significantly higher in simple steatosis, and steatohepatitis groups compared to healthy controls (7.5 ± 1.6 and 5.2 ± 2.5 versus 2.9 ± 0.5 mg/dl respectively p Conclusion Serum PCT was within normal ranges in patients with simple steatosis or steatohepatitis and has no diagnostic value. Serum CRP level was increased in NAFLD compared to controls. CRP can be used as an additional marker for diagnosis of NAFLD but it has no value in discrimination of steatohepatitis from simple steatosis.

  4. The Effect of 12 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on Homocysteine and CRP Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Body Composition in Overweight Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Bahram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: High levels of homocysteine inflammatory markers and C-Reactive Protein (CRP cause many complications, including atherosclerosis, venous thrombosis, and cardiovascular problems. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of 12-weekHigh Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on homocysteine, CRP, and body composition in overweight men. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 20 students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences with a body mass index between 25 and 30 kg/m2, were purposefully selected and were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group had practiced in the HIIT program with the intensity of up to 90 percent of maximum heart rate for 12 weeks. Before and after exercise, the amount of homocysteine, CRP, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated. The data were analyzed by using dependent and independent t-test at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: The results showed that12 weeks of HIIT had significant effects on reducing serum levels of homocysteine and HSCRP, body weight, body fat percentage, BMI, and WHR in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that 12 weeks of intense interval training as a non-invasive method can have a positive effect on reducing the amount of homocysteine, HS-CRP, and some anthropometric indexes of obesity and overweight.

  5. mCRP triggers angiogenesis by inducing F3 transcription and TF signalling in microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Esther; de la Torre, Raquel; Arderiu, Gemma; Slevin, Mark; Badimon, Lina

    2017-01-26

    Inflammation contributes to vascular disease progression. However, the role of circulating inflammatory molecules on microvascular endothelial cell (mECs) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the short pentraxin CRP on microvascular endothelial cell angiogenic function. Subcutaneously implanted collagen plugs seeded with human mECs exposed to monomeric CRP (mCRP) in mice showed formation of an extended network of microvessels both in the plug and the overlying skin tissue, while mECs exposure to pentameric native CRP (nCRP) induced a much milder effect. To understand the mechanisms behind this angiogenic effects, mECs were exposed to both CRP forms and cell migration, wound repair and tube-like formation were investigated. nCRP effects were moderate and of slow-onset whereas mCRP induced rapid, and highly significant effects. We investigated how circulating nCRP is transformed into mCRP by confocal microscopy and western blot. nCRP is transformed into mCRP on the mECs membranes in a time dependent fashion. This transformation is specific and in part receptor dependent, and the formed mCRP triggers F3 gene transcription and TF-protein expression in mECs to induce angiogenesis. F3-silenced mECs are unable to form angiotubes. In agreement, mCRP induced upregulation of the TF signalling pathway in mECs with downstream phosphorylation of AKT and activation of the transcription factor ETS1 leading to increased CCL2 release. The circulating pentraxin nCRP with little pro-angiogenic effect when dissociated into mCRP on the surface of mECs is able to trigger potent proangiogenic effects by inducing F3-gene upregulation and TF signalling.

  6. (Kangaroo grass) at various growth stages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Key words: Kangaroo grass, biomass, dry matter, rangeland, growth stages. INTRODUCTION ..... sativa L.) pastures. Ph.D Dissertation presented to ... Production curves for the six most important grass species in the western ...

  7. Clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of biocompound IMMUNEPOTENT CRP in the third-molar extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises A. Franco-Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A controlled, parallel, randomized and comparative trial was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of IMMUNEPOTENT CRP versus ibuprofen in patients after third-molar surgery over seven days. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of IMMUNEPOTENT CRP was evaluated using the method of Amin and Laskin, and the analysis of cytokine production (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, INF-γ in saliva was done by flow cytometry. The swelling process after surgery was significant (p < 0.05 and the treatments with IMMUNEPOTENT CRP or ibuprofen controlled this process properly; no difference between the groups was found (p < 0.05. Both treatments were shown to modulate the cytokine production. These results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of the natural compound IMMUNEPOTENT CRP and suggest it could be used in clinical dental practice.

  8. Osteoprotegerin improves risk detection by traditional cardiovascular risk factors and hsCRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Haahr-Pedersen, Sune; Bjerre, Mette

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the association of plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) to hospitalisation for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), ischaemic stroke and all-cause mortality, and the effect of combining plasma OPG and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)....

  9. Study of High Sensitive-CRP and Cardiac Marker Enzymes in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna R,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation has been proposed as a contributor to different stages in the pathogenesis of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. High sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP, an acute-phase plasma protein synthesized by the liver, is the most extensively studied systemic marker of inflammation. Elevated hsCRP concentrations early in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS, prior to the tissue necrosis, may be a surrogate marker for cardiovascular co-morbidities. The cardiac marker enzymes Creatine Kinase myocardial bound (CK-MB, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH have been known to be increased in coronary artery diseases. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure hs-CRP levels and other cardiac marker enzymes in ACS patients and to compare the levels of hs-CRP with other cardiac marker enzymes between ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI and Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI patients. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 207 consecutive patients admitted to Sri Siddhartha Medical College Hospital within the first 6 hours from the onset of chest pain. Patients were diagnosed as Unstable Angina (UA, (n=84; STEMI (n=63 and NSTEMI (n=60. ACS patients were compared with 211 healthy age and sex matched controls. Hs-CRP, CK-MB, AST and LDH levels were measured by standard methods in both groups at baseline and forcases at 36-48 hours i.e. Peak levels. Results: ACS patients had significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of hs-CRP, CKMB, AST and LDH in comparison to controls at baseline. Hs-CRP, CK-MB, AST and LDH levels were significantly higher in STEMI patients compared to NSTEMI patients (p<0.05 at baseline. There was a significant difference regarding peak hs-CRP levels between the two groups, as STEMI patients had significantly higher peak hs-CRP levels compared to NSTEMI patients (p<0.05. Conclusion: STEMI patients have significantly higher peak hsCRP levels compared to NSTEMI patients. These data

  10. DESIGN OF GRASS BRIQUETTE MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    manually or with hydraulic press to produce briquettes for use in stove. However, there is sufficient literature suggesting the use of grass species for animal husbandry. Odia [5] examined the energy potential dried leaves and agricultural residues. As a follow up on the previous research attempts on biomass fuel, this work is ...

  11. Increased LDL cholesterol and CRP in infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Svarrer, Eva Martha Madsen; Damm, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Proatherogenic stimuli during foetal life may predispose to development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) expression is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis.......Proatherogenic stimuli during foetal life may predispose to development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) expression is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis....

  12. Allergenicity and crossreactivity of buffalo grass ( Stenotaphrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In the subtropical climate of South Africa, grasses of the subfamily Panicoideae are predominant. Bermuda grass has previously been shown to be an important local allergen, and immunoglobulin E (IgE) epitopes of Bermuda grass extracts are known to be distinct from those of the Pooid pollen extracts.

  13. What happens to soil ecological properties when conservation reserve program land is disturbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, expiring Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contracts results in the conversion of restored CRP land back to croplands, potentially reversing multiple ecological benefits including C sequestration potential and microbial biodiversity. We evaluated microbial community composition (fatty ac...

  14. Haplotypes in the CRP gene associated with increased BMI and levels of CRP in subjects with type 2 diabetes or obesity from Southwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Calleja, América; Quiróz-Vargas, Irma; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco A; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Vences-Velázquez, Amalia; Cruz, Miguel; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and risk score of coronary heart disease. We studied 402 individuals and classified them into four groups: healthy, obese, T2D obese, and T2D without obesity, from Guerrero, Southwestern Mexico. Blood levels of CRP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocytes were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the risk score for coronary heart disease was determined by the Framingham's methodology. The TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 was associated with increased body mass index and T2D patients with obesity. We found that the haplotype 2 (TGAG) was associated with increased levels of CRP (β = 0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.5; P = 0.005) and haplotype 7 (TGGG) with higher body mass index (BMI) (β = 0.2; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.3; P obesity and the haplotype 7 with BMI may explain how obesity and genetic predisposition increase the risk of diseases such as T2D in the population of Southwestern Mexico.

  15. CRP velocity and short-term mortality in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwidsky, Assi; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Letourneau-Shesaf, Sevan; Keren, Gad; Taieb, Philippe; Berliner, Shlomo; Shacham, Yacov

    There is a known association between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and adverse outcomes in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The optimal time frame to measure CRP for risk stratification is not known. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relation between the change in CRP velocity (CRPv) and 30-d mortality among STEMI patients. We included consecutive patients with a diagnosis of STEMI who presented to Tel-Aviv Medical Center between 2008 and 2014 and had their CRP measured with a wide range assay (wr-CRP) at least twice during the 24 h after admission. CRPv was defined as the change in wr-CRP concentration (mg/l) divided by the change in time (in hours) between the two measurements. The study population comprised of 492 patients, mean age was 62 ± 14, 80% were male. CRPv was significantly higher among patients who died within 30 d of admission (1.42 mg/l versus 0.18 mg/l, p < 0.001). In a multivariate regression model adjusted to multiple confounders, CRPv was independently associated with 30-d mortality (OR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.20-1.62, p < 0.001). CRPv might be an independent and rapidly measurable biomarker for short-term mortality in patients presenting with STEMI.

  16. Evaluation of Usefulness of hs-CRP and Ferritin Assays in Patients with Nasal Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Partyka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic nature of the nasal polyps, tendency to recurrence, and lack of satisfying treatment need the diagnostic’s parameters which show early inflammatory state as ferritin and hs-CRP. The Aim of Study. Assessment of hs-CRP and ferritin blood levels in nasal polyps patients in evaluation of treatment efficacy. Methods. All 38 patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I included 19 patients with anti-inflammatory therapy 2 weeks after surgery. Group II included 19 patients without anti-inflammatory therapy 2 weeks after surgery. The levels of hs-CRP and ferritin have been assessed before and 2 and 6 weeks after surgical treatment. Results. Research showed statistically significant difference of ferritin’s concentration between examined groups 6 weeks after surgery (P<0.05 and statistically significant difference of hs-CRP concentration 2 and 6 weeks after surgery (P<0.05. Conclusion. (1 The analysis of serum ferritin and hs-CRP concentrations can be useful in early postoperative detection of inflammatory state in patients with nasal polyps and for the effectiveness of therapy. (2 Lack of correlation between mean ferritin and hs-CRP serum levels, at each diagnostic and monitoring stage, shows that they are independent and cannot be determined interchangeably.

  17. Testing framework for GRASS GIS: ensuring reproducibility of scientific geospatial computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, V.; Gebbert, S.

    2014-12-01

    GRASS GIS, a free and open source GIS, is used by many scientists directly or through other projects such as R or QGIS to perform geoprocessing tasks. Thus, a large number of scientific geospatial computations depend on quality and correct functionality of GRASS GIS. Automatic functionality testing is therefore necessary to ensure software reliability. Here we present a testing framework for GRASS GIS which addresses different needs of GRASS GIS and geospatial software in general. It allows to test GRASS tools (referred to as GRASS modules) and examine outputs including large raster and vector maps as well as temporal datasets. Furthermore, it enables to test all levels of GRASS GIS architecture including C and Python application programming interface and GRASS modules invoked as subprocesses. Since GRASS GIS is used as a platform for development of geospatial algorithms and models, the testing framework allows not only to test GRASS GIS core functionality but also tools developed by scientists as a part of their research. Using testing framework we can test GRASS GIS and related tools automatically and repetitively and thus detect errors caused by code changes and new developments. Tools and code are then easier to maintain which results in preserving reproducibility of scientific results over time. Similarly to open source code, the test results are publicly accessible, so that all current and potential users can see them. The usage of testing framework will be presented on an example of a test suite for r.slope.aspect module, a tool for computation of terrain slope, aspect, curvatures and other terrain characteristics.

  18. The role of fibrinogen and CRP in cardiovascular risk in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałuzny, Marcin; Bolanowski, Marek; Daroszewski, Jacek; Szuba, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Patients with active acromegaly have 2- to 3-fold increased cardiovascular mortality. Alterations of acute phase proteins, observed in acromegaly, could lead to cardiovascular diseases. Aim of the study was to evaluate fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) secretion in patients with acromegaly. Seventy-seven patients were divided into groups with active (AA, n = 56) and controlled acromegaly (CA, n = 21). Twenty age- and sex-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Serum fibrinogen, CRP, fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Comparison between the groups revealed: higher fibrinogen, triglycerides, glucose levels, and BMI values in AA than in the controls; higher CRP, fibrinogen, triglyceride levels, and BMI values in CA than in the controls; higher LDL cholesterol and insulin levels and lower CRP levels and BMI values in the AA group than in the CA group. Fibrinogen concentration was highest in the AA group and lowest in the control group. Fibrinogen levels were high in all patients with acromegaly, irrespective of disease status, and they were significantly higher than in healthy subjects. CRP concentration was highest in the CA group and lowest in the control group. CRP levels were significantly and paradoxically lower in patients with AA than in patients with well-controlled disease and did not explain the increased cardiovascular mortality in acromegaly. Fibrinogen plays an important role as a cardiovascular risk factor in acromegaly, irrespective of the cure of the disease. The role of CRP as a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with uncontrolled acromegaly should be better explained in future studies. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 83-88).

  19. CRP relevance in clinical assessment of chronic spontaneous urticaria Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maouia, A; Youssef, M; Leban, N; Ben Chibani, J; Helal, A N; Kassab, A

    2017-12-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common dermatological condition defined by the sudden occurrence of daily wheals and pruritus for at least six weeks. Multifactorial origin is suggested such as oxidative stress. This latter may play a double role as a trigger and remnant agent. The first aim of this study is to investigate antioxidant status, inflammatory proteins, hematologic counts and clinical assessment in CSU patients. The second aim is to evaluate the effect of a first-line treatment: desloratadine 5 mg/d on these different parameters. This study enrolled 30 CSU patients and same number of controls. We assessed the urticaria activity score (UAS), total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), albumin, alpha1, alpha2, beta1 beta2, gamma globulins, c-reactive protein (CRP) and hematologic numeration. At baseline alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, gamma globulins, CRP, SOD activity, leukocytes and basophils were significantly higher in patients versus controls (p < 0.05). TAS, GST, CAT, GPx and albumin were significantly low in patients versus controls (p < 0.05). After treatment, TAS, GST and GPx were significantly increased in patients versus patients before treatment (p < 0.001). SOD, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, gamma globulins, CRP, albumin, leukocytes and basophils were significantly decreased after treatment versus before treatment (p < 0.05). A significant correlation between CRP and UAS (r = 0.3; p = 0.011) was noted. UAS assessment revealed the efficacy of 30 d-antihistaminic treatment. Desloratadine exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on CSU patients revealed by CRP. Patients' remission was synergistic to CRP attenuation emphasizing CRP relevance for CSU clinical assessment.

  20. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  1. Increased hsCRP is associated with higher risk of aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyme, Adam; Nielsen, Olav W.; Asferg, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate relations between inflammation and aortic valve stenosis (AS) by measuring high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, at baseline (hsCRP0) and after 1 year (hsCRP1) and exploring associations with aortic valve replacement (AVR). Design We examined 1423 patients from...... the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study. Results During first year of treatment, hsCRP was reduced both in patients later receiving AVR (2.3 [0.9–4.9] to 1.8 [0.8–5.4] mg/l, p CRP1...... predicted later AVR (HR = 1.17, p CRP0 (HR = 0.96, p = 0.33), aortic valve area (AVA) and other risk factors. A higher rate of AVR was observed in the group with high hsCRP0 and an increase during the first year (AVRhighCRP0CRP1inc=47.3% versus AVRhighCRP0CRP1dec=27.5%, p

  2. High-affinity RNA aptamers to C-reactive protein (CRP): newly developed pre-elution methods for aptamer selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orito, N.; Umekage, S.; Sato, K.; Kawauchi, S.; Tanaka, H.; Sakai, E.; Tanaka, T.; Kikuchi, Y.

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a modified SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method to obtain RNA aptamers with high affinity to C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a clinical biomarker present in plasma, the level of which increases in response to infections and noninfectious inflammation. The CRP level is also an important prognostic indicator in patients with several syndromes. At present, CRP content in blood is measured immunochemically using antibodies. To develop a more sensitive method using RNA aptamers, we have attempted to obtain high-affinity RNA aptamers to CRP. We succeeded in obtaining an RNA aptamer with high affinity to CRP using a CRP-immobilized Sepharose column and pre-elution procedure. Pre-elution is a method that removes the weak binding portion from a selected RNA population by washing for a short time with buffer containing CRP. By surface plasmon-resonance (SPR) analysis, the affinity constant of this aptamer for CRP was calculated to be KD = 2.25×10-9 (M). The secondary structure, contact sites with CRP protein, and application of this aptamer will be described.

  3. Analyzing rasters, vectors and time series using new Python interfaces in GRASS GIS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Chemin, Yann; Zambelli, Pietro; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS 7 is a free and open source GIS software developed and used by many scientists (Neteler et al., 2012). While some users of GRASS GIS prefer its graphical user interface, significant part of the scientific community takes advantage of various scripting and programing interfaces offered by GRASS GIS to develop new models and algorithms. Here we will present different interfaces added to GRASS GIS 7 and available in Python, a popular programming language and environment in geosciences. These Python interfaces are designed to satisfy the needs of scientists and programmers under various circumstances. PyGRASS (Zambelli et al., 2013) is a new object-oriented interface to GRASS GIS modules and libraries. The GRASS GIS libraries are implemented in C to ensure maximum performance and the PyGRASS interface provides an intuitive, pythonic access to their functionality. GRASS GIS Python scripting library is another way of accessing GRASS GIS modules. It combines the simplicity of Bash and the efficiency of the Python syntax. When full access to all low-level and advanced functions and structures from GRASS GIS library is required, Python programmers can use an interface based on the Python ctypes package. Ctypes interface provides complete, direct access to all functionality as it would be available to C programmers. GRASS GIS provides specialized Python library for managing and analyzing spatio-temporal data (Gebbert and Pebesma, 2014). The temporal library introduces space time datasets representing time series of raster, 3D raster or vector maps and allows users to combine various spatio-temporal operations including queries, aggregation, sampling or the analysis of spatio-temporal topology. We will also discuss the advantages of implementing scientific algorithm as a GRASS GIS module and we will show how to write such module in Python. To facilitate the development of the module, GRASS GIS provides a Python library for testing (Petras and Gebbert, 2014) which

  4. Advancing alternate tools: why science education needs CRP and CRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo Seriki, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Ridgeway and Yerrick's paper, Whose banner are we waving?: exploring STEM partnerships for marginalized urban youth, unearthed the tensions that existed between a local community "expert" and a group of students and their facilitator in an afterschool program. Those of us who work with youth who are traditionally marginalized, understand the importance of teaching in culturally relevant ways, but far too often—as Ridgeway and Yerrick shared—community partners have beliefs, motives, and ideologies that are incompatible to the program's mission and goals. Nevertheless, we often enter partnerships assuming that the other party understands the needs of the students or community; understands how in U.S. society White is normative while all others are deficient; and understands how to engage with students in culturally relevant ways. This forum addresses the underlying assumption, described in the Ridgeway and Yerrick article, that educators—despite their background and experiences—are able to teach in culturally relevant ways. Additionally, I assert based on the finding in the article that just as Ladson-Billings and Tate (Teach Coll Rec 97(1):47-68, 1995) asserted, race in the U.S. society, as a scholarly pursuit, was under theorized. The same is true of science education; race in science education is under theorized and the use of culturally relevant pedagogy and critical race theory as a pedagogical model and analytical tool, respectively, in science education is minimal. The increased use of both would impact our understanding of who does science, and how to broaden participation among people of color.

  5. The role of low CRP values in the prediction of the development of acute diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Jyrki T; Klintrup, Kai; Rautio, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the most appropriate imaging modality for the assessment of acute diverticulitis at the emergency unit. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcome of the patients presented first time with symptoms of acute diverticulitis and low CRP values. Two-hundred patients, who presented with the symptoms of acute diverticulitis and had CRP values under 150 mg/L, underwent abdominal CT examination on admission to Oulu University Hospital. The clinical parameters and radiological findings were compared in relation to clinical outcome both by means of univariate and multivariate analyses. Seventy-one (35.5 %) of the 200 patients presented on admission with complicated diverticulitis. CRP values between 100 and 150 mg/L predicted complicated disease, but the mean values of CRP between uncomplicated disease, 89 mg/L ± 39, and complicated disease, 101 mg/L ± 39, did not differ significantly. Free intra-abdominal fluid in CT was the only independent risk factor of the need for interventional therapy and treatment in the intensive care unit. Longevity of the patients and free fluid in CT predicted significantly prolonged hospitalization. Mortality was 1 % and older patients were significantly affected. The recurrence rate of acute diverticulitis was 24 % (43/177) in the whole group and 18 % (23/129) after uncomplicated diverticulitis. Low CRP values do not reliably predict uncomplicated disease in patients presented first time at the emergency unit with acute diverticulitis. We recommend that the need for abdominal CT is carefully evaluated according to the patient's clinical status, always even when the CRP value is under 150 mg/L.

  6. [Significance of CRP in the assessment of severity of acute diverticulitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Jyrki; Roberto, Blanco; Tero, Rautio

    2014-01-01

    Diverticulitis is suspected when the patient has pain and tenderness on palpation on the lower left abdomen, fever and an elevated CRP level. After a confirmed diagnosis, outpatient therapy of uncomplicated diverticulitis is possible, according to the latest research results even without antimicrobial drugs. CT scanning is usually unnecessary when the CRP level remains below 50 mg/l in the absence of signs of peritoneal irritation, but should always be performed when the value exceeds 150 mg/l. Unenhanced CT scan without contrast agent is well suited for the exclusion of complicated diverticulitis.

  7. Chemopreventive and renal protective effects for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: implications of CRP and lipid peroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darweish MM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish oil-derived ω-3 fatty acids, like docosahexanoic (DHA, claim a plethora of health benefits. We currently evaluated the antitumor effects of DHA, alone or in combination with cisplatin (CP in the EAC solid tumor mice model, and monitored concomitant changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA and leukocytic count (LC. Further, we verified the capacity of DHA to ameliorate the lethal, CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and the molecular mechanisms involved therein. Results EAC-bearing mice exhibited markedly elevated LC (2-fold, CRP (11-fold and MDA levels (2.7-fold. DHA (125, 250 mg/kg elicited significant, dose-dependent reductions in tumor size (38%, 79%; respectively, as well as in LC, CRP and MDA levels. These effects for CP were appreciably lower than those of DHA (250 mg/kg. Interestingly, DHA (125 mg/kg markedly enhanced the chemopreventive effects of CP and boosted its ability to reduce serum CRP and MDA levels. Correlation studies revealed a high degree of positive association between tumor growth and each of CRP (r = 0.85 and leukocytosis (r = 0.89, thus attesting to a diagnostic/prognostic role for CRP. On the other hand, a single CP dose (10 mg/kg induced nephrotoxicity in rats that was evidenced by proteinuria, deterioration of glomerular filtration rate (GFR, -4-fold, a rise in serum creatinine/urea levels (2–5-fold after 4 days, and globally-induced animal fatalities after 7 days. Kidney-homogenates from CP-treated rats displayed significantly elevated MDA- and TNF-α-, but reduced GSH-, levels. Rats treated with DHA (250 mg/kg, but not 125 mg/kg survived the lethal effects of CP, and showed a significant recovery of GFR; while their homogenates had markedly-reduced MDA- and TNF-α-, but -increased GSH-levels. Significant association was detected between creatinine level and those of MDA (r = 0.81, TNF-α r = 0.92 and GSH (r = -0

  8. Learning to Mow Grass: IDF Adaptations to Hybrid Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Learning to Mow Grass: IDF Adaptations to Hybrid Threats A Monograph by MAJ Kha M. Nguyen United States Army School of Advanced Military...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Kha M. Nguyen 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Defense Force 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON MAJ Kha M. Nguyen a

  9. L-band radar scattering from grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  10. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.

  11. Grass-on-grass competition along a catenal gradient in mesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactions between mature grass plants and grass seedlings have been found to be both facilitative and competitive. To examine the effects of aboveground and belowground competition on seedling biomass and the effects of soil depth on competitive interactions, seedlings of three locally common grass species ...

  12. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis.

  13. EnviroAtlas - Acres of USDA Farm Service Agency Conservation Reserve Program land by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the acres of land enrolled in the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). The CRP is administered by...

  14. Preterm delivery predicted by soluble CD163 and CRP in women with symptoms of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ida; Grove, Jakob; Thorsen, Poul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether soluble CD163 (sCD163) and C-reactive protein (CRP) can predict spontaneous preterm delivery in women with symptoms of preterm delivery. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Setting Labour ward at a tertiary university hospital. POPULATION: Ninety-three women with symp......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether soluble CD163 (sCD163) and C-reactive protein (CRP) can predict spontaneous preterm delivery in women with symptoms of preterm delivery. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Setting Labour ward at a tertiary university hospital. POPULATION: Ninety-three women...... with symptoms of preterm delivery before 34 weeks of gestation. METHODS: sCD163 and CRP were individually examined as predictors of preterm delivery. A model for prediction of preterm delivery was established using exact logistic regression for risk factors individually associated with preterm delivery. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Gestational age at delivery. RESULTS: In women with symptoms of preterm delivery, median sCD163 and CRP levels were significantly higher statistically in women delivering preterm (3.4 mg/L, and 62 nmol/L) compared with the women delivering at term (2.7 mg/L, and

  15. Estimate of CRP and TNF-alpha level before and after periodontal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that there can be a possible causal relationship between pathogenesis of periodontal disease and CVD as inferred from the statistical significant outcome in the form of decreased inflammatory biomarkers after the periodontal treatment. Key words: CVD, CRP, TNF-alpha, ...

  16. Changes in plasma IL4, TNFá and CRP in response to regular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Regular exposure to tobacco smoke at home causes airway inflammation and altered cytokine regulation; however, there is variation between individuals of different countries. Objective: To determine effects of passive smoking on plasma IL4, TNFá, and CRP in healthy male school-children in Khartoum.

  17. CRP and suPAR are differently related to anthropometry and subclinical organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Sehestedt, Thomas Berend; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is a marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) independently predict CVD. We tested the hypothesis that these biomarkers reflect different aspects...

  18. Evaluation of serum homocysteine, high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate in patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA is a common type of hair loss with an autoimmune basis. As the role of homocysteine (Hcys, folate, and CRP has been considered in some autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To evaluate homocysteine, folate and CRP level in AA. Methods: This study was performed on 29 patients who had AA for at least 6 months affecting more than 20% of scalp, and 32 healthy controls. Levels of serum Hcys, blood high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean level of RBC folate was significantly lower in the patient group than that in controls (P < 0.001. Also, the level of RBC folate was significantly lower in patients with extensive forms of disease (alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis in comparison with more localized form (patchy hair loss (P < 0.05. Patients with higher "Severity of Alopecia Total" (SALT score had lower RBC folate, as well. Serum Hcys and blood high-sensitivity CRP levels did not show a significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Patients with alopecia areata have lower level of RBC folate which is in negative correlation with both severity and extension of AA.

  19. Relationship between CRP and clinical course of unstable angina depends on assay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Maat, Moniek P M; Haverkate, Frits; Kluft, Cornelis

    2002-08-01

    The CRP concentration has been identified as a cardiovascular risk factor in healthy volunteers and in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. There is little information about the comparability of the results of different CRP assays and it has also not been evaluated whether different assays give different associations with risk. We studied this in the APRAIS study, a study on 211 patients with unstable angina pectoris who were admitted to hospital and in whom we studied the association between the CRP concentration on admission and the in-hospital clinical course (refractiviness to medication). We used two different immunological methods: an in-house ELISA using polyclonal rabbit anti-human CRP antibodies as catching and tagging antibody and a commercial nephelometric method (Dade-Behring). The analytical variation was much smaller for the nephelometric method than for the in-house ELISA. Both methods gave higher levels in the refractory group than in the stabilized group, but only for the nephelometric method was this difference significant. Also, when the relative risk is calculated, it is clear that the more accurate nephelometric method can better discriminate between the two groups [RR 2.19 (95% CI 0.94-5.11) for the nephelometric method and RR 1.30 (95% CI 0.56-3.03) for the ELISA]. In conclusion, the nephelometric method measures the CRP concentration with a smaller intra- and interassay variation. The nephelometric method can also better discriminate between unstable angina patients who will be stabilized and those who are refractory during hospitalization.

  20. A mutant crp allele that differentially activates the operons of the fuc regulon in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Lin, E C

    1988-05-01

    L-Fucose is used by Escherichia coli through an inducible pathway mediated by a fucP-encoded permease, a fucI-encoded isomerase, a fucK-encoded kinase, and a fucA-encoded aldolase. The adolase catalyzes the formation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-lactaldehyde. Anaerobically, lactaldehyde is converted by a fucO-encoded oxidoreductase to L-1,2-propanediol, which is excreted. The fuc genes belong to a regulon comprising four linked operons: fucO, fucA, fucPIK, and fucR. The positive regulator encoded by fucR responds to fuculose 1-phosphate as the effector. Mutants serially selected for aerobic growth on propanediol became constitutive in fucO and fucA [fucO(Con) fucA(Con)], but noninducible in fucPIK [fucPIK(Non)]. An external suppressor mutation that restored growth on fucose caused constitutive expression of fucPIK. Results from this study indicate that this suppressor mutation occurred in crp, which encodes the cyclic AMP-binding (or receptor) protein. When the suppressor allele (crp-201) was transduced into wild-type strains, the recipient became fucose negative and fucose sensitive (with glycerol as the carbon and energy source) because of impaired expression of fucA. The fucPIK operon became hyperinducible. The growth rate on maltose was significantly reduced, but growth on L-rhamnose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, glycerol, or glycerol 3-phosphate was close to normal. Lysogenization of fuc+ crp-201 cells by a lambda bacteriophage bearing crp+ restored normal growth ability on fucose. In contrast, lysogenization of [fucO(Con)fucA(Con)fucPIK(Non)crp-201] cells by the same phage retarded their growth on fucose.

  1. The impact of saliva collection and processing methods on CRP, IgE, and Myoglobin immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Owing to its ease of collection, saliva is potentially the sample of choice in diagnosis. Salivary biomolecules have provided a porthole in surveying a person’s health and well-being. Our study aims were (1) to demonstrate the effects of pre-analytical steps, collection and pre-processing techniques on salivary protein detection and (2) to establish an indication of salivary reference intervals for 3 biomolecules of clinical interest. Methods Saliva samples were collected from participants (n = 25, ages 20–35 years) using the following methods: no stimulation (resting/unstimulated), mechanical, and acid stimulation. The saliva was prepared for analysis by: unprocessed, post standard centrifugation in a container without any additives, and centrifugation using Centrifugal Filter Unit (Amicon® Ultra-0.5). AlphaLisa® assays were used to measure the levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Immunoglobin (IgE) and myoglobin in saliva samples. Results Saliva flow rates were lowest with the resting/drooling collection method. The lowest total protein concentration was with acid stimulation. Unstimulated and mechanically stimulated collections produced no effect on the CRP and IgE levels while myoglobin levels were highest with the unstimulated collection. Acid stimulation had a negative impact on the measured concentrations of IgE and myoglobin (except for CRP levels). Conclusion Mechanical stimulation was the most viable option for collecting saliva without affecting the levels of CRP and myoglobin. The processing methods had an adverse effect on the concentration of total protein as well as on CRP and IgE concentrations. PMID:23369566

  2. Relationships of CRP and P wave dispersion with atrial fibrillation in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsioufis, Costas; Syrseloudis, Dimitris; Hatziyianni, Awalia; Tzamou, Vanessa; Andrikou, Ioannis; Tolis, Panaglotis; Toutouzas, Kostas; Michaelidis, Andreas; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2010-02-01

    Although inflammation has been shown to be implicated in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF), little is known about its involvement in the accompanying atrial electrical remodeling expressed by P wave dispersion (P(disp)). Fifty hypertensive subjects with documented paroxysmal AF (AF group) and 50 matched for body mass index, sex and office systolic blood pressure (BP) subjects with no history of AF (SR group) were subjected to electrocardiogram (ECG) and P(disp) assessment, hs-CRP determination, a complete echocardiographic study and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. The AF as compared to the SR subjects were older by 14 years (P < 0.0001) and they exhibited lower office and 24-h diastolic BP (7 mm Hg, P < 0.0001 and by 8 mm Hg, P < 0.0001, respectively) and higher office and 24-h pulse pressure (by 4 mm Hg, P = 0.03 and 6 mm Hg, P = 0.001, respectively) mean values. A higher mean of left atrial (LA) diameter index (by 1.9 mm/m(2), P < 0.0001) and left ventricular mass index (by 16 g/m(2), P < 0.0001) were observed in the AF vs. SR group. P(disp) mean and hs-CRP median values were higher in the AF group (by 22 ms, P < 0.0005 and by 4.63 mg/l, P < 0.0005, respectively). Standard multiple and multiple logistic regression analysis identified log(10)(hs-CRP) as independent determinant of P(disp) and log(10)(CRP) and P(disp) as independent determinants of AF. In hypertensive subjects hs-CRP and P(disp) are interrelated and associated with AF, suggesting an active implication of inflammation in the atrial electrophysiological remodeling predisposing to AF.

  3. Modelling of strategic grass harvest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiessen, M.; Mourik, van S.; Evert, van F.K.

    2017-01-01

    Grass harvest plays a crucial role in milk production. Farmers face the problem of timing the harvest with respect to quality (crude protein content) and quantity (dry matter yield). Literature suggests that harvesting more frequently and thereby keeping the grass short (light harvesting) will

  4. POTENTIALS OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AND GRASSES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    gamba grass and bagasse was 0.8 (RK<1) while pineapple leaf and maize stalk have Runkel ratio of 0.9 (RK<1). Peel from maize cob and Bahaman grass have Runkel Ratio of 1. (RK=1). Calculated fibre derivatives indicated that the non wood raw materials were good in pulp and papermaking. Key words: Non-wood fibre, ...

  5. The development and current status of perennial rhizomatous grasses as energy crops in the US and Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, I. [Universiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Department of Science, Technology and Society; Scurlock, J.M.O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lindvall, E. [Svaloef Weibull AB, Umeae (Sweden); Christou, M. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi-Attikis (Greece)

    2003-10-01

    Perennial grasses display many beneficial attributes as energy crops, and there has been increasing interest in their use in the US and Europe since the mid-1980s. In the US, the Herbaceous Energy Crops Research Program (HECP), funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), was established in 1984. After evaluating 35 potential herbaceous crops of which 18 were perennial grasses it was concluded that switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was the native perennial grass which showed the greatest potential. In 1991, the DOE's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), which evolved from the HECP, decided to focus research on a 'model' crop system and to concentrate research resources on switchgrass, in order to rapidly attain its maximal output as a biomass crop. In Europe, about 20 perennial grasses have been tested and four perennial rhizomatous grasses (PRG), namely miscanthus (Miscanthus spp.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) giant reed (Arundo donax) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) were chosen for more extensive research programs. Reed canary grass and giant reed are grasses with the C{sub 3} photosynthetic pathway, and are native to Europe. Miscanthus, which originated in Southeast Asia, and switchgrass, native to North America, are both C{sub 4} grasses. These four grasses differ in their ecological/climatic demands, their yield potentials, biomass characteristics and crop management requirements. Efficient production of bioenergy from such perennial grasses requires the choice of the most appropriate grass species for the given ecological/climatic conditions. In temperate and warm regions, C{sub 4} grasses outyield C{sub 3} grasses due to their more efficient photosynthetic pathway. However, the further north perennial grasses are planted, the more likely cool season grasses are to yield more than warm season grasses. Low winter temperatures and short vegetation periods are major limits to the growth of C{sub 4} grasses in northern Europe

  6. Correlation of Serum Levels of Vitronectin, Malondialdehyde and Hs-CRP With Disease Severity in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Yaghoubi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The association and correlation between VN, MDA and hs-CRP indicate their involvement in the atherosclerosis process that may lead to progression of CAD. Also, these findings suggested that serum levels of VN, MDA and hs-CRP can help as diagnostic and monitoring markers in CAD patients and as markers of disease severity.

  7. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Shyamal K.; Saha, Malay C.

    2017-01-01

    Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS) are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder. PMID:28798766

  8. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K. Talukder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder.

  9. Azcatl-CRP: An ant colony-based system for searching full power control rod patterns in BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Juan Jose [Dpto. Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, Salazar, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx; Requena, Ignacio [Dpto. Ciencias Computacion e I.A. ETSII Informatica, University of Granada, C. Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es

    2006-01-15

    We show a new system named AZCATL-CRP to design full power control rod patterns in BWRs. Azcatl-CRP uses an ant colony system and a reactor core simulator for this purpose. Transition and equilibrium cycles of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP) reactor core in Mexico were used to test Azcatl-CRP. LVNPP has 109 control rods grouped in four sequences and currently uses control cell core (CCC) strategy in its fuel reload design. With CCC method only one sequence is employed for reactivity control at full power operation. Several operation scenarios are considered, including core water flow variation throughout the cycle, target different axial power distributions and Haling conditions. Azcatl-CRP designs control rod patterns (CRP) taking into account safety aspects such as k {sub eff} core value and thermal limits. Axial power distributions are also adjusted to a predetermined power shape.

  10. IL-1beta/IL-6/CRP and IL-18/ferritin: Distinct Inflammatory Programs in Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, J.; Oever, J. ten; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Netea, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    The host inflammatory response against infections is characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins, driving both innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. Distinct patterns of circulating cytokines and acute-phase responses have proven indispensable for

  11. CRP-Cyclic AMP Regulates the Expression of Type 3 Fimbriae via Cyclic di-GMP in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ting Lin

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen isolated from liver abscesses of diabetic patients in Asian countries. However, the effects of elevated blood glucose levels on the virulence of this pathogen remain largely unknown. Type 3 fimbriae, encoded by the mrkABCDF genes, are important virulence factors in K. pneumoniae pathogenesis. In this study, the effects of exogenous glucose and the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP signaling pathway on type 3 fimbriae expression regulation were investigated. The production of MrkA, the major subunit of type 3 fimbriae, was increased in glucose-rich medium, whereas cAMP supplementation reversed the effect. MrkA production was markedly increased by cyaA or crp deletion, but slightly decreased by cpdA deletion. In addition, the mRNA levels of mrkABCDF genes and the activity of PmrkA were increased in Δcrp strain, as well as the mRNA levels of mrkHIJ genes that encode cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP-related regulatory proteins that influence type 3 fimbriae expression. Moreover, the activities of PmrkHI and PmrkJ were decreased in ΔlacZΔcrp strain. These results indicate that CRP-cAMP down-regulates mrkABCDF and mrkHIJ at the transcriptional level. Further deletion of mrkH or mrkI in Δcrp strain diminished the production of MrkA, indicating that MrkH and MrkI are required for the CRP regulation of type 3 fimbriae expression. Furthermore, the high activity of PmrkHI in the ΔlacZΔcrp strain was diminished in ΔlacZΔcrpΔmrkHI, but increased in the ΔlacZΔcrpΔmrkJ strain. Deletion of crp increased the intracellular c-di-GMP concentration and reduced the phosphodiesterase activity. Moreover, we found that the mRNA levels of multiple genes related to c-di-GMP metabolism were altered in Δcrp strain. These indicate that CRP regulates type 3 fimbriae expression indirectly via the c-di-GMP signaling pathway. In conclusion, we found evidence of a coordinated regulation of type 3 fimbriae expression by the CRP

  12. The ratio of CRP to prealbumin levels predict mortality in patients with hospital-acquired acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chuanming

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and human studies suggest that inflammation and malnutrition are common in acute kidney injury (AKI patients. However, only a few studies reported CRP, a marker of inflammation, albumin, prealbumin and cholesterol, markers of nutritional status were associated with the prognosis of AKI patients. No study examined whether the combination of inflammatory and nutritional markers could predict the mortality of AKI patients. Methods 155 patients with hospital-acquired AKI were recruited to this prospective cohort study according to RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Lost or End Stage Kidney criteria. C-reactive protein (CRP, and the nutritional markers (albumin, prealbumin and cholesterol measured at nephrology consultation were analyzed in relation to all cause mortality of these patients. In addition, CRP and prealbumin were also measured in healthy controls (n = 45, maintenance hemodialysis (n = 70 and peritoneal dialysis patients (n = 50 and then compared with AKI patients. Results Compared with healthy controls and end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, patients with AKI had significantly higher levels of CRP/prealbumin (p 28 days. Similarly, the combined factors including the ratio of CRP to albumin (CRP/albumin, CRP/prealbumin and CRP/cholesterol were also significantly higher in the former group (p p = 0.027 while the others (CRP, albumin, prealbumin, cholesterol, CRP/albumin and CRP/cholesterol became non-significantly associated. The hazard ratio was 1.00 (reference, 1.85, 2.25 and 3.89 for CRP/prealbumin increasing according to quartiles (p = 0.01 for the trend. Conclusions Inflammation and malnutrition were common in patients with AKI. Higher level of the ratio of CRP to prealbumin was associated with mortality of AKI patients independent of the severity of illness and it may be a valuable addition to SOFA score to independent of the severity of illness and it may be a

  13. Comparison of Crp and Ferritin Levels in Preterm Labor and Premature Membrane Ruptured Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Cekmez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Premature ruptur of membranes (PROM means the rupture of membranes at least one hour before the active labor begins.It is named as preterm premature rupture of membranes( PretermPROM if the rupture occurs before the 37th weeks of gestation.Although the etiologies,complications and results of the PROM and PretermPROM are similar,it has been showed that the major reason for the PretermPROM is infection in choriodesidual unit. Material and Method: It is important to identify the maternal infection for protection against the negative outcomes of prematurity and preterm labor.To obtain the probable maternal infection we can use serum markers of inflamation like leucocyte count,C-reactive protein,ALP,beta-2 microglobulin,alfa-2 macroglobulin. Results: We observed the serum levels of CRP and ferritin in PROM and PretermPROM diagnosed patients.The aim of this trial was to asses the differences of serum CRP and fibrinogen consantrations in selected PROM and PretermPROM diagnosed cases to emphasize the importance of subclinical infection in these diseases. Discussion: According to the results of our trial we found that CRP levels were in normal range in control group but significantly higher in group with PROM and Preterm PROM.In groups with PROM and Preterm PROM avarege value of ferritin was significantly higher than control group.Present results supports that serum ferritin and CRP levels are useful for follow-up possible infections in pregnant women with PROM and Preterm PROM.

  14. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin, CRP, leukocytes and BAL neutrophils for pulmonary complications in the immunocompromised host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Stolz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of laboratory biomarkers and BAL differential cell count for the diagnosis of bacterial infection in severe immunosuppressed patients. One-hundred and seven consecutive patients undergoing bronchoscopy for suspected pulmonary infection were included in this study. Assessment included history, clinical examination, chest image studies, CRP, procalcitonin (ProCT, leukocyte counts, and BAL results. Patients were classified as having proven, possible, and non-bacterial infection.

  15. Association of cigarette smoking and CRP levels with DNA methylation in α-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlinski, Mateusz; Klanderman, Barbara; Sandhaus, Robert A; Barker, Alan F; Brantly, Mark L; Eden, Edward; McElvaney, N Gerard; Rennard, Stephen I; Stocks, James M; Stoller, James K; Strange, Charlie; Turino, Gerard M; Campbell, Edward J; Demeo, Dawn L

    2012-07-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and tobacco smoking are confirmed risk factors for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We hypothesized that variable DNA methylation would be associated with smoking and inflammation, as reflected by the level of C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in AAT-deficient subjects. Methylation levels of 1,411 autosomal CpG sites from the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Cancer Panel I were analyzed in 316 subjects. Associations of five smoking behaviors and CRP levels with individual CpG sites and average methylation levels were assessed using non-parametric testing, linear regression and linear mixed effect models, with and without adjustment for age and gender. Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that methylation levels of 16 CpG sites significantly associated with ever-smoking status. A CpG site in the TGFBI gene was the only site associated with ever-smoking after adjustment for age and gender. No highly significant associations existed between age at smoking initiation, pack-years smoked, duration of smoking, and time since quitting smoking as predictors of individual CpG site methylation levels. However, ever-smoking and younger age at smoking initiation associated with lower methylation level averaged across all sites. DNA methylation at CpG sites in the RUNX3, JAK3 and KRT1 genes associated with CRP levels. The most significantly associated CpG sites with gender and age mapped to the CASP6 and FZD9 genes, respectively. In summary, this study identified multiple potential candidate CpG sites associated with ever-smoking and CRP level in AAT-deficient subjects. Phenotypic variability in Mendelian diseases may be due to epigenetic factors.

  16. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  17. Serum levels of magnesium and their relationship with CRP in patients with OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanli, H; Kizilirmak, D; Akgedik, R; Bilgi, M

    2017-05-01

    Low levels of magnesium (Mg) are associated with chronic inflammatory stress. Some animal studies have reported that a moderate deficiency of Mg, similar to that which occurs in humans, may increase inflammatory or oxidative stress stimulated by other factors, such as disrupted sleep or sleep deficiency. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between serum levels of Mg and the inflammatory response in patients with a new diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This clinical, retrospective study registered 68 patients with newly diagnosed mild to severe OSA and 30 without OSA. The Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), time until blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation OSA than those in controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Patients with OSA had substantially higher plasma CRP concentrations than controls. A negative correlation was observed between the AHI and ODI and Mg levels. Significant differences in Mg and CRP levels were observed between patients with AHI scores of 5-15 and scores ≥30 based on OSA severity but independent of BMI. Furthermore, the AHI, ODI, TST OSA. Low levels were associated with a higher CRP concentration in patients with OSA.

  18. Cystatin C, CRP, log TG/HDLc and metabolic syndrome are associated with microalbuminuria in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva [Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Daniel França [Área de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Freitas, Eduardo [Departamento de Estatística, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Moura, Flavio José Dutra de; Rosa, Tânia Torres; Veiga, Joel Paulo Russomano, E-mail: joelprv@unb.br [Área de Clínica Médica, Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In patients with systemic hypertension, microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial damage and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine the factors that may lead to the occurrence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with serum creatinine lower than 1.5 mg/dL. This cross-sectional study included 133 Brazilians with essential hypertension followed up at a hypertension outpatient clinic. Those with serum creatinine higher than 1.5 mg/dL, as well as those with diabetes mellitus, were excluded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and GFR estimated by using the CKD-EPI formula were calculated. The serum levels of the following were assessed: CysC, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting glucose. Microalbuminuria was determined in 24-hour urine. Hypertensive patients were classified according to the presence of one or more criteria for metabolic syndrome. In a multiple regression analysis, the serum levels of CysC and CRP, the atherogenic index log TG/HDLc and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome were positively correlated with microalbuminuria (r{sup 2}: 0.277, p < 0.05). CysC, CRP, log TG/HDLc, and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome, regardless of serum creatinine, were associated with microalbuminuria, an early marker of kidney damage and cardiovascular risk in patients with essential hypertension.

  19. An introduction to the grasses of Ethiopia and Eritrea | Phillips ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia together with Eritrea has a rich grass flora comprising over 600 species. Grasses typical of each of the vegetation types found in the area are discussed. Grasses from specialised edaphic conditions are considered, and also weed, pasture and lawn grasses. The paper concludes with a section on the importance of ...

  20. Pretransplant Levels of CRP and Interleukin-6 Family Cytokines; Effects on Outcome after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedt, Tor Henrik; Lie, Stein Atle; Reikvam, Håkon; Rye, Kristin Paulsen; Lindås, Roald; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Ahmed, Aymen Bushra; Bruserud, Øystein

    2016-11-01

    Several pretransplant factors, including CRP (C-reactive protein) levels, reflect the risk of complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. IL-6 induces CRP increase, and we therefore investigated the effects of pretransplant IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptors, IL-6 family cytokines and CRP serum levels on outcome for 100 consecutive allotransplant recipients. All patients had related donors, none had active infections and 99 patients were in complete remission before conditioning. The incidence of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) requiring treatment was 40%, survival at Day +100 82%, and overall survival 48%. Despite a significant correlation between pretransplant CRP and IL-6 levels, only CRP levels significantly influenced transplant-related mortality (TRM). However, CRP did not influence overall survival (OS). Pretransplant IL-31 influenced late TRM. Finally, there was a significant association between pretransplant IL-6 and early postconditioning weight gain (i.e., fluid retention), and this fluid retention was a risk factor for aGVHD, TRM and OS. To conclude, pretransplant CRP, IL-31 and early posttransplant fluid retention were independent risk factors for TRM and survival after allotransplantation.

  1. Pretransplant Levels of CRP and Interleukin-6 Family Cytokines; Effects on Outcome after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Henrik Tvedt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several pretransplant factors, including CRP (C-reactive protein levels, reflect the risk of complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. IL-6 induces CRP increase, and we therefore investigated the effects of pretransplant IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptors, IL-6 family cytokines and CRP serum levels on outcome for 100 consecutive allotransplant recipients. All patients had related donors, none had active infections and 99 patients were in complete remission before conditioning. The incidence of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD requiring treatment was 40%, survival at Day +100 82%, and overall survival 48%. Despite a significant correlation between pretransplant CRP and IL-6 levels, only CRP levels significantly influenced transplant-related mortality (TRM. However, CRP did not influence overall survival (OS. Pretransplant IL-31 influenced late TRM. Finally, there was a significant association between pretransplant IL-6 and early postconditioning weight gain (i.e., fluid retention, and this fluid retention was a risk factor for aGVHD, TRM and OS. To conclude, pretransplant CRP, IL-31 and early posttransplant fluid retention were independent risk factors for TRM and survival after allotransplantation.

  2. Pretransplant Levels of CRP and Interleukin-6 Family Cytokines; Effects on Outcome after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedt, Tor Henrik; Lie, Stein Atle; Reikvam, Håkon; Rye, Kristin Paulsen; Lindås, Roald; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Ahmed, Aymen Bushra; Bruserud, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Several pretransplant factors, including CRP (C-reactive protein) levels, reflect the risk of complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. IL-6 induces CRP increase, and we therefore investigated the effects of pretransplant IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptors, IL-6 family cytokines and CRP serum levels on outcome for 100 consecutive allotransplant recipients. All patients had related donors, none had active infections and 99 patients were in complete remission before conditioning. The incidence of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) requiring treatment was 40%, survival at Day +100 82%, and overall survival 48%. Despite a significant correlation between pretransplant CRP and IL-6 levels, only CRP levels significantly influenced transplant-related mortality (TRM). However, CRP did not influence overall survival (OS). Pretransplant IL-31 influenced late TRM. Finally, there was a significant association between pretransplant IL-6 and early postconditioning weight gain (i.e., fluid retention), and this fluid retention was a risk factor for aGVHD, TRM and OS. To conclude, pretransplant CRP, IL-31 and early posttransplant fluid retention were independent risk factors for TRM and survival after allotransplantation. PMID:27809289

  3. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  4. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantificationThe potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for characterisation

  5. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  6. ALLERGENICITY AND CROSS- REACTIVITY OF BUFFALO GRASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu), Cynodon dactylon. (Bermuda), and Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo); for pastures. (Digitaria erianthe); garden ornamentals (e.g. Pennisetum villosum); and for erosion control, Pennisetum and Eragrostis. Lolium perenne (rye grass), of the subfamily Pooideae, has been.

  7. IL6 and CRP haplotypes are associated with COPD risk and systemic inflammation: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos Valéria

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin (IL-6 and fibrinogen (FG have been repeatedly associated with many adverse outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. To date, it remains unclear whether and to what extent systemic inflammation is primary or secondary in the pathogenesis of COPD. The aim of this study was to examine the association between haplotypes of CRP, IL6 and FGB genes, systemic inflammation, COPD risk and COPD-related phenotypes (respiratory impairment, exercise capacity and body composition. Methods Eighteen SNPs in three genes, representing optimal haplotype-tagging sets, were genotyped in 355 COPD patients and 195 healthy smokers. Plasma levels of CRP, IL-6 and FG were measured in the total study group. Differences in haplotype distributions were tested using the global and haplotype-specific statistics. Results Raised plasma levels of CRP, IL-6 and fibrinogen were demonstrated in COPD patients. However, COPD population was very heterogeneous: about 40% of patients had no evidence of systemic inflammation (CRP CRP gene and CRP plasma levels (P = 0.0004 and IL6 gene and COPD (P = 0.003. Subsequent analysis has shown that IL6 haplotype H2, associated with an increased COPD risk (p = 0.004, OR = 4.82; 1.64 to 4.18, was also associated with very low CRP levels (p = 0.0005. None of the genes were associated with COPD-related phenotypes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that common genetic variation in CRP and IL6 genes may contribute to heterogeneity of COPD population associated with systemic inflammation.

  8. Influence of CRP testing and clinical findings on antibiotic prescribing in adults presenting with acute cough in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Kristin Alise; Melbye, Hasse; Kelly, Mark J; Ceynowa, Christina; Mölstad, Sigvard; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C

    2010-12-01

    Respiratory tract infections are the most common indication for antibiotic prescribing in primary care. The value of clinical findings in lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is known to be overrated. This study aimed to determine the independent influence of a point of care test (POCT) for C-reactive protein (CRP) on the prescription of antibiotics in patients with acute cough or symptoms suggestive of LRTI, and how symptoms and chest findings influence the decision to prescribe when the test is and is not used. Prospective observational study of presentation and management of acute cough/LRTI in adults. Primary care research networks in Norway, Sweden, and Wales. Adult patients contacting their GP with symptoms of acute cough/LRTI. Predictors of antibiotic prescribing were evaluated in those tested and those not tested with a POCT for CRP using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 803 patients were recruited in the three networks. Among the 372 patients tested with a POCT for CRP, the CRP value was the strongest independent predictor of antibiotic prescribing, with an odds ratio (OR) of CRP ≥ 50 mg/L of 98.1. Crackles on auscultation and a patient preference for antibiotics perceived by the GP were the strongest predictors of antibiotic prescribing when the CRP test was not used. The CRP result is a major influence in the decision whether or not to prescribe antibiotics for acute cough. Clinicians attach less weight to discoloured sputum and abnormal lung sounds when a CRP value is available. CRP testing could prevent undue reliance on clinical features that poorly predict benefit from antibiotic treatment.

  9. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  10. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W. Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M.; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P.; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O.; Kimeu, John M.; Luke, W. R. Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  11. Validity and predictive ability of the juvenile arthritis disease activity score based on CRP versus ESR in a Nordic population-based setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordal, E B; Zak, M; Aalto, K

    2012-01-01

    To compare the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS) based on C reactive protein (CRP) (JADAS-CRP) with JADAS based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (JADAS-ESR) and to validate JADAS in a population-based setting.......To compare the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS) based on C reactive protein (CRP) (JADAS-CRP) with JADAS based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (JADAS-ESR) and to validate JADAS in a population-based setting....

  12. Phylogeny and expression analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-P (SAP) like genes reveal two distinct groups in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P T; Bird, S; Zou, J; Martin, S A M

    2017-06-01

    The acute phase response (APR) is an early innate immune function that is initiated by inflammatory signals, leading to the release of acute phase proteins to the bloodstream to re-establish homeostasis following microbial infection. In this study we analysed the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome database and identified five C-reactive protein (CRP)/serum amyloid P component (SAP) like molecules namely CRP/SAP-1a, CRP/SAP-1b, CRP/SAP-1c, CRP/SAP-2 and CRP/SAP-3. These CRP/SAP genes formed two distinct sub-families, a universal group (group I) present in all vertebrates and a fish/amphibian specific group (group II). Salmon CRP/SAP-1a, CRP/SAP-1b and CRP/SAP-1c and CRP/SAP-2 belong to the group I family whilst salmon CRP/SAP-3 is a member of group II. Gene expression analysis showed that the salmon CRP/SAP-1a as well as serum amyloid A-5 (SAA-5), one of the major acute phase proteins, were significantly up-regulated by recombinant cytokines (rIL-1β and rIFNγ) in primary head kidney cells whilst the other four CRP/SAPs remained refractory. Furthermore, SAA-5 was produced as the main acute phase protein (APP) in Atlantic salmon challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida (aroA(-) strain) whilst salmon CRP/SAPs remained unaltered. Overall, these data illustrate the potential different functions of expanded salmon CRP/SAPs to their mammalian homologues. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Agreement between the DAS28-CRP assessed with 3 and 4 variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological agents in the daily clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2013-01-01

    The Disease Activity Score-28-C-reactive Protein 4 [DAS28-CRP(4)] composite measure for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on 4 variables: tender and swollen joint counts, CRP, and patient global assessment. DAS28-CRP(3) includes only 3 variables, because patient global assessment has been omitted...

  14. Experimental evaluation of the Continuous Risk Profile (CRP) approach to the current Caltrans methodology for high collision concentration location identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report evaluates the performance of Continuous Risk Profile (CRP) compared with the : Sliding Window Method (SWM) and Peak Searching (PS) methods. These three network : screening methods all require the same inputs: traffic collision data and Sa...

  15. Inflammatory biomarkers and cancer: CRP and suPAR as markers of incident cancer in patients with serious nonspecific symptoms and signs of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Schultz, Martin; Gaardsting, Anne; Ladelund, Steen; Garred, Peter; Iversen, Kasper; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Helms, Morten; David, Kim Peter; Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kronborg, Gitte

    2017-07-01

    In Denmark, patients with serious nonspecific symptoms and signs of cancer (NSSC) are referred to the diagnostic outpatient clinics (DOCs) where an accelerated cancer diagnostic program is initiated. Various immunological and inflammatory biomarkers have been associated with cancer, including soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) pentraxin-3, mannose-binding lectin, ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3. We aimed to evaluate these biomarkers and compare their diagnostic ability to classical biomarkers for diagnosing cancer in patients with NSSC. Patients were included from the DOC, Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre. Patients were given a final diagnosis based on the combined results from scans, blood work and physical examination. Weight loss, Charlson score and previous cancer were registered on admission, and plasma concentrations of biomarkers were measured. The primary outcome was incident cancer within 1 year. Out of 197 patients included, 39 patients (19.8%) were diagnosed with cancer. Patients with cancer were significantly older and had a higher burden of comorbidities and previous cancer diagnoses compared to patients who were not diagnosed with cancer. Previous cancer, C-reactive protein (CRP) and suPAR were significantly associated with newly diagnosed cancer during follow-up in multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and CRP. Neither any of the PRRs investigated nor self-reported weight loss was associated with cancer. In this study, previous cancer, CRP and suPAR were significantly associated with cancer diagnosis in patients with NSSC. Ficolin-1-3, MBL and pentraxin-3 were not associated with cancer. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Union for International Cancer Control.

  16. Predictive Value of C-Reactive Protein (CRP in Identifying Fatal Outcome and Deep Infections in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Mölkänen

    Full Text Available Clear cut-off levels could aid clinicians in identifying patients with a risk of fatal outcomes or complications such as deep infection foci in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB. Cut-off levels for widely used clinical follow-up parameters including serum C-reactive protein (CRP levels and white blood cell counts (WBC have not been previously studied.430 adult SAB patients in Finland took part in prospective multicentre study in which their CRP levels and WBC counts were measured on the day of the positive blood culture, every other day during the first week, twice a week during hospitalization and at 30 days. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic value of CRP and WBC on the day of the positive blood culture and at days 4, 7, and 14 in predicting mortality and the presence of deep infections at 30 days. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR for CRP level and WBC count cut-off values for mortality were calculated by the Cox regression analysis and adjusted odds ratios (OR for cut-off values to predict the presence of deep infection by the binary logistic regression analysis.The succumbing patients could be distinguished from the survivors, starting on day 4 after the positive blood culture, by higher CRP levels. Cut-off values of CRP for day 30 mortality in adjusted analysis, that significantly predicted fatal outcome were at day 4 CRP >103 mg/L with sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 55%, and HR of 3.5 (95% CI, 1.2-10.3; p = 0.024, at day 14 CRP >61 mg/L with a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 80% and HR of 3.6 (95% CI, 1.1-10.3; p8.6 x109/L was prognostic with sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 78% and HR of 8.2 (95% CI, 2.9-23.1; p108 mg/L with sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 60%, and HR of 2.6 (95% CI, 1.3-4.9; p = 0.005 and at day 14 CRP >22 mg/L with sensitivity of 59%, specificity of 68%, and HR of 3.9 (95% CI, 1.6-9.5; p = 0.003. The lack of decline of CRP in 14 days or during the second week

  17. Different techniques to study rumen fermentation characteristics of maturing grass and grass silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Soliman, I.A.; Visser, de H.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and

  18. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ermeng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Deguang; Gong, Wangbao; Li, Zhifei; Wang, Haiying; Xia, Yun; Wei, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.

  19. Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein

  20. Relationship of galectin-3 with obesity, IL-6, and CRP in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, J; Nguyen, V T; Rhodes, D H; Sullivan, M E; Braunschweig, C; Fantuzzi, G

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the association of galectin-3 (Gal3) with obesity and inflammatory status in a cohort of metabolically healthy, predominantly African-American women with varying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk as determined by CRP levels. We assessed the association between BMI and serum levels of Gal3, IL-6, CRP, and adiponectin in metabolically healthy women (N = 97) to determine the overall association between Gal3, obesity, and inflammation in groups at different CVD risk. Obese women had significantly higher serum Gal3 compared to non-obese participants (P = 0.0016), although Gal3 levels were comparable among different classes of obesity. BMI (R (2) = 0.1406, P = 0.0013), IL-6 (R (2) = 0.0689, P = 0.035), and CRP (R (2) = 0.0468, P = 0.0419), but not adiponectin, positively predicted the variance of Gal3 levels in the total study population. However, the predicting effect of BMI (R (2) = 0.2923, P = 0.0125) and inflammation (R (2) = 0.3138, P = 0.038) on Gal3 was only present in women at low/moderate risk of CVD (CRP ≤ 3 µg/mL). Gal3 is positively correlated with obesity and inflammation in women, while the presence of elevated CVD risk may disturb the strength of Gal3 as a biomarker of inflammation.

  1. New evidences for C-reactive protein (CRP deposits in the arterial intima as a cardiovascular risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Montecucco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fabrizio Montecucco, François MachDivision of Cardiology, Foundation for Medical Research, University Hospital, Geneva, SwitzerlandAbstract: Inflammatory processes are orchestrated by several soluble molecules, which interact with cell populations involved. Cytokines, chemokines, acute-phase reactants, and hormones are crucial in the evolution of several inflammatory disorders, such as atherosclerosis. Several evidences suggest that C-reactive protein (CRP started to be considered as a cardiovascular risk factor, since CRP directly induces atheroslerosis development. The recent demonstration of CRP production not only by the liver, but also within atherosclerotic plaques by activated vascular cells, also suggests a possible dual role, as both a systemic and tissue agent. Although more studies are needed, some therapeutic approaches to reduce CRP levels have been performed with encouraging results. However, given the strong limitations represented by its low specificity and still accordingly with the American Heart Association, there is no need for high sensitivity CRP screening of the entire adult population as a public-health measure. The measure of serum CRP might be useful only for patients who are considered at intermediate risk.Keywords: atherosclerosis, inflammation, plaque, cardiovascular risk, C-reactive protein

  2. Failure of CRP decline within three days of hospitalization is associated with poor prognosis of Community-acquired Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Bang; Baunbæk Egelund, Gertrud Louise; Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute phase protein used to monitor the patient's response during treatment in infectious diseases. Mortality from Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) remains high, particularly in hospitalized patients. Better risk prediction during hospitaliza......BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute phase protein used to monitor the patient's response during treatment in infectious diseases. Mortality from Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) remains high, particularly in hospitalized patients. Better risk prediction during....... Predictive associations of CRP3 (absolute levels and relative decline) and 30 days mortality were analysed using receiver operating characteristics and logistic regression. RESULTS: Eight hundred and fourteen patients were included and 90 (11%) died within 30 days. The area under the curve for CRP3 level...... and decline for predicting 30 days mortality were 0.64 (0.57-0.70) and 0.71 (0.65-0.76). Risk of death was increased in patients with CRP3 level >75 mg/l (OR 2.44; 95%CI 1.36-4.37) and in patients with a CRP3 decline

  3. Association of leukocyte count and hsCRP with metabolic abnormalities in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (CURES - 64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, K; Deepa, R; Sampathkumar, R; Balasubramanyam, M; Mohan, V

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association of leukocyte count and high sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hsCRP) with metabolic abnormalities in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT) (n = 865) were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study [CURES]. Standard methods were used for assessing hsCRP [Nephelometry, in a subset] and leukocytes [Flowcytometry, Sysmex SF-3000]. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Assessment model (HOMA-IR). Body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HOMA IR and hsCRP increased significantly with increasing tertiles of leukocyte count [p for trend leukocyte count and hsCRP showed a positive correlation with cardiovascular risk factors. Leukocyte count showed a positive correlation with hsCRP [p = 0.008]. Both mean leukocyte count [p leukocyte count [p leukocyte count and hsCRP] and MS/cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians even among non-diabetic subjects.

  4. Polymorphisms of the CRP gene inhibit inflammatory response and increase susceptibility to depression: the Health in Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Norman, Paul E; Allcock, Richard; van Bockxmeer, Frank; Hankey, Graeme J; Jamrozik, Konrad; Flicker, Leon

    2009-08-01

    Depression has been associated with chronic changes in the serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) in observational studies, but it is unclear if this association is causal or is due to confounding and bias. Genetic studies are less subject to this type of error and offer an opportunity to investigate if CRP is causally linked to depression, particularly because known polymorphisms of the CRP gene have been associated with high- and low-basal serum concentrations of CRP [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1130864 and rs1205, respectively]. The aim of this study is to determine if polymorphisms of SNPs rs1130864 and rs1205 are associated with prevalent depression. We completed a cross-sectional study of a community sample of 3700 men aged > or = 70 years, and used the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) to assess depressive symptoms. A GDS-15 score 7 or more indicates the presence of clinically significant depressive symptoms. Physical morbidity was assessed with the physical component summary score (PCS) of the SF-36 Health Survey. We collected fasting blood samples to measure high sensitivity CRP and to extract DNA for the genotyping of SNPs rs1130864 and rs1205 of the CRP gene. One hundred and eighty-two men were depressed (4.9%). The odds of depression increased by 2% (95% CI = 1-4%) for every unit (mg/l) increase of CRP and nearly doubled for men with CRP > or = 3 mg/l vs or = 3 mg/l) and depression was no longer significant after the analyses were adjusted for smoking, age, body mass index (BMI) and PCS. Men with the CT and TT genotypes of rs1130864 had 1.36 (95% CI = 1.13-1.63) and 2.31 (95% CI = 1.65-3.24) greater odds of CRP > or = 3 mg/l than CC carriers, but there was no association between this polymorphism and the presence of prevalent depression. The G > A polymorphism of SNP rs1205 was associated with 24% (95% CI = 16-32%) lower concentration of CRP compared with other genotypes. Men with the rs1205 AA genotype had 1.66 (95% CI

  5. Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Version 4.0 User’s Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    GRASS Display Program) SYNOPSIS d.his d.hla help d-his bimp= naan [L-map=name] [s.map=namJ] [out=name] DESCRIPTION his stands for hue, intensity, and... naane DESCRIPTION r.thin scans the named input raster map layer and thins non-zero cells that denote linear features into linear features having a

  6. Profound loss of neprilysin accompanied by decreased levels of neuropeptides and increased CRP in ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Gök Sargın

    Full Text Available Neprilysin (NEP, CD10 acts to limit excessive inflammation partly by hydrolyzing neuropeptides. Although deletion of NEP exacerbates intestinal inflammation in animal models, its role in ulcerative colitis (UC is not well explored. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate changes in NEP and associated neuropeptides at the same time in colonic tissue. 72 patients with UC and 27 control patients were included. Patients' demographic data and laboratory findings, five biopsy samples from active colitis sites and five samples from uninvolved mucosa were collected. Substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP were extracted from freshly frozen tissues and measured using ELISA. Levels of NEP expression were determined using immunohistochemistry and immunoreactivity scores were calculated. GEBOES grading system was also used. We demonstrated a profound loss (69.4% of NEP expression in UC, whereas all healthy controls had NEP expression. Patients with UC had lower neuronal SP; however non-neuronal SP remained similar. UC patients had also lower neuronal and non-neuronal VIP levels. CGRP were low in general and no significant changes were observed. Additionally, CRP positive patients with UC had higher rates of NEP loss (80% vs 51.9% and lower SP levels when compared with CRP negative patients with UC. Concurrent decreases in SP and VIP with profound loss of NEP expression observed in UC is likely to be one of the factors in pathogenesis. Further studies are required to define the role of neuropeptides and NEP in UC.

  7. Numerical research of hydrodynamic performance of hybrid CRP podded propulsor in steering conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Jiaqi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of steering conditions to hybrid CRP podded propulsor,the calculation of the NACA0012 open-water rudder's lift coefficient was carried out by applying the RANS method combined with the SST k-ω turbulence model, and the near wall mesh arrangement and near wall treatment method applied in numerical calculation were selected through comparisons between the experimental results and the calculation results. The hydrodynamic performance of a podded propulsor was predicted on the basis of the above, and the calculation results showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The object of the research was a hybrid CRP podded propulsor, and its hydrodynamic performance in steering conditions was predicted by applying the numerical method above. Conclusions were drawn on the relationship between hydrodynamic performance parameters and steering angle, i.e. larger magnitudes of the after propeller thrust, pod horizontal force and steering moment will be acquired at larger steering angles, and the fore propeller thrust is basically as invariant as the pod steering. The internal reasons were also analyzed. Research shows that the propeller has good maneuverability,and will have wide application prospect.

  8. Perrenial Grasses for Sustainable European Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    crop production. National scenarios show that up to ten million tonnes of additional biomass can be sourced in Denmark without reducing food production or increasing the area under cultivation if a biorefinery industry is established. In one of the scenarios optimized for additional environmental......Compared with annual grain and seed crops, the production of perennial crops reduces losses of nutrients, the need for pesticides, and supports soil carbon build-up. This may help implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD); the Nitrates Directive; and support the new EU greenhouse gas...... production into grass production. Grasses and legumes have higher contents of protein with better quality (high lysine and methionine contents) than grain and seed crops. Thus, substituting imported soya bean protein with protein extracted from perennial grasses is an interesting option....

  9. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  10. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT.

  11. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  12. Dynamic modeling of the cesium, strontium, and ruthenium transfer to grass and vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, P.; Real, J.; Maubert, H.; Roussel-Debet, S. (CE de Cadarache, Saint-Paul lez Durance (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire)

    1999-05-01

    From 1988 to 1993, the Nuclear Safety and Protection Institute (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire -- IPSN) conducted experimental programs focused on transfers to vegetation following accidental localized deposits of radioactive aerosols. In relation to vegetable crops (fruit, leaves, and root vegetables) and meadow grass these experiments have enabled a determination of the factors involved in the transfer of cesium, strontium, and ruthenium at successive harvests, or cuttings, in respect of various time lags after contamination. The dynamic modeling given by these results allows an evaluation of changes in the mass activity of vegetables and grass during the months following deposit. It constitutes part of the ASTRAL post-accident radioecology model.

  13. CRP and TNF-α  Induce PAPP-A Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effects of C-reactive protein (CRP and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α on pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs require further investigation. Methods. The PAPP-A levels in culture supernatants, PAPP-A mRNA expression, and cellular PAPP-A expression were measured in human PBMCs isolated from fresh blood donations provided by 6 healthy volunteers (4 donations per volunteer. Analyses were conducted by ultrasensitive ELISA, western blotting, and RT-PCR following stimulation with CRP or TNF-α cytokines. Results. PAPP-A mRNA and protein levels after CRP stimulation peaked at 24 hours, whereas peak PAPP-A mRNA and protein levels were achieved after TNF-α stimulation at only 2 and 8 hours, respectively. These findings indicate the dose-dependent effect of CRP and TNF-α stimulation. Actinomycin D treatment completely prevented CRP and TNF-α induction of PAPP-A mRNA and protein expression. Additionally, nuclear factor- (NF- κB inhibitor (BAY11-7082 potently inhibited both CRP and TNF-α stimulated PAPP-A mRNA and protein expression. Conclusions. Human PBMCs are capable of expressing PAPP-A in vitro, expression that may be regulated by CRP and TNF-α through the NF-κB pathway. This mechanism may play a significant role in the observed increase of serum PAPP-A levels in acute coronary syndrome (ACS.

  14. CRP and TNF-α  Induce PAPP-A Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiping; Li, Hongwei; Gu, Fusheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The effects of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) require further investigation. Methods. The PAPP-A levels in culture supernatants, PAPP-A mRNA expression, and cellular PAPP-A expression were measured in human PBMCs isolated from fresh blood donations provided by 6 healthy volunteers (4 donations per volunteer). Analyses were conducted by ultrasensitive ELISA, western blotting, and RT-PCR following stimulation with CRP or TNF-α cytokines. Results. PAPP-A mRNA and protein levels after CRP stimulation peaked at 24 hours, whereas peak PAPP-A mRNA and protein levels were achieved after TNF-α stimulation at only 2 and 8 hours, respectively. These findings indicate the dose-dependent effect of CRP and TNF-α stimulation. Actinomycin D treatment completely prevented CRP and TNF-α induction of PAPP-A mRNA and protein expression. Additionally, nuclear factor- (NF-) κB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) potently inhibited both CRP and TNF-α stimulated PAPP-A mRNA and protein expression. Conclusions. Human PBMCs are capable of expressing PAPP-A in vitro, expression that may be regulated by CRP and TNF-α through the NF-κB pathway. This mechanism may play a significant role in the observed increase of serum PAPP-A levels in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). PMID:22997483

  15. Common variants in the CRP promoter are associated with a high C-reactive protein level in Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Jung; Yun, Sin Weon; Yu, Jeong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Lim; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kil, Hong-Ryang; Kim, Gi Beom; Han, Myung Ki; Song, Min Seob; Lee, Hyoung Doo; Byeon, Jung Hye; Sohn, Saejung; Hong, Young Mi; Jang, Gi Young; Lee, Jong-Keuk

    2015-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute self-limiting form of vasculitis that afflicts infants and children and manifests as fever and signs of mucocutaneous inflammation. Children with KD show various laboratory inflammatory abnormalities, such as elevations in their white blood cell (WBC) count, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). We here performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 178 KD patients to identify the genetic loci that influence 10 important KD laboratory markers: WBC count, neutrophil count, platelet count, CRP, ESR, hemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, and total protein. A total of 165 loci passed our arbitrary stage 1 threshold for replication (p SNP located at the CRP locus (rs12068753) demonstrated the most significant association with CRP in KD patients (beta = 4.73 and p = 1.20 × 10(-6) according to the stage 1 GWAS; beta = 3.65 and p = 1.35 × 10(-8) according to the replication study; beta = 3.97 and p = 1.11 × 10(-13) according to combined analysis) and explained 8.1% of the phenotypic variation observed. However, this SNP did not demonstrate any significant association with CRP in the general population (beta = 0.37 and p = 0.1732) and only explained 0.1% of the phenotypic variation in this instance. Furthermore, rs12068753 did not affect the development of coronary artery lesions or intravenous immunoglobulin resistance in KD patients. These results indicate that common variants in the CRP promoter can play an important role in the CRP levels in KD.

  16. UAVs and Machine Learning Revolutionising Invasive Grass and Vegetation Surveys in Remote Arid Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sandino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris and spinifex (Triodia sp. as examples. The process integrates unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs also commonly known as drones, high-resolution red, green, blue colour model (RGB cameras, and a data processing approach based on machine learning algorithms. The methods are illustrated with data acquired in Cape Range National Park, Western Australia (WA, Australia, orthorectified in Agisoft Photoscan Pro, and processed in Python programming language, scikit-learn, and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost libraries. In total, 342,626 samples were extracted from the obtained data set and labelled into six classes. Segmentation results provided an individual detection rate of 97% for buffel grass and 96% for spinifex, with a global multiclass pixel-wise detection rate of 97%. Obtained results were robust against illumination changes, object rotation, occlusion, background cluttering, and floral density variation.

  17. Productivity of Alfalfa, Rhodes Grass and Their Mixtures in Arid Conditions Under Sprinklers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Nadaf

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The presently existing dominant perennial forages like Rhodes grass, alfalfa and their mixtures were investigated from January 1998 to August 1999 for their productivity as a part of ICARDA’s Arabian Peninsula Research Program (APRP at Rumais in the Batinah Coast of the Sultanate of Oman. The results indicated that the Rhodes grass varieties produced significantly (P 0.05 green matter (182.05 - 184.04 film" and dry matter (40.83 44.67 t/ha-1 yields. Among the mixtures, both green and dry matter yields of l: 2 mixture of Alfalfa and Rhodes grass were significantly higher than the other two mixture proportions i.e. 1:1 and 2:1 (P<0.05.

  18. Modelling of excess noise attnuation by grass and forest | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...

  19. The influence of the application of grass herbicides on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Economic analysis; Fluazifop-butyl; Merino sheep; Pastures; Propyzamide; Wool production; adg; animal production; dryland; fluzifop-butyl; grass; lucerne; treatments; weeds; yield; production; grasses; herbicides; southern cape; south africa; ruens; stocking rates; medicago sativa; medicago truncatula ...

  20. Distinct physiological responses underlie defoliation tolerance in African lawn and bunch grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, T.M.; Kumordzi, B.B.; Fokkema, W.; Valls Fox, H.; Olff, H.

    Premise of research. African grass communities are dominated by two distinct functional types: tall, caespitose bunch grasses and short, spreading lawn grasses. Functional type coexistence has been explained by differences in defoliation tolerance, because lawn grasses occur in intensively grazed

  1. Microseisms in geothermal exploration: studies in Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, A.L.C.

    1977-11-01

    Frequency-wavenumber (f-k) spectra of seismic noise in the bands 1 less than or equal to f less than or equal to 10 Hz in frequency and parallel bar k parallel bar less than or equal to 35.7 cycles/km in wavenumber, measured at several places in Grass Valley, Nevada, exhibit numerous features which can be correlated with variations in surface geology and sources associated with hot spring activity. Exploration techniques for geothermal reservoirs, based upon the spatial distribution of the amplitude and frequency characteristics of short-period seismic noise, are applied and evaluated in a field program at a potential geothermal area in Grass Valley, Nevada. A detailed investigation of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the noise field was made to guide subsequent data acquisition and processing. Contour maps of normalized noise-level derived from carefully sampled data are dominated by the hot spring noise source and the generally high noise levels outlining the regions of thick alluvium. Major faults are evident when they produce a shallow lateral contrast in rock properties. Conventional seismic noise mapping techniques cannot differentiate noise anomalies due to buried seismic sources from those due to shallow geological effects. The noise radiating from a deep reservoir ought to be evident as body waves of high phase velocity with time-invariant source azimuth. A small two-dimensional array was placed at 16 locations in the region to map propagation parameters. The f-k spectra reveal local shallow sources, but no evidence for a significant body wave component in the noise field was found. With proper data sampling, array processing provides a powerful method for mapping the horizontal component of the vector phase velocity of the noise field. In Grass Valley, and probably in most areas, the 2 to 10 Hz microseismic field is predominantly fundamental mode Rayleigh waves controlled by the very shallow structure.

  2. Precedent fluctuation of serum hs-CRP to albumin ratios and mortality risk of clinically stable hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Chang Hwang

    Full Text Available A high sensitivity C-reactive protein to albumin ratio (hs-CRP/Alb predicts mortality risk in patients with acute kidney injury. However, it varies dynamically. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a variation of this marker was associated with long-term outcome in clinically stable hemodialysis (HD patients.hs-CRP/Alb was checked bimonthly in 284 clinically stable HD outpatients throughout all of 2008. Based on the "slope" of trend equation derived from 5-6 hs-CRP/alb ratios for each patient, the total number of patients was divided into quartiles--Group 1: β≦ -0.13, n = 71; group 2: β>-0.13≦0.003; n = 71, group 3: β>0.003≦0.20; and group 4: β>0.20, n = 71. The observation period was from January 1, 2009 to August 31, 2012.Group 1+4 showed a worse long-term survival (p = 0.04 and a longer 5-year hospitalization stay than Group 2+3 (38.7±44.4 vs. 16.7±22.4 days, p<0.001. Group 1+4 were associated with older age (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05 and a high prevalence of congestive heart failure (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.00-4.11. Standard deviation (SD of hs-CRP/Alb was associated with male sex (β = 0.17, p = 0.003, higher Davies co-morbidity score (β = 0.16, p = 0.03, and baseline hs-CRP (β = 0.39, p<0.001. Patients with lower baseline and stable trend of hs-CRP/Alb had a better prognosis. By multivariate Cox proportional methods, SD of hs-CRP/alb (HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.08 rather than baseline hs-CRP/Alb was an independent predictive factor for long-term mortality after adjusting for sex and HD vintage.Clinically stable HD patients with a fluctuating variation of hs-CRP/Alb are characterized by old age, and more co-morbidity, and they tend to have longer subsequent hospitalization stay and higher mortality risk.

  3. Clinical effect of artificial liver support system on serum hs-CRP level in patients with hepatic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Dandan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical effect of artificial liver support system (ALSS on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP level and investigate the influence of the change in hs-CRP level on clinical prognosis among patients with hepatic failure. MethodsPatients were recruited into three groups: group one included 60 patients who received ALSS due to hepatic failure; group two included 37 patients with hepatic failure without ALSS treatment; and group three included 37 patients with chronic hepatitis B. The serum levels of hs-CRP were measured in groups two and three, and in group one before and after ALSS treatment. Comparison of continuous data between groups was made by t test, and comparison of categorical data was made by chi-square test. ResultsThe levels of hs-CRP in group one before treatment and in groups two and three were 12.89±9.39, 12.22±9.73, and 2.83±6.79, respectively. No significant difference in hs-CRP level between group one and group two was observed (P>0.05. However, the hs-CRP level in group three was significantly different from those in group one and group two (P<0.001. The improvement rate in group one after ALSS treatment (783% was significantly higher compared with that in group two (54.05% (χ2=6.315, P<0.05. ALSS treatment (t=5.179, P<0.05. ALSS treatment was selectively effective in a subgroup of patients and greatly decreased the hs-CRP level in these patients (t=5344,P=0.000), resulting in a significant difference from the patients who were unresponsive to ALSS treatment (t=2.368, P=0038. ConclusionArtificial liver support system can decrease the hs-CRP level in patients with hepatic failure. Serum level of hs-CRP can be used as a clinical indicator of disease progression and predict the clinical outcomes of ALSS in patients with hepatic failure.

  4. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IN METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ROLE OF CRP IN 50 ADULT PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Shah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is generally characterised as a clustering of the abnormal levels of blood lipids (low HDL and high triglycerides, impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, and excess abdominal obesity. The objectives of the study areTo evaluate presence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in the study population of the patients with metabolic syndrome. To find out relation between Subclinical Hypothyroidism and different parameters of metabolic syndrome. To evaluate whether patients of metabolic syndrome with raised hs-CRP have an increased risk of having hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 adult patients who met with inclusion criteria were selected. Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS who fulfilled the NCEP-ATP III criteria: 3 out of 5 criteria positive. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions (e.g. lithium, amiodarone or γ-interferon were excluded from the study. RESULTS A total of 50 patients of metabolic syndrome were enrolled. Out of which 36 were euthyroid, 3 were overt hypothyroid and 11 were subclinical hypothyroid. Out of 11 patients of subclinical hypothyroidism, 9 were female and 2 were male patients. Out of 28 females, 9 (32% were SCH while out of 22 males, 2 (9% were SCH. Out of 50 patients, 3 were overt hypothyroid. All 3 patients had BP >130/85, waist circumference was >88 cm and HDL of 130/85, HDL 150 mg/dL and fasting blood glucose of >100 mg/dL were more associated with male patients. CONCLUSION Subclinical Hypothyroidism was present in 22% of study population and more so in females having metabolic syndrome (32%. Hence, it will be worthwhile to screen female metabolic syndrome patients for thyroid function abnormality. Abnormal blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were more associated with subclinical hypothyroidism

  5. Conservation Reserve Program Acreage by County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains information regarding the acreages of land currently (as of 2004) enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) distributed by county and...

  6. Diagnostic value of soluble CD163 serum levels in patients suspected of meningitis: comparison with CRP and procalcitonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Larsen, Klaus; Kristiansen, Thomas Birk

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of sCD163 serum levels with CRP and PCT in meningitis and bacterial infection. An observational cohort study was conducted between February 2001 and February 2005. The study population comprised 55 patients suspected of meningi......The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of sCD163 serum levels with CRP and PCT in meningitis and bacterial infection. An observational cohort study was conducted between February 2001 and February 2005. The study population comprised 55 patients suspected...... marker for distinguishing bacterial infection from non-bacterial disease (specificity 0.91; sensitivity 0.47). However, the overall diagnostic accuracy of CRP (AUC =0.91) and PCT (AUC =0.87) were superior (p... infection, the AUC of sCD163 (0.83) did not differ significantly from those of CRP or PCT. All markers had AUCs CRP and PCT had high diagnostic value and were superior as markers of bacterial infection compared to s...

  7. Lemon detox diet reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP level without hematological changes in overweight Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Joung; Hwang, Jung Hyun; Ko, Hyun Ji; Na, Hye Bock; Kim, Jung Hee

    2015-05-01

    The lemon detox program is a very low-calorie diet which consists of a mixture of organic maple and palm syrups, and lemon juice for abstinence period of 7 days. We hypothesized that the lemon detox program would reduce body weight, body fat mass, thus lowering insulin resistance and known risk factors of cardiovascular disease. We investigated anthropometric indices, insulin sensitivity, levels of serum adipokines, and inflammatory markers in overweight Korean women before and after clinical intervention trial. Eighty-four premenopausal women were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group without diet restriction (Normal-C), a pair-fed placebo diet group (Positive-C), and a lemon detox diet group (Lemon-D). The intervention period was 11 days total: 7 days with the lemon detox juice or the placebo juice, and then 4 days with transitioning food. Changes in body weight, body mass index, percentage body fat, and waist-hip ratio were significantly greater in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups compared to the Normal-C group. Serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance scores, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups. Serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also reduced only in the Lemon-D group. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels remained stable in the Lemon-D group while they decreased in the Positive-C and Normal-C groups. Therefore, we suppose that the lemon detox program reduces body fat and insulin resistance through caloric restriction and might have a potential beneficial effect on risk factors for cardiovascular disease related to circulating hs-CRP reduction without hematological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Grass seedling demography and sagebrush steppe restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. J. James; M. J. Rinella; T. Svejcar

    2012-01-01

    Seeding is a key management tool for arid rangeland. In these systems, however, seeded species often fail to establish. A recent study inWyoming big sagebrush steppe suggested that over 90% of seeded native grass individuals die before seedlings emerged. This current study examines the timing and rate of seed germination, seedling emergence, and seedling death related...

  9. Tree-grass interactions in savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available of the interaction Varies in both time and space, allowing a rich array of possible outcomes but no universal predictive model. Simple models of coexistence of trees and grasses, based on separation in rooting depth, are theoretically and experimentally inadequate...

  10. Monitoring grass swards using imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of an imaging spectroscopy system with high spatial (0.16-1.45 mm2) and spectral resolution (5-13 nm) was explored for monitoring light interception and biomass of grass swards. Thirty-six Lolium perenne L. mini-swards were studied for a total of eleven consecutive growth periods.

  11. The Prairie Life: The Sea of Grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzlaff, Harriet

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that explores the importance of the environment for 19th-century frontier settlers and the conflict between ranchers and small farmers over appropriate land use. Students watch a video movie, "The Sea of Grass"; read selections from "O Pioneers!"; and write a compare/contrast essay. (MJP)

  12. Novel Imaging Spectroscopy for Grass Sward Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Meuleman, J.; Kornet, J.G.; Lokhorst, C.

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to improve grassland management may benefit from the use of new sensing techniques, such as imaging spectroscopy. In order to explore the potential of hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy for rapid and objective characterization of grass swards an experimental prototype has been developed.

  13. Notes on the nomenclature of some grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1941-01-01

    In a former article 1) many new combinations and critical observations were published on various grasses all over the world. New investigations in critical genera together with the study of the existing literature made it necessary to accept various other arrangements in this important family. The

  14. CRP and SAA1 Haplotypes Are Associated with Both C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A Levels: Role of Suppression Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Ko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the statistical association of the CRP and SAA1 locus variants with their corresponding circulating levels and metabolic and inflammatory biomarker levels by using mediation analysis, a sample population of 599 Taiwanese subjects was enrolled and five CRP and four SAA1 variants were genotyped. Correlation analysis revealed that C-reactive protein (CRP and serum amyloid A (SAA levels were significantly associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes and inflammatory marker levels. Our data further revealed a significant association of CRP and SAA1 variants with both CRP and SAA levels. Mediation analysis revealed that SAA levels suppressed the association between SAA1 genotypes/haplotypes and CRP levels and that CRP levels suppressed the association between CRP haplotypes and SAA levels. In conclusion, genetic variants at the CRP and SAA1 loci independently affect both CRP and SAA levels, and their respective circulating levels act as suppressors. These results provided further evidence of the role of the suppression effect in biological science and may partially explain the missing heritability in genetic association studies.

  15. Vegetation changes in Conservation Reserve Program Lands in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 14 million ha of cropland in the United States has been converted into grasslands through the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) administered by the United States Department of Agriculture, however, studies of the effects of CRP enrollment on plant communities and plant succession are largely l...

  16. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental ...

  17. Methyl bromide soil fumigation: effect on grass yields | MGW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual herbage yields of grasses grown on sandy soils on Henderson Research Station seldom exceed 10 000 kg/ha dry matter, while on heavy clay soils yields of 18 000 kg/ha are consistently obtained with similar amounts of applied fertilizers. Keywords: methyl bromide|soils|fumigation|grasses|grass ...

  18. Responses of savanna lawn and bunch grasses to water limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Alfons; Zeinstra, Patricia; Veldhuis, Michiel; Fokkema, Rienk; Tielens, Elske; Howison, Ruth; Olff, Han

    The grass layer of African savannas consists of two main vegetation types: grazing lawns, dominated by short, mostly clonally reproducing grasses, and bunch grasslands, dominated by tall bunch grasses. This patchy distribution of vegetation types is mostly created by large herbivores, which

  19. Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-five (35) grower crossbred rabbits were randomly allocated to seven combinations of concentrate, grass and legume in proportions of 50 g:60 g:40 g in a completely randomized design. The treatments were: (1) rabbit meal, Rhodes grass and groundnut haulms (RRG), (2) rabbit meal, Rhodes grass and sweet potato ...

  20. Invasion of the exotic grasses: Mapping their progression via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric B. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    Several exotic annual grass species are invading the Intermountain West. After disturbances including wildfire, these grasses can form dense stands with fine fuels that then shorten fire intervals. Thus invasive annual grasses and wildfire form a positive feedback mechanism that threatens native ecosystems. Chief among these within Nevada are Bromus tectorum...

  1. Association between Obesity, hsCRP ≥2 mg/L, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: Implications of JUPITER from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, Michael J.; Rivera, Juan J.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Blankstein, Ron; Agatston, Arthur; O’Leary, Daniel H.; Cushman, Mary; Lakoski, Susan; Criqui, Michael H.; Szklo, Moyses; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2011-01-01

    Objective High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels are closely associated with abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The JUPITER trial has encouraged using hsCRP ≥2 mg/L to guide statin therapy; however the association of hsCRP to atherosclerosis, independent of obesity, remains unknown. Methods and Results We studied 6,760 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Participants were stratified into 4 groups: non-obese/low hsCRP, non-obese/high hsCRP, obese/low hsCRP, and obese/high hsCRP. Using multivariable logistic and robust linear regression, we described the association with subclinical atherosclerosis, using coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Mean BMI was 28.3 ± 5.5 kg/m2, and median hsCRP was 1.9 mg/L (0.84 – 4.26). High hsCRP, in the absence of obesity, was not associated with CAC and was mildly associated with cIMT. Obesity was strongly associated with CAC and cIMT independent of hsCRP. When obesity and high hsCRP were both present, there was no evidence of multiplicative interaction. Similar associations were seen among 2,083 JUPITER-eligible individuals. Conclusions High hsCRP, as defined by JUPITER, was not associated with CAC and was mildly associated with cIMT in the absence of obesity. In contrast, obesity was associated with both measures of subclinical atherosclerosis independent of hsCRP status. PMID:21474823

  2. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of IAEA CRP HTGR Benchmark Using McCARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sang Hoon; Shim, Hyung Jin [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The benchmark consists of 4 phases starting from the local standalone modeling (Phase I) to the safety calculation of coupled system with transient situation (Phase IV). As a preliminary study of UAM on HTGR, this paper covers the exercise 1 and 2 of Phase I which defines the unit cell and lattice geometry of MHTGR-350 (General Atomics). The objective of these exercises is to quantify the uncertainty of the multiplication factor induced by perturbing nuclear data as well as to analyze the specific features of HTGR such as double heterogeneity and self-shielding treatment. The uncertainty quantification of IAEA CRP HTGR UAM benchmarks were conducted using first-order AWP method in McCARD. Uncertainty of the multiplication factor was estimated only for the microscopic cross section perturbation. To reduce the computation time and memory shortage, recently implemented uncertainty analysis module in MC wielandt calculation was adjusted. The covariance data of cross section was generated by NJOY/ERRORR module with ENDF/B-VII.1. The numerical result was compared with evaluation result of DeCART/MUSAD code system developed by KAERI. IAEA CRP HTGR UAM benchmark problems were analyzed using McCARD. The numerical results were compared with Serpent for eigenvalue calculation and DeCART/MUSAD for S/U analysis. In eigenvalue calculation, inconsistencies were found in the result with ENDF/B-VII.1 cross section library and it was found to be the effect of thermal scattering data of graphite. As to S/U analysis, McCARD results matched well with DeCART/MUSAD, but showed some discrepancy in 238U capture regarding implicit uncertainty.

  3. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  4. Prognostic impact of hs-CRP and IL-6 in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation treated with electrical cardioversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Therkelsen, Susette Krohn; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2009-01-01

    -reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured in 56 patients with persistent AF (lasting mean 128 days (range 14-960), mean age 65 years (34-84)), 19 healthy volunteers and 19 patients with permanent AF. Patients with persistent AF underwent CV. Blood samples were taken prior to CV and after 1......, 30 and 180 days. RESULTS: The immediate success rate of CV was 88%, while the total recurrence rate after 180 days was 68%. Patients with permanent AF had significantly higher levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 than patients with persistent AF (p = 0.0011, p... days had significantly lower baseline hs-CRP (1.25 mg/L (0.5-2.4) versus 2.0 mg/L (0.9-3.3), p

  5. A localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) immunosensor for CRP detection using 4-chloro-1-naphtol (4-CN) precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Su-Ji; Park, Jin-Ho; Byun, Ju-Young; Ahn, Young-Deok; Kim, Min-Gon

    2017-07-01

    In this study, C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected by monitoring of LSPR shift promoted by precipitation of 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN). The precipitation occurred by horseradish peroxide (HRP) catalyst which is modified at CRP-detection antibody utilized in sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on gold nano bipyramid (GNBP) substrate. Due to 4-CN precipitates which are located nearby the surface of GNBP, local refractive index (RI) and molecular density were greatly increased. This phenomenon eventually induced strong spectral red-shift of absorption band of GNBP. An excellent linear relationship (R2=0.9895) between the LSPR shift and CRP concentration was obtained in the range from 100 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL and limit of detection (LOD) was reached to 87 pg/mL.

  6. Comparison of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous CFD Fuel Models for Phase I of the IAEA CRP on HTR Uncertainties Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhard Strydom; Su-Jong Yoon

    2014-04-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) evaluation of homogeneous and heterogeneous fuel models was performed as part of the Phase I calculations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinate Research Program (CRP) on High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Uncertainties in Modeling (UAM). This study was focused on the nominal localized stand-alone fuel thermal response, as defined in Ex. I-3 and I-4 of the HTR UAM. The aim of the stand-alone thermal unit-cell simulation is to isolate the effect of material and boundary input uncertainties on a very simplified problem, before propagation of these uncertainties are performed in subsequent coupled neutronics/thermal fluids phases on the benchmark. In many of the previous studies for high temperature gas cooled reactors, the volume-averaged homogeneous mixture model of a single fuel compact has been applied. In the homogeneous model, the Tristructural Isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles in the fuel compact were not modeled directly and an effective thermal conductivity was employed for the thermo-physical properties of the fuel compact. On the contrary, in the heterogeneous model, the uranium carbide (UCO), inner and outer pyrolytic carbon (IPyC/OPyC) and silicon carbide (SiC) layers of the TRISO fuel particles are explicitly modeled. The fuel compact is modeled as a heterogeneous mixture of TRISO fuel kernels embedded in H-451 matrix graphite. In this study, a steady-state and transient CFD simulations were performed with both homogeneous and heterogeneous models to compare the thermal characteristics. The nominal values of the input parameters are used for this CFD analysis. In a future study, the effects of input uncertainties in the material properties and boundary parameters will be investigated and reported.

  7. A Survey of Community-Based Rehabilitation Programs: Goals, Outcomes, Consumers, Finances, and Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterbusch, Karl F.; Miller, John W.

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that examined the present state of 124 community-based rehabilitation programs (CRP) and future trends. Results indicated: (1) the typical CRP served an average of 219 consumers daily and had total revenues of $5.262 million; (2) more than 60 percent of the CRPs offered programs in the following areas:…

  8. Sialic acid transport and catabolism are cooperatively regulated by SiaR and CRP in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Jason W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transport and catabolism of sialic acid, a critical virulence factor for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, is regulated by two transcription factors, SiaR and CRP. Results Using a mutagenesis approach, glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6P was identified as a co-activator for SiaR. Evidence for the cooperative regulation of both the sialic acid catabolic and transport operons suggested that cooperativity between SiaR and CRP is required for regulation. cAMP was unable to influence the expression of the catabolic operon in the absence of SiaR but was able to induce catabolic operon expression when both SiaR and GlcN-6P were present. Alteration of helical phasing supported this observation by uncoupling SiaR and CRP regulation. The insertion of one half-turn of DNA between the SiaR and CRP operators resulted in the loss of SiaR-mediated repression of the transport operon while eliminating cAMP-dependent induction of the catabolic operon when GlcN-6P was present. SiaR and CRP were found to bind to their respective operators simultaneously and GlcN-6P altered the interaction of SiaR with its operator. Conclusions These results suggest multiple novel features for the regulation of these two adjacent operons. SiaR functions as both a repressor and an activator and SiaR and CRP interact to regulate both operons from a single set of operators.

  9. Serum matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-3 levels in dialysis patients vary independently of CRP and IL-6 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Gloria A; Barrett, Cheri V; Alcorta, David A; Hogan, Susan L; Dinwiddie, Lesley; Jennette, J Charles; Falk, Ronald J

    2002-12-01

    Patients on chronic hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis often develop an inflammatory state that causes morbidity and mortality. Cross-sectional studies of dialysis patients have determined that C-reactive protein (CRP) is a predictor of morbidity. Little is known as to whether CRP, cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-1beta that stimulate the synthesis of CRP, or matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are markers of inflammation in patients on dialysis. We assayed by ELISA serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-3, IL-6 and CRP in healthy individuals and in patients with pre-end-stage renal disease (pESRD, n = 10), peritoneal dialysis (PD, n = 11), hemodialysis (HD, n = 17) and renal transplant (TX, n = 10). MMP-2 was significantly elevated before dialysis, perhaps indicative of progressive chronic renal sclerosis. MMP-3 was markedly elevated in hemodialysis patients but not in pESRD or PD patients, and may be related to the hemodialysis process and/or accelerated atherogenesis in these patients. IL-6 was significantly elevated in all patient groups, including pESRD patients. There were no statistically significant differences in CRP levels among the study groups. CRP correlated with IL-6, but not with MMP-2 or MMP-3. The data indicate that there are measurable differences in the expression of MMPs within the dialysis patient population. Because dialysis can be associated with local and systemic inflammation, increased levels of MMP-3 in the hemodialysis group may be a reflection of gene stimulation induced by inflammatory cytokines and should be considered as a marker of chronic, local inflammation. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Association between C-reactive protein (CRP) with depression symptom severity and specific depressive symptoms in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler-Forsberg, Ole; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Tansey, Katherine E; Maier, Wolfgang; Hauser, Joanna; Dernovsek, Mojca Zvezdana; Henigsberg, Neven; Souery, Daniel; Farmer, Anne; Rietschel, Marcella; McGuffin, Peter; Aitchison, Katherine J; Uher, Rudolf; Mors, Ole

    2017-05-01

    Population-based studies have associated inflammation, particularly higher C-reactive protein (CRP), with depressive severity, but clinical trials in major depressive disorder were rather non-specific without examining the role of gender. We aimed to investigate the association between CRP and overall depression severity including specific depressive symptoms and to examine potential gender differences. We included 231 individuals with major depressive disorder from the Genome-Based Therapeutics Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study. At baseline, we assessed high-sensitivity CRP levels and psychopathology with the Montgomery Aasberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). We performed linear regression analyses to investigate the association between baseline CRP levels with overall MADRS severity and specific symptoms at baseline and adjusted for age, gender, anti-inflammatory and psychotropic drug treatment, body mass index, smoking, inflammatory diseases, and recruitment center. Higher CRP levels were significantly associated with greater overall MADRS symptom severity (p=0.02), which was significant among women (p=0.02) but not among men (p=0.68). Among women, higher CRP was associated with increased severity on observed mood, cognitive symptoms, interest-activity, and suicidality, but we found no significant associations among men. Interaction analyses showed no significant gender differences on the overall MADRS score or specific symptoms. Our results support the sickness syndrome theory suggesting that chronic low-grade inflammation may be associated with a subtype of depression. The potential gender differences in psychopathology may be explained by biological and/or psychosocial factors, e.g. differential modulation of immune responses by sex hormones. Clinical studies should investigate symptom-specific and/or gender-specific treatment guided by peripheral inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Type 1 Fimbriae, a Colonization Factor of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Are Controlled by the Metabolic Sensor CRP-cAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Claudia M.; Åberg, Anna; Straseviçiene, Jurate; Emődy, Levente; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Balsalobre, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae are a crucial factor for the virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli during the first steps of infection by mediating adhesion to epithelial cells. They are also required for the consequent colonization of the tissues and for invasion of the uroepithelium. Here, we studied the role of the specialized signal transduction system CRP-cAMP in the regulation of type 1 fimbriation. Although initially discovered by regulating carbohydrate metabolism, the CRP-cAMP complex controls a major regulatory network in Gram-negative bacteria, including a broad subset of genes spread into different functional categories of the cell. Our results indicate that CRP-cAMP plays a dual role in type 1 fimbriation, affecting both the phase variation process and fimA promoter activity, with an overall repressive outcome on fimbriation. The dissection of the regulatory pathway let us conclude that CRP-cAMP negatively affects FimB-mediated recombination by an indirect mechanism that requires DNA gyrase activity. Moreover, the underlying studies revealed that CRP-cAMP controls the expression of another global regulator in Gram-negative bacteria, the leucine-responsive protein Lrp. CRP-cAMP-mediated repression is limiting the switch from the non-fimbriated to the fimbriated state. Consistently, a drop in the intracellular concentration of cAMP due to altered physiological conditions (e.g. growth in presence of glucose) increases the percentage of fimbriated cells in the bacterial population. We also provide evidence that the repression of type 1 fimbriae by CRP-cAMP occurs during fast growth conditions (logarithmic phase) and is alleviated during slow growth (stationary phase), which is consistent with an involvement of type 1 fimbriae in the adaptation to stress conditions by promoting biofilm growth or entry into host cells. Our work suggests that the metabolic sensor CRP-cAMP plays a role in coupling the expression of type 1 fimbriae to environmental conditions, thereby

  12. A STUDY OF HIGH SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (hs-CRP) LEVELS IN CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT (STROKE)

    OpenAIRE

    Peddi Bhaskar; Bikshapathi Ra; Rajender

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) defined stroke as “rapidly developing clinical signs of focal or global disturbance of cerebral function, lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death with no apparent cause other than vascular origin.” OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of raised hs-CRP levels in patients with first-ever acute ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. To evaluate the ability of hs-CRP levels as a biomarker to differentiate between haem...

  13. CRP genotype and haplotype associations with serum C-reactive protein level and DAS28 in untreated early rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Christian; Steffensen, Rudi; Bøgsted, Martin

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionSingle nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene are implicated in the regulation of the constitutional C-reactive protein (CRP) expression and its response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Previous reports suggest these effects may have an impact on clinical decision-making based...... on CRP, for example DAS28. We aimed to investigate the possible association between 7 CRP SNPs, their haplotypes, and the serum level of CRP as well as the DAS28 score in two cohorts of untreated active early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients followed during their initial treatment.MethodsOverall, 315...... disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and steroid naïve RA patients with disease duration CRP SNPs were investigated: rs11265257, rs1130864, rs1205, rs1800947, rs2808632, rs3093077 and rs876538...

  14. A robust quantitative solid phase immunoassay for the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) based on cytidine 5 '-diphosphocholine coupled dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Pedersen, H. G.; Jensen, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important acute phase protein, being used as a sensitive indicator of inflammation and infection and is also associated with the risk of cardiovascular problems. The present paper describes a robust and sensitive ELISA for CRP, based on the affinity of CRP...... for phosphocholine. In this design synthetic globular polymers (dendrimers) are used as scaffolds for the multivalent display of phosphocholine molecules. CRP present in a sample binds to the phosphocholine moiety presented at high density in the coating layer and is detectable by specific antibodies. The ELISA...... was applied to determination of pig and human CRP using commercially available antibodies against human CRP. The assay was shown to be more sensitive than previously published immunoassays employing albumin-coupled cytidine diphosphocholine. The coating was stable for at least 30 days at room temperature...

  15. Chapter 1: Assessing pollinator habitat services to optimize conservation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanna, Richard; Ando , Amy W.; Swinton, Scott; Hellerstein, Daniel; Kagan, Jimmy; Mushet, David M.; Otto, Clint R.; Rewa, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Pollination services have received increased attention over the past several years, and protecting foraging area is beginning to be reflected in conservation policy. This case study considers the prospects for doing so in a more analytically rigorous manner, by quantifying the pollination services for sites being considered for ecological restoration. The specific policy context is the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), which offers financial and technical assistance to landowners seeking to convert sensitive cropland back to some semblance of the prairie (or, to a lesser extent, forest or wetland) ecosystem that preceded it. Depending on the mix of grasses and wildflowers that are established, CRP enrollments can provide pollinator habitat. Further, depending on their location, they will generate related services, such as biological control of crop pests, recreation, and aesthetics. While offers to enroll in CRP compete based on cost and some anticipated benefits, the eligibility and ranking criteria do not reflect these services to a meaningful degree. Therefore, we develop a conceptual value diagram to identify the sequence of steps and associated models and data necessary to quantify the full range of services, and find that critical data gaps, some of which are artifacts of policy, preclude the application of benefit-relevant indicators (BRIs) or monetization. However, we also find that there is considerable research activity underway to fill these gaps. In addition, a modeling framework has been developed that can estimate field-level effects on services as a function of landscape context. The approach is inherently scalable and not limited in geographic scope, which is essential for a program with a national footprint. The parameters in this framework are sufficiently straightforward that expert judgment could be applied as a stopgap approach until empirically derived estimates are available. While monetization of benefit-relevant indicators of yield

  16. Catabolic regulation analysis of Escherichia coli and its crp, mlc, mgsA, pgi and ptsG mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ruilian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most bacteria can use various compounds as carbon sources. These carbon sources can be either co-metabolized or sequentially metabolized, where the latter phenomenon typically occurs as catabolite repression. From the practical application point of view of utilizing lignocellulose for the production of biofuels etc., it is strongly desirable to ferment all sugars obtained by hydrolysis from lignocellulosic materials, where simultaneous consumption of sugars would benefit the formation of bioproducts. However, most organisms consume glucose prior to consumption of other carbon sources, and exhibit diauxic growth. It has been shown by fermentation experiments that simultaneous consumption of sugars can be attained by ptsG, mgsA mutants etc., but its mechanism has not been well understood. It is strongly desirable to understand the mechanism of metabolic regulation for catabolite regulation to improve the performance of fermentation. Results In order to make clear the catabolic regulation mechanism, several continuous cultures were conducted at different dilution rates of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.7 h-1 using wild type Escherichia coli. The result indicates that the transcript levels of global regulators such as crp, cra, mlc and rpoS decreased, while those of fadR, iclR, soxR/S increased as the dilution rate increased. These affected the metabolic pathway genes, which in turn affected fermentation result where the specific glucose uptake rate, the specific acetate formation rate, and the specific CO2 evolution rate (CER were increased as the dilution rate was increased. This was confirmed by the 13C-flux analysis. In order to make clear the catabolite regulation, the effect of crp gene knockout (Δcrp and crp enhancement (crp+ as well as mlc, mgsA, pgi and ptsG gene knockout on the metabolism was then investigated by the continuous culture at the dilution rate of 0.2 h-1 and by some batch cultures. In the case of Δcrp (and also

  17. Weight gain of steers on pastures of cameroon grass and braquiarão grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia de Paula Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate pastures formed of Pennisetum purpureum cv.cameroon and Urochloa brizantha.cv. Marandu aiming at greater live weight gains per animal and per hectare. The animals were crossbred male half blood Tabapuã/Nellore live weight of 280 kg (9.3 kilos. Each grass was submitted to four stocking rates in a rotated grazing system with three days of grazing and 36 days of rest, resulting in a 39 days grazing cycle. In the summer the stocking rates were 2.64, 3.49, 4.34 and 5.09 UA/ha in and winter the rates were 164, 2.38, 3.26 and 3.89 UA/ha. In summer, the stocking rate of 4.34 UA/ha enabled best combination between weight gain per animal and per area with daily average gains of 0.560kg/animal and 2.99 kg/ha on cameroon grass and of 0.505 kg/animal and 2.79 kg/ha for braquiarão grass. However, in winter, the stocking rate of 3.26 UA/ha was the one which enabled greatest animal yield with daily average gains of 0.670kg/animal and 2.86 kg/ha on cameroon grass and 0.503 kg/animal and 2.10kg/ha on braquiarão grass. The weight gain per animal and per area is influenced by stocking rate. The cameroon grass provides greater weight than grass braquiarão gains, both animal as per area, in both rainy and dry seasons.

  18. Management of conservation reserve program grasslands to meet wildlife habitat objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.; Allen, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies document environmental and social benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). This report offers a synopsis of findings regarding effects of establishing CRP conservation practices on the quality and distribution of wildlife habitat in agricultural landscapes. On individual farms, year-round provision of wildlife habitat by the CRP may appear relatively insignificant. However, considered from multi-farm to National scales, such improvements in habitat and wildlife response have proven to be extensive and profound.

  19. Is DAS28-CRP with three and four variables interchangeable in individual patients selected for biological treatment in daily clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2011-01-01

    DAS28 is a widely used composite score for the assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is often used as a treatment decision tool in the daily clinic. Different versions of DAS28 are available. DAS28-CRP(3) is calculated based on three variables: swollen...... and tender joint counts and CRP. DAS28-CRP(4) also includes patient global assessment. Thresholds for low and high disease activity are the same for the two scores. Based on the Bland-Altman method, the interchangeability between DAS28-CRP with three and four variables was examined in 319 RA patients...

  20. The association of C-reactive protein and CRP genotype with coronary heart disease: findings from five studies with 4,610 cases amongst 18,637 participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie A Lawlor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether C-reactive protein (CRP is causally related to coronary heart disease (CHD. Genetic variants that are known to be associated with CRP levels can be used to provide causal inference of the effect of CRP on CHD. Our objective was to examine the association between CRP genetic variant +1444C>T (rs1130864 and CHD risk in the largest study to date of this association. METHODS AND RESULTS: We estimated the association of CRP genetic variant +1444C>T (rs1130864 with CRP levels and with CHD in five studies and then pooled these analyses (N = 18,637 participants amongst whom there were 4,610 cases. CRP was associated with potential confounding factors (socioeconomic position, physical activity, smoking and body mass whereas genotype (rs1130864 was not associated with these confounders. The pooled odds ratio of CHD per doubling of circulating CRP level after adjustment for age and sex was 1.13 (95%CI: 1.06, 1.21, and after further adjustment for confounding factors it was 1.07 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.13. Genotype (rs1130864 was associated with circulating CRP; the pooled ratio of geometric means of CRP level among individuals with the TT genotype compared to those with the CT/CC genotype was 1.21 (95%CI: 1.15, 1.28 and the pooled ratio of geometric means of CRP level per additional T allele was 1.14 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.18, with no strong evidence in either analyses of between study heterogeneity (I(2 = 0%, p>0.9 for both analyses. There was no association of genotype (rs1130864 with CHD: pooled odds ratio 1.01 (95%CI: 0.88, 1.16 comparing individuals with TT genotype to those with CT/CC genotype and 0.96 (95%CI: 0.90, 1.03 per additional T allele (I(20.6 for both meta-analyses. An instrumental variables analysis (in which the proportion of CRP levels explained by rs1130864 was related to CHD suggested that circulating CRP was not associated with CHD: the odds ratio for a doubling of CRP level was 1.04 (95%CI: 0.61, 1.80. CONCLUSIONS

  1. Sustained effects of grass pollen AIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S R

    2011-07-01

    We report the sustained efficacy of the SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet Grazax® (Phleum pratense 75000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU, ALK, Denmark) from a 5-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Adults with moderate-to-severe grass pollen allergy inadequately controlled by symptomatic medications were followed for 2 years after the completion of 3 years of treatment. The active group demonstrated a 31% reduction in median rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score over the season compared with placebo. Individual symptom scores favoured active treatment. Combined symptom and medication scores demonstrated a 33% reduction in medians with active treatment. Persistent clinical efficacy was accompanied by prolonged increases in allergen-specific IgG(4) antibodies and IgE-blocking factor, confirming clinical and immunological tolerance for at least 2 years after the treatment completion. No safety issues were identified during follow-up. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Low frequency electromagnetic prospecting system. [Grass Valley, KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, B.K.

    1978-04-01

    A prototype portable electromagnetic sounding system was assembled and depth sounding survey was conducted in Grass Valley, Nevada, as a part of a program to evaluate geophysical techniques in geothermal exploration. A horizontal loop transmitter of radius 50 meters operating between .01 Hz and 100 Hz was used in conjunction with a SQUID magnetometer. A digital synchronous detector was used for on site processing of magnetometer output. This detector allowed useful data acquisition with transmitter-receiver separation of up to 2 km with power requirements of less than 72 watts. Conductive sediments (1 to 10 ohm-m) of thicknesses of up to 1.5 km were well resolved with this system, and the interpreted sections compared very well with dc resistivity measurements made with much heavier equipment and larger arrays in the same area.

  3. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  4. The correlation of ECHO findings of right cardiac pathologies with BNP, uric acid, and CRP in OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araz, Ömer; Yilmazel Uçar, Elif; Değırmencı, Hüsnü; Pulur, Didem; Acemoğlu, Hamit; Bayram, Ednan; Gündoğdu, Fuat; Akgün, Metin

    2014-01-01

    Right cardiac pathologies develop in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and in most patients there are no symptoms in the early stages of right cardiac disorders. We aimed to evaluate a possible relationship between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), blood uric acid, C-reactive protein (CRP), and the right cardiac pathologies in patients with OSAS, and the role of these parameters in the management of patients with OSAS. A total of 98 subjects, 31 (31.6%) controls and 67 (68.4%) with OSAS, were included in the study. All the subjects underwent polysomnography, and standard and tissue Doppler echocardiography (ECHO) examinations. BNP, CRP, and blood uric acid levels were measured in all patients. Upon evaluating the relationship between BNP and ECHO parameters, BNP levels were found to positively correlate with such ECHO parameters as pulmonary artery pressure. As for the association between CRP and ECHO findings, RV diameter exhibited a statistically significant positive correlation with them. Moreover, uric acid was found to statistically correlate positively with right atrium dimensions. BNP, CRP, and blood uric acid levels can be used as adjunctive parameters in the early diagnosis and follow-up of right heart pathologies in patients with OSAS.

  5. Relationship between the hs-CRP as non-specific biomarker and Alzheimer's disease according to aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Uk; Chung, Sung-Woo; Kim, Young-Do; Maeng, Lee-So

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are involved in immune surveillance in intact brains and become activated in response to inflammation and neurodegeneration. Microglia have different functions, neuroprotective or neurotoxic, according to aging in patients with PD. The clinical effect of microglia in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly defined. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the clinical effects of microglia according to the aging process in newly diagnosed AD. We examined 532 patients with newly diagnosed AD and 119 healthy controls, and the differences in hs-CRP between these groups were investigated. The patients with AD were classified into 3 subgroups according to age of newly diagnosed AD to investigate the relationship between hs-CRP and the aging process in newly diagnosed AD. There was significantly higher serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), levels in patients with AD compared with healthy controls. A post-hoc analysis of the 3 AD subgroups showed no significant differences in serum hs-CRP level between each group. We assumed that neuroinflammation play a role in the pathogenesis of AD, but found no clinical evidence that microglia senescence underlies the microglia switch from neuroprotective in young brains to neurotoxic in aged brains. To clarify the role of microglia and aging in the pathogenesis of AD, future longitudinal studies involving a large cohort are required.

  6. Cardiovascular risk prediction in the general population with use of suPAR, CRP, and Framingham Risk Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Marott, Jacob L; Sehestedt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    for men (p=0.034) and borderline significant for women (p=0.054), while the integrated discrimination improvement was highly significant (P≤0.001) for both genders. CONCLUSIONS: suPAR provides prognostic information of CVD risk beyond FRS and improves risk prediction substantially when combined with CRP...

  7. Randomised controlled trial of CRP rapid test as a guide to treatment of respiratory infections in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, H Z; Skamling, M; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2000-01-01

    To assess whether the frequency of antibiotic prescriptions to patients with respiratory infections is reduced when general practitioners (GPs) use a C-reactive protein (CRP) rapid test in support of their clinical assessment, and to study whether using the test will have any effect on the course...

  8. Neutrophil CD64 combined with PCT, CRP and WBC improves the sensitivity for the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ai-Ping; Liu, Jun; Yue, Lei-He; Wang, Hong-Qi; Yang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Guo-Hui

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) combined with procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) can increase the sensitivity and accuracy of neonatal sepsis diagnosis. The serum levels of nCD64, CRP, PCT and WBC were detected in 60 patients with neonatal sepsis and 60 patients with non-sepsis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC), and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of these markers on neonatal sepsis. Serum levels of nCD64, PCT, CRP and WBC were higher in the sepsis group than non-sepsis group (pneonatal sepsis were increased to 95.5%. Except for WBC, the birth weight and gestational age had no effects on the diagnostic value of these serum biomarkers. nCD64 and PCT are better diagnostic biomarkers for early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis as compared to CRP. With the help of optimal cut-off value based on ROC curve and logistic regression analysis, the combination of these biomarkers could improve the sensitivity for the diagnosis of suspected late-onset neonatal sepsis based on common serum biomarkers.

  9. Do albuminuria and hs-CRP add to the International Diabetes Federation definition of the metabolic syndrome in predicting outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Marije; Bello, Aminu K.; Brantsma, Auke H.; El Nahas, Meguid; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.

    Background. To investigate the added value of elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and high high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in predicting new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in addition to the present metabolic

  10. The serum level of CRP at the first 24h of admission and acute stroke early detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ebrahimi Rad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, stroke can be considered as the one of the major causes of disability and mortality worldwide. However, relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP level with stroke early prognosis has not been well studied, especially in Iran. Therefore, the present study aimed to study the relationship between CRP level of serum in patients with acute stroke at first 24h of admission and stroke early prognosis. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was performed on 50 patients with acute stroke who were admitted at Emergency Ward of Shahid Rajaie Hospital, in Tonekabon City, Iran, between May 2013 to July 2014. In first step, valid clinical diagnosis was made based on CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the patients. The ethical observations were considered for all patients. The serum level of CRP was measured by standard method, at first 24h of the admission. Clinical information and risk factors (age, gender, type of stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus was detected for each patient. On discharge, early prognosis by modified Rankin Scale (mRS (mRS< 3= good and mRS≥ 3= bad was also recognized. In this study, statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, and logistic regression method was used (P< 0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that 38% of the patients were 70-80 years old. Also, 52% of the patients were male and 48% were female. The serum CRP level of patients at the first 24h of admission increased in all studied patients. The mean of the serum CRP level was 12.82 that were higher than the normal range. The statistical analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between the serum CRP level and the stroke early prognosis. Conclusion: Although the serum CRP level was not recognized as an anticipator factor for stroke prognosis at this study, it is recommended to performance of more studies by case-study method on this setting.

  11. Barnyard grass-induced rice allelopathy and momilactone B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Here, we investigated chemical-mediated interaction between crop and weeds. Allelopathic activity of rice seedlings exhibited 5.3-6.3-fold increases when rice and barnyard grass seedlings were grown together, where there may be the competitive interference between rice and barnyard grass for nutrients. Barnyard grass is one of the most noxious weeds in rice cultivation. The momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings incubated with barnyard grass seedlings was 6.9-fold greater than that in rice seedlings incubated independently. Low nutrient growth conditions also increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentrations in rice seedlings. However, the increases in the low nutrient-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration were much lower than those in barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration. Root exudates of barnyard grass seedlings increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings at concentrations greater than 30 mg/L of the root exudates, and increasing the exudate concentration increased the activity and momilactone B concentration. Therefore, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice seedlings may be caused not only by nutrient competition between two species, but also by components in barnyard grass root exudates. As momilactone B shows strong allelopathic activities, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice may be due to the increased concentration of momilactone B in rice seedlings. The present research suggests that rice may respond to the presence of neighboring barnyard grass by sensing the components in barnyard grass root exudates and increasing allelopathic activity by production of elevated concentration of momilactone B. Thus, rice allelopathy may be one of the inducible defense mechanisms by chemical-mediated plant interaction between rice and barnyard grass, and the induced-allelopathy may provide a competitive advantage for

  12. The Correlation of Increased CRP Levels with NFKB1 and TLR2 Polymorphisms in the Case of Morbid Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydas, T; Karaman, O; Arkan, H; Yenmis, G; Ilhan, M M; Tombulturk, K; Tasan, E; Kanigur Sultuybek, G

    2016-11-01

    Morbid obesity (MO) is associated with an increase in circulating levels of systemic acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Toll-like receptor is possible candidate for inflammatory responses which is mainly mediated by NFKB1. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between NFKB1 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 polymorphisms and the risk of MO in a Turkish population in the context of CRP serum levels which may contribute to susceptibility to the disease. We analysed the distribution of NFKB1-94 ins/del ATTG rs28362491 and TLR2 Arg753Gln rs5743708 polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP method and CRP serum levels using ELISA method in 213 MO and 200 healthy controls. The frequency of the ins/ins genotype and ins allele of rs28362491 was significantly higher in the patients compared to control group (P: 0.0309; P: 0.0421, respectively). Additionally, the frequency of GG genotype and G allele of rs5743708 was found to be statistically higher in the patient group (P: 0.0421; P 20 mg/l) in MO patients with ins/ins genotype were significantly higher than in patients with del/ins genotype (P: 0.0309). Serum CRP levels were also higher in MO patients with GG genotype and G allele (P: 0.0001). According to combined analysis, the wild type of rs28362491 and rs5743708 polymorphisms (ins/ins/GG genotype) was also significantly higher in the patient group versus the control group when compared with the combined ins/ins/GA and del/ins/GA genotype (P < 0.0001). Therefore, our findings suggest that rs28362491 and rs5743708 polymorphisms were significantly associated with MO disease through acting by modulating serum CRP levels. © 2016 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  13. Evaluation of hs-CRP and visseral adiposity index in patients with policystic ovary syndrome by clinical and laboratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ün, B; Dolapçıoğlu, K S; Güler Okyay, A; Şahin, H; Beyazıt, A

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate two cardiovascular risk markers, hs-CRP and visseral adiposity index, in patients with policystic ovary syndrome in association with clinical and laboratory findings. Study group included 75 patients who were diagnosed as PCOS according to the criteria of AE-PCOS 2006 and control group included 75 non-PCOS patients who were subsequently admitted to outpatient clinic for smear control, with urinary or vaginal symptoms. Physical and sonographic examinations were made to all subjects. Mean arterial pressure, waist/hip ratio and body mass index were calculated. Fasting blood glucose and insulin, HbA1c, lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), estradiol, follicle stimulating hormon, luteinising hormone, tiroid stimulating hormone, prolaktin, total testosteron and sex hormone binding globulin were tested in venous blood samples collected from cases following overnight fast in follicular phase of spontaneous or induced menstruation. Visceral adiposity index was also calculated. No statistically significant difference was found between PCOS group and control group concerning hs-CRP and VAI (p>0.05). When patients in PCOS group were further grouped as obese and non-obese, hs-CRP and VAI values in obese group were significantly higher than those in non-obese group (p0.05), VAI values were significantly higher in obese control group (p<0.05). According to the results of our study, hs-CRP stands for a better and more specific marker than VAI to determine metabolic components and predictive risks for cardiovascular diseases in patients with PCOS. Further studies with larger populations are needed in order to determine cardiovascular risks particularly in young PCOS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the potential for lymph node metastasis using CRP 1846C>T genetic polymorphism in invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terata, Kaori; Motoyama, Satoru; Kamata, Shuichi; Hinai, Yudai; Miura, Masatomo; Sato, Yusuke; Yoshino, Kei; Ito, Aki; Imai, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2014-06-01

    Lymph node status is a key indicator of the best approach to treatment of invasive breast cancer. However, the accuracy with which lymph node metastasis is diagnosed is not currently satisfactory. New and more reliable methods that enable one to know who has a greater potential for lymph node metastasis would be highly desirable. We previously reported that lymph node involvement in esophageal and lung cancer may have a genetic component: C-reactive protein (CRP) 1846C>T genetic polymorphism. Here we examined the diagnostic value of CRP 1846C>T polymorphism for assessing the risk of lymph node metastasis in cases of invasive breast cancer. The study participants were 185 women with invasive breast cancer who underwent curative surgery with lymph node dissection. Using DNA from blood samples and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, the utility of CRP genetic 1846C>T polymorphism (rs1205) for assessing the risk of lymph node metastasis was evaluated. Fifty-two (28 %) patients had lymph node metastasis. After the patients were divided into two groups based on their CRP 1846 genotypes (C/C+C/T and T/T), the clinical characteristics did not differ between the groups, but there was a significantly greater incidence of lymph node metastasis among patients in the T/T group. Moreover, the odds ratio for lymph node involvement in patients carrying the 1846 T/T genotype was more than 2.2 in multivariate logistic regression models. CRP genetic polymorphism may be a novel predictor of the risk of lymph node metastasis in invasive breast cancer.

  15. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae, Poales and their interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28 and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14 can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21. This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their progenitors. Panicles were prepared according to the conventional protocol for meiotic studies and Alexander’s stain was used for assessing pollen viability. Pearl millet accessions presented regular meiosis with seven bivalents and high pollen viability. For elephant grass, 14 bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I were observed. The BAG 63 elephant grass accession, derived from tissue culture, presented a high frequency of meiotic abnormalities. The three hybrid accessions presented a high frequency of abnormalities characterized by irregular chromosomal segregation which resulted in the formation of sterile pollen.

  16. Relationship between land use classification and grass shrimp Palaemonetes spp. population metrics in coastal watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugomah, James W; Key, P B; West, J B; Shea, N R; McDaniel, S; Pennington, P L; Fulton, M H

    2014-06-01

    Estuaries in the southeastern USA have experienced increased loading of contaminants from nonpoint source runoff as well as changes in habitat (e.g., loss of wetlands) due to urbanization. These changes may pose significant risks to estuarine fauna, including crustaceans. Several studies have shown relationships between land use classification and levels of stress in estuarine populations. The grass shrimp of the genus Palaemonetes is one of the dominant species found in estuarine tidal creeks, accounting for more than 50 % of all macropelagic fauna. Grass shrimp populations were sampled monthly for 3 years at six estuarine creeks on Kiawah Island, SC. Creek watersheds were estimated using National Aerial Photograph Program color infrared and low-altitude true color aerial photography combined with in situ differentially corrected global positioning system mapping of engineered features. Land classifications delineated included water, marsh, buildings, roads, and lawns. Pairwise comparisons for grass shrimp densities among sites showed significant differences on an annual and seasonal basis. Significant relationships (p land class variables and grass shrimp density were identified both annually and seasonally. These findings suggest an influence of land use on Palaemonetes spp. populations.

  17. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  18. Association of the C-Reactive Protein Gene (CRP rs1205 C>T Polymorphism with Aortic Valve Calcification in Patients with Aortic Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wypasek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Elevation in C-reactive protein (CRP levels have been shown in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS. Minor allele of the CRP gene (CRP rs1205 C>T polymorphism has been associated with lower plasma CRP concentrations in cohorts of healthy and atherosclerotic patients. Considering the existing similarities between atherosclerosis and AS, we examined the effect of CRP rs1205 C>T polymorphism on the AS severity. Three hundred consecutive Caucasian patients diagnosed with AS were genotyped for the rs1205 C>T polymorphism using the TaqMan assay. Severity of the AS was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography. The degree of calcification was analyzed semi-quantitatively. Carriers of the rs1205 T allele were characterized by elevated serum CRP levels (2.53 (1.51–3.96 vs. 1.68 (0.98–2.90 mg/L, p < 0.001 and a higher proportion of the severe aortic valve calcification (70.4% vs. 55.1%, p = 0.01 compared with major homozygotes. The effect of CRP rs1205 polymorphism on CRP levels is opposite in AS-affected than in unaffected subjects, suggesting existence of a disease-specific molecular regulatory mechanism. Furthermore, rs1205 variant allele predisposes to larger aortic valve calcification, potentially being a novel genetic risk marker of disease progression.

  19. The correlation between insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourbehi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low circulating IGF-1 and high hs-CRP may be associated with cardiovascular diseases. Hence, it is an important question that is there any correlation between these important biomarkers? Since the correlation between IGF-1 and hs-CRP has not been adequately investigated, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the association between these biomarkers among postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: A total of 361 healthy Iranian postmenopausal women were randomly selected in a population-based study. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to NCEP, ATPIII criteria. Circulating hs-CRP and IGF-1 levels were measured by highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: Women with higher than median hs-CRP levels had lower IGF-1 levels, in comparison to women with lower than median hs-CRP levels (p<0.0001. In multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for age and the metabolic syndrome, IGF-1 levels had a significant inverse correlation with circulating hs-CRP levels (β=-0.139, p<0.007. After adjustment for age, body mass index and type 2 diabetes mellitus, IGF-1 levels also showed an inverse correlation with hs-CRP levels (β=-0.130, p<0.014. Conclusion: There is a significant inverse correlation between serum IGF-1 and hs-CRP levels in postmenopausal women. This finding provides evidence of the potential cardioprotective effect of IGF-1 via anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  20. 75 FR 27165 - Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... for CRP authorized by the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Farm Bill). Retired or... conservation, Technical assistance, Water resources, Wildlife. 0 For the reasons discussed above, this rule... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1410 RIN 0560-AH80 Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program AGENCY...

  1. Is DAS28-CRP with three and four variables interchangeable in individual patients selected for biological treatment in daily clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2011-01-01

    DAS28 is a widely used composite score for the assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is often used as a treatment decision tool in the daily clinic. Different versions of DAS28 are available. DAS28-CRP(3) is calculated based on three variables: swollen...... and tender joint counts and CRP. DAS28-CRP(4) also includes patient global assessment. Thresholds for low and high disease activity are the same for the two scores. Based on the Bland-Altman method, the interchangeability between DAS28-CRP with three and four variables was examined in 319 RA patients...... selected for initiating biological treatment. Data were extracted from the Danish registry for biological treatment in rheumatology (DANBIO). Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the predictability of the DAS28 scores by several measures of disease activity. The overall mean DAS28-CRP was 4...

  2. A large multi-centre European study validates high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a clinical biomarker for the diagnosis of diabetes subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanabalasingham, G.; Shah, N.; Vaxillaire, M.

    2011-01-01

    An accurate molecular diagnosis of diabetes subtype confers clinical benefits; however, many individuals with monogenic diabetes remain undiagnosed. Biomarkers could help to prioritise patients for genetic investigation. We recently demonstrated that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs......CRP) levels are lower in UK patients with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A)-MODY than in other diabetes subtypes. In this large multi-centre study we aimed to assess the clinical validity of hsCRP as a diagnostic biomarker, examine the genotype-phenotype relationship and compare different hsCRP assays....... High-sensitivity CRP levels were analysed in individuals with HNF1A-MODY (n = 457), glucokinase (GCK)-MODY (n = 404), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A)-MODY (n = 54) and type 2 diabetes (n = 582) from seven European centres. Three common assays for hsCRP analysis were evaluated. We excluded 121...

  3. Investigation of Desso GrassMaster® as application in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der P.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Roex, E.; Mommer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is

  4. Impact of Years of Enrollment in the Conservation Reserve Program on Depth of Rain Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, T.; Lascano, R. J.; Acosta-Martinez, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a USDA program administered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) introduced in 1985 to reduce soil erosion by increasing vegetative cover of highly erodible land. The Texas High Plains (THP) leads the US with >890,000 ha enrolled in CRP. Potential benefits of the CRP include, e.g., increased infiltration of rainfall and organic matter, and better soil structure. However, impact of these benefits is not well characterized. Participation in the CRP is done via contracts (10-15 years in length) and since its inception land area of the THP enrolled in CRP has varied significantly allowing the evaluation of years of enrollment (age) on soil structure and impact on rain infiltration. This information is critical for land users to determine how long it is necessary to enroll their land in the CRP to improve soil structure and impact rain infiltration and increase the water holding capacity of the soil. Stable isotopes of water present a useful technique that is used in ecology and hydrology to study water movement through ecosystems and can be used to evaluate the depth of infiltration of rainwater under CRP management. We compared the infiltration depth of rain in land under CRP management to land under continuous dryland cotton with no irrigation. Two locations, in Terry and Lynn counties, were used for this study. The site in Terry County was enrolled in CRP for 25 years (1985) and 22 years (1992) in Lynn County.

  5. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND YIELDS OF GRASSES GROWN IN SALINE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Purbajanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know effects of saline condition to crop physiology, growth andforages yield. A factorial completed random design was used in this study. The first factor was type ofgrass, these were king grass (Pennisetum hybrid, napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum, panicum grass(Panicum maximum, setaria grass (Setaria sphacelata and star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus. Thesecond factor was salt solution (NaCl with concentration 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM. Parameters of thisexperiment were the percentage of chlorophyll, rate of photosynthesis, number of tiller, biomass and drymatter yield. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s multiple range testwhen there were significant effects of the treatment. Panicum grass had the highest chlorophyll content(1.85 mg/g of leaf. Photosynthesis rate of setaria grass was the lowest. The increasing of NaClconcentration up to 300 mM NaCl reduced chlorophyll content, rate of photosynthesis, tiller number,biomass yield and dry matter yield. Responses of leaf area, biomass and dry matter yield to salinitywere linear for king, napier, panicum and setaria grasses. In tar grass, the response of leaf area andbiomass ware linear, but those of dry matter yield was quadratic. The response of tiller number tosalinity was linear for all species.

  6. The influence of age and the beginning of menopause on the lipid status, LDL oxidation, and CRP in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čaparević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atherogenic lipid profile is an important risk factor in development of atherosclerosis in menopausal women. High level of small dense LDL, that is more susceptible to oxidation, and high levels of inflammatory markers are also associated with an increased risk for development of atherosclerosis. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid profile, oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL and C-reactive protein (CRP as inflammatory reaction in healthy women dependent on age and menopause. Method. The study included a group of clinically healthy women (total of 97 women. Group 1: 15 women younger than 45 years; group 2: 62 women between 46 and 55 years, group 3: 20 women between 56 and 65 years, group of menopausal women (73 and group of premenopausal women (24. None of the women had history of obesity, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular, ischaemic heart disease, and hypertension. Lipid profiles were measured by enzymatic methods. Ox-LDL was measured by using a specific monoclonal antibody, mAb4E6. CRP was measured using hemiluminiscent methods (Immulite-DPC. Results. Results showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (p<0.01 and LDL cholesterol (p<0.01 in women over 56 years compared with women younger than 45 years. We also found similar results in menopausal women. Levels of Ox-LDL (p<0.05 and CRP (p<0.01 showed significantly higher levels in women over 56 years. In menopausal women, we found significantly higher levels of CRP (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the levels of oxLDL between the menopausal and premenopausal women. Levels of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were not different among groups. We found that 51% women had levels of HDL cholesterol lower than 1.3 mmol/L. In all groups of women, we found positive correlation among age, Ox-LDL (p<0.01 and CRP (p<0.01. Ox-LDL also positively correlated with CRP (p<0.01. Conclusion. In healthy women older than 56 as in menopausal

  7. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Kellogg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180o, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear front and back; this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern.

  8. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  9. Perfil dos Psicólogos Inscritos na Subsede Leste do CRP-04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keicy Rocha Santos

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi fazer um levantamento do perfil profissional dos psicólogos inscritos na Subsede Leste do Conselho Regional de Psicologia nº 04 (CRP-04, atuantes no município de Governador Valadares até 2010. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo e comparativo entre os dados da presente pesquisa e aqueles que compõem o banco nacional, que se encontra na obra O trabalho do Psicólogo no Brasil, organizado por Bastos, Gondim e colaboradores (2010. Utilizou-se um questionário via e-mail marketing, respondido por 85 participantes que abarcaram as categorias do perfil profissional. Os dados levantados foram tabulados no programa Microsoft Excel e analisados no programa Sphinx Survey Edição Léxica. Verificou-se que a maioria dos participantes é branca, casada, do gênero feminino, com idade entre 26 e 30 anos e graduada em instituição privada, tendo especialização, principalmente em clínica organizacional e atuação na clínica. Ganha entre 3 e 4 salários mínimos como psicólogo, na condição de assalariado. Geralmente, a maioria não possui outra atividade profissional e a renda familiar é de, aproximadamente, 10 salários mínimos. Os dados corroboram com a média nacional do perfil profissional dessa classe de trabalhadores, trazendo algumas peculiaridades do município de Governador Valadares.

  10. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  11. Performance of beef steers on Smuts finger grass and Nile grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vate Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg, 3200 Republic of South Africa lntroduction. Hancock et al. ( 1987) investigated the relationship between the performance of Hereford steers grazing three different pastures (tall fescue, orchardgrass and brome grass) and their subsequent performance in a feedlot. The live mass of these.

  12. Thermonuclear 46Cr(p ,γ )47Mn rate in type-I x-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J. J.; Parikh, A.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhou, X. H.; Xu, H. S.

    2017-10-01

    The thermonuclear rate of the 46Cr(p ,γ )47Mn reaction has been determined using a newly evaluated proton separation energy of Sp(47Mn) =380 ±30 keV and nuclear structure information from the mirror nucleus 47Ti. The astrophysical impact of this new rate and previously available rates has been investigated through one-zone postprocessing type-I x-ray burst calculations. The present 46Cr(p ,γ )47Mn rate leads to a mass fraction at A =46 that is 60 times larger than that obtained using a statistical model rate. The new results constrain the calculated maximum and minimum mass fractions at A =46 and A =48 to be within factors of 12 and 4, respectively. Experimental studies of the level structure of 47Mn near the proton threshold are required to improve these model predictions.

  13. Evaluation of total IgE, CRP and blood count parameters in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feti Tülübaş

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to research retrospectivelywhether asthma and allergic rhinitis are related to totalIgE, C-reactive protein (CRP and complete blood countparameters.Materials and methods: Files of 443 children who appliedto pediatric outpatient clinics of our hospital,aged2-18 were retrospectively investigated. Patients weregrouped into three as asthma (n=179, allergic rhinitis (n=171 and control group (n= 93. Patients’ ages, genders,total IgE, CRP and hemogram values were recorded.Results: While eosinophil count, MCHC and total IgElevels were significantly higher in asthma group, MCVlevels were significantly lower. Lymphocyte count, CRPand total IgE levels were significantly higher in allergicrhinitis group compared with control group whereas neutrophilcount were significantly lower and eosinophil countdid not change significantly. Total IgE levels were higherin asthma and allergic rhinitis compared with controls.However, CRP levels were higher only in allergic rhinitisgroup. MCV levels were significantly lower in asthmagroup compared with controls. MCHC levels were significantlyhigher in asthma group compared with allergicrhinitis and control groups. Neutrophil count decreasedwhile lymphocyte count increased significantly. Eosinophilcount significantly increased compared with controlgroup whereas a significant difference was not observedbetween allergic rhinitis and controls.Conclusions: Our findings suggest factors effective inasthma pathogenesis might be effective also in erythrocytemorphology. There are remarkable changes in bloodeosinophil levels in asthma and in neuthrophil and lymphocytelevels in allergic rhinitis. Serum total IgE level increasesin asthma group whereas it decreases in allergicrhinitis group.Key words: Asthma, allergic rhinitis, total IgE, CRP, MCV

  14. DASH diet, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Z; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan on insulin resistance and serum hs-CRP in overweight and obese women with PCOS. This randomized controlled clinical trial was done on 48 women diagnosed with PCOS. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either the control (n=24) or the DASH eating pattern (n=24) for 8 weeks. The DASH diet consisted of 52% carbohydrates, 18% proteins, and 30% total fats. It was designed to be rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products and low in saturated fats, cholesterol, refined grains, and sweets. Sodium content of the DASH diet was designed to be less than 2 400 mg/day. The control diet was also designed to contain 52% carbohydrates, 18% protein, and 30% total fat. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 8 weeks intervention to measure -insulin resistance and serum hs-CRP levels. -Adherence to the DASH eating pattern, compared to the -control diet, resulted in a significant reduction of serum insulin levels (-1.88 vs. 2.89 μIU/ml, p=0.03), HOMA-IR score (-0.45 vs. 0.80; p=0.01), and serum hs-CRP levels (-763.29 vs. 665.95 ng/ml, p=0.009). Additionally, a significant reduction in waist (-5.2 vs. -2.1 cm; p=0.003) and hip circumference (-5.9 vs. -1 cm; pPCOS resulted in the improvement of insulin resistance, serum hs-CRP levels, and abdominal fat accumulation. www.irct.ir: IRCT201304235623N6. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Evaluation of the relationship between WBC, HS.CRP and secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ansarin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mechanisms appear to play a major role in pathogenesis of various types of pulmonary hypertension such as idiopatic PAH (iPAH. Although inflammatory factors such as IL6 and TNFa play an important role in IPAH, there is limited information about the relationship between acute phase reactants and pulmonary hypertension occurring secondary to pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 94 patients with COPD. Patients with a recent history of systemic corticosteroid use, infection, trauma or surgery, and gastrointestinal bleeding were excluded. Body plethysmography and transthoracic echocardiography were performed. Blood samples were taken from all patients and sent for complete blood count (CBC and hsCRP tests. Results: Twenty patients (28.6% had pulmonary hypertension. There was a significant difference between the mean of WBC in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (8505 mic/lit vs. 7044 mic/lit (p=0.04. There was also a significant difference between the hs.CRP in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (8.8pg/ml vs. 4.07pg/ml (p=0.032. After adjustment of age, sex, serum hemoglobin, hematocrit, O2sat, FEV1 and FVC, the relationship between the IL6, white blood cell count, HS.CRP and pulmonary hypertension remained significant (p=0.018, p=0.022. Conclusion: Inflammatory factors such as white blood cell and HS.CRP are independent risk factors of pulmonary hypertension in COPD patients.

  16. Use of Tc-rCRP as a target for lytic antibody titration after experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Tatiane; Silva, Gustavo Caetano; Henrique Paiva, Priscila Moraes; Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira; Ramirez, Luis Eduardo; Norris, Karen; Meira, Wendell Sérgio Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    Experimental Chagas disease has been used as a model to identify several host/parasite interaction factors involved in immune responses to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. One of the factors inherent to this parasite is the complement regulatory protein (Tc-CRP), a major epitope that induces production of lytic antibodies during T. cruzi infections. Previous studies have evaluated the function of Tc-CRP as an antigenic marker via ELISAs, which demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity when compared to other methods. Therefore, this study aimed to assess and compare the levels of lytic antibodies induced by this protein following experimental infection using different T. cruzi strains. Our results demonstrated that infections induced by strains isolated from vectors resulted in subpatent parasitaemia and low reactivity, as assessed by Tc-rCRP ELISAs. On the other hand, mice inoculated with T. cruzi strains isolated from patients developed patent parasitaemia, and presented elevated lytic antibodies titres, as measured by Tc-rCRP ELISA. In addition, comparison between different mouse lineages demonstrated that Balb/c mice were more reactive than C57BL/6 mice in almost all types of infections, except those infected by the AQ-4 strain. Parasites from the Hel strain generated the greatest lytic antibody response in all evaluated models. Therefore, application of sensitive techniques for monitoring immune responses would enable us to establish growth curves for lytic antibodies during the course of the infection, and allow us to discriminate between T. cruzi strains that originate from different hosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing E. coli tolerance towards oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Basak

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage to microbial hosts often occurs under stressful conditions during bioprocessing. Classical strain engineering approaches are usually both time-consuming and labor intensive. Here, we aim to improve E. coli performance under oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP, which can directly or indirectly regulate redox-sensing regulators SoxR and OxyR, and other ~400 genes in E. coli. Error-prone PCR technique was employed to introduce modifications to CRP, and three mutants (OM1~OM3 were identified with improved tolerance via H(2O(2 enrichment selection. The best mutant OM3 could grow in 12 mM H(2O(2 with the growth rate of 0.6 h(-1, whereas the growth of wild type was completely inhibited at this H(2O(2 concentration. OM3 also elicited enhanced thermotolerance at 48°C as well as resistance against cumene hydroperoxide. The investigation about intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, which determines cell viability, indicated that the accumulation of ROS in OM3 was always lower than in WT with or without H(2O(2 treatment. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis has shown not only CRP-regulated genes have demonstrated great transcriptional level changes (up to 8.9-fold, but also RpoS- and OxyR-regulated genes (up to 7.7-fold. qRT-PCR data and enzyme activity assay suggested that catalase (katE could be a major antioxidant enzyme in OM3 instead of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase or superoxide dismutase. To our knowledge, this is the first work on improving E. coli oxidative stress resistance by reframing its transcription machinery through its native global regulator. The positive outcome of this approach may suggest that engineering CRP can be successfully implemented as an efficient strain engineering alternative for E. coli.

  18. Modulation of global low-frequency motions underlies allosteric regulation: demonstration in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Rodgers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Allostery is a fundamental process by which ligand binding to a protein alters its activity at a distinct site. There is growing evidence that allosteric cooperativity can be communicated by modulation of protein dynamics without conformational change. The mechanisms, however, for communicating dynamic fluctuations between sites are debated. We provide a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low-frequency dynamics without a change in structure. We have generated coarse-grained models that describe the protein backbone motions of the CRP/FNR family transcription factors, CAP of Escherichia coli and GlxR of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The latter we demonstrate as a new exemplar for allostery without conformation change. We observe that binding the first molecule of cAMP ligand is correlated with modulation of the global normal modes and negative cooperativity for binding the second cAMP ligand without a change in mean structure. The theory makes key experimental predictions that are tested through an analysis of variant proteins by structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. Quantifying allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein "design space" that identified the inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, through analyzing CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. This finding provides a link between the position of CRP/FNR transcription factors within the allosteric free energy landscapes and evolutionary selection pressures. Our study therefore reveals significant features of the mechanistic basis for allostery. Changes in low-frequency dynamics correlate with allosteric effects on ligand binding without the requirement for a defined spatial pathway. In addition to evolving suitable three-dimensional structures, CRP/FNR family transcription factors have

  19. Association between source-specific particulate matter air pollution and hs-CRP: local traffic and industrial emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna; Moebus, Susanne; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Memmesheimer, Michael; Jakobs, Hermann; Bröcker-Preuss, Martina; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Long-term exposures to particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5 and PM10) and high traffic load have been associated with markers of systemic inflammation. Epidemiological investigations have focused primarily on total PM, which represents a mixture of pollutants originating from different sources. We investigated associations between source-specific PM and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. We used data from the first (2000-2003) and second examination (2006-2008) of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, a prospective population-based German cohort of initially 4,814 participants (45-75 years of age). We estimated residential long-term exposure to local traffic- and industry-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at participants' residences using a chemistry transport model. We used a linear mixed model with a random participant intercept to estimate associations of source-specific PM and natural log-transformed hs-CRP, controlling for age, sex, education, body mass index, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking variables, physical activity, season, humidity, and city (8,204 total observations). A 1-μg/m3 increase in total PM2.5 was associated with a 4.53% increase in hs-CRP concentration (95% CI: 2.76, 6.33%). hs-CRP was 17.89% (95% CI: 7.66, 29.09%) and 7.96% (95% CI: 3.45, 12.67%) higher in association with 1-μg/m3 increases in traffic- and industry-specific PM2.5, respectively. RESULTS for PM10 were similar. Long-term exposure to local traffic-specific PM (PM2.5, PM10) was more strongly associated with systemic inflammation than total PM. Associations of local industry-specific PM were slightly stronger but not significantly different from associations with total PM.

  20. Significance of CAVI, hs-CRP and homocysteine in subclinical arteriosclerosis among a healthy population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jinpeng; Wang, Yonghong; Wang, Xiaoling; Li, Fengzeng; Hou, Yulei; Luo, Haixia; Chen, Hui

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and homocysteine (Hcy) levels to screen for subclinical arteriosclerosis (subAs) in an apparently healthy population, with the view to obtaining an optimal diagnostic marker or profile for subAs. Subjects (152) undergoing routine health examinations were recruited and divided into two groups: carotid arteriosclerosis (CA) and non-carotid arteriosclerosis (NCA), according to carotid intima-media thickness (CMIT). CAVI was calculated based on blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. Serum hs-CRP and Hcy levels were also measured. A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to evaluate the efficacy of each in carotid arteriosclerosis screening. Ten parameter combinations, designated W1 to W10, were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). The levels of all three parameters were significantly higher in the CA group, compared with the NCA group. ROC curves showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for CAVI was 0.708 (95%CI: 0.615-0.800), which is significantly larger than that of either hs-CRP (0.622) or Hcy (0.630), respectively (P < 0.001). Maximum sensitivity (100%) and NPV (100%) were attained with W10, while maximum specificity (86.2%) and PPV (46.7%) were obtained with W7. With W9, the maximum Youden index (0.416) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.8% and specificity of 63.8%. CAVI is more effective than hs-CRP or Hcy for subAs screening. The optimal profile was obtained with a combination of CAVI and other parameters.

  1. Prognostic impact of hs-CRP and IL-6 in patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Nilsson, Brian; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2008-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of inflammatory markers in patients with paroxysmal/ persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. Methods. Forty-six consecutive patients, mean age 55 years (range 31 - 81 yrs), with paroxysmal...... of paroxysmal or persistent AF treated with RF catheter ablation, elevated levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP before ablation are independent predictors of recurrence of AF Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/31...

  2. Cloning, structural analysis, and chromosomal localization of the human CSRP2 gene encoding the LIM domain protein CRP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskirchen, R; Erdel, M; Utermann, G; Bister, K

    1997-08-15

    The CSRP2 gene encoding the LIM domain protein CRP2 was originally identified in quail based on its strong transcriptional suppression in transformed avian fibroblasts. Here we have isolated a human CSRP2 cDNA clone encoding a 193-amino-acid human CRP2 (hCRP2) protein with 96.4% amino acid sequence identity to the avian homolog. The CSRP2 cDNA clone was used to isolate CSRP2-related clones from gamma EMBL3 and P1 libraries of human genomic DNA. The complete organization of the CSRP2 gene was determined by nucleic acid hybridization, transcriptional mapping, and nucleotide sequence analysis. The gene spans a total of approximately 22 kb and contains six exons. The coding region is confined to exons 2-6 and predicts a hCRP2 protein identical in its amino acid sequence to the protein deduced from the CSRP2 cDNA clone. By fluorescence in situ hybridization using both lambda EMBL3 and P1 library clones as hybridization probes and a new method for computerized signal localization, CSRP2 was mapped to chromosome subband 12q21.1, a region frequently affected by deletion or breakage events in various tumor types. The library screens also led to the isolation of a CSRP2-related pseudogene, CSRP2P, which carried several extensive deletions and nucleotide substitutions but no intervening sequences in comparison to the CSRP2 cDNA sequence. By physical linkage and fluorescence in situ hybridization, CSRP2P was mapped to chromosome subband 3q21.1.

  3. Relationships between milk fatty acid profiles and enteric methane production in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Gastelen, van S.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Warner, D.; Hatew, Bayissa; Klop, G.; Podesta, S.C.; Lingen, van H.J.; Hettinga, K.A.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets, and determined whether recent prediction equations for methane, based on a wide variety of diets, are applicable to grass- and grass silage-based diets.

  4. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  5. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  6. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  7. Efficacy of serum CRP levels as monitoring tools for patients with fascial space infections of odontogenic origin: A clinicobiochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Gokkulakrishnan, Sadhasivam; Shahi, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Vijay

    2012-07-01

    Study included 20 patients with diagnosis of fascial space infections of odontogenic origin to assess efficacy of serum CRP levels as monitoring tools for determining severity of infections, hospital stay and efficacy of treatment. Blood samples taken on Day 0, 4 and 8 for measuring serum levels of marker. Simultaneously clinical parameters like swelling size, pain etc. were also recorded on Day 0, 4 and 8 and appropriate treatment given to each patient. Correlation between markers and parameters was found using regression and paired t-test. Statistical analysis found strong correlation between lab. values of markes and parameters used to measure severity of infection. Also CRP is significant marker for hospital stay (P<.01). Prospective analysis indicates CRP can be effective marker for determining severity of infection, treatment efficacy and hospital stay. Duration of antibiotic usage, intensive unit care, use of nutritional supplements becomes more rationale. Markers also make treatment cost effective and help protecting patients from side effects of excess drug usage.

  8. Improving acetate tolerance of Escherichia coli by rewiring its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqing Chong

    Full Text Available The presence of acetate exceeding 5 g/L is a major concern during E. coli fermentation due to its inhibitory effect on cell growth, thereby limiting high-density cell culture and recombinant protein production. Hence, engineered E. coli strains with enhanced acetate tolerance would be valuable for these bioprocesses. In this work, the acetate tolerance of E. coli was much improved by rewiring its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP, which is reported to regulate 444 genes. Error-prone PCR method was employed to modify crp and the mutagenesis libraries (~3×10(6 were subjected to M9 minimal medium supplemented with 5-10 g/L sodium acetate for selection. Mutant A2 (D138Y was isolated and its growth rate in 15 g/L sodium acetate was found to be 0.083 h(-1, much higher than that of the control (0.016 h(-1. Real-time PCR analysis via OpenArray(® system revealed that over 400 CRP-regulated genes were differentially expressed in A2 with or without acetate stress, including those involved in the TCA cycle, phosphotransferase system, etc. Eight genes were chosen for overexpression and the overexpression of uxaB was found to lead to E. coli acetate sensitivity.

  9. Growth on glucose decreases cAMP-CRP activity while paradoxically increasing intracellular cAMP in the light-organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Deanna M; Stoudenmire, Julie L; Stabb, Eric V

    2015-09-01

    Proteobacteria often co-ordinate responses to carbon sources using CRP and the second messenger cyclic 3', 5'-AMP (cAMP), which combine to control transcription of genes during growth on non-glucose substrates as part of the catabolite-repression response. Here we show that cAMP-CRP is active and important in Vibrio fischeri during colonization of its host squid Euprymna scolopes. Moreover, consistent with a classical role in catabolite repression, a cAMP-CRP-dependent reporter showed lower activity in cells grown in media amended with glucose rather than glycerol. Surprisingly though, intracellular cAMP levels were higher in glucose-grown cells. Mutant analyses were consistent with predictions that CyaA was responsible for cAMP generation, that the EIIA(Glc) component of glucose transport could enhance cAMP production and that the phophodiesterases CpdA and CpdP consumed intracellular and extracellular cAMP respectively. However, the observation of lower cAMP levels in glycerol-grown cells seemed best explained by changes in cAMP export, via an unknown mechanism. Our data also indicated that cAMP-CRP activity decreased during growth on glucose independently of crp's native transcriptional regulation or cAMP levels. We speculate that some unknown mechanism, perhaps carbon-source-dependent post-translational modulation of CRP, may help control cAMP-CRP activity in V.fischeri. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. KINSHIP ANALYSIS OF GRASS JELLY IN REGENCY OF GIANYAR, TABANAN AND BADUNG BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Budi Mursafitri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Grass jelly is one of the plants that has considerable potential as medicine and drinks. This study was conductedto determine how kinship plant species Grass jelly from three districts. The Exploration of Grass jelly plantsconducted in Gianyar, Tabanan and Badung, Bali province. Making preparations in the Structures Laboratory ofPlant Development (SPT Faculty Udayana University and the Center of Veterinary (BBVet. This research wascarried out from September 2015-January 2016. This research method using the technique of embedding andfresh slices, FAA fixative (formaldehyde: glacial acetic acid: alcohol 70% = 1: 1: 9, 1% safranin staining in 70%alcohol. For the analysis of kinship qualitative and quantitative data were suspended leaf anatomical charactersto create table Taxonomy Operation Unit (OTU. The results are used OTU table into mini-tab program version14.The result showed that four species of grass jelly plants are Cyclea barbata, Stephania japonica, Stephaniacapitata and Cocculus orbiculatus. Leaf form is like shields and ellipse. Kinship four types of plant grass jellyfrom three districts are very much based on morphological and anatomical characters (level 15.64% similarity.

  11. KINSHIP ANALYSIS OF GRASS JELLY IN REGENCY OF GIANYAR, TABANAN AND BADUNG BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Budi Mursa fitri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grass jelly is one of the plants that has considerable potential as medicine and drinks. This study was conducted to determine how kinship plant species Grass jelly from three districts. The Exploration of Grass jelly plants conducted in Gianyar, Tabanan and Badung, Bali province. Making preparations in the Structures Laboratory of Plant Development (SPT Faculty Udayana University and the Center of Veterinary (BBVet. This research was carried out from September 2015-January 2016. This research method using the technique of embedding and fresh slices, FAA fixative (formaldehyde: glacial acetic acid: alcohol 70% = 1: 1: 9, 1% safranin staining in 70% alcohol. For the analysis of kinship qualitative and quantitative data were suspended leaf anatomical characters to create table Taxonomy Operation Unit (OTU. The results are used OTU table into mini-tab program version 14.The result showed that four species of grass jelly plants are Cyclea barbata, Stephania japonica, Stephania capitata and Cocculus orbiculatus. Leaf form is like shields and ellipse. Kinship four types of plant grass jelly from three districts are very much based on morphological and anatomical characters (level 15.64% similarity.

  12. KINSHIP ANALYSIS OF GRASS JELLY IN REGENCY OF GIANYAR, TABANAN AND BADUNG BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Budi Mursafitri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grass jelly is one of the plants that has considerable potential as medicine and drinks. This study was conductedto determine how kinship plant species Grass jelly from three districts. The Exploration of Grass jelly plantsconducted in Gianyar, Tabanan and Badung, Bali province. Making preparations in the Structures Laboratory ofPlant Development (SPT Faculty Udayana University and the Center of Veterinary (BBVet. This research wascarried out from September 2015-January 2016. This research method using the technique of embedding andfresh slices, FAA fixative (formaldehyde: glacial acetic acid: alcohol 70% = 1: 1: 9, 1% safranin staining in 70%alcohol. For the analysis of kinship qualitative and quantitative data were suspended leaf anatomical charactersto create table Taxonomy Operation Unit (OTU. The results are used OTU table into mini-tab program version14.The result showed that four species of grass jelly plants are Cyclea barbata, Stephania japonica, Stephaniacapitata and Cocculus orbiculatus. Leaf form is like shields and ellipse. Kinship four types of plant grass jellyfrom three districts are very much based on morphological and anatomical characters (level 15.64% similarity.

  13. Short Communication: Autelogical studies on grass species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lack of information on the demography, population dynamics and competitive abilities of southern African grasses was also identified. A table summarizing these studies is presented. Keywords: autecology; competitive ability; demography; grasses; literature; literature survey; pasture; population dynamics; reference list; ...

  14. Response of higveld grass species to ammonium and nitrate nitrogen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-one populations in twenty-two species of highveld grasses were grown in pots of soil fertilized with solutions for comparing ammonium and nitrate nutrition. Cotton, tomato, cereal crops and pasture grasses were included for comparison. Roots and shoots were harvested separately, weighed and analysed for major ...

  15. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... attributed mainly to the differences in mass and condition of the animals at the start of each season and pasture maturation. Keywords: cynodon aethiopicus; grasses; grazing; henderson research station; herbage; herbage yield; nitrogen; pastures; salisbury district; star grass; stocking rate; stocking rates; yield; zimbabwe ...

  16. The grasses of the Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve: Their habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A classification is presented of the vegetation of the Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, based on the habitat preferences of the grass species, and processed according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Habitat factors correlated with the grasses include geological formation, altitude, aspect, slope, stoniness, soil depth, soil pH ...

  17. Effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on grass production, organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken in Kenya's southern savanna rangelands to determine the seasonal effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on aboveground grass biomass, grass species composition, soil organic matter and soil moisture content. The study was conducted during the period June to December 1999 in order to

  18. Seed production and establishment of western Oregon native grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale C. Darris

    2005-01-01

    It is well understood that native grasses are ecologically important and provide numerous benefits. However, unfavorable economics, low seed yields for some species, genetic issues, and a lack of experience behind the production and establishment of most western Oregon native grasses remain significant impediments for their expanded use. By necessity, adaptation of...

  19. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by different environmental ... coniferous tree species as leading natural flora. (Mohammad, 1989). The country is known .... Effect of spacing and broadcast method on germination of Kangaroo grass at Rawalpindi during 2005-06 and 2006-07.

  20. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    period being non-significant, both year and storage period, as main factors, did not present any differences (P. >0.05). The interactions between grass species × year were different for ash, CP, NDF and ADF (P <0.05). (Table 6). Table 2 Chemical composition, silage fermentation quality and NDF utilization of grass silages ...

  1. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  2. Analysis of Some Heavy Metals in Grass ( Paspalum Orbiculare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased deposition of trace metals from vehicle exhausts on plants has raised concerns about the risks of the quality of food consumed by humans since the heavy metals emitted through the exhaust by vehicles can enter food chain through deposition on grass grazed by animals. Grass (Paspalum Orbiculare) and ...

  3. Grass pollen, aeroallergens, and clinical symptoms in Ciudad Real, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo Brito, F; Mur Gimeno, P; Carnés, J; Fernández-Caldas, E; Lara, P; Alonso, A M; García, R; Guerra, F

    2010-01-01

    In allergic individuals, onset of symptoms is related to atmospheric pollen grain counts and aeroallergen concentrations. However, this relationship is not always clear. To analyze the correlation between grass pollen grain and aeroallergen concentrations in Ciudad Real, Spain, during the year 2004 and establish their association with symptoms in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis, or both. Two different samplers were used to assess allergen exposure: a Burkard spore trap to collect pollen grains and a high-volume air sampler to collect airborne particles. Individual filters were extracted daily in phosphate-buffered serum and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on serum containing high titers of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E to grasses. The study population comprised 27 grass-allergic patients whose symptoms and medication were recorded daily. Grass pollens were detected between April 28 and July 18. There was a positive correlation between pollen grain counts and symptoms (r = 0.62; P > .001). Grass aeroallergens were detected not only during the grass pollination period, but also before and after this period. There was also a very significant correlation between aeroallergen levels and symptoms (r = 0.76; P < .0001). The threshold level for grass pollen was 35 grains/m3. Grass-related allergenic activity is present throughout the year, demonstrating the existence of aeroallergens outside the pollen season. Symptoms in allergic patients may be related to airborne particle concentrations. This fact should be taken into account in the clinical follow-up and management of allergic patients.

  4. Effect of Bamboo ( Bambusa valgaris ) and Elephant grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant potential of bamboo and elephant grass leaf extracts were evaluated in cooked and raw broiler meat stored under refrigeration at 3±20C. To a separate 350g of minced broiler meat, 1.5% bamboo leaf extract (BLE) or elephant grass extract (EGE) was added. There was a negative control without additive while a ...

  5. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  6. No positive feedback between fire and a nonnative perennial grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika L. Geiger; Guy R. McPherson

    2005-01-01

    Semi-desert grasslands flank the “Sky Island” mountains in southern Arizona and Northern Mexico. Many of these grasslands are dominated by nonnative grasses, which potentially alter native biotic communities. One specific concern is the potential for a predicted feedback between nonnative grasses and fire. In a large-scale experiment in southern Arizona we investigated...

  7. Grass species composition, yield and quality under and outside tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-year study was conducted in lightly grazed areas of Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe, to evaluate the impact of widely spaced trees on understorey grass composition, yield and quality. The study trees were Terminalia sericea and Acacia karroo. Ordination techniques using grass density and biomass as indices ...

  8. Efficacy of Aqueous Extract of Lemon Grass ( Andropogon citratus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to determine the effects of lemon grass, Andropogon citratus L. extract on the rootknot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) of okra was conducted. Phytochemical analyses of the bioactive ingredients in lemon grass were carried out to determine the chemical compounds with nematicidal activities present in lemon ...

  9. Identification of grazed grasses using epidermal characters | R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of anatomical features of the abaxial epidermis of grasses is discussed for the identification of fragments of epidermis present in samples of rumen. The reliability of this technique, and the variation of the epidermal characters in two widely distributed species of grass, is given. A "Key" to identity certain genera of ...

  10. Potentials of agricultural waste and grasses in pulp and papermaking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentials of some agricultural waste and grasses were investigated. Potassium hydroxide from wood ash was used as alkali for pulping. Results from visopan Microscope showed that banana stalk has the highest fibre length of 2.60 mm and Bahaman grass has the least fibre length of 0.85 mm. Runkel Ratio (RK) for ...

  11. Structural traits of elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the forage potential of elephant grass, controlling canopy structure during grazing has limited its use in pasture. This study was conducted to determine the effect of grazing frequency and post-grazing height on canopy structural characteristics of elephant grass genotypes. The treatments consisted of the factorial ...

  12. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  13. A Study on Hs-CRP, Carotid Intima Media Thickness, and Lipid Profile in Children of Patients with Premature CAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Dudeja Bindal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to evaluate the risk markers of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD, so that appropriate lifestyle changes can be instituted early to prevent or delay development of the disease.. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the risk markers of CAD based on inflammation and arterial morphology; i.e., high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP and carotid artery Intima Media Thickness (IMT, in children of patients with premature CAD.. Patients and Methods: This was a case-control study with predetermined end points. It was conducted on 40 subjects randomly selected from the children of premature CAD patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Blood levels of hs-CRP, lipid profile, and carotid IMT were assessed for all the subjects. The relationship among these parameters was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses using the SPSS statistical software, version 22.0 and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.. Results: The mean values of Total Cholesterol (TC, 139.8 ± 24 vs. 111.3 ± 14.7, P < 0.05, Triglycerides (TG, 81.8 ± 15.3 vs. 63.4 ± 10.8, P < 0.05, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL, 85.2 ± 22.2 vs. 57.5 ± 14.1, P < 0.05, hs-CRP (1.2 ± 0.77 vs. 0.79 ± 0.27, P < 0.05 and carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.09 vs. 0.422 ± 0.03, P < 0.05 were significantly higher in the cases compared to the controls. Also, both LDL/High Density Lipoprotein (HDL and TC/HDL ratios were significantly higher in the cases compared to the controls. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between carotid IMT and hs-CRP.. Conclusions: Children of patients with premature CAD showed a significantly higher incidence of dyslipidemia as well as significantly increased levels of the inflammation marker, hs- CRP, compared to the age- and sex-matched controls. This indicates that atherosclerosis is not only a disease of lipid deposition, but also an inflammatory process. This was further confirmed by

  14. Systems study of fuels from grains and grasses. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, W.; Allen, A.; Athey, R.; McElroy, A.; Davis, M.; Bennett, M.

    1978-02-24

    The program reported on herein consists of a first phase analysis of the potential for significant and economically viable contributions to U.S. energy needs from grasses and grains by the photosynthetic production of biomass. The study does not include other cultivated crops such as sugar cane, sugar beets, cotton, tobacco, vegetables, fruits, etc. The scope of the study encompasses grain crop residues, whole plant biomass from grain crops and nongrain crops on cropland, and whole plant biomass from grasses on pasture, rangeland, and federal range. The basic approach to the study involves first an assessment of current total biomass generation from the various grasses and grains on cropland, pasture, range, and federal range, and aggregating the production by combinations of crop residues and whole plant biomass; second, evaluation of possibilities for introduction of new crops and expanding production to marginal or presently idle land; third, development of proposed reasonable scenarios for actually harvesting biomass from selected combinations of crop residues, forages and hays, and new crops from land now in production, plus additional marginal or underutilized land brought into production; and finally, assessment on national and regional or local scales of the production that might be affected by reasonable scenarios. This latter effort includes analysis of tentative possibilities for reallocating priorities and needs with regard to production of grain for export or for livestock production. The overall program includes a case study analysis of production economics for a representative farm of about 1,000 acres (405 ha) located in Iowa.

  15. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  16. There Is No Further Gain from Calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints with High Sensitivity Assays of C-Reactive Protein Because of High Intraindividual Variability of CRP: A Cross Sectional Study and Theoretical Consideration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie; Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; Antonsen, Steen

    Background/Purpose: The threshold for reporting of C-reactive protein (CRP) differs from laboratory to laboratory. Moreover, CRP values are affected by the intra individual biological variability.[1] With respect to disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), precise...... threshold for reporting CRP is important due to the direct effects of CRP on calculating DAS28, patient classification and subsequent treatment decisions[2] Methods: This study consists of two sections: a theoretical consideration discussing the performance of CRP in calculating DAS28 with regard...... to the biological variation and reporting limit for CRP and a cross sectional study of all RA patients from our department (n=876) applying our theoretical results. In the second section, we calculate DAS28 twice with actual CRP and CRP=9, the latter to elucidate the positive consequences of changing the lower...

  17. EroGRASS : Failure of grass cover layers at seaward and shoreward dike slopes. design, construction and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Verheij, H.J.; Cao, T.M.; Dassanayake, D.; Roelvink, D.; Piontkowitz, T.

    2009-01-01

    A large number of the dikes in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions are covered with grass that is exposed to hydraulic loading from waves and currents during storm surges. During previous storm surges the grass cover layers often showed large strength and remained undamaged. A clear physical

  18. Effect of the maturity stage of grass at harvesting on the chemical composition of grass clover silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Teskera

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine changes in chemical composition and fermentation quality among grass clover silages harvested at different maturity stages. Grass clover silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. that was a dominant grass in the sward: late vegetative (GS1, internode elongation (GS2 i and flowering (GS3. Classical chemical analysis methods were used to analyse 16 samples of each of the maturity stage. Dry matter (DM content of GS1, GS2 and GS3 was 396, 408 and 463 g kg-1 of the fresh sample, respectively, while crude protein (CP content was 120, 98 and 90 g kg-1 DM respectively. While comparing GS3 and GS1, delaying the term of grass harvesting significantly increased DM content (P<0.001, organic matter, (P<0.001, neutral detergent fibre (NDF (P<0.05 and acid detergent fibre (ADF (P<0.001. Early cut silage had significantly higher content of CP (P<0.001 in comparison with medium and late cut grass silage. It was concluded that maturity stage of grass clover at harvesting has significant influence on silage chemical composition. If the aim of production is higher quality grass silage, grass has to be cut at the earlier maturity stage.

  19. Selenium supplementation and selenium status of dairy cows fed diets based on grass, grass silage or maize silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierus, M.; Schwarz, F.J.; Kirchgessner, M.

    2002-01-01

    In three separate trial series (TS) the effect of diet composition on selenium (Se) status of dairy cows were investigated. Diets were formulated based mainly on grass (TS1), grass silage (TS2) or maize silage (TS3) with different levels of Se supplementation. Each TS comprised a total of 30 dairy

  20. On the training of future neuroscientists: insights from the Grass Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Alberto E.; Schweizer, Felix E.; Zottoli, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of nature is a continuous process that requires the transference of current knowledge to future generations. In this article, we address the critical issue of training of future scientists, an essential aspect of scientific progress. As an example of the impact training programs can have on shaping future scientists, we focus on the experience of the Grass Laboratory, which provides early career investigators the opportunity to embark on independent research experiences. This uniquely designed program has contributed enormously to fostering the development of neuroscientists in the past 60 years and has left a recognizable mark on 20th and 21st century neuroscience research. PMID:23849195

  1. Phenology of perennial, native grass, belowground axillary buds in the northern mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Morgan L; Vermeire, Lance T; Ganguli, Amy C; Hendrickson, John R

    2017-06-01

    Vegetative reproduction from belowground bud banks is the primary driver of grassland systems. Despite the importance of bud banks, the timing of recruitment and the crucial link between formation and maintenance is unknown. We assessed patterns of belowground bud development, dormancy, and mortality associated with three perennial native grasses in the northern Great Plains. Temperature and soil moisture were measured below the soil surface to determine relationships with belowground bud development. Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) generated more buds over winter that remained dormant; whereas, C3 species needle-and-thread (Hesperostipa comata) and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), maintained limited dormant buds throughout winter. Soil temperature was a good predictor for C4 species bud production; whereas, soil moisture was a reliable predictor for C3 buds. Distinct differences existed between C4 species blue grama and C3 species needle-and-thread, whereas C3 species western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) was intermediate, indicating there is likely a species-specific continuum between the C3 and C4 extremes rather than a stark difference. The ability to predict belowground bud development is a novel insight to native perennial grasses. Native grass species' strategies and adaptability regarding belowground bud bank size and bud phenology are important factors optimizing tiller recruitment given the variable growing conditions. Patterns of bud dormancy and development will provide insight to the underlying mechanisms by which management practices and fluctuations in precipitation amount and growing season length can alter mixed-grass prairie plant community dynamics. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Performance of beef steers on Smuts finger grass and Nile grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steers subjected to stocking rates of 6, 8 and l0 steers/ha gained 45.1 t 2.0,39.2 + 1.8 and 35,8 t 2.4kglsteer on Smuts fin- ger grass and 6l .8 x.2.1, ..... ACOCKS, J.P.H., 1988. Veld Types of South Africa. Memoirs of The. Botanical Survey of South Africa, No. 40. 2nd Edition, Pretoria: Dept. Agric. Tech. Services. ADJEI, M.B. ...

  3. A comparison of irrigated grass-clover and nitrogen-fertilized grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pure grass pastures were fertilized with 450 kg N/ha in 1973/74 and 500 kg N/ha in 1974/75 and 1975/76.Grazing started in February 1973 with a policy aimed at producing fatstock for the high-priced Christmas period. Three groups of steers have been slaughtered off the trial. The carrying capacity and productivity of ...

  4. Performance of beef steers on Smuts finger grass and Nile grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ile grasst han when grazingS mutsf ingerg rass[ 54.0+ 1.5a nd4 0.0t 1.2k g (P < 0.01),r espectivelyI]t. wasn ot clearw hethert he highers ummer growth-rateo n both pasturesin animalsw intereda t maintenancew asd uet o compensatoryg rowth or to relativelym ore grass/kgl ive weight beinga vailablet o the lighter animals.

  5. Tandem DNA-bound cAMP-CRP complexes are required for transcriptional repression of the deoP2 promoter by the CytR repressor in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard-Andersen, L; Møllegaard, N E; Douthwaite, S R

    1990-01-01

    region, and is sufficient for activation; the second site, CRP-2, centred around -93, is indispensable for repression. Here we demonstrate, by means of in vivo titration, that CytR interaction with deoP2 depends not only on CRP-2, but also on CRP-1 and the length and possibly the sequence separating...

  6. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-02-03

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement.

  7. Measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) and nerve-growth-factor (NGF) concentrations in serum and urine samples of dogs with neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordass, Ulrike; Carlson, Regina; Stein, Veronika Maria; Tipold, Andrea

    2016-01-08

    The purpose of this study was to prove the hypothesis that C-reactive protein (CRP) and nerve growth factor (NGF) may be potential biomarkers for lower urinary tract disorders and may be able to distinguish between micturition dysfunctions of different origin in dogs with spinal cord diseases. NGF- and CRP- concentrations were measured in serum and urine samples using specific ELISA-Kits. Results in urine were standardized by urine-creatinine levels. CRP in serum was detectable in 32/76 and in urine samples in 40/76 patients. NGF could be measured in all serum and in 70/76 urine samples. Urinary CRP concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with micturition dysfunction (p = 0.0009) and in dogs with different neurological diseases (p = 0.0020) compared to the control group. However, comparing dogs with spinal cord disorders with and without associated micturition dysfunction no significant difference could be detected for NGF and CRP values in urine or serum samples. Additionally, levels did not decrease significantly, when measured at the time when the dogs regained the ability to urinate properly (urinary NGF p = 0.7962; urinary CRP p = 0.078). Urine samples with bacteria and/or leukocytes had no significant increase in urinary NGF (p = 0.1112) or CRP (p = 0.0534) concentrations, but higher CRP-levels in urine from dogs with cystitis were found compared to dogs without signs of cystitis. From these data we conclude that neither CRP nor NGF in urine or serum can be considered as reliable biomarkers for micturition disorders in dogs with spinal cord disorders in a clinical setting, but their production might be part of the pathogenesis of such disorders. Significantly higher levels of CRP could be found in the urine of dogs with micturition dysfunctions compared to control dogs. This phenomenon could potentially be explained by unspecific extrahepatic CRP production by smooth muscle cells in the dilated bladder.

  8. A comparison of osteoprotegerin with adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a marker for insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with low adiponectin and elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been shown to be elevated in type 2 diabetes, but whether it reflects underlying IR is unclear. We aimed to compare the ability of serum OPG with adiponectin and hsCRP to act as a marker for IR in individuals with normal and abnormal glucose tolerance.

  9. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as inflammation markers in elderly patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsonello, Andrea; Pedone, Claudio; Battaglia, Salvatore; Paglino, Giuseppe; Bellia, Vincenzo; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) might represent a less expensive alternative to C-reactive protein (CRP) as a marker of systemic inflammation in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tried to verify this hypothesis in 223 consecutive outpatients aged 65 years or more with stable COPD enrolled in a multicenter observational study. Patients were grouped according to normal/increased ESR/CRP values and groups were compared with regard to clinical and laboratory characteristics. Correlations between CRP, ESR and selected variables of interest were assessed by Spearman's ζ-test and multivariate linear regression analysis. CRP was weakly and inversely correlated with the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1%) (Spearman's ζ = -0.15; p < 0.027), while ESR was not (Spearman's ζ = -0.05; p = 0.411). The highest prevalence of anemia and hypoalbuminemia and the lowest FEV1% were recorded in high ESR-high CRP group. For anemia B = 14.180 ± 3.521 (± S.E.M.); p = 0.001 and hypoalbuminemia B = 10.241 ± 3.790; p = 0.007 qualified as significant independent correlates of ESR values, while only FEV1 remained significantly associated with CRP values (B = -0.570 ± 0.258; p = 0.028). In conclusion, CRP, but not ESR, shows a weak correlation with COPD severity, while anemia and hypoalbuminemia are main correlates of high ESR. Neither ESR, nor CRP qualify as reliable markers of COPD severity and seem to reflect the effects of different determinants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of elevated-CRP level-related polymorphisms in non-rheumatic Caucasians on the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mejías, Raquel; Genre, Fernanda; Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Robustillo-Villarino, Montserrat; Llorca, Javier; Corrales, Alfonso; Vicente, Esther; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Magro, César; Tejera-Segura, Beatriz; Ramírez Huaranga, Marco A.; Pina, Trinitario; Blanco, Ricardo; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J.; Raya, Enrique; Mijares, Verónica; Ubilla, Begoña; Mínguez Sánchez, María D.; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Balsa, Alejandro; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora; López-Longo, Francisco J.; Carreira, Patricia; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; Castañeda, Santos; Martín, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Association between elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels and subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) events was described in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CRP, HNF1A, LEPR, GCKR, NLRP3, IL1F10, PPP1R3B, ASCL1, HNF4A and SALL1 exert an influence on elevated CRP serum levels in non-rheumatic Caucasians. Consequently, we evaluated the potential role of these genes in the development of CV events and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients. Three tag CRP polymorphisms and HNF1A, LEPR, GCKR, NLRP3, IL1F10, PPP1R3B, ASCL1, HNF4A and SALL1 were genotyped in 2,313 Spanish patients by TaqMan. Subclinical atherosclerosis was determined in 1,298 of them by carotid ultrasonography (by assessment of carotid intima-media thickness-cIMT-and presence/absence of carotid plaques). CRP serum levels at diagnosis and at the time of carotid ultrasonography were measured in 1,662 and 1,193 patients, respectively, by immunoturbidimetry. Interestingly, a relationship between CRP and CRP serum levels at diagnosis and at the time of the carotid ultrasonography was disclosed. However, no statistically significant differences were found when CRP, HNF1A, LEPR, GCKR, NLRP3, IL1F10, PPP1R3B, ASCL1, HNF4A and SALL1 were evaluated according to the presence/absence of CV events, carotid plaques and cIMT after adjustment. Our results do not confirm an association between these genes and CV disease in RA. PMID:27534721

  11. Tour sees good, bad and ugly : Weeds seen as main problem of area CRP

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Article on the creation of the Conservation Reserve Program, and how it may not be the ideal solution to remove erodible land out of agricultural production, reduce...

  12. Fatty-acid binding protein 4 gene variants and childhood obesity: potential implications for insulin sensitivity and CRP levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Rakesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Obesity increases the risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in both adults and children. FABP4 is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family that is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and plays an important role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to measure FABP4 plasma levels, assess FABP4 allelic variants, and explore potential associations with fasting glucose and insulin levels in young school-age children with and without obesity. Methods A total of 309 consecutive children ages 5-7 years were recruited. Children were divided based on BMI z score into Obese (OB; BMI z score >1.65 and non-obese (NOB. Fasting plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, hsCRP, and FABP4 levels were measured. HOMA was used as correlate of insulin sensitivity. Four SNPs of the human FABP4 gene (rs1051231, rs2303519, rs16909233 and rs1054135, corresponding to several critical regions of the encoding FABP4 gene sequence were genotyped. Results Compared to NOB, circulating FABP4 levels were increased in OB, as were LDL, hsCRP and HOMA. FABP4 levels correlated with BMI, and also contributed to the variance of HOMA and hsCRP, but not serum lipids. The frequency of rs1054135 allelic variant was increased in OB, and was associated with increased FABP4 levels, while the presence of rs16909233 variant allele, although similar in OB and NOB, was associated with increased HOMA values. Conclusions Childhood obesity is associated with higher FABP4 levels that may promote cardiometabolic risk. The presence of selective SNPs in the FABP4 gene may account for increased risk for insulin resistance or systemic inflammation in the context of obesity.

  13. The effect of mud pack therapy on serum YKL-40 and hsCRP levels in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngen, Gonca; Ardic, Fusun; Fındıkoğlu, Gülin; Rota, Simin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment with mud pack in knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to determine whether mud pack effects serum levels of YKL-40 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) which are reported to be biological markers for articular damage or inflammation in patients with OA. Forty-four patients with the diagnosis of knee OA assigned into two groups were treated with local natural mineral-rich mud pack or hot pack. Treatments were applied for 6 days a week for 2 weeks as a total of 12 sessions. Patients were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3 months after the treatment. VAS, range of motion, 15-m walking time, WOMAC index, Nottingham Health Profile, serum YKL-40, and hsCRP levels were the outcome measures. Pain intensity and joint stiffness decreased in both groups at all follow-ups. Physical activity status was found to persist for 3 months after treatment only in mud pack group. Serum mean YKL-40 and hsCRP levels of the patients were higher compared to healthy control group. Serum YKL-40 level increased significantly only in hot pack group 3 months after the treatment (P 0.05). Mud pack and hot pack therapy were both demonstrated to be effective in symptomatic treatment of knee OA until the end of the 2-week treatment period, whereas only mud pack therapy was shown to be effective in functional status over time. In the hot pack group, increased serum YKL-40 level 3 months after the treatment might indicate persistence of cartilage degradation. Maintenance of YKL-40 level in mud pack therapy seems to slow down the progression of knee OA.

  14. Improving ethanol tolerance of Escherichia coli by rewiring its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqing Chong

    Full Text Available A major challenge in bioethanol fermentation is the low tolerance of the microbial host towards the end product bioethanol. Here we report to improve the ethanol tolerance of E. coli from the transcriptional level by engineering its global transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP, which is known to regulate over 400 genes in E. coli. Three ethanol tolerant CRP mutants (E1- E3 were identified from error-prone PCR libraries. The best ethanol-tolerant strain E2 (M59T had the growth rate of 0.08 h(-1 in 62 g/L ethanol, higher than that of the control at 0.06 h(-1. The M59T mutation was then integrated into the genome to create variant iE2. When exposed to 150 g/l ethanol, the survival of iE2 after 15 min was about 12%, while that of BW25113 was <0.01%. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis (RT-PCR on 444 CRP-regulated genes using OpenArray® technology revealed that 203 genes were differentially expressed in iE2 in the absence of ethanol, whereas 92 displayed differential expression when facing ethanol stress. These genes belong to various functional groups, including central intermediary metabolism (aceE, acnA, sdhD, sucA, iron ion transport (entH, entD, fecA, fecB, and general stress response (osmY, rpoS. Six up-regulated and twelve down-regulated common genes were found in both iE2 and E2 under ethanol stress, whereas over one hundred common genes showed differential expression in the absence of ethanol. Based on the RT-PCR results, entA, marA or bhsA was knocked out in iE2 and the resulting strains became more sensitive towards ethanol.

  15. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  16. DC-SIGN activation mediates the differential effects of SAP and CRP on the innate immune system and inhibits fibrosis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is caused by scar tissue formation in internal organs and is associated with 45% of deaths in the United States. Two closely related human serum proteins, serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP), strongly affect fibrosis. In multiple animal models, and in Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials, SAP affects several aspects of the innate immune system to reduce fibrosis, whereas CRP appears to potentiate fibrosis. However, SAP and CRP bind the same Fcγ receptors (FcγR) with similar affinities, and why SAP and CRP have opposing effects is unknown. Here, we report that SAP but not CRP binds the receptor DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) to affect the innate immune system, and that FcγR are not necessary for SAP function. A polycyclic aminothiazole DC-SIGN ligand and anti–DC-SIGN antibodies mimic SAP effects in vitro. In mice, the aminothiazole reduces neutrophil accumulation in a model of acute lung inflammation and, at 0.001 mg/kg, alleviates pulmonary fibrosis by increasing levels of the immunosuppressant IL-10. DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) is present on mouse lung epithelial cells, and SAP and the aminothiazole potentiate IL-10 production from these cells. Our data suggest that SAP activates DC-SIGN to regulate the innate immune system differently from CRP, and that DC-SIGN is a target for antifibrotics. PMID:26106150

  17. DC-SIGN activation mediates the differential effects of SAP and CRP on the innate immune system and inhibits fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-07-07

    Fibrosis is caused by scar tissue formation in internal organs and is associated with 45% of deaths in the United States. Two closely related human serum proteins, serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP), strongly affect fibrosis. In multiple animal models, and in Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials, SAP affects several aspects of the innate immune system to reduce fibrosis, whereas CRP appears to potentiate fibrosis. However, SAP and CRP bind the same Fcγ receptors (FcγR) with similar affinities, and why SAP and CRP have opposing effects is unknown. Here, we report that SAP but not CRP binds the receptor DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) to affect the innate immune system, and that FcγR are not necessary for SAP function. A polycyclic aminothiazole DC-SIGN ligand and anti-DC-SIGN antibodies mimic SAP effects in vitro. In mice, the aminothiazole reduces neutrophil accumulation in a model of acute lung inflammation and, at 0.001 mg/kg, alleviates pulmonary fibrosis by increasing levels of the immunosuppressant IL-10. DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) is present on mouse lung epithelial cells, and SAP and the aminothiazole potentiate IL-10 production from these cells. Our data suggest that SAP activates DC-SIGN to regulate the innate immune system differently from CRP, and that DC-SIGN is a target for antifibrotics.

  18. Sleep restriction increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases by augmenting proinflammatory responses through IL-17 and CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel M A van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep restriction, leading to deprivation of sleep, is common in modern 24-h societies and is associated with the development of health problems including cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to investigate the immunological effects of prolonged sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep, by simulating a working week and following recovery weekend in a laboratory environment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After 2 baseline nights of 8 hours time in bed (TIB, 13 healthy young men had only 4 hours TIB per night for 5 nights, followed by 2 recovery nights with 8 hours TIB. 6 control subjects had 8 hours TIB per night throughout the experiment. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol and serum C-reactive protein (CRP were measured after the baseline (BL, sleep restriction (SR and recovery (REC period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected at these time points, counted and stimulated with PHA. Cell proliferation was analyzed by thymidine incorporation and cytokine production by ELISA and RT-PCR. CRP was increased after SR (145% of BL; p<0.05, and continued to increase after REC (231% of BL; p<0.05. Heart rate was increased after REC (108% of BL; p<0.05. The amount of circulating NK-cells decreased (65% of BL; p<0.005 and the amount of B-cells increased (121% of BL; p<0.005 after SR, but these cell numbers recovered almost completely during REC. Proliferation of stimulated PBMC increased after SR (233% of BL; p<0.05, accompanied by increased production of IL-1beta (137% of BL; p<0.05, IL-6 (163% of BL; p<0.05 and IL-17 (138% of BL; p<0.05 at mRNA level. After REC, IL-17 was still increased at the protein level (119% of BL; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: 5 nights of sleep restriction increased lymphocyte activation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1beta IL-6 and IL-17; they remained elevated after 2 nights of recovery sleep, accompanied by increased heart rate and serum CRP, 2 important risk

  19. Effect of level of lactic acid bacteria inoculant from fermented grass extract on fermentation quality of king grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Antaribaba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling is a method of preserving moist forage based on natural fermentation where lactic acid bacteria (LAB ferment water soluble carbohydrate into organic acids mainly lactic acid under anaerobic condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides ensiled with addition of LAB prepared from fermented grass extract (LBFG. Four treatment were (G0 king grass without additive; (G1 king grass with 2% (v/w of LBFG; (G2 king grass with 3% (v/w of LBFG; (G3 king grass with 4% (v/w of LBFG. Ensiling was conducted in bottle silos of 225 g capacity at room temperatures (27.0 ± 0.20C for 30 days. The results showed that crude protein content in silage G1, G2 and G3 were relatively higher than that in silage G0. The pH value, butyric acid, total VFA and NH3-N concentrations decreased linearly with increasing level of LBFG addition, while lactic acid concentration increased linearly with LBFG addition. It was concluded that addition of 3% (v/w of LBFG resulting a better fermentation quality of king grass silage than 2% and 4% (v/w of LBFG.

  20. Risk assessment for herbaceous biomass crops: the case of perennial grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowenberg-DeBoer, J.; Lopez-Pereira, M.A. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (US). Dept. of Agricultural Economics)

    1990-01-01

    The production of two perennial grasses, tall fescue and switchgrass, for biomass energy were included as alternative activities in a single-index model (SIM) of portfolio selection for an agricultural enterprise. Results indicate that, from the risk efficiency point of view, switchgrass is a good alternative and is included in a risk efficient farm enterprise, while tall fescue, due to its low expected return, is not included. The correlation of returns of the grass crops with those of the conventional activities was low or negative, suggesting that the energy crops may be good candidates for diversification. However, the high correlation between the returns on the two grass crops indicates that only one of them would be included in a risk efficient farm enterprise. The SIM regression estimates seemed sufficient to determine the risk characteristics of the new energy crops. The SIM quadratic-programming results added little additional information; thus, this stage of the analysis can be obviated without great loss of information. (author).

  1. Diversification of C(4) grasses (Poaceae) does not coincide with their ecological dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Slingsby, Jasper A; Verboom, G Anthony; Bond, William J

    2014-02-01

    The radiation of a lineage and its rise to ecological dominance are distinct phenomena and driven by different processes. For example, paleoecological data has been used to show that the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation did not coincide with their rise to dominance. Using a phylogenetic approach, we here explored the evolution of C4 grasses and evaluated whether the diversification of this group and its rise to ecological dominance in the late Miocene were decoupled. We assembled a matrix including 675 grass species of the PACMAD clade and 2784 characters (ITS and ndhF) to run a molecular dating analysis using three fossils as reference calibrations. We coded species as C3 vs. C4 and reconstructed ancestral states under maximum likelihood. We used the program BiSSE to test whether rates of diversification are correlated with photosynthetic pathway and whether the radiation of C4 lineages preceded or coincided with their rise to ecological dominance from ∼10 Ma. C4 grass lineages first originated around 35 Ma at the time of the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Accelerated diversification of C4 lineages did not coincide with their rise to ecological dominance. C4-dominated grasslands have expanded only since the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The initial diversification of their biotic elements can be tracked back as far as the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We suggest that shifts in taxonomic diversification and ecological dominance were stimulated by different factors, as in the case of the early angiosperms in the Cretaceous.

  2. Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded

  3. Drought impact on the germination of selected energy grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek KOPECKÝ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain a sufficient amount of phytomass for the needs of eco-energetics, there are monocultural grasslands established on the arable land. In the context of the changing climate and more frequent periods of drought, it is important to look for grass species and varieties that are able to withstand these stress conditions. Influence of droughtness on germination of four selected energy grass species is decribed in paper. The investigated species were tall meadow oat (Arrhenatherum elatius L. - the Median variety, orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L. - the Padania variety, tall wheatgrass (Elymus elongatus - the Szarvasi-1 variety and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. - the Chrastava variety. Although the species differed in the germinability (p 0.05

  4. Ensiling characteristic and nutritive value of Napier grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensiling characteristic and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schmach) combined with or without leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit) as influenced by starch or formic acid addition.

  5. Growing grass for a green biorefinery - an option for Ireland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keeffe, S.; Schulte, R.P.O.; O'Kiely, P.; O'Donoghue, C.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Growing grass for a green biorefinery – an option for Ireland? Mind the gap: deciphering the gap between good intentions and healthy eating behaviour Halting biodiversity loss by 2020 – implications for agriculture A milk processing sector model for Ireland

  6. Brassinosteroid Mediated Cell Wall Remodeling in Grasses under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber, and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.

  7. Grasses – a potential sustainable resource for biocrude production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Toor, Saqib Sohail

    and lack of competition with food crops. They can be used as whole input, or as a residue after protein extraction. In order to determine the production potential of biofuels based on HtL conversion and to establish at the same time the optimum conditions for the HtL process that could lead to a high bio....../ha) are mapped as function of the type of grassland area (permanent, roadside, grass sown in crop rotation systems) using 2012 databases made available by Jordbrugs Analyser Portal and Danmarks Miljøportal. Grasses have become a promising lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels production due to the low cost factor......-crude yield and a high quality of the bio-crude using grasses as feedstock a series of experiments with meadow grass have been carried out in a batch reactor. Biomass input and liquefaction products are characterized using proximate analysis, elemental analysis, heating values, FTIR, GC/MS. Data is subject...

  8. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  9. Pre-operative and post-operative changes in CRP and other biomarkers sensitive to inflammatory status in patients with severe obesity undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Edward W; Twells, Laurie K; Gregory, Deborah M; Lester, Kendra K; Daneshtalab, Noriko; Dillon, Carla; Pace, David; Smith, Chris; Boone, Darrell

    2017-10-16

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is often elevated in patients living with severe obesity (BMI≥35kg/m(2)). However, there is limited information on how CRP, and other inflammation responsive biomarkers, change in response to weight loss following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). We studied how CRP, ferritin and albumin change following LSG surgery in relation to obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) ATPIII risk components and diabetes mellitus (DM). Laboratory parameters (including CRP) were examined in 197 patients prior to LSG, and at 6, 12, 18 and 24months. Changes in laboratory parameters, and laboratory investigations, were also examined in a 125 patient subgroup at both pre-LSG and at the 12month follow-up visit. All patients had BMI≥35kg/m(2). CRP levels positively correlated with BMI (r=0.171, p=0.016) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP; r=0.309; P<0.001), but negatively correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT; r=-0.260; P<0.001) and albumin (r=-0.358; P<0.001). LSG significantly reduced CRP and ferritin, which were maintained for at least 24months. At 12months post-LSG there was a significant decrease in weight (kgs) (p<0.001), CRP (p<0.001), ferritin (p=0.004), and various MetS risk components (p<0.001) but not albumin (p=0.057). Changes in CRP also correlated with changes in weight (r=0.233, p=0.018) and ALP (r=0.208, p=0.034) but not albumin (r=-0.186, p=0.058) or ferritin (r=0.160, p=0.113) after LSG. The negative correlation between CRP and albumin levels in obesity may indicate a low grade inflammatory process affecting both. LSG related weight loss decreased CRP and ferritin, likely explained by improvement in inflammatory status. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tandem DNA-bound cAMP-CRP complexes are required for transcriptional repression of the deoP2 promoter by the CytR repressor in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Møllegaard, N E; Douthwaite, S R

    1990-01-01

    region, and is sufficient for activation; the second site, CRP-2, centred around -93, is indispensable for repression. Here we demonstrate, by means of in vivo titration, that CytR interaction with deoP2 depends not only on CRP-2, but also on CRP-1 and the length and possibly the sequence separating...... these two sites. Also, point mutations in either CRP site reduce or abolish CytR titration; however, no co-operativity is observed in the interaction of CytR with the two CRP binding sites. Furthermore, the reduction in CytR titration parallels the reduction in binding of cAMP-CRP to the mutated CRP sites...

  11. Association of IL-6 and CRP gene polymorphisms with obesity and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela F. Todendi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Activation of adipose tissue inflammation is associated with obesity caused by lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Through this activation, proinflammatory cytokines, such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP seem to influence metabolic disorders. The present study evaluated whether polymorphisms in the CRP (rs1205 and IL-6 (rs1800795, rs2069845 genes are associated with the development of metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed, consisting of 470 students from the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil, aged 7-17 years. Body mass index (BMI was classified according to overweight and obesity. Genotyping was performed by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR. Anthropometric characteristics, biochemical markers, immunological markers and blood pressure were assessed. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and logistic regression were used for the analyses. No association was detected between the rs1800795 polymorphism and the assessed variables. Individuals with the risk genotype in the rs1205 gene were associated with the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia (OR 2.79; CI 1.40, 5.57; p = 0.003. Carriers of the risk genotype in the rs2069845 gene are associated with the risk of developing obesity (OR 3.07; CI 1.08, 8.72; p = 0.03. The polymorphism rs2069845 was associated with obesity and rs1205 was associated with the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia in Brazilian schoolchildren.

  12. Effect of hs-CRP level and nutritional status on pulmonary function in patients with maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Lei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of hs-CRP level and nutritional status on the pulmonary function in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD. Methods: A total of 30 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF who were admitted in our hospital from August, 2014 to August, 2015 for hemodialysis were included in the study. A volume of 4mL morning fasting elbow venous blood before and after hemodialysis was extracted, and was then centrifuged for serum. The levels of Hb, Alb, and PA were detected. VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/ FVC, PEF, and MMEF were determined. Results: The levels of Hb, Alb, and PA after hemodialysis were significantly higher than those before hemodialysis (P<0.05. VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF, and MMEF after hemodialysis were significantly improved when compared with before treatment (P<0.05. The comparison of VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF, and MMEF among patients with different levels of hs-CRP was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusions: The reduction of pulmonary function in different degrees exists in MHD patients. MHD is kind of effective method to improve the pulmonary function in patients with CRF. The effective improvement of nutritional status and the reduction of in vivo inflammatory reaction in patients with CRF in the clinic can relieve the deterioration of pulmonary function to a certain degree so that to improve the ventilation function and enhance the living quality.

  13. hs-CRP is strongly associated with coronary heart disease (CHD): A data mining approach using decision tree algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayefi, Maryam; Tajfard, Mohammad; Saffar, Sara; Hanachi, Parichehr; Amirabadizadeh, Ali Reza; Esmaeily, Habibollah; Taghipour, Ali; Ferns, Gordon A; Moohebati, Mohsen; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-04-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important public health problem globally. Algorithms incorporating the assessment of clinical biomarkers together with several established traditional risk factors can help clinicians to predict CHD and support clinical decision making with respect to interventions. Decision tree (DT) is a data mining model for extracting hidden knowledge from large databases. We aimed to establish a predictive model for coronary heart disease using a decision tree algorithm. Here we used a dataset of 2346 individuals including 1159 healthy participants and 1187 participant who had undergone coronary angiography (405 participants with negative angiography and 782 participants with positive angiography). We entered 10 variables of a total 12 variables into the DT algorithm (including age, sex, FBG, TG, hs-CRP, TC, HDL, LDL, SBP and DBP). Our model could identify the associated risk factors of CHD with sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 96%, 87%, 94% and respectively. Serum hs-CRP levels was at top of the tree in our model, following by FBG, gender and age. Our model appears to be an accurate, specific and sensitive model for identifying the presence of CHD, but will require validation in prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Positive regulation of the Shewanella oneidensis OmpS38, a major porin facilitating anaerobic respiration, by Crp and Fur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Ju, Lili; Yin, Jianhua; Gao, Haichun

    2015-09-18

    Major porins are among the most abundant proteins embedded in the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria, playing crucial roles in maintenance of membrane structural integrity and OM permeability. Although many OM proteins (especially c-type cytochromes) in Shewanella oneidensis, a research model for respiratory versatility, have been extensively studied, physiological significance of major porins remains largely unexplored. In this study, we show that OmpS38 and OmpA are two major porins, neither of which is responsive to changes in osmolarity or contributes to the intrinsic resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. However, OmpS38 but not OmpA is largely involved in respiration of non-oxygen electron acceptors. We then provide evidence that expression of ompS38 is transcribed from two promoters, the major of which is favored under anaerobic conditions while the other appears constitutive. The major promoter is under the direct control of Crp, the master regulator dictating respiration. As a result, the increase in the level of OmpS38 correlates with an elevated activity in Crp under anaerobic conditions. In addition, we show that the activity of the major promoter is also affected by Fur, presumably indirectly, the transcription factor for iron-dependent gene expression.

  15. Diagnostic value of soluble CD163 serum levels in patients suspected of meningitis: comparison with CRP and procalcitonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Larsen, Klaus; Kristiansen, Thomas Birk

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of sCD163 serum levels with CRP and PCT in meningitis and bacterial infection. An observational cohort study was conducted between February 2001 and February 2005. The study population comprised 55 patients suspected of meningi......The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of sCD163 serum levels with CRP and PCT in meningitis and bacterial infection. An observational cohort study was conducted between February 2001 and February 2005. The study population comprised 55 patients suspected...... of meningitis on admission to a 27-bed infectious disease department at a Danish university hospital. Biomarker serum levels on admission were measured. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated at pre-specified cut-off values and overall diagnostic accuracies were compared using receiver......-operating characteristic AUCs (areas under curves). Patients were classified by 2 sets of diagnostic criteria into: A) purulent meningitis, serous meningitis or non-meningitis, and B) systemic bacterial infection, local bacterial infection or non-bacterial disease. An elevated serum level of sCD163 was the most specific...

  16. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  17. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.

  18. Phosphorus reserves increase grass regrowth after defoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, Mariano; Oesterheld, Martín

    2009-04-01

    Accumulation of P above levels that promote growth, a common plant response called "luxury consumption", can be considered as a form of reserve to support future growth when the nutrient can subsequently be mobilized. However, the effect of P reserves on regrowth following defoliation has not been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that P luxury consumption increases plant tolerance to defoliation. We performed two experiments with four grass species from a continuously grazed temperate grassland in the Flooding Pampa (Argentina). The first experiment, aimed at generating P luxury consumption by fertilization, resulted in one species (Sporobolus indicus) showing luxury consumption. In this way, we were able to obtain plants of S. indicus with similar biomass but contrasting amounts of P reserves. The second experiment evaluated the subsequent regrowth following defoliation on a P-free medium of these plants differing in P reserves. Regrowth was larger for plants that had shown P luxury consumption during a previous period than for plants with lower levels of P reserves. During regrowth these plants showed a clear pattern of P remobilization from the stubble, crown, and root compartments to the regrowing tissue, in addition to a likely reutilization of P present in leaf-growth zones. This work is the first showing that high levels of P reserves can confer tolerance to defoliation by promoting compensatory growth under P deficiency.

  19. KARTAWINATA et al: Grass communities on Oahu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    " "

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available For the windward group, there was a significant correlation (TableV only between the amount of rainfall and the order of the plots on theX-axis. It has been shown in the ordination diagram (Fig. 4 that threecommunity types can be recognized, the Rhynchelytrum repens, Melinisminutiflora and Andropogon virginicus community types. The relationshipbetween the change of the grass dominance and the rainfall gradient alongthe X- axis is shown in Fig. 9. In this diagram the X-axis was dividedinto ten segments: 0.0 — 9.9; 10.0 — 19.9; 20.0 — 29.9; 30.0 — 39.9;40.0 — 49.9; 50.0 — 59.9; 60.0 — 69.9; 70.0 — 79.9; 80.0 — 89.9 and90.0 — 100.0. The intervals 20.0 — 39.9 and 50.0 — 69.9 were consideredas individual units because there was only one plot in the intervals20.0 — 29.9 and 50.0 — 59.9, respectively.

  20. Weight gain of steers on pastures of cameroon grass and braquiarão grass

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia de Paula Rezende; José Marques Pereira; Thasia Martins Macedo; Augusto Magno Ferreira Borges; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Érico de Sa Petit Lobão; Isis Miranda Carvalho Nicory

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate pastures formed of Pennisetum purpureum cv.cameroon and Urochloa brizantha.cv. Marandu aiming at greater live weight gains per animal and per hectare. The animals were crossbred male half blood Tabapuã/Nellore live weight of 280 kg (9.3 kilos). Each grass was submitted to four stocking rates in a rotated grazing system with three days of grazing and 36 days of rest, resulting in a 39 days grazing cycle. In the summer the stocking rates were 2.64, 3.49, 4.34 and 5.09 UA/ha in and w...

  1. 75 FR 44067 - Conservation Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... amending the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) regulations to implement provisions of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm Bill). The 2008 Farm Bill generally extends the existing... Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1410 RIN 0560-AH80 Conservation Reserve Program AGENCY: Commodity...

  2. Biomass of elephant grass and leucaena for bioenergy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Sales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass production of elephant grass and leucaena in Paraná state, Brazil, for the generation of renewable energy. Two field studies were conducted in the municipality of Ibiporã (23° S, 51° 01?W. In the first study, the dry matter accumulation curves were calculated, with sampling at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days after cultivation. The second study was conducted in a randomized complete block design with split plots. The total aboveground biomass production of elephant grass and leucaena was estimated in the main plot. Cutting times of 60 and 120 days after cultivation were evaluated in the subplots. The productivity of dry matter (kg.ha-1 was estimated using the biomass data. In addition, the potential production of energy from the burning of elephant grass biomass, and the potential production of total aboveground biomass and energy of elephant grass (in Paraná was estimated using an agrometeorological model. Elephant grass can be potentially used as an alternative energy source. Leucaena has slow initial growth, and it must therefore be evaluated over a longer period in order to determine its potential. Simulation analyses of the capability of power generation, conducted based on the annual dry matter production, revealed that elephant grass could be an important source of renewable energy in the state of Paraná.

  3. Simvastatin inhibits homocysteine-induced CRP generation via interfering with the ROS-p38/ERK1/2 signal pathway in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoming; Si, Jigang; Xu, Shouzhu; Li, Yuxia; Liu, Juntian

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role throughout the formation and progression of atherosclerosis. As the most representative inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP) directly participates in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. The elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level in plasma is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. We previously reported that Hcy produces a pro-inflammatory effect by stimulating CRP expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The present study observed the effect of simvastatin on Hcy-induced CRP expression in VSMCs and the molecular mechanisms. The in vitro experiments revealed that pretreatment of VSMCs with simvastatin decreased Hcy-induced mRNA and protein expression of CRP in a concentration-dependent fashion. The in vivo results showed that simvastatin not only inhibited CRP expression in the vessel walls in mRNA and protein levels, but also reduced the circulating CRP level in hyperhomocysteinemic rats. Further experiments displayed that simvastatin reduced Hcy-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, ameliorated Hcy-activated phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and p38, and antagonized Hcy-downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression in VSMCs. These data demonstrate that simvastatin is able to inhibit Hcy-induced CRP generation in VSMCs so to relieve the vascular inflammatory response via interfering with the ROS-MAPK signal pathway. The present results provide new evidence for understanding of the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of simvastatin. As the high level of Hcy in plasma is related to atherosclerosis formation and mediates cardiovascular risk, our findings emphasize the importance and necessity of therapy with statins for hyperhomocysteinemia in atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CRP 1846C>T Genetic Polymorphism Is Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis and/or Severe Lymphatic Invasion in Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Masahiko; Motoyama, Satoru; Fujita, Kazuma; Miura, Masatomo; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Sato, Naoki; Shimizu, Dai; Sato, Toshiharu; Makino, Kenichi; Sugawara, Tae; Kato, Aya; Tamura, Daisuke; Takahashi, Kazue; Kumazawa, Yukiyo; Sato, Wataru; Miura, Hiroshi; Shirasawa, Hiromitsu; Sato, Akira; Kumagai, Jin; Terada, Yukihiro

    2015-09-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) rates are rising in Japan. Lymph node (LN) metastasis is an important prognostic factor in EC, and its risk is increased with higher tumor grade, deep myometrial invasion, larger tumor size, and lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI). Current methodologies to assess these factors are unreliable. We previously showed the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) 1846C>T (rs1205) polymorphism and LN metastasis in esophageal, non-small cell lung, and breast cancers. The CRP gene is located on chromosome 1q21-q23, and the polymorphism in the noncoding region (1846C>T) of this gene decreases serum CRP levels. We investigated the relationship between CRP 1846C>T genetic polymorphism and LN metastasis or LVSI in 130 EC patients using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The CRP 1846C/T genotype was C/C in 11 patients, C/T in 58 patients and T/T in 61 patients. The patients were divided into two groups based on their CRP 1846 genotypes: "C/C" and "C/T + T/T". Nine (7%) and 18 (13%) patients, all with the polymorphism, had LN metastasis and moderate or prominent lymphatic invasion, respectively. LN metastasis and/or severe lymphatic invasion were observed in the C/T + T/T group, while patients with the C/C genotype had no LN metastases or severe lymphatic invasion. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models revealed that the C/T + T/T patients had a significant likelihood of developing LN metastasis and/or severe lymphatic invasion. Our results suggest that CRP genetic polymorphism is a novel risk predictor of LN metastasis and/or lymphatic invasion in EC.

  5. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, A; Malling, H-J; Worm, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis....

  6. Influence of livestock grazing on C sequestration in semi-arid mixed-grass and short-grass rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Reeder; G.E. Schuman

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of livestock grazing on C content of the plant-soil system (to 60 cm) of two semi-arid grasslands: a mixed-grass prairie (grazed 12 years), and a short-grass steppe (grazed 56 years). Grazing treatments included season-long grazing at heavy and light stocking rates, and non-grazed exclosures. Significantly higher soil C (0-30cm) was measured in...

  7. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  9. Biogas potential in Grasses from Wetlands; Biogaspotential hos vaatmarksgraes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marvin

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study has been to survey wetlands that are suitable for mowing and to analyze the biogas potential in the harvested grasses. A preformed investigation showed that there are suitable wetlands, which can be harvestable, namely those mowed formerly in traditional haymaking. The practice of traditional haymaking is dying out in Sweden today but there are several good reasons why it should to be reconsidered. Nature- and cultural values are obvious, also the unutilized energy in the grass. The suitable types of wetland that were specifically studied were the productive wetlands; meadow marshes and wet meadows. These wetlands are represented in the Swedish meadow- and pasture inventory database; (TUVA) and the Swedish national wetland inventory (VMI). Going through the databases showed that they largely complement each other. A geographical mapping was also carried out of wetlands in relation to areas of interest for the future establishment of biogas plants, so called 'hotspots'. The geographical survey shows that there is ample amount of grass from wetlands within a 30-kilometer radius that can supplement the plants main substrate, manure. The map layer Swedish Ground Cover Data (SMD) together with GIS software was used to analyze the extent of overgrowth for the older VMI objects in Uppsala County, with the result that half of the VMI objects are no longer of interest. They have become either woodland and bogs, or reed beds. There is very little information on wetland-grasses and methane production. Instead, a theory was evaluated regarding the possibility of transforming nutritional values for grass and sedges into biogas potentials. It was shown that this method does not capture the total biogas potential, but offers a minimum value that can be considered rather reliable. The energy transformation showed that late harvested grasses from wetlands has a biogas potential about 0,21 Nm3 methane/ (kg, DM) which is about 60 % of the biogas

  10. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. First quarterly report, June 1--August 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    Research was initiated on the intensive production of sugarcane and other tropical grasses as solar-dried forages. Greenhouse experiments designed to screen candidate clones and to evaluate growth curves were the first to get underway. Chemical growth control tests were also initiated. Plant materials at this stage consist of commercial sugarcane hybrids, progeny from the AES-UPR cane breeding program, Saccharum clones from the species officinarum, spontaneum, sinense, and robustum, Erianthus clones, a commercial tropical forage grass, napier grass, and forms of S. spontaneum plus Arundo donax growing wild in Puerto Rico. Initial stages of cane breeding and progeny selection for the high tonnage attribute were begun during August. Foliar tissue analyses for N, P, K, S, and Si were started together-with assays for acid invertase and other components of expanding stem tissue. The first field experiment was initiated during July at the semi-arid Lajas Substation. Four clones (three sugarcane hybrids plus napier grass var. Merker) are being evaluated incident to row spacing and harvest frequency in field-plots.

  11. Effect of ultrasound combined with determination of CA19-9 and hs-CRP on the accuracy of early diagnosis of gallbladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang-yu ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the value of ultrasound combined with tumor marker CA19-9 and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP on the accuracy of early diagnosis of gallbladder cancer. Methods  Ninety-five patients with pathologically confirmed primary gallbladder cancer who received cholecystectomy from Jan. 2008 to Jan. 2013 in our hospital were included in the study. The study also included 51 patients with benign cystic lesions and 51 healthy adults. In all patients, results of pathological examination, B-ultrasound, serum CA19-9 and hs-CRP detection were obtained. In all the healthy adults gallbladder diseases were ruled out, but all of them received serum CA19-9 and hs-CRP determination. Results  Of 95 patients with primary gallbladder cancer, B-ultrasound showed nodules in the gallbladder lumen in 31, tumor mass in 40, and thickened wall in 24. Histological examination showed adenocarcinoma in 87 cases, adenosquamous carcinoma in 6, and squamous carcinoma in 2. There was a statistical difference in hs-CRP and CA19-9 levels between the groups (P<0.05, and the highest level appeared in gallbladder cancer group. There was a high sensitivity but low specificity of CA19-9 or hs-CRP in the diagnosis of primary gallbladder cancer. The sensitivity and specificity were 74.7% and 75.0% when primary gallbladder cancer was diagnosed with B-ultrasound. The positive values of CA19-9 and hs-CRP were ≥100U/ml and ≥6mg/L respectively, when they were combined with B-ultrasound as a single serology factor. When both B-ultrasound and serum levels of CA19-9 and hs-CRP were positive, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 71.6% and 84.4% respectively. When B-ultrasound or serum CA19-9 and hs-CRP were positive, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 98.9% and 66.7% respectively. Conclusions  Combination of B-ultrasound and determination of serum of CA19-9 and hs-CRP can improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of gallbladder

  12. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  13. The association of hs-CRP with fasting and postprandial plasma lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes is disrupted by dietary monounsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetto, L; De Natale, C; Di Capua, L; Della Corte, G; Patti, L; Maione, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A; Annuzzi, G

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether two dietary approaches recommended for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular prevention-high-MUFA or complex carbohydrates/fiber-differently influence inflammation. A 4-week crossover study in 12 individuals with type 2 diabetes was performed. Fasting and postprandial hs-CRP plasma levels were not significantly different after a high-carbohydrate/high-fiber/low-glycemic index (CHO/fiber) and a high-MUFA diet. Compared with fasting, hs-CRP levels decreased significantly after the MUFA but not after the CHO/fiber meal. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins were significantly lower after the CHO/fiber than the MUFA diet. At fasting and postprandially, hs-CRP correlated with triglyceride in whole plasma, chylomicrons, small and large VLDL after the CHO/fiber but not after the MUFA diet. In conclusion, a MUFA-rich diet and a carbohydrate/fiber-rich diet induced similar effects on plasma hs-CRP concentrations. However, these dietary approaches seem to influence hs-CRP levels through different mechanisms. i.e., direct acute postprandial effects by MUFA and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins mediated effects by CHO/fiber.

  14. Investigating possible biological targets of Bj-CRP, the first cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodovicho, Marina E; Costa, Tássia R; Bernardes, Carolina P; Menaldo, Danilo L; Zoccal, Karina F; Carone, Sante E; Rosa, José C; Pucca, Manuela B; Cerni, Felipe A; Arantes, Eliane C; Tytgat, Jan; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Pereira-Crott, Luciana S; Sampaio, Suely V

    2017-01-04

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are commonly described as part of the protein content of snake venoms, nevertheless, so far, little is known about their biological targets and functions. Our study describes the isolation and characterization of Bj-CRP, the first CRISP isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, also aiming at the identification of possible targets for its actions. Bj-CRP was purified using three chromatographic steps (Sephacryl S-200, Source 15Q and C18) and showed to be an acidic protein of 24.6kDa with high sequence identity to other snake venom CRISPs. This CRISP was devoid of proteolytic, hemorrhagic or coagulant activities, and it did not affect the currents from 13 voltage-gated potassium channel isoforms. Conversely, Bj-CRP induced inflammatory responses characterized by increase of leukocytes, mainly neutrophils, after 1 and 4h of its injection in the peritoneal cavity of mice, also stimulating the production of IL-6. Bj-CRP also acted on the human complement system, modulating some of the activation pathways and acting directly on important components (C3 and C4), thus inducing the generation of anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a and C5a). Therefore, our results for Bj-CRP open up prospects for better understanding this class of toxins and its biological actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between CRP and TNF-α genes Variants and Cardiovascular Heart Disease in a Mexican Population: Protocol for a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmín Hernández-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The C-reactive protein (CRP and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α are considered markers of inflammation and have been shown to predict the risk of incident cardiovascular events. However, few studies have undertaken a comprehensive examination of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CRP and TNF-α genes; due to this, we will present a protocol study to evaluate the role of the CRP and TNF-α genes in Mexican individuals. Methods/design: we will perform a case-control study to explore the CRP and TNF-α genotype distribution as well as the serum influence of rs1800947, rs1130864, rs2794521 and rs1205 (polymorphisms of the CRP gene and rs361525, rs1800629, rs1799724, rs1800630, rs1799964 (of the TNF-α gene in Mexican individuals who present coronary artery disease. Ethics and dissemination: a written informed consent will be obtained from all the participating subjects. An article detailing the results of the study will be submitted for publication in an international peer-reviewed journal, in accordance with STROBE criteria.

  16. Evaluation of Hs-CRP levels and interleukin 18 (-137G/C) promoter polymorphism in risk prediction of coronary artery disease in first degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Rajesh Kumar; K, Mrudula Spurthi; G, Kishore Kumar; Kurapati, Mohanalatha; M, Saraswati; T, Mohini Aiyengar; P, Chiranjeevi; G, Srilatha Reddy; S, Nivas; P, Kaushik; K, Sanjib Sahu; H, Surekha Rani

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is clearly a multifactorial disease that develops from childhood and ultimately leads to death. Several reports revealed having a First Degree Relatives (FDRS) with premature CAD is a significant autonomous risk factor for CAD development. C - reactive protein (CRP) is a member of the pentraxin family and is the most widely studied proinflammatory biomarker. IL-18 is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine which is produced mainly by macrophages and plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade. Hs-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA and Genotyping of IL-18 gene variant located on promoter -137 (G/C) by Allele specific PCR in blood samples of 300 CAD patients and 300 controls and 100 FDRS. Promoter Binding sites and Protein interacting partners were identified by Alibaba 2.1 and Genemania online tools respectively. Hs-CRP levels were significantly high in CAD patients followed by FDRS when compared to controls. In IL-18 -137 (G/C) polymorphism homozygous GG is significantly associated with occurrence of CAD and Hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in GG genotype subjects when compared to GC and CC. IL-18 was found to be interacting with 100 protein interactants. Our results indicate that Hs-CRP levels and IL-18-137(G/C) polymorphism may help to identify risk of future events of CAD in asymptomatic healthy FDRS.

  17. Evaluation of Hs-CRP levels and interleukin 18 (-137G/C promoter polymorphism in risk prediction of coronary artery disease in first degree relatives.

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    Rajesh Kumar G

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is clearly a multifactorial disease that develops from childhood and ultimately leads to death. Several reports revealed having a First Degree Relatives (FDRS with premature CAD is a significant autonomous risk factor for CAD development. C - reactive protein (CRP is a member of the pentraxin family and is the most widely studied proinflammatory biomarker. IL-18 is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine which is produced mainly by macrophages and plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade.Hs-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA and Genotyping of IL-18 gene variant located on promoter -137 (G/C by Allele specific PCR in blood samples of 300 CAD patients and 300 controls and 100 FDRS. Promoter Binding sites and Protein interacting partners were identified by Alibaba 2.1 and Genemania online tools respectively. Hs-CRP levels were significantly high in CAD patients followed by FDRS when compared to controls. In IL-18 -137 (G/C polymorphism homozygous GG is significantly associated with occurrence of CAD and Hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in GG genotype subjects when compared to GC and CC. IL-18 was found to be interacting with 100 protein interactants.Our results indicate that Hs-CRP levels and IL-18-137(G/C polymorphism may help to identify risk of future events of CAD in asymptomatic healthy FDRS.

  18. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  19. Episodic evolution and adaptation of chloroplast genomes in ancestral grasses.

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    Bojian Zhong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the chloroplast genomes of the grass family, Poaceae, have undergone an elevated evolutionary rate compared to most other angiosperms, yet the details of this phenomenon have remained obscure. To know how the rate change occurred during evolution, estimation of the time-scale with reliable calibrations is needed. The recent finding of 65 Ma grass phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites places the diversification of the grasses to the Cretaceous period, and provides a reliable calibration in studying the tempo and mode of grass chloroplast evolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using chloroplast genome data from angiosperms and by taking account of new paleontological evidence, we now show that episodic rate acceleration both in terms of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions occurred in the common ancestral branch of the core Poaceae (a group formed by rice, wheat, maize, and their allies accompanied by adaptive evolution in several chloroplast proteins, while the rate reverted to the slow rate typical of most monocot species in the terminal branches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our finding of episodic rate acceleration in the ancestral grasses accompanied by adaptive molecular evolution has a profound bearing on the evolution of grasses, which form a highly successful group of plants. The widely used model for estimating divergence times was based on the assumption of correlated rates between ancestral and descendant lineages. However, the assumption is proved to be inadequate in approximating the episodic rate acceleration in the ancestral grasses, and the assumption of independent rates is more appropriate. This finding has implications for studies of molecular evolutionary rates and time-scale of evolution in other groups of organisms.

  20. DETERMINAÇÃO DOS NÍVEIS SÉRICOS DE PROTEÍNA C-REATIVA (CRP EM CÃES COM ALTERAÇÕES DOS PARÂMETROS HEMATOLÓGICOS

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    Deniz Anziliero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural immune response to infectious agents is partially mediated by a group of proteins named acute phase proteins; one of the major and most important proteins from the acute phase is the C-Reactive Protein (CRP. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between alterations on white blood cell counts (WBC and the presence of circulating CRP. Blood samples from 70 dogs were submitted to hematological examination and detection of CRP; in addition, blood samples from 12 dogs experimentally inoculated with an inactivated sample of Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 7468 were also analyzed. According to the hematological parameters and CRP values, the samples were classified in 5 different groups: group A dogs without CRP and normal WBC; group B dogs with elevated levels of CRP but normal WBC; group C dogs with elevated CRP values and altered WBC (neutrophilia and leukocytosis; group D dogs with both CRP and increased neutrophils values; and group E dogs with elevated CRP values but with leukopenia. Dogs experimentally inoculated with M. luteus had a significant and promt increase in CRP values between 24 and 48 hr p.i., which declined up to the 10th day when the experiment was completed. In these dogs, a discrete neutrophilia and leukocytosis was observed coincidently with the CRP elevation. Thus, it can be suggested that the detection of CRP in the blood of dogs should be used as an indication of an infection or inflammation and, because of the low amount of blood needed, low cost and easiness to perform the test, monitoring CRP levels might be useful to evaluate the recovery from an infection disease.

  1. Natural geo-composites for grassing of eroded and degraded lands

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    Kroumov Victor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Original, natural grass geocomposites (sods were developed on the basis of combination from unstuffy, needle-drive textile material, geo-net and soil-manure-peat or peat with grass cover from grass mixtures. The natural grass geocomposites have the next priorities: quickly grassing and reinforcing of eroded and degraded terrains; large uniformity and compactness of grass cove; long exploiting period; grassing of terrains with big slopes where the mechanization is difficult to use; the articles are with low mass, small thickness and high stability; they limit the growing of weed. The natural grass geocomposites are intend for control of soil erosion and reconstruction of natural landshaft. They can to reinforce ditches, grass collectors, side of the road slopes, as well as lay out lawn, parks, stadiums, ski racing tourist's beauty spot, etc.

  2. Job strain associated CRP is mediated by leisure time physical activity: results from the MONICA/KORA study.

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    Emeny, Rebecca; Lacruz, Marie-Elena; Baumert, Jens; Zierer, Astrid; von Eisenhart Rothe, Alexander; Autenrieth, Christine; Herder, Christian; Koenig, Wolfgang; Thorand, Barbara; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2012-10-01

    Psychological stress at work is considered a cardiac risk factor, yet whether it acts directly through neuroimmune processes, or indirectly by increasing behavioral risk factors, is uncertain. Cross-sectional associations between job strain and serum biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were investigated. Secondary analyses explored the role of psychosocial/cardiometabolic risk factors as mediators of job stress associated inflammation in healthy workers. Information on risk factors was obtained in standardized personal interviews of a subcohort of working participants in the MONICA/KORA population (n = 951). Work stress was measured by the Karasek job strain index. Biomarkers were measured from non-fasting venous blood. Multivariate regression analyses were used to examine the association of job strain with inflammatory biomarkers. Mediation analysis (Sobel test) was used to determine the effect of psychosocial risk factors on the association between job strain and C-reactive protein (CRP). High job strain was reported by half (n = 482, 50.7%) of the study participants. While workers with high job strain were more likely to have adverse workplace conditions (competition with coworkers, job dissatisfaction and insecurity), sleeping problems, depressive symptoms, a Type A personality, and be physically inactive, no differences in cardiometabolic risk factors were detected. A strong and robust association between job strain and CRP was observed in age and sex adjusted models, as well as models adjusted for classic coronary heart disease risk factors (β = 0.39, p = 0.006 and β = 0.27, p = 0.03, respectively). Adjustment for physical activity abrogated this effect (β = 0.23, p = 0.07), and a mediating effect of physical activity on stress-associated inflammation was demonstrated (p = 0.04). The analyses provide evidence for both a direct and an indirect effect of job strain on inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The isolation and characterization of a Neurospora crassa gene (ubi::crp-6) encoding a ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, K A; Anumula, K R; Free, S J

    1994-09-15

    We have isolated and sequenced a Neurospora crassa gene encoding a single copy of ubiquitin (UBI) fused to the S27a ribosomal (r) protein. We have opted to name this gene the ubiquitin/cytoplasmic r-protein gene 6 (ubi::crp-6). The ubi::crp-6 gene generates a 700-nucleotide (nt) transcript. It shares a 700-bp regulatory region with the cytoplasmic r-protein gene 5 (crp-5), a gene encoding the N. crassa S26 r-protein. The two genes are transcribed divergently from the common regulatory region and their mRNA levels are regulated in parallel during growth on a variety of carbon sources.

  4. The expression of VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 proteins regulating endometrial remodeling in the porcine endometrial tissues during follicular and luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyung; Lee, Sang-Hee; Yang, Boo-Keun; Park, Choon-Keun

    2017-09-01

    Endometrial remodeling is important for successful embryo development and implantation in pigs. Therefore, this study investigated change of proteins regulating endometrial remodeling on follicular and luteal phase in porcine endometrial tissues. The endometrial tissue samples were collected from porcine uterus during follicular and luteal phase, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), myoglobin and cysteine-rich protein 2 (CRP2) proteins were expressed by immnofluorescence, immunoblotting, and determined by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/MS. We found that VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 were strongly localized in endometrial tissues during luteal phase, but not follicular phase. The protein levels of VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 in endometrial tissues were higher than luteal phase (P < 0.05). These results may provide understanding of intrauterine environment during estrous cycle in pigs, and will be used in animal reproduction for developing specific biomarkers in the future. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa; Laursen, Mette K; Andersen, Jens S; Sørensen, Helle F; Klink, Rabih

    2017-07-06

    Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet significantly reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms or using asthma medication at the end of trial (odds ratio = 0.66, P year posttreatment follow-up, and during the entire 5-year trial period. Also, grass allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were 22% to 30% reduced (P years). At the end of the trial, the use of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis pharmacotherapy was significantly less (27% relative difference to placebo, P < .001). Total IgE, grass pollen-specific IgE, and skin prick test reactivity to grass pollen were all reduced compared to placebo. Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms and using asthma medication, and had a positive, long-term clinical effect on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use but did not show an effect on the time to onset of asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

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    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  7. Differences in grass pollen allergen exposure across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul J.; Katelaris, Constance H.; Medek, Danielle; Johnston, Fay H.; Burton, Pamela K.; Campbell, Bradley; Jaggard, Alison K.; Vicendese, Don; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Erbas, Bircan; Green, Brett J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Newbigin, Ed; Haberle, Simon G.; Davies, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are important chronic diseases posing serious public health issues in Australia with associated medical, economic, and societal burdens. Pollen are significant sources of clinically relevant outdoor aeroallergens, recognised as both a major trigger for, and cause of, allergic respiratory diseases. This study aimed to provide a national, and indeed international, perspective on the state of Australian pollen data using a large representative sample. Methods Atmospheric grass pollen concentration is examined over a number of years within the period 1995 to 2013 for Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, and Sydney, including determination of the ‘clinical’ grass pollen season and grass pollen peak. Results The results of this study describe, for the first time, a striking spatial and temporal variability in grass pollen seasons in Australia, with important implications for clinicians and public health professionals, and the Australian grass pollen-allergic community. Conclusions These results demonstrate that static pollen calendars are of limited utility and in some cases misleading. This study also highlights significant deficiencies and limitations in the existing Australian pollen monitoring and data. Implications Establishment of an Australian national pollen monitoring network would help facilitate advances in the clinical and public health management of the millions of Australians with asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:25648730

  8. Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

  9. Silicified structures affect leaf optical properties in grasses and sedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klančnik, Katja; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Gaberščik, Alenka

    2014-01-05

    Silicon (Si) is an important structural element that can accumulate at high concentrations in grasses and sedges, and therefore Si structures might affect the optical properties of the leaves. To better understand the role of Si in light/leaf interactions in species rich in Si, we examined the total Si and silica phytoliths, the biochemical and morphological leaf properties, and the reflectance and transmittance spectra in grasses (Phragmites australis, Phalaris arundinacea, Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia cespitosa) and sedge (Carex elata). We show that these grasses contain >1% phytoliths per dry mass, while the sedge contains only 0.4%. The data reveal the variable leaf structures of these species and significant differences in the amount of Si and phytoliths between developing and mature leaves within each species and between grasses and sedge, with little difference seen among the grass species. Redundancy analysis shows the significant roles of the different near-surface silicified leaf structures (e.g., prickle hairs, cuticle, epidermis), phytoliths and Si contents, which explain the majority of the reflectance and transmittance spectra variability. The amount of explained variance differs between mature and developing leaves. The transmittance spectra are also significantly affected by chlorophyll a content and calcium levels in the leaf tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphogenetical, structural and access to productive buffel grass

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    José Armando de Sousa Moreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the buffel grass is so important to the productive systems in the semiarid Brazilian studies with this forage are still scarce and diffused, so this experiment was conducted to evaluate the morphogenesis, structural and productive six accessions of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. belonging to the active germplasm bank (BAG Embrapa semiarid. The experiment was conducted at the Department of Technology and Social Sciences (DTCS University of Bahia (UNEB, from December 2008 to January 2009. The experimental design was completely randomized with six accessions of buffel grass (Tanzania, Pusa Giant, Aridus, Buchuma, Iran and Biloela and five replicates, totaling 30 experimental units. Regarding the results, the accessions differed significantly in most variables, especially in morphogenetic and structural variables. It was observed that the buffel grass provides a mean rate of appearance of one sheet every four days in each tiller, with a lifetime of sheet 17 days, keeping ten per tiller. Although they found morphogenetic and structural differences between accessions of buffel grass they did not affect the production parameters.

  11. Use of a computerized C-reactive protein (CRP based sepsis evaluation in very low birth weight (VLBW infants: a five-year experience.

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    Sarah A Coggins

    Full Text Available Serial C-reactive protein (CRP values may be useful for decision-making regarding duration of antibiotics in neonates. However, established standard of practice for its use in preterm very low birth weight (<1500 g, VLBW infants are lacking.Evaluate compliance with a CRP-guided computerized decision support (CDS algorithm and compare characteristics and outcomes of compliant versus non-compliant cases. Measure correlation between CRPs and white blood count (WBC indices.We examined 3 populations: 1 all preterm VLBW infants born at Vanderbilt 2006-2011 - we assessed provider compliance with CDS algorithm and measured relevant outcomes; 2 all patients with positive blood culture results admitted to the Vanderbilt NICU 2006-2012 - we tested the correlation between CRP and WBC results within 7 days of blood culture phlebotomy; 3 1,000 randomly selected patients out of the 7,062 patients admitted to the NICU 2006-2012 - we correlated time-associated CRP values and absolute neutrophil counts.Of 636 VLBW infants in cohort 1, 569 (89% received empiric antibiotics for suspected early-onset sepsis. In 409 infants (72% the CDS algorithm was followed; antibiotics were discontinued ≤48 hours in 311 (55% with normal serial CRPs and continued in 98 (17% with positive CRPs, resulting in significant reduction in antibiotic exposure (p<0.001 without increase in complications or subsequent infections. One hundred sixty (28% were considered non-compliant because antibiotics were continued beyond 48 hours despite negative serial CRPs and blood cultures. Serial CRPs remained negative in 38 (12% of 308 blood culture-positive infants from cohort 2, but only 4 patients had clinically probable sepsis with single organisms and no immunodeficiency besides extreme prematurity. Leukopenia of any cell type was not linked with CRPs in cohorts 2 and 3.CDS/CRP-guided antibiotic use is safe and effective in culture-negative VLBW infants. CRP results are not affected by low WBC

  12. The role of gene variants of the inflammatory markers CRP and TNF-α in cardiovascular heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Yazmín; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Juárez-Rojop, Isela; Baños-González, Manuel Alfonso; Torres-Hernández, Manuel Eduardo; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Yañez-Rivera, Teresa Guadalupe; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that cardiovascular heart disease (CHD) has a genetic influence. Several studies have investigated the role of inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the causation of cardiovascular diseases. Although there have been several positive studies associating CRP and TNF-α genes with CHD, the evidence is not entirely consistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to gain a better understanding into this issue. The meta-analysis was conducted with 22 articles of genetic association studies of CRP (G1059C rs1800947, C1444T rs1130864, C717T rs2794521 and G3872A rs1205) and TNF-α (C857T rs1799724, C863A rs1800630 and T1031C rs1799964) genes. To analyze the association of these variants with CHD we used the following models: allelic, additive, dominant and recessive. In addition, we performed a sub-group analysis by Caucasian population using the same four models. CRP and TNF-α gene polymorphisms showed a positive significant association with CHD. This study provides evidence that rs2794521 of the CRP gene and rs1799724, rs1800630 and rs1799964 of the TNF-α gene polymorphisms may be risk factors to manifest CHD. The analysis of rs1800947 and rs1205 of the CRP gene yielded a protective effect in the pathogenesis of this disease. Only the analysis of the rs1130864 polymorphism showed a lack of association with CHD. To have conclusive outcomes it is necessary to integrate more studies to confirm our findings.

  13. Physiological roles of ArcA, Crp, and EtrA and their interactive control on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Xiaohu; Yang, Zamin K; Chen, Jingrong; Liang, Yili; Chen, Haijiang; Palzkill, Timothy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-12-28

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, genes encoding the global regulators ArcA, Crp, and EtrA have been identified. All these proteins deviate from their counterparts in E. coli significantly in terms of functionality and regulon. It is worth investigating the involvement and relationship of these global regulators in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis. In this study, the impact of the transcriptional factors ArcA, Crp, and EtrA on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis were assessed. While all these proteins appeared to be functional in vivo, the importance of individual proteins in these two major biological processes differed. The ArcA transcriptional factor was critical in aerobic respiration while the Crp protein was indispensible in anaerobic respiration. Using a newly developed reporter system, it was found that expression of arcA and etrA was not influenced by growth conditions but transcription of crp was induced by removal of oxygen. An analysis of the impact of each protein on transcription of the others revealed that Crp expression was independent of the other factors whereas ArcA repressed both etrA and its own transcription while EtrA also repressed arcA transcription. Transcriptional levels of arcA in the wild type, crp, and etrA strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions were further validated by quantitative immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against ArcA. This extensive survey demonstrated that all these three global regulators are functional in S. oneidensis. In addition, the reporter system constructed in this study will facilitate in vivo transcriptional analysis of targeted promoters.

  14. The use of food waste-based diets and Napier grass to culture grass carp: growth performance and contaminants contained in cultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Choi, Wai-Ming; Man, Yu-Bon; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The present study used commercial feeds, food waste feeds, Napier grass, and mixed feeds (food waste feed to Napier grass ratio, 1:10) to feed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The results indicated that grass carp fed with food waste feeds and mix feeds achieved growth performance (based on specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio) that was similar to commercial feeds (p > 0.05). Concentrations of metalloid/metals in food waste feeds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Napier grass were relatively higher than other types of fish feeds (p  0.05). These findings show that food waste feeds are suitable for using in the production of fish feed and Napier grass can be served as supplemental feeds for grass carp, and hence reducing the production cost.

  15. The impact of diurnal fasting during Ramadan on the lipid profile, hs-CRP, and serum leptin in stable cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafaji, Hadi Abdul Ridha Hadi; Bener, Abdulbari; Osman, Mohammed; Al Merri, Ajayeb; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of strict prolonged fasting on lipid profile, serum leptin, and high- sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with different stable cardiac illnesses and look for associated new cardiac events and any correlation between entire variables. A total of 56 patients of different stable cardiac illnesses were followed in our cardiology outpatient for 3 months. Data concerning their ability to fast were collected: New York Heart Association class of congestive cardiac failure, angina class, previous myocardial infarction, previous coronary artery bypass graft, percutaneous coronary intervention, severity of valvular lesion, metallic prosthetic valve, and traditional risk factors (diabetes mellitus, insulin requirement, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking habit, and obesity). Detailed clinical examination and electrocardiography were performed in all patients in three consecutive visits before, during, and after Ramadan. Echocardiographic and angiographic findings and medication plans were collected from patient records. Lipid profile, serum leptin, and hs-CRP were assessed before, during, and after Ramadan. All patients fasted during Ramadan: 80.4% were male, 67.9% were aged >50 years, 71.4% had no change in their symptoms during fasting while 28.6% felt better. No patient has deteriorated. 91.1% of the patients were compliant with medicine during Ramadan, 73.2% after. 89.3% were compliant with diet during Ramadan with no significant change in body weight in the follow-up period. No cardiac or noncardiac morbidity or mortality was reported. High- density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased significantly during compared to before fasting (P = 0.012). Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) significantly increased during compared to before fasting (P = 0.022). No statistically significant changes were observed in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), serum leptin, or hs-CRP. Significant correlation was observed between

  16. There Is No Further Gain from Calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints with High Sensitivity Assays of C-Reactive Protein Because of High Intraindividual Variability of CRP: A Cross Sectional Study and Theoretical Consideration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie; Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; Antonsen, Steen

    Background/Purpose: The threshold for reporting of C-reactive protein (CRP) differs from laboratory to laboratory. Moreover, CRP values are affected by the intra individual biological variability.[1] With respect to disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), precise...... to the biological variation and reporting limit for CRP and a cross sectional study of all RA patients from our department (n=876) applying our theoretical results. In the second section, we calculate DAS28 twice with actual CRP and CRP=9, the latter to elucidate the positive consequences of changing the lower...... reporting limit for CRP to minimumRA were included, 107 excluded due to missing parameter used...

  17. There Is No Further Gain from Calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints with High Sensitivity Assays of C-Reactive Protein Because of High Intraindividual Variability of CRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie; Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; Antonsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose: The threshold for reporting of C-reactive protein (CRP) differs from laboratory to laboratory. Moreover, CRP values are affected by the intra individual biological variability.[1] With respect to disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), precise...... to the biological variation and reporting limit for CRP and a cross sectional study of all RA patients from our department (n=876) applying our theoretical results. In the second section, we calculate DAS28 twice with actual CRP and CRP=9, the latter to elucidate the positive consequences of changing the lower...... reporting limit for CRP to minimumRA were included, 107 excluded due to missing parameter used...

  18. Radiocaesium in soil, grass and lamb at Ribe[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-12-01

    The {sup 137}Cs concentrations found in soil, grass and lamb during 1998-2000 follow the declining tren seen from previous years. The values have been compared with the corresponding levels predicted from model calculation. The results observed during 1998-2000 of {sup 137}Cs in soil, grass and lamb in Denmark at the Ribe site are in good agreement with values predicted by model calculations. The {sup 129}I results from the Ribe site show an average concentration of 1.3 Bg kg{sup -1} in lamb's thyroids and 1.3 mBq kg{sup -1} in grass. Studies in Nordic and North European countries indicate that environmental {sup 129}I is due to atmospheric emissions and discharges to sea from the reprocessing plants Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. (au)

  19. Lemon grass oil for improvement of oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckmani Rajesvari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon grass essential oil has been used for decades to treat respiratory infections, sinusitis, bladder infections, high cholesterol, digestive problem, varicose veins and also for regeneration of connective tissue. It has anti spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, insect repellent, sedative, vasodilator and flavoring properties. In china, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver diseases and also to treat rheumatism. Since lemon grass oil possess various pharmacological actions, it is also quite useful in dentistry. Hence, the objective of this article is to highlight various uses of lemon grass oil in the dental field and in the medical field in order to aid the professionals for future research.

  20. Penetrating palpebral grass awn in a dog: Unusual case of a penetrating grass awn in an eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchegiani, Andrea; Fruganti, Alessandro; Cerquetella, Matteo; Cassarani, Maria Paola; Laus, Fulvio; Spaterna, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    An unusual case of a penetrating grass awn in an eyelid of a dog is reported. A 6-month-old mixed breed dog was referred to the Ophthalmology Unit of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Camerino University for anorexia, lethargy, left monolateral ocular swelling and pain to the left eye, present from 1 month. Ophthalmic examination of the left eye showed copious and purulent discharge, and ultrasonography revealed the presence of an abscess containing a grass foreign body. The grass awn was surgically removed. Three days after surgery, the dog showed a marked improvement, with a total resolution obtained in 7 days. To the authors' knowledge, penetrating foreign bodies such as the one of this paper have never been described before in literature.

  1. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...... compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial......, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...

  2. IAEA CRP on HTGR Uncertainties in Modeling: Assessment of Phase I Lattice to Core Model Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouxelin, Pascal Nicolas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    II 1a. The steady state core calculations were simulated with the INL coupled-code system known as the Parallel and Highly Innovative Simulation for INL Code System (PHISICS) and the system thermal-hydraulics code known as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP) 5 3D using the nuclear data libraries previously generated with NEWT. It was observed that significant differences in terms of multiplication factor and neutron flux exist between the various permutations of the Phase I super-cell lattice calculations. The use of these cross section libraries only leads to minor changes in the Phase II core simulation results for fresh fuel but shows significantly larger discrepancies for spent fuel cores. Furthermore, large incongruities were found between the SCALE NEWT and KENO VI results for the super cells, and while some trends could be identified, a final conclusion on this issue could not yet be reached. This report will be revised in mid 2016 with more detailed analyses of the super-cell problems and their effects on the core models, using the latest version of SCALE (6.2). The super-cell models seem to show substantial improvements in terms of neutron flux as compared to single-block models, particularly at thermal energies.

  3. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for grass nutrient estimations in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available at various scales such as local, regional and global scale. Traditional field techniques to measure grass nutrient concentration have been reported to be laborious and time consuming. Remote sensing techniques provide opportunity to map grass nutrient...

  4. Modelling nutrient concentration to determine the environmental factors influencing grass quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial and the least squares (Analysis of Covariance-ANCOVA) regression methods to evaluate the important environmental factors in estimating quality grass for grazing (based on the nitrogen (N) content in grass...

  5. Integrating environmental and in situ hyperspectral remote sensing variables for grass nitrogen estimation in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about the distribution of grass nitrogen (N) concentration is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. A challenge in estimating grass N concentration using remote...

  6. Effect of fire and grazing on invasive species in northern mixed grass prairie

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive plants pose a threat to pristine and natural mixed grass prairie so managers seek to control them. On the basis of experience in the tall grass prairie,...

  7. Hoosier Farmland Wildlife Notes: Warm Season Grasses, Why All the Fuss?

    OpenAIRE

    MacGowan, Brian J.

    2001-01-01

    Many wildlife professionals are encouraging landowners to include planting warm season grasses in their wildlife management plans. The purpose of this publication is to describe the many benefits of warm season grasses, especially their benefits to wildlife.

  8. Soy Protein Intake, Cardiovascular Risks, CRP-Level and Kidney Function Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few reports regarding the effect of long-term soy protein consumption among type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of soy consumption for a long period of time on cardiovascular risks, C-reactive protein (CRP and kidney function indexes among type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Materials & Methods: This long-term randomized clinical trial was conducted among 41 type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy (18 men and 23 women. Twenty patients in the soy protein group consumed a diet containing 0.8 g protein/kg body weight (35% animal proteins, 35% textured soy protein, and 30% vegetable proteins and 21 patients in the control group consumed a similar diet containing 70% animal proteins and 30% vegetable proteins for 4 years. Results: Soy protein consumption significantly improved cardiovascular risks such as fasting plasma glucose (mean change in the soy protein versus control groups: −18 ± 3 vs. 11 ± 2 mg/dl; P = 0.03, total cholesterol (−23 ± 5 vs. 10 ± 3 mg/dl; P = 0.01, LDL cholesterol (−20 ± 5 vs. 6 ± 2 mg/dl; P = 0.01, triglyceride (−24 ± 6 vs. −5 ± 2 mg/dl; P = 0.01 and serum CRP (1.31 ± 0.6 vs. 0.33 ± 0.1 mg/l; P = 0.02 concentrations. Significant reductions were also seen in proteinuria (−0.15 ± 0.03 vs. 0.02 ± 0.01 g/day; P = 0.001 and urinary creatinine (−1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/dl, P = 0.01 by consumption of soy protein. Conclusion: Long-term soy protein consumption has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors and kidney-related biomarkers among type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy

  9. Selenium Supplementation Affects Insulin Resistance and Serum hs-CRP in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhian, A; Bahmani, F; Taghizadeh, M; Mirhashemi, S M; Aarabi, M H; Raygan, F; Aghadavod, E; Asemi, Z

    2016-04-01

    To our knowledge, this study is the first indicating the effects of selenium supplementation on metabolic status of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD). This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of selenium supplementation on metabolic profiles, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress of patients with T2DM and CHD. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed among 60 patients with T2DM and CHD aged 40-85 years. Participants were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A received 200 μg selenium supplements (n=30) and group B received placebo per day (n=30) for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study and after 8-week intervention to quantify metabolic profiles. After 8 weeks, compared with the placebo, selenium supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (- 2.2±4.6 vs. + 3.6±8.4 μIU/ml, p=0.001), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (- 0.7±1.3 vs. + 0.9±2.4, p=0.004), homeostatic model assessment-beta cell function (HOMA-B) (- 7.5±17.2 vs. + 15.1±34.5, p=0.002) and a significant increase in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+0.01±0.03 vs. - 0.01±0.03, p=0.02). In addition, patients who received selenium supplements had a significant reduction in serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (- 1 372.3±2 318.8 vs. - 99.8±1 453.6 ng/ml, p=0.01) and a significant rise in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) concentrations (+ 301.3±400.6 vs. - 127.2±428.0 mmol/l, pselenium supplementation among patients with T2DM and CHD resulted in a significant decrease in insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, serum hs-CRP, and a significant increase in QUICKI score and TAC concentrations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Randomiseret, kontrolleret undersøgelse af anvendelsen af CRP-hurtigtest som vejledning ved behandlingen af luftvejsinfektioner i almen praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, H Z; Skamling, M; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2001-01-01

    The aim was to assess whether the frequency of antibiotic prescriptions to patients with respiratory infections is reduced when general practitioners (GPs) use a CRP rapid test to support their clinical assessment, and to examine whether the use of the test would have any effect on the course...

  11. The influence of statin treatment on the inflammatory biomarkers YKL-40 and HsCRP in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Naja Dam; Harutyunyan, Marina J; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 is elevated and associated with mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim was to investigate the influence of statin treatment and lipid status on serum YKL-40 and Hs-CRP in patients with stable CAD. DESIGN: Serum YKL-40,...

  12. Associations of Trauma Severity with Mean Platelet Volume and Levels of Systemic Inflammatory Markers (IL1β, IL6, TNFα, and CRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Alper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the associations of injury severity scores (ISSs with the mean platelet volume, the serum levels of two interleukins (IL1β and IL6, and the serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα and C-reactive protein (CRP. We sought to identify biochemical parameters that could be used as components of a new biochemical parameter-based ISS system. The levels of CRP, TNFα, IL1β, and IL6 differed significantly (all p values 0.05. The TNFα and IL6 levels were useful for determining the severity of injury, and the CRP level was elevated in all trauma patients but did not correlate with the ISS. The IL1β level was higher in the study group but did not increase as the ISS increased. IL6 and TNFα levels were higher in the study group and increased as the ISS increased. We found no significant difference between the trauma group and healthy individuals in terms of MPV values. IL6 and TNFα levels can be used to assess trauma severity. However, neither the MPV nor the CRP or IL1β level is useful for this purpose.

  13. Associations of Trauma Severity with Mean Platelet Volume and Levels of Systemic Inflammatory Markers (IL1β, IL6, TNFα, and CRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Baris; Erdogan, Baris; Erdogan, Mehmet Özgür; Bozan, Korkut; Can, Murat

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the associations of injury severity scores (ISSs) with the mean platelet volume, the serum levels of two interleukins (IL1β and IL6), and the serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and C-reactive protein (CRP). We sought to identify biochemical parameters that could be used as components of a new biochemical parameter-based ISS system. The levels of CRP, TNFα, IL1β, and IL6 differed significantly (all p values ISSs (p > 0.05). The TNFα and IL6 levels were useful for determining the severity of injury, and the CRP level was elevated in all trauma patients but did not correlate with the ISS. The IL1β level was higher in the study group but did not increase as the ISS increased. IL6 and TNFα levels were higher in the study group and increased as the ISS increased. We found no significant difference between the trauma group and healthy individuals in terms of MPV values. IL6 and TNFα levels can be used to assess trauma severity. However, neither the MPV nor the CRP or IL1β level is useful for this purpose.

  14. Proinsulin, adiponectin and hsCRP in reproductive age women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)--the effect of metformin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Jeske, Wojciech; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often suffer from obesity and insulin resistance. The role of proinsulin, which is known to be an indicator of fertility outcomes in PCOS women, and that of adiponectin, in the pathogenesis of PCOS is not well elucidated. Our objective was to determine proinsulin, adiponectin, hsCRP and other hormonal and metabolic parameters in PCOS women before and after metformin treatment. Two PCOS groups of patients of reproductive age (90 lean and 88 obese or overweight) with two control groups, adjusted for body mass index (BMI), were compared at baseline. 32 PCOS women were studied at baseline, after three and six months of metformin (1,000 mg/day) treatment. Clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal parameters were assessed. Proinsulin and hsCRP levels were the highest in obese PCOS women and were statistically different than in lean PCOS women (proinsulin: 11.4 v. 6.9 pmol/L; hsCRP 2.46 v. 0.47 mg/L, p treatment only in obese PCOS women. PCOS, when accompanied by obesity, is associated with elevated proinsulin concentrations, which correlates with higher hsCRP and increased FAI. Proinsulin level decreases due to metformin treatment. Our results suggest that obese or overweight PCOS and lean PCOS are characterised by different hormonal and metabolic parameters and have a different response to metformin treatment.

  15. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Saroj; Jain, Anand K.; Mehta, Swaroop C.; Tonpay, Shrinivas D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice administra...

  16. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari Saroj; Jain Anand; Mehta Swaroop; Tonpay Shrinivas

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice admi...

  17. Magnitude of efficacy measurements in grass allergy immunotherapy trials is highly dependent on pollen exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, S R; Nelson, H. S.; Nolte, H.; Bernstein, D I; Creticos, P S; Li, Z; Andersen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate the association between grass pollen exposure, allergy symptoms and impact on measured treatment effect after grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet treatment. Methods The association between grass pollen counts and total combined rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and medication score (TCS) was based on a post hoc analysis of data collected over six trials and seven grass pollen seasons across North America and Europe, including 2363 subjects treated w...

  18. Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon Visser; Wilson, John R.U.; Kim Canavan; Susan Canavan; Lyn Fish; David Le Maitre; Ingrid Nänni; Caroline Mashau; Tim O’Connor; Philip Ivey; Sabrina Kumschick; Richardson, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In many countries around the world, the most damaging invasive plant species are grasses. However, the status of grass invasions in South Africa has not been documented recently. Objectives: To update Sue Milton’s 2004 review of grasses as invasive alien plants in South Africa, provide the first detailed species level inventory of alien grasses in South Africa and assess the invasion dynamics and management of the group. Method: We compiled the most comprehensive inventory of alie...

  19. Hilly grasses and leaves: a promising unconventional feed resource for livestock.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain M.E.; Karim M.H.; Ahmed M.I.; Sultana S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different hilly grasses and leaves available in Bandarban areas of Bangladesh. Total 10 different hilly grasses and leaves such as Bottle gourd leaf (Lagenaria siceraria), Castor bean leaf (Ricinus communis), Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica), Dhol kolmi (Ipomoea carnea), Giant reed leaf (Arundo donax), Hilly grass (Cynodon dactylon), Pithraj leaf (Aphanamixis polystachya), Sal leaf (Shorea robusta), Shegun leaf (Tectona grandis...

  20. Ultra-Sensitive C-Reactive Protein (US-CRP) in Patients With Periodontal Disease and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriza, Catalina Latorre; Arregoces, Francina Escobar; Porras, Juliana Velosa; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Ferro; Morales, Alvaro Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine if the US-CRP values associated with periodontal disease are risk markers for Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and to determine if the US-CRP levels associated with recent AMI are higher in patients with Periodontal disease. Methods In order to meet the goal of the study, a case control study design was conducted. The analysis sample consisted of 401 adults (30 - 75 years old), living in Bogota D.C., Colombia, from the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, the Faculty of Dentistry at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, and the Fundacion Cardio Infantil. Patients with current infections, antibiotic use in the last 3 months, periodontal treatment at least six months before the baseline of this study, mouth ulcerations caused by any type of prosthesis, candidiasis, stomatitis, or less than 7 teeth in mouth were excluded. Periodontal examination for the case group and the control group was conducted by three previously calibrated examiners. Periodontal disease was diagnosed by the presence of bleeding on probing and attachment loss. The Chronic Periodontitis diagnosis was confirmed with these clinical signs, according to the 1999 Armitage classification. The assessment of the US-CRP was performed using the IMMULITE method containing one monoclonal and one polyclonal anti-CRP antibody. This method provides a measurement range of 0.1 - 500 mg/L. Statistical analysis of variables was performed with OR and confidence intervals. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the association between the US-CRP increase, periodontal disease and acute myocardial infarction, adjusting for smoking and other confounding factors identified in the analysis. Results The study population was constituted by 401 patients, 56.1% (225) males, with a mean age of 52.6. When groups were compared it was observed that, in those patients with AMI and chronic severe or moderate periodontitis, 24.2% had HDL-C values lower than 40 mg

  1. The College Readiness Program: A Program for Third World Students at the College of San Mateo, California. The Study of Collegiate Compensatory Programs for Minority Group Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopate, Carol

    This report describes the two and one-half year history of the College Readiness Program (CRP) at the College of San Mateo in California. The program aimed at increasing the number of Third World students in the College and insuring that, once admitted, these students would be given necessary financial, emotional and academic backing to succeed…

  2. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  3. Bacterial community associated with ensilage process of wilted guinea grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, S; Nishino, N

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of wilting, storage period and bacterial inoculant on the bacterial community and ensiling fermentation of guinea grass silage. Fermentation products, colony counts and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles were determined. There was more lactic acid than acetic acid in all silages, but the lactic acid to acetic acid ratio decreased with storage time. This shift from lactic to acetic acid was not prevented even with a combination of wilting and bacterial inoculant. The DGGE analyses suggest that facultatively heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus) were involved in the shift to acetic acid fermentation. Lactic acid can dominate the fermentation in tropical grass silage with sufficient wilting prior to ensiling. Prolonged storage may lead to high levels of acetic acid without distinctive changes in the bacterial community. The bacterial community looks stable compared to fermentation products over the course of long storage periods in tropical grass silage. Acetic acid fermentation in tropical grass silage can be a result of the changes in bacterial metabolism rather than community structure.

  4. Reed canary grass: from production to end use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea - RCG) is a lignocellulosic perennial crop that is carbon-efficient in terms of sequestration and nutrient recycling, and grows well on land that is marginal for food and feed production. Therefore, it can help deliver sustainable bioenergy without impacting f...

  5. Effect of maturity on the mineral content of Columbus grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in Naivasha, Kenya over a period of 15 weeks to determine the effect of maturity on mineral content in Columbus grass (Sorghum almum). Immediately after field preparation, representative soil samples were taken for mineral profiling. Thereafter, 60 plots 2 x 2 sq. m size were demarcated and ...

  6. Adaptation of a decreaser and an increaser grass species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses have developed through natural selection to deter, escape and tolerate herbivory, and to escape and tolerate fire. In the semi-arid grassveld of the Eastern Cape, the species Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus have been classified as Decreaser and Increaser II plants respectively. Both species have ...

  7. Short Communication: Habitat preferences of twenty-three grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some grass species occur more frequently in certain habitats than in others, but uncertainty as to exactly which factors are responsible for this phenomenon exist. Species composition as well as habitat data were collected from plots situated on the mild slopes of the study area, and the data were analysed by means of a ...

  8. Canonical correlations in elephant grass for energy purposes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elephant grass has the potential to be used as a source for energy production. Besides dry matter yield, other characteristics related to biomass quality are important. The canonic correlation analysis is a multivariate statistical procedure that allows for discovering characteristic associations among groups. The objective of ...

  9. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, van der R.T.; Alvim Kamei, C.L.; Torres Salvador, A.F.; Vermerris, W.; Dolstra, O.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the

  10. Genetic variability and relationship between MT-1 elephant grass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indicate that the MT-1 and Mott have a closest genetic relationship; Huanan and N51 possess a relatively close relationship, and Guimu-1 is the most distinct from the other four cultivars. [Xie X-M., Zhou F., Zhang X-Q. and Zhang J-M. 2009 Genetic variability and relationship between MT-1 elephant grass and closely related.

  11. Identification of Radical Scavengers in Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.

    2002-01-01

    Extracts from aerial parts of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) were active DPPH free radical scavengers, The active compounds were detected in extract fractions using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After multistep fractionation of the extract, two new natural products possessing

  12. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on napier grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Nairobi, Department of Animal Production, P.O. Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenya. Received 9 ... ers lack specific guidelines on how to combine napier grass with Iucerne for dairy heifers and the effect of ..... (CP). dry matter (DM). average daily weight gains (AUG). substitution rate (SR) and feed efficiency. (FE) for ...

  13. Follow the Grass: a Smart Material Interactive Pervasive Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minuto, A.; Huisman, Gijs; Nijholt, Antinus; Herrlich, Marc; Malaka, Rainer; Masuch, Maic

    2012-01-01

    Smart materials offer new possibilities for creating engaging and interesting forms of interaction and ways of displaying information in a material way. In this paper we describe Follow the Grass, a concept of an interactive pervasive display for public spaces. The display will be built up out of a

  14. Lemon grass ( Cymbopogon citratus ) essential oil as a potent anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral antiinflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods:The chemical profile ofLGEOas determined bygas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed ...

  15. Evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of different grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration (Et) and water use efficiency (WUE) were determined for each of seven grass species during the 1986/87 seasons. The highest and lowest mean daily Et of 2, 39 and 1, 66 mm were recorded respectively for Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus. Between species, the average Et for the two ...

  16. Differential responses of Duo grass ( Lolium × Festuca ), a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of suitable plants to extract and concentrate excess phosphorus (P) from contaminated soil serves as an attractive method of phyto-remediation. Plant species vary considerably in their potential to assimilate different organic and inorganic P substrates. Duo grass (a hybrid of Lolium × Festuca) seedlings were grown in ...

  17. Impact of the invader Ipomoea hildebrandtii on grass biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass biomass increased 47% in weeding treatments and 117% with protection from grazing. Ipomoea hildebrandtii removal also led to decline in soil moisture at at a depth of 5 cm and an increase at 30 cm, and lower soil compaction. Grazing lowered soil moisture and increased soil compaction. Mineralisation of N was ...

  18. INTAKE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF LOW QUALITY RHODES GRASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at Bunda College, Malawi, to determine the effect of magadi (a sodium sesquicarbonate- Na2CO3, NaHCO3.2H2O) treated forages on their intake and digestibility and growth of sheep. Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth), Cedrela (Toona ciliata, M. Roem) and Sesbania [Sesbania sesban ...

  19. Survey of Domestication Process of Grass Cutter ( Thryonomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interestingly, it was discovered that forages, grains, fruits, tubers and nuts were offered to the grasscutters. Reflecting that grass cutters domestication in southwestern Nigeria is possible if only, social infrastructures such as constant electricity supply, pipe borne water and good network of roads, incentives like pups, feed ...

  20. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soils with Vetiver grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan

    2007-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for phytoextraction of lead and other metals (zinc, copper, and iron) from the soil of an active firing range at the Savannah River Site, SC. Lead-contaminated soil (300-4,500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing...

  1. Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back; Rode, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate...

  2. Insects traversing grass-like vertical compliant beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Small running animals encounter many challenging terrains. These terrains can be filled with 3D, multi-component obstacles. Here, we study cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) moving through grass-like vertical compliant beams during escape. We created an apparatus to control and vary geometric parameters and mechanical properties of model grass including height, width, thickness, lateral and fore-aft spacings, angle, number of layers, stiffness, and damping. We observed a suite of novel locomotor behaviors not previously described on simpler 2D ground. When model grass height was >2 × body length and lateral spacing was animal primarily (probability P = 50%) rolled its body onto its side to rapidly (time t = 2.1 s) maneuver through the gaps between model grass. We developed a simple energy minimization model, and found that body roll reduces the energy barriers that the animal must overcome during traversal. We hypothesized that the animal's ellipsoidal body shape facilitated traversal. To test our hypothesis, we modified body shape by adding either a rectangular or an oval plate onto its dorsal surface, and found that P dropped by an order of magnitude and t more than doubled. Upon removal of either plate, both P and t recovered. Locomotor kinematics and geometry effectively coupled to terrain properties enables negotiation of 3D, multi-component obstacles, and provides inspiration for small robots to navigate such terrain with minimal sensing and control.

  3. January 1977 The punctated grass-mouse, Lemniscomys striatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 730 puncta ted grass-mice was dissected to study their biology. Breeding occurred during the rains and ceased during the dry seasons, and the mean number of embryos per female reached a maximum towards the end of the breeding season. The testes and vesiculae seminales of adult males regressed during ...

  4. Is the grazing tolerance of mesic decreaser and increaser grasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth response of two decreasers, three Increaser II grasses, and an Increaser III species to frequent, severe defoliation under three levels of competition from neighbours and two levels of soil nutrients was examined in a pot trial. The effects of competition and especially nutrients markedly modified the defoliation ...

  5. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  6. Ensiling of elephant grass with soybean hulls or rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    India Joelma Gatass Monteiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal was to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation pattern of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Roxo silage with different levels of soybean hulls or rice bran. Two trials were conducted, comprising of a completely randomized design, with four replicates each. Treatments consisted on the addition of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of soybean hulls or rice bran to unwilted green elephant grass forage. Large PVC silos were used adopting a density of 600 kg of green mass m-3. The silos were opened 40 days after ensiling. The results revealed that the inclusion of 10% soybean hulls increased elephant grass forage dry matter (DM content to 31%, but did not alter the water soluble carbohydrate (WSC content or buffering capacity. The resultant silages exhibited good fermentation patterns in terms of pH (less than 3.97 and NH3-N (4.07% total N levels. The inclusion of rice bran increased both DM and WSC content in the forage, improving the fermentation pattern of silages (P < 0.05. This too was verified by a pH lower than 3.92 and a maximum NH3-N of 4.23% of the total N. The inclusion of 10% rice bran to the elephant grass improved the nutritional value of the forage to be ensiled and, hence, of the produced silage.

  7. UV-screening of grasses by plant silica layer?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    UV-screening by terrestrial plants is a crucial trait since colonization of terrestrial environments has started. In general, it is enabled by phenolic substances. Especially for grasses it remains unclear why plants grown under the absence of UV-B-radiation exhibit nonetheless a high UV-B-screening potential. But this may be ...

  8. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... family, Poaceae (Gramineae). Kinds of seed: Bentgrasses, bluegrasses, bluestems, bromes, cereals, fescues... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae). 201.56-5 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED...

  9. Rangeland resilience and resistance: annual and perennial grass stable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of resilience, the ability to resist a shift to an alternative vegetation state, has become an important topic in range management. To quantify the degree to which a plant community is resilient, we experimentally manipulated communities dominated by either the invasive annual grass chea...

  10. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    For the evaluation of rumen degradation parameters and INDF, grass species, year, ... variability in the chemical composition and degradability parameters, reflecting a wide range in NDF quality .... silage processing and microorganisms, may be more susceptible to enzymatic attack, mainly in ..... of their rapid maturing rate.

  11. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17......: crop and soil damage, wheel load and tire pressure. There was a significant effect of wheel load. At all three times the yield was lower using a wheel load of 4745 kg than for a wheel load of 2865 kg.     Key-words Traffic intensities; Tire load/pressure; Clover/grass; Yield loss; ...

  12. Water use efficiency of six rangeland grasses under varied soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in soil moisture content were measured by Gypsum Block which aided in determining the irrigation schedules. The grasses demonstrated varied levels of WUE which was evaluated by amount of biomass productivity in relation to evapotranspired water during the growing period. The three soil moisture content ...

  13. Protein precipitation methods for sample pretreatment of grass pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein precipitation methods for sample pretreatment of grass pea extracts. Negussie Wodajo, Ghirma Moges, Theodros Solomon. Abstract. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1996, 10(2), 129-134. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics.

  14. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  15. Rainbows in the grass. II. Arbitrary diagonal incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Charles L; Lock, James A; Fleet, Richard W

    2008-12-01

    We consider external reflection rainbow caustics due to the reflection of light from a pendant droplet where the light rays are at an arbitrary angle with respect to the horizontal. We compare this theory to observation of glare spots from pendant drops on grass; we also consider the potential application of this theory to the determination of liquid surface tension.

  16. Grass competition may benefit high density peach orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research demonstrated that grass competition dwarfed and reduced the yield of individual peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown in narrow vegetation free areas (VFA). In this report, the area-based yield of two peach cultivars, 'Redskin' and 'Jersey Dawn' on 'Lovell', was estimated...

  17. Regeneration and propagation of reed grass for large-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    전서범

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... wastewater using wetlands and aquatic macrophytes is in the limelight as an ... treatment. Especially, reed grass is one of the most important and abundant species among the aquatic macrophytes used for wastewater purification, and it has been applied ... cultivated without fertilizer, irrigation or pesticides.

  18. On the seed production of tropical grasses in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman, J.G.

    1973-01-01

    The small amount of viable seed that can be harvested from tropical ley grasses such as Chloris gayana, Setaria sphacelata and Panicum spp. is largely due to the wide range in maturity between different heads and in maturity between seeds in any head. Ripe seed is also liable

  19. Translocation of radioactive paraquat in some veld grasses | TD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two pot experiments radioactive paraquat was applied to certain important veld grasses (Experiment I-Aristida junciformis, Themeda triandra, Elyonuris argenteus, Andropogon filifolius, Eragrostis curvula; Experiment II-A. junciformis, E. argenteus) to determine the extent of translocation at a young stage of growth with ...

  20. Senescence, dormancy and tillering in perennial C4 grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial, temperate, C4 warm-season grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus have been tabbed as sources of herbaceous biomass for the production of green fuels and chemicals based on a number of positive agronomic traits. Although there is important literature on the management of these specie...

  1. Phytolith Assemblages in Grasses Native to Central Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    GALLEGO, LUCRECIA; Distel, Roberto A.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Phytolith reference collections are a prerequisite for accurate interpretation of soil phytolith assemblages aimed at reconstructing past vegetation. In this study a phytolith reference collection has been developed for several grasses native to central Argentina: Poa ligularis, Piptochaetium napostaense, Stipa clarazii, Stipa tenuis, Stipa tenuissima, Stipa eriostachya, Stipa ambigua, Stipa brachychaeta, Pappophorum subbulbosum, Digitaria californica, Bothriochloa edwar...

  2. Impact of the invader Ipomoea hildebrandtii on grass biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ipomoea hildebrandtii removal also led to decline in soil moisture at at a depth of 5 cm and an increase at 30 cm, and lower soil compaction. Grazing lowered soil moisture and increased soil compaction. Mineralisation of N was highest under the dominant grass Chloris roxburghiana followed by I. hildebrandtii and bare ...

  3. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    advanced generations and characterized as dwarf mutant 1. (dwf1), dwarf ... types were recorded and statistically analysed in advanced ...... valuable multiple marker stock in genetics and breeding re- search in grass pea. Downes and Marshall (1983) described colchicine as a powerful mutagen in at least some genotypes.

  4. Snakes in the Grass: Weaving Success for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)

  5. Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... stored at –20° C in a deep freezer immediately after collection. At the end of each collection period, the samples were bulked for each animal for proximate analysis according to AOAC (1980) procedures. Compositions of the concentrates, Rhodes grass, groundnut haulms, sweet potato forage and soybean ...

  6. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant-beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; van Elsas, J.D.

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial

  7. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.D.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial

  8. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the substantial area covered by grasslands in Madagascar (65%), the taxonomy of the grasses (Poaceae), which represent the main plant component of these vegetation types, is still understudied. Inventories and detailed specimen identification work from 1 2 localities in the Itremo Massif Protected Area allowed us ...

  9. Productivity of irrigated gamba grass ( Andropogon Gayanus Kunth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of irrigated gamba grass ( Andropogon Gayanus Kunth ) as influenced by flood irrigation and compost manure levels in zaria. ... A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of varying levels of irrigation volume, irrigation frequency and compost manure application on growth components, forage yield ...

  10. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in pediatric allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahn, Ulrich; Tabar, Ana; Kuna, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    of this tablet in children and adolescents with grass pollen-related allergic rhinitis. METHODS: In this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 278 children (5-17 years of age) with grass pollen-related rhinoconjunctivitis (confirmed by means of a positive grass pollen skin prick test...

  11. Role of ammonia and biogenic amines in intake of grass silage by ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van M.

    1997-01-01

    In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products

  12. Hydro‑methanol leaf extract of lemon grass is friendly with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) is an aromatic perennial tall grass with rhizomes densely tufted fibrous root. The aim of the study was to determine the histological effect(s) of the hydro- methanol leaf extract of lemon grass (HLELG) on Albino Wistar rats kidney. The objectives were to: (a) Determine the ...

  13. Below-ground competition between trees and grasses may overwhelm the facilitative effects of hydraulic lift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Prins, H.H.T.; Berendse, F.; Kroon, de H.; Dawson, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    Under large East African Acacia trees, which were known to show hydraulic lift, we experimentally tested whether tree roots facilitate grass production or compete with grasses for below-ground resources. Prevention of tree-grass interactions through root trenching led to increased soil water content

  14. Impact of imazamox containing herbicides on the development of resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenhauer, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter oilseed-rape was the most common crop in Western Europe where no ALS-inhibitor was used. Due to the introduction of Clearfield winter oilseed-rape varieties the use of ALS-inhibitors also in oilseed-rape is possible. If the broader use of ALS-inhibitors increases the selection pressure on herbicide resistant weeds and increases their occurrence in the crop rotation is the question of this investigation. Therefore, an outdoor container trial (á 350 l, 0.7 m² was performed starting in autumn 2011. A typical crop rotation of winter wheat/oilseed-rape/winter wheat was simulated in the following three years. Three different black-grass biotypes with characterised resistance pattern and 5 different herbicide programs were analysed. The blackgrass biotypes showed different target-site resistance against ACCase- and/or ALS-inhibitor, as well as metabolic resistance. Before and after each treatment the numbers of black-grass plants per container were counted. Also the numbers of heads were counted before harvest. Additionally genetic analysis due to PCRs and pyrosequencing of ten survivors per container and year were performed. Till now results of the winter wheat and oilseed-rape cultivation were obtained. Herbicide efficacy was between 77 and 98% for the treatments during the winter wheat cultivation. The genetic analysis showed nearly similar portion of TSR in the black-grass populations when compared with the initial frequencies. Only one container showed no TSR. The comparison of the herbicide programs sprayed during the oilseed-rape cultivation showed the best results for all black-grass biotypes for the application of: Metazachlor + dimethenamid (BBCH 09/10, imazamox + quinmerac + Dash (BBCH 14 and propyzamide (BBCH 21/22.

  15. Effects of total and regional fat loss on plasma CRP and IL-6 in overweight and obese, older adults with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, K M; Beavers, D P; Newman, J J; Anderson, A M; Loeser, R F; Nicklas, B J; Lyles, M F; Miller, G D; Mihalko, S L; Messier, S P

    2015-02-01

    To describe associations between total and regional body fat mass loss and reduction of systemic levels of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) in obese, older adults with osteoarthritis (OA), undergoing intentional weight loss. Data come from a single-blind, 18-month, randomized controlled trial in adults (age: 65.6 ± 6.2; Body mass index (BMI): 33.6 ± 3.7) with knee OA. Participants were randomized to diet-induced weight loss plus exercise (D + E; n = 150), diet-induced weight loss-only (D; n = 149), or exercise-only (E; n = 151). Total body and region-specific (abdomen and thigh) fat mass were measured at baseline and 18 months. High-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 were measured at baseline, six and 18 months. Intervention effects were assessed using mixed models and associations between inflammation and adiposity were compared using logistic and mixed linear regression models. Intentional total body fat mass reduction was associated with significant reductions in log-adjusted CRP (β = 0.06 (95% CI = 0.04, 0.08) mg/L) and IL-6 (β = 0.02 (95% CI = 0.01, 0.04) pg/mL). Loss of abdominal fat volume was also associated with reduced inflammation, independent of total body fat mass; although models containing measures of total adiposity yielded the best fit. The odds of achieving clinically desirable levels of CRP (fat mass loss. Achievement of clinically desirable levels of CRP and IL-6 more than double with intentional 5% loss of total body weight and fat mass. Global, rather than regional, measures of adiposity are better predictors of change in inflammatory burden. NCT00381290. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationships between HDL-C, hs-CRP, with central arterial stiffness in apparently healthy people undergoing a general health examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Du, Yingzhen; Fan, Li; Ye, Ping; Yuan, Ying; Lu, Xuechun; Wang, Fan; Zeng, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Some cardiovascular risk factors have been confirmed to be positively correlated with arterial stiffness. However, it is unclear whether HDL-C, a well-established anti-risk factor, has an independent association with arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HDL-C levels and arterial stiffness and the possible role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in this potential correlation in apparently healthy adults undergoing a general health examination in China. This was a cross-sectional survey. In total, 15,302 participants (age range, 18-82 years; mean, 43.88±8.44 years) were recruited during routine health status examinations. A questionnaire was used and we measured the body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose, and serum lipid, uric acid, hs-CRP, and serum creatinine levels of each participant. Central arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). HDL-C levels decreased as cf-PWV increased. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that HDL-C levels were associated with cf-PWV (r=-0.18, P<0.001). hs-CRP levels were positively associated with cf-PWV (r=0.13). After adjustment for all confounders, HDL-C was inversely independently associated with all quartiles of cf-PWV. Furthermore, HDL-C was associated with cf-PWV in different quartiles of hs-CRP, and the correlation coefficients (r) gradually decreased with increasing hs-CRP levels (quartiles 1-4). HDL-C is inversely independently associated with central arterial stiffness. The anti-inflammatory activity of HDL-C may mediate its relationship with cf-PWV. Further, long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate whether high HDL-C levels are protective against central artery stiffening through the anti-inflammatory activity of HDL-C.

  17. 7 CFR 1469.23 - Program payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Statistics Service (NASS) land rental data, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) rental rates... to production practices or practices considered typical in farm and ranch operations for a specific... related to energy management as a result of additional effort by the participant and result in: (i) The...

  18. Effects of wind turbines on upland nesting birds in Conservation Reserve Program grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, K.L.; Higgins, K.F.; Naugle, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Grassland passerines were surveyed during summer 1995 on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area in southwestern Minnesota to determine the relative influence of wind turbines on overall densities of upland nesting birds in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands. Birds were surveyed along 40 m fixed width transects that were placed along wind turbine strings within three CRP fields and in three CRP fields without turbines. Conservation Reserve Program grasslands without turbines and areas located 180 m from turbines supported higher densities (261.0-312.5 males/100 ha) of grassland birds than areas within 80 m of turbines (58.2-128.0 males/100 ha). Human disturbance, turbine noise, and physical movements of turbines during operation may have disturbed nesting birds. We recommend that wind turbines be placed within cropland habitats that support lower densities of grassland passerines than those found in CRP grasslands.

  19. The study of vitamin D administration effect on CRP and Interleukin-6 as prognostic biomarkers of ventilator associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroliaee, Amir Ebrahim; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Shokouhi, Shervin; Sahraei, Zahra

    2018-04-01

    In regard with the effect of immune-stimulants in the treatment of infectious diseases, the effect of vitamin D administration on the outcome of patients with Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) with a high rate of mortality, was studied. In this trial, 46 adult patients suffering from VAP and vitamin D deficiency were enrolled. The first group of patients received single intramuscular injection of vitamin D (300000Unit), while the other group were given the placebo. Administration of vitamin D significantly enhanced its levels (P<0.0001) in the treated patients (12.28±8.26) in comparison with placebo group (1.15±1.50). Serum Interleukin-6 levels were significantly reduced in the treated group compared to placebo (P=0.01). Although C-Reactive protein (CRP) levels showed an improving trend in the vitamin D group, no significant difference between groups (P=0.12) was found. Interestingly, the mortality rate of patients that treated with vitamin D (5/24) was significantly lower (p=0.04) than that of the placebo group (11/22). Our results indicate that vitamin D administration can significantly reduce the IL-6 as prognostic marker in VAP patients, and must be considered as adjunct option in the treatment of VAP patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Visser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries around the world, the most damaging invasive plant species are grasses. However, the status of grass invasions in South Africa has not been documented recently. Objectives: To update Sue Milton’s 2004 review of grasses as invasive alien plants in South Africa, provide the first detailed species level inventory of alien grasses in South Africa and assess the invasion dynamics and management of the group. Method: We compiled the most comprehensive inventory of alien grasses in South Africa to date using recorded occurrences of alien grasses in the country from various literature and database sources. Using historical literature, we reviewed past efforts to introduce alien grasses into South Africa. We sourced information on the origins, uses, distributions and minimum residence times to investigate pathways and patterns of spatial extent. We identified alien grasses in South Africa that are having environmental and economic impacts and determined whether management options have been identified, and legislation created, for these species. Results: There are at least 256 alien grass species in the country, 37 of which have become invasive. Alien grass species richness increased most dramatically from the late 1800s to about 1940. Alien grass species that are not naturalised or invasive have much shorter residence times than those that have naturalised or become invasive. Most grasses were probably introduced for forage purposes, and a large number of alien grass species were trialled at pasture research stations. A large number of alien grass species in South Africa are of Eurasian origin, although more recent introductions include species from elsewhere in Africa and from Australasia. Alien grasses are most prevalent in the south-west of the country, and the Fynbos Biome has the most alien grasses and the most widespread species. We identified 11 species that have recorded environmental and economic impacts in the

  1. TILLING in forage grasses for gene discovery and breeding improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, Chloe; Yates, Steven; Ruckle, Michael; Nay, Michelle; Studer, Bruno

    2016-09-25

    Mutation breeding has a long-standing history and in some major crop species, many of the most important cultivars have their origin in germplasm generated by mutation induction. For almost two decades, methods for TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) have been established in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), enabling the functional analysis of genes. Recent advances in mutation detection by second generation sequencing technology have brought its utility to major crop species. However, it has remained difficult to apply similar approaches in forage and turf grasses, mainly due to their outbreeding nature maintained by an efficient self-incompatibility system. Starting with a description of the extent to which traditional mutagenesis methods have contributed to crop yield increase in the past, this review focuses on technological approaches to implement TILLING-based strategies for the improvement of forage grass breeding through forward and reverse genetics. We present first results from TILLING in allogamous forage grasses for traits such as stress tolerance and evaluate prospects for rapid implementation of beneficial alleles to forage grass breeding. In conclusion, large-scale induced mutation resources, used for forward genetic screens, constitute a valuable tool to increase the genetic diversity for breeding and can be generated with relatively small investments in forage grasses. Furthermore, large libraries of sequenced mutations can be readily established, providing enhanced opportunities to discover mutations in genes controlling traits of agricultural importance and to study gene functions by reverse genetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  3. Differentiation of plant age in grasses using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Nichola M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; Groen, Thomas A.; de Boer, Willem F.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Kohi, Edward; Peel, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Phenological or plant age classification across a landscape allows for examination of micro-topographical effects on plant growth, improvement in the accuracy of species discrimination, and will improve our understanding of the spatial variation in plant growth. In this paper six vegetation indices used in phenological studies (including the newly proposed PhIX index) were analysed for their ability to statistically differentiate grasses of different ages in the sequence of their development. Spectra of grasses of different ages were collected from a greenhouse study. These were used to determine if NDVI, NDWI, CAI, EVI, EVI2 and the newly proposed PhIX index could sequentially discriminate grasses of different ages, and subsequently classify grasses into their respective age category. The PhIX index was defined as: (AVNIRn+log(ASWIR2n))/(AVNIRn-log(ASWIR2n)), where AVNIRn and ASWIR2n are the respective normalised areas under the continuum removed reflectance curve within the VNIR (500-800 nm) and SWIR2 (2000-2210 nm) regions. The PhIX index was found to produce the highest phenological classification accuracy (Overall Accuracy: 79%, and Kappa Accuracy: 75%) and similar to the NDVI, EVI and EVI2 indices it statistically sequentially separates out the developmental age classes. Discrimination between seedling and dormant age classes and the adult and flowering classes was problematic for most of the tested indices. Combining information from the visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared region (SWIR) region into a single phenological index captures the phenological changes associated with plant pigments and the ligno-cellulose absorption feature, providing a robust method to discriminate the age classes of grasses. This work provides a valuable contribution into mapping spatial variation and monitoring plant growth across savanna and grassland ecosystems.

  4. Grass Cell Walls: A Story of Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Ronald D; Rancour, David M; Marita, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    Cell wall matrices are complex composites mainly of polysaccharides, phenolics (monomers and polymers), and protein. We are beginning to understand the synthesis of these major wall components individually, but still have a poor understanding of how cell walls are assembled into complex matrices. Valuable insight has been gained by examining intact components to understand the individual elements that make up plant cell walls. Grasses are a prominent group within the plant kingdom, not only for their important roles in global agriculture, but also for the complexity of their cell walls. Ferulate incorporation into grass cell wall matrices (C3 and C4 types) leads to a cross-linked matrix that plays a prominent role in the structure and utilization of grass biomass compared to dicot species. Incorporation of p-coumarates as part of the lignin structure also adds to the complexity of grass cell walls. Feruoylation results in a wall with individual hemicellulosic polysaccharides (arabinoxylans) covalently linked to each other and to lignin. Evidence strongly suggests that ferulates not only cross-link arabinoxylans, but may be important factors in lignification of the cell wall. Therefore, the distribution of ferulates on arabinoxylans could provide a means of structuring regions of the matrix with the incorporation of lignin and have a significant impact upon localized cell wall organization. The role of other phenolics in cell wall formation such as p-coumarates (which can have concentrations higher than ferulates) remains unknown. It is possible that p-coumarates assist in the formation of lignin, especially syringyl rich lignin. The uniqueness of the grass cell wall compared to dicot sepcies may not be so much in the gross composition of the wall, but how the distinctive individual components are organized into a functional wall matrix. These features are discussed and working models are provided to illustrate how changing the organization of feruoylation and p

  5. Influence of livestock grazing on C sequestration in semi-arid mixed-grass and short-grass rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, J D; Schuman, G E

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of livestock grazing on C content of the plant-soil system (to 60 cm) of two semi-arid grasslands: a mixed-grass prairie (grazed 12 years), and a short-grass steppe (grazed 56 years). Grazing treatments included season-long grazing at heavy and light stocking rates, and non-grazed exclosures. Significantly higher soil C (0-30cm) was measured in grazed pastures compared to non-grazed exclosures, although for the short-grass steppe higher soil C was observed with the heavy grazing treatment only. Excluding grazing caused an immobilization of C in excessive aboveground plant litter, and an increase in annual forbs and grasses which lack dense fibrous rooting systems conducive to soil organic matter formation and accumulation. Our data indicate that higher soil C with grazing was in part the result of more rapid annual shoot turnover, and redistribution of C within the plant-soil system as a result of changes in plant species composition.

  6. Age, growth, mortality, and abundance of lake sturgeon in the Grasse River, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trested, D.G.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    An increased understanding of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) population dynamics is a key requirement for successful management efforts. Little is known regarding the Grasse River population of lake sturgeon except that it is one of a few populations in New York State where spawning has been documented. Thus our purpose was to assess the current status of lake sturgeon in the Grasse River system, including age, growth, mortality, and abundance. Age was determined for 196 of 211 lake sturgeon by examination of sectioned pectoral fin rays. Ages ranged from 0 to 32 years and the annual mortality rate for fish between ages 7 and 14 was 16.8%. The weight (W, g) to total length (TL, mm) relationship was W = 1.281 x 10-6TL3.202. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was TL = 1913(1-e-0.0294(t+9.5691)). While the range of observed ages was similar to that of nearby St. Lawrence River populations, mean weight at age for an individual at 1000 mm TL was lower than that observed for lake sturgeon within Lake St. Francis of the St. Lawrence River. Predicted growth based on von Bertalanffy parameters was similar to that observed for the nearby Lake St. Francis. An open population estimator using the POPAN sub-module in the Program MARK produced an abundance estimate of 793 lake sturgeon (95% CI = 337-1249).

  7. Effect of red yeast rice combined with antioxidants on lipid pattern, hs-CRP level, and endothelial function in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero AF

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Arrigo F G Cicero, Martino Morbini, Angelo Parini, Riccardo Urso, Martina Rosticci, Elisa Grandi, Claudio Borghi Medical and Surgical Sciences Department, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Our aim was to test, through a crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, if a short-term treatment with 10 mg monacolins combined with antioxidants could improve lipid pattern, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and endothelial function in a small cohort of moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Thus, 25 healthy, moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects were consecutively enrolled and, after 4 weeks of stabilization diet, were randomized to the sequence placebo followed by a washout, monacolins or monacolins followed by a washout, placebo, with each period being 4 weeks long. At each study step, a complete lipid pattern, safety parameters, hs-CRP, and endothelial function have been measured. When compared to the placebo phase, during monacolin treatment, patients experienced a more favorable percentage change in total cholesterol (TC (TC after monacolin treatment, -18.35%; TC after placebo treatment, -5.39%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (LDL after monacolin treatment, -22.36%; LDL after placebo treatment, -1.38%, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (non-HDL after monacolin treatment, -22.83%; non-HDL after placebo treatment: -7.15%, hs-CRP (hs-CRP after monacolin treatment: -2.33%; hs-CRP after placebo treatment, 2.11%, and endothelial function (pulse volume displacement after monacolin treatment, 18.59%; pulse volume displacement after placebo treatment, -6.69%. No significant difference was observed with regard to triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and safety parameters. On the basis of our data, we could demonstrate that a 10 mg monacolin nutraceutical treatment appears to safely reduce cholesterolemia, hs-CRP, and markers of vascular remodeling in moderately

  8. HIGH-SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (hsCRP IN YOUNG ADULTS: RELATION TO AEROBIC CAPACITY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mazurek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atheromatosis develops as a result of a chronic inflammatory process of the arteries. Inflammatory biomarkers, particularly high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, positively correlate with atheromatosis risk factors and can be used to estimate and predict the risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hsCRP concentration and BMI, body composition, classical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, energy expenditure for physical activity (WEE and  ·VO2max. 166 volunteers (78 women and 88 men were included in the examinations. Their mean age was 20.2±0.9 years. Health condition was described by the following variables: smoking, WEE,  ·VO2max, body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, lipid profile, hsCRP, glucose and insulin concentration, and insulin resistance. Between the subgroups created on the basis of hsCRP concentration, in quartiles 1 to 3 and quartile 4, a comparative analysis was carried out. 79.5�0of women and 69.3�0of men had hsCRP values within the references ranges. Moderately high values were found in 14.1�0of women and 22.7�0of men and high in 6.4�0and 7.9�20respectively. Mean values of BMI, FFM, WHR, WEE,  ·VO2max, glucose and triglyceride concentration, and TC/HDL index were significantly lower, while FM and HDL were significantly higher, in women than in men. In the quartile 4 subgroup compared to the quartile 1-3 subgroup, we found significantly lower HDL concentration and a tendency for higher values of BMI (p=0.06 and TC (p=0.07 as well as higher percentages of smoking among men. In young, physically active, healthy persons, serum concentration of hsCRP is not related to physical activity or  ·VO2max.

  9. Research on screening of suitable forage grasses in coastal saline - alkaline soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaoyu; Han, Xin; Song, Qianhong; Yang, Xu; Zhou, Qingyun

    2017-11-01

    The screening of salt-tolerant plants can provide suitable tree species for the afforestation of coastal salinity and maintain biodiversity and ecological stability. The research was based on the study of seven grasses, such as high fescue, the bermuda grass, the thyme, the rye grass, the precocious grass, the third leaf, and the red three leaves. Each pasture was planted in three different kinds of soil, such as salt alkali soil, salt alkali soil + ecological bag and non-saline alkali soil. The effect of salt alkali soil on germinating time, germination rate and grass growth was analyzed. The effects of ecological bag on soil salt and the growth and germination of grass was also analyzed in order to provide the reference basis for the widespread and systematic selection of salt-tolerant plants, with the grass being selected for the suitable ecological bag.

  10. Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilane Aparecida da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk, Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu, Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes, Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85. The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE. The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein

  11. GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Yann; Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Zambelli, Pietro; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter; Di Leo, Margherita

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS version 7 as imagery modules and replicability is complete for future research. A set of modules for multiscale analysis of landscape structure was added in 1992 by [1], who developed the r.le model similar to FRAGSTATS ([10]). The modules were gradually improved to become r.li in 2006. Further development continued, with a significant speed up [9] and new interactive user interface. The development of spatial interpolation module v.surf.rst started in 1988 [11] and continued by introduction of new interpolation methods and finally full integration into GRASS GIS version 4 [13]. Since then it was improved several times [8]. The module is an important part of GRASS GIS and is taught at geospatial modeling courses, for example at North Carolina State University [14]. GRASS GIS entails several modules that constitute the result of active research on natural hazard. The r.sim.water simulation model [12] for overland flow under rainfall excess conditions was integrated into the Emergency Routing Decision Planning system as a WPS [17]. It was also utilized by [16] and is now part of Tangible Landscape, a tangible GIS system, which also incorporated the r.damflood, a dam break inundation simulation [2]. The wildfire simulation toolset, originally developed by [24], implementing Rothermel's model [21], available through the GRASS GIS modules r.ros and r.spread, is object of active research. It has been extensively tested and recently adapted to European fuel types ([5, 19, 20]). References [1] Baker, W.L., Cai, Y., 1992. The r.le programs for multiscale analysis of landscape structure using the GRASS geographical information system. Landscape Ecology, 7(4):291-302. [2] Cannata M. and Marzocchi R., 2012. Two-dimensional dam break flooding simulation: a GIS embedded approach. - Natural Hazards 61(3):1143-1159. [3] Chemin, Y.H., 2012. A Distributed Benchmarking Framework for Actual ET Models. In Evapotranspiration - Remote Sensing and Modeling, Intech (Eds). [4] Chemin

  12. First report of crown rust (Puccinia coronata var. gibberosa) on blue oat grass (Helictotrichon sempervirens) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornamental grasses are popular decorative plants, with sales valued at $124 million in the U. S. in 2009. One common ornamental grass is blue oat grass, Helictotrichon sempervirens (Vill.) Pilg., a large blue-green grass native to Europe. In 2011, H. sempervirens plants in a commercial nursery in ...

  13. Management of native warm-season grasses for beef cattle and biomass production in the Mid-South USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, W M; Waller, J C; Bates, G E; Harper, C A; Saxton, A; McIntosh, D W; Birckhead, J; Keyser, P D

    2017-07-01

    Native grasses, such as switchgrass (SG; L.), big bluestem (BB; Vitman), indiangrass (IG; Nash), and eastern gamagrass (EG; [L.] L.) may be capable of providing desirable summer forage for cattle as well as a source of biomass for renewable energy. To evaluate that potential, experiments were conducted at 2 locations in Tennessee comparing weaned beef () steers (268 ± 25 kg initial BW) during early-season grazing (Early; 30 d, typically corresponding to May, followed by postdormancy biomass harvest) and full-season grazing (Full, mean duration = 98 d). For Exp. 1, which compared SG, a blend of BB and IG (BBIG), and EG, ADG was greater ( < 0.05) for BBIG (1.02 kg/d) than SG (0.85 kg/d), and both were greater ( < 0.05) than EG (0.66 kg/d). Grazing days for SG and EG were similar (389 and 423 animal unit days [AUD]/ha, respectively) and exceeded ( < 0.05) that of BBIG (233 AUD/ha) during Full. In Exp. 2 (SG and BBIG only), rates of gain were comparable to that of Exp. 1, but AUD were 425 (SG) and 299 (BBIG) AUD/ha. Such rates of gain and grazing days indicate that these grasses can provide desirable summer forage for growing cattle. Early produced 211 to 324 kg BW gain/ha, depending on experiment and forage, followed by dormant-season harvests of 7.5 to 10.5 Mg/ha of biomass, indicating a potential for beef cattle forage and biomass production on the same land resource. Native grasses provided productive summer pasture and good rates of gain on growing cattle and could contribute to forage programs, especially where cool-season grasses currently predominate.

  14. Thermal analysis of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from esparto grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trache D.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfa fibres are extracted from the plant Stippa tenacissima, or esparto grass (alfa is the Arab name for esparto, and grows in the dry regions of North Africa. It belongs to the graminacies family and grows to a height of about 1 m. These fibres are mostly used in the production of paper. Recently, they have been used as reinforcement in the production of biodegradable composites. The aim of the present work was to prepare microcrystalline cellulose from esparto grass using the hydrolysis process. The products obtained are characterized with thermogravimetric analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposing patterns of the cellulosic preparations, obtained by hydrochloric hydrolysis gave additional evidence to the relatively higher stability of the more crystalline cellulosic preparations. In the main decomposition stage, the cleavage of the glycosidic linkages of cellulose reduces the polymerization degree leading to the formation of CO2, H2O and other hydrocarbon derivatives.

  15. Germination of grass seeds with recycling waste water

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell Padrino, Maria Victoria; Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel; Delgado Arroyo, Maria del Mar

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of residual water irrigation on the rate and percentage of germination of grass seeds. Germination tests were carried out to compare the seeds irrigated with recycling waste water with seeds irrigated with distilled water. Test with Festuca arundinacea Sch. and Agrostis tenuis L. seeds was performed under laboratory conditions. Parameters used to evaluate germination were: number of germinated seeds (Gmax), mean germination time (MGT), the time...

  16. South Dakota rangelands: More than a sea of grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Robert Gartner; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1996-01-01

    Presettlement explorers described the region’s landscape as a “sea of grass.” Yet, this “sea” was quite varied, and included a wealth of less obvious forested communities. Both physiographic and climatic gradients across the state of South Dakota contributed to the development of variable vegetation types of South Dakota. The diverse flora truly identifies the state as...

  17. THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

  18. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L.; Torres, Andres F.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G. F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops—maize, sugarcane and sorghum—and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses—miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

  19. Convex relationships in ecosystems containing mixtures of trees and grass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Convex Relationships in Ecosystems Containing Mixtures of Trees and Grass R.J. Scholes Environmental and Resource Economics; Dec 2003; 26, 4; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 559 Reproduced... with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further...

  20. Variation in biomass related variables of reed canary grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAHRAMAA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea L., is a relatively new biomass crop in northern Europe, which produces raw material for bioenergy and paper pulp. Breeding reed canary grass for industrial purposes is under way in the absence of domestic cultivars being available. Knowledge of the extent of variation in biomass related traits is a basic requirement of the breeding programme. The aim of this study was to describe variation in biomass related traits and evaluate the relationships among the variables. Field experiment was carried out between 1994 and 1998 in Finland. Research material included wild and elite populations, which were divided into ten groups according to their origin. Biomass yield, plant fractions, shoot number, node number, leaf area and overwintering ability were measured. Panicle number, plant height and seed ripening were included to the analyses of the relationships. Results indicated the high biomass yield potential of reed canary grass, reaching over 13 t DM ha-1 in the fourth year after establishment. Elite material and a local group from southern Finland had the highest biomass yield, whereas the northernmost local group had the lowest. Three factors established accounted for 45% of the variance and they were defined as “high biomass yield”, “leaf-shoot relationship” and “fast development”. The first factor indicated positive connections among biomass yield, panicle number, plant height, straw fraction and node fraction. This study indicated variation in agronomic traits of reed canary grass, which enables breeding of new cultivars with desired trait combinations.;

  1. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  2. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. δ13C, δ15N and δ18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing

  3. odap from grass pea assayed by flow injection analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the neurotoxin [LN -oxa1yl-L-oz,[i-diaminopropionic acid (B-ODAP) from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus). Samples of the ... extraction methods for the same sample yielded similar peak absorbances due to the detected B-ODAP ... 1.4.3.11, 6.8 units/mg; from Yamasa Corp, Japan) was dissolved in 3 mL of 0.1 M phosphate.

  4. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez; Mokhtar, Doaa M.; Alaa Sayed Abou-Elhamd; Ahmed Hassan S. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish) and grass carp (herbivorous fish) in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club ...

  5. Echocardiographic Evaluation of the Relationship Between inflammatory factors (IL6, TNFα, hs-CRP) and Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension in patients with COPD. A Cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarin, Khalil; Rashidi, Farid; Namdar, Hossein; Ghaffari, Mohammadreza; Sharifi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory mechanism appears to play a major role in the pathogenesis of various types of human pulmonary hypertension such as idiopathic PAH (IPAH) and PAH associated" with connective tissue disease. Although we know that inflammatory factors such as IL6 and TNFα have an important role in IPAH, there is limited information about the relationship between acute phase reactants and pulmonary hypertension occurring secondary to pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 94 patients who had COPD. Patients with a recent history of systemic steroid and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) use, infection, trauma or surgery, gastrointestinal bleeding, coronary artery disease (CAD) and Hypertension were excluded. Body plethysmography and transthoracic echocardiography were done. Blood samples for each patient included were drawn for complete blood count (CBC), IL6, TNFα and highly sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP). Twenty patients (28.6%) had pulmonary hypertension. The difference between the mean IL6 and hs-CRP in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension was significant (7 pg/ml vs. 4.4 pg/ml and 13.04 pg/ml vs. 3.31 pg/ml) (p=0.006 and p=0.000). There was a correlation between IL6 and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (r=0.35, p=0.003). After adjustment forage, sex, serum Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, O2Sat, FEV1, FVC the relationship between the IL6, hs-CRP and the presence of pulmonary hypertension remained significant (p=0.022, p=0.026). Inflammatory factors such as IL6 and hs-CRP are independent risk factors for pulmonary hypertension in COPD patients.

  6. Epicatechin attenuates atherosclerosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet-induced human-CRP and NFκB in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine; van der Heijden, Roel; Heeringa, Peter; Kaijzel, Eric; Verschuren, Lars; Blomhoff, Rune; Kooistra, Teake; Kleemann, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies investigating flavanol-rich foods provide indications for potential cardioprotective effects of these foods, but the effects of individual flavanols remain unclear. We investigated whether the flavanol epicatechin can reduce diet-induced atherosclerosis, with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular risk factors dyslipidaemia and inflammation. ApoE*3-Leiden mice were fed a cholesterol-containing atherogenic diet with or without epicatechin (0.1% w/w) to study effects on early- and late-stage atherosclerosis (8 w and 20 w). In vivo effects of epicatechin on diet-induced inflammation were studied in human-CRP transgenic mice and NFκB-luciferase reporter mice. Epicatechin attenuated atherosclerotic lesion area in ApoE*3-Leiden mice by 27%, without affecting plasma lipids. This anti-atherogenic effect of epicatechin was specific to the severe lesion types, with no effect on mild lesions. Epicatechin mitigated diet-induced increases in plasma SAA (in ApoE*3-Leiden mice) and plasma human-CRP (in human-CRP transgenic mice). Microarray analysis of aortic gene expression revealed an attenuating effect of epicatechin on several diet-induced pro-atherogenic inflammatory processes in the aorta (e.g. chemotaxis of cells, matrix remodelling), regulated by NFκB. These findings were confirmed immunohistochemically by reduced lesional neutrophil content in HCE, and by inhibition of diet-induced NFκB activity in epicatechin-treated NFκB-luciferase reporter mice. Epicatechin attenuates development of atherosclerosis and impairs lesion progression from mild to severe lesions in absence of an effect on dyslipidaemia. The observed reduction of circulating inflammatory risk factors by epicatechin (e.g. SAA, human-CRP), as well as its local anti-inflammatory activity in the vessel wall, provide a rationale for epicatechin's anti-atherogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacterial community dynamics during the ensilage of wilted grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniry, J; O'Kiely, P; Clipson, N J W; Forristal, P D; Doyle, E M

    2008-08-01

    Grass silage is the product formed by a natural lactic acid bacterial fermentation when grass is stored under anaerobic conditions, and represents an important ruminant feedstuff on farms during winter. Of the two commonly employed methods of ensiling forage, baled silage composition frequently differs from that of comparable precision-chop silage reflecting a different ensiling environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the silage fermentation in wilted grass and between ensiling systems. Fermentation dynamics were examined using traditional methods of silage analyses, including microbial enumeration and analysis of fermentation products, and culture-independent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). A successful fermentation was achieved in both systems, with the fermentation (increase in lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid concentration, decrease in pH) proceeding rapidly once the herbage was ensiled. Under controlled conditions, little difference in silage quality and microbial composition were observed between ensiling systems and this was further reflected in the T-RFLP community analysis. T-RFLP proved a potentially useful tool to study the ensilage process and could provide valid support to traditional methods, or a viable alternative to these methods, for investigating the dynamics of the bacterial community over the course of the fermentation.

  8. Additives in ensiling palisade grass managed under grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Barros Macedo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of summer forage excess represents a management strategy to meet animals' needs for dry matter in the shortage period, but has been poorly studied. Silage can be used for this purpose. This study analyzed the production of palisade grass silage from pasture subjected to different grazing intensities with and without additive, determining losses by gases and effluents and chemical composition of silage. The experiment was a 4 x 3 factorial completely randomized design, with four replications. The factors were: 1st – herbage allowance of 5% (5 kg dry matter 100 kg-1 of animal weight day-1, 10, 15 and 20%. The pasture was managed under rotational stocking with 35-day grazing cycles (7 days of occupation and 28 days of rest and 2nd - additives: a control; b citrus pulp pellets; c biological inoculant for grass silage. The forage of palisade grass harvested from pastures subjected to low-intensity grazing showed quantitative and qualitative characteristics for ensiling. However, high humidity and low fermentable carbohydrate require the use of additive, favor the fermentation process and increase the nutritional quality of silage.

  9. Phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)] for tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Das, Padmini; Smith, Stephanie; Punamiya, Pravin; Ramanathan, Dil M; Reddy, Ramana; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    The presence of veterinary and human antibiotics in soil and surface water is an emerging environmental concern. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential of using vetiver grass as a phytoremediation agent in removing Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous media. The study determined uptake, translocation, and transformation of TC in vetiver grass as function of initial antibiotic concentrations and exposure time. Vetiver plants were grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in TC contaminated hydroponic system. Preliminary results show that complete removal of tetracycline occurred within 40 days in all TC treatments. Initial concentrations of TC had significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the kinetics of removaL Tetracycline was detected in the root as well as shoot tissues, confirming uptake and root-to-shoot translocation. Liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry analysis of plant tissue samples suggest presence of metabolites of TC in both root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. The current data is encouraging and is expected to aid in developing a cost-effective, in-situ phytoremediation technique to remove TC group of antibiotics from wastewater.

  10. Development of a sublingual allergy vaccine for grass pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Frati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati1,2, Silvia Scurati1, Paola Puccinelli1, Marie David3, Cecile Hilaire4, Maurizio Capecce4, Francesco Marcucci2, Cristoforo Incorvaia51Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2University Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Perugia, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Grass pollen is a very common cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The only treatment targeting the underlying causes of allergy is immunotherapy (IT. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has been introduced to solve the problem of systemic reactions to subcutaneous IT (SCIT. This article evaluates the characteristics of the allergen extract, Staloral, in terms of practical administration, effectiveness, safety, and mechanism of action. Efficacy data were obtained from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies using Staloral in patients sensitized to grass pollen, while practical administration, cost-effectiveness, and mechanism of action data were provided by well designed studies. The efficacy and safety of Staloral, as demonstrated by review of published studies which used doses up to 1125 times those administered with SCIT, shows that this allergen extract has optimal characteristics for treating patients with seasonal allergies due to grass pollens. The main mechanism of action is the interaction between dendritic cells of the oral mucosa and the subsequent tolerance induced in T-cells.Keywords: allergen extracts, high-dose, efficacy, safety, sublingual immunotherapy

  11. Diazinon and permethrin mitigation across a grass-wetland buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M T; Kröger, R; Locke, M A; Lizotte, R E; Testa, S; Cooper, C M

    2014-11-01

    Vegetated buffers of different designs are often used as edge-of-field treatment practices to remove pesticides that may be entrained in agricultural runoff. However, buffer system efficacy in pesticide runoff mitigation varies widely due to a multitude of factors including, but not limited to, pesticide chemistry, vegetation composition, and hydrology. Two experimental systems, a control (no vegetation) and a grass-wetland buffer system, were evaluated for their ability to retain diazinon and permethrin associated with a simulated storm runoff. The two systems were equally inefficient at retaining diazinon (mean 9.6 % retention for control and buffer). Grass-wetland buffers retained 83 % and 85 % of cis- and trans-permethrin masses, respectively, while the control only retained 39 % and 44 % of cis- and trans-permethrin masses, respectively. Half-distances (the distance required to decrease pesticide concentration by one-half) for both permethrin isomers were 26 %-30 % shorter in grass buffers (22-23 m) than in the control (32 m). The current study demonstrates treatment efficacy was a function of pesticide properties with the more strongly sorbing permethrin retained to a greater degree. The study also demonstrates challenges in remediating multiple pesticides with a single management practice. By using suites of management practices, especially those employing vegetation, better mitigation of pesticide impacts may be accomplished.

  12. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  13. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish and grass carp (herbivorous fish in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club cells were observed in between the stratified epithelium. Scanning electron examination of the oesophageal epithelium of catfish demonstrated the presence of microvilli and fingerprint-like microridges in the superficial cell layer. The posterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by simple columnar mucus-secreting epithelium. The oesophagus of grass carp had shown the same structure along its entire length. It consisted of less folded mucosa than that observed in the oesophagus of catfish. The epithelium was characterized by the presence of taste buds. In conclusion, the present work revealed some differences in the structure of catfish oesophagus and grass carp oesophagus. These differences are related to type of food and feeding habits of each species.

  14. Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    in the field. The survey showed that Poa annua, Elytrigia repens and Poa trivialis were the three most frequent grass weeds in grass seed crops. Furthermore, Bromus hordeaceus, Bromus sterilis, P. trivialis and Vulpia spp. showed an increasing frequency in the study period. The perennial weed, E. repens...

  15. Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

    1996-04-01

    Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products.

  16. Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients of cardiovascular diseases and its association with hs-CRP and TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Masihur Rehman; Yaccha, Monika; Malik, Mohammed Azharuddin; Rabbani, M U; Ahmad, Ibne; Isalm, Najmul; Abdali, Nasar

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolic syndrome is common in both NAFLD and cardiovascular diseases. Our study is designed to investigate the association of NAFLD with cardiovascular disease. It's a cross-sectional study which included 104 patients of coronary artery disease and hypertensive heart disease. Those patients having secondary causes of steatosis were excluded. Complete cardiovascular evaluation which included assessment of metabolic syndrome, routine biochemistries, viral markers, Ultrasonography (USG) abdomen, hs-CRP and TNF-α levels were obtained for all patients. Of all patients with cardiovascular disease, 19.2% (20/104) had essential hypertension with hypertensive heart disease the remaining 80.8% (84/104) patients had ischemic heart disease (IHD). On USG 69.2% (72/104) had NAFLD, these 50% (36/72) had grade 1 NAFLD and the rest grade 2 NAFLD. The hs-CRP levels and TNF-α were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD (p-value cardiovascular disease (69.2%) and is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and its individual components. The levels of hs-CRP and TNF-α were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD and showed an increasing trend with the severity of fatty liver. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  18. A Serratia marcescens PigP Homolog Controls Prodigiosin Biosynthesis, Swarming Motility and Hemolysis and Is Regulated by cAMP-CRP and HexS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Robert M. Q.; Lahr, Roni M.; Stella, Nicholas A.; Arena, Kristin E.; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Kwak, Daniel H.; Liu, Xinyu; Kalivoda, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Swarming motility and hemolysis are virulence-associated determinants for a wide array of pathogenic bacteria. The broad host-range opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens produces serratamolide, a small cyclic amino-lipid, that promotes swarming motility and hemolysis. Serratamolide is negatively regulated by the transcription factors HexS and CRP. Positive regulators of serratamolide production are unknown. Similar to serratamolide, the antibiotic pigment, prodigiosin, is regulated by temperature, growth phase, HexS, and CRP. Because of this co-regulation, we tested the hypothesis that a homolog of the PigP transcription factor of the atypical Serratia species ATCC 39006, which positively regulates prodigiosin biosynthesis, is also a positive regulator of serratamolide production in S. marcescens. Mutation of pigP in clinical, environmental, and laboratory strains of S. marcescens conferred pleiotropic phenotypes including the loss of swarming motility, hemolysis, and severely reduced prodigiosin and serratamolide synthesis. Transcriptional analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays place PigP in a regulatory pathway with upstream regulators CRP and HexS. The data from this study identifies a positive regulator of serratamolide production, describes novel roles for the PigP transcription factor, shows for the first time that PigP directly regulates the pigment biosynthetic operon, and identifies upstream regulators of pigP. This study suggests that PigP is important for the ability of S. marcescens to compete in the environment. PMID:23469212

  19. Influence of competition and rainfall manipulation on the growth responses of savanna trees and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    February, Edmund C; Higgins, Steven I; Bond, William J; Swemmer, Louise

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we explored how rainfall manipulation influenced competitive interactions between grasses and juvenile trees (small nonreproductive trees capable of resprouting) in savanna. To do this, we manipulated rainfall amount in the field using an incomplete factorial experiment that determined the effects of rainfall reduction, no manipulation, rainfall addition, and competition between grasses and trees on grass and tree growth. As response variables, we focused on several measures of tree growth and Disc Pasture Meter settling height as an estimate of grass aboveground biomass. We conducted the study over four years, at two sites in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results show that rainfall manipulation did not have substantial effects on any of the measures of tree growth we considered. However, trees at plots where grasses had been removed grew on average 15 cm more in height and 1.3-1.7 times more in basal area per year than those in plots with grasses. Grass biomass was not influenced by the presence of trees but was significantly and positively influenced by rainfall addition. These findings were not fundamentally influenced by soil type or by prevailing precipitation, suggesting applicability of our results to a wide range of savannas. Our results suggest that, in savannas, increasing rainfall serves to increase the competitive pressure exerted by grasses on trees. The implication is that recruitment into the adult tree stage from the juvenile stage is most likely in drought years when there is little competition from grass for resources and grass fuel loads are low.

  20. Ecophysiological responses of native and invasive grasses to simulated warming and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Law, D. J.; Wiede, A.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Breshears, D. D.; Dontsova, K.; Huxman, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Climate models predict that many arid regions around the world - including the North American deserts - may become affected more frequently by recurrent droughts. At the same time, these regions are experiencing rapid vegetation transformations such as invasion by exotic grasses. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes accompanying exotic grass invasion in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Under ambient and warmer (+ 4° C) conditions inside the Biosphere 2 facility, we compared the ecophysiological responses (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, pre-dawn leaf water potential, light & CO2 response functions, biomass) of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tangle head) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffel grass) growing in single and mixed communities. Further, we monitored the physiological responses and mortality of these plant communities under moisture stress conditions, simulating a global change-type-drought. The results indicate that the predicted warming scenarios may enhance the invasibility of desert landscapes by exotic grasses. In this study, buffel grass assimilated more CO2 per unit leaf area and out-competed native grasses more efficiently in a warmer environment. However, scenarios involving a combination of drought and warming proved disastrous to both the native and invasive grasses, with drought-induced grass mortality occurring at much shorter time scales under warmer conditions.

  1. Facilitation or competition? Tree effects on grass biomass across a precipitation gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Moustakas

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems are dominated by two distinct plant life forms, grasses and trees, but the interactions between them are poorly understood. Here, we quantified the effects of isolated savanna trees on grass biomass as a function of distance from the base of the tree and tree height, across a precipitation gradient in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results suggest that mean annual precipitation (MAP mediates the nature of tree-grass interactions in these ecosystems, with the impact of trees on grass biomass shifting qualitatively between 550 and 737 mm MAP. Tree effects on grass biomass were facilitative in drier sites (MAP≤550 mm, with higher grass biomass observed beneath tree canopies than outside. In contrast, at the wettest site (MAP = 737 mm, grass biomass did not differ significantly beneath and outside tree canopies. Within this overall precipitation-driven pattern, tree height had positive effect on sub-canopy grass biomass at some sites, but these effects were weak and not consistent across the rainfall gradient. For a more synthetic understanding of tree-grass interactions in savannas, future studies should focus on isolating the different mechanisms by which trees influence grass biomass, both positively and negatively, and elucidate how their relative strengths change over broad environmental gradients.

  2. Facilitation or competition? Tree effects on grass biomass across a precipitation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Aristides; Kunin, William E; Cameron, Tom C; Sankaran, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Savanna ecosystems are dominated by two distinct plant life forms, grasses and trees, but the interactions between them are poorly understood. Here, we quantified the effects of isolated savanna trees on grass biomass as a function of distance from the base of the tree and tree height, across a precipitation gradient in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results suggest that mean annual precipitation (MAP) mediates the nature of tree-grass interactions in these ecosystems, with the impact of trees on grass biomass shifting qualitatively between 550 and 737 mm MAP. Tree effects on grass biomass were facilitative in drier sites (MAP≤550 mm), with higher grass biomass observed beneath tree canopies than outside. In contrast, at the wettest site (MAP = 737 mm), grass biomass did not differ significantly beneath and outside tree canopies. Within this overall precipitation-driven pattern, tree height had positive effect on sub-canopy grass biomass at some sites, but these effects were weak and not consistent across the rainfall gradient. For a more synthetic understanding of tree-grass interactions in savannas, future studies should focus on isolating the different mechanisms by which trees influence grass biomass, both positively and negatively, and elucidate how their relative strengths change over broad environmental gradients.

  3. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a predictor of high medical-care expenditures in a community-based elderly population aged 70 years and over: the Tsurugaya project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kaijun; Hozawa, Atsushi; Guo, Hui; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Cui, Yufei; Ebihara, Satoru; Nakaya, Naoki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Tsuboya, Toru; Kakizaki, Masako; Ohrui, Takashi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2012-01-01

    Because CRP is a strong independent predictor of various diseases, it was hypothesized that CRP may be a useful predictor or treatment target for medical-care expenditures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CRP and medical-care expenditures in a community-dwelling elderly population. This prospective cohort study was conducted including 925 Japanese subjects aged ≥70 years. A high-sensitivity CRP assay was used by applying the nephelometric method. Hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and expenditures were ascertained through computerized linkage with claims lodged between August 2002 and March 2008 with the Miyagi National Health Insurance (NHI) Association. Since medical-care expenditures were not normally distributed, the category of high medical-care expenditures (>75th percentile of medical-care expenditures: inpatient expenditures >$494/month; outpatient expenditure >$522/month; total expenditures >$1103/month) was used to examine the relation of CRP levels with medical-care expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between CRP cutoff points (low concentrations: community-dwelling elderly. Further study is required to clarify whether reducing CRP by intervention is a cost-effective measure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Status of exotic grasses and grass-like vegetation and potential impacts on wildlife in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The Northeastern section of the United States, known as New England, has seen vast changes in land cover and human population over the past 3 centuries. Much of the region is forested; grasslands and other open-land cover types are less common, but provide habitat for many species that are currently declining in abundance and distribution. New England also consists of some of the most densely populated and developed states in the country. The origin, distribution, and spread of exotic species are highly correlated with human development. As such, exotics are common throughout much of New England, including several species of graminoids (grasses and grass-like plants such as sedges and rushes). Several of the more invasive grass species can form expansive dense mats that exclude native plants, alter ecosystem structure and functions, and are perceived to provide little-to-no value as wildlife food or cover. Although little research has been conducted on direct impacts of exotic graminoids on wildlife populations in New England, several studies on the common reed (Phragmites australis) in salt marshes have shown this species to have variable effects as cover for birds and other wildlife, depending on the distribution of the plant (e.g., patches and borders of reeds are used more by wildlife than expansive densely growing stands). Direct impacts of other grasses on wildlife populations are largely unknown. However, many of the invasive graminoid species that are present in New England have the capability of outcompeting native plants and thereby potentially affecting associated fauna. Preservation, protection, and restoration of grassland and open-land cover types are complex but necessary challenges in the region to maintain biological and genetic diversity of grassland, wetland, and other open-land obligate species.

  5. PEBBED Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of the CRP-5 PBMR DLOFC Transient Benchmark with the SUSA Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhard Strydom

    2011-01-01

    The need for a defendable and systematic uncertainty and sensitivity approach that conforms to the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) process, and that could be used for a wide variety of software codes, was defined in 2008. The GRS (Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit) company of Germany has developed one type of CSAU approach that is particularly well suited for legacy coupled core analysis codes, and a trial version of their commercial software product SUSA (Software for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses) was acquired on May 12, 2010. This report summarized the results of the initial investigations performed with SUSA, utilizing a typical High Temperature Reactor benchmark (the IAEA CRP-5 PBMR 400MW Exercise 2) and the PEBBED-THERMIX suite of codes. The following steps were performed as part of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis: 1. Eight PEBBED-THERMIX model input parameters were selected for inclusion in the uncertainty study: the total reactor power, inlet gas temperature, decay heat, and the specific heat capability and thermal conductivity of the fuel, pebble bed and reflector graphite. 2. The input parameters variations and probability density functions were specified, and a total of 800 PEBBED-THERMIX model calculations were performed, divided into 4 sets of 100 and 2 sets of 200 Steady State and Depressurized Loss of Forced Cooling (DLOFC) transient calculations each. 3. The steady state and DLOFC maximum fuel temperature, as well as the daily pebble fuel load rate data, were supplied to SUSA as model output parameters of interest. The 6 data sets were statistically analyzed to determine the 5% and 95% percentile values for each of the 3 output parameters with a 95% confidence level, and typical statistical indictors were also generated (e.g. Kendall, Pearson and Spearman coefficients). 4. A SUSA sensitivity study was performed to obtain correlation data between the input and output parameters, and to identify the

  6. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  7. CRP-Mediated Carbon Catabolite Regulation of Yersinia pestis Biofilm Formation Is Enhanced by the Carbon Storage Regulator Protein, CsrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan P Willias

    Full Text Available The natural transmission of Yersinia pestis is reliant upon biofilm blockage of the flea vector. However, the environmentally-responsive adaptive regulators which facilitate Y. pestis biofilm production in accordance with the flea midgut milieu are not well understood. We seek to establish the impact of available carbon source metabolism and storage upon Y. pestis biofilm production. Our findings demonstrate that Y. pestis biofilm production is subject to carbon catabolite regulation in which the presence of glucose impairs biofilm production; whereas, the sole metabolism of alternate carbon sources promotes robust biofilm formation. This observation is facilitated by the cAMP receptor protein, CRP. In accordance with a stark growth defect, deletion of crp in both CO92 and KIM6+ Y. pestis strains significantly impaired biofilm production when solely utilizing alternate carbon sources. Media supplementation with cAMP, a small-molecule activator of CRP, did not significantly alter Y. pestis biofilm production. Furthermore, CRP did not alter mRNA abundance of previously-characterized hms biofilm synthesis and regulation factors. Therefore, our findings indicate CRP does not confer a direct stimulatory effect, but may indirectly promote Y. pestis biofilm production by facilitating the alternate carbon source expression profile. Additionally, we assessed the impact of the carbon storage regulator protein, CsrA, upon Y. pestis biofilm production. Contrary to what has been described for E. coli, Y. pestis biofilm formation was found to be enhanced by CsrA. Regardless of media composition and available carbon source, deletion of csrA significantly impaired Y. pestis biofilm production. CsrA was found to promote Y. pestis biofilm production independent of glycogen regulation. Loss of csrA did not significantly alter relative hmsH, hmsP, or hmsT mRNA abundance. However, deletion of hmsP in the csrA-deficient mutant enabled excessive biofilm production

  8. Relationships between HDL-C, hs-CRP, with central arterial stiffness in apparently healthy people undergoing a general health examination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some cardiovascular risk factors have been confirmed to be positively correlated with arterial stiffness. However, it is unclear whether HDL-C, a well-established anti-risk factor, has an independent association with arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HDL-C levels and arterial stiffness and the possible role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in this potential correlation in apparently healthy adults undergoing a general health examination in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey. In total, 15,302 participants (age range, 18-82 years; mean, 43.88±8.44 years were recruited during routine health status examinations. A questionnaire was used and we measured the body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose, and serum lipid, uric acid, hs-CRP, and serum creatinine levels of each participant. Central arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV. RESULTS: HDL-C levels decreased as cf-PWV increased. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that HDL-C levels were associated with cf-PWV (r=-0.18, P<0.001. hs-CRP levels were positively associated with cf-PWV (r=0.13. After adjustment for all confounders, HDL-C was inversely independently associated with all quartiles of cf-PWV. Furthermore, HDL-C was associated with cf-PWV in different quartiles of hs-CRP, and the correlation coefficients (r gradually decreased with increasing hs-CRP levels (quartiles 1-4. CONCLUSIONS: HDL-C is inversely independently associated with central arterial stiffness. The anti-inflammatory activity of HDL-C may mediate its relationship with cf-PWV. Further, long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate whether high HDL-C levels are protective against central artery stiffening through the anti-inflammatory activity of HDL-C.

  9. Test–retest reliability of the Disease Activity Score 28 CRP (DAS28-CRP), the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) and the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) in rheumatoid arthritis when based on patient self-assessment of tender and swollen joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Cecilie; Dreyer, Lene; Egsmose, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    and physician-derived scores. Thirty out-clinic RA patients with stable disease were included. A joint count was performed two times 1 week apart by the patient and by an experienced physician. Test-retest reliability was expressed as the least significant difference (LSD), as the LSD in percent of the mean...... score (%LSD) and as intra-individual coefficients of variation (CVi). Mean scores based on physician vs. patient joint counts (visit 1) were: DAS28-CRP(4v) 3.5 ± 1.0 vs. 3.6 ± 1.1 (not significant (NS)), DAS28-CRP(3v) 3.4 ± 0.9 vs. 3.5 ± 0.9 (NS), SDAI 14.2 ± 9.4 vs.14.1 ± 9.4 (NS) and CDAI 13.4 ± 9.......3 vs. 13.3 ± 9.4 (NS). The LSDs (%LSD) for duplicate assessments of patient-derived scores (visit 2 vs. 1) were: DAS28-CRP(4v) 0.8 (23.2), DAS28-CRP(3v) 0.9 (25.2), SDAI 8.3 (59.9) and CDAI 8.4 (63.8). Similar LSDs were found for differences between duplicate assessments of physician-derived scores...

  10. Progress report of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contribu- tion to IAEA CRP F11016 on ?Utilization of ion accelerators for studying and modeling of radiation induced defects in semicon- ductors and insulators? 3rd RCM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizkelethy, Gyorgy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report presents the results of Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) contribution to IAEA CRP F11016 as mostly raw data. The goal of this CRP is to study the effects of radiation on semiconductors and insulators with the emphasis on the effect of displacement damage due to MeV energy ions on the performance of semiconductor detectors and microelectronic devices. SNL is tasked with performing electrical characterization, irradiation, and IBIC, DLTS, C-­V measurements on devices used in the CRP, as well as calculating damage and ionization profiles for modeling.

  11. Grass as a C booster for manure-biogas in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehme, Sirli; Hamelin, Lorie; Veromann, Eve

    2014-01-01

    in the acidification and eutrophication (N) categories for the reed canary grass scenario, reflecting the impacts of the cultivation process. The main conclusion was that future strategies for manure-biogas production in Estonia should not rely upon land-dependent biomass, even if the availability of arable land...... in Estonia is, under current conditions, not considered to be an issue. Keywords: anaerobic digestion, land use changes, dairy manure, reed canary grass, natural grass...

  12. A synteny-based draft genome sequence of the forage grass Lolium perenne

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne Stephen L.; Nagy Istvan; Pfeifer Matthisas; Armstead Ian; Swain Suresh; Studer Bruno; Mayer Klaus; Campbell Jacqueline D.; Czaban Adrian; Hentrup Stephan; Paniz Frank; Bendixen Christian; Hedegaard Jakob; Caccamo Mario; Asp Torben

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) an economically important forage and turf grass species that is widely cultivated in temperate regions worldwide. It is classified along with wheat barley oats and Brachypodium distachyon in the Pooideae sub family of the grass family (Poaceae). Transcriptome data was used to identify 28 455 gene models and we utilized macro co linearity between perennial ryegrass and barley and synteny within the grass family to ...

  13. Earthworm species and burrows related to agricultural management of clover-grass rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Krogh, P. H.; Lamandé, M.; Eriksen, J.; Holmstrup, M.

    2012-01-01

    Clover grass is an important element in crop rotations due to its beneficial agronomic properties including nitrogen build-up, biodiversity stimulation and maintenance of soil macropores and it harvests very high levels of earthworm biomass. We studied the relationship between crucial ele-ments of a clover grass crop rotation and earthworm diversity and macropore depth distribution. The dominance of anecics increased from the annual crops to the perenial clover-grass. Aporrec-todea tuberculat...

  14. Facilitation or Competition? Tree Effects on Grass Biomass across a Precipitation Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Moustakas, Aristides; Kunin, William E.; Cameron, Tom C.; Sankaran, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Savanna ecosystems are dominated by two distinct plant life forms, grasses and trees, but the interactions between them are poorly understood. Here, we quantified the effects of isolated savanna trees on grass biomass as a function of distance from the base of the tree and tree height, across a precipitation gradient in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results suggest that mean annual precipitation (MAP) mediates the nature of tree-grass interactions in these ecosystems, with the i...

  15. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal...... treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased...

  16. Reversing land degradation through grasses: a systematic meta-analysis in the Indian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debashis; Srivastava, Pankaj; Giri, Nishita; Kaushal, Rajesh; Cerda, Artemi; Meherul Alam, Nurnabi

    2017-02-01

    Although intensive agriculture is necessary to sustain the world's growing population, accelerated soil erosion contributes to a decrease in the environmental health of ecosystems at local, regional and global scales. Reversing the process of land degradation using vegetative measures is of utmost importance in such ecosystems. The present study critically analyzes the effect of grasses in reversing the process of land degradation using a systematic review. The collected information was segregated under three different land use and land management situations. Meta-analysis was applied to test the hypothesis that the use of grasses reduces runoff and soil erosion. The effect of grasses was deduced for grass strip and in combination with physical structures. Similarly, the effects of grasses were analyzed in degraded pasture lands. The overall result of the meta-analysis showed that infiltration capacity increased approximately 2-fold after planting grasses across the slopes in agricultural fields. Grazing land management through a cut-and-carry system increased conservation efficiencies by 42 and 63 % with respect to reduction in runoff and erosion, respectively. Considering the comprehensive performance index (CPI), it has been observed that hybrid Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and sambuta (Saccharum munja) grass seem to posses the most desirable attributes as an effective grass barrier for the western Himalayas and Eastern Ghats, while natural grass (Dichanthium annulatum) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) are found to be most promising grass species for the Konkan region of the Western Ghats and the northeastern Himalayan region, respectively. In addition to these benefits, it was also observed that soil carbon loss can be reduced by 83 % with the use of grasses. Overall, efficacy for erosion control of various grasses was more than 60 %; hence, their selection should be based on the production potential of these grasses under given edaphic and agro

  17. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic...... intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totaling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. Significant results show that the wheel load affects the grass yield negatively and more than the tire pressure...

  18. Phytolith indices as proxies of grass subfamilies on East African tropical mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremond, Laurent; Alexandre, Anne; Wooller, Matthew J.; Hély, Christelle; Williamson, David; Schäfer, Peter A.; Majule, Amos; Guiot, Joël

    2008-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to provide researchers that investigate fossil phytolith assemblages and model/data comparisons a new tool for estimating C 3/C 4 grass composition over time. We tested the reliability of modern soil phytolith assemblages and phytolith indices for tracing the dominance of different grass subfamilies and tree cover density. We analyzed modern soil phytolith assemblages from sites over elevation gradients on Mount Kenya (Kenya), Mount Rungwe and around Lake Masoko (southern Tanzania). These data were compared with available botanical data. A phytolith index named Ic, proved to be an effective proxy of the proportions of Pooideae, Arundinoideae and Bambusoideae grasses (mainly C 3 grasses) versus Panicoideae grasses (mainly C 4 grasses), increasing with elevation in East-Africa. When tropical mountains are covered by open habitats (e.g . grasses and shrublands), Ic should be a reliable proxy of the C 3/C 4 grass composition. These results highlight the value of the phytolith index Ic, when interpreting paleo-environmental records from tropical mountains, to: 1) better understand past local and regional C 3/C 4 grass distributions and associated climatic changes and 2) increase the set of C 3/C 4 data available for model/data comparisons.

  19. Development of a methodology to accelerate a spontaneous grass colonization in a tailings storage facility under semiarid mediterranean climate type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginocchio, Rosanna; Arellano, Eduardo; Morales-Ladron de Guevara, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    Phytostabilization of massive mine tailings (>400 he) under semiarid environments is challenging, particularly when no organic amendments are locally available and no irrigation is possible. Increasing tendency for reprocessing old tailings to recover valued metals further pioneer the need for simple but effective plant covers. The choice of plant species and form of management are thus very important. CODELCO-Chile chose the Cauquenes post-operational tailings storage facility (TFS; 700 ha), that will be reprocessed for copper and other elements in the near future, to evaluate efficacy of the phytostabilization technology under semiarid conditions in central Chile. Surface application of a polymer (Soiltac TM) has been used for wind control of tailings but phytostabilization is considered as a best cost-effective alternative. A field study was performed to define a management program to improve the establishment and cover of an annual native grass (Vulpia myuros var. megalura), a spontaneous colonizer of the TSF. Considered management factors were control of macro herbivores (with and without fence), macronutrient improvement (with and without application of N-rich foliar fertilizer), and improvement of seed retention in the substrate (with and without small-scale rugosity; with and without lived wind-breakers; with and without mechanical wind-breakers). Each treatment was replicated three times and established in 2 m x 2 m quadrats. Plant response variables were monitored after 1 and 2 grass growing seasons. Application of N-rich foliar fertilizer and any wind control mechanism for seed retention in the substrate were effective for significantly improving both grass cover and biomass production in time, irrespective of macro-herbivore control. Seed production was significantly improved when macro herbivores were excluded and was positively and significantly correlated to vegetative biomass production. When applying this management program for tailings

  20. Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

    2011-01-01

    Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb.