WorldWideScience

Sample records for program cost estimates

  1. Cost-estimating relationships for space programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Cost-estimating relationships (CERs) are defined and discussed as they relate to the estimation of theoretical costs for space programs. The paper primarily addresses CERs based on analogous relationships between physical and performance parameters to estimate future costs. Analytical estimation principles are reviewed examining the sources of errors in cost models, and the use of CERs is shown to be affected by organizational culture. Two paradigms for cost estimation are set forth: (1) the Rand paradigm for single-culture single-system methods; and (2) the Price paradigms that incorporate a set of cultural variables. For space programs that are potentially subject to even small cultural changes, the Price paradigms are argued to be more effective. The derivation and use of accurate CERs is important for developing effective cost models to analyze the potential of a given space program.

  2. Development of computer program for estimating decommissioning cost - 59037

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak-Soo; Park, Jong-Kil

    2012-01-01

    The programs for estimating the decommissioning cost have been developed for many different purposes and applications. The estimation of decommissioning cost is required a large amount of data such as unit cost factors, plant area and its inventory, waste treatment, etc. These make it difficult to use manual calculation or typical spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel. The cost estimation for eventual decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a prerequisite for safe, timely and cost-effective decommissioning. To estimate the decommissioning cost more accurately and systematically, KHNP, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd, developed a decommissioning cost estimating computer program called 'DeCAT-Pro', which is Decommission-ing Cost Assessment Tool - Professional. (Hereinafter called 'DeCAT') This program allows users to easily assess the decommissioning cost with various decommissioning options. Also, this program provides detailed reporting for decommissioning funding requirements as well as providing detail project schedules, cash-flow, staffing plan and levels, and waste volumes by waste classifications and types. KHNP is planning to implement functions for estimating the plant inventory using 3-D technology and for classifying the conditions of radwaste disposal and transportation automatically. (authors)

  3. The QUELCE Method: Using Change Drivers to Estimate Program Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Analysis 4 2.4 Assign Conditional Probabilities 5 2.5 Apply Uncertainty to Cost Formula Inputs for Scenarios 5 2.6 Perform Monte Carlo Simulation to...Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited 1 Introduction: The Cost Estimation Challenge Because large-scale programs... challenged [Bliss 2012]. Improvements in cost estimation that would make these assumptions more precise and reduce early lifecycle uncertainty can

  4. Cost estimation model for advanced planetary programs, fourth edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadoni, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the planetary program cost model is discussed. The Model was updated to incorporate cost data from the most recent US planetary flight projects and extensively revised to more accurately capture the information in the historical cost data base. This data base is comprised of the historical cost data for 13 unmanned lunar and planetary flight programs. The revision was made with a two fold objective: to increase the flexibility of the model in its ability to deal with the broad scope of scenarios under consideration for future missions, and to maintain and possibly improve upon the confidence in the model's capabilities with an expected accuracy of 20%. The Model development included a labor/cost proxy analysis, selection of the functional forms of the estimating relationships, and test statistics. An analysis of the Model is discussed and two sample applications of the cost model are presented.

  5. Estimating pressurized water reactor decommissioning costs: A user's manual for the PWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierschbach, M.C.; Mencinsky, G.J.

    1993-10-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user's manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personnel computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning PWR plant stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning

  6. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  7. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs. A user's manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software: Draft report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierschbach, M.C.

    1994-12-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the U.S. Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user's manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning BWR power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning

  8. Counting the cost: estimating the economic benefit of pedophile treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, M; Donato, R

    2001-04-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to identify the economic costs and benefits of pedophile treatment programs incorporating both the tangible and intangible cost of sexual abuse to victims. Cost estimates of cognitive behavioral therapy programs in Australian prisons are compared against the tangible and intangible costs to victims of being sexually abused. Estimates are prepared that take into account a number of problematic issues. These include the range of possible recidivism rates for treatment programs; the uncertainty surrounding the number of child sexual molestation offences committed by recidivists; and the methodological problems associated with estimating the intangible costs of sexual abuse on victims. Despite the variation in parameter estimates that impact on the cost-benefit analysis of pedophile treatment programs, it is found that potential range of economic costs from child sexual abuse are substantial and the economic benefits to be derived from appropriate and effective treatment programs are high. Based on a reasonable set of parameter estimates, in-prison, cognitive therapy treatment programs for pedophiles are likely to be of net benefit to society. Despite this, a critical area of future research must include further methodological developments in estimating the quantitative impact of child sexual abuse in the community.

  9. A stump-to-mill timber production cost-estimating program for cable logging eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1987-01-01

    ECOST utilizes data from stand inventory, cruise data, and the logging plan for the tract in question. The program produces detailed stump-to-mill cost estimates for specific proposed timber sales. These estimates are then utilized, in combination with specific landowner objectives, to assess the economic feasibility of cable logging a given area. The program output is...

  10. Cost of employee assistance programs: comparison of national estimates from 1993 and 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, M T; Zarkin, G A; Bray, J W; Hartwell, T D

    1999-02-01

    The cost and financing of mental health services is gaining increasing importance with the spread of managed care and cost-cutting measures throughout the health care system. The delivery of mental health services through structured employee assistance programs (EAPs) could be undermined by revised health insurance contracts and cutbacks in employer-provided benefits at the workplace. This study uses two recently completed national surveys of EAPs to estimate the costs of providing EAP services during 1993 and 1995. EAP costs are determined by program type, worksite size, industry, and region. In addition, information on program services is reported to determine the most common types and categories of services and whether service delivery changes have occurred between 1993 and 1995. The results of this study will be useful to EAP managers, mental health administrators, and mental health services researchers who are interested in the delivery and costs of EAP services.

  11. The cost of crime to society: new crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, Kathryn E; French, Michael T; Fang, Hai

    2010-04-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than 10 years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost to society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Key Aspects of the Federal Direct Loan Program's Cost Estimates: Department of Education. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbom, Linda M.; Ashby, Cornelia M.

    Because of concerns about the Department of Education's reliance on estimates to project costs of the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program (FDLP) and a lack of historical information on which to base those estimates, Congress asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to review how the department develops its cost estimates for the program,…

  13. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  14. Avoided cost estimation and post-reform funding allocation for California's energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskette, C.; Horii, B.; Price, S.; Kollman, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the first comprehensive estimation of California's electricity avoided costs since the state reformed its electricity market. It describes avoided cost estimates that vary by time and location, thus facilitating targeted design, funding, and marketing of demand-side management (DSM) and energy efficiency (EE) programs that could not have occurred under the previous methodology of system average cost estimation. The approach, data, and results reflect two important market structure changes: (a) wholesale spot and forward markets now supply electricity commodities to load serving entities; and (b) the evolution of an emissions market that internalizes and prices some of the externalities of electricity generation. The paper also introduces the multiplier effect of a price reduction due to DSM/EE implementation on electricity bills of all consumers. It affirms that area- and time-specific avoided cost estimates can improve the allocation of the state's public funding for DSM/EE programs, a finding that could benefit other parts of North America (e.g. Ontario and New York), which have undergone electricity deregulation. (author)

  15. Estimating the cost of saving electricity through U.S. utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Goldman, Charles A.; Rybka, Gregory; Leventis, Greg; Schwartz, Lisa; Sanstad, Alan H.; Schiller, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The program administrator and total cost of saved energy allow comparison of the cost of efficiency across utilities, states, and program types, and can identify potential performance improvements. Comparing program administrator cost with the total cost of saved energy can indicate the degree to which programs leverage investment by participants. Based on reported total costs and savings information for U.S. utility efficiency programs from 2009 to 2013, we estimate the savings-weighted average total cost of saved electricity across 20 states at $0.046 per kilowatt-hour (kW h), comparing favorably with energy supply costs and retail rates. Programs targeted on the residential market averaged $0.030 per kW h compared to $0.053 per kW h for non-residential programs. Lighting programs, with an average total cost of $0.018 per kW h, drove lower savings costs in the residential market. We provide estimates for the most common program types and find that program administrators and participants on average are splitting the costs of efficiency in half. More consistent, standardized and complete reporting on efficiency programs is needed. Differing definitions and quantification of costs, savings and savings lifetimes pose challenges for comparing program results. Reducing these uncertainties could increase confidence in efficiency as a resource among planners and policymakers. - Highlights: • The cost of saved energy allows comparisons among energy resource investments. • Findings from the most expansive collection yet of total energy efficiency program costs. • The weighted average total cost of saved electricity was $0.046 for 20 states in 2009–2013. • Averages in the residential and non-residential sectors were $0.030 and $0.053 per kW h, respectively. • Results strongly indicate need for more consistent, reliable and complete reporting on efficiency programs.

  16. Dynamic Programming and Error Estimates for Stochastic Control Problems with Maximum Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokanowski, Olivier; Picarelli, Athena; Zidani, Hasnaa

    2015-01-01

    This work is concerned with stochastic optimal control for a running maximum cost. A direct approach based on dynamic programming techniques is studied leading to the characterization of the value function as the unique viscosity solution of a second order Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation with an oblique derivative boundary condition. A general numerical scheme is proposed and a convergence result is provided. Error estimates are obtained for the semi-Lagrangian scheme. These results can apply to the case of lookback options in finance. Moreover, optimal control problems with maximum cost arise in the characterization of the reachable sets for a system of controlled stochastic differential equations. Some numerical simulations on examples of reachable analysis are included to illustrate our approach

  17. Dynamic Programming and Error Estimates for Stochastic Control Problems with Maximum Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokanowski, Olivier, E-mail: boka@math.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Université Paris-Diderot (Paris 7) UFR de Mathématiques - Bât. Sophie Germain (France); Picarelli, Athena, E-mail: athena.picarelli@inria.fr [Projet Commands, INRIA Saclay & ENSTA ParisTech (France); Zidani, Hasnaa, E-mail: hasnaa.zidani@ensta.fr [Unité de Mathématiques appliquées (UMA), ENSTA ParisTech (France)

    2015-02-15

    This work is concerned with stochastic optimal control for a running maximum cost. A direct approach based on dynamic programming techniques is studied leading to the characterization of the value function as the unique viscosity solution of a second order Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation with an oblique derivative boundary condition. A general numerical scheme is proposed and a convergence result is provided. Error estimates are obtained for the semi-Lagrangian scheme. These results can apply to the case of lookback options in finance. Moreover, optimal control problems with maximum cost arise in the characterization of the reachable sets for a system of controlled stochastic differential equations. Some numerical simulations on examples of reachable analysis are included to illustrate our approach.

  18. Using Multiple and Logistic Regression to Estimate the Median WillCost and Probability of Cost and Schedule Overrun for Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Logistic Regression to Estimate the Median Will-Cost and Probability of Cost and Schedule Overrun for Program Managers Ryan C. Trudelle, B.S...not the other. We are able to give logistic regression models to program managers that identify several program characteristics for either...considered acceptable. We recommend the use of our logistic models as a tool to manage a portfolio of programs in order to gain potential elusive

  19. Cost function estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C K; Andersen, K; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    2000-01-01

    on these criteria, a two-part model was chosen. In this model, the probability of incurring any costs was estimated using a logistic regression, while the level of the costs was estimated in the second part of the model. The choice of model had a substantial impact on the predicted health care costs, e...

  20. Estimation of Finite Population Mean in Multivariate Stratified Sampling under Cost Function Using Goal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical utilization of stratified random sampling scheme, the investigator meets a problem to select a sample that maximizes the precision of a finite population mean under cost constraint. An allocation of sample size becomes complicated when more than one characteristic is observed from each selected unit in a sample. In many real life situations, a linear cost function of a sample size nh is not a good approximation to actual cost of sample survey when traveling cost between selected units in a stratum is significant. In this paper, sample allocation problem in multivariate stratified random sampling with proposed cost function is formulated in integer nonlinear multiobjective mathematical programming. A solution procedure is proposed using extended lexicographic goal programming approach. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the computational details and to compare the efficiency of proposed compromise allocation.

  1. Computer programs for capital cost estimation, lifetime economic performance simulation, and computation of cost indexes for laser fusion and other advanced technology facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Three FORTRAN programs, CAPITAL, VENTURE, and INDEXER, have been developed to automate computations used in assessing the economic viability of proposed or conceptual laser fusion and other advanced-technology facilities, as well as conventional projects. The types of calculations performed by these programs are, respectively, capital cost estimation, lifetime economic performance simulation, and computation of cost indexes. The codes permit these three topics to be addressed with considerable sophistication commensurate with user requirements and available data

  2. The Psychology of Cost Estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Cost estimation for large (and even not so large) government programs is a challenge. The number and magnitude of cost overruns associated with large Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs highlight the difficulties in developing and promulgating accurate cost estimates. These overruns can be the result of inadequate technology readiness or requirements definition, the whims of politicians or government bureaucrats, or even as failures of the cost estimating profession itself. However, there may be another reason for cost overruns that is right in front of us, but only recently have we begun to grasp it: the fact that cost estimators and their customers are human. The last 70+ years of research into human psychology and behavioral economics have yielded amazing findings into how we humans process and use information to make judgments and decisions. What these scientists have uncovered is surprising: humans are often irrational and illogical beings, making decisions based on factors such as emotion and perception, rather than facts and data. These built-in biases to our thinking directly affect how we develop our cost estimates and how those cost estimates are used. We cost estimators can use this knowledge of biases to improve our cost estimates and also to improve how we communicate and work with our customers. By understanding how our customers think, and more importantly, why they think the way they do, we can have more productive relationships and greater influence. By using psychology to our advantage, we can more effectively help the decision maker and our organizations make fact-based decisions.

  3. Software cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the state of the art of software cost estimation (SCE). The main questions to be answered in the paper are: (1) What are the reasons for overruns of budgets and planned durations? (2) What are the prerequisites for estimating? (3) How can software development effort be

  4. Software cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, F.J.; Heemstra, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the state of the art of software cost estimation (SCE). The main questions to be answered in the paper are: (1) What are the reasons for overruns of budgets and planned durations? (2) What are the prerequisites for estimating? (3) How can software development effort be

  5. Estimating the Costs of Preventive Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Porter, Michele M.; Ayers, Tim S.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Sandler, Irwin

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to improve the practice and reporting of cost estimates of prevention programs. It reviews the steps in estimating the costs of an intervention and the principles that should guide estimation. The authors then review prior efforts to estimate intervention costs using a sample of well-known but diverse studies. Finally,…

  6. Cost Estimation and Control for Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Vanhook, Michael E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Good program management practices, cost analysis, cost estimation, and cost control for aerospace flight systems are interrelated and depend upon each other. The best cost control process cannot overcome poor design or poor systems trades that lead to the wrong approach. The project needs robust Technical, Schedule, Cost, Risk, and Cost Risk practices before it can incorporate adequate Cost Control. Cost analysis both precedes and follows cost estimation -- the two are closely coupled with each other and with Risk analysis. Parametric cost estimating relationships and computerized models are most often used. NASA has learned some valuable lessons in controlling cost problems, and recommends use of a summary Project Manager's checklist as shown here.

  7. Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-17

    In 2011, energy used by federal buildings cost approximately $7 billion. Reducing federal energy use could help address several important national policy goals, including: (1) increased energy security; (2) lowered emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants; (3) increased return on taxpayer dollars; and (4) increased private sector innovation in energy efficient technologies. This report estimates the impact of efficient product procurement on reducing the amount of wasted energy (and, therefore, wasted money) associated with federal buildings, as well as on reducing the needless greenhouse gas emissions associated with these buildings.

  8. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    standard practice is to deflate costs to constant dollars (the dependent variable in the analogous regression) using a previously determined price ...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5489 March 2016 The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in...DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Jun 2013]. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

  9. Estimating Costs and Benefits Associated with Evidence-Based Violence Prevention: Four Case Studies Based on the Fourth R Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire V. Crooks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Teen violence in dating and peer relationships has huge costs to society in numerous areas including health care, social services, the workforce and the justice system. Physical, psychological, and sexual abuse have long-lasting ramifications for the perpetrators as well as the victims, and for the families involved on both sides of that equation. An effective violence prevention program that is part of a school’s curriculum is beneficial not only for teaching teenagers what is appropriate behaviour in a relationship, but also for helping them break the cycle of violence which may have begun at home with their own maltreatment as children. The Fourth R program is an efficacious violence prevention program that was developed in Ontario and has been implemented in schools throughout Canada and the U.S. Covering relationship dynamics common to dating violence as well as substance abuse, peer violence and unsafe sex, the program can be adapted to different cultures and to same-sex relationships. The program, which gets its name from the traditional 3Rs — reading, ’riting and ’rithmetic — offers schools the opportunity to provide effective programming for teens to reduce the likelihood of them using relationship for violence as they move into adulthood. The federal government has estimated that the societal costs of relationship violence amount to more than $7 billion. These costs can continue to be incurred through the legal and health-care systems as the ripple effects of violence play out over the years, even after a relationship has ended. Other types of violence are also costly to society and not just in terms of dollars, but in young lives diverted into criminal activity. Up to 15 per cent of youth who become involved with the justice system grow into serious adult offenders who develop lengthy criminal careers. Yet, research shows that if prevention programs such as the Fourth R can deter just one 14-year-old high-risk juvenile from

  10. Cost Estimation of Software Development and the Implications for the Program Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Software Lifecycle Model (SLIM), the Jensen System-4 model, the Software Productivity, Quality, and Reliability Estimator ( SPQR \\20), the Constructive...function models in current use are the Software Productivity, Quality, and Reliability Estimator ( SPQR /20) and the Software Architecture Sizing and...Estimator ( SPQR /20) was developed by T. Capers Jones of Software Productivity Research, Inc., in 1985. The model is intended to estimate the outcome

  11. Designing programs to improve diets for maternal and child health: estimating costs and potential dietary impacts of nutrition-sensitive programs in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, William A; Rosettie, Katherine L; Kranz, Sarah; Danaei, Goodarz; Webb, Patrick; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2018-05-01

    Improving maternal and child nutrition in resource-poor settings requires effective use of limited resources, but priority-setting is constrained by limited information about program costs and impacts, especially for interventions designed to improve diet quality. This study utilized a mixed methods approach to identify, describe and estimate the potential costs and impacts on child dietary intake of 12 nutrition-sensitive programs in Ethiopia, Nigeria and India. These potential interventions included conditional livestock and cash transfers, media and education, complementary food processing and sales, household production and food pricing programs. Components and costs of each program were identified through a novel participatory process of expert regional consultation followed by validation and calibration from literature searches and comparison with actual budgets. Impacts on child diets were determined by estimating of the magnitude of economic mechanisms for dietary change, comprehensive reviews of evaluations and effectiveness for similar programs, and demographic data on each country. Across the 12 programs, total cost per child reached (net present value, purchasing power parity adjusted) ranged very widely: from 0.58 to 2650 USD/year among five programs in Ethiopia; 2.62 to 1919 USD/year among four programs in Nigeria; and 27 to 586 USD/year among three programs in India. When impacts were assessed, the largest dietary improvements were for iron and zinc intakes from a complementary food production program in Ethiopia (increases of 17.7 mg iron/child/day and 7.4 mg zinc/child/day), vitamin A intake from a household animal and horticulture production program in Nigeria (335 RAE/child/day), and animal protein intake from a complementary food processing program in Nigeria (20.0 g/child/day). These results add substantial value to the limited literature on the costs and dietary impacts of nutrition-sensitive interventions targeting children in resource

  12. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly...The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study Stanley Horowitz, Assistant Division...Graduate School of Engineering and Management, Air Force Institute of Technology Cost and Price Collaboration Venkat Rao, Professor, Defense

  13. Outer planet probe cost estimates: First impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination was made of early estimates of outer planetary atmospheric probe cost by comparing the estimates with past planetary projects. Of particular interest is identification of project elements which are likely cost drivers for future probe missions. Data are divided into two parts: first, the description of a cost model developed by SAI for the Planetary Programs Office of NASA, and second, use of this model and its data base to evaluate estimates of probe costs. Several observations are offered in conclusion regarding the credibility of current estimates and specific areas of the outer planet probe concept most vulnerable to cost escalation.

  14. Preliminary estimates of the total-system cost for the restructured program: An addendum to the May 1989 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 - a fee levied on electricity generated and sold by commercial nuclear power plants - is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The costs contained in this report represent a preliminary analysis of the cost impacts associated with the Secretary of Energy's Report to Congress on Reassessment of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program issued in November 1989. The major elements of the restructured program announced in this report which pertain to the program's life-cycle costs are: a prioritization of the scientific investigations program at the Yucca Mountain candidate site to focus on identification of potentially adverse conditions, a delay in the start of repository operations until 2010, the start of limited waste acceptance at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in 1998, and the start of waste acceptance at the full-capability MRS facility in 2,000. Based on the restructured program, the total-system cost for the system with a repository at the candidate site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $26 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $34 to $35 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) requiring disposal. 17 figs., 17 tabs

  15. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis

  16. Approaches to estimating decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.I.

    1990-07-01

    The chronological development of methodology for estimating the cost of nuclear reactor power station decommissioning is traced from the mid-1970s through 1990. Three techniques for developing decommissioning cost estimates are described. The two viable techniques are compared by examining estimates developed for the same nuclear power station using both methods. The comparison shows that the differences between the estimates are due largely to differing assumptions regarding the size of the utility and operating contractor overhead staffs. It is concluded that the two methods provide bounding estimates on a range of manageable costs, and provide reasonable bases for the utility rate adjustments necessary to pay for future decommissioning costs. 6 refs

  17. An Analytical Cost Estimation Procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayachandran, Toke

    1999-01-01

    Analytical procedures that can be used to do a sensitivity analysis of a cost estimate, and to perform tradeoffs to identify input values that can reduce the total cost of a project, are described in the report...

  18. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals

  19. Collider Scaling and Cost Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with collider cost and scaling. The main points of the discussion are the following ones: 1) scaling laws and cost estimation: accelerating gradient requirements, total stored RF energy considerations, peak power consideration, average power consumption; 2) cost optimization; 3) Bremsstrahlung considerations; 4) Focusing optics: conventional, laser focusing or super disruption. 13 refs

  20. Cost estimation tools in Germany and the UK. Comparison of cost estimates and actual costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, W.; Gordelier, S.; Drake, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Accurate cost estimation for future decommissioning projects is a matter of considerable importance, especially for ensuring that sufficient funds will be available at the time of project implementation. This paper looks at the experience of cost estimation and real implementation outcomes from two countries, Germany and the UK, and draws lessons for the future. In Germany, cost estimates for the decommissioning of power reactors are updated every two years. For this purpose, the STILLKO program of the NIS Company is used. So far, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has successfully decommissioned two prototype reactor facilities. Re-cultivation of the premises has already been completed. At the moment, the activated components of the multi-purpose research reactor (MZFR), the first pressurized water reactor in Germany that was moderated and cooled with heavy water, and of the prototype fast breeder reactor (KNK) are being dismantled remotely. Consequently, vast experience exists in particular for the updating of total costs on the basis of actually incurred expenses. The further the dismantling work proceeds, the more reliable is the total cost estimate. Here, the development of the estimated MZFR decommissioning costs shall be presented and compared with the estimates obtained for a German reference PWR-type power reactor of 1200 MW. In this way: - common features of the prototype reactor and power reactor shall be emphasized, - several parameters leading to an increase in the estimated costs shall be highlighted, - cost risks shall be outlined with the remote dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel serving as an example, - calculation parameters shall be presented, and - recommendations shall be made for a consistent estimation of costs. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has a major programme for the environmental remediation of its former research and development sites at Dounreay, Windscale, Harwell and Winfrith together with the need to

  1. Structural Estimation of Stock Market Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    education programs can affect consumers' investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 4–6% of labor...

  2. Laser cost experience and estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shofner, F.M.; Hoglund, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    This report addresses the question of estimating the capital and operating costs for LIS (Laser Isotope Separation) lasers, which have performance requirements well beyond the state of mature art. This question is seen with different perspectives by political leaders, ERDA administrators, scientists, and engineers concerned with reducing LIS to economically successful commercial practice, on a timely basis. Accordingly, this report attempts to provide ''ballpark'' estimators for capital and operating costs and useful design and operating information for lasers based on mature technology, and their LIS analogs. It is written very basically and is intended to respond about equally to the perspectives of administrators, scientists, and engineers. Its major contributions are establishing the current, mature, industrialized laser track record (including capital and operating cost estimators, reliability, types of application, etc.) and, especially, evolution of generalized estimating procedures for capital and operating cost estimators for new laser design

  3. Estimating and understanding DOE waste management costs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, J.S.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines costs associated with cleaning up the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facilities, with particular emphasis on the waste management program. Life-cycle waste management costs have been compiled and reported in the DOE Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). Waste management costs are a critical issue for DOE because of the current budget constraints. The DOE sites are struggling to accomplish their environmental management objectives given funding scenarios that are well below anticipated waste management costs. Through the BEMR process, DOE has compiled complex-wide cleanup cost estimates and has begun analysis of these costs with respect to alternative waste management scenarios and policy strategies. From this analysis, DOE is attempting to identify the major cost drivers and prioritize environmental management activities to achieve maximum utilization of existing funding. This paper provides an overview of the methodology DOE has used to estimate and analyze some waste management costs, including the key data requirements and uncertainties

  4. Project Cost Estimation for Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    For Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT), there are far too many projects that ultimately cost much more than initially planned. Because project nominations are linked to estimates of future funding and the analysis of system needs, the inaccur...

  5. The great environmental restoration cost estimating shootout: A blind test of three DOE cost estimating groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemen, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The cost of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has increased steadily over the last three years and, in the process, has drawn increasing scrutiny from Congress, the public, and government agencies such as the Office of Management and Budget and the General Accounting Office. Programmatic costs have been reviewed by many groups from within the DOE as well as from outside agencies. While cost may appear to be a universally applicable barometer of project conditions, it is actually a single dimensional manifestation of a complex set of conditions. As such, variations in cost estimates can be caused by a variety of underlying factors such as changes in scope, schedule, performing organization, economic conditions, or regulatory environment. This paper will examine the subject of cost estimates by evaluating three different cost estimates prepared for a single project including two estimates prepared by project proponents and another estimate prepared by a review team. The paper identifies the reasons for cost growth as measured by the different estimates and evaluates the ability of review estimates to measure the validity of costs. The comparative technique used to test the three cost estimates will identify the reasons for changes in the estimated cost, over time, and evaluate the ability of an independent review to correctly identify the reasons for cost growth and evaluate the reasonableness of the cost proposed by the project proponents. Recommendations are made for improved cost estimates and improved cost estimate reviews. Conclusions are reached regarding the differences in estimate results that can be attributed to differences in estimating techniques, the implications of these differences for decision makers, and circumstances that are unique to environmental cost estimating. (author)

  6. Guideline to Estimate Decommissioning Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Taesik; Kim, Younggook; Oh, Jaeyoung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The primary objective of this work is to provide guidelines to estimate the decommissioning cost as well as the stakeholders with plausible information to understand the decommissioning activities in a reasonable manner, which eventually contribute to acquiring the public acceptance for the nuclear power industry. Although several cases of the decommissioning cost estimate have been made for a few commercial nuclear power plants, the different technical, site-specific and economic assumptions used make it difficult to interpret those cost estimates and compare them with that of a relevant plant. Trustworthy cost estimates are crucial to plan a safe and economic decommissioning project. The typical approach is to break down the decommissioning project into a series of discrete and measurable work activities. Although plant specific differences derived from the economic and technical assumptions make a licensee difficult to estimate reliable decommissioning costs, estimating decommissioning costs is the most crucial processes since it encompasses all the spectrum of activities from the planning to the final evaluation on whether a decommissioning project has successfully been preceded from the perspective of safety and economic points. Hence, it is clear that tenacious efforts should be needed to successfully perform the decommissioning project.

  7. Software Cost-Estimation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Software Cost Estimation Model SOFTCOST provides automated resource and schedule model for software development. Combines several cost models found in open literature into one comprehensive set of algorithms. Compensates for nearly fifty implementation factors relative to size of task, inherited baseline, organizational and system environment and difficulty of task.

  8. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  9. NASA Software Cost Estimation Model: An Analogy Based Estimation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihn, Jairus; Juster, Leora; Menzies, Tim; Mathew, George; Johnson, James

    2015-01-01

    The cost estimation of software development activities is increasingly critical for large scale integrated projects such as those at DOD and NASA especially as the software systems become larger and more complex. As an example MSL (Mars Scientific Laboratory) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory launched with over 2 million lines of code making it the largest robotic spacecraft ever flown (Based on the size of the software). Software development activities are also notorious for their cost growth, with NASA flight software averaging over 50% cost growth. All across the agency, estimators and analysts are increasingly being tasked to develop reliable cost estimates in support of program planning and execution. While there has been extensive work on improving parametric methods there is very little focus on the use of models based on analogy and clustering algorithms. In this paper we summarize our findings on effort/cost model estimation and model development based on ten years of software effort estimation research using data mining and machine learning methods to develop estimation models based on analogy and clustering. The NASA Software Cost Model performance is evaluated by comparing it to COCOMO II, linear regression, and K-­ nearest neighbor prediction model performance on the same data set.

  10. Estimated cost savings associated with the transfer of office-administered specialty pharmaceuticals to a specialty pharmacy provider in a Medical Injectable Drug program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Christopher G; Culley, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    A large managed care organization (MCO) in western Pennsylvania initiated a Medical Injectable Drug (MID) program in 2002 that transferred a specific subset of specialty drugs from physician reimbursement under the traditional "buy-and-bill" model in the medical benefit to MCO purchase from a specialty pharmacy provider (SPP) that supplied physician offices with the MIDs. The MID program was initiated with 4 drugs in 2002 (palivizumab and 3 hyaluronate products/derivatives) growing to more than 50 drugs by 2007-2008. To (a) describe the MID program as a method to manage the cost and delivery of this subset of specialty drugs, and (b) estimate the MID program cost savings in 2007 and 2008 in an MCO with approximately 4.6 million members. Cost savings generated by the MID program were calculated by comparing the total actual expenditure (plan cost plus member cost) on medications included in the MID program for calendar years 2007 and 2008 with the total estimated expenditure that would have been paid to physicians during the same time period for the same medication if reimbursement had been made using HCPCS (J code) billing under the physician "buy-and-bill" reimbursement rates. For the approximately 50 drugs in the MID program in 2007 and 2008, the drug cost savings in 2007 were estimated to be $15.5 million (18.2%) or $290 per claim ($0.28 per member per month [PMPM]) and about $13 million (12.7%) or $201 per claim ($0.23 PMPM) in 2008. Although 28% of MID claims continued to be billed by physicians using J codes in 2007 and 22% in 2008, all claims for MIDs were limited to the SPP reimbursement rates. This MID program was associated with health plan cost savings of approximately $28.5 million over 2 years, achieved by the transfer of about 50 physician-administered injectable pharmaceuticals from reimbursement to physicians to reimbursement to a single SPP and payment of physician claims for MIDs at the SPP reimbursement rates.

  11. Cost Estimates and Investment Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emhjellen, Kjetil; Emhjellen Magne; Osmundsen, Petter

    2001-08-01

    When evaluating new investment projects, oil companies traditionally use the discounted cashflow method. This method requires expected cashflows in the numerator and a risk adjusted required rate of return in the denominator in order to calculate net present value. The capital expenditure (CAPEX) of a project is one of the major cashflows used to calculate net present value. Usually the CAPEX is given by a single cost figure, with some indication of its probability distribution. In the oil industry and many other industries, it is common practice to report a CAPEX that is the estimated 50/50 (median) CAPEX instead of the estimated expected (expected value) CAPEX. In this article we demonstrate how the practice of using a 50/50 (median) CAPEX, when the cost distributions are asymmetric, causes project valuation errors and therefore may lead to wrong investment decisions with acceptance of projects that have negative net present values. (author)

  12. Methods for estimating costs of transporting spent fuel and defense high-level radioactive waste for the civilian radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrough, M.E.; Lilly, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is planning and developing a transportation program for the shipment of spent fuel and defense high-level waste from current storage locations to the site of the mined geologic repository. In addition to its responsibility for providing a safe transportation system, the DOE will assure that the transportation program will function with the other system components to create an integrated waste management system. In meeting these objectives, the DOE will use private industry to the maximum extent practicable and in a manner that is cost effective. This paper discusses various methodologies used for estimating costs for the national radioactive waste transportation system. Estimating these transportation costs is a complex effort, as the high-level radioactive waste transportation system, itself, will be complex. Spent fuel and high-level waste will be transported from more than 100 nuclear power plants and defense sites across the continental US, using multiple transport modes (truck, rail, and barge/rail) and varying sizes and types of casks. Advance notification to corridor states will be given and scheduling will need to be coordinated with utilities, carriers, state and local officials, and the DOE waste acceptance facilities. Additionally, the waste forms will vary in terms of reactor type, size, weight, age, radioactivity, and temperature

  13. Why invest in a national public health program for stroke? An example using Australian data to estimate the potential benefits and cost implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Carter, Robert C; Thrift, Amanda G; Dewey, Helen M

    2007-10-01

    Stroke is the world's second leading cause of death in people aged over 60 years. Approximately 50,000 strokes occur annually in Australia with numbers predicted to increase by about one third over 10-years. Our objectives were to assess the economic implications of a public health program for stroke by: (1) predicting what potential health-gains and cost-offsets could be achieved; and (2) determining the net level of annual investment that would offer value-for-money. Lifetime costs and outcomes were calculated for additional cases that would benefit if 'current practice' was feasibly improved, estimated for one indicative year using: (i) local epidemiological data, coverage rates and costs; and (ii) pooled effect sizes from systematic reviews. blood pressure lowering; warfarin for atrial fibrillation; increased access to stroke units; intravenous thrombolysis and aspirin for ischemic events; and carotid endarterectomy. Value-for-money threshold: AUD$30,000/DALY recovered. Improved, prevention and management could prevent about 27,000 (38%) strokes in 2015. In present terms (2004), about 85,000 DALYs and AUD$1.06 billion in lifetime cost-offsets could be recovered. The net level of annual warranted investment was AUD$3.63 billion. Primary prevention, in particular blood pressure lowering, was most effective. A public health program for stroke is warranted.

  14. Analysis of Reliability Estimations and Spares Protection Levels on Life Cycle Costs of the Marine Corps H-1 Upgrades Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, David

    2004-01-01

    .... This will be accomplished through the integration of factors impacting spare parts levels and Life Cycle Costs into a spreadsheet model that will establish the appropriate relationship between the factors...

  15. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  16. An Overview Of Tool For Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferries, S.R.; Klink, K.L.; Ostapkowicz, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel(reg s ign) workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  17. Food irradiation : estimates of cost of processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.; Bongirwar, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    For estimating the cost of food irradiation, three factors have to be taken into consideration. These are : (1) capital cost incurred on irradiation device and its installation, (2) recurring or running cost which includes maintenance cost and operational expenditure, and (3) product specific cost dependent on the factors specific to the food item to be processed, its storage, handling and distribution. A simple method is proposed to provide estimates of capital costs and running costs and it is applied to prepare a detailed estimate of costs for irradiation processing of onions and fish in India. The cost of processing onions worked out to be between Rs. 40 to 120 per 1000 Kg and for fish Rs 354 per 1000 Kg. These estimates do not take into account transparation costs and fluctuations in marketing procedures. (M.G.B.). 7 tables

  18. Estimating Total Program Cost of a Long-Term, High-Technology, High-Risk Project with Task Durations and Costs That May Increase Over Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald G; Grose, Roger T; Koyak, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    .... Each task suffers some risk of delay and changed cost. Ignoring budget constraints, we use Monte Carlo simulation of the duration of each task in the project to infer the probability distribution of the project completion time...

  19. Cost estimating relationships for nuclear power plant operationa and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, H.I.; Fuller, L.C.; Myers, M.L.

    1987-11-01

    Revised cost estimating relationships for 1987 are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for light-water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants, which update guidelines published previously in 1982. The purpose of these cost estimating relationships is for use in long range planning and evaluations of the economics of nuclear energy for electric power generation. A listing of a computer program, LWROM, implementing the cost estimating relationships and written in advanced BASIC for IBM personal computers, is included

  20. Preliminary cost estimating for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpar, I.V.; Soltz, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry has higher costs for personnel, equipment, construction, and engineering than conventional industry, which means that cost estimation procedures may need adjustment. The authors account for the special technical and labor requirements of the nuclear industry in making adjustments to equipment and installation cost estimations. Using illustrative examples, they show that conventional methods of preliminary cost estimation are flexible enough for application to emerging industries if their cost structure is similar to that of the process industries. If not, modifications can provide enough engineering and cost data for a statistical analysis. 9 references, 14 figures, 4 tables

  1. Estimated cost of overactive bladder in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasopsanti, Kriangsak; Santi-Ngamkun, Apirak; Pornprasit, Kanokwan

    2007-11-01

    To estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of overactive bladder (OAB) in indigenous Thai people aged 18 years and over in the year 2005. Economically based models using diagnostic and treatment algorithms from clinical practice guidelines and current disease prevalence data were used to estimate direct and indirect costs of OAB. Prevalence and event probability estimates were obtained from the literature, national data sets, and expert opinion. Costs were estimated from a small survey using a cost questionnaire and from unit costs of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. The annual cost of OAB in Thailand is estimated as 1.9 billion USD. It is estimated to consume 1.14% of national GDP The cost includes 0.33 billion USD for direct medical costs, 1.3 billion USD for direct, nonmedical costs and 0.29 billion USD for indirect costs of lost productivity. The largest costs category was direct treatment costs of comorbidities associated with OAB. Costs of OAB medication accountedfor 14% of the total costs ofOAB.

  2. Cost estimation of Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giulio, Enzo

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a reflection on important aspects in the costs determination performance of Kyoto Protocol. The evaluation of the main models evidence possible impacts on the economies. A key role in the determination of the cost is represented by the relative hypothesis to emission trading and the projects CDM-JI and from the political capacity at the cost negative or equal to zero [it

  3. Cost estimating for CERCLA remedial alternatives a unit cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brettin, R.W.; Carr, D.J.; Janke, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA, Interim Final, dated October 1988 (EPA 1988) requires a detailed analysis be conducted of the most promising remedial alternatives against several evaluation criteria, including cost. To complete the detailed analysis, order-of-magnitude cost estimates (having an accuracy of +50 percent to -30 percent) must be developed for each remedial alternative. This paper presents a methodology for developing cost estimates of remedial alternatives comprised of various technology and process options with a wide range of estimated contaminated media quantities. In addition, the cost estimating methodology provides flexibility for incorporating revisions to remedial alternatives and achieves the desired range of accuracy. It is important to note that the cost estimating methodology presented here was developed as a concurrent path to the development of contaminated media quantity estimates. This methodology can be initiated before contaminated media quantities are estimated. As a result, this methodology is useful in developing cost estimates for use in screening and evaluating remedial technologies and process options. However, remedial alternative cost estimates cannot be prepared without the contaminated media quantity estimates. In the conduct of the feasibility study for Operable Unit 5 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), fourteen remedial alternatives were retained for detailed analysis. Each remedial alternative was composed of combinations of remedial technologies and processes which were earlier determined to be best suited for addressing the media-specific contaminants found at the FEMP site, and achieving desired remedial action objectives

  4. Towards Greater Harmonisation of Decommissioning Cost Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, Patrick; ); Laraia, Michele; ); LaGuardia, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    The NEA Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG), in collaboration with the IAEA Waste Technology Section and the EC Directorate-General for Energy and Transport, has recently studied cost estimation practices in 12 countries - Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Its findings are to be published in an OECD/NEA report entitled Cost Estimation for Decommissioning: An International Overview of Cost Elements, Estimation Practices and Reporting Requirements. This booklet highlights the findings contained in the full report. (authors)

  5. AES, Automated Construction Cost Estimation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: AES (Automated Estimating System) enters and updates the detailed cost, schedule, contingency, and escalation information contained in a typical construction or other project cost estimates. It combines this information to calculate both un-escalated and escalated and cash flow values for the project. These costs can be reported at varying levels of detail. AES differs from previous versions in at least the following ways: The schedule is entered at the WBS-Participant, Activity level - multiple activities can be assigned to each WBS-Participant combination; the spending curve is defined at the schedule activity level and a weighing factor is defined which determines percentage of cost for the WBS-Participant applied to the schedule activity; Schedule by days instead of Fiscal Year/Quarter; Sales Tax is applied at the Line Item Level- a sales tax codes is selected to indicate Material, Large Single Item, or Professional Services; a 'data filter' has been added to allow user to define data the report is to be generated for. B - Method of solution: Average Escalation Rate: The average escalation for a Bill of is calculated in three steps. 1. A table of quarterly escalation factors is calculated based on the base fiscal year and quarter of the project entered in the estimate record and the annual escalation rates entered in the Standard Value File. 2. The percentage distribution of costs by quarter for the Bill of Material is calculated based on the schedule entered and the curve type. 3. The percent in each fiscal year and quarter in the distribution is multiplied by the escalation factor for the fiscal year and quarter. The sum of these results is the average escalation rate for that Bill of Material. Schedule by curve: The allocation of costs to specific time periods is dependent on three inputs, starting schedule date, ending schedule date, and the percentage of costs allocated to each quarter. Contingency Analysis: The

  6. Estimating the cost-per-result of a national reflexed Cryptococcal antigenaemia screening program: Forecasting the impact of potential HIV guideline changes and treatment goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi Marie; Schnippel, Kathryn; Glencross, Deborah Kim

    2017-01-01

    During 2016, the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) introduced laboratory-based reflexed Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening to detect early Cryptococcal disease in immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with a confirmed CD4 count of 100 cells/μl or less. The aim of this study was to assess cost-per-result of a national screening program across different tiers of laboratory service, with variable daily CrAg test volumes. The impact of potential ART treatment guideline and treatment target changes on CrAg volumes, platform choice and laboratory workflow are considered. CD4 data (with counts per-result was calculated for four scenarios, including the existing service status quo (Scenario-I), and three other settings (as Scenarios II-IV) which were based on information from recent antiretroviral (ART) guidelines, District Health Information System (DHIS) data and UNAIDS 90/90/90 HIV/AIDS treatment targets. Scenario-II forecast CD4 testing offered only to new ART initiates recorded at DHIS. Scenario-III projected all patients notified as HIV+, but not yet on ART (recorded at DHIS) and Scenario-IV forecast CrAg screening in 90% of estimated HIV+ patients across South Africa (also DHIS). Stata was used to assess daily CrAg volumes at the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th percentiles across 52 CD4-laboratories. Daily volumes were used to determine technical effort/ operator staff costs (% full time equivalent) and cost-per-result for all scenarios. Daily volumes ranged between 3 and 64 samples for Scenario-I at the 5th and 95th percentile. Similarly, daily volumes ranges of 1-12, 2-45 and 5-100 CrAg-directed samples were noted for Scenario's II, III and IV respectively. A cut-off of 30 CrAg tests per day defined use of either LFA or EIA platform. LFA cost-per-result ranged from $8.24 to $5.44 and EIA cost-per-result between $5.58 and $4.88 across the range of test volumes. The technical effort across scenarios ranged from 3.2-27.6% depending on test volumes and

  7. Procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukey, M E; Prasad, C; Toothman, D A; Kaplan, N

    1999-07-01

    Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use permanent total enclosures (PTEs). By definition, an enclosure which meets the US Environmental Protection Agency's five-point criteria is a PTE and has a capture efficiency of 100%. Since costs play an important role in regulatory development, in selection of control equipment, and in control technology evaluations for permitting purposes, EPA has developed a Control Cost Manual for estimating costs of various items of control equipment. EPA's Manual does not contain any methodology for estimating PTE costs. In order to assist environmental regulators and potential users of PTEs, a methodology for estimating PTE costs was developed under contract with EPA, by Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. (PES) and is the subject of this paper. The methodology for estimating PTE costs follows the approach used for other control devices in the Manual. It includes procedures for sizing various components of a PTE and for estimating capital as well as annual costs. It contains verification procedures for demonstrating compliance with EPA's five-point criteria. In addition, procedures are included to determine compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. Meeting these standards is an important factor in properly designing PTEs. The methodology is encoded in Microsoft Exel spreadsheets to facilitate cost estimation and PTE verification. Examples are given throughout the methodology development and in the spreadsheets to illustrate the PTE design, verification, and cost estimation procedures.

  8. Demystifying the Cost Estimation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    In manufacturing today, nothing is more important than giving a customer a clear and straight-forward accounting of what their money has purchased. Many potentially promising return business orders are lost because of unclear, ambiguous, or improper billing. One of the best ways of resolving cost bargaining conflicts is by providing a…

  9. Contractor-style tunnel cost estimating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapuzzi, D.

    1990-06-01

    Keeping pace with recent advances in construction technology is a challenge for the cost estimating engineer. Using an estimating style that simulates the actual construction process and is similar in style to the contractor's estimate will give a realistic view of underground construction costs. For a contractor-style estimate, a mining method is chosen; labor crews, plant and equipment are selected, and advance rates are calculated for the various phases of work which are used to determine the length of time necessary to complete each phase of work. The durations are multiplied by the cost or labor and equipment per unit of time and, along with the costs for materials and supplies, combine to complete the estimate. Variations in advance rates, ground support, labor crew size, or other areas are more easily analyzed for their overall effect on the cost and schedule of a project. 14 figs

  10. Cost estimating for large nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, A.; Hunt, M.

    2004-01-01

    In today's market, the generation of electricity is a very competitive business, which is constantly under the watchful eye of the media and public. Nuclear power faces a lot of competition from other sources such as hydro, coal and gas. Controlling costs, monitoring costs, feedback, industry knowledge and up to date cost estimating tools are essential for a nuclear company to compete on a long term basis. This paper reviews the terminology and estimating principles used for the construction of new nuclear plants, lifetime operating costs, and the costs associated with refurbishment work. (author)

  11. Applying Insights from Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) to Improve DoD Cost Estimation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angelis, Diana I; Dillard, John; Franck, Raymond; Melese, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore the possibility of improving DoD cost estimation methods by including explanatory variables that capture the coordination and motivation problems associated with the program...

  12. Parametric cost estimation for space science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Thompson, Bruce E.

    2008-07-01

    Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties in the input parameters result from evolving requirements for missions that are typically the "first of a kind" with "state-of-the-art" instruments and new spacecraft and payload technologies that make it difficult to base estimates on the cost histories of previous missions. Even the cost of heritage avionics is uncertain due to parts obsolescence and the resulting redesign work. Through experience and use of industry best practices developed in participation with the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Northrop Grumman has developed a parametric modeling approach that can provide a reasonably accurate cost range and most probable cost for future space missions. During the initial mission phases, the approach uses mass- and powerbased cost estimating relationships (CER)'s developed with historical data from previous missions. In later mission phases, when the mission requirements are better defined, these estimates are updated with vendor's bids and "bottoms- up", "grass-roots" material and labor cost estimates based on detailed schedules and assigned tasks. In this paper we describe how we develop our CER's for parametric cost estimation and how they can be applied to estimate the costs for future space science missions like those presented to the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey Study Committees.

  13. COST ESTIMATING RELATIONSHIPS IN ONSHORE DRILLING PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Melo e Silva Accioly

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimating relationships (CERs are very important tools in the planning phases of an upstream project. CERs are, in general, multiple regression models developed to estimate the cost of a particular item or scope of a project. They are based in historical data that should pass through a normalization process before fitting a model. In the early phases they are the primary tool for cost estimating. In later phases they are usually used as an estimation validation tool and sometimes for benchmarking purposes. As in any other modeling methodology there are number of important steps to build a model. In this paper the process of building a CER to estimate drilling cost of onshore wells will be addressed.

  14. Cost-estimating for commercial digital printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keif, Malcolm G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current cost-estimating practices used in commercial digital printing. A research study was conducted to determine the use of cost-estimating in commercial digital printing companies. This study answers the questions: 1) What methods are currently being used to estimate digital printing? 2) What is the relationship between estimating and pricing digital printing? 3) To what extent, if at all, do digital printers use full-absorption, all-inclusive hourly rates for estimating? Three different digital printing models were identified: 1) Traditional print providers, who supplement their offset presswork with digital printing for short-run color and versioned commercial print; 2) "Low-touch" print providers, who leverage the power of the Internet to streamline business transactions with digital storefronts; 3) Marketing solutions providers, who see printing less as a discrete manufacturing process and more as a component of a complete marketing campaign. Each model approaches estimating differently. Understanding and predicting costs can be extremely beneficial. Establishing a reliable system to estimate those costs can be somewhat challenging though. Unquestionably, cost-estimating digital printing will increase in relevance in the years ahead, as margins tighten and cost knowledge becomes increasingly more critical.

  15. Estimating the costs of human space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The plan for NASA's new exploration initiative has the following strategic themes: (1) incremental, logical evolutionary development; (2) economic viability; and (3) excellence in management. The cost estimation process is involved with all of these themes and they are completely dependent upon the engineering cost estimator for success. The purpose is to articulate the issues associated with beginning this major new government initiative, to show how NASA intends to resolve them, and finally to demonstrate the vital importance of a leadership role by the cost estimation community.

  16. Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1977-11-01

    Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In addition to the cost estimates, this report provides details on the bases and assumptions used to develop the cost estimates

  17. Estimating the cost of a smoking employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Micah; Crane, Rob; Seiber, Eric; Munur, Mehmet

    2014-09-01

    We attempted to estimate the excess annual costs that a US private employer may attribute to employing an individual who smokes tobacco as compared to a non-smoking employee. Reviewing and synthesising previous literature estimating certain discrete costs associated with smoking employees, we developed a cost estimation approach that approximates the total of such costs for U.S. employers. We examined absenteeism, presenteesim, smoking breaks, healthcare costs and pension benefits for smokers. Our best estimate of the annual excess cost to employ a smoker is $5816. This estimate should be taken as a general indicator of the extent of excess costs, not as a predictive point value. Employees who smoke impose significant excess costs on private employers. The results of this study may help inform employer decisions about tobacco-related policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Project schedule and cost estimate report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    All cost tables represent obligation dollars, at both a constant FY 1987 level and an estimated escalation level, and are based on the FY 1989 DOE Congressional Budget submittal of December 1987. The cost tables display the total UMTRA Project estimated costs, which include both Federal and state funding. The Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the UMTRA Project is approximately $992.5 million (in 1987 escalated dollars). Project schedules have been developed that provide for Project completion by September 1994, subject to Congressional approval extending DOE's authorization under Public Law 95-604. The report contains site-specific demographic data, conceptual design assumptions, preliminary cost estimates, and site schedules. A general project overview is also presented, which includes a discussion of the basis for the schedule and cost estimates, contingency assumptions, work breakdown structure, and potential project risks. The schedules and cost estimates will be revised as necessary to reflect appropriate decisions relating to relocation of certain tailings piles, or other special design considerations or circumstances (such as revised EPA groundwater standards), and changes in the Project mission. 27 figs', 97 tabs

  19. Statistical methods of estimating mining costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    Until it was defunded in 1995, the U.S. Bureau of Mines maintained a Cost Estimating System (CES) for prefeasibility-type economic evaluations of mineral deposits and estimating costs at producing and non-producing mines. This system had a significant role in mineral resource assessments to estimate costs of developing and operating known mineral deposits and predicted undiscovered deposits. For legal reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey cannot update and maintain CES. Instead, statistical tools are under development to estimate mining costs from basic properties of mineral deposits such as tonnage, grade, mineralogy, depth, strip ratio, distance from infrastructure, rock strength, and work index. The first step was to reestimate "Taylor's Rule" which relates operating rate to available ore tonnage. The second step was to estimate statistical models of capital and operating costs for open pit porphyry copper mines with flotation concentrators. For a sample of 27 proposed porphyry copper projects, capital costs can be estimated from three variables: mineral processing rate, strip ratio, and distance from nearest railroad before mine construction began. Of all the variables tested, operating costs were found to be significantly correlated only with strip ratio.

  20. Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

    1994-03-01

    This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs

  1. Models of Community-Based Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Screening Programs in the U.S. and Their Estimated Outcomes and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, David B.; Lesesne, Sarah B.; Smith, Bryce D.; Weinbaum, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Information on the process and method of service delivery is sparse for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) testing, and no systematic study has evaluated the relative effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of different HBsAg screening models. To address this need, we compared five specific community-based screening programs. Methods We funded five HBsAg screening programs to collect information on their design, costs, and outcomes of participants during a six-month observation period. We categorized programs into four types of models. For each model, we calculated the number screened, the number screened as per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations, and the cost per screening. Results The models varied by cost per person screened and total number of people screened, but they did not differ meaningfully in the proportion of people screened following CDC recommendations, the proportion of those screened who tested positive, or the proportion of those who newly tested positive. Conclusions Integrating screening into outpatient service settings is the most cost-effective method but may not reach all people needing to be screened. Future research should examine cost-effective methods that expand the reach of screening into communities in outpatient settings. PMID:21800750

  2. Procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukey, M.E.; Prasad, C.; Toothman, D.A.; Kaplan, N.

    1999-07-01

    Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use permanent total enclosures (PTEs). By definition, an enclosure which meets the US Environmental Protection Agency's five-point criteria is a PTE and has a capture efficiency of 100%. Since costs play an important role in regulatory development, in selection of control equipment, and in control technology evaluations for permitting purposes, EPA has developed a Control Cost Manual for estimating costs of various items of control equipment. EPA's Manual does not contain any methodology for estimating PTE costs. In order to assist environmental regulators and potential users of PTEs, a methodology for estimating PTE costs was developed under contract with EPA, by Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. (PES) and is the subject of this paper. The methodology for estimating PTE costs follows the approach used for other control devices in the Manual. It includes procedures for sizing various components of a PTE and for estimating capital as well as annual costs. It contains verification procedures for demonstrating compliance with EPA's five-point criteria. In addition, procedures are included to determine compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. Meeting these standards is an important factor in properly designing PTEs. The methodology is encoded in Microsoft Exel spreadsheets to facilitate cost estimation and PTE verification. Examples are given throughout the methodology development and in the spreadsheets to illustrate the PTE design, verification, and cost estimation procedures.

  3. Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of

  4. Stochastic cost estimating in repository life-cycle cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzemos, S.; Dippold, D.

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual development, the design, and the final construction and operation of a nuclear repository span many decades. Given this lengthy time frame, it is quite challenging to obtain a good approximation of the repository life-cycle cost. One can deal with this challenge by using an analytic method, the method of moments, to explicitly assess the uncertainty of the estimate. A series expansion is used to approximate the uncertainty distribution of the cost estimate. In this paper, the moment methodology is derived and is illustrated through a numerical example. The range of validity of the approximation is discussed. The method of moments is compared to the traditional stochastic cost estimating methods and found to provide more and better information on cost uncertainty. The tow methods converge to identical results as the number of convolved variables increases and approaches the range where the central limit theorem is valid

  5. 40 CFR 261.142 - Cost estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste, and the potential cost of closing the facility as a treatment, storage, and disposal... facility. (3) The cost estimate may not incorporate any salvage value that may be realized with the sale of... no later than 30 days after a change in a facility's operating plan or design that would increase the...

  6. The Costs of an Enhanced Employee Assistance Program (EAP) Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T.; Dunlap, Laura J.; Zarkin, Gary A.; Karuntzos, Georgia T.

    1998-01-01

    This study estimates the economic costs of an enhanced Employee Assistance Program (EAP) intervention at a large midwestern EAP that serves 90 worksites. Results specify developmental and implementation costs and provide benchmark cost estimated for other EAPs that may be considering enhanced services. (SLD)

  7. Decommissioning Cost Estimating -The ''Price'' Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, R.; Gilmour, J.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past 9 years UKAEA has developed a formalized approach to decommissioning cost estimating. The estimating methodology and computer-based application are known collectively as the PRICE system. At the heart of the system is a database (the knowledge base) which holds resource demand data on a comprehensive range of decommissioning activities. This data is used in conjunction with project specific information (the quantities of specific components) to produce decommissioning cost estimates. PRICE is a dynamic cost-estimating tool, which can satisfy both strategic planning and project management needs. With a relatively limited analysis a basic PRICE estimate can be produced and used for the purposes of strategic planning. This same estimate can be enhanced and improved, primarily by the improvement of detail, to support sanction expenditure proposals, and also as a tender assessment and project management tool. The paper will: describe the principles of the PRICE estimating system; report on the experiences of applying the system to a wide range of projects from contaminated car parks to nuclear reactors; provide information on the performance of the system in relation to historic estimates, tender bids, and outturn costs

  8. Cost estimation for decommissioning of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de; Segabinaze, Roberto de Oliveira; Daniska, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    In the case of research reactors, the limited data that is available tends to provide only overall decommissioning costs, without any breakdown of the main cost elements. In order to address this subject, it is important to collect and analyse all available data of decommissioning costs for the research reactors. The IAEA has started the DACCORD Project focused on data analysis and costing of research reactors decommissioning. Data collection is organized in accordance with the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC), developed jointly by the IAEA, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the European Commission. The specific aims of the project include the development of representative and comparative data and datasets for preliminary costing for decommissioning. This paper will focus on presenting a technique to consider several representative input data in accordance with the ISDC structure and using the CERREX (Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel) software developed by IAEA. (author)

  9. Program Costs and Student Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Terri M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to increase completion rates, prepare students for the workplace, and contain costs. Colleges need to know the financial implications of what are often perceived as routine decisions: course scheduling, program offerings, and the provision of support services. This chapter presents a methodology for estimating…

  10. 24 CFR 700.115 - Program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program costs. 700.115 Section 700... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) CONGREGATE HOUSING SERVICES PROGRAM § 700.115 Program costs. (a) Allowable costs. (1) Allowable costs for direct provision of supportive services includes the provision of...

  11. Cost analysis and estimating tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Changes in production processes reflect the technological advances permeat­ ing our products and services. U. S. industry is modernizing and automating. In parallel, direct labor is fading as the primary cost driver while engineering and technology related cost elements loom ever larger. Traditional, labor-based ap­ proaches to estimating costs are losing their relevance. Old methods require aug­ mentation with new estimating tools and techniques that capture the emerging environment. This volume represents one of many responses to this challenge by the cost analysis profession. The Institute of Cost Analysis (lCA) is dedicated to improving the effective­ ness of cost and price analysis and enhancing the professional competence of its members. We encourage and promote exchange of research findings and appli­ cations between the academic community and cost professionals in industry and government. The 1990 National Meeting in Los Angeles, jointly spo~sored by ICA and the National Estimating Society (NES),...

  12. Cost Estimating Cases: Educational Tools for Cost Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    only appropriate documentation should be provided. In other words, students should not submit all of the documentation possible using ACEIT , only that...case was their lack of understanding of the ACEIT software used to conduct the estimate. Specifically, many students misinterpreted the cost...estimating relationships (CERs) embedded in the 49 software. Additionally, few of the students were able to properly organize the ACEIT documentation output

  13. Cost estimate for electrostatically plugged cusp reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design of an electrostatically plugged cusp reactor was presented in (UCRL-52142(1976)). The capital costs of the various components of this reactor are estimated and totaled for two different blanket configurations: one having an energy multiplication factor M = 1.2, and the other having M = 1.68. The unoptimized direct capital costs for these cases are found to be about 1400 and 950 $/kWe, respectively

  14. Failing to Estimate the Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates cost estimation errors in the context of offshoring. It is argued that an imprecise estimation of the costs related to implementing a firm activity in a foreign location has a negative impact on the process performance of that activity. Performance is deterred...... as operations are likely to be disrupted by managerial distraction and resource misallocation. It is also argued that this relationship is mitigated by the extent to which firms use modularity to coordinate the activity but worsened by the extent to which ongoing communication is used. The results, based...

  15. Social opportunity cost of capital: empirical estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, S.

    1978-02-01

    This report develops estimates of the social-opportunity cost of public capital. The private and social costs of capital are found to diverge primarily because of the effects of corporate and personal income taxes. Following Harberger, the social-opportunity cost of capital is approximated by a weighted average of the returns to different classes of savers and investors where the weights are the flows of savings or investments in each class multiplied by the relevant elasticity. Estimates of these parameters are obtained and the social-opportunity cost of capital is determined to be in the range of 6.2 to 10.8%, depending upon the parameter values used. Uncertainty is found to affect the social-opportunity cost of capital in two ways. First, some allowance must be made for the chance of failure or at least of not realizing claims of a project's proponents. Second, a particular government project will change the expected variability of the returns to the government's entire portfolio of projects. In the absence of specific information about each project, the use of the economy-wide average default and risk adjustments is suggested. These are included in the empirical estimates reported. International capital markets make available private capital, the price of which is not distorted by the U.S. tax system. The inclusion of foreign sources slightly reduces the social-opportunity cost of capital. 21 references.

  16. Cost estimate of electricity produced by TPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfinger, Günther; Bitnar, Bernd; Durisch, Wilhelm; Mayor, Jean-Claude; Grützmacher, Detlev; Gobrecht, Jens

    2003-05-01

    A crucial parameter for the market penetration of TPV is its electricity production cost. In this work a detailed cost estimate is performed for a Si photocell based TPV system, which was developed for electrically self-powered operation of a domestic heating system. The results are compared to a rough estimate of cost of electricity for a projected GaSb based system. For the calculation of the price of electricity, a lifetime of 20 years, an interest rate of 4.25% per year and maintenance costs of 1% of the investment are presumed. To determine the production cost of TPV systems with a power of 12-20 kW, the costs of the TPV components and 100 EUR kW-1el,peak for assembly and miscellaneous were estimated. Alternatively, the system cost for the GaSb system was derived from the cost of the photocells and from the assumption that they account for 35% of the total system cost. The calculation was done for four different TPV scenarios which include a Si based prototype system with existing technology (etasys = 1.0%), leading to 3000 EUR kW-1el,peak, an optimized Si based system using conventional, available technology (etasys = 1.5%), leading to 900 EUR kW-1el,peak, a further improved system with future technology (etasys = 5%), leading to 340 EUR kW-1el,peak and a GaSb based system (etasys = 12.3% with recuperator), leading to 1900 EUR kW-1el,peak. Thus, prices of electricity from 6 to 25 EURcents kWh-1el (including gas of about 3.5 EURcents kWh-1) were calculated and compared with those of fuel cells (31 EURcents kWh-1) and gas engines (23 EURcents kWh-1).

  17. Support to LANL: Cost estimation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and progress by ICF Kaiser Engineers conducted on behalf of Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) for the US Department of Energy, Office of Waste Management (EM-33) in the area of improving methods for Cost Estimation. This work was conducted between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993. ICF Kaiser Engineers supported LANL in providing the Office of Waste Management with planning and document preparation services for a Cost and Schedule Estimating Guide (Guide). The intent of the Guide was to use Activity-Based Cost (ABC) estimation as a basic method in preparing cost estimates for DOE planning and budgeting documents, including Activity Data Sheets (ADSs), which form the basis for the Five Year Plan document. Prior to the initiation of the present contract with LANL, ICF Kaiser Engineers was tasked to initiate planning efforts directed toward a Guide. This work, accomplished from June to September, 1992, included visits to eight DOE field offices and consultation with DOE Headquarters staff to determine the need for a Guide, the desired contents of a Guide, and the types of ABC estimation methods and documentation requirements that would be compatible with current or potential practices and expertise in existence at DOE field offices and their contractors

  18. Cost estimating Brayton and Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortgang, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    Brayton and Stirling engines were analyzed for cost and selling price for production quantities ranging from 1000 to 400,000 units per year. Parts and components were subjected to indepth scrutiny to determine optimum manufacturing processes coupled with make or buy decisions on materials and small parts. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for each detail and/or assembly. For low annual production volumes, the Brayton engine appears to have a lower cost and selling price than the Stirling Engine. As annual production quantities increase, the Stirling becomes a lower cost engine than the Brayton. Both engines could benefit cost wise if changes were made in materials, design and manufacturing process as annual production quantities increase.

  19. Cost Estimation for Research Reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The purpose of this publication is to develop a costing methodology and a software tool in order to support cost estimation for research reactor decommissioning. The costing methodology is intended for the preliminary cost estimation stages for research reactor decommissioning with limited inventory data and other input data available. Existing experience in decommissioning costing is considered. As the basis for the cost calculation structure, the costing model uses the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) that is recommended by the IAEA, the Organisation for

  20. Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Shiu, A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  2. Estimating the cost of production stoppage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation model considers learning curve quantities, and time of break to forecast losses due to break in production schedule. Major parameters capable of predicting costs are number of units made prior to production sequence, length of production break, and slope of learning curve produced prior to break.

  3. Contingency Cost estimation for Research reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Hong, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    There are many types of cost items in decommissioning cost estimation, however, contingencies are for unforeseen elements of cost within the defined project scope. Regulatory body wants to reasonable quantification for this issue. Many countries have adopted the breakdown of activity dependent and period-dependent costs to structure their estimates. Period-dependent costs could be broken down into defined time frames to reduce overall uncertainties. Several countries apply this notion by having different contingency factors for different phases of the project. This study is a compilation of contingency cost of research reactor and for each country. Simulation techniques using TRIM, MATLAB, and PSpice can be useful tools for designing detector channels. Thus far TRIM, MATLAB and PSpice have been used to calculate the detector current output pulse for SiC semiconductor detectors and to model the pulses that propagate through potential detector channels. This model is useful for optimizing the detector and the resolution for application to neutron monitoring in the Generation IV power reactors

  4. Contingency Cost estimation for Research reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Hong, Yun Jeong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are many types of cost items in decommissioning cost estimation, however, contingencies are for unforeseen elements of cost within the defined project scope. Regulatory body wants to reasonable quantification for this issue. Many countries have adopted the breakdown of activity dependent and period-dependent costs to structure their estimates. Period-dependent costs could be broken down into defined time frames to reduce overall uncertainties. Several countries apply this notion by having different contingency factors for different phases of the project. This study is a compilation of contingency cost of research reactor and for each country. Simulation techniques using TRIM, MATLAB, and PSpice can be useful tools for designing detector channels. Thus far TRIM, MATLAB and PSpice have been used to calculate the detector current output pulse for SiC semiconductor detectors and to model the pulses that propagate through potential detector channels. This model is useful for optimizing the detector and the resolution for application to neutron monitoring in the Generation IV power reactors.

  5. Virtualness of the Cost Estimating Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 1...I. Introduction Overview Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition programs tend to cost more and require longer development periods than...behaviors on information technology professionals’ turnover intentions. Group Organization Mangement , 326-357. Pegnato, J. A. (2003). Assessing

  6. Preliminary ITER cost and schedule estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The cost, manpower requirements, and schedule estimates for the realization of the ITER tokamak have been studied during the Conceptual Design Activities, as a result of work by the ITER Management Committee. This work was completed during the January-March, 1990 joint work session, and is presented in this report. A possible schedule shows completion of the engineering design phase in 1995, with 180 professionals, at a cost of about $250M. The construction would be completed in 2004 with a rise in professional staff to 300, and a total cost of $4900M. The machine would be operable over an 18-year period, at an annual operating cost averaging $290M. 2 figs

  7. Importance of funding in decommissioning cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingst, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    Decommissioning cost estimates have been made by several study groups for the decommissioning of pressurized-water and boiling-water nuclear power stations. The results of these studies are comparable when corrected for inflation and the differences in contingency factors applied by the study groups. The estimated dismantling costs differ far less than a factor of 2 in all cases, despite the design differences found in the plants that were studied. An analysis of the different methods available for funding the dismantling of these facilities shows the much stronger effect that the choice of funding methods has on the net cost of decommissioning. The total cost of dismantling may vary more than a factor of 4 from one funding method to another, assuming current or recent historical inflation rates. The funding methods evaluated include sinking funds, deposits, negative-salvage value depreciation, and insurance. These funding methods are taken from the NRC's Notice of Proposed Rulemaking description of acceptable funding methods. The funding analysis for this study was performed using the DECOST-86 computer code. The evaluation of funding options for a nuclear facility, and the appropriate choice of the funding method best for that facility, are found to be more important than detailed engineering studies in determining the net cost of decommissioning during the early portions of the plant's operating lifetime

  8. Estimation of 18FDG doses's cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Fatma; Amouri, W.; Jardak, I.; Kallel, F.; Charfeddine, S.; Guermazi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The cyclotron facility, essentially for medical use, is far from being a simple establishment of a dedicated device to accelerate particles producing a beta plus emitter radioelement. The cyclotron site encompasses more over all necessary equipments for the production and the quality control of considered radiotracer that 18 FDG is just one example. This facility is subject to strict standards in terms of radiopharmaceutical production, radiation level, pressure level and airflow resulting in the production of a drug submitted to the MA (Marketing Authorization). These multiple factors directly influence the final cost of the dose that remains to be reachable by the patient. The aim of this work is to estimate the cost of a dose of 18 FDG to ensure financial viability of the project while accessible to the patient. The cost of the facility will entail the following: buildings and utilities, equipment and operational cost. This calculation is possible only if we define in advance the type of cyclotron, which is bound to the market needs in particular the number of PET facilities, the number of scans per day and the radioactive decay of radioelement. Our study represents a simulation that considers some hypothesis. We assumed that the cyclotron is installed in Sousse and that the PET facilities number (positon emission tomography) is 6 in which 4 are located 2 hours away. For a PET scan, the average dose per patient is about 350 MBq (5 MBq/kg) and the exam duration is about 45 minutes. Each center performs 10 tests per day. In terms of fees, we considered device and building's cost, facility amortization, consumables (target, marking accessories), maintenance, remuneration expense and the annual electricity consumption. All our calculations have been reported to the number of working days per year. The estimates were made outside the customs duties and technical assistance that may last up to 2 years. Requirements and needs were estimated at 5.4 curies per day. For

  9. Spreadsheet tool for estimating noise reduction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.; Senden, V.; Leszczynski, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The Northeast Capital Industrial Association (NCIA) represents industry in Alberta's industrial heartland. The organization is in the process of developing a regional noise management plan (RNMP) for their member companies. The RNMP includes the development of a noise reduction cost spreadsheet tool to conduct reviews of practical noise control treatments available for individual plant equipment, inclusive of ranges of noise attenuation achievable, which produces a budgetary prediction of the installed cost of practical noise control treatments. This paper discussed the noise reduction cost spreadsheet tool, with particular reference to noise control best practices approaches and spreadsheet tool development such as prerequisite, assembling data required, approach, and unit pricing database. Use and optimization of the noise reduction cost spreadsheet tool was also discussed. It was concluded that the noise reduction cost spreadsheet tool is an easy interactive tool to estimate implementation costs related to different strategies and options of noise control mitigating measures and was very helpful in gaining insight for noise control planning purposes. 2 tabs.

  10. A Deterministic and Probabilistic Cost Estimate for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Gag Kyeon; Kwon, Jong Jooh

    2005-01-01

    There are many cost estimate methodologies for some future projects. Revenue Requirement Method (RRM), Cost/Benefit Ratio method, Return on Investment, Pay Back Period Method. etc. This paper uses the RRM method which is the amount of revenue that must be collected from customers to compensate a utility for all expenditures associated with implementing an alternative decision involving money. This RRM can be combined with a random sampling statistical simulation computer program to calculated the Probability Distribution Functions(PDF) of the cost elements for generating cost. EPRI developed this combined statistical techniques into RRM, named Statistical Revenue Requirement Method(SRRM). The statistical technique is a random sampling statistical simulation. The simulation tool is usually Monte Carlo sampling, Latin Latin Hypercube sampling, etc. SRRM is used to estimating for future power plants, apartments, hospital, marketing, etc. In this paper, RRM calculation and SRRM simulation have been practiced for PWR1400MWe nuclear power plants

  11. Cost estimate of bovine tuberculosis to Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Hattendorf, Jan; Roth, Felix; Choudhury, Adnan Ali Khan; Choudhoury, Adnan; Shaw, Alexandra; Aseffa, Abraham; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    While bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been eliminated in some industrialized countries, it prevails worldwide, particularly in Africa. In Ethiopia, BTB is prevalent as numerous studies have shown its occurrence in livestock and in abattoirs but it has not been demonstrated in wildlife and only very few cases have been found in humans. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost of BTB to Ethiopia with the aim of informing Ethiopian policy on options for BTB control. BTB in livestock affects both animal productivity and herd demographic composition. The Livestock Development Planning System (LDPS2, FAO) was modified to allow for stochastic simulation of parameters. We performed an incremental cost of disease analysis, comparing livestock production with and without BTB. For the rural scenario we considered an endemically stable 4 % comparative intradermal test (CIDT) prevalence and for the urban scenario an endemically stable 32 % CIDT prevalence among cattle. The net present value of rural Ethiopian livestock products in 2005 is estimated at 65.7 billion (thousand million) Ethiopian Birr (95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 53.8-77.7 billion Birr), which is the equivalent of 7.5 billion US$ (95 %CI 6.1-8.9 billion US$) at a rate of 8.7 Birr per US$ in 2005. The cost of BTB ranges from 646 million Birr (75.2 million US$) in 2005 to 3.1 Billion Birr in 2011 (358 million US$) but is within the range of uncertainty of our estimate and can thus not be distinguished from zero. The cost of disease in the urban livestock production ranges from 5 to 42 million Birr (500,000-4.9 million US$) between 2005 and 2011 but is also within the range of uncertainty of our estimate. Our study shows no measurable loss in asset value or cost of disease due to BTB in rural and urban production systems in Ethiopia. This does not mean that there is not a real cost of disease, but the variability of the productivity parameters and prices are high and would require more precise estimates

  12. Estimating Maintenance Cost for Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper tackles the issue of determining a method for estimating maintenance costs for web applications. The current state of research in the field of web application maintenance is summarized and leading theories and results are highlighted. The cost of web maintenance is determined by the number of man-hours invested in maintenance tasks. Web maintenance tasks are categorized into content maintenance and technical maintenance. Research is centered on analyzing technical maintenance tasks. The research hypothesis is formulated on the assumption that the number of man-hours invested in maintenance tasks can be assessed based on the web application’s user interaction level, complexity and content update effort. Data regarding the costs of maintenance tasks is collected from 24 maintenance projects implemented by a web development company that tackles a wide area of web applications. Homogeneity and diversity of collected data is submitted for debate by presenting a sample of the data and depicting the overall size and comprehensive nature of the entire dataset. A set of metrics dedicated to estimating maintenance costs in web applications is defined based on conclusions formulated by analyzing the collected data and the theories and practices dominating the current state of research. Metrics are validated with regards to the initial research hypothesis. Research hypothesis are validated and conclusions are formulated on the topic of estimating the maintenance cost of web applications. The limits of the research process which represented the basis for the current paper are enunciated. Future research topics are submitted for debate.

  13. Project cost estimation techniques used by most emerging building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Cost estimation, estimation methods, emerging contractors, tender. Dr Solly Matshonisa .... historical cost data (data from cost accounting records and/ ..... emerging contractors in tendering. Table 13: Use of project risk management versus responsibility: expected. Internal document analysis. Checklist analysis.

  14. Advanced Composite Air Frame Life Cycle Cost Estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    the ACCA based on the cost . This cost analysis takes into account the increased performance parameters of the new airframe structure. This research...20 Advanced Composite Cargo Aircraft ( ACCA ) ..........................................................23 viii Cost Estimation...establishing the procurement strategies and life cycle cost (LCC) model cost estimations. The current LCC models do not take into account the potential cost

  15. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  16. Treatment Cost Analysis Tool (TCAT) for estimating costs of outpatient treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Patrick M; Broome, Kirk M; Beaston-Blaakman, Aaron; Knight, Danica K; Horgan, Constance M; Shepard, Donald S

    2009-02-01

    A Microsoft Excel-based workbook designed for research analysts to use in a national study was retooled for treatment program directors and financial officers to allocate, analyze, and estimate outpatient treatment costs in the U.S. This instrument can also be used as a planning and management tool to optimize resources and forecast the impact of future changes in staffing, client flow, program design, and other resources. The Treatment Cost Analysis Tool (TCAT) automatically provides feedback and generates summaries and charts using comparative data from a national sample of non-methadone outpatient providers. TCAT is being used by program staff to capture and allocate both economic and accounting costs, and outpatient service costs are reported for a sample of 70 programs. Costs for an episode of treatment in regular, intensive, and mixed types of outpatient treatment were $882, $1310, and $1381 respectively (based on 20% trimmed means and 2006 dollars). An hour of counseling cost $64 in regular, $85 intensive, and $86 mixed. Group counseling hourly costs per client were $8, $11, and $10 respectively for regular, intensive, and mixed. Future directions include use of a web-based interview version, much like some of the commercially available tax preparation software tools, and extensions for use in other modalities of treatment.

  17. Comparison of methods for estimating the cost of human immunodeficiency virus-testing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ram K; Sansom, Stephanie L; Farnham, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, spends approximately 50% of its $325 million annual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention funds for HIV-testing services. An accurate estimate of the costs of HIV testing in various settings is essential for efficient allocation of HIV prevention resources. To assess the costs of HIV-testing interventions using different costing methods. We used the microcosting-direct measurement method to assess the costs of HIV-testing interventions in nonclinical settings, and we compared these results with those from 3 other costing methods: microcosting-staff allocation, where the labor cost was derived from the proportion of each staff person's time allocated to HIV testing interventions; gross costing, where the New York State Medicaid payment for HIV testing was used to estimate program costs, and program budget, where the program cost was assumed to be the total funding provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Total program cost, cost per person tested, and cost per person notified of new HIV diagnosis. The median costs per person notified of a new HIV diagnosis were $12 475, $15 018, $2697, and $20 144 based on microcosting-direct measurement, microcosting-staff allocation, gross costing, and program budget methods, respectively. Compared with the microcosting-direct measurement method, the cost was 78% lower with gross costing, and 20% and 61% higher using the microcosting-staff allocation and program budget methods, respectively. Our analysis showed that HIV-testing program cost estimates vary widely by costing methods. However, the choice of a particular costing method may depend on the research question being addressed. Although program budget and gross-costing methods may be attractive because of their simplicity, only the microcosting-direct measurement method can identify important determinants of the program costs and provide guidance to improve

  18. Product costing program for wood component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This article introduces a product costing program...

  19. Estimated generic prices of cancer medicines deemed cost-ineffective in England: a cost estimation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew; Redd, Christopher; Gotham, Dzintars; Erbacher, Isabelle; Meldrum, Jonathan; Harada, Ryo

    2017-01-20

    The aim of this study was to estimate lowest possible treatment costs for four novel cancer drugs, hypothesising that generic manufacturing could significantly reduce treatment costs. This research was carried out in a non-clinical research setting using secondary data. There were no human participants in the study. Four drugs were selected for the study: bortezomib, dasatinib, everolimus and gefitinib. These medications were selected according to their clinical importance, novel pharmaceutical actions and the availability of generic price data. Target costs for treatment were to be generated for each indication for each treatment. The primary outcome measure was the target cost according to a production cost calculation algorithm. The secondary outcome measure was the target cost as the lowest available generic price; this was necessary where export data were not available to generate an estimate from our cost calculation algorithm. Other outcomes included patent expiry dates and total eligible treatment populations. Target prices were £411 per cycle for bortezomib, £9 per month for dasatinib, £852 per month for everolimus and £10 per month for gefitinib. Compared with current list prices in England, these target prices would represent reductions of 74-99.6%. Patent expiry dates were bortezomib 2014-22, dasatinib 2020-26, everolimus 2019-25 and gefitinib 2017. The total global eligible treatment population in 1 year is 769 736. Our findings demonstrate that affordable drug treatment costs are possible for novel cancer drugs, suggesting that new therapeutic options can be made available to patients and doctors worldwide. Assessing treatment cost estimations alongside cost-effectiveness evaluations is an important area of future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cristina Rosa Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. METHODS The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$ for the year of 2010. RESULTS The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. CONCLUSIONS The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources.

  1. Estimated Annual Maintenance Costs for Educational Facilities in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    Global estimated annual costs for undertaking basic maintenance of all educational facilities in Eritrea.......Global estimated annual costs for undertaking basic maintenance of all educational facilities in Eritrea....

  2. A Probabilistic Cost Estimation Model for Unexploded Ordnance Removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poppe, Peter

    1999-01-01

    ...) contaminated sites that the services must decontaminate. Existing models for estimating the cost of UXO removal often require a high level of expertise and provide only a point estimate for the costs...

  3. Development of a simple estimation tool for LMFBR construction cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Izumi

    1999-01-01

    A simple tool for estimating the construction costs of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), 'Simple Cost' was developed in this study. Simple Cost is based on a new estimation formula that can reduce the amount of design data required to estimate construction costs. Consequently, Simple cost can be used to estimate the construction costs of innovative LMFBR concepts for which detailed design has not been carried out. The results of test calculation show that Simple Cost provides cost estimations equivalent to those obtained with conventional methods within the range of plant power from 325 to 1500 MWe. Sensitivity analyses for typical design parameters were conducted using Simple Cost. The effects of four major parameters - reactor vessel diameter, core outlet temperature, sodium handling area and number of secondary loops - on the construction costs of LMFBRs were evaluated quantitatively. The results show that the reduction of sodium handling area is particularly effective in reducing construction costs. (author)

  4. Methods for cost estimation in software project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, C. V.; Filip, I.; Indries, I. I.

    2016-02-01

    The speed in which the processes used in software development field have changed makes it very difficult the task of forecasting the overall costs for a software project. By many researchers, this task has been considered unachievable, but there is a group of scientist for which this task can be solved using the already known mathematical methods (e.g. multiple linear regressions) and the new techniques as genetic programming and neural networks. The paper presents a solution for building a model for the cost estimation models in the software project management using genetic algorithms starting from the PROMISE datasets related COCOMO 81 model. In the first part of the paper, a summary of the major achievements in the research area of finding a model for estimating the overall project costs is presented together with the description of the existing software development process models. In the last part, a basic proposal of a mathematical model of a genetic programming is proposed including here the description of the chosen fitness function and chromosome representation. The perspective of model described it linked with the current reality of the software development considering as basis the software product life cycle and the current challenges and innovations in the software development area. Based on the author's experiences and the analysis of the existing models and product lifecycle it was concluded that estimation models should be adapted with the new technologies and emerging systems and they depend largely by the chosen software development method.

  5. Cost estimates supporting West Valley DEIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirro, J.

    1981-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared which considers alternate means for solidifying the high level liquid wastes (HLLW) at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). For this purpose three basic scenarios were considered. In the first scenario, the HLLW is converted into terminal waste form of borosilicate glass. Before vitrification, the non-radioactive chemical salts are separated from the radioactive and transuranic (TRU) constituents in the HLLW. In the second scenario, the HLLW is converted into an intermediate form-fused salt. The stored HLLW is dewatered and melted and the solids are transported to a Department of Energy (DOE) site. The fused salt will be processed of the DOE site at a later date where it will be converted to a vitrified form in a facility that will be constructed to treat HLLW stored at that site. The vitrified salt will be eventually removed for permanent disposal at a Federal repository. In the third scenario, the HLLW is solidified in the existing HLLW storage tanks with cement and returned for on-site disposal in the existing tanks or additional tanks as needed to accommodate the volume. To support the EIS, the costs to accomplish each of the alternatives is provided. The purpose of this cost estimate is to provide a common basis to evaluate the expenditures required to immobilize the HLLW presently stored at the WNYNSC

  6. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume III: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option

  7. Estimating pharmacy level prescription drug acquisition costs for third-party reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreling, D H; Kirk, K W

    1986-07-01

    Accurate payment for the acquisition costs of drug products dispensed is an important consideration in a third-party prescription drug program. Two alternative methods of estimating these costs among pharmacies were derived and compared. First, pharmacists were surveyed to determine the purchase discounts offered to them by wholesalers. A 10.00% modal and 11.35% mean discount resulted for 73 responding pharmacists. Second, cost-plus percents derived from gross profit margins of wholesalers were calculated and applied to wholesaler product costs to estimate pharmacy level acquisition costs. Cost-plus percents derived from National Median and Southwestern Region wholesaler figures were 9.27% and 10.10%, respectively. A comparison showed the two methods of estimating acquisition costs would result in similar acquisition cost estimates. Adopting a cost-plus estimating approach is recommended because it avoids potential pricing manipulations by wholesalers and manufacturers that would negate improvements in drug product reimbursement accuracy.

  8. Increased accuracy of cost-estimation using product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Bredahl; Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    This article describes an approach for utilizing Product Configuration Systems (PCS) for quantifying project costs in project-based companies. It presents a case study demonstrating a method of quantifying costs in a way that makes it possible to configure cost- and time estimates. Piecework costs......, material costs and sub-supplier costs are used as principle cost elements and linked to structural and process elements to facilitate configuration. The cost data are used by the PCS to generate fast and accurate cost-estimates, quotations, time estimates and cost summaries. The described cost...... quantification principles have been used in a Scandinavian SME (Small and Medium-sized Enterprise) since the 90’s, but have since 2011 been adopted to be used in a configuration system. A longitudinal case study was conducted to compare cost and time-estimation accuracy before and after implementation. We...

  9. Cost estimation and management over the life cycle of metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates whether all expected costs over the life cycle of metallurgical research projects are included in initial, normal and fi nal cost estimates, and whether these costs are managed throughout a project's life cycle since there is not enough emphasis on the accurate estimation of costs and their management ...

  10. 28 CFR 100.16 - Cost estimate submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., quantity, and cost. (ii) Direct labor. Provide a time-phased (e.g., monthly, quarterly) breakdown of labor... estimates. (iii) Allocable direct costs. Indicate how allocable costs are computed and applied, including... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate submission. 100.16 Section...

  11. Cost basis for implementing ALARA programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    A method of implementing effective ALARA programs is discussed. A basic element of the cost benefit methodology is the valuation of a man-rem. In the program, this is derived from an assessment of radiation exposure risk and societal valuation of harmful effects. The man-rem value is used as an element in the cost benefit analysis. The analysis includes an assessment of the differential man-rem resulting from the action, implementation cost, and operational savings

  12. COSTMODL - AN AUTOMATED SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT COST ESTIMATION TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, G. B.

    1994-01-01

    The cost of developing computer software consumes an increasing portion of many organizations' budgets. As this trend continues, the capability to estimate the effort and schedule required to develop a candidate software product becomes increasingly important. COSTMODL is an automated software development estimation tool which fulfills this need. Assimilating COSTMODL to any organization's particular environment can yield significant reduction in the risk of cost overruns and failed projects. This user-customization capability is unmatched by any other available estimation tool. COSTMODL accepts a description of a software product to be developed and computes estimates of the effort required to produce it, the calendar schedule required, and the distribution of effort and staffing as a function of the defined set of development life-cycle phases. This is accomplished by the five cost estimation algorithms incorporated into COSTMODL: the NASA-developed KISS model; the Basic, Intermediate, and Ada COCOMO models; and the Incremental Development model. This choice affords the user the ability to handle project complexities ranging from small, relatively simple projects to very large projects. Unique to COSTMODL is the ability to redefine the life-cycle phases of development and the capability to display a graphic representation of the optimum organizational structure required to develop the subject project, along with required staffing levels and skills. The program is menu-driven and mouse sensitive with an extensive context-sensitive help system that makes it possible for a new user to easily install and operate the program and to learn the fundamentals of cost estimation without having prior training or separate documentation. The implementation of these functions, along with the customization feature, into one program makes COSTMODL unique within the industry. COSTMODL was written for IBM PC compatibles, and it requires Turbo Pascal 5.0 or later and Turbo

  13. Calculating the Unit Cost Factors for Decommissioning Cost Estimation of the Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Lee, Dong Gyu; Jung, Chong Hun; Lee, Kune Woo

    2006-01-01

    The estimated decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor is calculated by applying a unit cost factor-based engineering cost calculation method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor is composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Labor cost of decommissioning costs in decommissioning works are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects. In this paper, the unit cost factors and work difficulty factors which are needed to calculate the labor cost in estimating decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor are derived and figured out.

  14. Power plant cost estimates put to the test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The growth in standards for nuclear applications and the impact of these codes and standards on the cost of nuclear power plants is described. The preparation of cost estimates and reasons for apparent discrepancies are discussed. Consistent estimates of nuclear power plant costs have been prepared in the USA for over a decade. They show that the difference in capital costs between nuclear and coal fired plants is narrowing and that when total generating costs are calculated nuclear power is substantially cheaper. (UK)

  15. Cross Service Fixed-Wing Cost Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    costing aircraft , such as cost per system or cost per Air Force unit. There are differing opinions on how costs should be determined for aircraft . A 2010...large confidence interval , but this is most likely because of the addition of the B-2 Bomber, 15 Figure 8. CPFH Trends of Various Aircraft a very... Maintenance O&S Operating and Support OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense PAI Primary Aircraft Inventory POL Petroleum, Lubricants, and Oil SME

  16. Why Don't They Just Give Us Money? Project Cost Estimating and Cost Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Douglas A.; Van Wychen, Kristin; Zimmerman, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Successful projects require an integrated approach to managing cost, schedule, and risk. This is especially true for complex, multi-year projects involving multiple organizations. To explore solutions and leverage valuable lessons learned, NASA's Virtual Project Management Challenge will kick off a three-part series examining some of the challenges faced by project and program managers when it comes to managing these important elements. In this first session of the series, we will look at cost management, with an emphasis on the critical roles of cost estimating and cost reporting. By taking a proactive approach to both of these activities, project managers can better control life cycle costs, maintain stakeholder confidence, and protect other current and future projects in the organization's portfolio. Speakers will be Doug Comstock, Director of NASA's Cost Analysis Division, Kristin Van Wychen, Senior Analyst in the GAO Acquisition and Sourcing Management Team, and Mary Beth Zimmerman, Branch Chief for NASA's Portfolio Analysis Branch, Strategic Investments Division. Moderator Ramien Pierre is from NASA's Academy for Program/Project and Engineering Leadership (APPEL).

  17. Lifetime costs of lung transplantation : Estimation of incremental costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanEnckevort, PJ; Koopmanschap, MA; Tenvergert, EM; VanderBij, W; Rutten, FFH

    1997-01-01

    Despite an expanding number of centres which provide lung transplantation, information about the incremental costs of lung transplantation is scarce. From 1991 until 1995, in The Netherlands a technology assessment was performed which provided information about the incremental costs of lung

  18. Assuring Software Cost Estimates: Is it an Oxymoron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihn, Jarius; Tregre, Grant

    2013-01-01

    The software industry repeatedly observes cost growth of well over 100% even after decades of cost estimation research and well-known best practices, so "What's the problem?" In this paper we will provide an overview of the current state oj software cost estimation best practice. We then explore whether applying some of the methods used in software assurance might improve the quality of software cost estimates. This paper especially focuses on issues associated with model calibration, estimate review, and the development and documentation of estimates as part alan integrated plan.

  19. Cost analysis of small hydroelectric power plants components and preliminary estimation of global cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, C.; Olive, W.J.; Antunes, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of cost for each components of Small Hydroelectric Power Plant, taking into account the real costs of these projects is shown. It also presents a global equation which allows a preliminary estimation of cost for each construction. (author)

  20. [Hospital costs estimation by micro and gross-costing approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerre, P; Hayes, N; Bertaux, A-C

    2018-03-01

    Cost analysis has become increasingly commonplace in healthcare facilities in recent years. Regardless of the aim, the first consideration for a hospital costing process is to determine the point of view, or perspective, to adopt. Should the cost figures reflect the healthcare facility's point of view or enlighten perspectives for the public health insurance system? Another consideration is in regard to the method to adopt, as there are several. The two most widely used methods to determine the costs of hospital treatments in France are the micro-costing method and the gross-costing method. The aims of this work are: (1) to describe each of these methods (e.g. data collection, assignment of monetary value to resource consumption) with their advantages and shortcomings as they relate to the difficulties encountered with their implementation in hospitals; (2) to present a review of the literature comparing the two methods and their possible combination; and (3) to propose ways to address the questions that need to be asked before compiling resource consumption data and assigning monetary value to hospital costs. A final diagram summarizes methodologies to be preferred according to the evaluation strategy and the impact on patient care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Costs of Critical Care Telemedicine Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Derik M.; Bonello, Robert S.; Kahn, Jeremy M.; Perencevich, Eli; Cram, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Implementation of telemedicine programs in ICUs (tele-ICUs) may improve patient outcomes, but the costs of these programs are unknown. We performed a systematic literature review to summarize existing data on the costs of tele-ICUs and collected detailed data on the costs of implementing a tele-ICU in a network of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies published between January 1, 1990, and July 1, 2011, reporting costs of tele-ICUs. Studies were summarized, and key cost data were abstracted. We then obtained the costs of implementing a tele-ICU in a network of seven VHA hospitals and report these costs in light of the existing literature. Results: Our systematic review identified eight studies reporting tele-ICU costs. These studies suggested combined implementation and first year of operation costs for a tele-ICU of $50,000 to $100,000 per monitored ICU-bed. Changes in patient care costs after tele-ICU implementation ranged from a $3,000 reduction to a $5,600 increase in hospital cost per patient. VHA data suggested a cost for implementation and first year of operation of $70,000 to $87,000 per ICU-bed, depending on the depreciation methods applied. Conclusions: The cost of tele-ICU implementation is substantial, and the impact of these programs on hospital costs or profits is unclear. Until additional data become available, clinicians and administrators should carefully weigh the clinical and economic aspects of tele-ICUs when considering investing in this technology. PMID:22797291

  2. Access Based Cost Estimation for Beddown Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pennington, Jasper E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an automated web-enabled beddown estimation application for Air Mobility Command in order to increase the effectiveness and enhance the robustness of beddown estimates...

  3. Estimating the costs of AECB regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the costs to the Canadian nuclear industry of the present Atomic Energy Control Board regulatory activities was carried out to provide a framework for a socio-economic impact analysis of AECB regulations. Regulaory costs in uranium mining and milling, fuel fabrication, power generation, the nuclear fuel cycle as a whole, and radioisotope use are studied. The cost of safety measures which industry would still undertake in the absence of government regulations ('prudent operator' costs) are not included. (L.L.)

  4. Addressing Uncertainties in Cost Estimates for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, Serge; Descures, Sylvain; Du Pasquier, Louis; Francois, Patrice; Buonarotti, Stefano; Mariotti, Giovanni; Tarakonov, Jurij; Daniska, Vladimir; Bergh, Niklas; Carroll, Simon; AaSTRoeM, Annika; Cato, Anna; De La Gardie, Fredrik; Haenggi, Hannes; Rodriguez, Jose; Laird, Alastair; Ridpath, Andy; La Guardia, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Patrick; ); Weber, Inge; )

    2017-01-01

    The cost estimation process of decommissioning nuclear facilities has continued to evolve in recent years, with a general trend towards demonstrating greater levels of detail in the estimate and more explicit consideration of uncertainties, the latter of which may have an impact on decommissioning project costs. The 2012 report on the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations, a joint recommendation by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission, proposes a standardised structure of cost items for decommissioning projects that can be used either directly for the production of cost estimates or for mapping of cost items for benchmarking purposes. The ISDC, however, provides only limited guidance on the treatment of uncertainty when preparing cost estimates. Addressing Uncertainties in Cost Estimates for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities, prepared jointly by the NEA and IAEA, is intended to complement the ISDC, assisting cost estimators and reviewers in systematically addressing uncertainties in decommissioning cost estimates. Based on experiences gained in participating countries and projects, the report describes how uncertainty and risks can be analysed and incorporated in decommissioning cost estimates, while presenting the outcomes in a transparent manner

  5. A generic tool for cost estimating in aircraft design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castagne, S.; Curran, R.; Rothwell, A.; Price, M.; Benard, E.; Raghunathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    A methodology to estimate the cost implications of design decisions by integrating cost as a design parameter at an early design stage is presented. The model is developed on a hierarchical basis, the manufacturing cost of aircraft fuselage panels being analysed in this paper. The manufacturing cost

  6. Aircraft bi-level life cycle cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.

    2015-01-01

    n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost,

  7. Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO) Cost Estimation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., proposes to build a tool to estimate airline costs under TBO. This tool includes a cost model that explicitly reasons about traffic...

  8. Estimating the costs of AECB regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    An attempt is made to answer questions relating to the feasibility of determining costs imposed by regulatory activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board, and to provide a conceptual and methodological framework for an actual cost study of existing AECB requirments. (L.L.)

  9. Model improves oil field operating cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed operating cost model that forecasts operating cost profiles toward the end of a field's life should be constructed for testing depletion strategies and plans for major oil fields. Developing a good understanding of future operating cost trends is important. Incorrectly forecasting the trend can result in bad decision making regarding investments and reservoir operating strategies. Recent projects show that significant operating expense reductions can be made in the latter stages o field depletion without significantly reducing the expected ultimate recoverable reserves. Predicting future operating cost trends is especially important for operators who are currently producing a field and must forecast the economic limit of the property. For reasons presented in this article, it is usually not correct to either assume that operating expense stays fixed in dollar terms throughout the lifetime of a field, nor is it correct to assume that operating costs stay fixed on a dollar per barrel basis

  10. Estimating costs in the economic evaluation of medical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, B R; Elixhauser, A

    1990-01-01

    The complexities and nuances of evaluating the costs associated with providing medical technologies are often underestimated by analysts engaged in economic evaluations. This article describes the theoretical underpinnings of cost estimation, emphasizing the importance of accounting for opportunity costs and marginal costs. The various types of costs that should be considered in an analysis are described; a listing of specific cost elements may provide a helpful guide to analysis. The process of identifying and estimating costs is detailed, and practical recommendations for handling the challenges of cost estimation are provided. The roles of sensitivity analysis and discounting are characterized, as are determinants of the types of costs to include in an analysis. Finally, common problems facing the analyst are enumerated with suggestions for managing these problems.

  11. Cost analysis of breast cancer diagnostic assessment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honein-AbouHaidar, G N; Hoch, J S; Dobrow, M J; Stuart-McEwan, T; McCready, D R; Gagliardi, A R

    2017-10-01

    Diagnostic assessment programs (daps) appear to improve the diagnosis of cancer, but evidence of their cost-effectiveness is lacking. Given that no earlier study used secondary financial data to estimate the cost of diagnostic tests in the province of Ontario, we explored how to use secondary financial data to retrieve the cost of key diagnostic test services in daps, and we tested the reliability of that cost-retrieving method with hospital-reported costs in preparation for future cost-effectiveness studies. We powered our sample at an alpha of 0.05, a power of 80%, and a margin of error of ±5%, and randomly selected a sample of eligible patients referred to a dap for suspected breast cancer during 1 January-31 December 2012. Confirmatory diagnostic tests received by each patient were identified in medical records. Canadian Classification of Health Intervention procedure codes were used to search the secondary financial data Web portal at the Ontario Case Costing Initiative for an estimate of the direct, indirect, and total costs of each test. The hospital-reported cost of each test received was obtained from the host-hospital's finance department. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the cost of individual or group confirmatory diagnostic tests, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test or the paired t-test was used to compare the Ontario Case Costing Initiative and hospital-reported costs. For the 191 identified patients with suspected breast cancer, the estimated total cost of $72,195.50 was not significantly different from the hospital-reported total cost of $72,035.52 ( p = 0.24). Costs differed significantly when multiple tests to confirm the diagnosis were completed during one patient visit and when confirmatory tests reported in hospital data and in medical records were discrepant. The additional estimated cost for non-salaried physicians delivering diagnostic services was $28,387.50. It was feasible to use secondary financial data to retrieve the cost

  12. The direct cost of "Thriasio" school screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziotou Christina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is great diversity in the policies for scoliosis screening worldwide. The initial enthusiasm was succeeded by skepticism and the worth of screening programs has been challenged. The criticisms of school screening programs cite mainly the negative psychological impact on children and their families and the increased financial cost of visits and follow-up radiographs. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the direct cost of performing the school screening in a district hospital. Methods A cost analysis was performed for the estimation of the direct cost of the "Thriasio" school-screening program between January 2000 and May 2006. The analysis involved all the 6470 pupils aged 6–18 years old who were screened at schools for spinal deformities during this period. The factors which were taken into consideration in order to calculate the direct cost of the screening program were a the number of the examiners b the working hours, c the examiners' salary, d the cost of transportation and finally e the cost of examination per child. Results During the examined period 20 examiners were involved in the program and worked for 1949 working hours. The hourly salary for the trainee doctors was 6.80 euro, for the Health Visitors 6.70 euro and for the Physiotherapists 5.50 euro in current prices. The cost of transportation was 32 euro per year. The direct cost for the examination of each child for the above studied period was calculated to be 2.04 euro. Conclusion The cost of our school-screening program is low. The present study provides a strong evidence for the continuation of the program when looking from a financial point of view.

  13. Estimation of optimal educational cost per medical student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B; Lee, Seunghee

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to estimate the optimal educational cost per medical student. A private medical college in Seoul was targeted by the study, and its 2006 learning environment and data from the 2003~2006 budget and settlement were carefully analyzed. Through interviews with 3 medical professors and 2 experts in the economics of education, the study attempted to establish the educational cost estimation model, which yields an empirically computed estimate of the optimal cost per student in medical college. The estimation model was based primarily upon the educational cost which consisted of direct educational costs (47.25%), support costs (36.44%), fixed asset purchases (11.18%) and costs for student affairs (5.14%). These results indicate that the optimal cost per student is approximately 20,367,000 won each semester; thus, training a doctor costs 162,936,000 won over 4 years. Consequently, we inferred that the tuition levels of a local medical college or professional medical graduate school cover one quarter or one-half of the per- student cost. The findings of this study do not necessarily imply an increase in medical college tuition; the estimation of the per-student cost for training to be a doctor is one matter, and the issue of who should bear this burden is another. For further study, we should consider the college type and its location for general application of the estimation method, in addition to living expenses and opportunity costs.

  14. Quarterly report on program cost and schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This report is intended to provide a summary of the cost and schedule performance for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Performance data are presented for each of the major program elements. Also included in this report is the status of the Nuclear Waste Fund revenues and disbursements. This report includes project performance data reported through March 1989

  15. Process-based Cost Estimation for Ramjet/Scramjet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brijendra; Torres, Felix; Nesman, Miles; Reynolds, John

    2003-01-01

    Process-based cost estimation plays a key role in effecting cultural change that integrates distributed science, technology and engineering teams to rapidly create innovative and affordable products. Working together, NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Canoga Park have developed a methodology of process-based cost estimation bridging the methodologies of high-level parametric models and detailed bottoms-up estimation. The NASA GRC/Boeing CP process-based cost model provides a probabilistic structure of layered cost drivers. High-level inputs characterize mission requirements, system performance, and relevant economic factors. Design alternatives are extracted from a standard, product-specific work breakdown structure to pre-load lower-level cost driver inputs and generate the cost-risk analysis. As product design progresses and matures the lower level more detailed cost drivers can be re-accessed and the projected variation of input values narrowed, thereby generating a progressively more accurate estimate of cost-risk. Incorporated into the process-based cost model are techniques for decision analysis, specifically, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and functional utility analysis. Design alternatives may then be evaluated not just on cost-risk, but also user defined performance and schedule criteria. This implementation of full-trade study support contributes significantly to the realization of the integrated development environment. The process-based cost estimation model generates development and manufacturing cost estimates. The development team plans to expand the manufacturing process base from approximately 80 manufacturing processes to over 250 processes. Operation and support cost modeling is also envisioned. Process-based estimation considers the materials, resources, and processes in establishing cost-risk and rather depending on weight as an input, actually estimates weight along with cost and schedule.

  16. Estimating Texas motor vehicle operating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A specific Vcost model was developed for Texas conditions based on a sophisticated fuel model for light : duty vehicles, several excellent sources of secondary vehicle cost data, and the ability to measure heavy truck fuel : consumption through both ...

  17. Handbook for cost estimating. A method for developing estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.R.; Cohen, S.; Ziegler, E.Z.

    1984-10-01

    This document provides overall guidance to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required by the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines and to assist in the assignment of priorities in resolving generic safety issues. The Handbook presents an overall cost model that allows the cost analyst to develop a chronological series of activities needed to implement a specific regulatory requirement throughout all applicable commercial LWR power plants and to identify the significant cost elements for each activity. References to available cost data are provided along with rules of thumb and cost factors to assist in evaluating each cost element. A suitable code-of-accounts data base is presented to assist in organizing and aggregating costs. Rudimentary cost analysis methods are described to allow the analyst to produce a constant-dollar, lifetime cost for the requirement. A step-by-step example cost estimate is included to demonstrate the overall use of the Handbook

  18. Costs of regulatory compliance: categories and estimating techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; McDonald, C.L.; Wood, M.T.; Cole, R.M.; Hauschulz, K.

    1978-10-01

    Use of the categorization scheme and cost estimating approaches presented in this report can make cost estimates of regulation required compliance activities of value to policy makers. The report describes a uniform assessment framework that when used would assure that cost studies are generated on an equivalent basis. Such normalization would make comparisons of different compliance activity cost estimates more meaningful, thus enabling the relative merits of different regulatory options to be more effectively judged. The framework establishes uniform cost reporting accounts and cost estimating approaches for use in assessing the costs of complying with regulatory actions. The framework was specifically developed for use in a current study at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. However, use of the procedures for other applications is also appropriate

  19. A Survey of Cost Estimating Methodologies for Distributed Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Veronica L.; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; de Weck, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Satellite constellations present unique capabilities and opportunities to Earth orbiting and near-Earth scientific and communications missions, but also present new challenges to cost estimators. An effective and adaptive cost model is essential to successful mission design and implementation, and as Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM) become more common, cost estimating tools must become more representative of these types of designs. Existing cost models often focus on a single spacecraft and require extensive design knowledge to produce high fidelity estimates. Previous research has examined the limitations of existing cost practices as they pertain to the early stages of mission formulation, for both individual satellites and small satellite constellations. Recommendations have been made for how to improve the cost models for individual satellites one-at-a-time, but much of the complexity in constellation and DSM cost modeling arises from constellation systems level considerations that have not yet been examined. This paper constitutes a survey of the current state-of-theart in cost estimating techniques with recommendations for improvements to increase the fidelity of future constellation cost estimates. To enable our investigation, we have developed a cost estimating tool for constellation missions. The development of this tool has revealed three high-priority shortcomings within existing parametric cost estimating capabilities as they pertain to DSM architectures: design iteration, integration and test, and mission operations. Within this paper we offer illustrative examples of these discrepancies and make preliminary recommendations for addressing them. DSM and satellite constellation missions are shifting the paradigm of space-based remote sensing, showing promise in the realms of Earth science, planetary observation, and various heliophysical applications. To fully reap the benefits of DSM technology, accurate and relevant cost estimating capabilities

  20. Establishing a cost model when estimating product cost in early design phases

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppsson, Johanna; Sjöberg, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    About 75% of the total product cost is determined in the early design phase, which means that the possibilities to affect costs are relatively small when the design phase is completed. For companies, it is therefore vital to conduct reliable cost estimates in the early design phase, when selecting between different design choices. When conducting a cost estimate there are many uncertainties. The aim with this study is therefore to explore how uncertainties regarding product cost can be consid...

  1. Estimating management costs of protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Jonathan M.H.; Burgess, Neil David; Green, Rhys E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite chronic underfunding for conservation and the recognition that funds must be invested wisely, few studies have analysed the direct costs of managing protected areas at the spatial scales needed to inform local site management. Using a questionnaire survey we collected data from protected...... area managers in the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAMs) of Tanzania to establish how much is currently spent on reserve management and how much is required to meet conservation objectives. We use an information theoretic approach to model spatial variation in these costs using a range of plausible, spatially...... in actual spend and over 40% of variation in necessary spend. Population pressure is a variable that has not been used to model protected area management costs before, yet proved to be considerably better at predicting both actual and necessary spend than other measures of anthropogenic pressure. We use our...

  2. School District Program Cost Accounting: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the value for school districts of a program cost accounting system and examines different approaches to generating program cost data, with particular emphasis on the "cost allocation to program system" (CAPS) and the traditional "transaction-based system." (JG)

  3. The Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Amblyopia Screening Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, David B.; Wittenborn, John S.; Zhang, Xinzhi; Song, Michael; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of amblyopia screening at preschool and kindergarten, we compared the costs and benefits of 3 amblyopia screening scenarios to no screening and to each other: (1) acuity/stereopsis (A/S) screening at kindergarten, (2) A/S screening at preschool and kindergarten, and (3) photoscreening at preschool and A/S screening at kindergarten. Methods We programmed a probabilistic microsimulation model of amblyopia natural history and response to treatment with screening costs and outcomes estimated from 2 state programs. We calculated the probability that no screening and each of the 3 interventions were most cost-effective per incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and case avoided. Results Assuming a minimal 0.01 utility loss from monocular vision loss, no screening was most cost-effective with a willingness to pay (WTP) of less than $16,000 per QALY gained. A/S screening at kindergarten alone was most cost-effective between a WTP of $17,000 and $21,000. A/S screening at preschool and kindergarten was most cost-effective between a WTP of $22,000 and $75,000, and photoscreening at preschool and A/S screening at kindergarten was most cost-effective at a WTP greater than $75,000. Cost-effectiveness substantially improved when assuming a greater utility loss. All scenarios were cost-effective when assuming a WTP of $10,500 per case of amblyopia cured. Conclusions All 3 screening interventions evaluated are likely to be considered cost-effective relative to many other potential public health programs. The choice of screening option depends on budgetary resources and the value placed on monocular vision loss prevention by funding agencies. PMID:21877675

  4. The Practice of Cost Estimation for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidova, Ivana; Desecures, Sylvain; Lexow, Thomas; Buonarroti, Stefano; Marini, Giuseppe; Pescatore, Claudio; Rehak, Ivan; Weber, Inge; ); Daniska, Vladimir; Linan, Jorge Borque; Caroll, Simon; Hedberg, Bjoern; De La Gardie, Fredrik; Haenggi, Hannes; Laguardia, Thomas S.; Ridpath, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Decommissioning of both commercial and R and D nuclear facilities is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, and the largest of such industrial decommissioning projects could command considerable budgets. Several approaches are currently being used for decommissioning cost estimations, with an international culture developing in the field. The present cost estimation practice guide was prepared in order to offer international actors specific guidance in preparing quality cost and schedule estimates to support detailed budgeting for the preparation of decommissioning plans, for the securing of funds and for decommissioning implementation. This guide is based on current practices and standards in a number of NEA member countries and aims to help consolidate the practice and process of decommissioning cost estimation so as to make it more widely understood. It offers a useful reference for the practitioner and for training programmes. The remainder of report is divided into the following chapters: - Chapter 2 covers the purpose and nature of decommissioning cost estimates, approaches to cost estimation and the major elements of a cost estimate. - Chapter 3 examines the development of the integrated schedule of the activity-dependent work scope and the determination of the project critical path. - Chapter 4 describes the attributes of a quality assurance programme applicable to cost estimation and the use and cautions of benchmarking the estimate from other estimates or actual costs. - Chapter 5 describes the pyramidal structure of the report, and the scope and content that should be included in the cost study report to ensure consistency and transparency in the estimate underpinnings. - Chapter 6 provides some observations, conclusions and recommendations on the use of this guide

  5. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies

  6. Cost estimating issues in the Russian integrated system planning context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allentuck, J.

    1996-01-01

    An important factor in the credibility of an optimal capacity expansion plan is the accuracy of cost estimates given the uncertainty of future economic conditions. This paper examines the problems associated with estimating investment and operating costs in the Russian nuclear power context over the period 1994 to 2010

  7. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs

  8. Development of regional stump-to-mill logging cost estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras

    1989-01-01

    Planning logging operations requires estimating the logging costs for the sale or tract being harvested. Decisions need to be made on equipment selection and its application to terrain. In this paper a methodology is described that has been developed and implemented to solve the problem of accurately estimating logging costs by region. The methodology blends field time...

  9. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1987-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies

  10. Costs of diarrheal disease and the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccination program in kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flem, Elmira T; Latipov, Renat; Nurmatov, Zuridin S; Xue, Yiting; Kasymbekova, Kaliya T; Rheingans, Richard D

    2009-11-01

    We examined the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus immunization program in Kyrgyzstan, a country eligible for vaccine funding from the GAVI Alliance. We estimated the burden of rotavirus disease and its economic consequences by using national and international data. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from government and societal perspectives, along with a range of 1-way sensitivity analyses. Rotavirus-related hospitalizations and outpatient visits cost US$580,864 annually, of which $421,658 (73%) is direct medical costs and $159,206 (27%) is nonmedical and indirect costs. With 95% coverage, vaccination could prevent 75% of rotavirus-related hospitalizations and deaths and 56% of outpatient visits and could avert $386,193 (66%) in total costs annually. The medical break-even price at which averted direct medical costs equal vaccination costs is $0.65/dose; the societal break-even price is $1.14/dose for a 2-dose regimen. At the current GAVI Alliance-subsidized vaccine price of $0.60/course, rotavirus vaccination is cost-saving for the government. Vaccination is cost-effective at a vaccine price $9.41/dose, according to the cost-effectiveness standard set by the 2002 World Health Report. Addition of rotavirus vaccines to childhood immunization in Kyrgyzstan could substantially reduce disease burden and associated costs. Vaccination would be cost-effective from the national perspective at a vaccine price $9.41 per dose.

  11. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE ASSUMPTIONS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.E. Sweeney

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost (LCC) estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA) , License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance

  12. Monitored Geologic Repository Life Cycle Cost Estimate Assumptions Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA), License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance

  13. Nuclear waste: A look at current use of funds and cost estimates for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy has revised its long-range cost estimates for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other highly radioactive waste from about $20 billion to between $21 billion and $41 billion. Delays in meeting some program milestones have added to the costs of the program and consequently DOE has proposed a 5-year delay for the first repository to come on-line. These program uncertainties will limit confidence in the estimates for the next several years. One such uncertainty is the estimated quantity of spent fuel for disposal. DOE's estimating approach overstates the amount of spent fuel that utilities will generate and the fees that they will pay into the Nuclear Waste Fund. As a result, DOE may not be collecting fees at a rate that will cover total program costs and may be overbuilding the waste system

  14. Guidelines for estimating nuclear power plant decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.; Williams, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) To develop guidelines to facilitate estimating the cost of nuclear power plant decommissioning alternatives on a plant-specific basis and to facilitate comparing estimates made by others. The guidelines are expressed in a form that could be readily adapted by technical specialists from individual utilities or by other uses. (2) To enhance the industry's credibility with decision-makes at the state and federal levels during rate/regulatory processes involving decommissioning costs. This is accomplished by providing a detailed, systematic breakdown of how decommissioning cost estimates are prepared. (3) To increase the validity, realism, and accuracy of site-specific decommissioning cost estimates. This is accomplished by pulling together the experiences and practices of several nuclear utilities and consultants in conducting past decommissioning cost estimates

  15. Estimating two indirect logging costs caused by accelerated erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen O. Klock

    1976-01-01

    In forest areas where high soil erosion potential exists, a comparative yarding cost estimate, including the indirect costs determined by methods proposed here, shows that the total cost of using "advanced" logging methods may be less than that of "traditional" systems.

  16. An improved COCOMO software cost estimation model | Duke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we discuss the methodologies adopted previously in software cost estimation using the COnstructive COst MOdels (COCOMOs). From our analysis, COCOMOs produce very high software development efforts, which eventually produce high software development costs. Consequently, we propose its extension, ...

  17. AX Tank Farm waste retrieval alternatives cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the estimated costs associated with retrieval of the wastes from the four tanks in AX Tank Farm. The engineering cost estimates developed for this report are based on previous cost data prepared for Project W-320 and the HTI 241-C-106 Heel Retrieval System. The costs presented in this report address only the retrieval of the wastes from the four AX Farm tanks. This includes costs for equipment procurement, fabrication, installation, and operation to retrieve the wastes. The costs to modify the existing plant equipment and systems to support the retrieval equipment are also included. The estimates do not include operational costs associated with pumping the waste out of the waste receiver tank (241-AY-102) between AX Farm retrieval campaigns or transportation, processing, and disposal of the retrieved waste

  18. Estimating the economic cost of disability in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Cullinan, John; Gannon, Brenda; Lyons, Seán

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the extra economic costs of disability seems a logical step towards alleviating elements of social exclusion for people with disabilities. This paper estimates the economic cost of disability in Ireland in terms of the additional spending needs that arise due to disability. It defines and estimates models of the private costs borne by families with individuals who have a disability in Ireland when compared to the wider population, both in general and by severity of illness. Our mod...

  19. Estimating Instantaneous Energetic Cost During Gait Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-31

    energetic cost. Its 327   accuracy benefits from a personalized model for each subject, but for some situations, it may suffice to 328   use the...Activity 380   Patterns During Robotic - and Therapist-Assisted Treadmill Walking in Individuals With 381   Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury. Phys Ther 86...of level walking with powered ankle 410   exoskeletons . Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 1402–1413, 2008. 411   25. Schmalz T, Blumentritt S

  20. Composite Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Estimating Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    X. The masked fit of the lines are as follows: • Part Count Percentage Reduction for Design hours ( HRE %) = • Part Count Percentage Reduction...multiplied by the respective labor rate (LR). Currently, CT is a percentage of total non- recurring development cost. HRE corresponds to recurring...Empty Weight Velocity RENGR HRE CRE 46 Figure 14: Non-Recurring Engineering CER Currently, CT is a percentage of non-recurring development

  1. Cost estimation of sumatra electricity expansion planning with nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study is to obtain the cost analysis on optimum solution of Sumatra electricity system using WASP-IV Program. Considering the economic aspect, nuclear power plant (NPP) is feasible in the future. From the geographical aspect Sumatra is prospecting for NPP site, especially the east coastal area due to the absence of hydro power potential and geothermal field. The use of petroleum as fuel in large scale power plants is not feasible. Beside causing high cost for electricity sector, it is also an important fuel for any other sectors such as transportation, electrification of isolated areas. Gas fuelled power plants is still feasible for next several decades in limited capacity. The study presents three scenarios, i.e. Low Scenario, Base Scenario and High Scenario applying discount rate of 8%, 10% and 12% respectively. Cost estimation for Sumatra System Expansion Planning is 57 465 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 8%, 59 349 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 10%, and 57 796 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 12%. The objective function is 15 172 US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 8%, 12 663 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 10%, and 11 017 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 12%. (author)

  2. Cost estimation for slope stability improvement in Muara Enim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliantina, Ika; Sutejo, Yulindasari; Adhitya, Bimo Brata; Sari, Nurul Permata; Kurniawan, Reffanda

    2017-11-01

    Case study area of SP. Sugihwaras-Baturaja is typologically specified in the C-zone type because the area is included in the foot of the mountain with a slope of 0 % to 20 %. Generally, the factors that cause landslide in Muara Enim Regency due to the influence of soil/rock, water factor, geological factors, and human activities. Slope improvement on KM.273 + 642-KM.273 + 774 along 132 m using soil nailing with 19 mm diameter tendon iron and an angle of 20o and a 75 mm shotcrete thickness, a K-250 concrete grouting material. Cost modeling (y) soil nailing based on 4 variables are X1 = length, X2 = horizontal distance, X3 = safety factor (SF), and X4 = time. Nine variations were used as multiple linear regression equations and analyzed with SPSS.16.0 program. Based on the SPSS output, then attempt the classical assumption and feasibility test model which produced the model that is Cost = (1,512,062 + 194,354 length-1,649,135 distance + 187,831 SF + 54,864 time) million Rupiah. The budget plan includes preparatory work, drainage system, soil nailing, and shotcrete. An efficient cost estimate of 8 m length nail, 1.5 m installation distance, safety factor (SF) = 1.742 and a 30 day processing time resulted in a fee of Rp. 2,566,313,000.00 (Two billion five hundred sixty six million three hundred thirteen thousand rupiah).

  3. Reducing Inventory System Costs by Using Robust Demand Estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond A. Jacobs; Harvey M. Wagner

    1989-01-01

    Applications of inventory theory typically use historical data to estimate demand distribution parameters. Imprecise knowledge of the demand distribution adds to the usual replenishment costs associated with stochastic demands. Only limited research has been directed at the problem of choosing cost effective statistical procedures for estimating these parameters. Available theoretical findings on estimating the demand parameters for (s, S) inventory replenishment policies are limited by their...

  4. Parametric Cost Estimates for an International Competitive Edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, L.T.; Hickey, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress to date by CH2M HILL and the UKAEA in development of a parametric modelling capability for estimating the costs of large nuclear decommissioning projects in the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe. The ability to successfully apply parametric cost estimating techniques will be a key factor to commercial success in the UK and European multi-billion dollar waste management, decommissioning and environmental restoration markets. The most useful parametric models will be those that incorporate individual components representing major elements of work: reactor decommissioning, fuel cycle facility decommissioning, waste management facility decommissioning and environmental restoration. Models must be sufficiently robust to estimate indirect costs and overheads, permit pricing analysis and adjustment, and accommodate the intricacies of international monetary exchange, currency fluctuations and contingency. The development of a parametric cost estimating capability is also a key component in building a forward estimating strategy. The forward estimating strategy will enable the preparation of accurate and cost-effective out-year estimates, even when work scope is poorly defined or as yet indeterminate. Preparation of cost estimates for work outside the organizations current sites, for which detailed measurement is not possible and historical cost data does not exist, will also be facilitated. (authors)

  5. The cost of French military nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    1999-02-01

    The author tries to find out the real cost of French nuclear weaponry. According to this study the total cost of the French military nuclear programs for 1960-1998 period is about 1499 milliard francs (MdF). This cost can be distributed as follows: i) fabrication of the bomb: 690 MdF; ii) display of the bomb: 727 MdF; iii) control of the bomb: 50 Mdf; iv) protection against nuclear attacks: 9 MdF; and v) dismantling of the bomb: 23 MdF. It goes without saying that these figures exceed by far those given by French authorities. (A.C.)

  6. Computerized cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Rothe, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    An automated approach to performing and cataloging cost estimates has been developed at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), wherein the cost estimate record is stored in the LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet on an IBM personal computer. The cost estimation spreadsheet is based on the cost coefficient/cost algorithm approach and incorporates a detailed generic code of cost accounts for both tokamak and tandem mirror devices. Component design parameters (weight, surface area, etc.) and cost factors are input, and direct and indirect costs are calculated. The cost data base file derived from actual cost experience within the fusion community and refined to be compatible with the spreadsheet costing approach is a catalog of cost coefficients, algorithms, and component costs arranged into data modules corresponding to specific components and/or subsystems. Each data module contains engineering, equipment, and installation labor cost data for different configurations and types of the specific component or subsystem. This paper describes the assumptions, definitions, methodology, and architecture incorporated in the development of the cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base, along with the type of input required and the output format

  7. Probabilistic cost estimating of nuclear power plant construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.C.; Perry, L.W.; Postula, F.D.

    1978-01-01

    This paper shows how to identify and isolate cost accounts by developing probability trees down to component levels as justified by value and cost uncertainty. Examples are given of the procedure for assessing uncertainty in all areas contributing to cost: design, factory equipment pricing, and field labor and materials. The method of combining these individual uncertainties is presented so that the cost risk can be developed for components, systems and the total plant construction project. Formats which enable management to use the probabilistic cost estimate information for business planning and risk control are illustrated. Topics considered include code estimate performance, cost allocation, uncertainty encoding, probabilistic cost distributions, and interpretation. Effective cost control of nuclear power plant construction projects requires insight into areas of greatest cost uncertainty and a knowledge of the factors which can cause costs to vary from the single value estimates. It is concluded that probabilistic cost estimating can provide the necessary assessment of uncertainties both as to the cause and the consequences

  8. Cost estimates for nuclear power in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Grant; Heptonstall, Phil; Gross, Robert; Handley, David

    2013-01-01

    Current UK Government support for nuclear power has in part been informed by cost estimates that suggest that electricity from new nuclear power stations will be competitive with alternative low carbon generation options. The evidence and analysis presented in this paper suggests that the capital cost estimates for nuclear power that are being used to inform these projections rely on costs escalating over the pre-construction and construction phase of the new build programme at a level significantly below those that have been experienced by past US and European programmes. This paper applies observed construction time and cost escalation rates to the published estimates of capital costs for new nuclear plant in the UK and calculates the potential impact on levelised cost per unit of electricity produced. The results suggest that levelised cost may turn out to be significantly higher than expected which in turn has important implications for policy, both in general terms of the potential costs to consumers and more specifically for negotiations around the level of policy support and contractual arrangements offered to individual projects through the proposed contract for difference strike price. -- Highlights: •Nuclear power projects costs can rise substantially during the construction period. •Pre-construction and construction time can be much longer than anticipated. •Adjusting estimates for observed experience increases levelised costs significantly. •Higher costs suggest that more policy support than envisaged may be required

  9. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, J H E; McGowan, T; Redmond-Misner, R; Beca, J; Warde, P; Gutierrez, E; Hoch, J S

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption.

  10. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND... § 305.5 Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

  11. Methods for developing useful estimates of the costs associated with birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Amy P; Canfield, Mark A

    2009-11-01

    Cost estimates for birth defects are useful to policy makers in deciding the best use of resources to prevent these conditions. Much of the effort in this area has focused on spina bifida, in part because cost savings can be estimated from folic acid-preventable cases. However, comprehensive cost-of-illness estimates for this condition may be too outdated, too general, or not applicable to individual states' environments. Using the live birth prevalence for spina bifida in Texas, we applied recent spina bifida cost estimates to approximate total lifetime medical and other costs for an average live birth cohort of spina bifida cases in Texas. In addition, we queried various government programs that provide services for persons with spina bifida to provide program-specific annual costs for this condition. Applying a recently published average lifetime medical cost of $635,000 per case of spina bifida to the average annual birth cohort of 120 Texas cases, an estimated $76 million in direct and indirect medical and other costs will be incurred in Texas over the life span of that cohort. Examples of estimated medical costs for one year are $5 million for infants using actual employer-paid insurance claims data and $6 million combined for children in two public sector programs. Stakeholders and state policy makers may look to state birth defects registries for useful cost data. Although comprehensive state-specific figures are not available, applying prevalence data to existing estimates and obtaining actual claims and program expenditures may help close this information gap.

  12. Comparing Methods for Estimating Direct Costs of Adverse Drug Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Jönsson, Anna K; Hakkarainen, Katja M; Svensson, Staffan; Hägg, Staffan; Rehnberg, Clas

    2017-12-01

    To estimate how direct health care costs resulting from adverse drug events (ADEs) and cost distribution are affected by methodological decisions regarding identification of ADEs, assigning relevant resource use to ADEs, and estimating costs for the assigned resources. ADEs were identified from medical records and diagnostic codes for a random sample of 4970 Swedish adults during a 3-month study period in 2008 and were assessed for causality. Results were compared for five cost evaluation methods, including different methods for identifying ADEs, assigning resource use to ADEs, and for estimating costs for the assigned resources (resource use method, proportion of registered cost method, unit cost method, diagnostic code method, and main diagnosis method). Different levels of causality for ADEs and ADEs' contribution to health care resource use were considered. Using the five methods, the maximum estimated overall direct health care costs resulting from ADEs ranged from Sk10,000 (Sk = Swedish krona; ~€1,500 in 2016 values) using the diagnostic code method to more than Sk3,000,000 (~€414,000) using the unit cost method in our study population. The most conservative definitions for ADEs' contribution to health care resource use and the causality of ADEs resulted in average costs per patient ranging from Sk0 using the diagnostic code method to Sk4066 (~€500) using the unit cost method. The estimated costs resulting from ADEs varied considerably depending on the methodological choices. The results indicate that costs for ADEs need to be identified through medical record review and by using detailed unit cost data. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1993-05-01

    Several advanced power plant concepts are currently under development. These include the Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor and the Advanced Light Water Reactors. One measure of the attractiveness of a new concept is its cost. Invariably, the cost of a new type of power plant will be compared with other alternative forms of electrical generation. This report provides a common starting point, whereby the cost estimates for the various power plants to be considered are developed with common assumptions and ground rules. Comparisons can then be made on a consistent basis. This is the second update of these cost estimate guidelines. Changes have been made to make the guidelines more current (January 1, 1992) and in response to suggestions made as a result of the use of the previous report. The principal changes are that the reference site has been changed from a generic Northeast (Middletown) site to a more central site (EPRI's East/West Central site) and that reference bulk commodity prices and labor productivity rates have been added. This report is designed to provide a framework for the preparation and reporting of costs. The cost estimates will consist of the overnight construction cost, the total plant capital cost, the operation and maintenance costs, the fuel costs, decommissioning costs and the power production or busbar generation cost

  14. Cost-estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Various advanced power plant concepts are currently under development. These include several advanced light water reactors as well as the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor and the advanced liquid-metal reactor. One measure-of the attractiveness of a new concept is cost. Invariably, the cost of a new type of power plant will be compared with other alternative forms of electric generation. In order to make reasonable comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules and assumptions must be applied when developing cost estimates. This paper describes the cost-estimate guidelines developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to be used in developing cost estimates for the advanced nuclear reactors and how these guidelines relate to the DOE cost verification process

  15. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  16. Program Evaluation in Cost Benefit Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C. Kenneth

    This paper advances a model, called the expected opportunity loss model, for curriculum evaluation. This decision-making technique utilizes subjective data by ranking courses according to their expected contributions to the primary objective of the total program. The model also utilizes objective data in the form of component costs, and differs…

  17. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  18. Method for developing cost estimates for generic regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The NRC has established a practice of performing regulatory analyses, reflecting costs as well as benefits, of proposed new or revised generic requirements. A method had been developed to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required for this purpose and for assigning priorities in the resolution of generic safety issues. The cost of a generic requirement is defined as the net present value of total lifetime cost incurred by the public, industry, and government in implementing the requirement for all affected plants. The method described here is for commercial light-water-reactor power plants. Estimating the cost for a generic requirement involves several steps: (1) identifying the activities that must be carried out to fully implement the requirement, (2) defining the work packages associated with the major activities, (3) identifying the individual elements of cost for each work package, (4) estimating the magnitude of each cost element, (5) aggregating individual plant costs over the plant lifetime, and (6) aggregating all plant costs and generic costs to produce a total, national, present value of lifetime cost for the requirement. The method developed addresses all six steps. In this paper, we discuss on the first three

  19. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  20. Well-founded cost estimation validated by experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Reliable cost estimating is one of the most important elements of decommissioning planning. Alternative technologies may be evaluated and compared based on their efficiency and effectiveness, and measured against a baseline cost as to the feasibility and benefits derived from the technology. When the plan is complete, those cost considerations ensure that it is economically sound and practical for funding. Estimates of decommissioning costs have been performed and published by many organizations for many different applications. The results often vary because of differences in the work scope. Labor force cost, monetary considerations, oversight costs, the specific contaminated materials involved, the waste stream and peripheral costs associated with that type of waste, or applicable environmental compliance requirements. Many of these differences are unavoidable since a reasonable degree of reliability and accuracy can only be achieved by developing decommissioning cost estimates on a case-by-case site-specific basis. This paper describes the estimating methodology and process applied to develop decommissioning cost estimates. A major effort has been made to standardize these methodologies, and to understand the assumptions and bases that drive the costs. However, estimates are only as accurate as the information available from which to derive the costs. This information includes the assumptions of scope of the work, labour cost inputs, inflationary effects, and financial analyses that project these costs to year of expenditure. Attempts at comparison of estimates for two facilities of similar design and size must clearly identify the assumptions used in developing the estimate, and comparison of actual costs versus estimated costs must reflect these same assumptions. For the nuclear industry to grow, decommissioning estimating tools must improve to keep pace with changing technology, regulations and stakeholder issues. The decommissioning industry needs

  1. Econometric estimation of country-specific hospital costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Christopher JL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Information on the unit cost of inpatient and outpatient care is an essential element for costing, budgeting and economic-evaluation exercises. Many countries lack reliable estimates, however. WHO has recently undertaken an extensive effort to collect and collate data on the unit cost of hospitals and health centres from as many countries as possible; so far, data have been assembled from 49 countries, for various years during the period 1973–2000. The database covers a total of 2173 country-years of observations. Large gaps remain, however, particularly for developing countries. Although the long-term solution is that all countries perform their own costing studies, the question arises whether it is possible to predict unit costs for different countries in a standardized way for short-term use. The purpose of the work described in this paper, a modelling exercise, was to use the data collected across countries to predict unit costs in countries for which data are not yet available, with the appropriate uncertainty intervals. The model presented here forms part of a series of models used to estimate unit costs for the WHO-CHOICE project. The methods and the results of the model, however, may be used to predict a number of different types of country-specific unit costs, depending on the purpose of the exercise. They may be used, for instance, to estimate the costs per bed-day at different capacity levels; the "hotel" component of cost per bed-day; or unit costs net of particular components such as drugs. In addition to reporting estimates for selected countries, the paper shows that unit costs of hospitals vary within countries, sometimes by an order of magnitude. Basing cost-effectiveness studies or budgeting exercises on the results of a study of a single facility, or even a small group of facilities, is likely to be misleading.

  2. An Adjusted Discount Rate Model for Fuel Cycle Cost Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. K.; Kang, G. B.; Ko, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Owing to the diverse nuclear fuel cycle options available, including direct disposal, it is necessary to select the optimum nuclear fuel cycles in consideration of the political and social environments as well as the technical stability and economic efficiency of each country. Economic efficiency is therefore one of the significant evaluation standards. In particular, because nuclear fuel cycle cost may vary in each country, and the estimated cost usually prevails over the real cost, when evaluating the economic efficiency, any existing uncertainty needs to be removed when possible to produce reliable cost information. Many countries still do not have reprocessing facilities, and no globally commercialized HLW (High-level waste) repository is available. A nuclear fuel cycle cost estimation model is therefore inevitably subject to uncertainty. This paper analyzes the uncertainty arising out of a nuclear fuel cycle cost evaluation from the viewpoint of a cost estimation model. Compared to the same discount rate model, the nuclear fuel cycle cost of a different discount rate model is reduced because the generation quantity as denominator in Equation has been discounted. Namely, if the discount rate reduces in the back-end process of the nuclear fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle cost is also reduced. Further, it was found that the cost of the same discount rate model is overestimated compared with the different discount rate model as a whole.

  3. An Adjusted Discount Rate Model for Fuel Cycle Cost Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Kang, G. B.; Ko, W. I.

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the diverse nuclear fuel cycle options available, including direct disposal, it is necessary to select the optimum nuclear fuel cycles in consideration of the political and social environments as well as the technical stability and economic efficiency of each country. Economic efficiency is therefore one of the significant evaluation standards. In particular, because nuclear fuel cycle cost may vary in each country, and the estimated cost usually prevails over the real cost, when evaluating the economic efficiency, any existing uncertainty needs to be removed when possible to produce reliable cost information. Many countries still do not have reprocessing facilities, and no globally commercialized HLW (High-level waste) repository is available. A nuclear fuel cycle cost estimation model is therefore inevitably subject to uncertainty. This paper analyzes the uncertainty arising out of a nuclear fuel cycle cost evaluation from the viewpoint of a cost estimation model. Compared to the same discount rate model, the nuclear fuel cycle cost of a different discount rate model is reduced because the generation quantity as denominator in Equation has been discounted. Namely, if the discount rate reduces in the back-end process of the nuclear fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle cost is also reduced. Further, it was found that the cost of the same discount rate model is overestimated compared with the different discount rate model as a whole

  4. Predicting Software Projects Cost Estimation Based on Mining Historical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Najadat, Hassan; Alsmadi, Izzat; Shboul, Yazan

    2012-01-01

    In this research, a hybrid cost estimation model is proposed to produce a realistic prediction model that takes into consideration software project, product, process, and environmental elements. A cost estimation dataset is built from a large number of open source projects. Those projects are divided into three domains: communication, finance, and game projects. Several data mining techniques are used to classify software projects in terms of their development complexity. Data mining techniqu...

  5. Cost estimation of the future harvest as agricultural loan collateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vnukova, N. N.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to attempt developing recommendations which may improve the overall banking technique of future cropping cost estimating. Objectives that have been set to achieve this aim are: to analyze alternative techniques of future cropping cost estimating; to perform calculation according to the selected techniques for 10 agricultural companies from different regions of Ukraine; to compare the techniques by means of hierarchy analysis method.

  6. The Acquisition Cost-Estimating Workforce. Census and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Abbreviations AAC Air Armament Center ACAT acquisition category ACEIT Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools AF Air Force AFB Air Force Base AFCAA Air...3 3 4 Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) 0 1 12 6 Tecolotea training 0 0 10 5 Other 3 13 24 18 No training 18 4 29 18 Total 100 100...other sources, including AFIT, ACEIT ,9 or the contracting agency that employed them. The remain- ing 29 percent reported having received no training

  7. Cost of Capital Estimation for Highway Concessionaires in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vergara-Novoa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the cost of capital estimation for highway concessionaires in Chile. We estimated the cost of equity and the cost of debt and determined the capital structure for each one of twenty-four concessionaires that operate highways. We based our estimations on the developments of Sharpe (1964, Modigliani and Miller (1958, and Maquieira (2009, which were also compared with the Brusov et al. (2015 developments. We collected stock prices for different highway concessionaires around the world from Google Finance and Reuters’ websites in order to determine the Beta of equity using a representative company. After that, we estimated the cost of equity considering Hamada (1969 and a Capital Asset Pricing Model. Then, we estimated the cost of capital using the cost of debt and the capital structure of Chile’s highway concessionaires. With all above, we were able to determine the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC for highway concessions which ranges from 5.49 to 6.62%.

  8. Estimated Incident Cost Savings in Shipping Due to Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe effectiveness of safety inspections has been analysed from various angles, but until now, relatively little attention has been given to translate risk reduction into incident cost savings. This paper quantifies estimated cost savings based on port state control inspections and

  9. The application of cost behaviour and estimation in organisational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on these findings, the paper recommends among others the need for the regular training of the management accountant in the modern methods of cost estimation, the need for accurate keeping of records of transactions and for long term forecasting of cost, management should rely on quantitative factors and ...

  10. Life cycle cost and risk estimation of environmental management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation process is demonstrated in this paper through comparative analysis of two alternative scenarios identified for the management of the alpha-contaminated fixed low-level waste currently stored at INEL. These two scenarios, the Base Case and the Delay Case, are realistic and based on actual data, but are not intended to exactly match actual plans currently being developed at INEL. Life cycle cost estimates were developed for both scenarios using the System Cost Model; resulting costs are presented and compared. Life cycle costs are shown as a function of time and also aggregated by pretreatment, treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Although there are some short-term cost savings for the Delay Case, cumulative life cycle costs eventually become much higher than costs for the Base Case over the same period of time, due mainly to the storage and repackaging necessary to accommodate the longer Delay Case schedule. Life cycle risk estimates were prepared using a new risk analysis method adapted to the System Cost Model architecture for automated, systematic cost/risk applications. Relative risk summaries are presented for both scenarios as a function of time and also aggregated by pretreatment, treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Relative risk of the Delay Case is shown to be higher than that of the Base Case. Finally, risk and cost results are combined to show how the collective information can be used to help identify opportunities for risk or cost reduction and highlight areas where risk reduction can be achieved most economically

  11. Estimating design costs for first-of-a-kind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Bakul; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    Modern scientific facilities are often outcomes of projects that are first-of-a-kind, that is, minimal historical data are available for project costs and schedules. However, at Fermilab, there was an opportunity to execute two similar projects consecutively. In this paper, a comparative study of the design costs for these two projects is presented using earned value methodology. This study provides some insights into how to estimate the cost of a replicated project

  12. Impact of a Novel Cost-Saving Pharmacy Program on Pregabalin Use and Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carolyn; Odell, Kevin; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Bancroft, Tim; Halpern, Rachel; Sadosky, Alesia

    2016-02-01

    D) analysis was used to compare the between-cohort change in pregabalin and alternative medication use patterns, health care costs, and health care resource utilization from pre- to post-index. The within-cohort change from pre- to post-index was analyzed by McNemar's test (categorical variables) or paired t-test (continuous variables). The Rao-Scott chi-square test (categorical) and general estimating equations (continuous) were used to analyze between-cohort differences at each time point. Differences in program member characteristics of those who changed versus those who did not change to gabapentin post-index were assessed by traditional chi-square test (categorical) or two-sample t-test (continuous variables). A total of 1,218 members in each cohort were PSM. Mean age was 51 years, 76.7% were women, and the most common pregabalin-indicated condition was fibromyalgia (77.6%). After the program start, the mean number of pregabalin claims from mail order and retail combined decreased in the program cohort from 4.7 pre-index to 3.8 post-index, and increased in the nonprogram cohort from 4.7 pre-index to 6.2 post-index (DiD, P costs were similar between cohorts, and the pre- to post-index change did not differ between cohorts (DiD, P = 0.474). However, mean total pharmacy costs rose from pre-index to post-index by $820 and $790 in the program and nonprogram cohorts, respectively (both P cost saving with respect to mean pharmacy or total health care costs.

  13. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 3: Development program and budgetary estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    The aircraft development program, budgetary estimates in CY 1976 dollars, and cost reduction program variants are presented. Detailed cost matrices are also provided for the mechanical transmission system, turbotip transmission system, and the thrust vector hoods and yaw doors.

  14. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  15. On Cost Estimate for Decommissioning of one Isotope Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek Vasko et al

    2010-08-01

    The main scope of this study has been to calculate the future cost for decommission and dismantling the Isotope central at the Studsvik site using the OMEGA CODE. Detailed empirical information is used in the study for 'bench-marking' purposes, in such cases when there is a need to supplement and correct field data from the industry. In the present study, data has been retrieved and organized such that the estimated costs for decommissioning of the Isotope Central become transparent and reliable. This approach gives a preliminary qualitative indication about the accuracy of the cost estimate delivered by the industry

  16. On Cost Estimate for Decommissioning of one Isotope Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek Vasko et al

    2010-08-15

    The main scope of this study has been to calculate the future cost for decommission and dismantling the Isotope central at the Studsvik site using the OMEGA CODE. Detailed empirical information is used in the study for 'bench-marking' purposes, in such cases when there is a need to supplement and correct field data from the industry. In the present study, data has been retrieved and organized such that the estimated costs for decommissioning of the Isotope Central become transparent and reliable. This approach gives a preliminary qualitative indication about the accuracy of the cost estimate delivered by the industry

  17. Estimating the cost of disposal for Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Y.

    1996-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) prepared an Environmental Impact Statement and nine supporting Primary Reference Documents on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. This report summarizes the basis of the cost estimate which is provided in the primary reference document on engineering for a disposal facility. The scope of the cost estimate is explained by describing the key features of the disposal facility design, by noting the major assumptions made in preparing the estimates, and by listing the included and excluded cost components. An activity-based project planning and control method is explained whereby the project schedule, costs, and personnel requirements are interlinked; forming an integrated perspective on the total project life cycle. The summary and distribution of costs in each project stage by major facility or activity are presented. The results of studies which reviewed the overall cost estimate are also described. These studies indicate that, within the scope, the estimate is reasonable and compares well with similar international studies. (author)

  18. Computerized cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Rothe, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Component design parameters (weight, surface area, etc.) and cost factors are input and direct and indirect costs are calculated. The cost data base file derived from actual cost experience within the fusion community and refined to be compatible with the spreadsheet costing approach is a catalog of cost coefficients, algorithms, and component costs arranged into data modules corresponding to specific components and/or subsystems. Each data module contains engineering, equipment, and installation labor cost data for different configurations and types of the specific component or subsystem. This paper describes the assumptions, definitions, methodology, and architecture incorporated in the development of the cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base, along with the type of input required and the output format

  19. State-Level Estimates of Cancer-Related Absenteeism Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K.; Trogdon, Justin G.; Nwaise, Isaac; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Guy, Gery P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the top five most costly diseases in the United States and leads to substantial work loss. Nevertheless, limited state-level estimates of cancer absenteeism costs have been published. Methods In analyses of data from the 2004–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau for 2008, and the 2009 Current Population Survey, we used regression modeling to estimate annual state-level absenteeism costs attributable to cancer from 2004 to 2008. Results We estimated that the state-level median number of days of absenteeism per year among employed cancer patients was 6.1 days and that annual state-level cancer absenteeism costs ranged from $14.9 million to $915.9 million (median = $115.9 million) across states in 2010 dollars. Absenteeism costs are approximately 6.5% of the costs of premature cancer mortality. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that lost productivity attributable to cancer is a substantial cost to employees and employers and contributes to estimates of the overall impact of cancer in a state population. PMID:23969498

  20. Cost Engineering Techniques and Their Applicability for Cost Estimation of Organic Rankine Cycle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Lemmens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems is acknowledged by both considerable research and development efforts and an increasing number of applications. Most research aims at improving ORC systems through technical performance optimization of various cycle architectures and working fluids. The assessment and optimization of technical feasibility is at the core of ORC development. Nonetheless, economic feasibility is often decisive when it comes down to considering practical instalments, and therefore an increasing number of publications include an estimate of the costs of the designed ORC system. Various methods are used to estimate ORC costs but the resulting values are rarely discussed with respect to accuracy and validity. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the methods used to estimate these costs and open the discussion about the interpretation of these results. A review of cost engineering practices shows there has been a long tradition of industrial cost estimation. Several techniques have been developed, but the expected accuracy range of the best techniques used in research varies between 10% and 30%. The quality of the estimates could be improved by establishing up-to-date correlations for the ORC industry in particular. Secondly, the rapidly growing ORC cost literature is briefly reviewed. A graph summarizing the estimated ORC investment costs displays a pattern of decreasing costs for increasing power output. Knowledge on the actual costs of real ORC modules and projects remains scarce. Finally, the investment costs of a known heat recovery ORC system are discussed and the methodologies and accuracies of several approaches are demonstrated using this case as benchmark. The best results are obtained with factorial estimation techniques such as the module costing technique, but the accuracies may diverge by up to +30%. Development of correlations and multiplication factors for ORC technology in particular is

  1. A Cost Simulation Tool for Estimating the Cost of Operating Government Owned and Operated Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Horngren , C.T., Foster, G., Datar, S.M., Cost Accounting : A Management Emphasis, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994 IBM Corporation, A Graphical...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A COST SIMULATION TOOL FOR 5. FUNDING NUMBERS ESTIMATING THE COST OF OPERATING GOVERNMENT OWNED AND OPERATED SHIPS 6. AUTHOR( S ...normally does not present a problem to the accounting department. The final category, the cost of operating the government owned and operated ships is

  2. [Methodologies for estimating the indirect costs of traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Soledad; Elorza, María Eugenia; Moscoso, Nebel Silvana; Ripari, Nadia Vanina

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents generate multiple costs to society, including those associated with the loss of productivity. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate methodology for estimating those costs. The aim of this study was to review methods for estimating indirect costs applied in crash cost studies. A thematic review of the literature was carried out between 1995 and 2012 in PubMed with the terms cost of illness, indirect cost, road traffic injuries, productivity loss. For the assessment of costs we used the the human capital method, on the basis of the wage-income lost during the time of treatment and recovery of patients and caregivers. In the case of premature death or total disability, the discount rate was applied to obtain the present value of lost future earnings. The computed years arose by subtracting to life expectancy at birth the average age of those affected who are not incorporated into the economically active life. The interest in minimizing the problem is reflected in the evolution of the implemented methodologies. We expect that this review is useful to estimate efficiently the real indirect costs of traffic accidents.

  3. Cost estimates for flat plate and concentrator collector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1982-01-01

    The current module and installation costs for the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program's grid-connected systems are significantly higher than required for economic viability of this alternative. Attention is accordingly given to the prospects for installed module cost reductions in flat plate, linear focus Fresnel concentrator, and point focus Fresnel concentrator candidate systems. Cost projections indicate that all three systems would meet near-term and midterm goals, provided that module costs of $2.80/W(p) and $0.70/W(p), respectively, are met. The point focus Fresnel system emerges as the most viable for the near term.

  4. Estimating the Cost of Providing Foundational Public Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaril, Cezar Brian C; Mays, Glen P; Branham, Douglas Keith; Bekemeier, Betty; Marlowe, Justin; Timsina, Lava

    2017-12-28

    To estimate the cost of resources required to implement a set of Foundational Public Health Services (FPHS) as recommended by the Institute of Medicine. A stochastic simulation model was used to generate probability distributions of input and output costs across 11 FPHS domains. We used an implementation attainment scale to estimate costs of fully implementing FPHS. We use data collected from a diverse cohort of 19 public health agencies located in three states that implemented the FPHS cost estimation methodology in their agencies during 2014-2015. The average agency incurred costs of $48 per capita implementing FPHS at their current attainment levels with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 16 percent. Achieving full FPHS implementation would require $82 per capita (CV=19 percent), indicating an estimated resource gap of $34 per capita. Substantial variation in costs exists across communities in resources currently devoted to implementing FPHS, with even larger variation in resources needed for full attainment. Reducing geographic inequities in FPHS may require novel financing mechanisms and delivery models that allow health agencies to have robust roles within the health system and realize a minimum package of public health services for the nation. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. Estimating Drilling Cost and Duration Using Copulas Dependencies Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Kindi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of drilling budget and duration is a high-level challenge for oil and gas industry. This is due to the many uncertain activities in the drilling procedure such as material prices, overhead cost, inflation, oil prices, well type, and depth of drilling. Therefore, it is essential to consider all these uncertain variables and the nature of relationships between them. This eventually leads into the minimization of the level of uncertainty and yet makes a "good" estimation points for budget and duration given the well type. In this paper, the copula probability theory is used in order to model the dependencies between cost/duration and MRI (mechanical risk index. The MRI is a mathematical computation, which relates various drilling factors such as: water depth, measured depth, true vertical depth in addition to mud weight and horizontal displacement. In general, the value of MRI is utilized as an input for the drilling cost and duration estimations. Therefore, modeling the uncertain dependencies between MRI and both cost and duration using copulas is important. The cost and duration estimates for each well were extracted from the copula dependency model where research study simulate over 10,000 scenarios. These new estimates were later compared to the actual data in order to validate the performance of the procedure. Most of the wells show moderate - weak relationship of MRI dependence, which means that the variation in these wells can be related to MRI but to the extent that it is not the primary source.

  6. Estimating productivity costs using the friction cost approach in practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, Jesse; Jowett, Sue; Lewis, Martyn; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the most appropriate approach to valuing productivity loss has received much debate in the literature. The friction cost approach has been proposed as a more appropriate alternative to the human capital approach when valuing productivity loss, although its application remains limited. This study reviews application of the friction cost approach in health economic studies and examines how its use varies in practice across different country settings. A systematic review was performed to identify economic evaluation studies that have estimated productivity costs using the friction cost approach and published in English from 1996 to 2013. A standard template was developed and used to extract information from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The search yielded 46 studies from 12 countries. Of these, 28 were from the Netherlands. Thirty-five studies reported the length of friction period used, with only 16 stating explicitly the source of the friction period. Nine studies reported the elasticity correction factor used. The reported friction cost approach methods used to derive productivity costs varied in quality across studies from different countries. Few health economic studies have estimated productivity costs using the friction cost approach. The estimation and reporting of productivity costs using this method appears to differ in quality by country. The review reveals gaps and lack of clarity in reporting of methods for friction cost evaluation. Generating reporting guidelines and country-specific parameters for the friction cost approach is recommended if increased application and accuracy of the method is to be realized.

  7. Development of Cost Estimation Methodology of Decommissioning for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae; Lim, Yong Kyu; Chang, Hyeon Sik; Song, Geun Ho

    2013-01-01

    The permanent closure of nuclear power plant should be conducted with the strict laws and the profound planning including the cost and schedule estimation because the plant is very contaminated with the radioactivity. In Korea, there are two types of the nuclear power plant. One is the pressurized light water reactor (PWR) and the other is the pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) called as CANDU reactor. Also, the 50% of the operating nuclear power plant in Korea is the PWRs which were originally designed by CE (Combustion Engineering). There have been experiences about the decommissioning of Westinghouse type PWR, but are few experiences on that of CE type PWR. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop the cost estimation methodology and evaluate technical level of decommissioning for the application to CE type PWR based on the system engineering technology. The aim of present study is to develop the cost estimation methodology of decommissioning for application to PWR. Through the study, the following conclusions are obtained: · Based on the system engineering, the decommissioning work can be classified as Set, Subset, Task, Subtask and Work cost units. · The Set and Task structure are grouped as 29 Sets and 15 Task s, respectively. · The final result shows the cost and project schedule for the project control and risk management. · The present results are preliminary and should be refined and improved based on the modeling and cost data reflecting available technology and current costs like labor and waste data

  8. Methodology used in IRSN nuclear accident cost estimates in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by IRSN to estimate the cost of potential nuclear accidents in France. It concerns possible accidents involving pressurized water reactors leading to radioactive releases in the environment. These accidents have been grouped in two accident families called: severe accidents and major accidents. Two model scenarios have been selected to represent each of these families. The report discusses the general methodology of nuclear accident cost estimation. The crucial point is that all cost should be considered: if not, the cost is underestimated which can lead to negative consequences for the value attributed to safety and for crisis preparation. As a result, the overall cost comprises many components: the most well-known is offsite radiological costs, but there are many others. The proposed estimates have thus required using a diversity of methods which are described in this report. Figures are presented at the end of this report. Among other things, they show that purely radiological costs only represent a non-dominant part of foreseeable economic consequences. (authors)

  9. Comparing NASA and ESA Cost Estimating Methods for Human Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.; vanPelt, Michel O.

    2004-01-01

    To compare working methodologies between the cost engineering functions in NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ESA European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), as well as to set-up cost engineering capabilities for future manned Mars projects and other studies which involve similar subsystem technologies in MSFC and ESTEC, a demonstration cost estimate exercise was organized. This exercise was a direct way of enhancing not only cooperation between agencies but also both agencies commitment to credible cost analyses. Cost engineers in MSFC and ESTEC independently prepared life-cycle cost estimates for a reference human Mars project and subsequently compared the results and estimate methods in detail. As a non-sensitive, public domain reference case for human Mars projects, the Mars Direct concept was chosen. In this paper the results of the exercise are shown; the differences and similarities in estimate methodologies, philosophies, and databases between MSFC and ESTEC, as well as the estimate results for the Mars Direct concept. The most significant differences are explained and possible estimate improvements identified. In addition, the Mars Direct plan and the extensive cost breakdown structure jointly set-up by MSFC and ESTEC for this concept are presented. It was found that NASA applied estimate models mainly based on historic Apollo and Space Shuttle cost data, taking into account the changes in technology since then. ESA used models mostly based on European satellite and launcher cost data, taking into account the higher equipment and testing standards for human space flight. Most of NASA's and ESA s estimates for the Mars Direct case are comparable, but there are some important, consistent differences in the estimates for: 1) Large Structures and Thermal Control subsystems; 2) System Level Management, Engineering, Product Assurance and Assembly, Integration and Test/Verification activities; 3) Mission Control; 4) Space Agency Program Level

  10. Patient-physician discussions about costs: definitions and impact on cost conversation incidence estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Wynn G; Hesson, Ashley; Davis, J Kelly; Kirby, Christine; Williamson, Lillie D; Barnett, Jamison A; Ubel, Peter A

    2016-03-31

    Nearly one in three Americans are financially burdened by their medical expenses. To mitigate financial distress, experts recommend routine physician-patient cost conversations. However, the content and incidence of these conversations are unclear, and rigorous definitions are lacking. We sought to develop a novel set of cost conversation definitions, and determine the impact of definitional variation on cost conversation incidence in three clinical settings. Retrospective, mixed-methods analysis of transcribed dialogue from 1,755 outpatient encounters for routine clinical management of breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and depression, occurring between 2010-2014. We developed cost conversation definitions using summative content analysis. Transcripts were evaluated independently by at least two members of our multi-disciplinary team to determine cost conversation incidence using each definition. Incidence estimates were compared using Pearson's Chi-Square Tests. Three cost conversation definitions emerged from our analysis: (a) Out-of-Pocket (OoP) Cost--discussion of the patient's OoP costs for a healthcare service; (b) Cost/Coverage--discussion of the patient's OoP costs or insurance coverage; (c) Cost of Illness- discussion of financial costs or insurance coverage related to health or healthcare. These definitions were hierarchical; OoP Cost was a subset of Cost/Coverage, which was a subset of Cost of Illness. In each clinical setting, we observed significant variation in the incidence of cost conversations when using different definitions; breast oncology: 16, 22, 24% of clinic visits contained cost conversation (OOP Cost, Cost/Coverage, Cost of Illness, respectively; P cost conversation varied significantly depending on the definition used. Our findings and proposed definitions may assist in retrospective interpretation and prospective design of investigations on this topic.

  11. Estimated Cost to a Restaurant of a Foodborne Illness Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Asti, Lindsey; Nyathi, Sindiso; Spiker, Marie L; Lee, Bruce Y

    Although outbreaks of restaurant-associated foodborne illness occur periodically and make the news, a restaurant may not be aware of the cost of an outbreak. We estimated this cost under varying circumstances. We developed a computational simulation model; scenarios varied outbreak size (5 to 250 people affected), pathogen (n = 15), type of dining establishment (fast food, fast casual, casual dining, and fine dining), lost revenue (ie, meals lost per illness), cost of lawsuits and legal fees, fines, and insurance premium increases. We estimated that the cost of a single foodborne illness outbreak ranged from $3968 to $1.9 million for a fast-food restaurant, $6330 to $2.1 million for a fast-casual restaurant, $8030 to $2.2 million for a casual-dining restaurant, and $8273 to $2.6 million for a fine-dining restaurant, varying from a 5-person outbreak, with no lost revenue, lawsuits, legal fees, or fines, to a 250-person outbreak, with high lost revenue (100 meals lost per illness), and a high amount of lawsuits and legal fees ($1 656 569) and fines ($100 000). This cost amounts to 10% to 5790% of a restaurant's annual marketing costs and 0.3% to 101% of annual profits and revenue. The biggest cost drivers were lawsuits and legal fees, outbreak size, and lost revenue. Pathogen type affected the cost by a maximum of $337 000, the difference between a Bacillus cereus outbreak (least costly) and a listeria outbreak (most costly). The cost of a single foodborne illness outbreak to a restaurant can be substantial and outweigh the typical costs of prevention and control measures. Our study can help decision makers determine investment and motivate research for infection-control measures in restaurant settings.

  12. Estimating remediation costs for the Montclair radium superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund Sites, located in Essex County, NJ, are contaminated to varying degrees with radioactive materials. The waste originated from radium processing facilities prevalent in the area during the early 1900s. The design for remediation of these sites is managed by Bechtel National, Inc. on behalf of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District, which administers the project through an interagency agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Design efforts for the project began in 1990. A portion of the scope, which is the topic of this article, was preparing the remediation costs estimates. These estimates were to be prepared from the detailed design packages; the Corps of Engineers required that the estimates were prepared using the Micro Computer-Aided Cost Estimating System (MCACES). This article discusses the design methods used, provides an overview of MCACES, and discusses the structure and preparation of the cost estimate and its uses. However, the main focus of the article is the methods used to generate the required project-specific cost estimate format for this project. 6 figs

  13. Procedure for estimating nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, M.L.; Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    Revised guidelines are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants, specifically light-water-reactor plants and coal-fired plants. Previous guidelines were published in October 1975 in ERDA 76-37, a Procedure for Estimating Nonfuel Operating and Maintenance Costs for Large Steam-Electric Power Plants. Estimates for coal-fired plants include the option of limestone slurry scrubbing for flue gas desulfurization. A computer program, OMCOST, is also presented which covers all plant options

  14. Cost estimates to guide manufacturing of composite waved beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jinrui; Zhang Boming; Qi Haiming

    2009-01-01

    A cost estimation model on the basis of manufacturing process has been presented. In the model, the effects of the material, labor, tool and equipment were discussed, and the corresponding formulas were provided. A method of selecting estimation variables has been provided based on a case study of composite waved beam using autoclave cure. The model parameters related to the process time estimation of the lay-up procedure were analyzed and modified for different part configurations. The result shows that there is little error while comparing the estimated process time with the practical one. The model is verified to be applicable to guide the design and manufacturing of the composite material

  15. The cost of Alzheimer's disease in China and re-estimation of costs worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianping; Wei, Cuibai; Chen, Shuoqi; Li, Fangyu; Tang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Zhao, Lina; Jin, Hongmei; Xu, Hui; Wang, Fen; Zhou, Aihong; Zuo, Xiumei; Wu, Liyong; Han, Ying; Han, Yue; Huang, Liyuan; Wang, Qi; Li, Dan; Chu, Changbiao; Shi, Lu; Gong, Min; Du, Yifeng; Zhang, Jiewen; Zhang, Junjian; Zhou, Chunkui; Lv, Jihui; Lv, Yang; Xie, Haiqun; Ji, Yong; Li, Fang; Yu, Enyan; Luo, Benyan; Wang, Yanjiang; Yang, Shanshan; Qu, Qiumin; Guo, Qihao; Liang, Furu; Zhang, Jintao; Tan, Lan; Shen, Lu; Zhang, Kunnan; Zhang, Jinbiao; Peng, Dantao; Tang, Muni; Lv, Peiyuan; Fang, Boyan; Chu, Lan; Jia, Longfei; Gauthier, Serge

    2018-04-01

    The socioeconomic costs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in China and its impact on global economic burden remain uncertain. We collected data from 3098 patients with AD in 81 representative centers across China and estimated AD costs for individual patient and total patients in China in 2015. Based on this data, we re-estimated the worldwide costs of AD. The annual socioeconomic cost per patient was US $19,144.36, and total costs were US $167.74 billion in 2015. The annual total costs are predicted to reach US $507.49 billion in 2030 and US $1.89 trillion in 2050. Based on our results, the global estimates of costs for dementia were US $957.56 billion in 2015, and will be US $2.54 trillion in 2030, and US $9.12 trillion in 2050, much more than the predictions by the World Alzheimer Report 2015. China bears a heavy burden of AD costs, which greatly change the estimates of AD cost worldwide. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Software Cost Estimation Method Based on Fuzzy Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plecka Przemysław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of sales process of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP Systems, it turns out that the standard system must be extended or changed (modified according to specific customer’s requirements. Therefore, suppliers face the problem of determining the cost of additional works. Most methods of cost estimation bring satisfactory results only at the stage of pre-implementation analysis. However, suppliers need to know the estimated cost as early as at the stage of trade talks. During contract negotiations, they expect not only the information about the costs of works, but also about the risk of exceeding these costs or about the margin of safety. One method that gives more accurate results at the stage of trade talks is the method based on the ontology of implementation costs. This paper proposes modification of the method involving the use of fuzzy attributes, classes, instances and relations in the ontology. The result provides not only the information about the value of work, but also about the minimum and maximum expected cost, and the most likely range of costs. This solution allows suppliers to effectively negotiate the contract and increase the chances of successful completion of the project.

  17. 78 FR 61227 - Public Assistance Cost Estimating Format for Large Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... equipment. The base cost (construction costs) plus nonconstruction costs equal the total eligible cost... included the estimated base cost plus the estimated nonconstruction costs. Under the traditional method... total cost of completing the project. This ``forward- pricing'' methodology provides an estimate of the...

  18. Fusion reactor design studies: standard accounts for cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.; Young, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    The fusion reactor design studies--standard accounts for cost estimates provides a common format from which to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept costs estimates and also provide policymakers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concept may be economically promising. The format sets forth a categorization and accounting procedure to be used when estimating fusion reactor busbar energy cost that can be easily and consistently applied. Reasons for developing the procedure, explanations of the procedure, justifications for assumptions made in the procedure, and the applicability of the procedure are described in this document. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising design concepts thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  19. Oil and gas pipeline construction cost analysis and developing regression models for cost estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaduri, Ravi Kiran

    In this study, cost data for 180 pipelines and 136 compressor stations have been analyzed. On the basis of the distribution analysis, regression models have been developed. Material, Labor, ROW and miscellaneous costs make up the total cost of a pipeline construction. The pipelines are analyzed based on different pipeline lengths, diameter, location, pipeline volume and year of completion. In a pipeline construction, labor costs dominate the total costs with a share of about 40%. Multiple non-linear regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of pipelines for various cross-sectional areas, lengths and locations. The Compressor stations are analyzed based on the capacity, year of completion and location. Unlike the pipeline costs, material costs dominate the total costs in the construction of compressor station, with an average share of about 50.6%. Land costs have very little influence on the total costs. Similar regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of compressor station for various capacities and locations.

  20. Cost of Services Provided by the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Subramanian, Sujha; Trogdon, Justin G.; Miller, Jacqueline W.; Royalty, Janet E.; Li, Chunyu; Guy, Gery P.; Crouse, Wesley; Thompson, Hope; Gardner, James G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) is the largest cancer screening program for low-income women in the United States. This study updates previous estimates of the costs of delivering preventive cancer screening services in the NBCCEDP. METHODS We developed a standardized web-based cost-assessment tool to collect annual activity-based cost data on screening for breast and cervical cancer in the NBCCEDP. Data were collected from 63 of the 66 programs that received funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the 2006/2007 fiscal year. We used these data to calculate costs of delivering preventive public health services in the program. RESULTS We estimated the total cost of all NBCCEDP services to be $296 (standard deviation [SD], $123) per woman served (including the estimated value of in-kind donations, which constituted approximately 15% of this total estimated cost). The estimated cost of screening and diagnostic services was $145 (SD, $38) per women served, which represented 57.7% of the total cost excluding the value of in-kind donations. Including the value of in-kind donations, the weighted mean cost of screening a woman for breast cancer was $110 with an office visit and $88 without, the weighted mean cost of a diagnostic procedure was $401, and the weighted mean cost per breast cancer detected was $35,480. For cervical cancer, the corresponding cost estimates were $61, $21, $415, and $18,995, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These NBCCEDP cost estimates may help policy makers in planning and implementing future costs for various potential changes to the program. PMID:25099904

  1. Estimating the mental health costs of racial discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanuel Elias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial discrimination is a pervasive social problem in several advanced countries such as the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Public health research also indicates a range of associations between exposure to racial discrimination and negative health, particularly, mental health including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the direct negative health impact of racial discrimination has not been costed so far although economists have previously estimated indirect non-health related productivity costs. In this study, we estimate the burden of disease due to exposure to racial discrimination and measure the cost of this exposure. Methods Using prevalence surveys and data on the association of racial discrimination with health outcomes from a global meta-analysis, we apply a cost of illness method to measure the impact of racial discrimination. This estimate indicates the direct health cost attributable to racial discrimination and we convert the estimates to monetary values based on conventional parameters. Results Racial discrimination costs the Australian economy 235,452 in disability adjusted life years lost, equivalent to $37.9 billion per annum, roughly 3.02% of annual gross domestic product (GDP over 2001–11, indicating a sizeable loss for the economy. Conclusion Substantial cost is incurred due to increased prevalence of racial discrimination as a result of its association with negative health outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety and PTSD. This implies that potentially significant cost savings can be made through measures that target racial discrimination. Our research contributes to the debate on the social impact of racial discrimination, with implications for policies and efforts addressing it.

  2. Estimating the Cost for Executing Business Processes in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Ferme; Ana Ivanchikj; Cesare Pautasso

    2016-01-01

    Managing and running business processes in the Cloud changes how Workflow Management Systems (WfMSs) are deployed. Consequently when designing such WfMSs there is a need of determining the sweet spot in the performance vs. resource consumption trade off. While all Cloud providers agree on the pay as you go resource consumption model every provider uses a different cost model to gain a competitive edge. In this paper we present a novel method for estimating the infrastructure costs of running ...

  3. Multi-pitch Estimation using Semidefinite Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    assuming a Nyquist sampled signal by adding an additional semidefinite constraint. We show that the proposed estimator has superior performance compared to state- of-the-art methods for separating two closely spaced fundamentals and approximately achieves the asymptotic Cramér-Rao lower bound.......Multi-pitch estimation concerns the problem of estimating the fundamental frequencies (pitches) and amplitudes/phases of multiple superimposed harmonic signals with application in music, speech, vibration analysis etc. In this paper we formulate a complex-valued multi-pitch estimator via...... a semidefinite programming representation of an atomic decomposition over a continuous dictionary of complex exponentials and extend this to real-valued data via a real semidefinite pro-ram with the same dimensions (i.e. half the size). We further impose a continuous frequency constraint naturally occurring from...

  4. Radium removal processes capital and operating cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, F.J.

    1979-09-01

    An estimate of the fixed capital and operating costs for two alternative processes for the removal of dissolved Ra-226 from uranium mill effluent in Elliot Lake, Ontario is presented. Process 1 consists of barium-radium coprecipitation followed by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. Process 2 consists of barium-radium coprecipitation followed by gravity media filtration, sand filter backwashing and sedimentation. Cost estimates were prepared for 18 different plant configurations designed to treat 1000 and 4000 imperial gallons per minute (ig/m) of effluent, 24 hrs per day, 7 days per week and 365 days per year with several equipment options. The estimated fixed capital costs for plants equipped with gravity filters were less than those equipped with circular clarifiers. The capital costs ranged from $552,000 with a flow rate of 1000 ig/m to $2,578,000 with a flow rate of 4000 ig/m. Estimated annual operating costs, based on a plant life of 10 years, ranged from $298,000 with a flow rate of 1000 ig/m to $1,061,000 with a flow rate of 4000 ig/m

  5. Valuing productivity costs in a changing macroeconomic environment: the estimation of colorectal cancer productivity costs using the friction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Koopmanschap, Marc; Sharp, Linda

    2016-06-01

    The friction cost approach (FCA) has been proposed as an alternative to the human capital approach for productivity cost valuation. However, FCA estimates are context dependent and influenced by extant macroeconomic conditions. We applied the FCA to estimate colorectal cancer labor productivity costs and assessed the impact of a changing macroeconomic environment on these estimates. Data from colorectal cancer survivors (n = 159) derived from a postal survey undertaken in Ireland March 2010 to January 2011 were combined with national wage data, population-level survival data, and occupation-specific friction periods to calculate temporary and permanent disability, and premature mortality costs using the FCA. The effects of changing labor market conditions between 2006 and 2013 on the friction period were modeled in scenario analyses. Costs were valued in 2008 euros. In the base-case, the total FCA per-person productivity cost for incident colorectal cancer patients of working age at diagnosis was €8543. In scenario 1 (a 2.2 % increase in unemployment), the fall in the friction period caused total productivity costs to decrease by up to 18 % compared to base-case estimates. In scenario 2 (a 9.2 % increase in unemployment), the largest decrease in productivity cost was up to 65 %. Adjusting for the vacancy rate reduced the effect of unemployment on the cost results. The friction period used in calculating labor productivity costs greatly affects the derived estimates; this friction period requires reassessment following changes in labor market conditions. The influence of changes in macroeconomic conditions on FCA-derived cost estimates may be substantial.

  6. Cost estimation of interim dry storage for Atucha I NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergallo, Juan E.; Fuenzalida Troyano, Carlos S.

    2007-01-01

    A joint effort between NASA and CNEA has been performed in order to evaluate and fix the strategy of interim spent fuel storage for Atucha I nuclear power plant. In this work the cost estimation on the proposed system was performed in order to fix the parameter and design criteria for the next engineering step. The main results achieved show that both alternatives are all in the same range of costs per unit of mass to be stored, the impact on electricity cost is less than 1 US mills/KWh and the scaling factor achieved is 0.85. (author) [es

  7. Estimation of cost and value of energy from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.; Fransden, S.

    1995-01-01

    The International Energy Agency expert group on recommended practices for wind turbine testing and evaluation is finalizing a second edition of the E stimation of cost of energy from wind energy conversion systems . This paper summarizes those recommendations. Further, the value of wind energy in terms of the associated savings is discussed, and a case study is undertaken to illustrate wind energy cost/benefit analyses. The paper concludes that while the recommended practices on cost estimation may be useful in connection with wind energy feasibility studies there is still a need for further international agreement upon guidelines on how to assess wind energy benefits. (author)

  8. A Descriptive Evaluation of Automated Software Cost-Estimation Models,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    Version 1.03D) * PCOC (Version 7.01) - PRICE S • SLIM (Version 1.1) • SoftCost (Version 5. 1) * SPQR /20 (Version 1. 1) - WICOMO (Version 1.3) These...produce detailed GANTT and PERT charts. SPQR /20 is based on a cost model developed at ITT. In addition to cost, schedule, and staffing estimates, it...cases and test runs required, and the effectiveness of pre-test and test activities. SPQR /20 also predicts enhancement and maintenance activities. C

  9. Estimating the Cost of Youth Disengagement in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Gail Pacheco; Jessica Dye

    2013-01-01

    Youth exclusion, disengagement, and overall underutilisation in the labour market has short term costs to the economy, as well as long term impacts on society. In this research we project the loss to productivity, measured in foregone wages, and the expected cost to public finances for NZ and Auckland youth aged 15-24 not in employment, education, or training (collectively known as NEET). We estimate the expected per capita cost of each NEET youth in NZ is approximately $26,847 over the next ...

  10. Historical Cost Growth of Completed Weapon System Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arena, Mark V; Leonard, Robert S; Murray, Sheila E; Younossi, Obaid

    2006-01-01

    ...: Cost Risk Analysis for Air Force Systems," and includes a literature review of cost growth studies and a more extensive analysis of the historical cost growth in acquisition programs than appears...

  11. Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-12-01

    This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation

  12. Cost estimation for decommissioning: a review of current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, P.; Pescatore, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is now common practice for decommissioning plans and associated cost estimates to be prepared for all nuclear installations. Specific requirements are generally set out in regulations that have their basis in national legislation. These estimates are important for ensuring that the necessary funds are being collected to cover the actual costs of decommissioning the facility. The long time horizon for both amassing and disbursing these funds is a particular concern for national authorities. It is thus important to maintain a realistic estimate of the liabilities involved and to confirm the adequacy of the provisions to discharge them over time. Estimates of decommissioning costs have been performed and published by many organisations for many different purposes and applications. The results often vary because of differences in basic assumptions such as the choice of the decommissioning strategy (immediate vs. deferred), the availability of waste management pathways, the assumed end states of installations, the detailed definition of cost items, technical uncertainties, unforeseen events, the evolution of regulation and requirements. Many of these differences may be unavoidable since a reasonable degree of reliability and accuracy can only be achieved by developing decommissioning cost estimates on a case-by-case, site-specific basis. Moreover, even if considerable efforts are made to obtain reliable estimates, unforeseen events may cause estimates to go wrong. The issue of how to deal with uncertainties is therefore an important one, leading in turn to the need for risk management in terms of making adequate funding provisions. In March 2008, a questionnaire was circulated among the organisations participating in the NEA Decommissioning and Cost Estimation Group (DCEG). Information was collected on legal requirements and the responsibilities of the main parties concerned with the preparation and oversight of cost estimates, the main cost elements and associated

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of childhood asthma management through school-based clinic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Teresa; Bame, Sherry I

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is a leading chronic illness among American children. School-based health clinics (SBHCs) reduced expensive ER visits and hospitalizations through better healthcare access and monitoring in select case studies. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-benefit of SBHC programs in managing childhood asthma nationwide for reduction in medical costs of ER, hospital and outpatient physician care and savings in opportunity social costs of lowing absenteeism and work loss and of future earnings due to premature deaths. Eight public data sources were used to compare costs of delivering primary and preventive care for childhood asthma in the US via SBHC programs, including direct medical and indirect opportunity costs for children and their parents. The costs of nurse staffing for a nationwide SBHC program were estimated at $4.55 billion compared to the estimated medical savings of $1.69 billion, including ER, hospital, and outpatient care. In contrast, estimated total savings for opportunity costs of work loss and premature death were $23.13 billion. Medical savings alone would not offset the expense of implementing a SBHC program for prevention and monitoring childhood asthma. However, even modest estimates of reducing opportunity costs of parents' work loss would be far greater than the expense of this program. Although SBHC programs would not be expected to affect the increasing prevalence of childhood asthma, these programs would be designed to reduce the severity of asthma condition with ongoing monitoring, disease prevention and patient compliance.

  14. Regional Cost Estimates for Reclamation Practices on Arid and Semiarid Lands; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. K. Ostler

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Army uses the Integrated Training Area Management program for managing training land. One of the major objectives of the Integrated Training Area Management program has been to develop a method for estimating training land carrying capacity in a sustainable manner. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology measures training load in terms of Maneuver Impact Miles. One Maneuver Impact Mile is the equivalent impact of an M1A2 tank traveling one mile while participating in an armor battalion field training exercise. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology is also designed to predict land maintenance costs in terms of dollars per Maneuver Impact Mile. The overall cost factor is calculated using the historical cost of land maintenance practices and the effectiveness of controlling erosion. Because land maintenance costs and effectiveness are influenced by the characteristics of the land, Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity cost factors must be developed for each ecological region of the country. Costs for land maintenance activities are presented here for the semiarid and arid regions of the United States. Five ecoregions are recognized, and average values for reclamation activities are presented. Because there are many variables that can influence costs, ranges for reclamation activities are also presented. Costs are broken down into six major categories: seedbed preparation, fertilization, seeding, planting, mulching, and supplemental erosion control. Costs for most land reclamation practices and materials varied widely within and between ecological provinces. Although regional cost patterns were evident for some practices, the patterns were not consistent between practices. For the purpose of estimating land reclamation costs for the Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology, it may be desirable to use the ''Combined Average'' of all provinces found in the last row of each table

  15. Estimating the opportunity costs of activities that cause degradation in tropical dry forest: Implications for REDD +

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borrego, Armonia; Skutsch, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The viability of national REDD + programs will depend in part on whether funds generated from sales of carbon credits are sufficient to cover the opportunity costs (OC) of forgone uses of the forest. We present the results of a study in which OC were estimated in dry tropical forest, in western

  16. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis : Estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; Postma, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands.

  17. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis: estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Robin; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands.

  18. An Exploratory Study of Software Cost Estimating at the Electronic Systems Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    action’. to improve the software cost Sestimating proces., While thin research was limited to the M.nD onvironment, the same types of problema may exist...Methods in Social Science. Now York: Random House, 1969. 57. Smith, Ronald L. Structured Programming Series (Vol. XI) - Estimating Software Project

  19. Preliminary Cost Estimates for Nuclear Hydrogen Production: HTSE System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    KAERI is now focusing on the research and development of the key technologies required for the design and realization of a nuclear hydrogen production system. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GTMHR and PBMR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4-ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production of HTSE (High Temperature Steam Electrolysis) process with VHTR (Very High Temperature nuclear Reactor) as a thermal energy source. The estimated costs presented in this paper show that hydrogen production by the VHTR could be competitive with current techniques of hydrogen production from fossil fuels if CO 2 capture and sequestration is required. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow large-scale production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding the release of CO 2 . Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The major factors that would affect the cost of hydrogen were also discussed

  20. Estimated annual cost of arterial hypertension treatment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Murilo W; Riera, Rachel; Ferraz, Marcos B

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the direct annual cost of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) treatment in Brazil's public and private health care systems, assess its economic impact on the total health care budget, and determine its proportion of the 2005 gross domestic product (GDP). A decision tree model was used to determine direct costs based on estimated use of various resources in SAH diagnosis and care, including treatment (medication and non-medication), complementary exams, doctor visits, nutritional assessments, and emergency room visits. Estimated direct annual cost of SAH treatment was approximately US$ 398.9 million for the public health care system and US$ 272.7 million for the private system, representing 0.08% of the 2005 GDP (ranging from 0.05% to 0.16%). With total health care expenses comprising about 7.6% of Brazil's GDP, this cost represented 1.11% of overall health care costs (0.62% to 2.06%)-1.43% of total expenses for the Unified Healthcare System (Sistema Unico de Saúde, SUS) (0.79% to 2.75%) and 0.83% of expenses for the private health care system (0.47% to 1.48%). Conclusion. To guarantee public or private health care based on the principles of universality and equality, with limited available resources, efforts must be focused on educating the population on prevention and treatment compliance in diseases such as SAH that require significant health resources.

  1. Stochastic Estimation of Cost Frontier: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Shamsul Arifeen Khan

    2012-01-01

    In the literature of higher education cost function study, enough knowledge is created in the area of economy scale in the context of developed countries but the knowledge of input demand is lacking. On the other hand, empirical knowledge in the context of developing countries is very meagre. The paper fills up the knowledge gap, estimating a…

  2. A Semantics-Based Approach to Construction Cost Estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    A construction project requires collaboration of different organizations such as owner, designer, contractor, and resource suppliers. These organizations need to exchange information to improve their teamwork. Understanding the information created in other organizations requires specialized human resources. Construction cost estimating is one of…

  3. An Application of Data Mining Algorithms for Shipbuilding Cost Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaluzny, B.L.; Barbici, S.; Berg, G.; Chiomento, R.; Derpanis,D.; Jonsson, U.; Shaw, R.H.A.D.; Smit, M.C.; Ramaroson, F.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a novel application of known data mining algorithms to the problem of estimating the cost of ship development and construction. The work is a product of North Atlantic Treaty Organization Research and Technology Organization Systems Analysis and Studies 076 Task Group “NATO

  4. Cost Estimation for Cross-organizational ERP Projects: Research Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Bieman, J.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    There are many methods for estimating size, effort, schedule and other cost aspects of IS projects, but only one specifically developed for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) [67] and none for simultaneous, interdependent ERP projects in a cross-organizational context. The objective of this paper is

  5. Estimating the opportunity costs of bed-days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Frank G; Robotham, Julie V; Deeny, Sarah R; Edmunds, W John; Jit, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Opportunity costs of bed-days are fundamental to understanding the value of healthcare systems. They greatly influence burden of disease estimations and economic evaluations involving stays in healthcare facilities. However, different estimation techniques employ assumptions that differ crucially in whether to consider the value of the second-best alternative use forgone, of any available alternative use, or the value of the actually chosen alternative. Informed by economic theory, this paper provides a taxonomic framework of methodologies for estimating the opportunity costs of resources. This taxonomy is then applied to bed-days by classifying existing approaches accordingly. We highlight differences in valuation between approaches and the perspective adopted, and we use our framework to appraise the assumptions and biases underlying the standard approaches that have been widely adopted mostly unquestioned in the past, such as the conventional use of reference costs and administrative accounting data. Drawing on these findings, we present a novel approach for estimating the opportunity costs of bed-days in terms of health forgone for the second-best patient, but expressed monetarily. This alternative approach effectively re-connects to the concept of choice and explicitly considers net benefits. It is broadly applicable across settings and for other resources besides bed-days. © 2017 The Authors Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative cost estimation : a methodology analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aram, S.; Eastman, C.; Beetz, J.; Issa, R.; Flood, I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the first part of ongoing research with the goal of designing a framework and a knowledge-based system for 3D parametric model-based quantity take-off and cost estimation in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. The authors have studied and analyzed

  7. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  8. Issues in assessing the cost-effectiveness of coordinated DSM programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.; Brown, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Coordinated demand-side management (DSM) programs, co-administered by government agencies and electric and gas utilities, are likely to grow in importance in the coming years. Because of the unique features of these types of DSM programs, special care must be taken in assessing their cost-effectiveness. In this paper, we discuss these features, suggest how standard cost-effectiveness measures must be adapted to accommodate them, and show how important these adaptations are in assessing the cost-effectiveness of coordinated programs. At first, we use a least-cost, financial approach. The discussion indicates that failure to account properly for the special features of coordinated programs materially affects estimates of cost-effectiveness and, in extreme cases, may lead to rejection of otherwise cost-effective programs. Then extending the analysis to include economic factors, we speculate that most types of coordinated programs are more attractive than when evaluated on a financial basis. (author)

  9. Cost Estimating in DoD: Current Status, Trends, and What the Future Holds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nussbaum, Daniel A

    2005-01-01

    (1) Current Status: Baseline analysis of current cost estimating community, including which organizations are responsible for developing and reviewing cost estimates, how many personnel there are, what...

  10. Resolving the "Cost-Effective but Unaffordable" Paradox: Estimating the Health Opportunity Costs of Nonmarginal Budget Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, James; Claxton, Karl; Martin, Stephen; Soares, Marta

    2018-03-01

    Considering whether or not a proposed investment (an intervention, technology, or program of care) is affordable is really asking whether the benefits it offers are greater than its opportunity cost. To say that an investment is cost-effective but not affordable must mean that the (implicit or explicit) "threshold" used to judge cost-effectiveness does not reflect the scale and value of the opportunity costs. Existing empirical estimates of health opportunity costs are based on cross-sectional variation in expenditure and mortality outcomes by program budget categories (PBCs) and do not reflect the likely effect of nonmarginal budget impacts on health opportunity costs. The UK Department of Health regularly updates the needs-based target allocation of resources to local areas of the National Health Service (NHS), creating two subgroups of local areas (those under target allocation and those over). These data provide the opportunity to explore how the effects of changes in health care expenditure differ with available resources. We use 2008-2009 data to evaluate two econometric approaches to estimation and explore a range of criteria for accepting subgroup specific effects for differences in expenditure and outcome elasticities across the 23 PBCs. Our results indicate that health opportunity costs arising from an investment imposing net increases in expenditure are underestimated unless account is taken of likely nonmarginal effects. They also indicate the benefits (reduced health opportunity costs or increased value-based price of a technology) of being able to "smooth" these nonmarginal budget impacts by health care systems borrowing against future budgets or from manufacturers offering "mortgage" type arrangements. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New benchmarks for costs and cost-efficiency of school-based feeding programs in food-insecure areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Cavallero, Andrea; Minervini, Licia; Mirabile, Mariana; Molinas, Luca; de la Mothe, Marc Regnault

    2011-12-01

    School feeding is a popular intervention that has been used to support the education, health and nutrition of school children. Although the benefits of school feeding are well documented, the evidence on the costs of such programs is remarkably thin. Address the need for systematic estimates of the cost of different school feeding modalities, and of the determinants of the considerable cost variation among countries. WFP project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected for 78 projects in 62 countries through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The standardized yearly average school feeding cost per child, not including school-level costs, was US$48. The yearly costs per child were lowest at US$23 for biscuit programs reaching school-going children and highest at US$75 for take-home rations programs reaching families of schoolgoing children. The average cost of programs combining on-site meals with extra take-home rations for children from vulnerable households was US$61. Commodity costs were on average 58% of total costs and were highest for biscuit and take-home rations programs (71% and 68%, respectively). Fortified biscuits provided the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery, whereas take-home rations were more cost-efficient in terms of food quantities delivered. Both costs and effects should be considered carefully when designing school feeding interventions. The average costs of school feeding estimated here are higher than those found in earlier studies but fall within the range of costs previously reported. Because this analysis does not include school-level costs, these

  12. The Generalized Roy Model and the Cost-Benefit Analysis of Social Programs*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Philipp; Heckman, James J.; Vytlacil, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The literature on treatment effects focuses on gross benefits from program participation. We extend this literature by developing conditions under which it is possible to identify parameters measuring the cost and net surplus from program participation. Using the generalized Roy model, we nonparametrically identify the cost, benefit, and net surplus of selection into treatment without requiring the analyst to have direct information on the cost. We apply our methodology to estimate the gross benefit and net surplus of attending college. PMID:26709315

  13. The Generalized Roy Model and the Cost-Benefit Analysis of Social Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Philipp; Heckman, James J; Vytlacil, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The literature on treatment effects focuses on gross benefits from program participation. We extend this literature by developing conditions under which it is possible to identify parameters measuring the cost and net surplus from program participation. Using the generalized Roy model, we nonparametrically identify the cost, benefit, and net surplus of selection into treatment without requiring the analyst to have direct information on the cost. We apply our methodology to estimate the gross benefit and net surplus of attending college.

  14. Life cycle cost estimation and systems analysis of Waste Management Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Feizollahi, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents general conclusions from application of a system cost analysis method developed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Waste Management Division (WM), Waste Management Facilities Costs Information (WMFCI) program. The WMFCI method has been used to assess the DOE complex-wide management of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. The Idaho Engineering Laboratory, along with its subcontractor Morrison Knudsen Corporation, has been responsible for developing and applying the WMFCI cost analysis method. The cost analyses are based on system planning level life-cycle costs. The costs for life-cycle waste management activities estimated by WMFCI range from bench-scale testing and developmental work needed to design and construct a facility, facility permitting and startup, operation and maintenance, to the final decontamination, decommissioning, and closure of the facility. For DOE complex-wide assessments, cost estimates have been developed at the treatment, storage, and disposal module level and rolled up for each DOE installation. Discussions include conclusions reached by studies covering complex-wide consolidation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, system cost modeling, system costs sensitivity, system cost optimization, and the integration of WM waste with the environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning secondary wastes

  15. A REVIEW OF ESTIMATION OF SOFTWARE PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin Osmanbegović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern business and management of business processes, the standardization of procedures allows the creation of added value, increasing competitiveness and success in the business of an organization. Evaluation of the budget for software development is crucial to the success of an IT project, because the inability to make a realistic assessment leads to inadequate project plans, customer dissatisfaction, poor quality of software products, and reduced profits. In order to minimize such situations, making accurate and reliable software cost estimation should be carried out at all stages of the project life cycle. Although hundreds of research articles focusing on the application of different methods of budget estimates of the software product have been published so far, there is no comprehensive review of the current situation or review of research trends in the budget estimates of the software product. This paper aims to create a framework for estimation of costs of development of software products by providing an overview of the most influential researchers, the most influential articles published in the WoS database, the most used keywords for searching the articles, as well as a review of the estimation techniques used in budget estimates of the software product.

  16. Development of LLW and VLLW disposal business cost estimation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koibuchi, Hiroko; Ishiguro, Hideharu; Matsuda, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    In order to undertake the LLW and VLLW disposal business, various examinations are carried out in RANDEC. Since it is important in undertaking this business to secure funds, a disposal cost must be calculated by way of trial. However, at present, there are many unknown factors such as the amount of wastes, a disposal schedule, the location of a disposal site, and so on, and the cost cannot be determined. Meanwhile, the cost depends on complicated relations among these factors. Then, a 'LLW and VLLW disposal business cost estimation system' has been developed to calculate the disposal cost easily. This system can calculate an annual balance of payments by using a construction and operation cost of disposal facilities, considering economic parameters of tax, inflation rate, interest rate and so on. And the system can calculate internal reserves to assign to next-stage upkeep of the disposal facilities after the disposal operation. A model of disposal site was designed based on assumption of some preconditions and a study was carried out to make a trial calculation by using the system. Moreover, it will be required to reduce construction cost by rationalizing the facility and to make flat an annual business spending by examining the business schedule. (author)

  17. [A cost-benefit analysis of a Mexican food-support program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Alfaro, Carmelita E; Gutiérrez-Reyes, Juan P; Bertozzi-Kenefick, Stefano M; Caldés-Gómez, Natalia

    2011-06-01

    Objective Presenting an estimate of a Mexican food-support program (FSP) program's cost transfer ratio (CTR) from start-up (2003) to May 2005. Methods The program's activities were listed by constructing a time allocation matrix to ascertain how much time was spent on each of the program's activities by the personnel so involved. Another cost matrix was also constructed which was completed with information from the program's accountancy records. The program's total cost, activity cost and the value of given FSP transfers were thus estimated. Results Food delivery CRT for 2003, 2004 and 2005 was 0.150, 0.218, 0.230, respectively; cash CTR was 0.132in 2004 and 0.105 in 2005. Conclusion Comparing CTR values according to transfer type is a good way to promote discussion related to this topic; however, the decision for making a transfer does not depend exclusively on efficiency but on both mechanisms' effectiveness.

  18. Estimation of Damage Costs Associated with Flood Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T. A.; Wauthier, C.; Zipp, K.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the possibility of creating a mathematical function that enables the estimation of flood-damage costs. We begin by examining the costs associated with past flood events in the United States. The data on these tropical storms and hurricanes are provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. With the location, extent of flooding, and damage reparation costs identified, we analyze variables such as: number of inches rained, land elevation, type of landscape, region development in regards to building density and infrastructure, and population concentration. We seek to identify the leading drivers of high flood-damage costs and understand which variables play a large role in the costliness of these weather events. Upon completion of our mathematical analysis, we turn out attention to the 2017 natural disaster of Texas. We divide the region, as we did above, by land elevation, type of landscape, region development in regards to building density and infrastructure, and population concentration. Then, we overlay the number of inches rained in those regions onto the divided landscape and apply our function. We hope to use these findings to estimate the potential flood-damage costs of Hurricane Harvey. This information is then transformed into a hazard map that could provide citizens and businesses of flood-stricken zones additional resources for their insurance selection process.

  19. Time-driven activity-based costing to estimate cost of care at multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jordan A; Mistry, Bipin; Hardy, Stephen; Fracchia, Mary Shannon; Hersh, Cheryl; Wentland, Carissa; Vadakekalam, Joseph; Kaplan, Robert; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    Providing high-value healthcare to patients is increasingly becoming an objective for providers including those at multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers. Measuring value has two components: 1) identify relevant health outcomes and 2) determine relevant treatment costs. Via their inherent structure, multidisciplinary care units consolidate care for complex patients. However, their potential impact on decreasing healthcare costs is less clear. The goal of this study was to estimate the potential cost savings of treating patients with laryngeal clefts at multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers. Retrospective chart review. Time-driven activity-based costing was used to estimate the cost of care for patients with laryngeal cleft seen between 2008 and 2013 at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Pediatric Aerodigestive Center. Retrospective chart review was performed to identify clinic utilization by patients as well as patient diet outcomes after treatment. Patients were stratified into neurologically complex and neurologically noncomplex groups. The cost of care for patients requiring surgical intervention was five and three times as expensive of the cost of care for patients not requiring surgery for neurologically noncomplex and complex patients, respectively. Following treatment, 50% and 55% of complex and noncomplex patients returned to normal diet, whereas 83% and 87% of patients experienced improved diets, respectively. Additionally, multidisciplinary team-based care for children with laryngeal clefts potentially achieves 20% to 40% cost savings. These findings demonstrate how time-driven activity-based costing can be used to estimate and compare patient costs in multidisciplinary aerodigestive centers. 2c. Laryngoscope, 127:2152-2158, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  1. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill

  2. Consumer-Operated Service Programs: monetary and donated costs and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Brian T; Mannix, Danyelle; Freed, Michael C; Campbell, Jean; Johnsen, Matthew; Jones, Kristine; Blyler, Crystal R

    2011-01-01

    Examine cost differences between Consumer Operated Service Programs (COSPs) as possibly determined by a) size of program, b) use of volunteers and other donated resources, c) cost-of-living differences between program locales, d) COSP model applied, and e) delivery system used to implement the COSP model. As part of a larger evaluation of COSP, data on operating costs, enrollments, and mobilization of donated resources were collected for eight programs representing three COSP models (drop-in centers, mutual support, and education/advocacy training). Because the 8 programs were operated in geographically diverse areas of the US, costs were examined with and without adjustment for differences in local cost of living. Because some COSPs use volunteers and other donated resources, costs were measured with and without these resources being monetized. Scale of operation also was considered as a mediating variable for differences in program costs. Cost per visit, cost per consumer per quarter, and total program cost were calculated separately for funds spent and for resources donated for each COSP. Differences between COSPs in cost per consumer and cost per visit seem better explained by economies of scale and delivery system used than by cost-of-living differences between program locations or COSP model. Given others' findings that different COSP models produce little variation in service effectiveness, minimize service costs by maximizing scale of operation while using a delivery system that allows staff and facilities resources to be increased or decreased quickly to match number of consumers seeking services.

  3. Cost estimate of Olkiluoto disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.; Saanio, T.

    2005-03-01

    The cost estimate covers the underground rock characterisation facility ONKALO, the investment and the operating costs of the above and underground facilities, the decommissioning of the encapsulation plant and the closure costs of the repository. The above ground facility is a once-investment; a re-investment takes place after 37 years operation. The repository is extended stepwise thus also the investment take place in stages. Annual operating costs are calculated with different operating efficiencies. The total investment costs of the disposal facility are estimated to be 503 M euro (Million Euros), the total operating costs are 1,923 M euro and the decommissioning and the closure costs are 116 M euro totaling 2,542 M euro. The investment costs of the above ground facility are 142 M euro, the operating costs are 1,678 M euro. The repository investment costs are 360 M euro and the operating costs are 245 M euro. The decommissioning costs are 7 M euro and the closure costs are 109 M euro. The costs are calculated by using the price level of December 2003. The cost estimate is based on a plan, where the spent fuel is encapsulated and the disposal canisters are disposed into the bedrock at a depth of about 420 meters in one storey. In the encapsulation process, the fuel assemblies are closed into composite canisters, in which the inner part of the canister is made of nodular cast iron and the outer wall of copper having a thickness of 50 mm. The inner canister is closed gas-tight by a bolted steel lid, and the electron beam welding method is used to close the outer copper lid. The encapsulation plant is independent and located above the deep repository spaces. The disposal canisters are transported to the repository by the lift. The disposal tunnels are constructed and closed in stages according the disposal canisters disposal. The operating time of the Loviisa nuclear power plant units is assumed to be 50 years and the operating time of the Olkiluoto nuclear power

  4. An Estimation of Private Household Costs to Receive Free Oral Cholera Vaccine in Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogasale, Vittal; Kar, Shantanu K.; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V.; Kerketta, Anna S.; Patnaik, Bikash; Rath, Shyam Bandhu; Puri, Mahesh K.; You, Young Ae; Khuntia, Hemant K.; Maskery, Brian; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Sah, Binod

    2015-01-01

    Background Service provider costs for vaccine delivery have been well documented; however, vaccine recipients’ costs have drawn less attention. This research explores the private household out-of-pocket and opportunity costs incurred to receive free oral cholera vaccine during a mass vaccination campaign in rural Odisha, India. Methods Following a government-driven oral cholera mass vaccination campaign targeting population over one year of age, a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate private household costs among vaccine recipients. The questionnaire captured travel costs as well as time and wage loss for self and accompanying persons. The productivity loss was estimated using three methods: self-reported, government defined minimum daily wages and gross domestic product per capita in Odisha. Findings On average, families were located 282.7 (SD = 254.5) meters from the nearest vaccination booths. Most family members either walked or bicycled to the vaccination sites and spent on average 26.5 minutes on travel and 15.7 minutes on waiting. Depending upon the methodology, the estimated productivity loss due to potential foregone income ranged from $0.15 to $0.29 per dose of cholera vaccine received. The private household cost of receiving oral cholera vaccine constituted 24.6% to 38.0% of overall vaccine delivery costs. Interpretation The private household costs resulting from productivity loss for receiving a free oral cholera vaccine is a substantial proportion of overall vaccine delivery cost and may influence vaccine uptake. Policy makers and program managers need to recognize the importance of private costs and consider how to balance programmatic delivery costs with private household costs to receive vaccines. PMID:26352143

  5. An Estimation of Private Household Costs to Receive Free Oral Cholera Vaccine in Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittal Mogasale

    Full Text Available Service provider costs for vaccine delivery have been well documented; however, vaccine recipients' costs have drawn less attention. This research explores the private household out-of-pocket and opportunity costs incurred to receive free oral cholera vaccine during a mass vaccination campaign in rural Odisha, India.Following a government-driven oral cholera mass vaccination campaign targeting population over one year of age, a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate private household costs among vaccine recipients. The questionnaire captured travel costs as well as time and wage loss for self and accompanying persons. The productivity loss was estimated using three methods: self-reported, government defined minimum daily wages and gross domestic product per capita in Odisha.On average, families were located 282.7 (SD = 254.5 meters from the nearest vaccination booths. Most family members either walked or bicycled to the vaccination sites and spent on average 26.5 minutes on travel and 15.7 minutes on waiting. Depending upon the methodology, the estimated productivity loss due to potential foregone income ranged from $0.15 to $0.29 per dose of cholera vaccine received. The private household cost of receiving oral cholera vaccine constituted 24.6% to 38.0% of overall vaccine delivery costs.The private household costs resulting from productivity loss for receiving a free oral cholera vaccine is a substantial proportion of overall vaccine delivery cost and may influence vaccine uptake. Policy makers and program managers need to recognize the importance of private costs and consider how to balance programmatic delivery costs with private household costs to receive vaccines.

  6. MONITOR: A computer model for estimating the costs of an integral monitored retrievable storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.; Sevigny, N.L.; Schutz, M.E.; Heller, R.A.

    1986-12-01

    The MONITOR model is a FORTRAN 77 based computer code that provides parametric life-cycle cost estimates for a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. MONITOR is very flexible in that it can estimate the costs of an MRS facility operating under almost any conceivable nuclear waste logistics scenario. The model can also accommodate input data of varying degrees of complexity and detail (ranging from very simple to more complex) which makes it ideal for use in the MRS program, where new designs and new cost data are frequently offered for consideration. MONITOR can be run as an independent program, or it can be interfaced with the Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation (WASTES) model, a program that simulates the movement of waste through a complete nuclear waste disposal system. The WASTES model drives the MONITOR model by providing it with the annual quantities of waste that are received, stored, and shipped at the MRS facility. Three runs of MONITOR are documented in this report. Two of the runs are for Version 1 of the MONITOR code. A simulation which uses the costs developed by the Ralph M. Parsons Company in the 2A (backup) version of the MRS cost estimate. In one of these runs MONITOR was run as an independent model, and in the other run MONITOR was run using an input file generated by the WASTES model. The two runs correspond to identical cases, and the fact that they gave identical results verified that the code performed the same calculations in both modes of operation. The third run was made for Version 2 of the MONITOR code. A simulation which uses the costs developed by the Ralph M. Parsons Company in the 2B (integral) version of the MRS cost estimate. This run was made with MONITOR being run as an independent model. The results of several cases have been verified by hand calculations

  7. Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to review currently existing cost estimation methods, models, tools and resources applicable to the space sector. While key space sector methods are outlined, a specific focus is placed on hardware cost estimation on a system level, particularly for early mission phases during which specifications and requirements are not yet crystallised, and information is limited. For the space industry, cost engineering within the systems engineering framework is an integral discipline. The cost of any space program now constitutes a stringent design criterion, which must be considered and carefully controlled during the entire program life cycle. A first step to any program budget is a representative cost estimate which usually hinges on a particular estimation approach, or methodology. Therefore appropriate selection of specific cost models, methods and tools is paramount, a difficult task given the highly variable nature, scope as well as scientific and technical requirements applicable to each program. Numerous methods, models and tools exist. However new ways are needed to address very early, pre-Phase 0 cost estimation during the initial program research and establishment phase when system specifications are limited, but the available research budget needs to be established and defined. Due to their specificity, for vehicles such as reusable launchers with a manned capability, a lack of historical data implies that using either the classic heuristic approach such as parametric cost estimation based on underlying CERs, or the analogy approach, is therefore, by definition, limited. This review identifies prominent cost estimation models applied to the space sector, and their underlying cost driving parameters and factors. Strengths, weaknesses, and suitability to specific mission types and classes are also highlighted. Current approaches which strategically amalgamate various cost estimation strategies both for formulation and validation

  8. Methodology for estimating reprocessing costs for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, W.L.; Rainey, R.H.

    1980-02-01

    A technological and economic evaluation of reprocessing requirements for alternate fuel cycles requires a common assessment method and a common basis to which various cycles can be related. A methodology is described for the assessment of alternate fuel cycles utilizing a side-by-side comparison of functional flow diagrams of major areas of the reprocessing plant with corresponding diagrams of the well-developed Purex process as installed in the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). The BNFP treats 1500 metric tons of uranium per year (MTU/yr). Complexity and capacity factors are determined for adjusting the estimated facility and equipment costs of BNFP to determine the corresponding costs for the alternate fuel cycle. Costs of capacities other than the reference 1500 MT of heavy metal per year are estimated by the use of scaling factors. Unit costs of reprocessed fuel are calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis for three economic bases to show the effect of low-risk, typical, and high-risk financing methods

  9. Estimated incident cost savings in shipping due to inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sabine; Bijwaard, Govert; Heij, Christiaan

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of safety inspections of ships has been analysed from various angles, but until now, relatively little attention has been given to translate risk reduction into incident cost savings. This paper provides a monetary quantification of the cost savings that can be attributed to port state control inspections and industry vetting inspections. The dataset consists of more than half a million ship arrivals between 2002 and 2007 and contains inspections of port state authorities in the USA and Australia and of three industry vetting regimes. The effect of inspections in reducing the risk of total loss accidents is estimated by means of duration models, in terms of the gained probability of survival. The monetary benefit of port state control inspections is estimated to range, on average, from about 70 to 190 thousand dollars, with median values ranging from about 20 to 45 thousand dollars. Industry inspections have even higher benefits, especially for tankers. The savings are in general higher for older and larger vessels, and also for vessels with undefined flag and unknown classification society. As inspection costs are relatively low in comparison to potential cost savings, the results underline the importance of determining ships with relatively high risk of total loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Swedish Universal Parenting Program All Children in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfsdotter, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Objective There are few health economic evaluations of parenting programs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the outcome measure. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the universal parenting program All Children in Focus (ABC). The goals were to estimate the costs of program implementation, investigate the health effects of the program, and examine its cost-effectiveness. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Costs included setup costs and operating costs. A parent proxy Visual Analog Scale was used to measure QALYs in children, whereas the General Health Questionnaire-12 was used for parents. A societal perspective was adopted, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. To account for uncertainty in the estimate, the probability of cost-effectiveness was investigated, and sensitivity analyses were used to account for the uncertainty in cost data. Results The cost was €326.3 per parent, of which €53.7 represented setup costs under the assumption that group leaders on average run 10 groups, and €272.6 was the operating costs. For health effects, the QALY gain was 0.0042 per child and 0.0027 per parent. These gains resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case of €47 290 per gained QALY. The sensitivity analyses resulted in ratios from €41 739 to €55 072. With the common Swedish threshold value of €55 000 per QALY, the probability of the ABC program being cost-effective was 50.8 percent. Conclusion Our analysis of the ABC program demonstrates cost-effectiveness ratios below or just above the QALY threshold in Sweden. However, due to great uncertainty about the data, the health economic rationale for implementation should be further studied considering a longer time perspective, effects on siblings, and validated measuring techniques, before full scale implementation. PMID:26681349

  11. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Swedish Universal Parenting Program All Children in Focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Ulfsdotter

    Full Text Available There are few health economic evaluations of parenting programs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs as the outcome measure. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the universal parenting program All Children in Focus (ABC. The goals were to estimate the costs of program implementation, investigate the health effects of the program, and examine its cost-effectiveness.A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Costs included setup costs and operating costs. A parent proxy Visual Analog Scale was used to measure QALYs in children, whereas the General Health Questionnaire-12 was used for parents. A societal perspective was adopted, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. To account for uncertainty in the estimate, the probability of cost-effectiveness was investigated, and sensitivity analyses were used to account for the uncertainty in cost data.The cost was € 326.3 per parent, of which € 53.7 represented setup costs under the assumption that group leaders on average run 10 groups, and € 272.6 was the operating costs. For health effects, the QALY gain was 0.0042 per child and 0.0027 per parent. These gains resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case of € 47 290 per gained QALY. The sensitivity analyses resulted in ratios from € 41 739 to € 55 072. With the common Swedish threshold value of € 55 000 per QALY, the probability of the ABC program being cost-effective was 50.8 percent.Our analysis of the ABC program demonstrates cost-effectiveness ratios below or just above the QALY threshold in Sweden. However, due to great uncertainty about the data, the health economic rationale for implementation should be further studied considering a longer time perspective, effects on siblings, and validated measuring techniques, before full scale implementation.

  12. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Swedish Universal Parenting Program All Children in Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfsdotter, Malin; Lindberg, Lene; Månsdotter, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There are few health economic evaluations of parenting programs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the outcome measure. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the universal parenting program All Children in Focus (ABC). The goals were to estimate the costs of program implementation, investigate the health effects of the program, and examine its cost-effectiveness. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Costs included setup costs and operating costs. A parent proxy Visual Analog Scale was used to measure QALYs in children, whereas the General Health Questionnaire-12 was used for parents. A societal perspective was adopted, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. To account for uncertainty in the estimate, the probability of cost-effectiveness was investigated, and sensitivity analyses were used to account for the uncertainty in cost data. The cost was € 326.3 per parent, of which € 53.7 represented setup costs under the assumption that group leaders on average run 10 groups, and € 272.6 was the operating costs. For health effects, the QALY gain was 0.0042 per child and 0.0027 per parent. These gains resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case of € 47 290 per gained QALY. The sensitivity analyses resulted in ratios from € 41 739 to € 55 072. With the common Swedish threshold value of € 55 000 per QALY, the probability of the ABC program being cost-effective was 50.8 percent. Our analysis of the ABC program demonstrates cost-effectiveness ratios below or just above the QALY threshold in Sweden. However, due to great uncertainty about the data, the health economic rationale for implementation should be further studied considering a longer time perspective, effects on siblings, and validated measuring techniques, before full scale implementation.

  13. 78 FR 5781 - Cost-Sharing Rates for Pharmacy Benefits Program of the TRICARE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Cost-Sharing Rates for Pharmacy Benefits Program of... to cost-sharing rates to the TRICARE Pharmacy Benefits Program. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested parties of cost-sharing rate change for the Pharmacy Benefits Program. DATES: The cost-sharing...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.216-74 - Estimated cost and fixed fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Clauses 1852.216-74 Estimated cost and fixed fee. As prescribed in 1816.307-70(b), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost and Fixed Fee (DEC 1991) The estimated cost of this contract is ______ exclusive of the fixed fee of ______. The total estimated cost and fixed fee is ______. (End of clause) [62...

  15. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies

  16. Estimated costs of treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haylton J. Suaid

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH presents 2 options: medical or surgical, and there are doubts about what is the best treatment since 80% of patients who undergo surgery become asymptomatic and 10 to 40% of those under medical regimen undergo surgery within a 5 years period. It is difficult to assess the actual costs of treating BPH in Brazil due to several factors, among them regional particularities and the scarcity of current statistical data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Recently, in the Ribeirão Preto area, São Paulo, Brazil, the IPSS (International Prostatic Symptoms Score and quality of life were verified in 934 volunteers. It was determined the percentage of individuals with ages ranging from 40 to 79 years with moderate symptoms (score 8-19 and with severe symptoms (score 20-35, values for which are indicated medical and surgical treatment, respectively, according to the Brazilian Society of Urology consensus on BPH. Data on Brazilian population in that age range were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics referent to the year of 2000. It was determined the number of patients, according to the criteria above, subjected to either one of the treatments mentioned. Surgical costs of prostate transurethral resection were researched according to Unified Health System - SUS tables (US$ 173 and of Brazilian Medical Society - AMB with a mean cost in 3 hospitals of US$ 933. Drug costs were calculated by the annual mean price (US$ 355 of 4 alpha-blockers (tamsulosin, alfuzosin, doxazosin and terazosin. RESULTS: The estimated population for medical treatment was 5,397,321 individuals, with a cost corresponding to US$ 1,916,489,055.00. The estimated population for surgical treatment was 2,040,299 men, what would represent a cost of US$ 353,291,204.00 based on the SUS table and of US$ 1,904,279,066.00 based on AMB with hospital expenses included. CONCLUSION: All theses facts induce us to predict

  17. Estimating the cost of blood: past, present, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shander, Aryeh; Hofmann, Axel; Gombotz, Hans; Theusinger, Oliver M; Spahn, Donat R

    2007-06-01

    Understanding the costs associated with blood products requires sophisticated knowledge about transfusion medicine and is attracting the attention of clinical and administrative healthcare sectors worldwide. To improve outcomes, blood usage must be optimized and expenditures controlled so that resources may be channeled toward other diagnostic, therapeutic, and technological initiatives. Estimating blood costs, however, is a complex undertaking, surpassing simple supply versus demand economics. Shrinking donor availability and application of a precautionary principle to minimize transfusion risks are factors that continue to drive the cost of blood products upward. Recognizing that historical accounting attempts to determine blood costs have varied in scope, perspective, and methodology, new approaches have been initiated to identify all potential cost elements related to blood and blood product administration. Activities are also under way to tie these elements together in a comprehensive and practical model that will be applicable to all single-donor blood products without regard to practice type (e.g., academic, private, multi- or single-center clinic). These initiatives, their rationale, importance, and future directions are described.

  18. VENVAL : a plywood mill cost accounting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Spelter

    1991-01-01

    This report documents a package of computer programs called VENVAL. These programs prepare plywood mill data for a linear programming (LP) model that, in turn, calculates the optimum mix of products to make, given a set of technologies and market prices. (The software to solve a linear program is not provided and must be obtained separately.) Linear programming finds...

  19. 7 CFR 246.14 - Program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following: (1) The cost of nutrition education and breastfeeding promotion and support which meets the... documentation of the nutrition education and breastfeeding promotion and support expenditure requirement. Costs... producing nutrition education and breastfeeding promotion and support materials including handouts, flip...

  20. [Costs estimation of tuberculosis cases detection. La Habana Vieja Municipality, Cuba. 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Pérez, Mariana; Gálvez González, Ana M; González Ochoa, Edilberto

    2007-01-01

    The Cuban Tuberculosis Control Program has been able to significantly reduce the tuberculosis cases incidence in all its forms. La Habana Vieja municipality has maintained the highest incidence in Havana City province during 5 years and one of the highest in the country. To estimate the cost of Tuberculosis cases detection in Habana Vieja municipality, in the year 2002. A descriptive retrospective study to estimate the costs with social perspective was carried out. The costs of cases detection and their departures in health facilities were considered. For patients with cough/expectoration > or =14 days (RS+14) the pocket expense and monetary losses for labour absences were considered. Costs were expressed in equivalent Cuban pesos to American dollars (1 CUC = 1 USD). Information from official records in health institutions and from interviews to workers and RS+14 was obtained. Social cost of tuberculosis cases detection for an RS+14 was in average 24,11 CUC, and institutional cost was 12,55; for clinical investigation 0.37; for sputum smear microscopy 2,25; for culture 7,05; for thorax X-ray 1,67; for notification 3,07; and for registering 0,36. The biggest costs were observed in sputum smear microscopies and cultures performance; salaries and reagents were the issues contributing more in that cost. The results obtained in this study could be extrapolated to other municipalities in the country with social and economic conditions similar to La Habana Vieja.

  1. African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2015: Model-Estimated Health Impact and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffeng, Luc E.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Zouré, Honorat G. M.; Veerman, J. Lennert; Agblewonu, Koffi B.; Murdoch, Michele E.; Noma, Mounkaila; Fobi, Grace; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Bundy, Donald A. P.; Habbema, Dik; de Vlas, Sake J.; Amazigo, Uche V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. Methods and Findings With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. Conclusions Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future. PMID:23383355

  2. African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffeng, Luc E; Stolk, Wilma A; Zouré, Honorat G M; Veerman, J Lennert; Agblewonu, Koffi B; Murdoch, Michele E; Noma, Mounkaila; Fobi, Grace; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Bundy, Donald A P; Habbema, Dik; de Vlas, Sake J; Amazigo, Uche V

    2013-01-01

    Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.

  3. African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc E Coffeng

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015.With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million.Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.

  4. At What Cost? Examining the Cost Effectiveness of a Universal Social-Emotional Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Leah J.; DiPerna, James C.; Hart, Susan Crandall; Crowley, Max

    2018-01-01

    Although implementation of universal social-emotional learning programs is becoming more common in schools, few studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of such programs. As such, the purpose of this article is two fold. First, we provide an overview of cost-effectiveness methods for school-based programs, and second, we share results of a…

  5. Introduction to the methods of estimating nuclear power generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-11-01

    The present report prepared by the Agency with the guidance and assistance of a panel of experts from Member States, the names of whom will be found at the end of this report, represents the first step in the methods of cost evaluation. The main objectives of the report are: (1) The preparation of a full list of the cost items likely to be encountered so that the preliminary estimates for a given nuclear power system can be relied upon in deciding on its economic merits. (2) A survey of the methods currently used for the estimation of the generating costs of the power produced by a nuclear station. The survey is intended for a wide audience ranging from engineers to public officials with an interest in the prospects of nuclear power. An attempt has therefore been made to refrain from detailed technical discussions in order to make the presentation easily understandable to readers with only a very general knowledge of the principles of nuclear engineering. 3 figs, tabs.

  6. Estimation of cost function in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Duk [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    The natural gas industry in Korea has characteristics of a dual industrial structure with wholesale and retail and a regional monopoly of city gas company. Recently there have been discussions on the restructuring of gas industry and the problems arising from such industrial organization. At this point, the labor and capital cost of KOGAS were analyzed to find out efficiency of KOGAS, the wholesaler and the cost function focusing on distribution was estimated to find out effect of scale of city gas company, the retailer. As a result, in the case of KOGAS, it is prove that enhancing competitive power is needed by improving labor productivity through stabilization of labor structure and by maximizing value-added through stability of capital combination. From the estimation of cost function of city gas companies, the existing regional monopoly of city gas company have effects on its scale only when the area of operation and end users used the same amount per end user are increased. (author). 31 refs., 10 figs., 43 tabs.

  7. Introduction to the methods of estimating nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The present report prepared by the Agency with the guidance and assistance of a panel of experts from Member States, the names of whom will be found at the end of this report, represents the first step in the methods of cost evaluation. The main objectives of the report are: (1) The preparation of a full list of the cost items likely to be encountered so that the preliminary estimates for a given nuclear power system can be relied upon in deciding on its economic merits. (2) A survey of the methods currently used for the estimation of the generating costs of the power produced by a nuclear station. The survey is intended for a wide audience ranging from engineers to public officials with an interest in the prospects of nuclear power. An attempt has therefore been made to refrain from detailed technical discussions in order to make the presentation easily understandable to readers with only a very general knowledge of the principles of nuclear engineering. 3 figs, tabs

  8. Peak flood estimation using gene expression programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, Conrad R.; Shamseldin, Asaad Y.

    2015-12-01

    As a case study for the Auckland Region of New Zealand, this paper investigates the potential use of gene-expression programming (GEP) in predicting specific return period events in comparison to the established and widely used Regional Flood Estimation (RFE) method. Initially calibrated to 14 gauged sites, the GEP derived model was further validated to 10 and 100 year flood events with a relative errors of 29% and 18%, respectively. This is compared to the RFE method providing 48% and 44% errors for the same flood events. While the effectiveness of GEP in predicting specific return period events is made apparent, it is argued that the derived equations should be used in conjunction with those existing methodologies rather than as a replacement.

  9. Falling Particles: Concept Definition and Capital Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, Larry [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Galluzzo, Geoff [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Adams, Shannon [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Andrew, Daniel [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Renewable Power (ORP) has been tasked to provide effective program management and strategic direction for all of the DOE’s Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) renewable power programs. The ORP’s efforts to accomplish this mission are aligned with national energy policies, DOE strategic planning, EERE’s strategic planning, Congressional appropriation, and stakeholder advice. ORP is supported by three renewable energy offices, of which one is the Solar Energy Technology Office (SETO) whose SunShot Initiative has a mission to accelerate research, development and large scale deployment of solar technologies in the United States. SETO has a goal of reducing the cost of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) by 75 percent of 2010 costs by 2020 to reach parity with base-load energy rates, and to reduce costs 30 percent further by 2030. The SunShot Initiative is promoting the implementation of high temperature CSP with thermal energy storage allowing generation during high demand hours. The SunShot Initiative has funded significant research and development work on component testing, with attention to high temperature molten salts, heliostats, receiver designs, and high efficiency high temperature supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycles.

  10. The model for estimation production cost of embroidery handicraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofierni; Sriwana, IK; Septriani, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Embroidery industry is one of type of micro industry that produce embroidery handicraft. These industries are emerging in some rural areas of Indonesia. Embroidery clothing are produce such as scarves and clothes that show cultural value of certain region. The owner of an enterprise must calculate the cost of production before making a decision on how many products are received from the customer. A calculation approach to production cost analysis is needed to consider the feasibility of each order coming. This study is proposed to design the expert system (ES) in order to improve production management in the embroidery industry. The model will design used Fuzzy inference system as a model to estimate production cost. Research conducted based on survey and knowledge acquisitions from stakeholder of supply chain embroidery handicraft industry at Bukittinggi, West Sumatera, Indonesia. This paper will use fuzzy input where the quality, the complexity of the design and the working hours required and the result of the model are useful to manage production cost on embroidery production.

  11. Estimating generation costs for wind power production in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazet, J.F.; Probert, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is being exploited in several European countries as one of a possible number of sources of renewable energy. However, in France there is a heavy reliance on nuclear and hydro-electric power and the potential of wind power as part of the energy mix has been virtually ignored. One of the reasons advanced for the under utilisation of this technology is that it is financially unattractive. In this paper the contribution which wind power could potentially make to overall power production levels in France is examined. A cost estimate model is developed which derives electricity generation costs and determines realistic levels of production for the future. The model automatically determines the associated number of wind turbines required and the geographical areas in which they should be located. (author)

  12. Fast Conceptual Cost Estimating of Aerospace Projects Using Historical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates can be created in less than a minute by applying powerful techniques and algorithms to create an Excel-based parametric cost model. In five easy steps you will learn how to normalize your company 's historical cost data to the new project parameters. This paper provides a complete, easy-to-understand, step by step how-to guide. Such a guide does not seem to currently exist. Over 2,000 hours of research, data collection, and trial and error, and thousands of lines of Excel Visual Basic Application (VBA) code were invested in developing these methods. While VBA is not required to use this information, it increases the power and aesthetics of the model. Implementing all of the steps described, while not required, will increase the accuracy of the results.

  13. IVF cycle cost estimation using Activity Based Costing and Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassettari, Lucia; Mosca, Marco; Mosca, Roberto; Rolando, Fabio; Costa, Mauro; Pisaturo, Valerio

    2016-03-01

    The Authors present a new methodological approach in stochastic regime to determine the actual costs of an healthcare process. The paper specifically shows the application of the methodology for the determination of the cost of an Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in Italy. The reason of this research comes from the fact that deterministic regime is inadequate to implement an accurate estimate of the cost of this particular treatment. In fact the durations of the different activities involved are unfixed and described by means of frequency distributions. Hence the need to determine in addition to the mean value of the cost, the interval within which it is intended to vary with a known confidence level. Consequently the cost obtained for each type of cycle investigated (in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection), shows tolerance intervals around the mean value sufficiently restricted as to make the data obtained statistically robust and therefore usable also as reference for any benchmark with other Countries. It should be noted that under a methodological point of view the approach was rigorous. In fact it was used both the technique of Activity Based Costing for determining the cost of individual activities of the process both the Monte Carlo simulation, with control of experimental error, for the construction of the tolerance intervals on the final result.

  14. Costs of the multimicronutrient supplementation program in Chiclayo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Gross, Rainer; Paulini, Javier; de Romaã, Daniel López

    2006-01-01

    There is little information on the cost parameters of weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs. To assess the cost parameters and cost-effectiveness of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program in an urban population of Peru. Data from the Integrated Food Security Program (Programa Integrado de Seguridad Alimentaria [PISA]), which distributed capsules and foodlets to women and adolescent girls and to children under five, were extrapolated to a population of 100,000 inhabitants. The annual cost per community member was US$1.51. The cost-effectiveness ratio was US$0.12 per 1% of prevented anemia per community member. These costs are in the upper margin of iron supplementation alone. They will decrease notably when weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs are integrated into health packages and participation by women increases. Focusing on micronutrient deficiencies would prevent these problems, and food-distribution programs would be effectively targeted to food-deficient populations.

  15. The cost of screening and brief intervention in employee assistance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Alexander J; Bray, Jeremy W; Hinde, Jesse M

    2012-01-01

    Few studies examine the costs of conducting screening and brief intervention (SBI) in settings outside health care. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by examining the employer-incurred costs of SBI in an employee assistance program (EAP) when delivered by counselors. Screening was self-administered as part of the intake paperwork, and the brief intervention (BI) was delivered during a regular counseling session. Training costs were $83 per counselor. The cost of a screen to the employer was $0.64; most of this cost comprised the cost of the time the client spent completing the screen. The cost of a BI was $2.52. The cost of SBI is lower than cost estimates of SBI conducted in a health care setting. The low costs for the current study suggest that only modest gains in outcomes would likely be needed to justify delivering SBI in an EAP setting.

  16. Estimating the cost to U.S. health departments to conduct HIV surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ram K; Sansom, Stephanie L; Laffoon, Benjamin T; Farnham, Paul G; Shouse, R Luke; MacMaster, Karen; Hall, H Irene

    2014-01-01

    HIV case surveillance is a primary source of information for monitoring HIV burden in the United States and guiding the allocation of prevention and treatment funds. While the number of people living with HIV and the need for surveillance data have increased, little is known about the cost of surveillance. We estimated the economic cost to health departments of conducting high-quality HIV case surveillance. We collected primary data on the unit cost and quantity of resources used to operate the HIV case surveillance program in Michigan, where HIV burden (i.e., the number of HIV cases) is moderate to high (n=14,864 cases). Based on Michigan's data, we projected the expected annual HIV surveillance cost for U.S., state, local, and territorial health departments. We based our cost projection on the variation in the number of new and established cases, area-specific wages, and potential economies of scale. We estimated the annual total HIV surveillance cost to the Michigan health department to be $1,286,524 ($87/case), the annual total cost of new cases to be $108,657 ($133/case), and the annual total cost of established cases to be $1,177,867 ($84/case). Our projected median annual HIV surveillance cost per health department ranged from $210,600 in low-HIV burden sites to $1,835,000 in high-HIV burden sites. Our analysis shows that a systematic approach to costing HIV surveillance at the health department level is feasible. For HIV surveillance, a substantial portion of total surveillance costs is attributable to maintaining established cases.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of targeted screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Monte Carlo-based estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentikäinen, T J; Sipilä, T; Rissanen, P; Soisalon-Soininen, S; Salo, J

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a cost-effectiveness analysis of targeted screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A major emphasis was on the estimation of distributions of costs and effectiveness. We performed a Monte Carlo simulation using C programming language in a PC environment. Data on survival and costs, and a majority of screening probabilities, were from our own empirical studies. Natural history data were based on the literature. Each screened male gained 0.07 life-years at an incremental cost of FIM 3,300. The expected values differed from zero very significantly. For females, expected gains were 0.02 life-years at an incremental cost of FIM 1,100, which was not statistically significant. Cost-effectiveness ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were FIM 48,000 (27,000-121,000) and 54,000 (22,000-infinity) for males and females, respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the results for males were stable. Individual variation in life-year gains was high. Males seemed to benefit from targeted AAA screening, and the results were stable. As far as the cost-effectiveness ratio is considered acceptable, screening for males seemed to be justified. However, our assumptions about growth and rupture behavior of AAAs might be improved with further clinical and epidemiological studies. As a point estimate, females benefited in a similar manner, but the results were not statistically significant. The evidence of this study did not justify screening of females.

  18. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Savory; Robert Williams

    2010-01-01

    It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part.  This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop.  This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members.  The simulation model generates detai...

  19. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    OpenAIRE

    Savory, Paul

    2010-01-01

    It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part. This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop. This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members. The simulation model generates detailed Bills of Ac...

  20. Compensating Victims of Violent Crime: Potential Costs and Coverage of a National Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, James; Sutton, L. Paul

    Data generated from an ongoing national crime victimization survey and details about the circumstances and consequences of personal crimes form the basis for estimating the cost of a national program to compensate victims of violent crime. Victim compensation programs represent an attempt to rectify the neglect of the victim. Uncertainty about the…

  1. 48 CFR 2452.216-70 - Estimated cost, base fee and award fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated cost, base fee... Provisions and Clauses 2452.216-70 Estimated cost, base fee and award fee. As prescribed in 2416.406(e)(1), insert the following clause in all cost-plus-award-fee contracts: Estimated Cost, Base Fee and Award Fee...

  2. 48 CFR 1852.216-85 - Estimated cost and award fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Clauses 1852.216-85 Estimated cost and award fee. As prescribed in 1816.406-70(e), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost and Award Fee (SEP 1993) The estimated cost of this contract is $___. The... cost, base fee, and maximum award fee are $___. (End of clause) Alternate I (SEP 1993). As prescribed...

  3. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-11-10

    To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$) for the year of 2010. The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources. Analisar os custos do Programa de Tratamento do Tabagismo no Sistema Único de Saúde e estimar o custo de sua implementação plena em um município brasileiro. A

  4. Molten Salt: Concept Definition and Capital Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, Larry [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Andrew, Daniel [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Adams, Shannon [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Galluzzo, Geoff [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Renewable Power (ORP) has been tasked to provide effective program management and strategic direction for all of the DOE’s Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) renewable power programs. The ORP’s efforts to accomplish this mission are aligned with national energy policies, DOE strategic planning, EERE’s strategic planning, Congressional appropriation, and stakeholder advice. ORP is supported by three renewable energy offices, of which one is the Solar Energy Technology Office (SETO) whose SunShot Initiative has a mission to accelerate research, development and large scale deployment of solar technologies in the United States. SETO has a goal of reducing the cost of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) by 75 percent of 2010 costs by 2020 to reach parity with base-load energy rates, and to reduce costs 30 percent further by 2030. The SunShot Initiative is promoting the implementation of high temperature CSP with thermal energy storage allowing generation during high demand hours. The SunShot Initiative has funded significant research and development work on component testing, with attention to high temperature molten salts, heliostats, receiver designs, and high efficiency high temperature supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycles. DOE retained Black & Veatch to support SETO’s SunShot Initiative for CSP solar power tower technology in the following areas: 1. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of a flexible test facility to be used to test and prove components in part to support financing. 2. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature molten salt (MS) facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO2 cycle generating approximately 10MWe. 3. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature falling particle facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO2

  5. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  6. Development of a Cost Estimation Process for Human Systems Integration Practitioners During the Analysis of Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    processes. Novice estimators must often use of these complicated cost estimation tools (e.g., ACEIT , SEER-H, SEER-S, PRICE-H, PRICE-S, etc.) until...However, the thesis will leverage the processes embedded in cost estimation tools such as the Automated Cost Estimating Integration Tool ( ACEIT ) and the

  7. Cost estimate and economic issues associated with the MOX option (prior to DOE's record of decision)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Miller, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    Before the January 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) evaluated three technologies for the disposition of ∼50 MT of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs-reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting the ROD, and comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule was conducted by DOE-MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This report discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results for the reactor options considered prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the report is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of the reactor option and other technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This report includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs for all nine reactor scenarios

  8. Advanced fuel cycle cost estimation model and its cost estimation results for three nuclear fuel cycles using a dynamic model in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungki, E-mail: sgkim1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Wonil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Saerom; Gao, Ruxing [University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajungro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Sungsig, E-mail: ssbang@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Business and Technology Management, 291 Deahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The nuclear fuel cycle cost using a new cost estimation model was analyzed. • The material flows of three nuclear fuel cycle options were calculated. • The generation cost of once-through was estimated to be 66.88 mills/kW h. • The generation cost of pyro-SFR recycling was estimated to be 78.06 mills/kW h. • The reactor cost was identified as the main cost driver of pyro-SFR recycling. - Abstract: The present study analyzes advanced nuclear fuel cycle cost estimation models such as the different discount rate model and its cost estimation results. To do so, an analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle cost of three options (direct disposal (once through), PWR–MOX (Mixed OXide fuel), and Pyro-SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)) from the viewpoint of economic sense, focusing on the cost estimation model, was conducted using a dynamic model. From an analysis of the fuel cycle cost estimation results, it was found that some cost gap exists between the traditional same discount rate model and the advanced different discount rate model. However, this gap does not change the priority of the nuclear fuel cycle option from the viewpoint of economics. In addition, the fuel cycle costs of OT (Once-Through) and Pyro-SFR recycling based on the most likely value using a probabilistic cost estimation except for reactor costs were calculated to be 8.75 mills/kW h and 8.30 mills/kW h, respectively. Namely, the Pyro-SFR recycling option was more economical than the direct disposal option. However, if the reactor cost is considered, the economic sense in the generation cost between the two options (direct disposal vs. Pyro-SFR recycling) can be changed because of the high reactor cost of an SFR.

  9. Development of simplified decommissioning cost estimation code for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shiraishi, Kunio; Ishigami, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    The simplified decommissioning cost estimation code for nuclear facilities (DECOST code) was developed in consideration of features and structures of nuclear facilities and similarity of dismantling methods. The DECOST code could calculate 8 evaluation items of decommissioning cost. Actual dismantling in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was evaluated; unit conversion factors used to calculate the manpower of dismantling activities were evaluated. Consequently, unit conversion factors of general components could be classified into three kinds. Weights of components and structures of the facility were necessary for calculation of manpower. Methods for evaluating weights of components and structures of the facility were studied. Consequently, the weight of components in the facility was proportional to the weight of structures of the facility. The weight of structures of the facility was proportional to the total area of floors in the facility. Decommissioning costs of 7 nuclear facilities in the JAEA were calculated by using the DECOST code. To verify the calculated results, the calculated manpower was compared with the manpower gained from actual dismantling. Consequently, the calculated manpower and actual manpower were almost equal. The outline of the DECOST code, evaluation results of unit conversion factors, the evaluation method of the weights of components and structures of the facility are described in this report. (author)

  10. Determination of prerequisites for the estimation of transportation cost of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Kim, Seong Ki; Cha, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-10-01

    The cost for the spent fuel management includes the costs for the interim storage, the transportation, and the permanent disposal of the spent fuels. The scope of this report is limited to the cost for the spent fuel transportation. KAERI is developing a cost estimation method for the spent fuel transportation through a joint study with the French AREVA TN. Several prerequisites should be fixed in order to estimate the cost for the spent fuel transportation properly. In this report we produced them considering the Korean current status on the management of spent fuels. The representative characteristics of a spent fuel generated from the six nuclear reactors at the YG site were determined. Total 7,200 tons of spent fuels are projected with the lifespan of 60 years. As the transportation mode, sea transportation and road transportation is recommended considering the location of the YG site and the hypothetical Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF) and Final Repository (FR). The sea route and transportation time were analyzed by using a sea distance analysis program which the NORI (National Oceanographic Research Institute) supplies on a web. Based on the results of the analysis, the shipping rates were determined. The regulations related to the spent fuel transportation were reviewed. The characteristics of the transportation vessel and a trailer were suggested. The handling and transportation systems at the YG site, Centralized Interim Storage Facility, and the Final Repository were described in detail for the purpose of the cost estimation of the spent fuel transportation. From the detail description the major components of the transportation system were determined for the conceptual design. It is believed that the conceptual design of the transportation system developed in this report will be used for the analysis of transportation logistics and the cost estimation of spent fuels

  11. MODERN APPROACHES TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY COST ESTIMATION UNDER CRISIS CONDITIONS FROM CONSUMER QUALITY PRESERVATION VIEWPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Alexandrov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various intellectual property (IP estimation approaches and innovations in this field are discussed. Problem situations and «bottlenecks» in the economic mechanism of transformation of innovations into useful products and services are defined. Main international IP evaluation methods are described, particular attention being paid to «Quick Inside» program defined as latest generation global expert system. IP income and expense evaluation methods used in domestic practice are discussed. Possibility of using the Black-Scholes optional model to estimate costs of non-material assets is studied.

  12. A General Model for Cost Estimation in an Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzion Barlev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP state that the cost of an asset acquired for cash is the fair value (FV of the amount surrendered, and that of an asset acquired in a non-monetary exchange is the FV of the asset surrendered or, if it is more “clearly evident,” the FV of the acquired asset. The measurement method prescribed for a non-monetary exchange ignores valuable information about the “less clearly evident” asset. Thus, we suggest that the FV in any exchange be measured by the weighted average of the exchanged assets’ FV estimations, where the weights are the inverse of the variances’ estimations. This alternative valuation process accounts for the uncertainty involved in estimating the FV of each of the asset in the exchange. The proposed method suits all types of exchanges: monetary and non-monetary. In a monetary transaction, the weighted average equals the cash paid because the variance of its FV is nil.

  13. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 156 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For all 156 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $210.6 million, total reported cost savings were $215.1 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $204.5 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 97% of the estimated cost savings; projects reported achieving 102% of the estimated cost savings; and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 155 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 11.938 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 12.138 million MMBtu, 101.7% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 155 projects were 19.052 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 19.516 million MMBtu, 102.4% of the estimated energy savings.

  14. Estimating the cost of healthcare delivery in three hospitals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The cost burden (called full cost) of providing health services at a referral, a district and a mission hospital in Ghana were determined. Methods: Standard cost-finding and cost analysis tools recommended by World Health Organization are used to analyse 2002 and 2003 hospital data. Full cost centre costs were ...

  15. Melanoma costs: a dynamic model comparing estimated overall costs of various clinical stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, Doru Traian

    2009-11-15

    The rapidly increasing incidence of melanoma occurs at the same time as an increase in general healthcare costs, particularly the expenses associated with cancer care. Previous cost estimates in melanoma have not utilized a dynamic model considering the evolution of the disease and have not integrated the multiple costs associated with different aspects of medical interventions and patient-related factors. Futhermore, previous calculations have not been updated to reflect the modern tendencies in healthcare costs. We designed a comprehensive model of expenses in melanoma that considers the dynamic costs generated by the natural progression of the disease, which produces costs associated with treatment, surveillance, loss of income, and terminal care. The complete range of initial clinical (TNM) stages of the disease and initial tumor stages were analyzed in this model and the total healthcare costs for the five years following melanoma presentation at each particular stage were calculated. We have observed dramatic incremental total costs associated with progressively higher initial stages of the disease, ranging from a total of $4,648.48 for in situ tumors to $159,808.17 for Stage IV melanoma. By stage, early lesions associate 30-55 percent of their costs for the treatment of the primary tumor, due to a low rate of recurrence (local, regional, or distant), which limits the need for additional interventions. For in situ melanoma, T1a, and T1b, surveillance is an important contributor to the medical costs, accounting for more than 25 percent of the total cost over 5 years. In contrast, late lesions incur a much larger proportion of their associated costs (up to 80-85%) from the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic disease because of the increased propensity of those lesions to disseminate. This cost increases with increasing tumor stage (from $2,442.17 for T1a to $6,678.00 for T4b). The most expensive items in the medical care of patients with melanoma consist of

  16. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Domian, H.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Madson, A.A. [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W.; Domian, H.A.; Madson, A.A.

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs

  18. Contribution of Fuzzy Minimal Cost Flow Problem by Possibility Programming

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fanati Rashidi; A. A. Noora

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of possibility proposed by zadeh, luhandjula ([4,8]) and buckley ([1]) have proposed the possibility programming. The formulation of buckley results in nonlinear programming problems. Negi [6]re-formulated the approach of Buckley by the use of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and reduced the problem into fuzzy linear programming problem. Shih and Lee ([7]) used the Negi approach to solve a minimum cost flow problem, whit fuzzy costs and the upper and lower bound. ...

  19. Collecting costs of community prevention programs: communities putting prevention to work initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavjou, Olga A; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Hoerger, Thomas J; Trogdon, Justin G; Cash, Amanda J

    2014-08-01

    Community-based programs require substantial investments of resources; however, evaluations of these programs usually lack analyses of program costs. Costs of community-based programs reported in previous literature are limited and have been estimated retrospectively. To describe a prospective cost data collection approach developed for the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) program capturing costs for community-based tobacco use and obesity prevention strategies. A web-based cost data collection instrument was developed using an activity-based costing approach. Respondents reported quarterly expenditures on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead; partner efforts; and in-kind contributions. Costs were allocated across CPPW objectives and strategies organized around five categories: media, access, point of decision/promotion, price, and social support and services. The instrument was developed in 2010, quarterly data collections took place in 2011-2013, and preliminary analysis was conducted in 2013. Preliminary descriptive statistics are presented for the cost data collected from 51 respondents. More than 50% of program costs were for partner organizations, and over 20% of costs were for labor hours. Tobacco communities devoted the majority of their efforts to media strategies. Obesity communities spent more than half of their resources on access strategies. Collecting accurate cost information on health promotion and disease prevention programs presents many challenges. The approach presented in this paper is one of the first efforts successfully collecting these types of data and can be replicated for collecting costs from other programs. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. [Cost-benefit analysis of primary prevention programs for mental health at the workplace in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kensuke; Kawakami, Norito; Tsusumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Takeuchi, Ayano; Fukuda, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    To determine the cost-benefits of primary prevention programs for mental health at the workplace, we conducted a meta-analysis of published studies in Japan. We searched the literature, published as of 16 November 2011, using the Pubmed database and relevant key words. The inclusion criteria were: conducted in the workplace in Japan; primary prevention focus; quasi-experimental studies or controlled trials; and outcomes including absenteeism or presenteeism. Four studies were identified: one participatory work environment improvement, one individual-oriented stress management, and two supervisor education programs. Costs and benefits in yen were estimated for each program, based on the description of the programs in the literature, and additional information from the authors. The benefits were estimated based on each program's effect on work performance (measured using the WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire in all studies), as well as sick leave days, if available. The estimated relative increase in work performance (%) in the intervention group compared to the control group was converted into labor cost using the average bonus (18% of the total annual salary) awarded to employees in Japan as a base. Sensitive analyses were conducted using different models of time-trend of intervention effects and 95% confidence limits of the relative increase in work performance. For the participatory work environment improvement program, the cost was estimated as 7,660 yen per employee, and the benefit was 15,200-22,800 yen per employee. For the individual-oriented stress management program, the cost was 9,708 yen per employee, and the benefit was 15,200-22,920 yen per employee. For supervisor education programs, the costs and benefits were respectively 5,209 and 4,400-6,600 yen per employee, in one study, 2,949 and zero yen per employee in the other study. The 95% confidence intervals were wide for all these studies. For the point estimates based on these cases, the

  1. Evaluation of cost estimates and calculation methods used by SKB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel Management Co. (SKB) has estimated the costs for decommissioning the swedish nuclear power plants and managing the nuclear wastes in a 'traditional' manner i.e. by handling uncertainties through percentage additions. A 'normal' addition is used for uncertainties in specified technical systems. 'Extra' additions are used for systems uncertainties. An alternative method is suggested, using top-down principles for uncertainties, which should be applied successively, giving higher precision as the knowledge accumulates. This type of calculation can help project managers to identify and deal with areas common to different partial projects. A first step in this direction would be to perform sensitivity analyses for the most important calculation parameters. 21 refs

  2. Cost estimate of a nuclear power phaseout in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power phaseout costing is an extremely complex task, as a multitude of aspects affecting the economy at large as well as specific industrial branches, and both direct and indirect effects are to be identified and considered. Another question arising is the general approach to be taken, as such an estimate may be done e.g. from the angle of an electric utility, or the electricity consumers, tax payers, or that of the national economy. In addition, the strategy and time frame of the phaseout scenario play a major role, which is a decision of policy. The article discusses a number of approaches as addressed above and emphasises that any approach or scenario elaborated is based on very different, specific assumptions requiring individual interpretation of results plus supplementary parameter variation and sensitivity calculations. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Cost estimation of HVDC transmission system of Bangka's NPP candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liun, Edwaren; Suparman

    2014-09-01

    Regarding nuclear power plant development in Bangka Island, it can be estimated that produced power will be oversupply for the Bangka Island and needs to transmit to Sumatra or Java Island. The distance between the regions or islands causing considerable loss of power in transmission by alternating current, and a wide range of technical and economical issues. The objective of this paper addresses to economics analysis of direct current transmission system to overcome those technical problem. Direct current transmission has a stable characteristic, so that the power delivery from Bangka to Sumatra or Java in a large scale efficiently and reliably can be done. HVDC system costs depend on the power capacity applied to the system and length of the transmission line in addition to other variables that may be different.

  4. FASTSim: A Model to Estimate Vehicle Efficiency, Cost and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Wang, L.; Wood, E.; Lopp, S.; Ramroth, L.

    2015-05-04

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is a high-level advanced vehicle powertrain systems analysis tool supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office. FASTSim provides a quick and simple approach to compare powertrains and estimate the impact of technology improvements on light- and heavy-duty vehicle efficiency, performance, cost, and battery batches of real-world drive cycles. FASTSim’s calculation framework and balance among detail, accuracy, and speed enable it to simulate thousands of driven miles in minutes. The key components and vehicle outputs have been validated by comparing the model outputs to test data for many different vehicles to provide confidence in the results. A graphical user interface makes FASTSim easy and efficient to use. FASTSim is freely available for download from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s website (see www.nrel.gov/fastsim).

  5. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE's Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs

  6. Cost Functions for Airframe Production Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    0 : 666QOOO 66u666=6L66 𔃺" ~ JM. ~ ~ OJ M %~ 0v Z𔃾:O 14% tqv6 Z6 6 𔃺 *1 199 REFERENCES 1. Alchian, Armen A. "Costs and Outputs." In, The...Allocation of Economic Resources, Edited by Moses Abramovitz. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1959. 2. Alchian, Armen A. "Reliability of

  7. 7 CFR 1944.254 - Program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... supplies (including food) necessary to provide services; (iv) Operational costs of a transportation service... development of the application and plan of operations before the effective date of CHSP grant award; (vi...

  8. Uncertainty quantification metrics for whole product life cycle cost estimates in aerospace innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, O.; Shehab, E.; Erkoyuncu, J.

    2015-08-01

    The lack of defensible methods for quantifying cost estimate uncertainty over the whole product life cycle of aerospace innovations such as propulsion systems or airframes poses a significant challenge to the creation of accurate and defensible cost estimates. Based on the axiomatic definition of uncertainty as the actual prediction error of the cost estimate, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of metrics used for the uncertainty quantification of cost estimates based on a literature review, an evaluation of publicly funded projects such as part of the CORDIS or Horizon 2020 programs, and an analysis of established approaches used by organizations such NASA, the U.S. Department of Defence, the ESA, and various commercial companies. The metrics are categorized based on their foundational character (foundations), their use in practice (state-of-practice), their availability for practice (state-of-art) and those suggested for future exploration (state-of-future). Insights gained were that a variety of uncertainty quantification metrics exist whose suitability depends on the volatility of available relevant information, as defined by technical and cost readiness level, and the number of whole product life cycle phases the estimate is intended to be valid for. Information volatility and number of whole product life cycle phases can hereby be considered as defining multi-dimensional probability fields admitting various uncertainty quantification metric families with identifiable thresholds for transitioning between them. The key research gaps identified were the lacking guidance grounded in theory for the selection of uncertainty quantification metrics and lacking practical alternatives to metrics based on the Central Limit Theorem. An innovative uncertainty quantification framework consisting of; a set-theory based typology, a data library, a classification system, and a corresponding input-output model are put forward to address this research gap as the basis

  9. Cost of providing injectable contraceptives through a community-based social marketing program in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Downing, Janelle; Bell, Suzanne; Weidert, Karen; Godefay, Hagos; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2016-06-01

    To provide a cost analysis of an injectable contraceptive program combining community-based distribution and social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia. We conducted a cost analysis, modeling the costs and programmatic outcomes of the program's initial implementation in 3 districts of Tigray, Ethiopia. Costs were estimated from a review of program expense records, invoices, and interviews with health workers. Programmatic outcomes include number of injections and couple-year of protection (CYP) provided. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the average number of injections provided per month by community health workers (CHWs), the cost of the commodity, and the number of CHWs trained. The average programmatic CYP was US $17.91 for all districts with a substantial range from US $15.48-38.09 per CYP across districts. Direct service cost was estimated at US $2.96 per CYP. The cost per CYP was slightly sensitive to the commodity cost of the injectable contraceptives and the number of CHWs. The capacity of each CHW, measured by the number of injections sold, was a key input that drove the cost per CYP of this model. With a direct service cost of US $2.96 per CYP, this study demonstrates the potential cost of community-based social marketing programs of injectable contraceptives. The findings suggest that the cost of social marketing of contraceptives in rural communities is comparable to other delivery mechanisms with regards to CYP, but further research is needed to determine the full impact and cost-effectiveness for women and communities beyond what is measured in CYP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Taking the Evolutionary Road to Developing an In-House Cost Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacintho, David; Esker, Lind; Herman, Frank; Lavaque, Rodolfo; Regardie, Myma

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process and some of the problems and challenges of developing an In-House Cost Estimate (IHCE). Using as an example the Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project, the presentation reviews the phases for developing a Cost estimate within the project to estimate government and contractor project costs to support a budget request.

  11. 48 CFR 1852.216-84 - Estimated cost and incentive fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1852.216-84 Estimated cost and incentive fee. As prescribed in 1816.406-70(d), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost and Incentive Fee (OCT 1996) The target cost of this contract is $___. The target fee of this contract is $___. The total target cost and target fee as contemplated by the...

  12. Conceptual Design and Cost Estimate of a Subsonic NASA Testbed Vehicle (NTV) for Aeronautics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Frederic, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual design and cost estimate for a subsonic flight research vehicle designed to support NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project goals is presented. To investigate the technical and economic feasibility of modifying an existing aircraft, a highly modified Boeing 717 was developed for maturation of technologies supporting the three ERA project goals of reduced fuel burn, noise, and emissions. This modified 717 utilizes midfuselage mounted modern high bypass ratio engines in conjunction with engine exhaust shielding structures to provide a low noise testbed. The testbed also integrates a natural laminar flow wing section and active flow control for the vertical tail. An eight year program plan was created to incrementally modify and test the vehicle, enabling the suite of technology benefits to be isolated and quantified. Based on the conceptual design and programmatic plan for this testbed vehicle, a full cost estimate of $526M was developed, representing then-year dollars at a 50% confidence level.

  13. A parametric cost model for estimating operating and support costs of US Navy (non-nuclear) surface ships

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With few effective decision-making tools to assess the affordability of major weapon systems, management of total ownership costs is continually misunderstood. Cost analysis provides a quick and reliable assessment of affordability. Because there is no standardized method for calculating reliable estimates of operating and support (O&S) costs (the principal component of total ownership cost), this thesis formulates a parametric cost mo...

  14. Handbook for quick cost estimates. A method for developing quick approximate estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This document is a supplement to a ''Handbook for Cost Estimating'' (NUREG/CR-3971) and provides specific guidance for developing ''quick'' approximate estimates of the cost of implementing generic regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants. A method is presented for relating the known construction costs for new nuclear power plants (as contained in the Energy Economic Data Base) to the cost of performing similar work, on a back-fit basis, at existing plants. Cost factors are presented to account for variations in such important cost areas as construction labor productivity, engineering and quality assurance, replacement energy, reworking of existing features, and regional variations in the cost of materials and labor. Other cost categories addressed in this handbook include those for changes in plant operating personnel and plant documents, licensee costs, NRC costs, and costs for other government agencies. Data sheets, worksheets, and appropriate cost algorithms are included to guide the user through preparation of rough estimates. A sample estimate is prepared using the method and the estimating tools provided

  15. Handbook for quick cost estimates. A method for developing quick approximate estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This document is a supplement to a ''Handbook for Cost Estimating'' (NUREG/CR-3971) and provides specific guidance for developing ''quick'' approximate estimates of the cost of implementing generic regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants. A method is presented for relating the known construction costs for new nuclear power plants (as contained in the Energy Economic Data Base) to the cost of performing similar work, on a back-fit basis, at existing plants. Cost factors are presented to account for variations in such important cost areas as construction labor productivity, engineering and quality assurance, replacement energy, reworking of existing features, and regional variations in the cost of materials and labor. Other cost categories addressed in this handbook include those for changes in plant operating personnel and plant documents, licensee costs, NRC costs, and costs for other government agencies. Data sheets, worksheets, and appropriate cost algorithms are included to guide the user through preparation of rough estimates. A sample estimate is prepared using the method and the estimating tools provided.

  16. Estimating Supplies Program (ESP), Version 1.00, User's Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tropeano, Anne

    2000-01-01

    The Estimating Supplies Program (ESP) is an easy to use Windows(TM)-based software program for military medical providers, planners, and trainers that calculates the amount of supplies and equipment required to treat a patient stream...

  17. Appendix C: Biomass Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community Exercise and Nutrition Program for Older Adults: Texercise Select.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanni, Olufolake Odufuwa; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-05-20

    The wide-spread dissemination of evidence-based programs that can improve health outcomes among older populations often requires an understanding of factors influencing community adoption of such programs. One such program is Texercise Select , a community-based health promotion program previously shown to improve functional health, physical activity, nutritional habits and quality of the life among older adults. This paper assesses the cost-effectiveness of Texercise Select in the context of supportive environments to facilitate its delivery and statewide sustainability. Participants were surveyed using self-reported instruments distributed at program baseline and conclusion. Program costs were based on actual direct costs of program implementation and included costs of recruitment and outreach, personnel costs and participant incentives. Program effectiveness was measured using quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, as well as health outcomes, such as healthy days, weekly physical activity and Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test scores. Preference-based EuroQol (EQ-5D) scores were estimated from the number of healthy days reported by participants and converted into QALYs. There was a significant increase in the number of healthy days ( p nutrition-related outcomes among participants, this study supports the use of Texercise Select as an intervention with substantial health and cost benefits.

  19. Design and cost estimate for the SRL integrated hot off gas facility using selective adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Kirstein, B.E.

    1981-07-01

    Based on the results of an engineering-scale demonstration program, a design and cost estimate were performed for a 25-m 3 /h (15-ft 3 /min) capacity pilot plant demonstration system using selective adsorption technology for installation at the Integrated Hot Off Gas Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The design includes provisions for the destruction of NO/sub x/ and the concentration and removal of radioisotopes of ruthenium, iodine-129, tritiated water vapor, carbon-14 contaminated carbon dioxide, and krypton-85. The nobel gases are separated by the use of selective adsorption on mordenite-type zeolites. The theory of noble gas adsorption on zeolites is essentially the same as that for the adsorption of noble gases on activated charcoals. Considerable detail is provided regarding the application of the theory to adsorbent bed designs and operation. The design is based on a comprehensive material balance and appropriate heat transfer calculations. Details are provided on techniques and procedures used for heating, cooling, and desorbing the adsorbent columns. Analyses are also given regarding component and arrangement selection and includes discussions on alternative arrangements. The estimated equipment costs for the described treatment system is about $1,400,000. The cost estimate includes a detailed equipment list of all the major component items in the design. Related technical issues and estimated system performance are also discussed

  20. Design and cost estimate for the SRL integrated hot off gas facility using selective adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pence, D T; Kirstein, B E

    1981-07-01

    Based on the results of an engineering-scale demonstration program, a design and cost estimate were performed for a 25-m/sup 3//h (15-ft/sup 3//min) capacity pilot plant demonstration system using selective adsorption technology for installation at the Integrated Hot Off Gas Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The design includes provisions for the destruction of NO/sub x/ and the concentration and removal of radioisotopes of ruthenium, iodine-129, tritiated water vapor, carbon-14 contaminated carbon dioxide, and krypton-85. The nobel gases are separated by the use of selective adsorption on mordenite-type zeolites. The theory of noble gas adsorption on zeolites is essentially the same as that for the adsorption of noble gases on activated charcoals. Considerable detail is provided regarding the application of the theory to adsorbent bed designs and operation. The design is based on a comprehensive material balance and appropriate heat transfer calculations. Details are provided on techniques and procedures used for heating, cooling, and desorbing the adsorbent columns. Analyses are also given regarding component and arrangement selection and includes discussions on alternative arrangements. The estimated equipment costs for the described treatment system is about $1,400,000. The cost estimate includes a detailed equipment list of all the major component items in the design. Related technical issues and estimated system performance are also discussed.

  1. Estimating the cost of delaying a nuclear power plant: methodology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.; Tepel, R.C.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an actual 24-month nuclear power plant licensing delay under alternate assumptions about regulatory practice, sources of replacement power, and the cost of the plant. The analysis focuses on both the delay period and periods subsequent to the delay. The methodology utilized to simulate the impacts involved the recursive interaction of a generation-costing program to estimate fuel-replacement costs and a financial regulatory model to concomitantly determine the impact on the utility, its ratepayers, and security issues. The results indicate that a licensing delay has an adverse impact on the utility's internal generation of funds and financial indicators used to evaluate financial soundness. The direction of impact on electricity rates is contingent on the source of fuel used for replacement power. 5 references, 5 tables

  2. IDC reengineering Phase 2 & 3 US industry standard cost estimate summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huelskamp, Robert M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, using a commercial software cost estimation tool calibrated to US industry performance parameters. This is not a cost estimate for Sandia to perform the project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  3. Pooled inventory management: a unique cost-sharing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromenschenkel, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    A totally fresh approach to stocking an inventory of costly, long-lead-time nuclear plant equipment became a reality in January, 1981, after three years of effort to form the program. The program, known as Pooled Inventory Management (PIM), is now procuring the first equipment to be stocked in its inventory. This report describes the formation of PIM, how the program works, PIM accomplishments, equipment included in PIM stockpiles, and economics, implementation, and future plans of the program

  4. Analysis of Defense Industry Consolidation Effects on Program Acquisition Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Russell V

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis examines whether cost changes are evident following consolidation within the defense industry by conducting a regression analysis of Major Defense Acquisition Programs across 13 broad defense market sectors...

  5. 24 CFR 570.206 - Program administrative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preliminary surveys and analysis of market needs; (2) Site and utility plans, narrative descriptions of the... the salary, wages, and related costs of each person whose job includes any program administration...

  6. Energetic costs of mange in wolves estimated from infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Almberg, Emily S.; Haase, Catherine G; Hudson, Peter J.; Maloney, Shane K; Metz, Matthew C; Munn, Adam J; Nugent, Paul; Putzeys, Olivier; Stahler, Daniel R.; Stewart, Anya C; Smith, Doug W.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites, by definition, extract energy from their hosts and thus affect trophic and food web dynamics even when the parasite may have limited effects on host population size. We studied the energetic costs of mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) in wolves (Canis lupus) using thermal cameras to estimate heat losses associated with compromised insulation during the winter. We combined the field data of known, naturally infected wolves with data set on captive wolves with shaved patches of fur as a positive control to simulate mange-induced hair loss. We predict that during the winter in Montana, more severe mange infection increases heat loss by around 5.2 to 12 MJ per night (1240 to 2850 kcal, or a 65% to 78% increase) for small and large wolves, respectively accounting for wind effects. To maintain body temperature would require a significant proportion of a healthy wolf's total daily energy demands (18-22 MJ/day). We also predict how these thermal costs may increase in colder climates by comparing our predictions in Bozeman, Montana to those from a place with lower ambient temperatures (Fairbanks, Alaska). Contrary to our expectations, the 14°C differential between these regions was not as important as the potential differences in wind speed. These large increases in energetic demands can be mitigated by either increasing consumption rates or decreasing other energy demands. Data from GPS-collared wolves indicated that healthy wolves move, on average, 17 km per day, which was reduced by 1.5, 1.8 and 6.5 km for light, medium, and severe hair loss. In addition, the wolf with the most hair loss was less active at night and more active during the day, which is the converse of the movement patterns of healthy wolves. At the individual level mange infections create significant energy demands and altered behavioral patterns, this may have cascading effects on prey consumption rates, food web dynamics, predator-prey interactions, and scavenger communities.

  7. Cost estimation: An expert-opinion approach. [cost analysis of research projects using the Delphi method (forecasting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalano, C.; Fogleman, S.; Gielecki, M.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology is outlined which can be used to estimate the costs of research and development projects. The approach uses the Delphi technique a method developed by the Rand Corporation for systematically eliciting and evaluating group judgments in an objective manner. The use of the Delphi allows for the integration of expert opinion into the cost-estimating process in a consistent and rigorous fashion. This approach can also signal potential cost-problem areas. This result can be a useful tool in planning additional cost analysis or in estimating contingency funds. A Monte Carlo approach is also examined.

  8. Balancing compliance and cost when implementing a Quality Assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.Y.

    1997-12-01

    When implementing a Quality Assurance (QA) program, compliance and cost must be balanced. A QA program must be developed that hits the mark in terms of adequate control and documentation, but does not unnecessarily expand resources. As the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has moved towards certification, Sandia National Laboratories has learned much about balancing compliance and costs. Some of these lessons are summarized here

  9. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively to a comprehensive oral health outreach project for preschool children conducted in a low-socioeconomic multi-cultural urban area. The outcome was compared with historical controls from the same area with conventional dental care. The cost per minute for the various dental professions was added to the cost of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed in Euro. The results revealed an estimated total cost of 310 Euro per included child (net present value) in the 3-year program. Half of the costs were attributed to the first year of the program and the costs of manpower constituted 45% of the total costs. When the total cost was reduced with the cost of conventional care and the revenue of avoided fillings, the net cost was estimated to 30 Euro. A sensitivity analysis displayed that a net gain could be possible with a maximal outcome of the program. In conclusion, the estimated net costs were displayed and available to those considering implementation of a similar population-based preventive program in areas where preschool children are at high caries risk.

  10. Appendix W. Cost Analysis in Teacher Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, G. Roger; And Others

    This paper is an introduction to the basic cost-related tools available to management for planning, evaluating, and organizing resources for the purpose of achieving objectives within a teacher education preparation program. Three tools are presented in separate sections. Part I on the cost accounting tool for identifying, categorizing, and…

  11. Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of FBR program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S [Japan Energy Economic Research Inst., Tokyo

    1975-07-01

    In several countries of the world, both financial and human resources are being invested to the development of fast breeder reactors. Quantitative determination of the benefit which will be expected as the reqard to these efforts of research and development - this is the purpose of the present study. It is cost-benefit analysis. The instances of this analysis are given, namely the work in The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan, and also the one by U.S.AEC. The effect of the development of fast breeder reactors is evaluated in this way ; and problems in the analysis method are indicated. These two works in Japan and the U.S. were performed before the so-called oil crisis.

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of FBR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shinji

    1975-01-01

    In several countries of the world, both financial and human resources are being invested to the development of fast breeder reactors. Quantitative determination of the benefit which will be expected as the reqard to these efforts of research and development - this is the purpose of the present study. It is cost-benefit analysis. The instances of this analysis are given, namely the work in The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan, and also the one by U.S.AEC. The effect of the development of fast breeder reactors is evaluated in this way ; and problems in the analysis method are indicated. These two works in Japan and the U.S. were performed before the so-called oil crisis. (Mori, K.)

  14. Report on estimated nuclear energy related cost for fiscal 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The report first describes major actions planned to be taken in Japan in fiscal 1991 in the field of nuclear energy utilization. Major activities to be made for comprehensive strengthening of safety assurance measures are described, focusing on improvement of nuclear energy related safety regulations, promotion of research for safety assurance, improvement and strengthening of disaster prevention measures, environmental radioactivity surveys, control of exposure of workers engaged in radioactivity related jobs, etc. The report then describes actions required for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle, focusing on the procurement of uranium resources, establishment of a uranium enrichment process, reprocessing of spent fuel, application of recovered uranium, etc. Other activities are required for the development of new type reactors, effective application of plutonium, development of basic techniques, international contributions, cooperation with the public. Then, the report summarizes estimated costs required for the activities to be performed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. (N.K.)

  15. A level playing field: Obtaining consistent cost estimates for advanced reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II; Rohm, H.H.; Humphreys, J.R. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Rules and guidelines for developing cost estimates are given which provide a means for presenting cost estimates for advanced concepts on a consistent and equitable basis. For advanced reactor designs, the scope of a cost estimate includes the plant capital cost, the operating and maintenance cost, the fuel cycle cost, and the cost of decommissioning. Each element is subdivided as is necessary to provide a common reporting format for all power plant concepts. The total generation cost is taken to be a suitable choice for a summary figure of merit. To test the application of the rules and guidelines as well as developing reference costs for current technologies, several different sized coal and pressurized water reactor plant cost estimates have been prepared

  16. UA criterion for NPP safety estimation SALP program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorynina, L.V.; Tishchenko, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Adopted by NRC program SALR is considered. The program is intended for acquisition and estimation of data on the activities of forms having licences for NPP operation and (or) construction. The criteria for estimation and the mechanism for determination of the rating of the firm activity quality are discussed

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a transitional pharmaceutical care program for patients discharged from the hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Karapinar-Çarkıt

    Full Text Available To improve continuity of care at hospital admission and discharge and to decrease medication errors pharmaceutical care programs are developed. This study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of the COACH program in comparison with usual care from a societal perspective.A controlled clinical trial was performed at the Internal Medicine department of a general teaching hospital. All admitted patients using at least one prescription drug were included. The COACH program consisted of medication reconciliation, patient counselling at discharge, and communication to healthcare providers in primary care. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an unplanned rehospitalisation within three months after discharge. Also, the number of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs was assessed. Cost data were collected using cost diaries. Uncertainty surrounding cost differences and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between the groups was estimated by bootstrapping.In the COACH program, 168 patients were included and in usual care 151 patients. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with unplanned rehospitalisations (mean difference 0.17%, 95% CI -8.85;8.51, and in QALYs (mean difference -0.0085, 95% CI -0.0170;0.0001. Total costs for the COACH program were non-significantly lower than usual care (-€1160, 95% CI -3168;847. Cost-effectiveness planes showed that the program was not cost-effective compared with usual care for unplanned rehospitalisations and QALYs gained.The COACH program was not cost-effective in comparison with usual care. Future studies should focus on high risk patients and include other outcomes (e.g. adverse drug events as this may increase the chances of a cost-effective intervention. Dutch trial register NTR1519.

  18. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of the Norwegian breast cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, P A; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

    2017-02-15

    The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) has a nation-wide coverage since 2005. All women aged 50-69 years are invited biennially for mammography screening. We evaluated breast cancer mortality reduction and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis, using our microsimulation model, calibrated to most recent data. The microsimulation model allows for the comparison of mortality and costs between a (hypothetical) situation without screening and a situation with screening. Breast cancer incidence in Norway had a steep increase in the early 1990s. We calibrated the model to simulate this increase and included recent costs for screening, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and travel and productivity loss. We estimate a 16% breast cancer mortality reduction for a cohort of women, invited to screening, followed over their complete lifetime. Cost-effectiveness is estimated at NOK 112,162 per QALY gained, when taking only direct medical costs into account (the cost of the buses, examinations, and invitations). We used a 3.5% annual discount rate. Cost-effectiveness estimates are substantially below the threshold of NOK 1,926,366 as recommended by the WHO guidelines. For the Norwegian population, which has been gradually exposed to screening, breast cancer mortality reduction for women exposed to screening is increasing and is estimated to rise to ∼30% in 2020 for women aged 55-80 years. The NBCSP is a highly cost-effective measure to reduce breast cancer specific mortality. We estimate a breast cancer specific mortality reduction of 16-30%, at the cost of 112,162 NOK per QALY gained. © 2016 UICC.

  20. A comparative analysis of methods to represent uncertainty in estimating the cost of constructing wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2002-08-01

    Prediction of construction cost of wastewater treatment facilities could be influential for the economic feasibility of various levels of water pollution control programs. However, construction cost estimation is difficult to precisely evaluate in an uncertain environment and measured quantities are always burdened with different types of cost structures. Therefore, an understanding of the previous development of wastewater treatment plants and of the related construction cost structures of those facilities becomes essential for dealing with an effective regional water pollution control program. But deviations between the observed values and the estimated values are supposed to be due to measurement errors only in the conventional regression models. The inherent uncertainties of the underlying cost structure, where the human estimation is influential, are rarely explored. This paper is designed to recast a well-known problem of construction cost estimation for both domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants via a comparative framework. Comparisons were made for three technologies of regression analyses, including the conventional least squares regression method, the fuzzy linear regression method, and the newly derived fuzzy goal regression method. The case study, incorporating a complete database with 48 domestic wastewater treatment plants and 29 industrial wastewater treatment plants being collected in Taiwan, implements such a cost estimation procedure in an uncertain environment. Given that the fuzzy structure in regression estimation may account for the inherent human complexity in cost estimation, the fuzzy goal regression method does exhibit more robust results in terms of some criteria. Moderate economy of scale exists in constructing both the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants. Findings indicate that the optimal size of a domestic wastewater treatment plant is approximately equivalent to 15,000 m3/day (CMD) and higher in Taiwan

  1. Technology Cost and Schedule Estimation (TCASE) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jon; Schaffer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    During the 2014-2015 project year, the focus of the TCASE project has shifted from collection of historical data from many sources to securing a data pipeline between TCASE and NASA's widely used TechPort system. TCASE v1.0 implements a data import solution that was achievable within the project scope, while still providing the basis for a long-term ability to keep TCASE in sync with TechPort. Conclusion: TCASE data quantity is adequate and the established data pipeline will enable future growth. Data quality is now highly dependent the quality of data in TechPort. Recommendation: Technology development organizations within NASA should continue to work closely with project/program data tracking and archiving efforts (e.g. TechPort) to ensure that the right data is being captured at the appropriate quality level. TCASE would greatly benefit, for example, if project cost/budget information was included in TechPort in the future.

  2. Wellness Programs: Preventive Medicine to Reduce Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Gilbert R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A wellness program is a formalized approach to preventive health care that can positively affect employee lifestyle and reduce future health-care costs. Describes programs for health education, smoking cessation, early detection, employee assistance, and fitness, citing industry success figures. (eight references) (MLF)

  3. Methodology to estimate the cost of the severe accidents risk / maximum benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, G.; Flores, R. M.; Vega, E.

    2016-09-01

    For programs and activities to manage aging effects, any changes to plant operations, inspections, maintenance activities, systems and administrative control procedures during the renewal period should be characterized, designed to manage the effects of aging as required by 10 Cfr Part 54 that could impact the environment. Environmental impacts significantly different from those described in the final environmental statement for the current operating license should be described in detail. When complying with the requirements of a license renewal application, the Severe Accident Mitigation Alternatives (SAMA) analysis is contained in a supplement to the environmental report of the plant that meets the requirements of 10 Cfr Part 51. In this paper, the methodology for estimating the cost of severe accidents risk is established and discussed, which is then used to identify and select the alternatives for severe accident mitigation, which are analyzed to estimate the maximum benefit that an alternative could achieve if this eliminate all risk. Using the regulatory analysis techniques of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) estimates the cost of severe accidents risk. The ultimate goal of implementing the methodology is to identify candidates for SAMA that have the potential to reduce the severe accidents risk and determine if the implementation of each candidate is cost-effective. (Author)

  4. Estimation of the laser cutting operating cost by support vector regression methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Srđan; Radović, Aleksandar; Šarkoćević, Živče; Petković, Dalibor; Alizamir, Meysam

    2016-09-01

    Laser cutting is a popular manufacturing process utilized to cut various types of materials economically. The operating cost is affected by laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure, nozzle diameter and focus point position as well as the workpiece material. In this article, the process factors investigated were: laser power, cutting speed, air pressure and focal point position. The aim of this work is to relate the operating cost to the process parameters mentioned above. CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel of medical grade AISI316L has been investigated. The main goal was to analyze the operating cost through the laser power, cutting speed, air pressure, focal point position and material thickness. Since the laser operating cost is a complex, non-linear task, soft computing optimization algorithms can be used. Intelligent soft computing scheme support vector regression (SVR) was implemented. The performance of the proposed estimator was confirmed with the simulation results. The SVR results are then compared with artificial neural network and genetic programing. According to the results, a greater improvement in estimation accuracy can be achieved through the SVR compared to other soft computing methodologies. The new optimization methods benefit from the soft computing capabilities of global optimization and multiobjective optimization rather than choosing a starting point by trial and error and combining multiple criteria into a single criterion.

  5. Development of a computer program for the cost analysis of spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Jong Won; Cha, Jeong Hun; Whang, Joo Ho

    2009-01-01

    So far, a substantial amount of spent fuels have been generated from the PWR and CANDU reactors. They are being temporarily stored at the nuclear power plant sites. It is expected that the temporary storage facility will be full of spent fuels by around 2016. The government plans to solve the problem by constructing an interim storage facility soon. The radioactive management act was enacted in 2008 to manage the spent fuels safety in Korea. According to the act, the radioactive waste management fund which will be used for the transportation, interim storage, and the final disposal of spent fuels has been established. The cost for the management of spent fuels is surprisingly high and could include a lot of uncertainty. KAERI and Kyunghee University have developed cost estimation tools to evaluate the cost for a spent fuel management based on an engineering design and calculation. It is not easy to develop a tool for a cost estimation under the situation that the national policy on a spent fuel management has not yet been fixed at all. Thus, the current version of the computer program is based on the current conceptual design of each management system. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the computer program developed for the cost analysis of a spent fuel management. In order to show the application of the program, a spent fuel management scenario is prepared, and the cost for the scenario is estimated

  6. A Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Tulsa Universal Pre-K Program. Upjohn Institute Working Paper 16-261

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Belford, Jonathan A.; Gormley, William T.; Anderson, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, benefits and costs are estimated for a universal pre-K program, provided by Tulsa Public Schools. Benefits are derived from estimated effects of Tulsa pre-K on retention by grade 9. Retention effects are projected to dollar benefits from future earnings increases and crime reductions. Based on these estimates, Tulsa pre-K has…

  7. Cost-benefit analysis simulation of a hospital-based violence intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Jonathan; Rich, Linda J; Bloom, Sandra L; Rich, John A; Corbin, Theodore J

    2015-02-01

    Violent injury is a major cause of disability, premature mortality, and health disparities worldwide. Hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs) show promise in preventing violent injury. Little is known, however, about how the impact of HVIPs may translate into monetary figures. To conduct a cost-benefit analysis simulation to estimate the savings an HVIP might produce in healthcare, criminal justice, and lost productivity costs over 5 years in a hypothetical population of 180 violently injured patients, 90 of whom received HVIP intervention and 90 of whom did not. Primary data from 2012, analyzed in 2013, on annual HVIP costs/number of clients served and secondary data sources were used to estimate the cost, number, and type of violent reinjury incidents (fatal/nonfatal, resulting in hospitalization/not resulting in hospitalization) and violent perpetration incidents (aggravated assault/homicide) that this population might experience over 5 years. Four different models were constructed and three different estimates of HVIP effect size (20%, 25%, and 30%) were used to calculate a range of estimates for HVIP net savings and cost-benefit ratios from different payer perspectives. All benefits were discounted at 5% to adjust for their net present value. Estimates of HVIP cost savings at the base effect estimate of 25% ranged from $82,765 (narrowest model) to $4,055,873 (broadest model). HVIPs are likely to produce cost savings. This study provides a systematic framework for the economic evaluation of HVIPs and estimates of HVIP cost savings and cost-benefit ratios that may be useful in informing public policy decisions. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Budget estimates: Fiscal year 1994. Volume 3: Research and program management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The research and program management (R&PM) appropriation provides the salaries, other personnel and related costs, and travel support for NASA's civil service workforce. This FY 1994 budget funds costs associated with 23,623 full-time equivalent (FTE) work years. Budget estimates are provided for all NASA centers by categories such as space station and new technology investments, space flight programs, space science, life and microgravity sciences, advanced concepts and technology, center management and operations support, launch services, mission to planet earth, tracking and data programs, aeronautical research and technology, and safety, reliability, and quality assurance.

  9. Contribution of Fuzzy Minimal Cost Flow Problem by Possibility Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fanati Rashidi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the concept of possibility proposed by zadeh, luhandjula ([4,8] and buckley ([1] have proposed the possibility programming. The formulation of buckley results in nonlinear programming problems. Negi [6]re-formulated the approach of Buckley by the use of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and reduced the problem into fuzzy linear programming problem. Shih and Lee ([7] used the Negi approach to solve a minimum cost flow problem, whit fuzzy costs and the upper and lower bound. In this paper we shall consider the general form of this problem where all of the parameters and variables are fuzzy and also a model for solving is proposed

  10. Safety Evaluations Under the Proposed US Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013 : Animal Use and Cost Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Jean; Rovida, Costanza

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013 calls for a new evaluation program for cosmetic ingredients in the US, with the new assessments initially dependent on expanded animal testing. This paper considers possible testing scenarios under the proposed Act and estimates the number of test animals and cost under each scenario. It focuses on the impact for the first 10 years of testing, the period of greatest impact on animals and costs. The analysis suggests the first ...

  11. ABC estimation of unit costs for emergency department services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R L; Schroeder, R E

    1996-04-01

    Rapid evolution of the health care industry forces managers to make cost-effective decisions. Typical hospital cost accounting systems do not provide emergency department managers with the information needed, but emergency department settings are so complex and dynamic as to make the more accurate activity-based costing (ABC) system prohibitively expensive. Through judicious use of the available traditional cost accounting information and simple computer spreadsheets. managers may approximate the decision-guiding information that would result from the much more costly and time-consuming implementation of ABC.

  12. Estimating the unit costs of public hospitals and primary healthcare centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Mustafa Z; Jaber, Samer; Mawson, Anthony R; Hartmann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many factors have affected the rise of health expenditures, such as high-cost medical technologies, changes in disease patterns and increasing demand for health services. All countries allocate a significant portion of resources to the health sector. In 2008, the gross domestic product of Palestine was estimated to be at $6.108bn (current price) or about $1697 per capita. Health expenditures are estimated at 15.6% of the gross domestic product, almost as much as those of Germany, Japan and other developed countries. The numbers of hospitals, hospital beds and primary healthcare centers in the country have all increased. The Ministry of Health (MOH) currently operates 27 of 76 hospitals, with a total of 3074 beds, which represent 61% of total beds of all hospitals in the Palestinian Authorities area. Also, the MOH is operating 453 of 706 Primary Health Care facilities. By 2007, about 40 000 people were employed in different sectors of the health system, with 33% employed by the MOH. This purpose of this study was to develop a financing strategy to help cover some or all of the costs involved in operating such institutions and to estimate the unit cost of primary and secondary programs and departments. A retrospective study was carried out on data from government hospitals and primary healthcare centers to identify and analyze the costs and output (patient-related services) and to estimate the unit cost of health services provided by hospitals and PHCs during the year 2008. All operating costs are assigned and allocated to the departments at MOH hospitals and primary health care centers (PPHCs) and are identified as overhead departments, intermediate-service and final-service departments. Intermediate-service departments provide procedures and services to patients in the final-service departments. The costs of the overhead departments are distributed to the intermediate-service and final-service departments through a step-down method, according to allocation

  13. MOV refurbishment program cuts costs, meets requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a motor operated valve (MOV) rebuild program at Peach Bottom Atomic power station began in October, 1986 with what is known internally as Modification (MOD) 1915. The Engineering the Research Department developed this modification to address requirements in NRC Bulletin 85-03. The MOD consisted of As found/As left testing of MOVs in the HPCI (high pressure coolant injection) and RCIC (reactor core isolation cooling) systems; six minor motor operator enhancements to facilitate maintenance and testing, and to increase reliability, and installation of a data acquisition network to support differential pressure testing of a select number of valves in Unit 2. Twenty-four valves were involved. Modification plans incorporated the work into the outage that was scheduled for December, 1986 to February, 1987. The plans took into account other preventive and corrective MOV maintenance tasks to be performed by the Maintenance Department. In addition, modifications of control circuits to satisfy separation criteria for Appendix R had to be integrated into the schedule. To facilitate testing, adjustments to the standard test methods under the Permits and Blocking System were necessary. The normal method of testing a piece of equipment after maintenance was to clear or temporarily clear the permit (red tag) and have a plant operator operate the equipment for the test group. This method for setting up the testing an MOV was considered unacceptable because it could occupy a plant operator for an entire shaft or longer

  14. Final report on cost estimate of forward superconducting air core toroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, T.

    1992-12-01

    An independent cost-estimate for key components of the forward superconducting air core toroid (ACT) was obtained in May 1992 from an experienced manufacturer of large cryogenic vessels. This new cost estimate is summarized in this report. It implies that a suitably designed ACT may have a cost which is approximately equal to that of the presently designed SDC forward iron core toroid

  15. Estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estlander, A.; Otterstroem, T.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the project is to develop a method for estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland. The purpose of the method is to take into account all the most important impacts on health, materials and the environment. The study will assess environmental effects of emissions from Finnish energy production on people and the environment locally (population centres), nationally (Finland) and globally. The different energy production forms to be included in the study are heat and electric energy generated with coal, natural gas, fuel oil and peat (not industry's energy production). Local and national environmental impact assessment is carried out within the Finnish borders. The economic influence of emissions (in particular greenhouse gases) originating outside Finland but with global impact will also be assessed, as far as Finland is concerned. When studying the amounts of emissions the whole fuel chain is taken into account: production, processing or transport, storage in the different stages of the chain of use, and end use. The main components under review are SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , H x C y , CO, particulates and a couple of heavy metals. In addition. the study considers ozone (O 3 ), which is formed in the atmosphere. The primary monetary valuation method used is the indirect monetarization. which is based on dose-response functions and the use of both market prices and willingness-to-pay assessments. The method to be developed during the project for monetary valuation of effects caused by emissions on health, materials and the environment can be utilized in further monetarization studies. The results of the work can used to assess the profitability of energy production plants and energy companies from the economic point of view

  16. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity? This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a ``base`` that is typical of US utilities; a ``surplus`` utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a ``deficit`` utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  17. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a base'' that is typical of US utilities; a surplus'' utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a deficit'' utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  18. Nuclear-fuel-cycle costs. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel-cycle costs are given for the pressurized-water reactor once-through and fuel-recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor system. These calculations show that fuel-cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel-cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder-reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment

  19. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard...

  20. Cost estimation for solid waste management in industrialising regions – Precedents, problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthan, Shantha R.; Milke, Mark W.; Wilson, David C.; Cocks, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We review cost estimation approaches for solid waste management. ► Unit cost method and benchmarking techniques used in industrialising regions (IR). ► Variety in scope, quality and stakeholders makes cost estimation challenging in IR. ► Integrate waste flow and cost models using cost functions to improve cost planning. - Abstract: The importance of cost planning for solid waste management (SWM) in industrialising regions (IR) is not well recognised. The approaches used to estimate costs of SWM can broadly be classified into three categories – the unit cost method, benchmarking techniques and developing cost models using sub-approaches such as cost and production function analysis. These methods have been developed into computer programmes with varying functionality and utility. IR mostly use the unit cost and benchmarking approach to estimate their SWM costs. The models for cost estimation, on the other hand, are used at times in industrialised countries, but not in IR. Taken together, these approaches could be viewed as precedents that can be modified appropriately to suit waste management systems in IR. The main challenges (or problems) one might face while attempting to do so are a lack of cost data, and a lack of quality for what data do exist. There are practical benefits to planners in IR where solid waste problems are critical and budgets are limited.

  1. A new approach for product cost estimation using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Salam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation of new products has always been difficult as only few design, manufacturing and operational features will be known. In these situations, parametric or non-parametric methods are commonly used to estimate the cost of a product given the corresponding cost drivers. The parametric models use priori determined cost function where the parameters of the function are evaluated from historical data. Non-parametric methods, on the other hand, attempt to fit curves to the historic data without predetermined function. In both methods, it is assumed that the historic data used in the analysis is a true representation of the relation between the cost drivers and the corresponding costs. However, because of efficiency variations of the manufacturers and suppliers, changes in supplier selections, market fluctuations, and several other reasons, certain costs in the historic data may be too high whereas other costs may represent better deals for their corresponding cost drivers. Thus, it may be important to rank the historic data and identify benchmarks and estimate the target costs of the product based on these benchmarks. In this paper, a novel adaptation of cost drivers and cost data is introduced in order to use data envelopment analysis for the purpose of ranking cost data and identify benchmarks, and then estimate the target costs of a new product based on these benchmarks. An illustrative case study has been presented for the cost estimation of landing gears of an aircraft manufactured by an aerospace company located in Montreal, CANADA.

  2. Economic impact of dengue illness and the cost-effectiveness of future vaccination programs in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R Carrasco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue illness causes 50-100 million infections worldwide and threatens 2.5 billion people in the tropical and subtropical regions. Little is known about the disease burden and economic impact of dengue in higher resourced countries or the cost-effectiveness of potential dengue vaccines in such settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimate the direct and indirect costs of dengue from hospitalized and ambulatory cases in Singapore. We consider inter alia the impacts of dengue on the economy using the human-capital and the friction cost methods. Disease burden was estimated using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and the cost-effectiveness of a potential vaccine program was evaluated. The average economic impact of dengue illness in Singapore from 2000 to 2009 in constant 2010 US$ ranged between $0.85 billion and $1.15 billion, of which control costs constitute 42%-59%. Using empirically derived disability weights, we estimated an annual average disease burden of 9-14 DALYs per 100 000 habitants, making it comparable to diseases such as hepatitis B or syphilis. The proportion of symptomatic dengue cases detected by the national surveillance system was estimated to be low, and to decrease with age. Under population projections by the United Nations, the price per dose threshold for which vaccines stop being more cost-effective than the current vector control program ranged from $50 for mass vaccination requiring 3 doses and only conferring 10 years of immunity to $300 for vaccination requiring 2 doses and conferring lifetime immunity. The thresholds for these vaccine programs to not be cost-effective for Singapore were $100 and $500 per dose respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue illness presents a serious economic and disease burden in Singapore. Dengue vaccines are expected to be cost-effective if reasonably low prices are adopted and will help to reduce the economic and disease burden of dengue in Singapore substantially.

  3. Applied Research of Enterprise Cost Control Based on Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This paper researches the enterprise cost control through the linear programming model, and analyzes the restriction factors of the labor of enterprise production, raw materials, processing equipment, sales price, and other factors affecting the enterprise income, so as to obtain an enterprise cost control model based on the linear programming. This model can calculate rational production mode in the case of limited resources, and acquire optimal enterprise income. The production guiding program and scheduling arrangement of the enterprise can be obtained through calculation results, so as to provide scientific and effective guidance for the enterprise production. This paper adds the sensitivity analysis in the linear programming model, so as to learn about the stability of the enterprise cost control model based on linear programming through the sensitivity analysis, and verify the rationality of the model, and indicate the direction for the enterprise cost control. The calculation results of the model can provide a certain reference for the enterprise planning in the market economy environment, which have strong reference and practical significance in terms of the enterprise cost control.

  4. Estimating direct and indirect costs of premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Jeff; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Dean, Bonnie; Wong, John; Wade, Sally

    2005-01-01

    To quantify the economic impact of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) on the employer. Data were collected from 374 women aged 18-45 with regular menses. Direct costs were quantified using administrative claims of these patients and the Medicare Fee Schedule. Indirect costs were quantified by both self-reported days of work missed and lost productivity at work. Regression analyses were used to develop a model to project PMS-related direct and indirect costs. A total of 29.6% (n = 111) of the participants were diagnosed with PMS. A PMS diagnosis was associated with an average annual increase of $59 in direct costs (P increase in direct medical costs and a large increase in indirect costs.

  5. Costs of vaccine programs across 94 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Allison; Ozawa, Sachiko; Grewal, Simrun; Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Gorham, Katrin M; Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-05-07

    While new mechanisms such as advance market commitments and co-financing policies of the GAVI Alliance are allowing low- and middle-income countries to gain access to vaccines faster than ever, understanding the full scope of vaccine program costs is essential to ensure adequate resource mobilization. This costing analysis examines the vaccine costs, supply chain costs, and service delivery costs of immunization programs for routine immunization and for supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) for vaccines related to 18 antigens in 94 countries across the decade, 2011-2020. Vaccine costs were calculated using GAVI price forecasts for GAVI-eligible countries, and assumptions from the PAHO Revolving Fund and UNICEF for middle-income countries not supported by the GAVI Alliance. Vaccine introductions and coverage levels were projected primarily based on GAVI's Adjusted Demand Forecast. Supply chain costs including costs of transportation, storage, and labor were estimated by developing a mechanistic model using data generated by the HERMES discrete event simulation models. Service delivery costs were abstracted from comprehensive multi-year plans for the majority of GAVI-eligible countries and regression analysis was conducted to extrapolate costs to additional countries. The analysis shows that the delivery of the full vaccination program across 94 countries would cost a total of $62 billion (95% uncertainty range: $43-$87 billion) over the decade, including $51 billion ($34-$73 billion) for routine immunization and $11 billion ($7-$17 billion) for SIAs. More than half of these costs stem from service delivery at $34 billion ($21-$51 billion)-with an additional $24 billion ($13-$41 billion) in vaccine costs and $4 billion ($3-$5 billion) in supply chain costs. The findings present the global costs to attain the goals envisioned during the Decade of Vaccines to prevent millions of deaths by 2020 through more equitable access to existing vaccines for people in all

  6. Cost Estimates Of Concentrated Photovoltaic Heat Sink Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    PV), return on investment (ROI) 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 59 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY...improvements increase overall system returns on investment and 11 provide pathways for further reduction in system costs (Phillips et al., 2015). Phillips...generation. As the CPV market has matured, production costs have come down to near flat-panel photovoltaic (PV) production costs. CPV units

  7. A comparison of two methods for estimating the technical costs of external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayman, James A.; Lash, Kathy A.; Tao, May L.; Halman, Marc A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately assess the cost-effectiveness of treatment with external beam radiation, it is necessary to have accurate estimates of its cost. One of the most common methods for estimating technical costs has been to convert Medicare charges into costs using Medicare Cost-to-Charge Ratios (CCR). More recently, health care organizations have begun to invest in sophisticated cost-accounting systems (CAS) that are capable of providing procedure-specific cost estimates. The purpose of this study was to examine whether these competing approaches result in similar cost estimates for four typical courses of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Technical costs were estimated for the following treatment courses: 1) a palliative 'simple' course of 10 fractions using a single field without blocks; 2) a palliative 'complex' course of 10 fractions using two opposed fields with custom blocks; 3) a curative course of 30 fractions for breast cancer using tangent fields followed by an electron beam boost; and 4) a curative course of 35 fractions for prostate cancer using CT-planning and a 4-field technique. Costs were estimated using the CCR approach by multiplying the number of units of each procedure billed by its Medicare charge and CCR and then summing these costs. Procedure-specific cost estimates were obtained from a cost-accounting system, and overall costs were then estimated for the CAS approach by multiplying the number of units billed by the appropriate unit cost estimate and then summing these costs. All costs were estimated using data from 1997. The analysis was also repeated using data from another academic institution to estimate their costs using the CCR and CAS methods, as well as the appropriate relative value units (RVUs) and conversion factor from the 1997 Medicare Fee Schedule to estimate Medicare reimbursement for the four treatment courses. Results: The estimated technical costs for the CCR vs. CAS approaches for the four

  8. 48 CFR 36.203 - Government estimate of construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... personnel whose official duties require knowledge of the estimate. An exception to this rule may be made... necessary to arrive at a fair and reasonable price. The overall amount of the Government's estimate shall...

  9. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus

    2016-01-01

    , marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically address and include costs in existing waste facilities in decision-making may unintendedly lead to higher overall costs at societal level. To avoid misleading...... a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven...

  10. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Cost Estimate Summary (Leveraged NDC Case).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  11. A practical approach for calculating reliable cost estimates from observational data: application to cost analyses in maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Jason L; Comins, Meg M; Chandler, Kristen; Mogos, Mulubrhan F; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2013-08-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) and cost-effectiveness analysis are valuable tools for informing health policy and clinical care decisions. Despite the increased availability of rich observational databases with economic measures, few researchers have the skills needed to conduct valid and reliable cost analyses for CER. The objectives of this paper are to (i) describe a practical approach for calculating cost estimates from hospital charges in discharge data using publicly available hospital cost reports, and (ii) assess the impact of using different methods for cost estimation in maternal and child health (MCH) studies by conducting economic analyses on gestational diabetes (GDM) and pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity. In Florida, we have constructed a clinically enhanced, longitudinal, encounter-level MCH database covering over 2.3 million infants (and their mothers) born alive from 1998 to 2009. Using this as a template, we describe a detailed methodology to use publicly available data to calculate hospital-wide and department-specific cost-to-charge ratios (CCRs), link them to the master database, and convert reported hospital charges to refined cost estimates. We then conduct an economic analysis as a case study on women by GDM and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) status to compare the impact of using different methods on cost estimation. Over 60 % of inpatient charges for birth hospitalizations came from the nursery/labor/delivery units, which have very different cost-to-charge markups (CCR = 0.70) than the commonly substituted hospital average (CCR = 0.29). Using estimated mean, per-person maternal hospitalization costs for women with GDM as an example, unadjusted charges ($US14,696) grossly overestimated actual cost, compared with hospital-wide ($US3,498) and department-level ($US4,986) CCR adjustments. However, the refined cost estimation method, although more accurate, did not alter our conclusions that infant/maternal hospitalization costs

  12. Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Cost Estimates for Advanced Fuel Cycle Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Presentation Outline: • Why Do I Need a Cost Basis?; • History of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis; • Description of the Cost Basis; • Current Work; • Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Applications; • Sample Fuel Cycle Cost Estimate Analysis; • Future Work

  13. Estimating study costs for use in VOI, a study of dutch publicly funded drug related research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Asselt, A.D.; Ramaekers, B.L.; Corro Ramos, I.; Joore, M.A.; Al, M.J.; Lesman-Leegte, I.; Postma, M.J.; Vemer, P.; Feenstra, T.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To perform value of information (VOI) analyses, an estimate of research costs is needed. However, reference values for such costs are not available. This study aimed to analyze empirical data on research budgets and, by means of a cost tool, provide an overview of costs of several types

  14. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  15. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 151 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project.

  16. Validation of generic cost estimates for construction-related activities at nuclear power plants: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, G.; Sciacca, F.; Claiborne, E.; Watlington, B.; Riordan, B.; McLaughlin, M.

    1988-05-01

    This report represents a validation study of the cost methodologies and quantitative factors derived in Labor Productivity Adjustment Factors and Generic Methodology for Estimating the Labor Cost Associated with the Removal of Hardware, Materials, and Structures From Nuclear Power Plants. This cost methodology was developed to support NRC analysts in determining generic estimates of removal, installation, and total labor costs for construction-related activities at nuclear generating stations. In addition to the validation discussion, this report reviews the generic cost analysis methodology employed. It also discusses each of the individual cost factors used in estimating the costs of physical modifications at nuclear power plants. The generic estimating approach presented uses the /open quotes/greenfield/close quotes/ or new plant construction installation costs compiled in the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) as a baseline. These baseline costs are then adjusted to account for labor productivity, radiation fields, learning curve effects, and impacts on ancillary systems or components. For comparisons of estimated vs actual labor costs, approximately four dozen actual cost data points (as reported by 14 nuclear utilities) were obtained. Detailed background information was collected on each individual data point to give the best understanding possible so that the labor productivity factors, removal factors, etc., could judiciously be chosen. This study concludes that cost estimates that are typically within 40% of the actual values can be generated by prudently using the methodologies and cost factors investigated herein

  17. PROFIT-PC: a program for estimating maximum net revenue from multiproduct harvests in Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras; R. Bryan Selbe

    1989-01-01

    PROFIT-PC is a menu driven, interactive PC (personal computer) program that estimates optimum product mix and maximum net harvesting revenue based on projected product yields and stump-to-mill timber harvesting costs. Required inputs include the number of trees/acre by species and 2 inches diameter at breast-height class, delivered product prices by species and product...

  18. Systematic methodology for estimating direct capital costs for blanket tritium processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology developed for estimating the relative capital costs of blanket processing systems. The capital costs of the nine blanket concepts selected in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study are presented and compared

  19. Benefit-cost assessment programs: Costa Rica case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.L.; Trocki, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of mineral potential, in terms of types and numbers of deposits, approximate location and associated tonnage and grades, is a valuable input to a nation's economic planning and mineral policy development. This study provides a methodology for applying benefit-cost analysis to mineral resource assessment programs, both to determine the cost effectiveness of resource assessments and to ascertain future benefits to the nation. In a case study of Costa Rica, the benefit-cost ratio of a resource assessment program was computed to be a minimum of 4:1 ($10.6 million to $2.5 million), not including the economic benefits accuring from the creation of 800 mining sector and 1,200 support services jobs. The benefit-cost ratio would be considerably higher if presently proposed revisions of mineral policy were implemented and benefits could be defined for Costa Rica

  20. Estimated incident cost savings in shipping due to inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, S.; Bijwaard, G.E.; Heij, C.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of safety inspections of ships has been analysed from various angles, but until now, relatively little attention has been given to translate risk reduction into incident cost savings. This paper provides a monetary quantification of the cost savings that can be attributed to port

  1. A building cost estimation method for inland ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is very little publicly available data about the building cost of inland ships, especially for ships that have dimensions that differ significantly from those of common ships. Also, no methods to determine the building cost of inland ships are described in literature. In this paper, a method

  2. Update to the Fissile Materials Disposition program SST/SGT transportation estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Didlake

    1999-01-01

    This report is an update to ''Fissile Materials Disposition Program SST/SGT Transportation Estimation,'' SAND98-8244, June 1998. The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition requested this update as a basis for providing the public with an updated estimation of the number of transportation loads, load miles, and costs associated with the preferred alternative in the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  3. Inventory of past DOE land disturbance, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and estimated general reclamation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Since 1976, DOE preliminary investigations for a high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have caused widespread disturbances of the landscape. This report addresses the areal extent of those disturbances that have accrued up to June 1988, and identifies expected associated reclamation costs. It was first necessary to identify disturbances, next to classify them for reclamation purposes, and, then, to assign general reclamation costs. The purposes of the analysis were: (1) to establish the amount of disturbance that already exists in the area of Yucca Mountain in order to identify alterations of the landscape that comprise the existing baseline conditions; (2) to identify estimated general reclamation costs for repair of the disturbances; (3) to provide information needed to establish disturbance models, and eventually environmental impact models, that can be applied to future DOE activities during Site Characterization and later phases of repository development, if they occur, and (4) to provide indicators of the needs for reclamation of future disturbances created by DOE's Site Characterization program. Disturbances were estimated using measurements from June 1988, large scale color aerial photography. Two reconnaissance site visits were also conducted. The identified disturbance totals by type are displayed in tabular form in the appendices. 84 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Estimation of the Levelised Electricity Generation Cost for a PWR-Power Plant and Preliminary Evaluation of National Participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, G; Hainoun, A

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with the detailed economic evaluation of the Levelised discounted electricity generation costs (LDEGC) for a nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor (PWR). The total generation costs are splited in base construction costs, supplementary costs, owner's costs, financial costs, fuel cycle costs and operation and maintenance costs. The evaluation covers also the sensitivity of the estimated energy unit cost to various factors (real annual discount rate, escalation rate, interest rate, load factor, ..) including the role of national participation, that depends upon the development of national infrastructure. For performing this study the IAEA's program package for economic bid evaluation (Bideval-3) has been employed. The program is designed to assist the user in the economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plant (NPP). It follows the recommended method of determining the present worth value of all costs components for generated electricity unit. The performed study aims at developing national expertise in the field of bid evaluation for electric power plants with main emphasis on NPP. Additional goal is to convoying the technical and economic development of NPP technology that can help in supporting the decision maker with adequate information related to the future development of energy supply system and measures required for ensuring national energy supply security. (author)

  5. Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Applicaton to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karoly, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs...

  6. Estimating the costs of nuclear power: benchmarks and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2013-05-01

    The debate on this topic is fairly confusing. Some present electricity production using nuclear power as an affordable solution, others maintain it is too expensive. These widely divergent views prompt fears among consumers and voters that they are being manipulated: each side is just defending its own interests and the true cost of nuclear power is being concealed. Companies and non-government organizations certainly adopt whatever position suits them best. But at the same time, the notion of just one 'true' cost is misleading. As we shall see in this paper there is no such thing as the cost of nuclear power: we must reason in terms of costs and draw a distinction between a private cost and a social cost. The private cost is what an operator examines before deciding whether it is opportune to build a new nuclear power station. This cost varies between different investors, particularly as a function of their attitude to risks. On the other hand the social cost weighs on society, which may take into account the risk of proliferation, or the benefits of avoiding carbon-dioxide emissions, among others. The cost of actually building new plant differs from one country to the next. So deciding whether nuclear power is profitable or not, a benefit for society or not, does not involve determining the real cost, but rather compiling data, developing methods and formulating hypotheses. It is not as easy as inundating the general public with contradictory figures, but it is a more effective way of casting light on economic decisions by industry and government. Without evaluating the costs it is impossible to establish the cost price, required to compare electricity production using nuclear power and rival technologies. Would it be preferable to build a gas-powered plant, a nuclear reactor or a wind farm? Which technology yields the lowest cost per KWh? Under what conditions - financial terms, regulatory framework, carbon pricing - will private investors see an adequate return

  7. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  8. Key Design Considerations When Calculating Cost Savings for Population Health Management Programs in an Observational Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shannon M E; Hough, Douglas E; Sylvia, Martha L; Dunbar, Linda J; Frick, Kevin D

    2018-02-08

    To illustrate the impact of key quasi-experimental design elements on cost savings measurement for population health management (PHM) programs. Population health management program records and Medicaid claims and enrollment data from December 2011 through March 2016. The study uses a difference-in-difference design to compare changes in cost and utilization outcomes between program participants and propensity score-matched nonparticipants. Comparisons of measured savings are made based on (1) stable versus dynamic population enrollment and (2) all eligible versus enrolled-only participant definitions. Options for the operationalization of time are also discussed. Individual-level Medicaid administrative and claims data and PHM program records are used to match study groups on baseline risk factors and assess changes in costs and utilization. Savings estimates are statistically similar but smaller in magnitude when eliminating variability based on duration of population enrollment and when evaluating program impact on the entire target population. Measurement in calendar time, when possible, simplifies interpretability. Program evaluation design elements, including population stability and participant definitions, can influence the estimated magnitude of program savings for the payer and should be considered carefully. Time specifications can also affect interpretability and usefulness. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Self-Management Program for Thai Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulsupsiri, Anut; Sakthong, Phantipa; Winit-Watjana, Win

    2016-05-01

    Lifestyle modification programs are partly evaluated for their usefulness. This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness and healthy lifestyle persistence of a self-management program (SMP) for patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Thai health care settings. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on the basis of an intervention study of 90 patients with MetS randomly allocated to the SMP and control groups. A Markov model with the Difference-in-Difference method was used to predict the lifetime costs from a societal perspective and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), of which 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by bootstrapping. The cost-effectiveness analysis, along with healthy lifestyle persistence, was performed using the discount rate of 3% per annum. Parameter uncertainties were identified using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The lifetime costs tended to decrease in both groups. The SMP could save lifetime costs (-2310 baht; 95% CI -5960 to 1400) and gain QALYs (0.0098; 95% CI -0.0003 to 0.0190), compared with ordinary care. The probability of cost-effectiveness was 99.4% from the Monte-Carlo simulation, and the program was deemed cost-effective at dropout rates below 69% per year as determined by the threshold of 160,000 baht per QALY gained. The cost of macrovascular complications was the most influencing variable for the overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The SMP provided by the health care settings is marginally cost-effective, and the persistence results support the implementation of the program to minimize the complications and economic burden of patients with MetS. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  11. Trends in nuclear power plant capital-investment cost estimates - 1976 to 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, H.I.; Fuller, L.C.; Myers, M.L.

    1983-09-01

    This report describes trends in power plant capital investment cost estimates over the time period from 1976 to 1982. A review of economic parameters, inflation and escalation rates and cost of money, and a review of cost-size scaling relationships are included. Reference cost estimates are provided for light-water reactor and coal-fired electric power plants based on safety and environmental regulations in effect in January 1982. The sensitivity of the reference cost estimates to numerous economic parameters is analyzed

  12. Cost-Utility Analysis of a Cardiac Telerehabilitation Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidholm, Kristian; Rasmussen, Maja Kjær; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac rehabilitation can reduce mortality of patients with cardiovascular disease, but a frequently low participation rate in rehabilitation programs has been found globally. The objective of the Teledialog study was to assess the cost-utility (CU) of a cardiac telerehabilitation (CTR...... was higher in the intervention group, but the difference was not statistically significant. The incremental CU ratio was more than (sic)400,000 per QALY gained. Conclusions: Even though the rehabilitation activities increased, the program does not appear to be cost-effective. The intervention itself...

  13. EDIN0613P weight estimating program. [for launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    The weight estimating relationships and program developed for space power system simulation are described. The program was developed to size a two-stage launch vehicle for the space power system. The program is actually part of an overall simulation technique called EDIN (Engineering Design and Integration) system. The program sizes the overall vehicle, generates major component weights and derives a large amount of overall vehicle geometry. The program is written in FORTRAN V and is designed for use on the Univac Exec 8 (1110). By utilizing the flexibility of this program while remaining cognizant of the limits imposed upon output depth and accuracy by utilization of generalized input, this program concept can be a useful tool for estimating purposes at the conceptual design stage of a launch vehicle.

  14. Multiple drug cost containment policies in Michigan's Medicaid program saved money overall, although some increased costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibicho, Jennifer; Pinkerton, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Michigan's Medicaid program implemented four cost containment policies--preferred drug lists, joint and multistate purchasing arrangements, and maximum allowable cost--during 2002-04. The goal was to control growth of drug spending for beneficiaries who were enrolled in both Medicaid and Medicare and taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidemic prescription drugs. We analyzed the impact of each policy while holding the effect of all other policies constant. Preferred drug lists increased both preferred and generic drugs' market share and reduced daily cost--the cost per day for each prescription provided to a beneficiary. In contrast, the maximum allowable cost policy increased daily cost and was the only policy that did not generate cost savings. The joint and multistate arrangements did not affect daily cost. Despite these policy trade-offs, the cumulative effect was a 10 percent decrease in daily cost and a total cost savings of $46,195 per year. Our findings suggest that policy makers need to evaluate the impact of multiple policies aimed at restraining drug spending, and further evaluate the policy trade-offs, to ensure that scarce public dollars achieve the greatest return for money spent.

  15. TRU Waste Management Program. Cost/schedule optimization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detamore, J.A.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Wolaver, R.W.; Hastings, G.A.

    1985-10-01

    This Current Year Work Plan presents in detail a description of the activities to be performed by the Joint Integration Office Rockwell International (JIO/RI) during FY86. It breaks down the activities into two major work areas: Program Management and Program Analysis. Program Management is performed by the JIO/RI by providing technical planning and guidance for the development of advanced TRU waste management capabilities. This includes equipment/facility design, engineering, construction, and operations. These functions are integrated to allow transition from interim storage to final disposition. JIO/RI tasks include program requirements identification, long-range technical planning, budget development, program planning document preparation, task guidance development, task monitoring, task progress information gathering and reporting to DOE, interfacing with other agencies and DOE lead programs, integrating public involvement with program efforts, and preparation of reports for DOE detailing program status. Program Analysis is performed by the JIO/RI to support identification and assessment of alternatives, and development of long-term TRU waste program capabilities. These analyses include short-term analyses in response to DOE information requests, along with performing an RH Cost/Schedule Optimization report. Systems models will be developed, updated, and upgraded as needed to enhance JIO/RI's capability to evaluate the adequacy of program efforts in various fields. A TRU program data base will be maintained and updated to provide DOE with timely responses to inventory related questions

  16. Technical and economic assessment of solar hybrid repowering: conceptual design and cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    This volume contains the appendix to the conceptual design and cost estimate report on solar repowering the Reeves Unit No. 2 power plant in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Included are the engineering drawings and the work breakdown structure estimate report. (WHK)

  17. Nutritional, Economic, and Environmental Costs of Milk Waste in a Classroom School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Cash, Sean B; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Griffin, Timothy S; Economos, Christina D

    2017-04-01

    To measure fluid milk waste in a US School Breakfast in the Classroom Program and estimate its nutritional, economic, and environmental effects. Fluid milk waste was directly measured on 60 elementary school classroom days in a medium-sized, urban district. The US Department of Agriculture nutrition database, district cost data, and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions and water footprint estimates for fluid milk were used to calculate the associated nutritional, economic, and environmental costs. Of the total milk offered to School Breakfast Program participants, 45% was wasted. A considerably smaller portion of served milk was wasted (26%). The amount of milk wasted translated into 27% of vitamin D and 41% of calcium required of School Breakfast Program meals. The economic and environmental costs amounted to an estimated $274 782 (16% of the district's total annual School Breakfast Program food expenditures), 644 893 kilograms of CO 2 e, and 192 260 155 liters of water over the school year in the district. These substantial effects of milk waste undermine the School Breakfast Program's capacity to ensure short- and long-term food security and federal food waste reduction targets. Interventions that reduce waste are urgently needed.

  18. Procedures and models for estimating preconstruction costs of highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study presents data driven and component based PE cost prediction models by utilizing critical factors retrieved from ten years of historical project data obtained from ODOT roadway division. The study used factor analysis of covariance and corr...

  19. Cost estimation for a theta-pinch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coultas, T.A.; Cook, J.M.; Crnkovich, P.; Dauzvardis, P.

    1976-02-01

    A simulation of a theta-pinch fusion power plant has been completed to the point where economic feasibility can be examined. A PL/I cost subprogram is presented for interfacing with the computer code TPFPP. This code is then used to obtain a first approximation of the costs for the reactor. Independent geometrical and plant design parameters are varied over a wide range, with simultaneous variation of magnetic field, minor first wall radius, and plasma maximum compression. The study indicates that the plant energy balance must be favorable, availability must be high, and major component costs must be low to achieve economical results. Although costing uncertainties remain, it is clear that development of easy and rapid replacement methods for reactor components is essential and that new staging concepts to reduce the implosion energy requirement must be pursued

  20. Estimating the Costs of Military Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilmore, J. M

    2007-01-01

    This testimony, given by J. Michael Gilmore, Assistant Director for National Security, before the Committee on the Budget, United States Senate, discusses the costs of operations in the Iraq theater and issues associated...

  1. An analysis of potential costs of adverse events based on Drug Programs in Poland. Pulmonology focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkultecka-Debek Monika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The project was performed within the Polish Society for Pharmacoeconomics (PTFE. The objective was to estimate the potential costs of treatment of side effects, which theoretically may occur as a result of treatment of selected diseases. We analyzed the Drug Programs financed by National Health Fund in Poland in 2012 and for the first analysis we selected those Programs where the same medicinal products were used. We based the adverse events selection on the Summary of Product Characteristics of the chosen products. We extracted all the potential adverse events defined as frequent and very frequent, grouping them according to therapeutic areas. This paper is related to the results in the pulmonology area. The events described as very common had an incidence of ≥ 1/10, and the common ones ≥ 1/100, <1/10. In order to identify the resources used, we performed a survey with the engagement of clinical experts. On the basis of the collected data we allocated direct costs incurred by the public payer. We used the costs valid in December 2013. The paper presents the estimated costs of treatment of side effects related to the pulmonology disease area. Taking into account the costs incurred by the NHF and the patient separately e calculated the total spending and the percentage of each component cost in detail. The treatment of adverse drug reactions generates a significant cost incurred by both the public payer and the patient.

  2. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level

  3. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  4. Cost benefit analysis of the demand side management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechtman, R.; Baum, M.

    1989-01-01

    The several cost and benefit components of the demand side management programs for the society groups, including the concessionaire, consumers and society as a whole are studied. The rule evaluations of management programs by demand side, used by North American concessionaire are also discussed. Finally, the numerical examples, that consolidating the concepts and rules evaluation are presented. (C.G.C.). 5 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  5. What linear programming contributes: world food programme experience with the "cost of the diet" tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frega, Romeo; Lanfranco, Jose Guerra; De Greve, Sam; Bernardini, Sara; Geniez, Perrine; Grede, Nils; Bloem, Martin; de Pee, Saskia

    2012-09-01

    Linear programming has been used for analyzing children's complementary feeding diets, for optimizing nutrient adequacy of dietary recommendations for a population, and for estimating the economic value of fortified foods. To describe and apply a linear programming tool ("Cost of the Diet") with data from Mozambique to determine what could be cost-effective fortification strategies. Based on locally assessed average household dietary needs, seasonal market prices of available food products, and food composition data, the tool estimates the lowest-cost diet that meets almost all nutrient needs. The results were compared with expenditure data from Mozambique to establish the affordability of this diet by quintiles of the population. Three different applications were illustrated: identifying likely "limiting nutrients," comparing cost effectiveness of different fortification interventions at the household level, and assessing economic access to nutritious foods. The analysis identified iron, vitamin B2, and pantothenic acid as "limiting nutrients." Under the Mozambique conditions, vegetable oil was estimated as a more cost-efficient vehicle for vitamin A fortification than sugar; maize flour may also be an effective vehicle to provide other constraining micronutrients. Multiple micronutrient fortification of maize flour could reduce the cost of the "lowest-cost nutritious diet" by 18%, but even this diet can be afforded by only 20% of the Mozambican population. Within the context of fortification, linear programming can be a useful tool for identifying likely nutrient inadequacies, for comparing fortification options in terms of cost effectiveness, and for illustrating the potential benefit of fortification for improving household access to a nutritious diet.

  6. Cost estimation of thermal and nuclear power using annual securities report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Nagatomi, Yu; Murakami, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    Cost estimation of generation cost derived from various power sources was widely conducted using model plant or annual securities report of electric utilities. Although annual securities report method was subjected to some limitation in methodology itself, useful information was obtained for cost comparison of thermal and nuclear power. Studies on generation cost evaluation of thermal and nuclear power based on this method during past five years showed that nuclear power cost was almost stable 7 Yen/kWh and thermal power cost was varying 9 - 12 Yen/kWh dependent on violent fluctuations of primary energy cost. Nuclear power was expected cost increase due to enhanced safety requirements or damage compensation of accidents as well as decommissioning and back-end cost, which were difficult to evaluate accurately with annual securities report. Further comprehensive and accurate cost estimation should be encouraged including these items. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Cost estimation of the decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, A.; Pech, R.

    1991-01-01

    Most studies conducted to date on the cost of decommissioning nuclear facilities pertain to reactors. Few such studies have been performed on the cost of decommissioning nuclear fuel cycle plants, particularly spent fuel reprocessing plants. Present operators of these plants nevertheless need to assess such costs, at least in order to include the related expenses in their short-, medium- or long-term projections. They also need to determine now, for example, suitable production costs that the plant owners will have to propose to their customers. Unlike nuclear reactors for which a series effect is involved (PWRs, BWRs, etc.) and where radioactivity is relatively concentrated, industrial-scale reprocessing plants are large, complex installations for which decommissioning is a long and costly operation that requires a special approach. Faced with this problem, Cogema, the owner and operator of the La Hague and Marcoule reprocessing plants in France, called on SGN to assess the total decommissioning costs for its plants. This assessment led SGN to development by SGN engineers of a novel methodology and a computerized calculation model described below. The resulting methodology and model are applicable to other complex nuclear facilities besides reprocessing plants, such as laboratories and nuclear auxiliaries of reactor cores. (author)

  8. Venture Guidance Appraisal cost estimates for groundwater protection Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cost estimates were prepared for closure options at criteria waste sites and alternatives for new disposal facilities for hazardous wastes, mixed wastes, low level radioactive wastes and slurry from liquid waste treatment facilities. Because these cost estimates will be used in the Groundwater Protection EIS, the goal was to develop ''enveloping'' costs, i.e., the alternative or option chosen for execution at a later date should cost no more than the estimate. This report summarizes scenarios for making detailed cost estimates. Also included are unit costs for disposition of potential excavations, for operational activities, and for groundwater monitoring and site maintenance after closure of the site. The cost numbers presented are intended for study purposes only and not for budgetary activities

  9. Estimates and implications of the costs of compliance with biosafety regulations in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck-Zepeda, Jose; Yorobe, Jose; Husin, Bahagiawati Amir; Manalo, Abraham; Lokollo, Erna; Ramon, Godfrey; Zambrano, Patricia; Sutrisno

    2012-01-01

    Estimating the cost of compliance with biosafety regulations is important as it helps developers focus their investments in producer development. We provide estimates for the cost of compliance for a set of technologies in Indonesia, the Philippines and other countries. These costs vary from US $100,000 to 1.7 million. These are estimates of regulatory costs and do not include product development or deployment costs. Cost estimates need to be compared with potential gains when the technology is introduced in these countries and the gains in knowledge accumulate during the biosafety assessment process. Although the cost of compliance is important, time delays and uncertainty are even more important and may have an adverse impact on innovations reaching farmers.

  10. Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M G Steuten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L M G Steuten1, K M M Lemmens2, A P Nieboer2, H JM Vrijhoef31Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Health, Organisation, Policy and Economics, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Erasmus University Medical Centre, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Integrated Care, Maastricht, The NetherlandsObjective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified.Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multi-component disease management or chronic care programs for adults with COPD, describing process, intermediate, and end results of care. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and descriptively summarized.Results: Twenty articles describing 17 unique COPD programs were included. There is little evidence for significant improvements in process and intermediate outcomes, except for increased provision of patient self-management education and improved disease-specific knowledge. Overall, the COPD programs generate end results equivalent to usual care, but programs containing ≥3 components show lower relative risks for hospitalization. There is limited scope for programs to break-even or save money.Conclusion: Identifying cost effective multi-component COPD programs remains a challenge due to scarce methodologically sound studies that demonstrate significant improvements on process, intermediate and end results of care. Estimations of potential cost effectiveness of specific programs illustrated in this paper can, in the absence of ‘perfect data’, support timely decision-making regarding these programs. Nevertheless, well-designed health economic studies are needed to decrease the current decision

  11. Cost-effectiveness of SHINE: A Telephone Translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Hollenbeak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The Support, Health Information, Nutrition, and Exercise (SHINE trial recently showed that a telephone adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP lifestyle intervention was effective in reducing weight among patients with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether a conference call (CC adaptation was cost effective relative to an individual call (IC adaptation of the DPP lifestyle intervention in the primary care setting. Methods We performed a stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a clinical trial comparing two telephone adaptations of the DPP lifestyle intervention. The primary outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios estimated for weight loss, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Costs were estimated from the perspective of society and included direct medical costs, indirect costs, and intervention costs. Results After one year, participants receiving the CC intervention accumulated fewer costs ($2,831 vs. $2,933 than the IC group, lost more weight (6.2 kg vs. 5.1 kg, had greater reduction in BMI (2.1 vs. 1.9, and had greater reduction in waist circumference (6.5 cm vs. 5.9 cm. However, participants in the CC group had fewer QALYs than those in the IC group (0.635 vs. 0.646. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for CC vs. IC was $9,250/QALY, with a 48% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay of $100,000/QALY. Conclusions CC delivery of the DPP was cost effective relative to IC delivery in the first year in terms of cost per clinical measure (weight lost, BMI, and waist circumference but not in terms of cost per QALY, most likely because of the short time horizon.

  12. Cost estimation in software engineering projects with web components development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen multitud de modelos propuestos para la predicción de co stes en proyectos de software, al gunos orientados específicamen te para proyectos Web. Este trabajo analiza si los modelos específicos para proyectos Web están justifi cados, examinando el comportami ento diferencial de los costes entre proyectos de desarrollo softwar e Web y no Web. Se analizan dos aspectos del cálculo de costes: las deseconomías de escala, y el im pacto de algunas características de estos proyectos que son utilizadas como cost drivers. Se en uncian dos hipótesis: (a en estos proyect os las deseconomías de escala so n mayores y (b el incremento de coste que provocan los cost dr ivers es menor para los proyectos Web. Se contrastaron estas hipótesis a nalizando un conjunto de proyectos reales. Los resultados sugie ren que ambas hipótesis se cumplen. Por lo tanto, la principal contribu ción a la literatura de esta inv estigación es que el desarrollo de modelos específicos para los proyectos Web está justificado.

  13. 24 CFR 1003.206 - Program administration costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reasonable administrative costs and carrying charges related to the planning and execution of community... this section and in § 1003.205—Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning... documents related to the program for submission to HUD; (vii) Coordinating the resolution of audit and...

  14. 75 FR 38748 - Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 447 and 457 [CMS-2244-CN] RIN 0938-AP73 Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing; Correction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS ACTION: Correction of final rule with comment period...

  15. A Comparative Cost Analysis of Commodity Foods from the U. S. Department of Agriculture in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora

    2009-01-01

    Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program receive a portion of their federal funding as commodity foods rather than cash payments. This research compared the product costs and estimated total procurement costs of commodity and commercial foods from the school district perspective using data from 579 Minnesota ordering sites in…

  16. Development of a Computer Program (CASK) for the Analysis of Logistics and Transportation Cost of the Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jeong-Hun; Choi, Heui-Joo; Cho, Dong-Keun; Kim, Seong-Ki; Lee, Jong-Youl; Choi, Jong-Won

    2008-07-01

    The cost for the spent fuel management includes the costs for the interim storage, the transportation, and the permanent disposal of the spent fuels. The CASK(Cost and logistics Analysis program for Spent fuel transportation in Korea) program is developed to analyze logistics and transportation cost of the spent fuels. And the total amount of PWR spent fuels stored in four nuclear plant sites, a centralized interim storage facility near coast and a permanent disposal facility near the interim storage facility are considered in this program. The CASK program is developed by using Visual Basic language and coupled with an excel sheet. The excel sheet shows a change of logistics and transportation cost. Also transportation unit cost is easily changed in the excel sheet. The scopes of the report are explanation of parameters in the CASK program and a preliminary calculation. We have developed the CASK version 1.0 so far, and will update its parameters in transportation cost and transportation scenario. Also, we will incorporate it into the program which is used for the projection of spent fuels from the nuclear power plants. Finally, it is expected that the CASK program could be a part of the cost estimation tools which are under development at KAERI. And this program will be a very useful tool for the establishment of transportation scenario and transportation cost in Korean situations

  17. KERNELHR: A program for estimating animal home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, D.E.; Griffith, B.; Powell, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Kernel methods are state of the art for estimating animal home-range area and utilization distribution (UD). The KERNELHR program was developed to provide researchers and managers a tool to implement this extremely flexible set of methods with many variants. KERNELHR runs interactively or from the command line on any personal computer (PC) running DOS. KERNELHR provides output of fixed and adaptive kernel home-range estimates, as well as density values in a format suitable for in-depth statistical and spatial analyses. An additional package of programs creates contour files for plotting in geographic information systems (GIS) and estimates core areas of ranges.

  18. Estimation of small-scale hydroelectric power plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Silva, Benedito Claudio da; Magalhaes, Ricardo Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    Changes in Brazilian energy scenario through last years such as increase of demand and search for clean and economically feasible renewable energy sources, has stimulated investors to small hydro power plants (SHP) sector. Such characteristics together with several economic incentives, legal and regulatory mechanisms also, have helped and stimulated building of new plants of this kind and have attracted a great number of investors to this sector. Study of costs analysis and feasibility of investments is a study which has been used since long time in SHP business market as several preliminary studies previous to civil project have significant costs which lead us to count with a feasibility analysis from the very beginning of studies, exactly what is suggested in the present methodology. Such feasibility analysis, in the common patterns where basic unit costs of each input remain outstanding, would be very complex due to great difficulty in obtaining information at initial phase of project. In this direction this study brings a contribution for investors as well as for designers of small hydro power plants since it outlines a link between physical and energetic characteristics of small hydro power plant in its total cost. Such link is based in available physical characteristics in initial phase of the project, making possible a previous comparison between arrangements of a central or even the comparison of return of investment between different plants. The resulting benefit being the possibility of choosing centrals with greater economic feasibility disregarding bad undertakings or arrangements with more expressive cost. Final result gives a better delay in return of investment, helps in power, arrangements more optimized and in saving time as well, reducing costs of undertakings. Due to large number of SHP arrangements, we chose for this study the most common in Brazil, plant of medium and large fall, shunting line balance chimney and low pressure conduit. (author)

  19. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract awards. Estimating system includes the Contractor's— (1) Organizational structure; (2) Established... (e) of this clause apply if the Contractor is a large business and either— (1) In its fiscal year...

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis applied to the natural gas program for vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga Isaza, Carlos Adrian; Vasquez Sanchez, Edison; Chavarria Munera, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the evaluation of the natural gas program for vehicles applied in Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley. By using the Cost- Benefit Analysis method, four cost variables were identified: private, fiscal, gas tax, and conversion tax; and three types of benefits: private, fiscal and social. For the environmental social benefit estimation the benefit transfer technique was employed, carrying out meta-analysis function estimation. The cost-benefit net outcome is positive and favors the program application in the study site; in real terms the total profits are about COP$ 803265 million for the complete eight year period it took place (2001- 2008).

  1. First estimates of the potential cost and cost saving of protecting childhood hearing from damage caused by congenital CMV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Eleri J; Gray, Joanne; Luck, Suzanne; Atkinson, Claire; Embleton, Nicholas D; Kadambari, Seilesh; Davis, Adrian; Griffiths, Paul; Sharland, Mike; Berrington, Janet E; Clark, Julia E

    2015-11-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is an important cause of childhood deafness, which is modifiable if diagnosed within the first month of life. Targeted screening of infants who do not pass their newborn hearing screening tests in England is a feasible approach to identify and treat cases to improve hearing outcome. To conduct a cost analysis of targeted screening and subsequent treatment for cCMV-related sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in an, otherwise, asymptomatic infant, from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS). Using data from the newborn hearing screening programme (NHSP) in England and a recent study of targeted screening for cCMV using salivary swabs within the NHSP, we estimate the cost (in UK pounds (£)) to the NHS. The cost of screening (time, swabs and PCR), assessing, treating and following up cases is calculated. The cost per case of preventing hearing deterioration secondary to cCMV with targeted screening is calculated. The cost of identifying, assessing and treating a case of cCMV-related SNHL through targeted cCMV screening is estimated to be £6683. The cost of improving hearing outcome for an infant with cCMV-related SNHL through targeted screening and treatment is estimated at £14 202. The costs of targeted screening for cCMV using salivary swabs integrated within NHSP resulted in an estimate of cost per case that compares favourably with other screening programmes. This could be used in future studies to estimate the full economic value in terms of incremental costs and incremental health benefits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Estimating the Size and Cost of the STD Prevention Services Safety Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Thomas L; Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Behl, Ajay S; Romaguera, Raul A; Leichliter, Jami S

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is expected to reduce the number of uninsured people in the United States during the next eight years, but more than 10% are expected to remain uninsured. Uninsured people are one of the main populations using publicly funded safety net sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention services. Estimating the proportion of the uninsured population expected to need STD services could help identify the potential demand for safety net STD services and improve program planning. In 2013, an estimated 8.27 million people met the criteria for being in need of STD services. In 2023, 4.70 million uninsured people are expected to meet the criteria for being in need of STD services. As an example, the cost in 2014 U.S. dollars of providing chlamydia screening to these people was an estimated $271.1 million in 2013 and is estimated to be $153.8 million in 2023. A substantial need will continue to exist for safety net STD prevention services in coming years.

  3. The distribution over time of costs and social net benefits for pertussis immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Dorota Zdanowska

    2010-03-01

    The cost of a six-dose pertussis immunization programs for children and adolescents is investigated in relation to estimators of the price of acellular vaccine, the value of a child's life, levels of vaccination rate and discount rates. We compare the cost of the program maintained over time at 90% with three alternative strategies, each involving a decrease in vaccination coverage. Data from England and Wales, 1966-2005, is used to formalize a delay in occurrence of pertussis cases as a result of a fall in coverage. We first apply the criterion of minimization of the total social cost of pertussis to identify the best cost saving immunization strategy. The results are also discussed in form of the discounted present value of the total social net benefits. We find that the discounted present value of the total social net benefit is maximized when a stable vaccination program at 90% is compared to a gradual decrease in vaccination coverage leading to the lowest vaccination rate. The benefits to society of providing sustained immunization strategy, vaccinating the highest proportion of children and adolescents, are systematically proved on the basis of the second optimisation criterion, independently of the level of estimators applied during economic evaluation for the cost variables.

  4. Computer software to estimate timber harvesting system production, cost, and revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. John E. Baumgras; Dr. Chris B. LeDoux

    1992-01-01

    Large variations in timber harvesting cost and revenue can result from the differences between harvesting systems, the variable attributes of harvesting sites and timber stands, or changing product markets. Consequently, system and site specific estimates of production rates and costs are required to improve estimates of harvesting revenue. This paper describes...

  5. Estimating the costs associated with malnutrition in Dutch nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, Judith M M; Halfens, Ruud J G; Wilson, Lisa; Schols, Jos M G A

    2012-02-01

    Malnutrition in western health care involves a tremendous burden of illness. In this study the economic implications of malnutrition in Dutch nursing homes are investigated as part of the Health and Economic Impact of Malnutrition in Europe Study from the European Nutrition for Health Alliance. A questionnaire was developed, focussing on the additional time and resources spent to execute all relevant nutritional activities in nursing home patients with at risk of malnutrition or malnourished. Results were extrapolated on national level, based on the prevalence rates gathered within the national Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems 2009. The normal nutritional costs are 319 million Euro per year. The total additional costs of managing the problem of malnutrition in Dutch nursing homes involve 279 million Euro per year and are related to extra efforts in nutritional screening, monitoring and treatment. The extra costs for managing nursing home residents at risk of malnutrition are 8000 euro per patient and 10000 euro for malnourished patients. The extra costs related to malnutrition are a considerable burden for the nursing home sector and urge for preventive measures. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Guardia, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    The guidelines are not intended to be a ''cookbook'' or a ''standard''. Their purpose is to ensure all decomissioning cost elements are properly included and to provide guidance on the detail required. Other methodologies may be used if they accomplish this objective

  7. Project cost estimation techniques used by most emerging building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consisted of five distinct types of contractors, general builders, civil engineers, electricians ... Mmboswobeni Watson Ladzani, Department of Business Management, University of South .... final cost of a proposed project for a given work scope. Thus, by .... Since the test statistic does not exceed the critical region, the null.

  8. A Probabilistic Cost Estimation Model for Unexploded Ordnance Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    clearance of the former Fort Ord costly and difficult [Meuser, and Szasz 1997]. Finally, soil type affects the maximum depth that ordnance...Correlated Random Variables from partially-specified Distributions." Management Science. 44(1998): 203- 218. Meuser, M, and A. Szasz . "Stakeholder

  9. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Progrram is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report is an input into the third evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The total-system cost for the reference waste-management program in this analysis is estimated to be 24 to 30 billion (1984) dollars. For the sensitivity cases studied in this report, the costs could be as high as 35 billion dollars and as low as 21 billion dollars. Because factors like repository location, the quantity of waste generated, transportation-cask technology, and repository startup dates exert substantial impacts on total-system costs, there are several tradeoffs between these factors, and these tradeoffs can greatly influence the total cost of the program. The total-system cost for the reference program described in this report is higher by 3 to 5 billion dollars, or 15 to 20%, than the cost for the reference program of the TSLCC analysis of April 1984. More than two-thirds of this increase is in the cost of repository construction and operation. These repository costs have increased because of changing design concepts, different assumptions about the effort required to perform the necessary activities, and a change in the source data on which the earlier analysis was based. Development and evaluation costs have similarly increased because of a net addition to the work content. Transportation costs have increased because of different assumptions about repository locations and several characteristics of the transportation system. It is expected that the estimates of total-system costs will continue to change in response to both an evolving program strategy and better definition of the work required to achieve the program objectives

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in china: should universal screening be prioritized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Li-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal hearing screening (NHS has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. Results and discussion A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This

  11. Estimated incremental costs for NRC licensees to implement the US/IAEA safeguards agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.; Brouns, R.J.; Chockie, A.D.; Davenport, L.C.; Merrill, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A study was recently completed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commision (NRC) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify the incremental cost of implementing the US/IAEA safeguards treaty agreement to eligible NRC licensees. Sources for the study were cost estimates from several licensees who will be affected by the agreement and cost analyses by PNL staff. The initial cost to all eligible licensees to implement the agreement is estimated by PNL to range from $1.9 to $7.2 million. The annual cost to these same licensees for the required accounting and reporting activities is estimated at $0.5 to $1.5 million. Annual inspection costs to the industry for the limited IAEA inspection being assumed is estimated at $80,000 to $160,000

  12. Estimated impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Senegal: A country-led analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Abdou; Atherly, Deborah; Faye, Alioune; Lamine Sall, Farba; Clark, Andrew D; Nadiel, Leon; Yade, Binetou; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Fafa Cissé, Moussa; Ba, Mamadou

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute severe diarrhea among children under 5 globally and one of the leading causes of death attributable to diarrhea. Among African children hospitalized with diarrhea, 38% of the cases are due to rotavirus. In Senegal, rotavirus deaths are estimated to represent 5.4% of all deaths among children under 5. Along with the substantial disease burden, there is a growing awareness of the economic burden created by diarrheal disease. This analysis aims to provide policymakers with more consistent and reliable economic evidence to support the decision-making process about the introduction and maintenance of a rotavirus vaccine program. The study was conducted using the processes and tools first established by the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative in the Latin American region. TRIVAC version 2.0, an Excel-based model, was used to perform the analysis. The costs and health outcomes were calculated for 20 successive birth cohorts (2014-2033). Model inputs were gathered from local, national, and international sources with the guidance of a Senegalese group of experts including local pediatricians, personnel from the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization, as well as disease-surveillance and laboratory specialists. The cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted, discounted at 3%, is US$ 92 from the health care provider perspective and US$ 73 from the societal perspective. For the 20 cohorts, the vaccine is projected to prevent more than 2 million cases of rotavirus and to avert more than 8500 deaths. The proportion of rotavirus deaths averted is estimated to be 42%. For 20 cohorts, the discounted net costs of the program were estimated to be US$ 17.6 million from the healthcare provider perspective and US$ 13.8 million from the societal perspective. From both perspectives, introducing the rotavirus vaccine is highly cost-effective compared to no vaccination. The results are consistent with those

  13. The costs of transit fare prepayment programs : a parametric cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the renewed interest in transit fare prepayment plans over the past : 10 years, few transit managers have a clear idea of how much it costs to operate : and maintain a fare prepayment program. This report provides transit managers : with the ...

  14. Implementation of the ANNs ensembles in macro-BIM cost estimates of buildings' floor structural frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, Michał

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports some results of the studies on the use of artificial intelligence tools for the purposes of cost estimation based on building information models. A problem of the cost estimates based on the building information models on a macro level supported by the ensembles of artificial neural networks is concisely discussed. In the course of the research a regression model has been built for the purposes of cost estimation of buildings' floor structural frames, as higher level elements. Building information models are supposed to serve as a repository of data used for the purposes of cost estimation. The core of the model is the ensemble of neural networks. The developed model allows the prediction of cost estimates with satisfactory accuracy.

  15. BIM – New rules of measurement ontology for construction cost estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Abanda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For generations, the process of cost estimation has been manual, time-consuming and error-prone. Emerging Building Information Modelling (BIM can exploit standard measurement methods to automate cost estimation process and improve inaccuracies. Structuring standard measurement methods in an ontologically and machine readable format for a BIM software can greatly facilitate the process of improving inaccuracies in cost estimation. This study explores the development of an ontology based on New Rules of Measurement (NRM for cost estimation during the tendering stages. The methodology adopted is methontology, one of the most widely used ontology engineering methodologies. To ensure the ontology is fit for purpose, cost estimation experts are employed to check the semantics, descriptive logic-based reasoners are used to syntactically check the ontology and a leading 4D BIM modelling software is used on a case study building to test/validate the proposed ontology.

  16. 75 FR 54591 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice invites the... Agreement with the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) for the Allocation of Organic Certification Cost...

  17. Estimating Resource Costs of Levy Campaigns in Five Ohio School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, W. Kyle; Petroff, Ruth Ann; Johnson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Using Levin and McEwan's (2001) "ingredients method," this study identified the major activities and associated costs of school levy campaigns in five districts. The ingredients were divided into one of five cost categories--human resources, facilities, fees, marketing, and supplies. As to overall costs of the campaigns, estimates ranged…

  18. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    to a comprehensive oral health outreach project for preschool children conducted in a low-socioeconomic multi-cultural urban area. The outcome was compared with historical controls from the same area with conventional dental care. The cost per minute for the various dental professions was added to the cost......The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively...... of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed...

  19. Nuclear generating station and heavy water plant cost estimates for strategy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1979-07-01

    Nuclear generating station capital, operating and maintenance costs are basic input data for strategy analyses of alternate nuclear fuel cycles. This report presents estimates of these costs for natural uranium CANDU stations, CANDU stations operating on advanced fuel cycles, and liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Cost estimates for heavy water plants are also presented. The results show that station capital costs for advanced fuel cycles are not expected to be significantly greater than those for natural uranium stations. LMFBR capital costs are expected to be 25-30 percent greater than for CANDU's. (auth)

  20. Commercial Vessel Safety. Economic Costs. Appendix A. Estimation Procedures for Costs and Cost Impacts of Marine Safety Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Subsistence: Includes the cost of all edibles , sales taxes, delivery charges, and loading costs. Stores, Supplies, and Equipment: The cost of all...consumable stores, supplies, and expendable equipment other than edibles , fuel, and water. 89 Insurance: Annual cost for H&M, P&I, and port risk for the...Products (50) 3441 3442 3444 3446 3449 105 Screw Machine Products (51) 3450 106 Metal Stampings (51) 3460 107 Cutlery , Hand Tools, Hardware (52) 3420

  1. Methodology for cost estimate in projects for nuclear power plants decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salij, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The conceptual approaches to cost estimating of nuclear power plants units decommissioning projects were determined. The international experience and national legislative and regulatory basis were analyzed. The possible decommissioning project cost classification was given. It was shown the role of project costs of nuclear power plant units decommissioning as the most important criterion for the main project decisions. The technical and economic estimation of deductions to common-branch fund of decommissioning projects financing was substantiated

  2. Hanford general employee training - A million dollar cost beneficial program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.R.

    1991-02-01

    In January 1990, Westinghouse Hanford Company implemented an interactive videodisc training program entitled Hanford General Employee Training. Covering all Institute of Nuclear Power Operations general employee training objectives, training mandated by US Department of Energy orders, and training prescribed by internal Westinghouse Hanford Company policies, Hanford General Employee Training presents and manages engaging training programs individually tailored to each of the 9,000 employees. Development costs for a sophisticated program such as Hanford General Employee Training were high compared to similar costs for developing ''equivalent'' traditional training. Hardware ($500,000) and labor costs ($400,000) totaled $900,000. Annual maintenance costs, equipment plus labor, are totalling about $200,000. On the benefit side, by consolidating some 17 previous Westinghouse Hanford Company courses and more effectively managing the instructional process, Hanford General Employee Training reduced the average student training time from over 11 hours to just under 4 hours. For 9,000 employees, the computed net annual savings exceeds $1.3 million. 2 refs

  3. The cost of starting and maintaining a large home hemodialysis program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenda, Paul; Copland, Michael; Makwana, Jay; Djurdjev, Ogdjenka; Sood, Manish M; Levin, Adeera

    2010-06-01

    Home extended hours hemodialysis improves some measurable biological and quality-of-life parameters over conventional renal replacement therapies in patients with end-stage renal disease. Published small studies evaluating costs have shown savings in terms of ongoing operating costs with this modality. However, all estimates need to include the total costs, including infrastructure, patient training, and maintenance; patient attrition by death, transplantation, technique failure; and the necessity of in-center dialysis. We describe a comprehensive funding model for a large centrally administered but locally delivered home hemodialysis program in British Columbia, Canada that covered 122 patients, of which 113 were still in the program at study end. The majority of patients performed home nocturnal hemodialysis in this 2-year retrospective study. All training periods, both in-center and in-home dialysis, medications, hospitalizations, and deaths were captured using our provincial renal database and vital statistics. Comparative data from the provincial database and pricing models were used for costing purposes. The total comprehensive costs per patient-incorporating startup, home, and in-center dialysis; medications; home remodeling; and consumables-was $59,179 for years 2004-2005 and $48,648 for 2005-2006. The home dialysis patients required multiple in-center dialysis runs, significantly contributing to the overall costs. Our study describes a valid, comprehensive funding model delineating reliable cost estimates of starting and maintaining a large home-based hemodialysis program. Consideration of hidden costs is important for administrators and planners to take into account when designing budgets for home hemodialysis.

  4. Designing cost effective water demand management programs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S B; Fane, S A

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes recent experience with integrated resource planning (IRP) and the application of least cost planning (LCP) for the evaluation of demand management strategies in urban water. Two Australian case studies, Sydney and Northern New South Wales (NSW) are used in illustration. LCP can determine the most cost effective means of providing water services or alternatively the cheapest forms of water conservation. LCP contrasts to a traditional approach of evaluation which looks only at means of increasing supply. Detailed investigation of water usage, known as end-use analysis, is required for LCP. End-use analysis allows both rigorous demand forecasting, and the development and evaluation of conservation strategies. Strategies include education campaigns, increasing water use efficiency and promoting wastewater reuse or rainwater tanks. The optimal mix of conservation strategies and conventional capacity expansion is identified based on levelised unit cost. IRP uses LCP in the iterative process, evaluating and assessing options, investing in selected options, measuring the results, and then re-evaluating options. Key to this process is the design of cost effective demand management programs. IRP however includes a range of parameters beyond least economic cost in the planning process and program designs, including uncertainty, benefit partitioning and implementation considerations.

  5. Estimating the cost of epilepsy in Europe: a review with economic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliatti, Maura; Beghi, Ettore; Forsgren, Lars; Ekman, Mattias; Sobocki, Patrik

    2007-12-01

    Based on available epidemiologic, health economic, and international population statistics literature, the cost of epilepsy in Europe was estimated. Europe was defined as the 25 European Union member countries, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. Guidelines for epidemiological studies on epilepsy were used for a case definition. A bottom-up prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, the societal perspective for including the cost items, and the human capital approach as valuation principle for indirect costs were used. The cost estimates were based on selected studies with common methodology and valuation principles. The estimated prevalence of epilepsy in Europe in 2004 was 4.3-7.8 per 1,000. The estimated total cost of the disease in Europe was euro15.5 billion in 2004, indirect cost being the single most dominant cost category (euro8.6 billion). Direct health care costs were euro2.8 billion, outpatient care comprising the largest part (euro1.3 billion). Direct nonmedical cost was euro4.2 billion. That of antiepileptic drugs was euro400 million. The total cost per case was euro2,000-11,500 and the estimated cost per European inhabitant was euro33. Epilepsy is a relevant socioeconomic burden at individual, family, health services, and societal level in Europe. The greater proportion of such burden is outside the formal health care sector, antiepileptic drugs representing a smaller proportion. Lack of economic data from several European countries and other methodological limitations make this report an initial estimate of the cost of epilepsy in Europe. Prospective incidence cost-of-illness studies from well-defined populations and common methodology are encouraged.

  6. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. Twenty-five-year retrievability, decommissioning cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This estimate covers decommissioning costs of facilities for the receipt, handling, and storage in bedded salt of canistered spent fuel assemblies from both BWR and PWR commercial power plants. The estimate includes all decommissioning costs for a repository, based on 25-year retrievability, constructed in accordance with the design shown in Conceptual Design Report (CDR), as modified by Special Study No. 1 (KE Report No. 78-60-RE) and decommissioned in accordance with the program outlined in the Conceptual Design Description Report, KE Report No. 78-58-R. Costs for Operating Contractor personnel on the site at this time are included in this report and not in the Operating Cost Estimate (KE Report 78-63-RE). The operating cost estimates end with the completion of storage room backfilling. The three major elements of decommissioning are: demolition of surface facilities, backfilling of main entries and airways, and shaft liner removal and shaft plugging. EDIT, ECON, and DELOX computer programs and a chart of accounts were furnished by UCC-ND under direction of the Government and the line item-capital-cost estimate was prepared according to the prescribed format. The decommissioning cost estimate referenced herein is in the same format as its companion line item-capital-cost estimate KE Report 78-62-RE

  7. Using Parametric Cost Models to Estimate Engineering and Installation Costs of Selected Electronic Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    NC: SAS Institute Inc., 1991. 2. Horngren , Charles T. And George Foster. Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey...34 Office of the DoD Comptroller, Washington DC. 20. Horngren , Charles T. And George Foster. Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis. Englewood Cliffs NJ...establish revolving funds as a means to more effectively control the cost of work performed by DoD support activities. In the 1950’ s and 1960’ s

  8. A LINEAR PROGRAMMING ALGORITHM FOR LEAST-COST SCHEDULING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYMAN H AL-MOMANI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, some concepts of linear programming and critical path method are reviewed to describe recent modeling structures that have been of great value in analyzing extended planning horizon project time-cost trade-offs problems. A simplified representation of a small project and a linear programming model is formulated to represent this system. Procedures to solve these various problems formulations were cited and the final solution is obtained using LINDO program. The model developed represents many restrictions and management considerations of the project. It could be used by construction managers in a planning stage to explore numerous possible opportunities to the contractor and predict the effect of a decision on the construction to facilitate a preferred operating policy given different management objectives. An implementation using this method is shown to outperform several other techniques and a large class of test problems. Linear programming show that the algorithm is very promising in practice on a wide variety of time-cost trade-offs problems. This method is simple, applicable to a large network, and generates a shorter computational time at low cost, along with an increase in robustness.

  9. Innovation in the pharmaceutical industry: New estimates of R&D costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMasi, Joseph A; Grabowski, Henry G; Hansen, Ronald W

    2016-05-01

    The research and development costs of 106 randomly selected new drugs were obtained from a survey of 10 pharmaceutical firms. These data were used to estimate the average pre-tax cost of new drug and biologics development. The costs of compounds abandoned during testing were linked to the costs of compounds that obtained marketing approval. The estimated average out-of-pocket cost per approved new compound is $1395 million (2013 dollars). Capitalizing out-of-pocket costs to the point of marketing approval at a real discount rate of 10.5% yields a total pre-approval cost estimate of $2558 million (2013 dollars). When compared to the results of the previous study in this series, total capitalized costs were shown to have increased at an annual rate of 8.5% above general price inflation. Adding an estimate of post-approval R&D costs increases the cost estimate to $2870 million (2013 dollars). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating the cost of healthcare delivery in three hospitals in southern ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboagye, A Q Q; Degboe, A N K; Obuobi, A A D

    2010-09-01

    The cost burden (called full cost) of providing health services at a referral, a district and a mission hospital in Ghana were determined. Standard cost-finding and cost analysis tools recommended by World Health Organization are used to analyse 2002 and 2003 hospital data. Full cost centre costs were computed by taking into account cash and non-cash expenses and allocating overhead costs to intermediate and final patient care centres. The full costs of running the mission hospital in 2002 and 2003 were US$600,295 and US$758,647 respectively; for the district hospital, the respective costs were US$496,240 and US$487,537; and for the referral hospital, the respective costs were US$1,160,535 and US$1,394,321. Of these, overhead costs ranged between 20% and 42%, while salaries made up between 45% and 60%. Based on healthcare utilization data, in 2003 the estimated cost per outpatient attendance was US$ 2.25 at the mission hospital, US$ 4.51 at the district hospital and US$8.5 at the referral hospital; inpatient day costs were US$ 6.05, US$ 9.95 and US$18.8 at the respective hospitals. User fees charged at service delivery points were generally below cost. However, some service delivery points have the potential to recover their costs. Salaries are the major cost component of the three hospitals. Overhead costs constitute an important part of hospital costs and must be noted in efforts to recover costs. Cost structures are different at different types of hospitals. Unit costs at service delivery points can be estimated and projected into the future.

  11. 2002 IDA Cost Research Symposium: Estimating the Costs of Transforming U.S. Military Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Missile Database Improvements • ACEIT Enhancements VIII-5 6I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Capability to Cost...systems • Expand CERs • Create interface to download to CO$STAT for CER development • Extract CERs and move them into ACEIT • Supports: Conventional...Cost Model MDA–5 Integrating MDA Cost Risk Model with ACEIT MDA–6 Target Common Cost Model MDA–7 Deployable Optics Development and Manufacturing MDA

  12. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113: Project cost estimate. Preliminary design report. Volume IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains Volume IV of the Preliminary Design Report for the Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113 which is the Project Cost Estimate and construction schedule. The estimate was developed based upon Title 1 material take-offs, budgetary equipment quotes and Raytheon historical in-house data. The W-113 project cost estimate and project construction schedule were integrated together to provide a resource loaded project network

  13. A cost benefit analysis of an enhanced seat belt enforcement program in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G T; Olukoga, I A

    2005-04-01

    To examine whether a program to increase the wearing of seat belts in a South African urban area would be worthwhile in societal terms. A cost benefit analysis of a one year enhanced seat belt enforcement program in eThekwini (Durban) Municipality. Data were drawn from two main sources--a 1998 study of the cost of road crashes in South Africa and, given the absence of other data, a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of various types of interventions to reduce road crash casualties in the United States--and were analyzed using cost benefit analysis. A program designed to enforce greater wearing of seat belts, estimated to cost 2 million rand in one year, could be reasonably expected to increase seat belt usage rates by 16 percentage points and reduce fatalities and injuries by 9.5%. This would result in saved social costs of 13.6 million rand in the following year or a net present value of 11.6 million rand. There would also be favorable consequences for municipal finances. Investment in a program to increase seat belt wearing rates is highly profitable in societal terms.

  14. Estimating Power Outage Cost based on a Survey for Industrial Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Matsuhashi, Ryuji

    A survey was conducted on power outage cost for industrial customers. 5139 factories, which are designated energy management factories in Japan, answered their power consumption and the loss of production value due to the power outage in an hour in summer weekday. The median of unit cost of power outage of whole sectors is estimated as 672 yen/kWh. The sector of services for amusement and hobbies and the sector of manufacture of information and communication electronics equipment relatively have higher unit cost of power outage. Direct damage cost from power outage in whole sectors reaches 77 billion yen. Then utilizing input-output analysis, we estimated indirect damage cost that is caused by the repercussion of production halt. Indirect damage cost in whole sectors reaches 91 billion yen. The sector of wholesale and retail trade has the largest direct damage cost. The sector of manufacture of transportation equipment has the largest indirect damage cost.

  15. Top-down and bottom-up approaches for cost estimating new reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, P.; Gautier, G.M.; Duflo, D.; Rouyer, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    For several years, Generation-4 designs will be 'pre-conceptual' for the less mature concepts and 'preliminary' for the more mature concepts. In this situation, appropriate data for some of the plant systems may be lacking to develop a bottom-up cost estimate. Therefore, a more global approach, the Top-Down Approach (TDA), is needed to help the designers and decision makers in comparing design options. It utilizes more or less simple models for cost estimating the different parts of a design. TDA cost estimating effort applies to a whole functional element whose cost is approached by similar estimations coming from existing data, ratios and models, for a given range of variation of parameters. Modeling is used when direct analogy is not possible. There are two types of models, global and specific ones. Global models are applied to cost modules related to Code Of Account. Exponential formulae such as Ci = Ai + (Bi x Pi n ) are used when there are cost data for comparable modules in nuclear or other industries. Specific cost models are developed for major specific components of the plant: - process equipment such as reactor vessel, steam generators or large heat exchangers. - buildings, with formulae estimating the construction cost from base cost of m3 of building volume. - systems, when unit costs, cost ratios and models are used, depending on the level of detail of the design. Bottom Up Approach (BUA), which is based on unit prices coming from similar equipment or from manufacturer consulting, is very valuable and gives better cost estimations than TDA when it can be applied, that is at a rather late stage of the design. Both approaches are complementary when some parts of the design are detailed enough to be estimated by BUA, and when BUA results are used to check TDA results and to improve TDA models. This methodology is applied to the HTR (High Temperature Reactor) concept and to an advanced PWR design

  16. Local government household battery collection programs: Costs and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapek, Raymond A [Department of Public Administration, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Nearly three billion dry-cell household batteries are discarded in the municipal waste stream annually. While the mercury content of newer batteries has been reduced, older batteries and the accumulated total of mercury and cadmium, as well as other metals in the newer batteries still constitute a potential health risk. Many communities have initiated collection programs to remove this source of contamination from the municipal waste stream, but most have not. Fourteen states have enacted legislation regulating the disposal of household batteries, while nine states require the collection of rechargeable batteries. This article describes the potential health risks associated with continued disposal and incineration of household dry-cell batteries, reviews a sampling of existing municipal collection programs in US communities, and examines the costs and benefits and program options of collection programs

  17. Using fuzzy logic to improve the project time and cost estimation based on Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Habibi

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Among different factors, correct scheduling is one of the vital elements for project management success. There are several ways to schedule projects including the Critical Path Method (CPM and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. Due to problems in estimating dura-tions of activities, these methods cannot accurately and completely model actual projects. The use of fuzzy theory is a basic way to improve scheduling and deal with such problems. Fuzzy theory approximates project scheduling models to reality by taking into account uncertainties in decision parameters and expert experience and mental models. This paper provides a step-by-step approach for accurate estimation of time and cost of projects using the Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT and expert views as fuzzy numbers. The proposed method included several steps. In the first step, the necessary information for project time and cost is estimated using the Critical Path Method (CPM and the Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. The second step considers the duration and cost of the project activities as the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, and then, the time and cost of the project are recalculated. The duration and cost of activities are estimated using the questionnaires as well as weighing the expert opinions, averaging and defuzzification based on a step-by-step algorithm. The calculating procedures for evaluating these methods are applied in a real project; and the obtained results are explained.

  18. Cost Estimation Techniques for C3I System Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    opment manmonth have been determined for maxi, midi , and mini .1 type computers. Small to median size timeshared developments used 0.2 to 1.5 hours...development schedule 1.23 1.00 1.10 2.1.3 Detailed Model The final codification of the COCOMO regressions was the development of separate effort...regardless of the software structure level being estimated: D8VC -- the expected development computer (maxi. midi . mini, micro) MODE -- the expected

  19. Cost Performance Estimating Relationships for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-31

    Permanent magnet motors are more likely to be used as generators, while AC induction motors are more efficiently used as motors. Inverters/controllers can...than permanent magnet motors . Switched Reluctance motors are also used on hybrid electric vehicles, but are not used as widely as either AC...induction or permanent magnet motors , and are not analyzed here. Methodology The motor estimates are based on power, with kilowatts being the unit of

  20. Mathematical models for estimating earthquake casualties and damage cost through regression analysis using matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, J D; Bautista, L A; Baccay, E B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop mathematical models for estimating earthquake casualties such as death, number of injured persons, affected families and total cost of damage. To quantify the direct damages from earthquakes to human beings and properties given the magnitude, intensity, depth of focus, location of epicentre and time duration, the regression models were made. The researchers formulated models through regression analysis using matrices and used α = 0.01. The study considered thirty destructive earthquakes that hit the Philippines from the inclusive years 1968 to 2012. Relevant data about these said earthquakes were obtained from Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Data on damages and casualties were gathered from the records of National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. This study will be of great value in emergency planning, initiating and updating programs for earthquake hazard reduction in the Philippines, which is an earthquake-prone country.