WorldWideScience

Sample records for program control number

  1. Elementary number theory with programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lewinter, Marty

    2015-01-01

    A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con

  2. The Effect of a Physical Activity Program on the Total Number of Primary Care Visits in Inactive Patients: A 15-Month Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giné-Garriga

    Full Text Available Effective promotion of exercise could result in substantial savings in healthcare cost expenses in terms of direct medical costs, such as the number of medical appointments. However, this is hampered by our limited knowledge of how to achieve sustained increases in physical activity.To assess the effectiveness of a Primary Health Care (PHC based physical activity program in reducing the total number of visits to the healthcare center among inactive patients, over a 15-month period.Randomized controlled trial.Three hundred and sixty-two (n = 362 inactive patients suffering from at least one chronic condition were included. One hundred and eighty-three patients (n = 183; mean (SD; 68.3 (8.8 years; 118 women were randomly allocated to the physical activity program (IG. One hundred and seventy-nine patients (n = 179; 67.2 (9.1 years; 106 women were allocated to the control group (CG. The IG went through a three-month standardized physical activity program led by physical activity specialists and linked to community resources.The total number of medical appointments to the PHC, during twelve months before and after the program, was registered. Self-reported health status (SF-12 version 2 was assessed at baseline (month 0, at the end of the intervention (month 3, and at 12 months follow-up after the end of the intervention (month 15.The IG had a significantly reduced number of visits during the 12 months after the intervention: 14.8 (8.5. The CG remained about the same: 18.2 (11.1 (P = .002.Our findings indicate that a 3-month physical activity program linked to community resources is a short-duration, effective and sustainable intervention in inactive patients to decrease rates of PHC visits.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00714831.

  3. Programming by Numbers -- A Programming Method for Complete Novices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaser, Hugh; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2000-01-01

    Students often have difficulty with the minutiae of program construction. We introduce the idea of `Programming by Numbers', which breaks some of the programming process down into smaller steps, giving such students a way into the process of Programming in the Small. Programming by Numbers does not

  4. Control Systems and Number Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhuo Li

    2012-01-01

    and PID-controllers are applied successfully in the EV control by J.-Y. Cao and B.-G. Cao 2006 and Cao et al. 2007, which we may unify in our framework. Finally, we mention some similarities between control theory and zeta-functions.

  5. 75 FR 18572 - Facility Control Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Facility Control Numbers AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of planned use of Facility Control Numbers. SUMMARY: The IRS has developed and is publishing in this issue of the Federal Register, Facility Control Numbers to communicate to the motor fuel industry...

  6. 7 CFR 249.27 - OMB Control Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OMB Control Number. 249.27 Section 249.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Miscellaneous Provisions § 249...

  7. 7 CFR 205.690 - OMB control number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OMB control number. 205.690 Section 205.690 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM...

  8. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, 1993 Ship Production Symposium. Paper Number 12: A Conceptual Design Study of the Construction of Hydrodynamic Control Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karstensen, A. D; Fairlie-Clarke, A. C; Winkle, L. E

    1993-01-01

    .... The conceptual design process, as applied here, starts by specifying the design requirements for the construction of control surfaces, and listing a set of criteria against which the concept designs can be evaluated...

  9. Getting DNA copy numbers without control samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Estevez, Maria; Aramburu, Ander; Rubio, Angel

    2012-08-16

    The selection of the reference to scale the data in a copy number analysis has paramount importance to achieve accurate estimates. Usually this reference is generated using control samples included in the study. However, these control samples are not always available and in these cases, an artificial reference must be created. A proper generation of this signal is crucial in terms of both noise and bias.We propose NSA (Normality Search Algorithm), a scaling method that works with and without control samples. It is based on the assumption that genomic regions enriched in SNPs with identical copy numbers in both alleles are likely to be normal. These normal regions are predicted for each sample individually and used to calculate the final reference signal. NSA can be applied to any CN data regardless the microarray technology and preprocessing method. It also finds an optimal weighting of the samples minimizing possible batch effects. Five human datasets (a subset of HapMap samples, Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), Ovarian, Prostate and Lung Cancer experiments) have been analyzed. It is shown that using only tumoral samples, NSA is able to remove the bias in the copy number estimation, to reduce the noise and therefore, to increase the ability to detect copy number aberrations (CNAs). These improvements allow NSA to also detect recurrent aberrations more accurately than other state of the art methods. NSA provides a robust and accurate reference for scaling probe signals data to CN values without the need of control samples. It minimizes the problems of bias, noise and batch effects in the estimation of CNs. Therefore, NSA scaling approach helps to better detect recurrent CNAs than current methods. The automatic selection of references makes it useful to perform bulk analysis of many GEO or ArrayExpress experiments without the need of developing a parser to find the normal samples or possible batches within the data. The method is available in the open-source R package

  10. Getting DNA copy numbers without control samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz-Estevez Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of the reference to scale the data in a copy number analysis has paramount importance to achieve accurate estimates. Usually this reference is generated using control samples included in the study. However, these control samples are not always available and in these cases, an artificial reference must be created. A proper generation of this signal is crucial in terms of both noise and bias. We propose NSA (Normality Search Algorithm, a scaling method that works with and without control samples. It is based on the assumption that genomic regions enriched in SNPs with identical copy numbers in both alleles are likely to be normal. These normal regions are predicted for each sample individually and used to calculate the final reference signal. NSA can be applied to any CN data regardless the microarray technology and preprocessing method. It also finds an optimal weighting of the samples minimizing possible batch effects. Results Five human datasets (a subset of HapMap samples, Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM, Ovarian, Prostate and Lung Cancer experiments have been analyzed. It is shown that using only tumoral samples, NSA is able to remove the bias in the copy number estimation, to reduce the noise and therefore, to increase the ability to detect copy number aberrations (CNAs. These improvements allow NSA to also detect recurrent aberrations more accurately than other state of the art methods. Conclusions NSA provides a robust and accurate reference for scaling probe signals data to CN values without the need of control samples. It minimizes the problems of bias, noise and batch effects in the estimation of CNs. Therefore, NSA scaling approach helps to better detect recurrent CNAs than current methods. The automatic selection of references makes it useful to perform bulk analysis of many GEO or ArrayExpress experiments without the need of developing a parser to find the normal samples or possible batches within the

  11. 7 CFR 226.27 - Information collection/recordkeeping-OMB assigned control numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE... numbers. 7 CFR section where requirements are described Current OMB control number 226.3-226.4 0584-0055...

  12. 7 CFR 225.20 - Information collection/recordkeeping-OMB assigned control numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE... control numbers. 7 CFR section where requirements are described Current OMB control No. 225.3-225.4. 0584...

  13. Synthetic RNA Controllers for Programming Mammalian Cell Fate and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    Final report for “Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function” Principal Investigator: Christina D. Smolke...SUBTITLE Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18   2 Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function Task 1

  14. Controlling the number of tooth rows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Marja L

    2009-08-25

    The organization and renewal capacity of teeth vary greatly among vertebrates. Mammals have only one row of teeth that are renewed at most once, whereas many nonmammalian species have multirowed dentitions and show remarkable capacity to replace their teeth throughout life. Although knowledge on the genetic basis of tooth morphogenesis has increased exponentially over the past 20 years, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling sequential initiation of multiple tooth rows or restricting tooth development to one row in mammals. Mouse genetics has revealed a pivotal role for the transcription factor Osr2 in this process. Loss of Osr2 caused expansion of the expression domain of Bmp4, a well-known activator of tooth development, leading to the induction of supernumerary teeth in a manner resembling the initiation of a second tooth row in nonmammalian species.

  15. 16 CFR 1033.2 - Display of control numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display of control numbers. 1033.2 Section 1033.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL DISPLAY OF CONTROL NUMBERS FOR COLLECTION OF INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT § 1033.2 Display of control numbers...

  16. 7 CFR 235.12 - Information collection/recordkeeping-OMB assigned control numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS STATE ADMINISTRATIVE... where requirements are described Current OMB control number 235.3(b) 0584-0067 235.4(d), (e) 0584-0067...

  17. Verification of Numerical Programs: From Real Numbers to Floating Point Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodloe, Alwyn E.; Munoz, Cesar; Kirchner, Florent; Correnson, Loiec

    2013-01-01

    Numerical algorithms lie at the heart of many safety-critical aerospace systems. The complexity and hybrid nature of these systems often requires the use of interactive theorem provers to verify that these algorithms are logically correct. Usually, proofs involving numerical computations are conducted in the infinitely precise realm of the field of real numbers. However, numerical computations in these algorithms are often implemented using floating point numbers. The use of a finite representation of real numbers introduces uncertainties as to whether the properties veri ed in the theoretical setting hold in practice. This short paper describes work in progress aimed at addressing these concerns. Given a formally proven algorithm, written in the Program Verification System (PVS), the Frama-C suite of tools is used to identify sufficient conditions and verify that under such conditions the rounding errors arising in a C implementation of the algorithm do not affect its correctness. The technique is illustrated using an algorithm for detecting loss of separation among aircraft.

  18. 12 CFR 18.1 - Purpose and OMB control number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... national banking system. The annual disclosure statement will serve to complement the supervisory efforts... public confidence in the national banking system. (b) OMB control number. The collection of information... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and OMB control number. 18.1 Section 18...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.550 - OMB control number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Management and Disposition of Real Estate Owned (REO) Properties § 3560.550 OMB control number. The information collection requirements contained in this... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OMB control number. 3560.550 Section 3560.550...

  20. 29 CFR 516.0 - Display of OMB control numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display of OMB control numbers. 516.0 Section 516.0 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS Introductory § 516.0 Display of OMB control numbers. Subpart or section where...

  1. 8 CFR 207.6 - Control over approved refugee numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control over approved refugee numbers. 207... ADMISSION OF REFUGEES § 207.6 Control over approved refugee numbers. Current numerical accounting of approved refugees is maintained for each special group designated by the President. As refugee status is...

  2. 7 CFR 220.22 - Information collection/recordkeeping-OMB assigned control numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM... requirements are described Current OMB control number 220.3(e) 0584-0327 220.5 0584-0012 220.7(a)-(e) 0584-0329...

  3. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  4. Z Number Based Fuzzy Inference System for Dynamic Plant Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahib H. Abiyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequently the reliabilities of the linguistic values of the variables in the rule base are becoming important in the modeling of fuzzy systems. Taking into consideration the reliability degree of the fuzzy values of variables of the rules the design of inference mechanism acquires importance. For this purpose, Z number based fuzzy rules that include constraint and reliability degrees of information are constructed. Fuzzy rule interpolation is presented for designing of an inference engine of fuzzy rule-based system. The mathematical background of the fuzzy inference system based on interpolative mechanism is developed. Based on interpolative inference process Z number based fuzzy controller for control of dynamic plant has been designed. The transient response characteristic of designed controller is compared with the transient response characteristic of the conventional fuzzy controller. The obtained comparative results demonstrate the suitability of designed system in control of dynamic plants.

  5. Sand Fly Surveillance and Control on Camp Ramadi, Iraq, as Part of a Leishmaniasis Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Vol. 38, no. 2 Journal of Vector Ecology 411 Scientific Note Sand fly surveillance and control on Camp Ramadi, Iraq, as part of a leishmaniasis ...following the 2003 invasion experienced serious risk of infection by several vector-borne pathogens, specifically cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis ...as part of a leishmaniasis control program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  6. Can Cutbacks Leave School Programs Viable? ERIC Digest, Number 106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, James

    Most public schools, out of financial necessity, have had to reduce costs while maintaining facilities and essential programs and remaining accountable for student outcomes. School downsizing can mean making painful decisions about program elimination and staff layoffs. This digest offers suggestions for using downsizing to some…

  7. 12 CFR 27.1 - Scope and OMB control number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM § 27.1 Scope and OMB control number. (a) Scope. This part applies to the activities of national banks and their subsidiaries, which make home loans for the purpose of purchasing, construction... information requirements contained in this part were approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB...

  8. The Number of Genes Controlling Resistance in Beans to Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten crosses were made between resistant (R), susceptible (S), RxS susceptible and Intermediate (I), SxI and RxR bean lines to common bacterial blight. The F1 were advanced to F2 and in each cross over 250 F2 plants were used to evaluate for the number of genes controlling resistance using Mendelian genetics and ...

  9. 7 CFR 1219.77 - OMB control numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OMB control numbers. 1219.77 Section 1219.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  10. The Number of Genes Controlling Resistance in Beans to Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At V3, two to many genes were found to control resistance with segregation ratios that were significantly (P≤0.05) different from that of three gene pairs. In some crosses transgressive segregation was observed. By application of appropriate variances to the equation provided by Stanisfield's formula, the number of genes in ...

  11. Interferometric control of the photon-number distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Esat Kondakci

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate deterministic control over the photon-number distribution by interfering two coherent beams within a disordered photonic lattice. By sweeping a relative phase between two equal-amplitude coherent fields with Poissonian statistics that excite adjacent sites in a lattice endowed with disorder-immune chiral symmetry, we measure an output photon-number distribution that changes periodically between super-thermal and sub-thermal photon statistics upon ensemble averaging. Thus, the photon-bunching level is controlled interferometrically at a fixed mean photon-number by gradually activating the excitation symmetry of the chiral-mode pairs with structured coherent illumination and without modifying the disorder level of the random system itself.

  12. A Memristive Hyperchaotic Multiscroll Jerk System with Controllable Scroll Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Xia, Hu; Zhou, Ling

    2017-06-01

    A memristor is the fourth circuit element, which has wide applications in chaos generation. In this paper, a four-dimensional hyperchaotic jerk system based on a memristor is proposed, where the scroll number of the memristive jerk system is controllable. The new system is constructed by introducing one extra flux-controlled memristor into three-dimensional multiscroll jerk system. We can get different scroll attractors by varying the strength of memristor in this system without changing the circuit structure. Such a method for controlling the scroll number without changing the circuit structure is very important in designing the modern circuits and systems. The new memristive jerk system can exhibit a hyperchaotic attractor, which has more complex dynamic behavior. Furthermore, coexisting attractors are observed in the system. Phase portraits, dissipativity, equilibria, Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams are analyzed. Finally, the circuit implementation is carried out to verify the new system.

  13. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  14. Program Manager, Volume 21, Number 5, September-October 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Management " originally stressed thinking about the forces that affect not simply at the most senior layers by Henry Fayol . Although manage - the destiny of...following the same principles that analytical ability, memory and judg- Program Manager 31 September-October 1992 ment, but strong interpersonal skills...34September-October 1992 PROGRAM%J MANAGER im Journal of the Defense Systems Management College Bar Code Management The Acquisition Officer at War

  15. Attribute Control Chart Construction Based on Fuzzy Score Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwang Hou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is much uncertainty and fuzziness in product quality attributes or quality parameters of a manufacturing process, so the traditional quality control chart can be difficult to apply. This paper proposes a fuzzy control chart. The plotted data was obtained by transforming expert scores into fuzzy numbers. Two types of nonconformity judgment rules—necessity and possibility measurement rules—are proposed. Through graphical analysis, the nonconformity judging method (i.e., assessing directly based on the shape feature of a fuzzy control chart is proposed. For four different widely used membership functions, control levels were analyzed and compared by observing gaps between the upper and lower control limits. The result of the case study validates the feasibility and reliability of the proposed approach.

  16. Winter population numbers [Fort Niobrara NWR fenced animal program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set is for winter population numbers for bison, elk and longhorn from January 1st of the calendar year and is part of the Fort Niobrara Fenced Animal...

  17. Meeting Youth Needs with Community Programs. ERIC Digest, Number 86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    Rather than viewing youth as an isolated and alienated subculture, it is more useful to view the needs of youth as largely determined by where and how they live, and to recognize that they differ from one another just as adults do. Professionals and volunteers in community youth programs need to understand how the youth they work with experience…

  18. Copy number variation of KIR genes influences HIV-1 control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelak, Kimberly; Need, Anna C; Fellay, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide screen for large structural variants showed that a copy number variant (CNV) in the region encoding killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) associates with HIV-1 control as measured by plasma viral load at set point in individuals of European ancestry. This CNV encompasses...... the KIR3DL1-KIR3DS1 locus, encoding receptors that interact with specific HLA-Bw4 molecules to regulate the activation of lymphocyte subsets including natural killer (NK) cells. We quantified the number of copies of KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL1 in a large HIV-1 positive cohort, and showed that an increase in KIR3...... amounts of these activating and inhibitory KIR play a role in regulating the peripheral expansion of highly antiviral KIR3DS1+ NK cells, which may determine differences in HIV-1 control following infection....

  19. 7 CFR 1951.900 - OMB control number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Reporting Requirements—No Forms 1951.860(a)(3)(i) Weighted average interest calculation Written 12 1 12 3.0... occasion 50 1.0 50 1951.889(c) Assumption Agreement Written 2 1 2 3.5 7 1951.889(d) Transferee financial... Office of Management and Budget and assigned OMB Control Number 0575.0131. In accordance with 5 CFR part...

  20. Prenatal programming of nephron number and blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M. F.; Nauta, J.

    A low nephron number has been advocated to explain the association between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and hypertension in later life. IUGR not only leads to a low birth weight but is also hypothesized to reprogram nephrogenesis, which results in a low nephron endowment. Several methods

  1. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... professionals. The centers also offer programs to help clinicians better manage poisoning and overdose cases.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Poison Control Program, Director, Elisa Gladstone via e-mail at...

  2. A Family of Controllable Cellular Automata for Pseudorandom Number Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, SU; Zhang, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a family of novel Pseudorandom Number Generators (PRNGs) based on Controllable Cellular Automata (CCA) ─ CCA0, CCA1, CCA2 (NCA), CCA3 (BCA), CCA4 (asymmetric NCA), CCA5, CCA6 and CCA7 PRNGs. The ENT and DIEHARD test suites are used to evaluate the randomness of these CCA PRNGs. The results show that their randomness is better than that of conventional CA and PCA PRNGs while they do not lose the structure simplicity of 1-d CA. Moreover, their randomness can be compara...

  3. FY11_EOM_August_Number of Life Insurance Policies by Program by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Number of life insurance policies for each administered life insurance program listed by state. Data is current as of 08/31/11. All programs are closed to new issues...

  4. Index Tracking with Control on the Number of Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Riegel Sant'Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Index tracking is a passive investment strategy, which aims at generating portfolios to reproduce a specific market index’s performance. This article proposes a model for a index tracking problem with control on the number of assets in the portfolio, which corresponds to a restriction in transaction costs. The model is applied to Ibovespa (sample: 67 stocks from January/2009 to July/2012. Portfolios were formed without limiting the amount of stocks and limiting this amount to 40, 30 and 20 stocks, with rebalancing periods of 20, 40 and 60 trading days. The results were satisfactory especially for the 60 days rebalancing period, in which transaction costs become lower due to the longer rebalancing period. We also verified that changes in Cplex parameters didn’t influence the results especially in relation to the computational times. Therefore, we also conclude about the need of using heuristic approaches to form portfolios with smaller amounts of assets.

  5. Copy number variation of KIR genes influences HIV-1 control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelak, Kimberly; Need, Anna C; Fellay, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide screen for large structural variants showed that a copy number variant (CNV) in the region encoding killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) associates with HIV-1 control as measured by plasma viral load at set point in individuals of European ancestry. This CNV encompasses...... the KIR3DL1-KIR3DS1 locus, encoding receptors that interact with specific HLA-Bw4 molecules to regulate the activation of lymphocyte subsets including natural killer (NK) cells. We quantified the number of copies of KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL1 in a large HIV-1 positive cohort, and showed that an increase in KIR3...... individuals with multiple copies of KIR3DL1, in the presence of KIR3DS1 and the appropriate ligands, inhibit HIV-1 replication more robustly, and associated with a significant expansion in the frequency of KIR3DS1+, but not KIR3DL1+, NK cells in their peripheral blood. Our results suggest that the relative...

  6. Chronic Disease Control Research Fellowship Program (Guatemala ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Program will recruit and mentor research fellows to study policy-relevant issues and translate the resulting knowledge into action. The program will focus initially on tobacco control research (smoking prevention, cessation), in recognition that tobacco use is the leading cause of chronic disease. However, as the program ...

  7. Evolution of equine infection control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradford P

    2004-12-01

    The science of control of infectious diseases in hospitals was born in 1847 when Semmelweis, a physician, ordered his medical students to scrub their hands in chlorinated lime water between patients and demonstrated that this simple procedure resulted ina dramatic decline in patient morbidity and mortality. In the late nineteenth century came huge breakthroughs in the understanding that microorganisms cause many disorders, and methods to eliminate and control these microorganisms were attempted. By 1910, sterile instruments, gowns, masks, and gloves had become standard for surgical procedures in large university human hospitals, and isolation of human and veterinary patients with contagious diseases became standard. With the advent of vaccines, many epidemic viral diseases could be controlled, and antimicrobial drugs allowed many previously devastating bacterial diseases to be treated effectively. Before long, however, bacterial resistance became an important issue and remains so today, particularly for Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in horses. Vaccination has decreased the number of animals susceptible to equine influenza and equine herpesvirus 1, yet these contagious diseases still pose a serious issue in large equine veterinary hospitals. The development of equine isolation facilities and improved methods of barn cleaning; mandatory application of procedures, such as handwashing or use of disinfectant hand wipes, to prevent the spread of infectious diseases; and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and use of restricted antimicrobial drugs were driven by recognition and necessity and have given rise to current equine infection control programs.

  8. Planning for cancer control programs: Leadership considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John; Sutcliffe, Simon B

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a significant challenge globally. Reducing the impact of cancer requires a program and plans that address the main aspects of cancer from prevention through to end-of-life care. This article summarizes the requirements of a robust cancer control program and outlines the contextual and leadership considerations that are required to ensure that the planning and implementation of a control program can achieve improved cancer outcomes.

  9. Relationship Between the Number of Clinical Sites in Radiography Programs and Job Placement Rates of Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Angela; Matthews, Eric

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether a relationship exists between the number of clinical sites available in radiography programs accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology and the job placement rates of graduates. We performed a secondary analysis of data on job placement rates and the number of clinical sites available in 438 degree-granting radiography programs from January 2015 to March 2015. A weak, negative, nonsignificant correlation existed between the number of clinical sites and the job placement rate (Spearman's rho = -.113, n = 438, P = .018). The coefficient of determination was 1.28%.Discussion Research evaluating factors contributing to graduate employability is limited but indicates no need for radiography program administrators to adjust clinical site numbers solely on the basis of improving graduate employability. The number of clinical sites available in a radiography program is not related to the job placement rate of its graduates. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  10. Factors controlling particle number concentration and size at metro stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, C.; Moreno, T.; Martins, V.; Minguillón, M. C.; Jones, T.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.; Centelles, S.; Querol, X.

    2017-05-01

    An extensive air quality campaign was performed at differently designed station platforms in the Barcelona metro system, aiming to investigate the factors governing airborne particle number (N) concentrations and their size distributions. The study of the daily trends of N concentrations by different size ranges shows that concentrations of N0.3-10 are closely related with the schedule of the metro service. Conversely, the hourly variation of N0.007-10 (mainly composed of ultrafine particles) could be partly governed by the entrance of particles from outdoor emissions through mechanical ventilation. Measurements under different ventilation settings at three metro platforms reveal that the effect on air quality linked to changes in the tunnel ventilation depends on the station design. Night-time maintenance works in tunnels are frequent activities in the metro system; and after intense prolonged works, these can result in higher N concentrations at platforms during the following metro operating hours (by up to 30%), this being especially evident for N1-10. Due to the complex mixture of factors controlling N, together with the differences in trends recorded for particles within different size ranges, developing an air quality strategy at metro systems is a great challenge. When compared to street-level urban particles concentrations, the priority in metro air quality should be dealing with particles coarser than 0.3 μm. In fact, the results suggest that at narrow platforms served by single-track tunnels the current forced tunnel ventilation during operating hours is less efficient in reducing coarse particles compared to fine.

  11. Environmental Restoration Program Document Control Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, L.M.

    1993-09-01

    This Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Document Control Plan has been developed to comply with the document control system requirements of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), the Hanford Federal Facility and the ER Program. One of the five components, or summary subprojects, of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program is program management and support, which includes both management systems development and information and data management. Efforts within the management systems development area include the creation of a document control plan. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed and established an overall document control system that governs the methods by which all WHC documents are generated, maintained, and disposed of. The ER Program performing organizations within WHC utilize the established WHC document control systems to the maximum extent possible. These systems are discussed in Chapters 3.0 and 4.0 of this plan. In addition, this plan describes the documents that require control within the ER Program and how they will be controlled.

  12. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) : Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . The Department for International Development (DFID), United Kingdom, is making a grant of up to £1 100 000 to IDRC to cover three years of Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) programming between April 2005 and March ...

  13. Traffic control device evaluation program : FY 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report presents findings on three different activities conducted in the Traffic Control Device Evaluation Program during the 2016 fiscal year. The first two activities are evaluations of full-matrix color light-emitting diode changeable message ...

  14. CONTROL CHART DASHBOARDS MANAGING YOUR NUMBERS INSTEAD OF YOU NUMBER MANAGING YOU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2006-11-15

    This paper, which documents Fluor Hanford's application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) and Dashboards to support planning and decision making, is a sequel to ''Leading with Leading Indicators'' that was presented at WM 05. This year's paper provides more detail on management's use of SPC and control charts and discusses their integration into an executive summary using the popular color-cod3ed dashboard methodology. Fluor Hanford has applied SPC in a non-traditional (that is non-manufacturing) manner. Dr. Shewhart's 75-year-old control-chart methodologies have been updated to modern data processing, but are still founded on his sound, tried and true principles. These methods are playing a key role in safety and quality at what has been called the world's largest environmental cleanup project. The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site played a pivotal role in the nation's defense, beginning in the 1940s when it was established as part of the Manhattan Project. After more than 50 years of producing nuclear weapons, Hanford--which covers 586 square miles in southeastern Washington state--is now focused on three outcomes: (1) restoring the Columbia River corridor for multiple uses; (2) transitioning the central plateau to support long-term waste management; and (3) putting DOE assets to work for the future.

  15. What is the minimum number of patients for quality control of lung cancer management in Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaug, Knut; Eide, Geir E; Gulsvik, Amund

    2016-11-01

    There are few data available on the optimal number of lung cancer patients needed to generate and compare estimates of quality between units managing lung cancer. The number of lung cancer patients per management unit varies considerably in Norway, where there are 42 hospitals that treated between 1 and 454 lung cancer patients in 2011. To estimate the differences in quality indicators that are of sufficient importance to change a pulmonary physician's lung cancer management program, and to estimate the size of the patient samples necessary to detect such differences. Twenty-six physicians were asked about the relative differences from a national average of quality indicators that would change their own lung cancer management program. Sample sizes were calculated to give valid estimates of quality of a management unit based on prevalence of quality indicators and minimally important differences (MID). The average MID in quality indicators that would cause a change in management varied from 18% to 24% among 26 chest physicians, depending on the indicator. To generate precise estimates for quality control of lung cancer care in Norway, the number of management units must be reduced. Given the present willingness of chest physicians to change their procedures for management of lung cancer according to the results of quality control indicators, we recommend a maximum of 10 units with a minimum of 200 incident lung cancer patients per year for each management center. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 0-1 Integer Linear Programming with a Linear Number of Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Impagliazzo, R; Lovett, S; Paturi, R.; Schneider, S.

    2017-01-01

    We give an exact algorithm for the 0-1 Integer Linear Programming problem with a linear number of constraints that improves over exhaustive search by an exponential factor. Specifically, our algorithm runs in time $2^{(1-\\text{poly}(1/c))n}$ where n is the number of variables and cn is the number of constraints. The key idea for the algorithm is a reduction to the Vector Domination problem and a new algorithm for that subproblem.

  17. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  18. Abiotic stress and control of grain number in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolferus, Rudy; Ji, Xuemei; Richards, Richard A

    2011-10-01

    Grain number is the only yield component that is directly associated with increased grain yield in important cereal crops like wheat. Historical yield studies show that increases in grain yield are always accompanied by an increase in grain number. Adverse weather conditions can cause severe fluctuations in grain yield and substantial yield losses in cereal crops. The problem is global and despite its impact on world food production breeding and selection approaches have only met with limited success. A specific period during early reproductive development, the young microspore stage of pollen development, is extremely vulnerable to abiotic stress in self-fertilising cereals (wheat, rice, barley, sorghum). A better understanding of the physiological and molecular processes that lead to stress-induced pollen abortion may provide us with the key to finding solutions for maintaining grain number under abiotic stress conditions. Due to the complexity of the problem, stress-proofing our main cereal crops will be a challenging task and will require joint input from different research disciplines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Cyberspace Command and Control Model (Maxwell Paper, Number 47)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Business and Management (New York: Routledge, 2003). 28. Mark Skinner Watson. Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations (Washington. DC: Center...from the Practice ojCommand and Control ( Mon - terey, CA: National Defense Research Institute, RAND Corporation, 1999). 53. Ibid., xiv. 54. Ibid

  20. Stochastic control theory dynamic programming principle

    CERN Document Server

    Nisio, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the optimal stochastic control theory via the dynamic programming principle, which is a powerful tool to analyze control problems. First we consider completely observable control problems with finite horizons. Using a time discretization we construct a nonlinear semigroup related to the dynamic programming principle (DPP), whose generator provides the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation, and we characterize the value function via the nonlinear semigroup, besides the viscosity solution theory. When we control not only the dynamics of a system but also the terminal time of its evolution, control-stopping problems arise. This problem is treated in the same frameworks, via the nonlinear semigroup. Its results are applicable to the American option price problem. Zero-sum two-player time-homogeneous stochastic differential games and viscosity solutions of the Isaacs equations arising from such games are studied via a nonlinear semigroup related to DPP (the min-ma...

  1. 49 CFR 110.7 - Control Number under the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PUBLIC SECTOR TRAINING AND PLANNING GRANTS § 110.7 Control Number under the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Office of Management and Budget control number assigned to collection of information in...

  2. 21 CFR 203.38 - Sample lot or control numbers; labeling of sample units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sample lot or control numbers; labeling of sample... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Samples § 203.38 Sample lot or control numbers; labeling of sample units. (a) Lot or control number required on drug sample labeling and sample...

  3. Gerontological Training Programs Offered by Latin American Universities: Number, Characteristics, and Disciplinary Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Giuliani, María Florencia; Serrat, Rodrigo; Curcio, Carmen-Lucía; Lopes, Alexandra; Maldonado, María de la Luz Martínez; Oliveira, Rita da Cássia

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges of population aging is to ensure that there are enough trained professionals to meet the changing, specific needs of aging populations. The aim of this study was to describe the number, geographical distribution, and general characteristics of gerontological training programs offered by Latin American universities and to…

  4. Linear programming models and methods of matrix games with payoffs of triangular fuzzy numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Deng-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses two-person zero-sum finite games in which the payoffs in any situation are expressed with fuzzy numbers. The purpose of this book is to develop a suite of effective and efficient linear programming models and methods for solving matrix games with payoffs in fuzzy numbers. Divided into six chapters, it discusses the concepts of solutions of matrix games with payoffs of intervals, along with their linear programming models and methods. Furthermore, it is directly relevant to the research field of matrix games under uncertain economic management. The book offers a valuable resource for readers involved in theoretical research and practical applications from a range of different fields including game theory, operational research, management science, fuzzy mathematical programming, fuzzy mathematics, industrial engineering, business and social economics. .

  5. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, William E.

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above.

  6. Upper Bounds on the Number of Solutions of Binary Integer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Siddhartha; Kadioglu, Serdar; Sellmann, Meinolf

    We present a new method to compute upper bounds of the number of solutions of binary integer programming (BIP) problems. Given a BIP, we create a dynamic programming (DP) table for a redundant knapsack constraint which is obtained by surrogate relaxation. We then consider a Lagrangian relaxation of the original problem to obtain an initial weight bound on the knapsack. This bound is then refined through subgradient optimization. The latter provides a variety of Lagrange multipliers which allow us to filter infeasible edges in the DP table. The number of paths in the final table then provides an upper bound on the number of solutions. Numerical results show the effectiveness of our counting framework on automatic recording and market split problems.

  7. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of the presented refinement approach is that it links formalisms from a top level requirements notation down to programs together in a mathematically coherent development trajectory. The approach uses Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, to specifyrequirements...... for a control task, exemplified by a steam boiler.The same formalism is used to refine requirements to a functional design.Through a suitable transformation this is taken to an event andaction based formalism. Finally components in this design for a distributedarchitecture are transformed to occam-like programs....

  8. Effect of six sigma program on the number of surgeries cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheysari, Esmat; Yousefi, Hojatollah; Soleymani, Hossain; Mojdeh, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Today, the rate of surgeries is increasing, but surgeries are canceled due to various reasons. Unexpected cancellation of surgeries not only results in disorder in the operating room schedule, but also causes stress for patients and their family and increases costs. We determined the number and causes of surgery cancellations and areas for improvement. This outcome evaluation of Six Sigma program was conducted on 850 cases after the implementation of the program and compared to that of 850 cases which received routine care before the program. Cases were selected through easy sampling during the study. Before the implementation, the number of cancellations was recorded daily and their reasons were investigated. Then, Six Sigma program was implemented in accordance with the reasons for each category and necessary steps were taken to prevent the cancellation of surgeries. Data were collected for 3 months using a three-section data collection form. For data analysis, distribution and relative frequency and chi-square test were used. The three categories of patient, physician, and hospital system were identified as the main causes. The highest rate of cancellation was related to ENT surgeries (74.19%). No cancellations were made in orology surgeries. The implementation of the Six Sigma program caused a significant difference in surgery cancellation (P = 0.003); 31 (3.6%) cases of cancellation were reduced to 12 (1.4%) cases. The results showed that Six Sigma program is a pre-surgery care quality improvement program. Patient education and the implementation of the 6 sigma program can be effective in reducing the rate of cancellation of operations.

  9. 25 CFR 503.2 - Display of control numbers and expiration dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Display of control numbers and expiration dates. 503.2 Section 503.2 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS... EXPIRATION DATES § 503.2 Display of control numbers and expiration dates. Part or section number of title 25...

  10. Robust Control Design via Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, L. H.; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of synthesizing or designing a feedback controller of fixed dynamic order. The closed loop specifications considered here are given in terms of a target performance vector representing a desired set of closed loop transfer functions connecting various signals. In general these point targets are unattainable with a fixed order controller. By enlarging the target from a fixed point set to an interval set the solvability conditions with a fixed order controller are relaxed and a solution is more easily enabled. Results from the parametric robust control literature can be used to design the interval target family so that the performance deterioration is acceptable, even when plant uncertainty is present. It is shown that it is possible to devise a computationally simple linear programming approach that attempts to meet the desired closed loop specifications.

  11. Experimental control of a fluidic pinball using genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibaudo, Cedric; Zhong, Peng; Noack, Bernd R.; Martinuzzi, Robert J.

    2017-11-01

    The wake stabilization of a triangular cluster of three rotating cylinders was investigated in the present study. Experiments were performed at Reynolds number Re 6000, and compared with URANS-2D simulations at same flow conditions. 2D2C PIV measurements and constant temperature anemometry were used to characterize the flow without and with actuation. Open-loop actuation was first considered for the identification of particular control strategies. Machine learning control was also implemented for the experimental study. Linear genetic programming has been used for the optimization of open-loop parameters and closed-loop controllers. Considering a cost function J based on the fluctuations of the velocity measured by the hot-wire sensor, significant performances were achieved using the machine learning approach. The present work is supported by the senior author's (R. J. Martinuzzi) NSERC discovery Grant. C. Raibaudo acknowledges the financial support of the University of Calgary Eyes-High PDF program.

  12. An Efficient Ranking Technique for Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers with Its Application in Chance Constrained Bilevel Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a new ranking technique for intuitionistic fuzzy numbers using the method of defuzzification based on probability density function of the corresponding membership function, as well as the complement of nonmembership function. Using the proposed ranking technique a methodology for solving linear bilevel fuzzy stochastic programming problem involving normal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers is developed. In the solution process each objective is solved independently to set the individual goal value of the objectives of the decision makers and thereby constructing fuzzy membership goal of the objectives of each decision maker. Finally, a fuzzy goal programming approach is considered to achieve the highest membership degree to the extent possible of each of the membership goals of the decision makers in the decision making context. Illustrative numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology and the achieved results are compared with existing techniques.

  13. Controller design approach based on linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryo; Shibasaki, Hiroki; Ogawa, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa

    2013-11-01

    This study explains and demonstrates the design method for a control system with a load disturbance observer. Observer gains are determined by linear programming (LP) in terms of the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion and the final-value theorem. In addition, the control model has a feedback structure, and feedback gains are determined to be the linear quadratic regulator. The simulation results confirmed that compared with the conventional method, the output estimated by our proposed method converges to a reference input faster when a load disturbance is added to a control system. In addition, we also confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method by performing an experiment with a DC motor. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  14. 7 CFR 20.12 - OMB control number assigned pursuant to Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OMB control number assigned pursuant to Paperwork Reduction Act. 20.12 Section 20.12 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EXPORT SALES REPORTING... Budget (OMB) under the provisions of 44 U.S.C. chapter 35 and have been assigned OMB control number 0551...

  15. 7 CFR 1940.350 - Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number....350 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number. The collection of information requirements in this regulation has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget and has been assigned OMB...

  16. Programs for control of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Bittencourt, Laura Helena França de Barros; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2011-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis can cause miscarriage and neurological and/or eye damage to the fetus. Since Austria and France established the prenatal screening, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis has declined from 50% to 35% and 84% to 44%, respectively. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom, have educational practices to reduce the risk of infection in seronegative pregnant women. In Brazil, prenatal screening is carried out in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Minas Gerais and the cities of Curitiba and Porto Alegre. In Londrina, state of Parana, the "Health Surveillance Program for Toxoplasmosis Acquired during Pregnancy and Congenital Toxoplasmosis" was established, which is based on serological screening, advising on prevention measures and quarterly serological monitoring in pregnant women that are initially seronegative, in addition to the monitoring of pregnant women and children with acute infection and case notification. In the first four years of implementation, the program evaluation showed a 63% reduction in the number of pregnant women and 42% in the number of children referred to reference services, resulting in the opening of vacancies for the care of patients with other diseases. As for medications, there was a 62% reduction in consumption of folic acid and 67% of sulfadiazine. Moreover, the definition of the protocols resulted in the standardization of care and safety for the decision-making by physicians. Therefore, as there are several protocols individualized in various departments and regions, the establishment of an ideal, consensual conduct with technical support, will result in implementing measures that will certainly save public resources, with the decrease in congenital toxoplasmosis.

  17. Is the Program-Specific Paragraph Responsible for Declining Application Numbers? A Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Scott

    2018-02-01

    An alarming trend of declining applications to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery has surfaced over the past 3 years. There are many possible explanations for this decline, and a recent publication has implicated "impossible" qualifications as the reason for this decline. While these qualifications may deter a significant number of potential applicants, they have not changed significantly in the past 5 years and do not seem to explain a sudden decline. This commentary argues that the program-specific paragraph, which was introduced in 2015, may be at least in part responsible.

  18. Maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkisson, B P

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the operating procedures for the maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program for the Maintenance Management Department of the ORNL Instrumentation and Controls Division.

  19. 15 CFR 752.11 - Internal Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal Control Programs. 752.11... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.11 Internal Control Programs. (a) Scope—(1) Introduction. It is through Internal Control Programs (ICPs) that the SCL holder and the consignee assure that exports and reexports are not...

  20. The Quality Control Program for Industrial Hygiene Laboratories in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Dong; Chung, Eun Kyo; Kim, Kiwoong

    2017-09-01

    In 1992, the quality control program was introduced in Republic of Korea to improve the reliability of the work environment monitoring, which was introduced in the 1980s. The commission entrusted by the Ministry of Employment and Labor, the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute has conducted the program for industrial hygiene laboratories including designated monitoring institutions and spontaneously participating agencies. The number of institutions that participated in the program has increased from 30 to 161. The initial conformance ratio in the participants was 43% (organic solvents) and 52% (metals). Thereafter, the conformance ratio increased rapidly and it has remained in a stable state at more than 89% since 1996. As subject materials, 13 kinds of organic solvents and 7 kinds of metals were used. To improve the capability of measurement and analysis of private institutions, educational courses were conducted annually. An assessment at the actual sites of participants was additionally introduced into the program in 2013. Thus, the program turned into a system that administrates the overall process of participants. For the future, the scope of target materials will be extended through additional items. Thus, the reliability of the results of the work environment monitoring is expected to increase accordingly.

  1. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve

  2. Seniors' Program for Injury Control and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbrook, M C; Stevens, V J; Wingfield, D J

    1993-03-01

    The Seniors' Program for Injury Control and Education (SPICE) examines the effects of exercise and physical fitness on falls and related injuries among older persons. The design is a two-group, randomized trial with 2 years of follow-up. The study is at Northwest Region of Kaiser Permanente (NWKP), a large hospital-based prepaid group practice HMO in Portland, OR. The participants are 1,323 community-living persons 65 years or older who are enrolled in NWKP and are at moderate risk of falling. A multifaceted intervention strategy uses a group approach to falls and injury prevention which includes moderate intensity endurance-building exercise (walking), strength and balance training, home safety improvements, and mental practice. Sessions of 20-25 participants are led by two nurses. Participants set their own realistic goals for exercising to accommodate to differing functional abilities and baseline conditioning. The control group receives usual care from the HMO. Participants report all falls for 2 years after randomization. Outcome measures include health status, physical functioning, falls, and fall-related medical care use and cost. If SPICE is effective, cost-effectiveness analysis will examine the relative efficiency of SPICE versus other successful FICSIT interventions. Thus far, recruitment and intervention compliance goals have been met from a population of frail elderly HMO members.

  3. A distributed implementation of a mode switching control program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdgaard, Michael; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Ravn, Anders P.

    1995-01-01

    A distributed implementation of a mode switched control program for a robot is described. The design of the control program is given by a set of real-time automatons. One of them plans a schedule for switching between a fixed set of control functions, another dispatches the control functions...

  4. Counting on the mental number line to make a move: Sensorimotor ('pen') control and numerical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheridan, R.; Rooijen, M. van; Giles, O.; Mushtaq, F.; Steenbergen, B.; Mon-Williams, M.; Waterman, A.H.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics is often conducted with a writing implement. But is there a relationship between numerical processing and sensorimotor 'pen' control? We asked participants to move a stylus so it crossed an unmarked line at a location specified by a symbolic number (1-9), where number colour indicated

  5. Challenges of Tobacco Control Program in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Mohammadi, Younes; Mahmoodi, Azam

    2017-04-01

    This study assessed the status of cigarette marketing in Iran as well as the attitude of smokers toward smoking and the policies and tobacco control programs in the country. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 3480 volunteer smokers in six provinces, using a stratified cluster random sampling method. The study population consisted of smokers who used at least one cigarette per day. The data collection tool was an anonymous self-administered questionnaire including basic information and 20 five-choice questions related to participants' attitude toward smoking habits (Cronbach's alpha; 79.73%.). The majority (66.9%) of participants started smoking at the age of 10 to 19 years and 61.1% used foreign cigarettes. Of 160 marketed brands, 38 (23.8%) were domestic and 122 (76.2%) were foreign, including 63 (39.3%) imported and 59 (36.9%) smuggled brands. Being tempted (25.0%), getting nervous (24.1%), and seeking euphoria (24.1%) were the most common reasons for restarting cigarette smoking after cessation. The majority of participants believed that smoking in public places was a violation of the rights of others and smoking should be avoided in such places. Smoking prevention programs should focus on adolescents as the most vulnerable age group. Raising the retail price of tobacco products through increasing taxes can reduce consumption, particularly among first starters and youth. However, increasing taxes and prices of tobacco products may be effective when simultaneous effective measures are implemented to eliminate all kinds of illicit trade in all forms of tobacco products.

  6. Does a predialysis education program increase the number of pre-emptive renal transplantations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, E; Cetinkaya, R; Keles, M; Gulcan, E; Uyanik, A; Kisaoglu, A; Ozogul, B; Ozturk, G; Aydinli, B

    2013-04-01

    Renal transplantation (RT) is the most appropriate form of treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Pre-emptive RT decreases the rates of delayed graft function and acute rejection episodes, increasing patient and graft survival, while reducing costs and complications associated with dialysis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between a predialysis education program (PDEP) for patients and their relatives and pre-emptive RT. We divided 88 live donor kidney transplant recipients into 2 groups: transplantation without education (non-PDEP group; n = 27), and enrollment in an education program before RT (PDEP group n = 61). Five patients in the non-PDEP group underwent pre-emptive transplantation, versus 26 of the PDEP group. The rate of pre-emptive transplantations was significantly higher among the educated (42.62%) versus the noneducated group (18.51%; P < .001). PDEP increased the number of pre-emptive kidney transplantations among ESRD patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number 0Y521 Series, Items..., which amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by establishing a new Export Control... because it provides a significant military or intelligence advantage to the United States or because...

  8. 77 FR 38650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status, OMB Control Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status, OMB Control Number 1615-0070; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved... Services Statistical Data for Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status; OMB Control No.1615-0070. The Department of...

  9. 75 FR 51503 - Existing Collection in Use Without an OMB Control Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PEACE CORPS Existing... and Budget (OMB) for approval of an existing collection in use without an OMB Control Number. In... public to comment on this request for approval of an existing collection in use without an OMB Control...

  10. [The new Tuberculosis Control Program of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Toru

    2006-07-01

    The 1951 Tuberculosis Control Law of Japan was amended extensively and has been in effect since April, 2005. The revision of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) is to respond to the tremendous changes that have occurred during the last 50 years in tuberculosis epidemiology and in the environment in tuberculosis control implementation. In this review, the main points and framework of the revisions were summarized and the perspective of the development of new technical innovations relevant to each area of the revised TB control legislation is discussed. Also, challenges of Japan's NTP in the recent future are discussed, including the controversies over the proposed abolishment of the Tuberculosis Control Law. 1. IMMUNIZATION: In the revision of NTP, the BCG vaccination of elementary school and junior-high school entrants was discontinued. In order to strengthen the early primary vaccination for infants, the new Law has adopted the direct vaccination scheme omitting tuberculin testing prior to immunization. This program is implemented to young babies, i.e., less than six months old, as defined by the decree. It is a heavy responsibility for the municipalities to ensure the high coverage of immunization when the period of legal vaccination is rather strictly limited practically to the fourth to sixth months after birth. The safe direct vaccination is another new challenge where appropriate management of the Koch's phenomenon or similar reactions should be warranted. 2. CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS: Though unfortunately suspended for some legal reason currently, the expansion and improvement of chemoprophylaxis, or treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, to cover anyone with higher risk of clinical development of TB would have a tremendous effect in Japan, especially since 90% of patients who developed TB were infected tens of years ago. The technical innovations in diagnosis of TB infection such as QuantiFERON will be very helpful. Development of new drugs or drug regimens

  11. [A new program-controlled telemetry technology for pacemakers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Huang, Xin-ming; Fang, Zu-xinag

    2002-09-01

    This thesis is about a new technology of program-controlled telemetry for pacemakers. The system utilizes digital logic circuit design, and the program-controlled part uses single chip to control for display and debug. PWM and reflectance telemetry may improve the preciseness and correctness of signal transmission, and reduce the power consumption of pacemakers and prolong the lifetime.

  12. 76 FR 3690 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-10, Birth Affidavit, OMB Control Number 1405...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-10, Birth Affidavit, OMB Control Number 1405-0132 ACTION... Collection: Birth Affidavit. OMB Control Number: 1405-0132. Type of Request: Extension of a Currently... form number (if applicable), information collection title, and OMB control number in any correspondence...

  13. Odd-number theorem: Optical feedback control at a subcritical Hopf bifurcation in a semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, S.; Wünsche, H.-J.; Henneberger, F.

    2011-02-01

    A subcritical Hopf bifurcation is prepared in a multisection semiconductor laser. In the free-running state, hysteresis is absent due to noise-induced escape processes. The missing branches are recovered by stabilizing them against noise through application of phase-sensitive noninvasive delayed optical feedback control. The same type of control is successfully used to stabilize the unstable pulsations born in the Hopf bifurcation. This experimental finding represents an optical counterexample to the so-called odd-number limitation of delayed feedback control. However, as a leftover of the limitation, the domains of control are extremely small.

  14. A method of extracting the number of trial participants from abstracts describing randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Marie J; Rasmussen, Nana Ø; Chung, Grace

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method for extracting the number of trial participants from abstracts describing randomized controlled trials (RCTs); the number of trial participants may be an indication of the reliability of the trial. The method depends on statistical natural language processing. The number of interest was determined by a binary supervised classification based on a support vector machine algorithm. The method was trialled on 223 abstracts in which the number of trial participants was identified manually to act as a gold standard. Automatic extraction resulted in 2 false-positive and 19 false-negative classifications. The algorithm was capable of extracting the number of trial participants with an accuracy of 97% and an F-measure of 0.84. The algorithm may improve the selection of relevant articles in regard to question-answering, and hence may assist in decision-making.

  15. Physics of lateral triple quantum-dot molecules with controlled electron numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Shim, Yun-Pil; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2012-11-01

    We review the recent progress in theory and experiments with lateral triple quantum dots with controlled electron numbers down to one electron in each dot. The theory covers electronic and spin properties as a function of topology, number of electrons, gate voltage and external magnetic field. The orbital Hund's rules and Nagaoka ferromagnetism, magnetic frustration and chirality, interplay of quantum interference and electron-electron interactions and geometrical phases are described and related to charging and transport spectroscopy. Fabrication techniques and recent experiments are covered, as well as potential applications of triple quantum-dot molecule in coherent control, spin manipulation and quantum computation.

  16. Mehar Methods for Fuzzy Optimal Solution and Sensitivity Analysis of Fuzzy Linear Programming with Symmetric Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhpreet Kaur Sidhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The drawbacks of the existing methods to obtain the fuzzy optimal solution of such linear programming problems, in which coefficients of the constraints are represented by real numbers and all the other parameters as well as variables are represented by symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, are pointed out, and to resolve these drawbacks, a new method (named as Mehar method is proposed for the same linear programming problems. Also, with the help of proposed Mehar method, a new method, much easy as compared to the existing methods, is proposed to deal with the sensitivity analysis of the same type of linear programming problems.

  17. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  18. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3406(j)-1 - Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... data base utilized for the particular matching program. For purposes of this section, the term payor... will be set forth in the guidance establishing the program. (e) Definition of account. Account means...

  20. Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Each day, between 12 to 13 U.S. workers die as a result of a traumatic injury on the job. Investigations conducted through the FACE program allow the identification...

  1. Division of Environmental Control Technology program, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Environmental engineering programs are reviewed for the following technologies; coal; petroleum and gas; oil shale; solar; geothermal and energy conservation; nuclear energy; and decontamination and decommissioning. Separate abstracts were prepared for each technology. (MHR)

  2. Beyond the Numbers: Data Use for Continuous Improvement of Programs Serving Disconnected Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Austin; Lerner, Jennifer Brown; Browning, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a series of in-depth case studies to examine how three programs which serve a disconnected youth population are utilizing data as a tool for continuous program improvement and ongoing accountability. The report features the following programs: (1) Roca, an organization in Massachusetts which engages the highest-risk youth in…

  3. 75 FR 3483 - Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0129; Captive Wildlife Safety Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    .... Do not engage in commercial trade in the prohibited wildlife species including offspring, parts, and... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0129; Captive Wildlife Safety Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments...

  4. The Strange Death of Number Controls in England: Paradoxical Adventures in Higher Education Market Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaig, Colin; Taylor, Carol

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyses the impact of a higher education (HE) funding mechanism, the "High Grades" policy, introduced as part of a student number control regime in England that was introduced in 2012/13 and withdrawn after only two years. This marked the end of an experiment in market making based on quality and price within a fixed student…

  5. Pole-placement Predictive Functional Control for under-damped systems with real numbers algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabet, K; Rossiter, J A; Haber, R; Abdullah, M

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the new algorithm of PP-PFC (Pole-placement Predictive Functional Control) for stable, linear under-damped higher-order processes. It is shown that while conventional PFC aims to get first-order exponential behavior, this is not always straightforward with significant under-damped modes and hence a pole-placement PFC algorithm is proposed which can be tuned more precisely to achieve the desired dynamics, but exploits complex number algebra and linear combinations in order to deliver guarantees of stability and performance. Nevertheless, practical implementation is easier by avoiding complex number algebra and hence a modified formulation of the PP-PFC algorithm is also presented which utilises just real numbers while retaining the key attributes of simple algebra, coding and tuning. The potential advantages are demonstrated with numerical examples and real-time control of a laboratory plant. Copyright © 2017 ISA. All rights reserved.

  6. A Method of Determination of an Acquisition Program in Order to Maximize the Total Utility Using Linear Programming in Integer Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Cristian Ioan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper solves in a different way the problem of maximization of the total utility using the linear programming in integer numbers. The author uses the diofantic equations (equations in integers numbers and after a decomposing in different cases, he obtains the maximal utility.

  7. Transmission Control Protocol, DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    particular a source or destination of messages from the point of view of the communicatio network. identification An Internet Protocol field. This...15-( RFC- 793 "* •TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL ’-v DARPA INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION September 1981 S... INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION 1. INTRODUCTION The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is intended for use as a highly reliable host-to-host

  8. Modelling, simulation and geometric optimization of cross flow recuperative heat exchanger based on controllability condition number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the algebraic mathematical model of cross - flow heat exchanger derived on the basis of transport approach. Theirs operation in the face of variable loads is usually controlled by manipulating inlet fluid temperatures or mass flow rates, where the controlled variable is usually the output temperature of principal flow. The aim of this paper is to optimize the geometry of a tube with the inlet flow of principal incompressible fluid and an external cross - country flow of compressible fluid, based on performance index expressed throughout its controllability characteristics. Thus the condition number has been used to provide the necessary information on the best situation for control of the exchanger under consideration. This concept can also provide us with information about the easiest operating condition to control a particular output. A transient model of a cross-flow heat exchanger is developed, where an implicit formulation is used for transient numerical solutions. The condition number performed throughout the ratio of geometric parameters of tube is optimized, subject to volume constraints, based on the optimum operation in terms of output controllability. The reported optimized aspect ratio, water mass flow rate and output controllability are studied for different external properties of the tube.

  9. Bio-electrospraying and droplet-based microfluidics: control of cell numbers within living residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Jongin; DeMello, Andrew J [Nanostructured Materials and Devices Group, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jayasinghe, Suwan N, E-mail: a.demello@imperial.ac.u, E-mail: s.jayasinghe@ucl.ac.u [BioPhysics Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Bio-electrospraying (BES) has demonstrated great promise as a rapidly evolving strategy for tissue engineering and regenerative biology/medicine. Since its discovery in 2005, many studies have confirmed that cells (immortalized, primary and stem cells) and whole organisms (Danio rerio, Xenopus tropicalis, Caenorhabditis elegans to Drosophila) remain viable post-bio-electrospraying. Although this bio-protocol has achieved much, it suffers from one crucial problem, namely the ability to precisely control the number of cells within droplets and or encapsulations. If overcome, BES has the potential to become a high-efficiency biotechnique for controlled cell encapsulation, a technique most useful for a wide range of applications in biology and medicine ranging from the forming of three-dimensional cultures to an approach for treating diseases such as type I diabetes. In this communication, we address this issue by demonstrating the coupling of BES with droplet-based microfluidics for controlling live cell numbers within droplets and residues. (communication)

  10. The Advanced Controls Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs.

  11. Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration Based on Benchmark Simulation Model Number 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, the dissolved oxygen is the key variable to be controlled in bioreactors. In this paper, linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC is utilized to track the dissolved oxygen concentration based on benchmark simulation model number 1 (BSM1. Optimal LADRC parameters tuning approach for wastewater treatment processes is obtained by analyzing and simulations on BSM1. Moreover, by analyzing the estimation capacity of linear extended state observer (LESO in the control of dissolved oxygen, the parameter range of LESO is acquired, which is a valuable guidance for parameter tuning in simulation and even in practice. The simulation results show that LADRC can overcome the disturbance existing in the control of wastewater and improve the tracking accuracy of dissolved oxygen. LADRC provides another practical solution to the control of WWTPs.

  12. Bear Lake Unit of the Tallahatchie NWR - Field Numbers for the Forestry Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts the field and stand numbers of the entire refuge in 1998. Management treatments in other sources are based on these same numbers.

  13. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems.

  14. Does programmed CTL proliferation optimize virus control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2005-01-01

    CD8 T-cell or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses develop through an antigen-independent proliferation and differentiation program. This is in contrast to the previous thinking, which was that continuous antigenic stimulation was required. This Opinion discusses why nature has chosen the proliferati...

  15. Sweep and Compressibility Effects on Active Separation Control at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Avi; Pack, LaTunia G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of compressibility, sweep and excitation location on active separation control at high Reynolds numbers. The model, which was tested in a cryogenic pressurized wind tunnel, simulates the upper surface of a 20% thick GlauertGoldschmied type airfoil at zero angle of attack. The flow is fully turbulent since the tunnel sidewall boundary layer flows over the model. Without control, the flow separates at the highly convex area and a large turbulent separation bubble is formed. Periodic excitation is applied to gradually eliminate the separation bubble. Two alternative blowing slot locations as well as the effect of compressibility, sweep and steady suction or blowing were studied. During the test the Reynolds numbers ranged from 2 to 40 million and Mach numbers ranged from 0.2 to 0.7. Sweep angles were 0 and 30 deg. It was found that excitation must be introduced slightly upstream of the separation region regardless of the sweep angle at low Mach number. Introduction of excitation upstream of the shock wave is more effective than at its foot. Compressibility reduces the ability of steady mass transfer and periodic excitation to control the separation bubble but excitation has an effect on the integral parameters, which is similar to that observed in low Mach numbers. The conventional swept flow scaling is valid for fully and even partially attached flow, but different scaling is required for the separated 3D flow. The effectiveness of the active control is not reduced by sweep. Detailed flow field dynamics are described in the accompanying paper.

  16. 78 FR 25766 - OMB Control Number 1006-0006; Agency Information Collection Activities Under OMB Review; Renewal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation OMB Control Number 1006-0006; Agency Information Collection Activities Under OMB... 43 CFR part 428 (OMB Control Number 1006-0006). DATES: OMB has up to 60 days to approve or disapprove...-0007. Please reference OMB Control Number 1006- 0006 in your comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  17. Optimization of approximate decision rules relative to number of misclassifications: Comparison of greedy and dynamic programming approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we present a comparison of dynamic programming and greedy approaches for construction and optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the number of misclassifications. We use an uncertainty measure that is a difference between the number of rows in a decision table T and the number of rows with the most common decision for T. For a nonnegative real number γ, we consider γ-decision rules that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most γ. Experimental results with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository are also presented. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Optimization of Control Points Number at Coordinate Measurements based on the Monte-Carlo Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, A. A.; Kochetkov, A. V.; Zakharov, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Improving the quality of products causes an increase in the requirements for the accuracy of the dimensions and shape of the surfaces of the workpieces. This, in turn, raises the requirements for accuracy and productivity of measuring of the workpieces. The use of coordinate measuring machines is currently the most effective measuring tool for solving similar problems. The article proposes a method for optimizing the number of control points using Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the measurement of a small sample from batches of workpieces, statistical modeling is performed, which allows one to obtain interval estimates of the measurement error. This approach is demonstrated by examples of applications for flatness, cylindricity and sphericity. Four options of uniform and uneven arrangement of control points are considered and their comparison is given. It is revealed that when the number of control points decreases, the arithmetic mean decreases, the standard deviation of the measurement error increases and the probability of the measurement α-error increases. In general, it has been established that it is possible to repeatedly reduce the number of control points while maintaining the required measurement accuracy.

  19. NIM: A Game-Playing Program. Artificial Intelligence Memo Number 254.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papert, Seymour; Solomon, Cynthia

    Students learned to plan and write complex computer programs by writing a program for playing NIM, a game in which two players alternatively remove one, two, or three sticks from an original pile of 21, with the player taking the last one being the winner. The primary teaching purpose was to develop the idea that a final goal--i.e., winning--could…

  20. Impact of Government Benefit Programs Declines, Adds to Number of Poor Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.

    The paper summarizes the results of an analysis of recently issued Census data. Examining the anti-poverty effectiveness of cash and non-cash benefit programs from 1979 to 1986, the analysis focuses on the impacts of those programs on families with children, the group whose poverty rate has risen most rapidly since 1979. The data reveal that…

  1. Delta Program Fourth-Year Implementation. Feedback. Publication Number 98-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt-Keswick, Karen

    The Diversified Education through Leadership, Technology, and Academics (DELTA) program of the Austin Independent School District (AISD), Texas, serves students at each of the AISD 10 regular high schools. The goal of this open-entry, open-exit, competency-based diploma program is to recover former dropouts and to prevent students at risk of…

  2. Cell biology in neuroscience: Architects in neural circuit design: glia control neuron numbers and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corty, Megan M; Freeman, Marc R

    2013-11-11

    Glia serve many important functions in the mature nervous system. In addition, these diverse cells have emerged as essential participants in nearly all aspects of neural development. Improved techniques to study neurons in the absence of glia, and to visualize and manipulate glia in vivo, have greatly expanded our knowledge of glial biology and neuron-glia interactions during development. Exciting studies in the last decade have begun to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which glia exert control over neuronal circuit formation. Recent findings illustrate the importance of glial cells in shaping the nervous system by controlling the number and connectivity of neurons.

  3. Influence on number of top-ups after implementing patient controlled epidural analgesia: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Ganapathy; Hermanns, Henning; Lirk, Philipp; Hollmann, Markus W; Stevens, Markus F

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative epidural analgesia often needs rate readjustment using top-ups. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) is said to reduce the requirement of epidural top-ups when compared to continuous epidural analgesia (CEA). We compared CEA and PCEA in major thoracic and abdominal surgery, in a cohort study. The primary endpoint was the required number of epidural top-ups. Secondary endpoints were pain scores, side effects and workload differences. We analysed 199 patients with CEA and 187 with PCEA. Both groups had similar pain scores. The total number of top-ups was 75 in 57 patients (CEA) versus 20 top-ups in 18 patients (PCEA). (p = 0.0001) Sedation tended to occur more frequently in patients with CEA versus PCEA, 5.5% vs 1.6% (p = 0.05). Implementation of PCEA led to a decreased number of top-ups, fewer side-effects and decreased use of the postoperative care unit.

  4. Flow Control Methods and Their Applicability in Low-Reynolds-Number Centrifugal Compressors—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Tiainen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in the performance of centrifugal compressors operating at low Reynolds numbers (e.g., unmanned aerial vehicles at high altitudes or small turbomachines can reach 10% due to increased friction. The purposes of this review are to represent the state-of-the-art of the active and passive flow control methods used to improve performance and/or widen the operating range in numerous engineering applications, and to investigate their applicability in low-Reynolds-number centrifugal compressors. The applicable method should increase performance by reducing drag, increasing blade loading, or reducing tip leakage. Based on the aerodynamic and structural demands, passive methods like riblets, squealers, winglets and grooves could be beneficial; however, the drawbacks of these approaches are that their performance depends on the operating conditions and the effect might be negative at higher Reynolds numbers. The flow control method, which would reduce the boundary layer thickness and reduce wake, could have a beneficial impact on the performance of a low-Reynolds-number compressor in the entire operating range, but none of the methods represented in this review fully fulfil this objective.

  5. Program Manager: Volume 26, Number 6, DSMC 141. November-December 1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... Some of the articles are Coming Soon - Army's New Integrated, Digitized C2 System for Medical and Tactical Commanders, Small Business Innovation Research Program - A Potent DoD Resource,, Defense...

  6. Sterility method of pest control and its potential role in an integrated sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lee H.; Manion, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    The sterility method of pest control could be an effective tool in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program in the Great Lakes. Some of the requirements for its successful application have been met. A field study demonstrated that the release of male sea lampreys, sterilized by the injection of 100 mg/kg of P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir), will reduce the number of viable larvae produced. The actual reduction in reproductive success that occurred was directly related to the ratio of sterile to normal males in the population. The technique can be used in many ways in an integrated control program and has considerable potential for the more effective control of the sea lamprey. Eradication is a distinct possibility.Key words: sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus; pest control, fish control, sterile-male technique, sterilization, chemosterilants, bisazir, Great Lakes

  7. Additional operations in algebra of structural numbers for control algorithm development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morhun A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural numbers and the algebra of the structural numbers due to the simplicity of representation, flexibility and current algebraic operations are the powerful tool for a wide range of applications. In autonomous power supply systems and systems with distributed generation (Micro Grid mathematical apparatus of structural numbers can be effectively used for the calculation of the parameters of the operating modes of consumption of electric energy. The purpose of the article is the representation of the additional algebra of structural numbers. The standard algebra was proposed to be extended by the additional operations and modification current in order to expand the scope of their use, namely to construct a flexible, adaptive algorithms of control systems. It is achieved due to the possibility to consider each individual component of the system with its parameters and provide easy management of entire system and each individual component. Thus, structural numbers and extended algebra are the perspective line of research and further studying is required.

  8. Pilot Mentorship Program for Tobacco Control Researchers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will do so by offering expanded capacity-building opportunities for tobacco control researchers through a parallel mentorship program. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) has identified an initial cadre of awardees who possess excellent tobacco control leadership potential. The idea is to enhance the ...

  9. Formative Evaluation of a University Birth Control Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettman, Julie K. Doidge; Sarvela, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A university birth control education program was created to improve student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Students attended a birth control class before visiting the health clinic for prescriptions. Pre- and posttest questionnaires and clinician assessments indicated knowledge of birth control improved significantly, and students became…

  10. Evaluation program of the integrated surveillance and control ISACS -- An advanced control room prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstroem, C.B.O.; Endestad, T.; Follesoe, K.; Foerdestroemmen, N.T.; Haugset, K.; Volden, F.S. (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway). Inst. for Energiteknikk)

    1994-07-01

    The concept of an integrated surveillance and control system (ISACS) has been developed into a first prototype, ISACS-1, which is now in operation at the pressurized water reactor simulator-based experimental control room HAMMLAB of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Halden Reactor Project, Halden, Norway. It is characteristic of ISACS that it covers the whole interface between the process and the operator, and this interface is fully computerized using tools like cathode ray tubes and dynamic keyboards. In addition, a large number of computerized operator support systems are included in ISACS. The ISACS-1 is presently subject to extensive evaluation. The test and evaluation program aims at both providing design feedback and addressing general human-machine topics in advanced control rooms. The program is separated into three stages, starting with basic human factors work concerning layout and coding remedies. The next stage focuses on the qualitative aspects of the ISACS interface. In the final stage, the evaluation addresses higher level human factors issues, including experiments to evaluate ISAC's impact on the operator's overview and understanding of the current status of the process. The goal is to investigate how modern computer technology can be used to improve operational safety and efficiency of nuclear power plants and other complex processes.

  11. Tank waste remediation system heat stress control program report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carls, D.R.

    1995-09-28

    Protecting employees from heat stress within tank farms during the summer months is challenging. Work constraints typically experienced in tank farms complicate the measures taken to protect employees from heat stress. TWRS-Industrial Hygiene (IH) has endeavored to control heat stress injuries by anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling the factors which lead or contribute to heat stress in Tank Farms. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program covers such areas as: employee and PIC training, communication of daily heat stress alerts to tank farm personnel, setting work/rest regimens, and the use of engineering and personal protective controls when applicable. The program has increased worker awareness of heat stress and prevention, established provisions for worker rest periods, increased drinking water availability to help ensure worker hydration, and allowed for the increased use of other protective controls to combat heat stress. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program is the cornerstone for controlling heat stress among tank farm employees. The program has made great strides since it`s inception during the summer of 1994. Some improvements can still be made to enhance the program for the summer of 1996, such as: (1) procurement and use of personal heat stress monitoring equipment to ensure appropriate application of administrative controls, (2) decrease the need for use of containment tents and anti-contamination clothing, and (3) providing a wider variety of engineering and personal protective controls for heat stress prevention

  12. Reduction of podocytes number in late diabetic alloxan nephropathy: prevention by glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Célia Sperandéo; Lerco, Mauro Masson; Capelletti, Sônia Maria; Silva, Reinaldo José; Pinheiro, Daniela de Oliveira; Spadella, César Tadeu

    2007-01-01

    To determine podocyte number and GBM thickness in diabetic rats either under glycemic control or without glycemic control at 6 and 12 months after diabetes induction. 100 Wistar rats weighing 200-300g were divided into 6 groups: Normal group (N6 and N12- 25 rats); Diabetic group (D6 and D12- 25 rats), diabetic treated group ( DT 6 and DT 12- 25 rats) on insulin 1,8- 3,0 IU/Kg associated with acarbose (50 mg to 100g of food) daily mixed in chow. Alloxan was injected intravenously in a dose of 42 mg/Kg of weight. Body weight, water intake, 24-h diuresis, glycemia and glucosuria were determined before induction, 7 and 14 days after induction and monthly thereafter. Treatment started at day 14. Three groups were sacrificed at 6 months (N6,D6, DT6) and 3 groups at 12 months (N12, D12, DT12) with the renal tissue being prepared for electron microscopy. Glycemia in DT6" and in DT12 was significantly different from that in D6 and D12 rats and similar to that in N6 and N12 animals. The number of podocytes in DT6 was not different from that in N6 and D6 (median = 11); the number of podocytes in DT12 (median = 11) differed from that in D12 (median = 8), but not from that in N12 (median = 11). GBM thickness in D6 (0.18 micrometers) was lower than in D12 (0.29 micrometers); while in DT6 (0.16 micrometers) it was lower than in D6 (0.18 micrometers). In DT12 (0.26 micrometers), it was lower than in D12 (0.29 micrometers). The control of hyperglycemia prevented GBM thickening in early and late (12 mo) alloxan diabetic nephropathy and podocyte number reduction.

  13. Evaluation of Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Laus, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in hospital institutions regarding structure and process indicators. this is a descriptive, exploratory and quantitative study conducted in 2013. The study population comprised 13 Nosocomial Infection Control Programs of health services in a Brazilian city of the state of São Paulo. Public domain instruments available in the Manual of Evaluation Indicators of Nosocomial Infection Control Practices were used. The indicators with the highest average compliance were "Evaluation of the Structure of the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs" (75%) and "Evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Nosocomial Infection" (82%) and those with the lowest mean compliance scores were "Evaluation of Operational Guidelines" (58.97%) and "Evaluation of Activities of Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Infection" (60.29%). The use of indicators identified that, despite having produced knowledge about prevention and control of nosocomial infections, there is still a large gap between the practice and the recommendations.

  14. The first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Howard K.; Judge, Christine M.; Robbins, Harriet; Celebucki, Carolyn Cobb; Walker, Deborah K.; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program (MTCP). Born after Massachusetts passed a 1992 ballot initiative raising cigarette excise taxes to fund the program, MTCP greatly reduced statewide cigarette consumption before being reduced to a skeletal state by funding cuts. The article describes the program's components and goals, details outcomes, presents a summary of policy accomplishments, and reviews the present status of M...

  15. An intervention program to reduce the number of hospitalizations of elderly patients in a primary care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Maya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population consumes a large share of medical resources in the western world. A significant portion of the expense is related to hospitalizations. Objectives To evaluate an intervention program designed to reduce the number of hospitalization of elderly patients by a more optimal allocation of resources in primary care. Methods A multidimensional intervention program was conducted that included the re-engineering of existing work processes with a focus on the management of patient problems, improving communication with outside agencies, and the establishment of a system to monitor quality of healthcare parameters. Data on the number of hospitalizations and their cost were compared before and after implementation of the intervention program. Results As a result of the intervention the mean expenditure per elderly patient was reduced by 22.5%. The adjusted number of hospitalizations/1,000 declined from 15.1 to 10.7 (29.3%. The number of adjusted hospitalization days dropped from 132 to 82 (37.9% and the mean hospitalization stay declined from 8.2 to 6.7 days (17.9%. The adjusted hospitalization cost ($/1,000 patients dropped from $32,574 to $18,624 (42.8%. The overall clinic expense, for all age groups, dropped by 9.9%. Conclusion Implementation of the intervention program in a single primary care clinic led to a reduction in hospitalizations for the elderly patient population and to a more optimal allocation of healthcare resources.

  16. Education by the Numbers: The Fiscal Effect of School Choice Programs, 1990-2006. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    School choice programs, which allow students to attend the public or private school of their choice using public funds, have taken root in the U.S. and are growing rapidly both in number and size. Their fiscal impact has become an important political issue. Proponents say school choice saves money because private schooling is more efficient,…

  17. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlschlagl, H

    1991-01-01

    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than

  18. A Formal Verification Methodology for DDD Mode Pacemaker Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Shuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacemakers are safety-critical devices whose faulty behaviors can cause harm or even death. Often these faulty behaviors are caused due to bugs in programs used for digital control of pacemakers. We present a formal verification methodology that can be used to check the correctness of object code programs that implement the safety-critical control functions of DDD mode pacemakers. Our methodology is based on the theory of Well-Founded Equivalence Bisimulation (WEB refinement, where both formal specifications and implementation are treated as transition systems. We develop a simple and general formal specification for DDD mode pacemakers. We also develop correctness proof obligations that can be applied to validate object code programs used for pacemaker control. Using our methodology, we were able to verify a control program with millions of transitions against the simple specification with only 10 transitions. Our method also found several bugs during the verification process.

  19. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Volume A-00-1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirk, James

    2000-01-01

    ... at the Waterways Experiment Station. It is principally intended to be a forum whereby information pertaining to and resulting from the Corps of Engineers' nationwide Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP...

  20. Adipocyte lipid synthesis coupled to neuronal control of thermogenic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: These results demonstrate that downregulation of fatty acid synthesis via FASN depletion in white adipocytes of mature mice can stimulate neuronal signaling to control thermogenic programming in iWAT.

  1. Transportation energy strategy: Project {number_sign}5 of the Hawaii Energy Strategy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This study was prepared for the State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) as part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy program. Authority and responsibility for energy planning activities, such as the Hawaii Energy Strategy, rests with the State Energy Resources Coordinator, who is the Director of DBEDT. Hawaii Energy Strategy Study No. 5, Transportation Energy Strategy Development, was prepared to: collect and synthesize information on the present and future use of energy in Hawaii`s transportation sector, examine the potential of energy conservation to affect future energy demand; analyze the possibility of satisfying a portion of the state`s future transportation energy demand through alternative fuels; and recommend a program targeting energy use in the state`s transportation sector to help achieve state goals. The analyses and conclusions of this report should be assessed in relation to the other Hawaii Energy Strategy Studies in developing a comprehensive state energy program. 56 figs., 87 tabs.

  2. Automatic Method for Controlling the Iodine Adsorption Number in Carbon Black Oil Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous of different inlet process factors in carbon black oil furnaces which must be continuously and automatically adjusted, due to stable quality of final product. The most important six inlet process factors in carbon black oil-furnaces are:1. volume flow of process air for combustion2. temperature of process air for combustion3. volume flow of natural gas for insurance the necessary heat for thermal reaction of conversionthe hydrocarbon oil feedstock in oil-furnace carbon black4. mass flow rate of hydrocarbon oil feedstock5. type and quantity of additive for adjustment the structure of oil-furnace carbon black6. quantity and position of the quench water for cooling the reaction of oil-furnace carbon black.The control of oil-furnace carbon black adsorption capacity is made with mass flow rate of hydrocarbon feedstock, which is the most important inlet process factor. Oil-furnace carbon black adsorption capacity in industrial process is determined with laboratory analyze of iodine adsorption number. It is shown continuously and automatically method for controlling iodine adsorption number in carbon black oil-furnaces to get as much as possible efficient control of adsorption capacity. In the proposed method it can be seen the correlation between qualitatively-quantitatively composition of the process tail gasses in the production of oil-furnace carbon black and relationship between air for combustion and hydrocarbon feedstock. It is shown that the ratio between air for combustion and hydrocarbon oil feedstock is depended of adsorption capacity summarized by iodine adsorption number, regarding to BMCI index of hydrocarbon oil feedstock.The mentioned correlation can be seen through the figures from 1. to 4. From the whole composition of the process tail gasses the best correlation for continuously and automatically control of iodine adsorption number is show the volume fraction of methane. The volume fraction of methane in the

  3. Derivation of sequential, real-time, process-control programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Schneider, Fred B.; Budhiraja, Navin

    1991-01-01

    The use of weakest-precondition predicate transformers in the derivation of sequential, process-control software is discussed. Only one extension to Dijkstra's calculus for deriving ordinary sequential programs was found to be necessary: function-valued auxiliary variables. These auxiliary variables are needed for reasoning about states of a physical process that exists during program transitions.

  4. Food and Nutrition Services Quality Control Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt-Fraim, Teresa S.

    A program was conducted to improve the quality of food service through the training of 44 food and nutrition service employees in a 200-bed hospital. A 12-week quality control program was implemented to address four key areas: food temperatures, food accuracy, food quality, and dietary personnel. Learning strategies, emphasizing critical thinking…

  5. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  6. The endocytic adaptor Eps15 controls marginal zone B cell numbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Pozzi

    Full Text Available Eps15 is an endocytic adaptor protein involved in clathrin and non-clathrin mediated endocytosis. In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster lack of Eps15 leads to defects in synaptic vesicle recycling and synapse formation. We generated Eps15-KO mice to investigate its function in mammals. Eps15-KO mice are born at the expected Mendelian ratio and are fertile. Using a large-scale phenotype screen covering more than 300 parameters correlated to human disease, we found that Eps15-KO mice did not show any sign of disease or neural deficits. Instead, altered blood parameters pointed to an immunological defect. By competitive bone marrow transplantation we demonstrated that Eps15-KO hematopoietic precursor cells were more efficient than the WT counterparts in repopulating B220⁺ bone marrow cells, CD19⁻ thymocytes and splenic marginal zone (MZ B cells. Eps15-KO mice showed a 2-fold increase in MZ B cell numbers when compared with controls. Using reverse bone marrow transplantation, we found that Eps15 regulates MZ B cell numbers in a cell autonomous manner. FACS analysis showed that although MZ B cells were increased in Eps15-KO mice, transitional and pre-MZ B cell numbers were unaffected. The increase in MZ B cell numbers in Eps15 KO mice was not dependent on altered BCR signaling or Notch activity. In conclusion, in mammals, the endocytic adaptor protein Eps15 is a regulator of B-cell lymphopoiesis.

  7. Design and Analysis Considerations for Cluster Randomized Controlled Trials That Have a Small Number of Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deke, John

    2016-10-25

    Cluster randomized controlled trials (CRCTs) often require a large number of clusters in order to detect small effects with high probability. However, there are contexts where it may be possible to design a CRCT with a much smaller number of clusters (10 or fewer) and still detect meaningful effects. The objective is to offer recommendations for best practices in design and analysis for small CRCTs. I use simulations to examine alternative design and analysis approaches. Specifically, I examine (1) which analytic approaches control Type I errors at the desired rate, (2) which design and analytic approaches yield the most power, (3) what is the design effect of spurious correlations, and (4) examples of specific scenarios under which impacts of different sizes can be detected with high probability. I find that (1) mixed effects modeling and using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) on data aggregated to the cluster level both control the Type I error rate, (2) randomization within blocks is always recommended, but how best to account for blocking through covariate adjustment depends on whether the precision gains offset the degrees of freedom loss, (3) power calculations can be accurate when design effects from small sample, spurious correlations are taken into account, and (4) it is very difficult to detect small effects with just four clusters, but with six or more clusters, there are realistic circumstances under which small effects can be detected with high probability. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Institutionalization and Sustainability of the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education Program. CCRC Brief. Number 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Thomas R.; Matsuzuka, Yukari; Jacobs, James; Morest, Vanessa Smith; Hughes, Katherine L.

    2004-01-01

    In response to the 1992 Scientific and Advanced Technology Act (SATA), the National Science Foundation (NSF) initiated the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program to promote systemic reform of the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The Act gave community colleges the central role for the…

  9. Austin Youth River Watch Program: 1992-93 Final Report. Publication Number 92.33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jeannine

    The City of Austin (Texas) provides funds for an educational initiative to involve minority high school students in water quality issues and to reduce the dropout rate through positive role model interaction with academically successful students. Principal program activities were testing river water for pollutants and tutoring at-risk students by…

  10. ANIMAL NUTRITION. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION UNITS, ANIMAL NUTRITION, FEED CHARACTERISTICS, VITAMINS, MINERALS. FINAL REPORT NUMBER 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, GILBERT A.

    PRINCIPLES AND FACTS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE ANIMAL NUTRITION PRACTICES WERE IDENTIFIED BY EXAMINATION OF RECENT SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. UTILIZING THIS INFORMATION, THE AUTHOR INVOLVED 16 VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL USE OF A UNIT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS. INSTRUCTIONAL RESULTS WERE NOT AVAILABLE AT THE…

  11. The WIC Program: Background, Trends, and Economic Issues, 2009 Edition. Economic Research Report Number 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Victor; Frazao, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is to safeguard the health of low-income women, infants, and children through age 4 who are at nutritional risk. WIC provides nutritious foods to supplement diets, nutrition education, and referrals to health care and other social services.…

  12. The Parole Officer Aide Program in Ohio. An Exemplary Project. Criminal Justice System Series Number 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Harry E.; Priestino, Ramon R.

    The report represents an external evaluation of a three-year project designed to use ex-offenders as paraprofessional parole officer aides in Ohio. The report includes the results of a 1974 national survey of States' use of ex-offenders in parole work as background of the study. The program is described in terms of selection and assignment, duties…

  13. Quality control program: the radiology technician approach

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Alexandra Soares Macedo; Vitor Manuel Costa Pereira Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Pretendeu-se averiguar que importância os técnicos de radiologia atribuem à implementação de um programa de controle de qualidade em radiologia, e conhecer a importância da existência de critérios de proteção. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo e transversal. Os dados foram recolhidos por meio de um questionário (quatro partes), tendo sido garantido o anonimato e a confidencialidade dos dados. Participaram neste estudo 48 técnicos de radiologia que exercem funções em instituiçõe...

  14. Axisymmetric vortex method for low-Mach number, diffusion-controlled combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Lakkis, I

    2003-01-01

    A grid-free, Lagrangian method for the accurate simulation of low-Mach number, variable-density, diffusion-controlled reacting flow is presented. A fast-chemistry model in which the conversion rate of reactants to products is limited by the local mixing rate is assumed in order to reduce the combustion problem to the solution of a convection-diffusion-generation equation with volumetric expansion and vorticity generation at the reaction fronts. The solutions of the continuity and vorticity equations, and the equations governing the transport of species and energy, are obtained using a formulation in which particles transport conserved quantities by convection and diffusion. The dynamic impact of exothermic combustion is captured through accurate integration of source terms in the vorticity transport equations at the location of the particles, and the extra velocity field associated with volumetric expansion at low Mach number computed to enforced mass conservation. The formulation is obtained for an axisymmet...

  15. Grid Multiscroll Hyperchaotic Attractors Based on Colpitts Oscillator Mode with Controllable Grid Gradient and Scroll Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Through introducing two piecewise-linear triangular wave functions in a three-dimensional spiral chaotic Colpittsoscillator model, a four-dimensional grid multiscroll hyperchaotic system is constructed. Interestingly, by adjusting abuild-in parameter in a variable of one triangle wave function, the control of the gradient of the multiscroll grid isachieved. Whereas by deploying the zero points of the two triangular wave functions to extend the saddle-focusequilibrium points with index-2 in phase space the scroll numbers do not only increase along with the number ofturning points, but they can also generate arbitrary multiples of products. The basic dynamical behaviors of theproposed four-dimensional multiscroll hyperchaotic system are analyzed. Finally, the hardware experimental circuit isdesigned and the interrelated circuit implementation is realized. The experimental results are in agreement with boththeoretical analyses and numerical simulations, which verify the feasibility of the design methods.

  16. Nurse-midwifery education through graduate programs to provide a sufficient number of high quality nurse-midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hye Lee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a decrease in the number of new midwives, resulting from the shutdown of midwifery education program in hospitals due to a decrease in birthrate in the Republic of Korea. To solve this problem, the current medical laws on midwifery education system in Korea should be revised; nurse-midwifery specialist programs must be established in educational institutes with nursing programs. To support this argument, the midwifery education programs of America, Europe, Australia, and Japan have been discussed, and a nurse-midwifery specialist curriculum at the master s level, based on the nurse-practitioner system of Korea, has been suggested. Since this assertion is very important and urgent for solving the future population problem of Korea and providing health care for women and children, it should be realized into action immediately.

  17. 14 CFR 11.201 - Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control numbers assigned under the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Paperwork Reduction Act Control Numbers § 11.201 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control numbers assigned under the Paperwork Reduction Act. 11.201 Section 11.201 Aeronautics and Space...

  18. The first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Howard K; Judge, Christine M; Robbins, Harriet; Celebucki, Carolyn Cobb; Walker, Deborah K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program (MTCP). Born after Massachusetts passed a 1992 ballot initiative raising cigarette excise taxes to fund the program, MTCP greatly reduced statewide cigarette consumption before being reduced to a skeletal state by funding cuts. The article describes the program's components and goals, details outcomes, presents a summary of policy accomplishments, and reviews the present status of MTCP in the current climate of national and state fiscal crises. The first decade of the MTCP offers many lessons learned for the future of tobacco control.

  19. Epidemiology, prevention, and control of the number one foodborne illness: human norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicaprio, Erin; Ma, Yuanmei; Hughes, John; Li, Jianrong

    2013-09-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) is the number one cause of foodborne illness. Despite tremendous research efforts, human NoV is still poorly understood and understudied. There is no effective measure to eliminate this virus from food and the environment. Future research efforts should focus on developing: (1) an efficient cell culture system and a robust animal model, (2) rapid and sensitive detection methods, (3) novel sanitizers and control interventions, and (4) vaccines and antiviral drugs. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to build multidisciplinary and multi-institutional teams to combat this important biodefense agent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Frequent Interruption on Nurses' Patient-Controlled Analgesia Programming Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoe, Kristi R; Giuliano, Karen K

    2017-12-01

    The purpose was to add to the body of knowledge regarding the impact of interruption on acute care nurses' cognitive workload, total task completion times, nurse frustration, and medication administration error while programming a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump. Data support that the severity of medication administration error increases with the number of interruptions, which is especially critical during the administration of high-risk medications. Bar code technology, interruption-free zones, and medication safety vests have been shown to decrease administration-related errors. However, there are few published data regarding the impact of number of interruptions on nurses' clinical performance during PCA programming. Nine acute care nurses completed three PCA pump programming tasks in a simulation laboratory. Programming tasks were completed under three conditions where the number of interruptions varied between two, four, and six. Outcome measures included cognitive workload (six NASA Task Load Index [NASA-TLX] subscales), total task completion time (seconds), nurse frustration (NASA-TLX Subscale 6), and PCA medication administration error (incorrect final programming). Increases in the number of interruptions were associated with significant increases in total task completion time ( p = .003). We also found increases in nurses' cognitive workload, nurse frustration, and PCA pump programming errors, but these increases were not statistically significant. Complex technology use permeates the acute care nursing practice environment. These results add new knowledge on nurses' clinical performance during PCA pump programming and high-risk medication administration.

  1. A Review of Economic Evaluations of Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. Kahende

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, an estimated 443,000 people die of smoking-related diseases in the United States. Cigarette smoking results in more than $193 billion in medical costs and productivity losses annually.In an effort to reduce this burden, many states, the federal government, and several national organizations fund tobacco control programs and policies. For this report we reviewed existing literature on economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions. We found that smoking cessation therapies, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and self-help are most commonly studied. There are far fewer studies on other important interventions, such as price and tax increases, media campaigns, smoke free air laws and workplace smoking interventions, quitlines, youth access enforcement, school-based programs, and community-based programs. Although there are obvious gaps in the literature, the existing studies show in almost every case that tobacco control programs and policies are either cost-saving or highly cost-effective.

  2. Reducing the number of animals used for microsurgery training programs by using a task-trainer simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreschi, P; Qassemyar, A; Thevenet, J; Hubert, T; Fontaine, C; Duquennoy-Martinot, V

    2014-01-01

    To master the skills needed for microsurgery techniques, residents must enrol in a long and complex training program that includes manipulations on simulators, on ex vivo tissues and finally in vivo training. This final step consists of performing vascular anastomoses on murine models. We propose here a simulation program designed to decrease the number of rats used during the final in vivo training. Our study presents the materials used, the various exercises proposed and their evaluations. Two identical student groups were compared in the framework of the University Diploma of Microsurgery. Group A (seven students) followed a classic training program, all of whom achieved permeable vascular anastomoses. A total of 149 rats were needed for this group. Group B (seven students) first validated their manipulations on the task-trainer simulation program. A mean of 6 h was necessary to obtain this validation. All these students achieved the required permeable vascular anastomoses but only 77 rats were used for this group. This simulation program spared 72 rats, abiding by the Russell and Burch concept of a humane experimental technique, namely the 3R principles. This home-made, cost-efficient and easy-to-use task trainer included various exercises with increasing difficulty levels and a progressive scoring system. We believe that microsurgery training needs to include both simple and sophisticated tools in order to reduce the number of animals used to master these surgical skills.

  3. Environmental control program creates nature habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharitz, K.N.

    1996-09-01

    Environmental control efforts at a chemical company`s Santa Rosa plant in Milton, Fla., have turned the grounds surrounding the plant into a refuge for wildlife, a home for nature lovers and a laboratory for the University of Florida. The Santa Rosa facility, situated on 2,200 acres of forest lands, produces acrylic fiber. The plant opened in 1958 and its initial wastewater treatment system consisted of a primary treatment lagoon and direct discharge into Escambia Bay, which borders the property. Additional lagoons were added in 1966 and 1977. In 1958, both primary treated domestic and industrial wastewater were discharged into the Bay. As the area`s population grew, the Pensacola Bay system became overloaded, and undesirable levels of carbonaceous, nitrogenous, oxygen-demanding compounds were detected in the Bay. To reduce these materials from the plant`s discharge, wastewaters were characterized and treatment and disposal systems designed and piloted. Strong and weak wastewater streams, each with its own treatment and disposal method, were isolated in 1975. With the new systems in place, discharge quality for five-day biochemical demand, total suspended solids, total nitrogen, cyanide and orthophosphate achieved the average monthly permitted limitations in pounds per day.

  4. [Life style and metabolic control in DiabetIMSS program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Suárez, María Eugenia; Cruz-Toledo, Jairo Enoc; Ortiz-Aguirre, Alma Rosa; Lagunes-Espinosa, Alma Luisa; Jiménez-Luna, Jorge; Rodríguez-Moctezuma, José Raymundo

    2014-01-01

    To compare the lifestyle and metabolic control of diabetes patients included and not included in the DiabetIMSS program. Subjects with diabetes in the DiabetIMSS program and the general clinic were divided into three groups: group 1 first attended the program, group 2 were enrolled during the study, and group 3 had not been included the program. Demographic and clinical aspects were measured and the IMEVID instrument was applied. We included 539 type-2 diabetes patients, predominantly females (73.3%), mainly of primary school level, and more frequently on double-drug therapy. There were clinical differences between the three groups for program leavers in terms of weight, waist, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, and IMEVID qualification, all p DiabetIMSS program.

  5. Purwarupa Sistem Kontrol Elevator Berbasis Programable Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathahillah Fathahillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods / types of controls developed in accordance with industry needs one of them in the field of building automation system. One of the controls in the field of building automation system is the elevator control system (elevator. Early elevator control systems that transport humans or goods as vertical transportation vehicles are still conventional using human power, then evolved using steam engines, until now the elevators use AC motors equipped with control systems. The purpose of this research is to design the prototype of elevator control system using programmable logic control (PLC. The type of PLC controller used in the study using Omron PLC. The results show the design of prototype of elevator control system using PLC successfully and can control eleveator in accordance with its function, besides its programming form can be more simple.

  6. Evaluation of the Navy Plaque Control Program, at Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    I 0 Individual clinicians who practice plaque control with their patients receive great reward and sense of accomplishment when dental caries is...Navy Dental Corps (43). The program requirements included plaque control instruction given through individual or small group sessions. The sessions... plaque removal techniques; demonstration of sulcular methods of tooth cleansing with the toothbrush ; and instruction in the use of plaque disclosing

  7. Programming Real-Time Motion Control Robot Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Medina-Santiago

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This item presents the real-time programming of a prototype robot to control its movement from one moment to another without showing response delays. Contributing to this is the communication protocol developed in our laboratories and feasibility of being implemented in the future with wireless control via radio frequency, and to present the progress to date have been obtained.

  8. Genetic control of the number of days to flowering in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pedroso Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic control of early flowering in common bean. Crosses weremade between the parents Pérola and BRS Radiante and between ESAL 506 and Preto 60 dias. The segregating generations,F3, F2BC11 and F2BC12 of each cross were evaluated in experiments with two replications. F3 plants of both crosses wererandomly taken, and F3:4 progenies evaluated for the trait number of days to flowering. There was good adjustment to theadditive-dominant model of both crosses. The dominance effect was lower than the additive effect in the trait control and, whenpresent, it reduced the number of days to flowering. The value of realized heritability (h2R was similar in both crosses andlower than the h2 estimated for selection among F3:4 progenies. There were indications that aside from the environmental effecton the trait expression, the genotype-environment interaction was also significant.

  9. Evidence that metabolism and chromosome copy number control mutually exclusive cell fates in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yunrong; Norman, Thomas; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis chooses between matrix production and spore formation, which are both controlled by the regulator Spo0A∼P. We report that metabolism and chromosome copy number dictate which fate is adopted. Conditions that favour low Spo0A∼P levels promote matrix production, whereas conditions favouring high levels trigger sporulation. Spo0A∼P directs the synthesis of SinI, an antirepressor for the SinR repressor of matrix genes. The regulatory region of sinI contains an activator site that Spo0A∼P binds strongly and operators that bind Spo0A∼P weakly. Evidence shows that low Spo0A∼P levels turn sinI ON and high levels turn sinI OFF and instead switch sporulation ON. Cells in which sinI and sinR were transplanted from their normal position near the chromosome replication terminus to positions near the origin and cells that harboured an extra copy of the genes were blocked in matrix production. Thus, matrix gene expression is sensitive to the number of copies of sinI and sinR. Because cells at the start of sporulation have two chromosomes and matrix-producing cells one, chromosome copy number could contribute to cell-fate determination. PMID:21326214

  10. Production of large numbers of size-controlled tumor spheroids using microwell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razian, Golsa; Yu, Yang; Ungrin, Mark

    2013-11-18

    Tumor spheroids are increasingly recognized as an important in vitro model for the behavior of tumor cells in three dimensions. More physiologically relevant than conventional adherent-sheet cultures, they more accurately recapitulate the complexity and interactions present in real tumors. In order to harness this model to better assess tumor biology, or the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents, it is necessary to be able to generate spheroids reproducibly, in a controlled manner and in significant numbers. The AggreWell system consists of a high-density array of pyramid-shaped microwells, into which a suspension of single cells is centrifuged. The numbers of cells clustering at the bottom of each microwell, and the number and ratio of distinct cell types involved depend only on the properties of the suspension introduced by the experimenter. Thus, we are able to generate tumor spheroids of arbitrary size and composition without needing to modify the underlying platform technology. The hundreds of microwells per square centimeter of culture surface area in turn ensure that extremely high production levels may be attained via a straightforward, nonlabor-intensive process. We therefore expect that this protocol will be broadly useful to researchers in the tumor spheroid field.

  11. An Analysis of Serial Number Tracking Automatic Identification Technology as Used in Naval Aviation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, Robert

    2002-09-01

    The Government Accounting Office found that the Navy, between 1996 and 1998, lost 3 billion in materiel in-transit. This thesis explores the benefits and cost of automatic identification and serial number tracking technologies under consideration by the Naval Supply Systems Command and the Naval Air Systems Command. Detailed cost-savings estimates are made for each aircraft type in the Navy inventory. Project and item managers of repairable components using Serial Number Tracking were surveyed as to the value of this system. It concludes that two thirds of the in-transit losses can be avoided with implementation of effective information technology-based logistics and maintenance tracking systems. Recommendations are made for specific steps and components of such an implementation. Suggestions are made for further research.

  12. Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control Algorithms and Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Huaguang; Luo, Yanhong; Wang, Ding

    2013-01-01

    There are many methods of stable controller design for nonlinear systems. In seeking to go beyond the minimum requirement of stability, Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control approaches the challenging topic of optimal control for nonlinear systems using the tools of  adaptive dynamic programming (ADP). The range of systems treated is extensive; affine, switched, singularly perturbed and time-delay nonlinear systems are discussed as are the uses of neural networks and techniques of value and policy iteration. The text features three main aspects of ADP in which the methods proposed for stabilization and for tracking and games benefit from the incorporation of optimal control methods: • infinite-horizon control for which the difficulty of solving partial differential Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equations directly is overcome, and  proof provided that the iterative value function updating sequence converges to the infimum of all the value functions obtained by admissible control law sequences; • finite-...

  13. [Costa Rica: control program of sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, O; Blum, E; Freer, E

    1979-02-01

    Programming activities for the control of venereal diseases implies certain difficulties in Latin American countries owing to the lack of basic information and resources. It is perhaps for this reason that such programs have so far failed to achieve an adequate epidemiological impact. In late 1975, a new program was set up in Costa Rica with the following objectives: 1) reducing the incidence of venereal diseases; 2) detecting cases at an early stage in order to begin treatment; 3) developing a far-reaching hygiene education program; 4) establishing appropriate epidemiological surveillance machinery, including border-area programs; 5) integrating control activities with the general health services; 6) training personnel; and 7) carrying out research. Among the activities planned for the attainment of the aforementioned objectives was the detection of cases by means of voluntary presentation; surveillance of contacts; serological testing of pregnant women, blood donors, and applicants for health care identity cards, and other types of examination. Outpatient treatment was planned for all cases detected. Where epidemiological surveillance was concerned, it was proposed that improvements be made in morbidity report procedures, data analysis, and border-area programs. Plans were also made for integrating control activities into the basic health services and for reviewing the existing legislation with a view to expediting the implementation of the program. Steps taken to that end included the establishment of a more effective coordination of such activities with the Costa Rican Social Security Institute, an entity which attends the health needs of 80% of the population; a follow-up program for cases detected in the hospitals included in the program, and preparation of a flow diagram to be used for that purpose by such institutions. Other aspects considered were the distribution of treatment manuals, and information on epidemiological interview methods and laboratory

  14. Influence of synthetic jet location on active control of an airfoil at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feero, Mark A.; Lavoie, Philippe; Sullivan, Pierre E.

    2017-08-01

    The reattachment of post-stall separated flow on a NACA 0025 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 100,000 and angle-of-attack of 12° using synthetic jet control was studied experimentally. The goal of this work was to study the effect of control parameters including blowing ratio, frequency, and in particular, slot location, on aerodynamic performance. Slot locations both upstream and downstream of the mean separation point were tested. The results showed that for both drag reduction and lift increase, once a particular blowing ratio was met, the benefits of control saturated. Positioning the slot at the most upstream location was found to be the most effective, both in terms of having the lowest threshold blowing ratio and producing the largest lift-to-drag ratios. A monotonic increase in threshold blowing ratio (defined as being the blowing ratio required for fully attached flow) and decrease in lift-to-drag was observed as the slot location moved downstream. It was also found that while forcing at a frequency corresponding to the wake instability led to maximum lift increase, forcing in the range of the separated shear layer instability (frequencies an order of magnitude larger) led to maximum drag reduction.

  15. Applied Research of Enterprise Cost Control Based on Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This paper researches the enterprise cost control through the linear programming model, and analyzes the restriction factors of the labor of enterprise production, raw materials, processing equipment, sales price, and other factors affecting the enterprise income, so as to obtain an enterprise cost control model based on the linear programming. This model can calculate rational production mode in the case of limited resources, and acquire optimal enterprise income. The production guiding program and scheduling arrangement of the enterprise can be obtained through calculation results, so as to provide scientific and effective guidance for the enterprise production. This paper adds the sensitivity analysis in the linear programming model, so as to learn about the stability of the enterprise cost control model based on linear programming through the sensitivity analysis, and verify the rationality of the model, and indicate the direction for the enterprise cost control. The calculation results of the model can provide a certain reference for the enterprise planning in the market economy environment, which have strong reference and practical significance in terms of the enterprise cost control.

  16. Processes controlling the annual cycle of Arctic aerosol number and size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Croft

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements at high-Arctic sites (Alert, Nunavut, and Mt. Zeppelin, Svalbard during the years 2011 to 2013 show a strong and similar annual cycle in aerosol number and size distributions. Each year at both sites, the number of aerosols with diameters larger than 20 nm exhibits a minimum in October and two maxima, one in spring associated with a dominant accumulation mode (particles 100 to 500 nm in diameter and a second in summer associated with a dominant Aitken mode (particles 20 to 100 nm in diameter. Seasonal-mean aerosol effective diameter from measurements ranges from about 180 in summer to 260 nm in winter. This study interprets these annual cycles with the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model. Important roles are documented for several processes (new-particle formation, coagulation scavenging in clouds, scavenging by precipitation, and transport in controlling the annual cycle in Arctic aerosol number and size. Our simulations suggest that coagulation scavenging of interstitial aerosols in clouds by aerosols that have activated to form cloud droplets strongly limits the total number of particles with diameters less than 200 nm throughout the year. We find that the minimum in total particle number in October can be explained by diminishing new-particle formation within the Arctic, limited transport of pollution from lower latitudes, and efficient wet removal. Our simulations indicate that the summertime-dominant Aitken mode is associated with efficient wet removal of accumulation-mode aerosols, which limits the condensation sink for condensable vapours. This in turn promotes new-particle formation and growth. The dominant accumulation mode during spring is associated with build up of transported pollution from outside the Arctic coupled with less-efficient wet-removal processes at colder temperatures. We recommend further attention to the key processes of new-particle formation, interstitial coagulation, and wet removal and

  17. Individual differences in inhibitory control, not non-verbal number acuity, correlate with mathematics achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Gilmore

    Full Text Available Given the well-documented failings in mathematics education in many Western societies, there has been an increased interest in understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mathematical achievement. Recent research has proposed the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS which allows individuals to represent and manipulate non-verbal numerical information. Evidence has shown that performance on a measure of the ANS (a dot comparison task is related to mathematics achievement, which has led researchers to suggest that the ANS plays a critical role in mathematics learning. Here we show that, rather than being driven by the nature of underlying numerical representations, this relationship may in fact be an artefact of the inhibitory control demands of some trials of the dot comparison task. This suggests that recent work basing mathematics assessments and interventions around dot comparison tasks may be inappropriate.

  18. Implementation contexts of a Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Gonçalves Dutra de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence from context characteristics in the control of tuberculosis in prisons, and the influence from the program implementation degrees in observed effects.METHODS A multiple case study, with a qualitative approach, conducted in the prison systems of two Brazilian states in 2011 and 2012. Two prisons were analyzed in each state, and a prison hospital was analyzed in one of them. The data were submitted to a content analysis, which was based on external, political-organizational, implementation, and effect dimensions. Contextual factors and the ones in the program organization were correlated. The independent variable was the program implementation degree and the dependent one, the effects from the Tuberculosis Control Program in prisons.RESULTS The context with the highest sociodemographic vulnerability, the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis, and the smallest amount of available resources were associated with the low implementation degree of the program. The results from tuberculosis treatment in the prison system were better where the program had already been partially implemented than in the case with low implementation degree in both cases.CONCLUSIONS The implementation degree and its contexts – external and political-organizational dimensions – simultaneously contribute to the effects that are observed in the control of tuberculosis in analyzed prisons.

  19. Implementation contexts of a Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luisa Gonçalves Dutra; Natal, Sonia; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence from context characteristics in the control of tuberculosis in prisons, and the influence from the program implementation degrees in observed effects.METHODS A multiple case study, with a qualitative approach, conducted in the prison systems of two Brazilian states in 2011 and 2012. Two prisons were analyzed in each state, and a prison hospital was analyzed in one of them. The data were submitted to a content analysis, which was based on external, political-organizational, implementation, and effect dimensions. Contextual factors and the ones in the program organization were correlated. The independent variable was the program implementation degree and the dependent one, the effects from the Tuberculosis Control Program in prisons.RESULTS The context with the highest sociodemographic vulnerability, the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis, and the smallest amount of available resources were associated with the low implementation degree of the program. The results from tuberculosis treatment in the prison system were better where the program had already been partially implemented than in the case with low implementation degree in both cases.CONCLUSIONS The implementation degree and its contexts - external and political-organizational dimensions - simultaneously contribute to the effects that are observed in the control of tuberculosis in analyzed prisons.

  20. Effects of a lifestyle modification programme to reduce the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mariko; Yokotsuka, Masako; Yamaoka, Kazue; Adachi, Misa; Nemoto, Asuka; Tango, Toshiro

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a personal support lifestyle education programme (PSMetS) for reducing risk factors in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A two-arm randomised controlled trial. Companies in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan. Male workers with diagnosed MetS or a high risk for MetS according to the Counselling Guidance Program, Japan (n 193). The reduction in the number of risk factors for MetS (as defined according to the criteria published by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in April 2007 (MHLW-MetS)) in the PSMetS group was not significantly different from that in the usual care group by van Elteren's test (baseline-adjusted P=0·075) for intention-to-treat (ITT), while it was significant (baseline-adjusted P=0·038) for per-protocol set (PPS). The proportion of MHLW-MetS was significantly different between groups by van Elteren's test (baseline-adjusted P=0·031). Two components of MHLW-MetS showed significant reductions in the PSMetS group: waist circumference (baseline-adjusted P=0·001) and BMI (baseline-adjusted P=0·002). PPS and ITT analyses showed similar results. For male workers with MHLW-MetS or a high risk of MHLW-MetS, PSMetS reduced the number of risk factors for MHLW-MetS.

  1. 75 FR 10810 - Notice of Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: OMB Control Number 1035-0004, Trust Funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...: OMB Control Number 1035-0004, Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians AGENCY: Office of the... should reference OMB control number 1035-0004, ``Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians, 25 CFR... Trust Fund Management Reform Act of 1994 (Pub. L. 103-412) makes provisions for the Office of the...

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of Linear Programming and Quadratic Programming Algorithms for Control Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc; Acosta, Diana M.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation (NextGen) transport aircraft configurations being investigated as part of the NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project have more control surfaces, or control effectors, than existing transport aircraft configurations. Conventional flight control is achieved through two symmetric elevators, two antisymmetric ailerons, and a rudder. The five effectors, reduced to three command variables, produce moments along the three main axes of the aircraft and enable the pilot to control the attitude and flight path of the aircraft. The NextGen aircraft will have additional redundant control effectors to control the three moments, creating a situation where the aircraft is over-actuated and where a simple relationship does not exist anymore between the required effector deflections and the desired moments. NextGen flight controllers will incorporate control allocation algorithms to determine the optimal effector commands and attain the desired moments, taking into account the effector limits. Approaches to solving the problem using linear programming and quadratic programming algorithms have been proposed and tested. It is of great interest to understand their relative advantages and disadvantages and how design parameters may affect their properties. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the effector commands with respect to the desired moments and show on some examples that the solutions provided using the l2 norm of quadratic programming are less sensitive than those using the l1 norm of linear programming.

  3. Satellite Relative Motion Control for MIT’s SPHERES Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    described by Kepler shown through the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations. These effects are ignored for a number of reasons. Air drag does affect SPHERES...Ogata, K., Modern Control Engineering , Prentice Hall, Boston, 5th ed., 2010. 37. Nise, N. S., Control Systems Engineering , John Wiley & Sons, Inc...Control Systems , John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1997. 194 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704–0188 The public reporting burden

  4. Aging effect on Executive Control in the Random Number Generation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The decline of abilities related to Executive Control –EC with aging has been related with the Pre-Frontal System neurobiological aging. This study compared the score obtained in the Random Number Generation Test (RNG by two groups: 30 college students (older than 18 and 36 elderly (older than 60. This last group was divided according to the criteria of schooling in up to 8 years of schooling and over 8 years of schooling. The results show that the younger participants scored 0,344 ± 0,04 in the RNG test; the elderly with up to 8 years of schooling punctuated 0,432 ± 0,10 and that those who studied for 9 years or more reached a mean of 0,393 ± 0,05. The statistical analysis of these data suggest that the elderly performance in the RNG test (0,420 ± 0,09 was significantly worse when compared to the performance of the younger participants (t (64 = -3,9927; p = 0,0001, which confirms that the manipulation and inhibitory control abilities of information are decreased in older people, probably due to the natural aging process of the Frontal Cortex. Keywords: neuropsychology; aging; executive functions.

  5. Active Flow Control at Low Reynolds Numbers on a NACA 0015 Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, LaTunia Pack; Hannon, Judith; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Harris, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    Results from a low Reynolds number wind tunnel experiment on a NACA 0015 airfoil with a 30% chord trailing edge flap tested at deflection angles of 0, 20, and 40 are presented and discussed. Zero net mass flux periodic excitation was applied at the ap shoulder to control flow separation for flap deflections larger than 0. The primary objective of the experiment was to compare force and moment data obtained from integrating surface pressures to data obtained from a 5-component strain-gage balance in preparation for additional three-dimensional testing of the model. To achieve this objective, active flow control is applied at an angle of attack of 6 where published results indicate that oscillatory momentum coefficients exceeding 1% are required to delay separation. Periodic excitation with an oscillatory momentum coefficient of 1.5% and a reduced frequency of 0.71 caused a significant delay of separation on the airfoil with a flap deflection of 20. Higher momentum coefficients at the same reduced frequency were required to achieve a similar level of flow attachment on the airfoil with a flap deflection of 40. There was a favorable comparison between the balance and integrated pressure force and moment results.

  6. Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activity controls plant growth by promoting leaf cell number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Philipp; Jansseune, Karel; Degenkolbe, Thomas; Méret, Michaël; Claeys, Hannes; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Teige, Markus; Willmitzer, Lothar; Hannah, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    A changing global environment, rising population and increasing demand for biofuels are challenging agriculture and creating a need for technologies to increase biomass production. Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity is a promising technology to achieve this under non-stress conditions. Furthermore, we investigate the basis of this growth enhancement via leaf series and kinematic cell analysis as well as single leaf transcriptomics and plant metabolomics under non-stress conditions. These data indicate a regulatory function of PARP within cell growth and potentially development. PARP inhibition enhances growth of Arabidopsis thaliana by enhancing the cell number. Time course single leaf transcriptomics shows that PARP inhibition regulates a small subset of genes which are related to growth promotion, cell cycle and the control of metabolism. This is supported by metabolite analysis showing overall changes in primary and particularly secondary metabolism. Taken together the results indicate a versatile function of PARP beyond its previously reported roles in controlling plant stress tolerance and thus can be a useful target for enhancing biomass production.

  7. Evaluating Progress in Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, Pascal; Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio

    2017-04-04

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) funds every state, seven tribes, seven territories and the District of Columbia to develop formal cancer plans that focus efforts in cancer control. A 2010 review of cancer plans identified radon-related activities in 27 (42%) plans. Since then, 37 coalitions have updated their plans with new or revised cancer control objectives. There has also been recent efforts to increase awareness about radon among cancer coalitions. This study assesses NCCCP grantees current radon activities and changes since the 2010 review. We reviewed all 65 NCCCP grantee cancer plans created from 2005 to 2015 for radon related search terms and categorized plans by radon activities. The program's most recent annual progress report to CDC was also reviewed. We then compared the results from the updated plans with the findings from the 2010 review to assess changes in radon activities among cancer coalitions. Changes in state radon laws between 2010 and 2015 were also assessed. While a number of cancer plans have added or expanded radon-specific activities since 2010, approximately one-third of NCCCP grantees still do not include radon in their cancer plans. Cancer programs can consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs to further reduce the risk of lung cancer, especially among non-smokers.

  8. 77 FR 10033 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Gender Assessment Surveys, OMB Control Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Management and Budget (OMB) for approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of... Leaders in Education Program Survey). Respondents: Fortune/U.S. State Department Global Women's Mentoring Partnership Program participants from 2006 through 2010, International Leaders in Education Program (ILEP...

  9. Approximate Dynamic Programming in Tracking Control of a Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szuster

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the implementation of an approximate dynamic programming algorithm in the discrete tracking control system of the three-degrees of freedom Scorbot-ER 4pc robotic manipulator. The controlled system is included in an articulated robots group which uses rotary joints to access their work space. The main part of the control system is a dual heuristic dynamic programming algorithm that consists of two structures designed in the form of neural networks: an actor and a critic. The actor generates the suboptimal control law while the critic approximates the difference of the value function from Bellman's equation with respect to the state. The residual elements of the control system are the PD controller, the supervisory term and an additional control signal. The structure of the supervisory term derives from the stability analysis performed using the Lyapunov stability theorem. The control system works online, the neural networks' weights-adaptation procedure is performed in every iteration step, and the neural networks' preliminary learning process is not required. The performance of the control system was verified by a series of computer simulations and experiments performed using the Scorbot-ER 4pc robotic manipulator.

  10. Validation of a proposal for evaluating hospital infection control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2011-02-01

    To validate the construct and discriminant properties of a hospital infection prevention and control program. The program consisted of four indicators: technical-operational structure; operational prevention and control guidelines; epidemiological surveillance system; and prevention and control activities. These indicators, with previously validated content, were applied to 50 healthcare institutions in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the hospitals and indicator scores, and Cronbach's α coefficient was used to evaluate the internal consistency. The discriminant validity was analyzed by comparing indicator scores between groups of hospitals: with versus without quality certification. The construct validity analysis was based on exploratory factor analysis with a tetrachoric correlation matrix. The indicators for the technical-operational structure and epidemiological surveillance presented almost 100% conformity in the whole sample. The indicators for the operational prevention and control guidelines and the prevention and control activities presented internal consistency ranging from 0.67 to 0.80. The discriminant validity of these indicators indicated higher and statistically significant mean conformity scores among the group of institutions with healthcare certification or accreditation processes. In the construct validation, two dimensions were identified for the operational prevention and control guidelines: recommendations for preventing hospital infection and recommendations for standardizing prophylaxis procedures, with good correlation between the analysis units that formed the guidelines. The same was found for the prevention and control activities: interfaces with treatment units and support units were identified. Validation of the measurement properties of the hospital infection prevention and control program indicators made it possible to develop a tool for evaluating these programs

  11. Comparing two web-based smoking cessation programs: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, H Garth; Danaher, Brian G; Seeley, John R; Lichtenstein, Edward; Gau, Jeff M

    2008-11-18

    Smoking cessation remains a significant public health problem. Innovative interventions that use the Internet have begun to emerge that offer great promise in reaching large numbers of participants and encouraging widespread behavior change. To date, the relatively few controlled trials of Web-based smoking cessation programs have been limited by short follow-up intervals. We describe the 6-month follow-up results of a randomized controlled trial in which participants recruited online were randomly assigned to either a Web-based smoking cessation program (Quit Smoking Network; QSN) or a Web-based exercise enhancement program (Active Lives) adapted somewhat to encourage smoking cessation. The study was a two-arm randomized controlled trial that compared two Web-based smoking cessation programs: (1) the QSN intervention condition presented cognitive-behavioral strategies, and (2) the Active Lives control condition provided participants with guidance in developing a physical activity program to assist them with quitting. The QSN condition provided smoking cessation information and behavior change strategies while the Active Lives condition provided participants with physical activity recommendations and goal setting. The QSN condition was designed to be more engaging (eg, it included multimedia components) and to present much greater content than is typically found in smoking cessation programs. Contrary to our hypotheses, no between-condition differences in smoking abstinence were found at 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments. While participants in the QSN intervention condition spent more time than controls visiting the online program, the median number of 1.0 visit in each condition and the substantial attrition (60.8% at the 6-month follow-up) indicate that participants were not as engaged as we had expected. Contrary to our hypothesis, our test of two Web-based smoking cessation conditions, an intervention and an attention placebo control, failed to show

  12. External quality control program: Experience in the department of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To share experiences and lessons learned from 2002 National External Quality Assessment Schemes for Leukocyte Immunophenotyping (UK NEQAS) and College of American Pathologists (CAP) proficiency testing (PT) panels received and tested as part of External Quality Control Program Setting: Department ...

  13. Slim Chance: A Weight Control Program for the Learning Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotatori, Anthony J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A school-based diet program for learning disabled children stresses modifying eating behavior by learning alternative ways of interacting with the environment. Techniques stress the importance of self regulation, strategies for self monitoring, the establishment of realistic weight goals, use of stimulus control procedures, increased physical…

  14. Evaluation of resources for an interactive infection control instructional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Kandis V

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate educational resources used in developing and implementing an interactive infection control instructional program for first year (n=26) and second year (n=26) dental hygiene students in a baccalaureate program. An educator's toolkit was used to develop online and interactive learning modalities for teaching infection control content. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate responses on a post instruction opinion survey on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Following the instructional program, most students reported on an opinion survey that they understood infection control principles (92% first year, 100% second year), felt prepared to work safely in clinic (96% first year, 100% second year) and liked working at their own pace (88% first year, 100% second year). First year students valued the online learning components and were less favorable toward supplemental textbook readings and the limited time to complete all 10 modules. Most second year students valued the interactive workshop but did not take the time to complete the online videos and did not watch all of them. Seventy-nine percent of second year students (n=20) preferred the interactive workshop method over traditional lecture instruction completed during their first year. This paper describes 1 institution's process of developing and implementing an infection control instructional program utilizing an educator's toolkit.

  15. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A

    1992-06-01

    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.

  16. Control Systems Security Test Center - FY 2004 Program Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert E. Polk; Alen M. Snyder

    2005-04-01

    In May 2004, the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) was established at Idaho National Laboratory to execute assessment activities to reduce the vulnerability of the nation’s critical infrastructure control systems to terrorist attack. The CSSC implements a program to accomplish the five goals presented in the US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security. This report summarizes the first year funding of startup activities and program achievements that took place in FY 2004 and early FY 2005. This document was prepared for the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center of the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS has been tasked under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to coordinate the overall national effort to enhance the protection of the national critical infrastructure. Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-7 directs federal departments to identify and prioritize the critical infrastructure and protect it from terrorist attack. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security was prepared by the National Cyber Security Division to address the control system security component addressed in the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security identified five high-level strategic goals for improving cyber security of control systems.

  17. A state university's model program to increase the number of its disadvantaged students who matriculate into health professions schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C L

    1996-10-01

    Health professions schools often provide support for minority and disadvantaged students in high school or in a single college summer program. However, long-term support for students during their undergraduate years is also crucial. Since 1990, San Diego State University (SDSU), a large urban public university, has implemented the Health Careers Opportunity Program (HCOP) to increase the number of the university's disadvantaged students (most of whom are from minority groups) who matriculate into medical, dental, veterinary, and physician assistant schools. The program's 11 components, each dedicated to some form of educational intervention and support, emphasize developing students' collaborative learning skills, fostering their pride in accomplishment, and helping them achieve positive self-images and self-confidence; these goals are linked with building students' analytical and problem-solving skills. Weekly journals kept by students' mentors serve as an "early warning system" for "bad" feelings, attitudes, and behaviors that reflect students' personal problems and correlate with lower grades, and help the program staff work intensively with students immediately, before problems become severe. The SDSU's HCOP increased the number of disadvantaged (mostly minority) students staying in the prehealth career path (not counting those in the schools of nursing and public health) from 70 in 1989 to 360 in 1995. In 1992 through 1994, the students who had completed the HCOP's Summer Academic Program (to help them bridge into a science curriculum) had pass rates for entry-level math, writing competency, and math placement that were consistently higher than the rates for other SDSU students. The overall grade-point average of HCOP students in the spring of 1995 (3.05) was significantly higher than the overall GPA of all minority students in prehealth training before the HCOP began (2.59 in 1988). The number of SDSU's minority students accepted by health professions schools

  18. SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and velicer's MAP test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, B P

    2000-08-01

    Popular statistical software packages do not have the proper procedures for determining the number of components in factor and principal components analyses. Parallel analysis and Velicer's minimum average partial (MAP) test are validated procedures, recommended widely by statisticians. However, many researchers continue to use alternative, simpler, but flawed procedures, such as the eigenvalues-greater-than-one rule. Use of the proper procedures might be increased if these procedures could be conducted within familiar software environments. This paper describes brief and efficient programs for using SPSS and SAS to conduct parallel analyses and the MAP test.

  19. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays.

  20. Influence of number of CAG repeats on local control in the RTOG 86-10 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Berkey, Brian A; Krishan, Awtar; O'Brien, Tom; Hammond, Elizabeth; Roach, Mack; Lawton, Colleen; Pilepich, Milijenko; Markoe, Arnold; Pollack, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The number of CAG repeats on the androgen receptor (AR) gene is inversely proportional to transcriptional activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if short-term androgen deprivation therapy (RT + HT) can improve outcome in patients with tumors with short CAG repeats (LF), distant metastases (DM), prostate cancer survival (PSS), and overall survival (OS) was studied. Pretreatment characteristics and assigned treatment arm were not significantly different between the parent and test groups except for a significantly higher risk of death (P = 0.049) in the test group. The median CAG repeat was 19. There were no significant differences in stage, or Gleason score between high (19 or greater) and low CAG (LF, DM, PSS, and OS. However, when the CAG repeat outcome was studied in conjunction with androgen deprivation therapy, patients with CAG or =19 that received H + RT (P = 0.028). Patients with short CAG repeats show a local control benefit with short-term androgen deprivation therapy, but no improvement in survival.

  1. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Eloise Norris

    Full Text Available Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots, whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays.

  2. Tonal noise of a controlled-diffusion airfoil at low angle of attack and Reynolds number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padois, Thomas; Laffay, Paul; Idier, Alexandre; Moreau, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    The acoustic signature of a controlled-diffusion airfoil immersed in a flow is experimentally characterized. Acoustic measurements have been carried out in an anechoic open-jet-wind-tunnel for low Reynolds numbers (from 5 × 10(4) to 4.3 × 10(5)) and several angles of attack. As with the NACA0012, the acoustic spectrum is dominated by discrete tones. These tonal behaviors are divided into three different regimes. The first one is characterized by a dominant primary tone which is steady over time, surrounded by secondary peaks. The second consists of two unsteady primary tones associated with secondary peaks and the third consists of a hump dominated by several small peaks. A wavelet study allows one to identify an amplitude modulation of the acoustic signal mainly for the unsteady tonal regime. This amplitude modulation is equal to the frequency interval between two successive tones. Finally, a bispectral analysis explains the presence of tones at higher frequencies.

  3. Evaluating the Maturity of Cybersecurity Programs for Building Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Mylrea, Michael E.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Nicholls, Andrew K.

    2016-08-29

    The cyber-physical security threat to buildings is complex, non-linear, and rapidly evolving as operational and information technologies converge and connect buildings to cyberspace. Cyberattacks on buildings can exploit smart building controls and breach corporate networks, causing financial and reputational damage. This may result in the loss of sensitive building information or the disruption of, or damage to, the systems necessary for the safe and efficient operation of buildings. For the buildings and facility infrastructure, there is a need for a robust national cybersecurity strategy for buildings, guidance on the selection and implementation of appropriate cybersecurity controls for buildings, an approach to evaluate the maturity and adequacy of the cybersecurity programs. To provide an approach for evaluating the maturity of the cybersecurity programs for building control systems, the US Department of Energy’s widely used Cybersecurity Capability and Maturity Model (C2M2) has been adapted into a building control systems version. The revised model, the Buildings-C2M2 (B-C2M2) provides maturity level indicators for cybersecurity programmatic domains. A “B-C2M2 Lite” version allows facility managers and building control system engineers, or information technology personnel to perform rapid self-assessments of their cybersecurity program. Both tools have been pilot tested on several facilities. This paper outlines the concept of a maturity model, describes the B-C2M2 tools, presents results and observations from the pilot assessments, and lays out plans for future work.

  4. Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project: Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs. Report Number CN-04-SBP. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Lawrence S.; McLaughlin, Joan E.; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Daft, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, Congress authorized the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project (SBPP) to study the implementation and effects of providing universal free school breakfast in six school districts across the United States. For three years, from School Year (SY) 2000-2001 through SY 2002-2003, these six school districts received federal funds to offer…

  5. Community Control in Perspective. IRCD Bulletin, Volume 8, Number 5, November 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Nicolaus C.

    A lunch program on the Lower East Side with kosher meals for Jewish children and Italian meals for Italian children and a health program in which visits to students' homes are a regular service are a small part of the efforts made 50 and 100 years ago to meet the needs of New York City's immigrant school children. The implications of such a…

  6. 75 FR 72835 - Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1024-0037

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... January 25, 2011. ADDRESSES: Send comments to Daniel Odess, Acting Manager, Archeology Program, National... additional information about this IC, contact David Gadsby, Archeology Program, National Park Service, 1849 C... 202-354-1936. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Section 4 of the Archeological Resources...

  7. Simplified programming and control of automated radiosynthesizers through unit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claggett, Shane B; Quinn, Kevin M; Lazari, Mark; Moore, Melissa D; van Dam, R Michael

    2013-07-15

    Many automated radiosynthesizers for producing positron emission tomography (PET) probes provide a means for the operator to create custom synthesis programs. The programming interfaces are typically designed with the engineer rather than the radiochemist in mind, requiring lengthy programs to be created from sequences of low-level, non-intuitive hardware operations. In some cases, the user is even responsible for adding steps to update the graphical representation of the system. In light of these unnecessarily complex approaches, we have created software to perform radiochemistry on the ELIXYS radiosynthesizer with the goal of being intuitive and easy to use. Radiochemists were consulted, and a wide range of radiosyntheses were analyzed to determine a comprehensive set of basic chemistry unit operations. Based around these operations, we created a software control system with a client-server architecture. In an attempt to maximize flexibility, the client software was designed to run on a variety of portable multi-touch devices. The software was used to create programs for the synthesis of several 18F-labeled probes on the ELIXYS radiosynthesizer, with [18F]FDG detailed here. To gauge the user-friendliness of the software, program lengths were compared to those from other systems. A small sample group with no prior radiosynthesizer experience was tasked with creating and running a simple protocol. The software was successfully used to synthesize several 18F-labeled PET probes, including [18F]FDG, with synthesis times and yields comparable to literature reports. The resulting programs were significantly shorter and easier to debug than programs from other systems. The sample group of naive users created and ran a simple protocol within a couple of hours, revealing a very short learning curve. The client-server architecture provided reliability, enabling continuity of the synthesis run even if the computer running the client software failed. The architecture enabled

  8. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  9. Stochastic Control of Energy Efficient Buildings: A Semidefinite Programming Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiao [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The key goal in energy efficient buildings is to reduce energy consumption of Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems while maintaining a comfortable temperature and humidity in the building. This paper proposes a novel stochastic control approach for achieving joint performance and power control of HVAC. We employ a constrained Stochastic Linear Quadratic Control (cSLQC) by minimizing a quadratic cost function with a disturbance assumed to be Gaussian. The problem is formulated to minimize the expected cost subject to a linear constraint and a probabilistic constraint. By using cSLQC, the problem is reduced to a semidefinite optimization problem, where the optimal control can be computed efficiently by Semidefinite programming (SDP). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and power efficiency by utilizing the proposed control approach.

  10. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  11. Empowerment Program for People With Prediabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Hung, Shu-Ling; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2017-04-01

    Practicing a health-promoting lifestyle is believed to be effective for delaying or preventing the onset of diabetes. However, although empowerment interventions have proven effective for encouraging the adoption of a health-promoting lifestyle in people with diabetes, these interventions are rarely promoted to people with prediabetes. The aims of this study were to develop an empowerment program for people with prediabetes and to examine its efficacy in terms of the adoption of a health-promoting lifestyle and improvements in blood sugar, body mass index, and self-efficacy. A randomized controlled trial was conducted between May and December 2013. A convenience sample of people with a fasting blood sugar level of 100-125 mg/dl during the previous 3 months was recruited from the health examination center of a hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Participants were assigned to either the experimental group or the control group using block randomization with a block size of 8. The experimental group (n = 38) participated in a 4-month empowerment program (the ABC empowerment program), which encouraged participants to practice a health-promoting lifestyle in three phases: awareness raising, behavior building, and results checking. The control group (n = 40) received routine clinical care. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, independent t test, paired t test, and generalized estimated equations. After controlling for the differences at baseline and considering the interaction between group and time from baseline to 1 week and 3 months after completing the intervention, the generalized estimating equation showed significantly larger improvements in a health-promoting lifestyle, blood sugar, and self-efficacy in the experimental group than in the control group (p empowerment program was shown to have short-term, positive effects on behavioral, physical, and psychosocial outcomes in a Taiwan population with prediabetes. The results of this study provide a useful

  12. 76 FR 11502 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number... Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory... comments identified by Coast Guard docket number , to the Docket Management Facility (DMF) at the U.S...

  13. 76 FR 77243 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number... Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory... may submit comments identified by Coast Guard docket number to the Docket Management Facility (DMF) at...

  14. 76 FR 10385 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0106

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number... Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory... may submit comments identified by Coast Guard docket number to the Docket Management Facility (DMF) at...

  15. 76 FR 27073 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0109

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number... Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory... identified by Coast Guard docket number to the Docket Management Facility (DMF) at the U.S. Department of...

  16. 76 FR 80956 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number... Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory... identified by Coast Guard docket number to the Docket Management Facility (DMF) at the U.S. Department of...

  17. A learner-control instructional multimedia program is as effective as a program-control version in undergraduate orthodontic teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearn, David

    2007-01-01

    A randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in a dental school in Belgium. Undergraduate dental students were randomly assigned to a learner-control, multimedia learning-environment, courseware package (module) or the same module but structured in a program-control form. The learning objectives of learner- and program-control versions of the appliances module were identical. Both groups received the same materials covering the principles of orthodontic appliances that are normally provided at this stage of the undergraduate orthodontic curriculum. Both modules have didactic, interactive and simple animation components. Students were evaluated by means of a 15-item multiple-choice test covering knowledge, understanding and application. They were carried out at baseline and 15 min after finishing studying the modules. The tests were assessed by calculating the total score of the correct answers. Of 39 undergraduate dental students invited to take part, 30 students participated, 15 in each group. There was no significant difference in prior knowledge in the groups at baseline. Although both groups significantly improved their scores after studying the course, no significant difference was found between both groups in relation to answers to questions about knowledge, understanding and application. In this study, the learner-control instructional multimedia program was found to be as effective as the program-control version when teaching principles of the orthodontic appliances to undergraduate students. Future work should focus on how to improve the value of computer-assisted learning (CAL), and comparative evaluations are still needed of how different CAL approaches compare with or complement one another.

  18. A computer program for the algebraic determination of control coefficients in Metabolic Control Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S; Fell, D A

    1993-06-01

    A computer program (MetaCon) is described for the evaluation of flux control, concentration control and branch-point distribution control coefficients of a metabolic pathway. Requiring only the reaction scheme as input, the program produces algebraic expressions for the control coefficients in terms of elasticity coefficients, metabolite concentrations and pathway fluxes. Any of these variables can be substituted by numeric or simple algebraic expressions; the expressions will then be automatically rearranged in terms of the remaining unknown variables. When all variables have been substituted, numeric values will be obtained for the control coefficients. The program is a computerized implementation of the matrix method for the determination of control coefficients. The features of MetaCon are compared with those of other programs available to workers in Metabolic Control Analysis. Potential benefits of, and methods of using, MetaCon are discussed. The mathematical background and validity of the matrix method rules are discussed, and the algorithm used by MetaCon is described. The matrix method is shown to be a specific case of a previously described general formalism for calculating control coefficients.

  19. Control system design and analysis using the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly efficient environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. Moreover, the results of the analytic tools imbedded in INCA have been flight proven with at least three currently orbiting spacecraft. This paper describes the INCA program and illustrates, using a flight proven example, how the package can perform complex design analyses with relative ease.

  20. Dedicated Programming Language for Small Distributed Control Divices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz; Borch, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Small control computers are more and more used in modern households. These computers are for instance in washing machines, heating systems, secure systems, televisions and stereos. In the future all these computers will communicate with each other to implement the intelligent house. This can only....... This paper describes a new, flexible and simple language for programming distributed control tasks. The compiler for this language generates a target code that is very easy to interpret. A interpreter, that can be easy ported to different hardwares, is described. The new language is simple and easy to learn...

  1. Home visits reduce the number of hazards for childhood home injuries in Karachi, Pakistan: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rehmani, Rifat; LeBlanc, John C

    2010-01-01

    Background Although unintentional injuries are major causes of morbidity and mortality in less developed countries, they have received scant attention, and injury prevention policies and programs have just begun to be addressed systemically. Aims To reduce hazards associated with home injuries due to falls and ingestions through an injury prevention program administered by home visitors. Methods Non-blinded randomized controlled trial design of two interventions where one branch of the study ...

  2. A Donation After Circulatory Death Program Has the Potential to Increase the Number of Donors After Brain Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Andrew R; Manara, Alex; Bramhall, Simon; Cartmill, Maria; Gardiner, Dale; Neuberger, James

    2016-02-01

    Donation after circulatory death has been responsible for 75% of the increase in the numbers of deceased organ donors in the United Kingdom. There has been concern that the success of the donation after circulatory death program has been at the expense of donation after brain death. The objective of the study was to ascertain the impact of the donation after circulatory death program on donation after brain death in the United Kingdom. Retrospective cohort study. A national organ procurement organization. Patients referred and assessed as donation after circulatory death donors in the United Kingdom between October and December 2013. None. A total of 257 patients were assessed for donation after circulatory death. Of these, 193 were eligible donors. Three patients were deemed medically unsuitable following surgical inspection, 56 patients did not proceed due to asystole, and 134 proceeded to donation. Four donors had insufficient data available for analysis. Therefore, 186 cases were analyzed in total. Organ donation would not have been possible in 79 of the 130 actual donors if donation after circulatory death was not available. Thirty-six donation after circulatory death donors (28% of actual donors) were judged to have the potential to progress to brain death if withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment had been delayed by up to a further 36 hours. A further 15 donation after circulatory death donors had brain death confirmed or had clinical indications of brain death with clear mitigating circumstances in all but three cases. We determined that the maximum potential donation after brain death to donation after circulatory death substitution rate observed was 8%; however due to mitigating circumstances, only three patients (2%) could have undergone brain death testing. The development of a national donation after circulatory death program has had minimal impact on the number of donation after brain death donors. The number of donation after brain death donors

  3. AUTOMATION OF PLC PROGRAMMING WHEN IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS OF GUARANTEEING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  4. Review of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control Programs: International Experience and Challenges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng Chuen Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Major cardiovascular risk factors in China, such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, dietary factors, exposure to tobacco, diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity, have contributed to deteriorating trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD deaths. In past years, a number of CVD prevention programs have been initiated in European and American countries and successfully brought down CVD related death rate by involving various parties such as physicians, patients, government agencies and payers. However, there is rare published literature that systemically reviewed such experience, which would be highly valuable for China and other countries with high CVD burden. In this article, we review the published literature on CVD prevention and control programs and report on interviews of local and foreign experts to provide recommendations for China-specific CVD prevention and control programs. In order to provide practical suggestions, we describe the type of programs as patient, physician, pharmacist, nurse, or payer-focused. Based on this evidence and identified challenges in China, programs focusing on disease management, treatment adherence, physician/health care provider education, financial incentives, and integrated healthcare are recommended for the prevention and control of CVD in China.

  5. Toward Harmonizing Command and Control with Organization and Management Theory (The International C2 Journal, Volume 3, Number 2, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    VOLUME 3, NUMBER 2, 2009 Toward Harmonizing Command and Control with Organization and Management Theory David S. Alberts Mark E. Nissen Report...International C2 Journal | Vol 3, No 2 Toward Harmonizing Command and Control with Organization and Management Theory David S. Alberts (OASD-NII – DoD...of knowledge: 1) Command and Control, and 2) Organization and Management Theory (OMT). These two domains offer a very clear opportunity for

  6. 75 FR 37742 - Addition of New Export Control Classification Number 6A981 Passive Infrasound Sensors to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ...The Bureau of Industry and Security proposes to amend the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by adding Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) 6A981 to the Commerce Control List (CCL) to control passive infrasound sensors because of their military and commercial utility. Items under this new ECCN will be controlled for Regional Stability (RS) and Anti-Terrorism (AT) reasons. In addition, BIS proposes to control technology and software for the development, production, or use of these items for RS and AT reasons under revised ECCNs 6D991 and 6E991, respectively.

  7. Increasing the Overall Quality and the Number of Women and Hispanic Geoscientists for the Workforce: Rebuilding an Undergraduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M. T.; McGehee, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past ten years, the Geosciences Program at Texas A&M University-Kingsville has increased the number of Geology majors 400%, and in the past five years we have graduated 62 students, an increase of 800%. Of these graduates, 37% were Hispanic or African-American and 26% were women. Our graduates are high-achievers with 13% also graduating from the Honor's College (campus-wide rate is less than 1.5%) and that included three women and two Hispanic graduates. Two of these recent graduates are doctoral candidates and eleven are master's candidates at major universities. Of these, three master's candidates are Hispanic, including two women, and one doctoral candidate is a Hispanic woman. The recent productivity and quality changes in this program are attributed to our shift toward an undergraduate, student-centered focus. The increases in productivity resulted from the development of strong relationships with community colleges across the state and significant efforts in recruitment and retention. The major changes in quality included implementation of a strong field-oriented focus with full faculty participation, a strong undergraduate research program, a well-developed recruitment and retention plan, a GIS Certification incorporated into the geology degree, and a culture change to further student professional development. We have maintained over 50 majors in our program for the past three years through increased faculty presentations at high-schools and community colleges, a good University recruiting staff, and quarterly newsletters, focused on student achievements, sent to all prospective students and parents inquiring about the geology major. The resurgence of the oil and gas industry and the retirement of geoscientists have provided a steady stream of job opportunities for our graduates. The 79% that are not pursuing a graduate education accepted jobs after graduation. These include oil and gas entry level jobs, mining jobs, teaching jobs, and geospatial

  8. Carboy Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, Daniel [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These training vary from web-based cyber security training for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  9. W-026 acceptance test report plant control system hardware (submittal {number_sign} 220.C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, T.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    Acceptance Testing of the WRAP1 Plant Control System Hardware was conducted throughout the construction of WRAPI with the final testing on the Process Area hardware being completed in November 1996. The hardware tests were broken out by the following functional areas; Local Control Units, Operator Control Stations in the WRAP Control Room, DMS Server, PCS Server, Operator Interface Units, printers, DMS terminals, WRAP Local Area Network/Communications, and bar code equipment. This document contains a completed copy of each of the hardware tests along with the applicable test logs and completed test exception reports.

  10. W-026 acceptance test plan plant control system hardware (submittal {number_sign} 216)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, T.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    Acceptance Testing of the WRAP 1 Plant Control System Hardware will be conducted throughout the construction of WRAP I with the final testing on the Process Area hardware being completed in November 1996. The hardware tests will be broken out by the following functional areas; Local Control Units, Operator Control Stations in the WRAP Control Room, DMS Server, PCS Server, Operator Interface Units, printers, DNS terminals, WRAP Local Area Network/Communications, and bar code equipment. This document will contain completed copies of each of the hardware tests along with the applicable test logs and completed test exception reports.

  11. 7 CFR 1488.23 - OMB Control Numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FINANCING OF SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1488.23 OMB... contained in these regulations (7 CFR part 1488) have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  12. Near Space: Should Air Force Space Command Take Control of Its Shore? (Maxwell Paper, Number 38)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    instruments of national power to meet any possible security challenge. The document seeks to lead fiscally constrained force development and employ- ment by...Innovative Develop- nent: Global Hawk and DarcStar-HAE UAVACTO [Advanced Concept Technolopy Demonstration] Program Description and Comparative Analisis

  13. 76 FR 71107 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Gender Assessment Surveys, OMB Control Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Office: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division... different impacts the programs had on men and women participants. Methodology Evaluation data will be... Office of Policy and Evaluation, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of State. BILLING...

  14. Normal Diet: Age of Parental Control. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckermanty, Elizabeth; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  15. National Dam Safety Program. Fresh Air Fund Dam Number 2 (Inventory Number NY726), Hudson River Basin, Dutchess County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-12

    WORK UNIT NUMBERS COI rkL FFC A,, N ADDRESS 12. REPORT OATE of Enironmntal12 September 1980 Cosrain 5 ofRoad 13. NUMBER OF PAGES 14. ONIORIG AENC NAE ...General3 t-.- Cudu U U 6 b. Condition of Sce’-vicc Spillway ~4c4ztle td AIo eled-ice. JI. 4/’otn4 pI4e o c Cdetc+ n-Al7- see7 /Iced ~6~,ITte’ep or...oe( rIoc e~ td -6 -fhe. idt eui 1tJervfc se _______ I , i_ __ __ *1 ,I I :, I. | . - c. Condition of Auxiliary Spillway !, . fldt_ L L And4. fres

  16. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVII. Lactation performance in MF1 mice is not programmed by fetal number during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duah, Osei A; Monney, Kweku A; Hambly, Catherine; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Several studies have suggested that lactation performance may be programmed by the number of fetuses during pregnancy, whereas other studies indicate that processes during lactation are more important. As gestation litter size and litter size in lactation are usually strongly correlated, separating the roles of pregnancy and lactation in lactation performance is difficult. To break this link, we experimentally manipulated litter size of MF1 mice to five or 16 pups per litter by cross-fostering. Litter size and mass at birth were recorded on day 1 of lactation prior to litter size manipulation. Maternal body mass and food intake, litter size and litter mass were measured daily throughout. After weaning, the potential differential utilisation of body tissues of the mothers was investigated. Relationships between maternal mass and food intake, including asymptotic daily food intake at peak lactation, offspring traits and other maternal parameters suggested that the number of fetuses the females had carried during pregnancy had no effect on lactation performance. Litter mass increases depended only on maternal food intake, which was highly variable between individuals, but was independent of fetal litter size. The sizes of key organs and tissues like the liver and alimentary tract were not related to maximal food intake at peak lactation or to fetal litter size, but the masses of the pelage, mammary glands and retroperitoneal fat pad were. These data suggest that while growth of the mammary glands and associated structures may be initiated in gestation, and vary in relation to the number of placentas, the ultimate sizes and activities of the tissues depends primarily on factors during lactation.

  17. Defense Acquisitions: Better Approach Needed to Account for Number, Cost, and Performance of Non-Major Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and equipment. About 40 percent of that total is for major defense acquisition programs or ACAT I programs. DOD also invests in other, non-major... ACAT II and III programs that are generally less costly at the individual program level. These programs typically have fewer reporting requirements...and are overseen at lower organizational levels than ACAT I programs, although they may have annual funding needs that are just as significant

  18. MASS TRANSFER CONTROL OF A BACKWARD-FACING STEP FLOW BY LOCAL FORCING- EFFECT OF REYNOLDS NUMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaier MEHREZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of fluid mechanics and mass transfer in separated and reattaching flow over a backward-facing step by a local forcing, is studied using Large Eddy Simulation (LES.To control the flow, the local forcing is realized by a sinusoidal oscillating jet at the step edge. The Reynolds number is varied in the range 10000 ≤ Re≤ 50000 and the Schmidt number is fixed at 1.The found results show that the flow structure is modified and the local mass transfer is enhanced by the applied forcing. The observed changes depend on the Reynolds number and vary with the frequency and amplitude of the local forcing. For the all Reynolds numbers, the largest recirculation zone size reduction is obtained at the optimum forcing frequency St = 0.25. At this frequency the local mass transfer enhancement attains the maximum.

  19. Adaptive dynamic programming with applications in optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding; Yang, Xiong; Li, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the most recent developments in adaptive dynamic programming (ADP). The text begins with a thorough background review of ADP making sure that readers are sufficiently familiar with the fundamentals. In the core of the book, the authors address first discrete- and then continuous-time systems. Coverage of discrete-time systems starts with a more general form of value iteration to demonstrate its convergence, optimality, and stability with complete and thorough theoretical analysis. A more realistic form of value iteration is studied where value function approximations are assumed to have finite errors. Adaptive Dynamic Programming also details another avenue of the ADP approach: policy iteration. Both basic and generalized forms of policy-iteration-based ADP are studied with complete and thorough theoretical analysis in terms of convergence, optimality, stability, and error bounds. Among continuous-time systems, the control of affine and nonaffine nonlinear systems is studied using the ADP app...

  20. Demonstration of Coherent-State Discrimination Using a Displacement-Controlled Photon-Number-Resolving Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittmann, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Takeoka, M.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a new measurement scheme for the discrimination of two coherent states. The measurement scheme is based on a displacement operation followed by a photon-number-resolving detector, and we show that it outperforms the standard homodyne detector which we, in addition, p...

  1. Building the evaluation capacity of California's local tobacco control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Jeanette; Cassady, Diana; Kipke, Robin; Kwon, Nicole; Satterlund, Travis

    2011-11-01

    Successful evaluation capacity building requires a dynamic balance between responding to local agency needs and ensuring that local staff have appropriate skills to conduct rigorous evaluations. In 2004, the California Tobacco Control Program established the Tobacco Control Evaluation Center (TCEC), based at a public research university, to provide evaluation technical assistance to approximately 100 local agencies implementing tobacco control programs. TCEC has been responsive to local needs, for instance, by answering 512 technical assistance requests in the first 5 years of operation and by tailoring training according to needs assessment results. About 50% of the technical assistance requests were for new data collection instruments (n = 255). TCEC has sought proactively to improve local evaluation skills, most recently in a data analysis and report writing skill building campaign that included a webinar, newsletter, and seven regional training meetings. Preliminary analysis suggests a 20% improvement in scores for the local final evaluation reports as a result of this campaign. It is concluded that evaluation technical assistance can be provided effectively by a university as long as the local context is kept in mind, and a balance of responsive and proactive technical assistance is provided.

  2. Controlled Optimal Design Program for the Logit Dose Response Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqiao Hu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of dose-response is an integral component of the drug development process. Parallel dose-response studies are conducted, customarily, in preclinical and phase 1, 2 clinical trials for this purpose. Practical constraints on dose range, dose levels and dose proportions are intrinsic issues in the design of dose response studies because of drug toxicity, efficacy, FDA regulations, protocol requirements, clinical trial logistics, and marketing issues. We provide a free on-line software package called Controlled Optimal Design 2.0 for generating controlled optimal designs that can incorporate prior information and multiple objectives, and meet multiple practical constraints at the same time. Researchers can either run the web-based design program or download its stand-alone version to construct the desired multiple-objective controlled Bayesian optimal designs. Because researchers often adopt ad-hoc design schemes such as the equal allocation rules without knowing how efficient such designs would be for the design problem, the program also evaluates the efficiency of user-supplied designs.

  3. What controls the low ice number concentration in the upper troposphere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause play a key role in regulating the moisture entering the stratosphere through their dehydrating effect. Low ice number concentrations ( <  200 L−1 and high supersaturations (150–160 % have been observed in these clouds. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain these low ice number concentrations, including the inhibition of homogeneous freezing by the deposition of water vapour onto pre-existing ice crystals, heterogeneous ice formation on glassy organic aerosol ice nuclei (IN, and limiting the formation of ice number from high-frequency gravity waves. In this study, we examined the effect from three different representations of updraft velocities, the effect from pre-existing ice crystals, the effect from different water vapour deposition coefficients (α  =  0.1 or 1, and the effect of 0.1 % of the total secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles acting as IN. Model-simulated ice crystal numbers are compared against an aircraft observational dataset.Including the effect from water vapour deposition on pre-existing ice particles can effectively reduce simulated in-cloud ice number concentrations for all model setups. A larger water vapour deposition coefficient (α  =  1 can also efficiently reduce ice number concentrations at temperatures below 205 K, but less so at higher temperatures. SOA acting as IN is most effective at reducing ice number concentrations when the effective updraft velocities are moderate ( ∼  0.05–0.2 m s−1. However, the effects of including SOA as IN and using (α  =  1 are diminished when the effect from pre-existing ice is included.When a grid-resolved large-scale updraft velocity ( <  0.1 m s−1 is used, the ice nucleation parameterization with homogeneous freezing only or with both homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous nucleation is able to generate low ice number concentrations in good agreement

  4. Health literacy: varying relations with control over care and number of GP visits.

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, I.; Heijmans, M.; Schuit, A.J.; Uiters, E.; Rademakers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In chronic care, patients are expected to exert a certain degree of control over the care for their condition, for instance by fulfilling care tasks in their home environment. Health literacy is considered relevant in this regard, especially critical health literacy. The aim of this study was to examine to what extent functional, interactive and critical health literacy are associated with patients’ perceived control over care and with the frequency of GP visits. Methods: Data f...

  5. W-026 acceptance test plan plant control system software (submittal {number_sign} 216)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, T.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    Acceptance Testing of the WRAP 1 Plant Control System software will be conducted throughout the construction of WRAP 1 with final testing on the glovebox software being completed in December 1996. The software tests will be broken out into five sections; one for each of the four Local Control Units and one for the supervisory software modules. The acceptance test report will contain completed copies of the software tests along with the applicable test log and completed Exception Test Reports.

  6. CR mammography: Design and implementation of a quality control program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Ramirez, A.; Brandan, M. E.; Villasenor-Navarro, Y.; Galvan, H. A.; Ruiz-Trejo, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Departamento de Radiodiagnostico, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, DF 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Despite the recent acquisition of significant quantities of computed radiography CR equipment for mammography, Mexican regulations do not specify the performance requirements for digital systems such as those of CR type. The design of a quality control program QCP specific for CR mammography systems was thus considered relevant. International protocols were taken as reference to define tests, procedures and acceptance criteria. The designed QCP was applied in three CR mammography facilities. Important deficiencies in spatial resolution, noise, image receptor homogeneity, artifacts and breast thickness compensation were detected.

  7. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  8. FGF signaling regulates the number of posterior taste papillae by controlling progenitor field size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille I Petersen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is fundamental to our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Sensory taste buds are housed in papillae that develop from epithelial placodes. Three distinct types of gustatory papillae reside on the rodent tongue: small fungiform papillae are found in the anterior tongue, whereas the posterior tongue contains the larger foliate papillae and a single midline circumvallate papilla (CVP. Despite the great variation in the number of CVPs in mammals, its importance in taste function, and its status as the largest of the taste papillae, very little is known about the development of this structure. Here, we report that a balance between Sprouty (Spry genes and Fgf10, which respectively antagonize and activate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signaling, regulates the number of CVPs. Deletion of Spry2 alone resulted in duplication of the CVP as a result of an increase in the size of the placode progenitor field, and Spry1(-/-;Spry2(-/- embryos had multiple CVPs, demonstrating the redundancy of Sprouty genes in regulating the progenitor field size. By contrast, deletion of Fgf10 led to absence of the CVP, identifying FGF10 as the first inductive, mesenchyme-derived factor for taste papillae. Our results provide the first demonstration of the role of epithelial-mesenchymal FGF signaling in taste papilla development, indicate that regulation of the progenitor field size by FGF signaling is a critical determinant of papilla number, and suggest that the great variation in CVP number among mammalian species may be linked to levels of signaling by the FGF pathway.

  9. National strategy for the integration of pharmacovigilance in the Moroccan TB Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanani, Driss Soussi; Serragui, Samira; Hammi, Sanae; Moussa, Latifa Ait; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Soulaymani, Rachida; Cherrah, Yahia

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the interest of integration of pharmacovigilance in Moroccan Tuberculosis Control Program (MTCP). The integration of pharmacovigilance in MTCP was conducted in October 2012with the Global Fund support. We compared the reports notified before and after this integration (period 1: January 2010-October2012; period 2: October 2012-December 2013). The detection of signals was based on the Information Component available inVigiMine. We used the SPSS version 10.0 and Med Calc version 7.3 for data analysis. The average number of spontaneous reports increased from 3.6 to 37.4 cases/month (Ppharmacovigilance in Moroccan Tuberculosis Control Program improved the management of ADRs and detected new signals of antituberculosis drugs.

  10. Control of wing-tip vortex using winglets at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seunghyun; Choi, Haecheon

    2014-11-01

    Winglets are considered as one of the effective devices for reducing induced drag, and thus many studies have been conducted, but mainly at high Reynolds numbers (Re ~106 ~107) for commercial airplanes. However, small-size unmanned air vehicles (UAV), operating at low Reynolds numbers (Re aerodynamic performance of an UAV by varying the cant angle. The WASP UAV model is used and the Reynolds numbers considered are 110,000 ~ 140,000 based on the free stream velocity and mean chord length of the WASP wing. The lift and drag forces on UAV are measured, and PIV measurements are conducted at several cross-flow planes for a few different angles of attack (α) . At high angles of attack (7° ~13°) , the winglets with the cant angle of 70° increase the aerodynamic performance, whereas at low angles of attack (2° ~6°) , the wing-tip extension (cant angle of 0°) shows better performances. The velocity fields measured from PIV indicate that, with the winglet, the wing-tip vortex moves away from the wing surface at α =12° , and the downwash motion in the wake behind the trailing edge is decreased, reducing the magnitude of the induced drag. A concept of changing the cant angle during flight is also suggested at this talk. Supported by 2011-0028032.

  11. Efficacy of smoking prevention program 'Smoke-free Kids': study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Schayck Onno CP

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong increase in smoking is noted especially among adolescents. In the Netherlands, about 5% of all 10-year olds, 25% of all 13-year olds and 62% of all 17-year olds report ever smoking. In the U.S., an intervention program called 'Smoke-free Kids' was developed to prevent children from smoking. The present study aims to assess the effects of this home-based smoking prevention program in the Netherlands. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial is conducted among 9 to 11-year old children of primary schools. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention program consists of five printed activity modules designed to improve parenting skills specific to smoking prevention and parent-child communication regarding smoking. These modules will include additional sheets with communication tips. The modules for the control condition will include solely information on smoking and tobacco use. Initiation of cigarette smoking (first instance of puffing on a lighted cigarette, susceptibility to cigarette smoking, smoking-related cognitions, and anti-smoking socialization will be the outcome measures. To collect the data, telephone interviews with mothers as well as with their child will be conducted at baseline. Only the children will be examined at post-intervention follow-ups (6, 12, 24, and 36 months after the baseline. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based smoking prevention program. We expect that a significantly lower number of children will start smoking in the intervention condition compared to control condition as a direct result of this intervention. If the program is effective, it is applicable in daily live, which will facilitate implementation of the prevention protocol. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR1465

  12. Improving bovine udder health: a national mastitis control program in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T J G M; van den Borne, B H P; Jansen, J; Huijps, K; van Veersen, J C L; van Schaik, G; Hogeveen, H

    2013-02-01

    Because of increasing bulk milk somatic cell counts and continuous clinical mastitis problems in a substantial number of herds, a national mastitis control program was started in 2005 to improve udder health in the Netherlands. The program started with founding the Dutch Udder Health Centre (UGCN), which had the task to coordinate the program. The program consisted of 2 parts: a research part and a knowledge-transfer part, which were integrated as much as possible. The knowledge-transfer part comprised 2 communication strategies: a central and a peripheral approach. The central approach was based on educating farmers using comprehensive science-based and rational argumentation about mastitis prevention and included on-farm study group meetings. Comprehensive education materials were developed for farmers that were internally motivated to improve udder health. In the peripheral approach it was tried to motivate farmers to implement certain management measures using nontechnical arguments. Mass media campaigns were used that focused on one single aspect of mastitis prevention. These communication strategies, as well as an integrated approach between various stakeholders and different scientific disciplines were used to reach as many farmers as possible. It should be noted that, because this intervention took place at a national level, no control group was available, as it would be impossible to isolate farmers from all forms of communication for 5 years. Based on several studies executed during and after the program, however, the results suggest that udder health seemed to have improved on a national level during the course of the program from 2005 to 2010. Within a cohort of dairy herds monitored during the program, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis did not change significantly (23.0 in 2004 vs. 22.2 in 2009). The incidence rate of clinical mastitis, however, decreased significantly, from 33.5 to 28.1 quarter cases per 100 cow years at risk. The most important

  13. Construction: a model program for infection control compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Francine; Buttner, Clark; Kressel, Amy B

    2007-06-01

    In the 21st century, one of the most challenging tasks for the infection control practitioner (ICP) is establishing collegiality and trust with contractors, architects, maintenance and engineering personnel. We describe how an urban teaching hospital's infection control program cooperated with contractors during a large demolition, construction, and renovation project in order to protect its large population of immunosuppressed patients. Most contractors are not accustomed to taking special precautions during demolition. Because of a previous Aspergillus outbreak in our heart transplant population, we already had an established infection control (IC) training program for contractors. We expanded and codified it in response to a major hospital renovation. The IC, in-house Design and Construction, and outside contractors meet before the initiation of all major renovation projects to anticipate IC concerns and proactively plan for infection control interventions. Now, all contractors and maintenance staff are required to receive IC training at the time of their employment. A hospital identification badge with attached sticker that indicates the IC training date is required. Infection Control Risk Assessments (ICRA) are initiated by project managers and completed jointly with IC. The ICPs make rounds on all projects at least weekly and large projects are visited daily. We established a team comprised of ICP, project manager, construction manager, and area nurse manager to monitor and make recommendations for improvement continually during the project. Staff are educated about construction so they can help monitor airflow and cleanliness. Our contractors are more compliant with our IC specifications since they now understand why we insist on them. Through the years of major construction, the workers have jumped on the bandwagon. It is not unusual for construction or maintenance staff to contact IC for advice. There were four years of extensive construction without any

  14. Health literacy: varying relations with control over care and number of GP visits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Heijmans, M.; Schuit, A.J.; Uiters, E.; Rademakers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In chronic care, patients are expected to exert a certain degree of control over the care for their condition, for instance by fulfilling care tasks in their home environment. Health literacy is considered relevant in this regard, especially critical health literacy. The aim of this

  15. 76 FR 26746 - Information Collection Requests to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Information Collection Requests to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control... submit Information Collection Requests (ICRs) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of... the Docket Management Facility (DMF) at the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). To avoid...

  16. DNA copy-number control through inhibition of replication fork progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. Nordman (Jared T.); E. Kozhevnikova (Elena); C.P. Verrijzer (Peter); A.V. Pindyurin (Alexey); E.N. Andreyeva (Evgeniya); V.V. Shloma (Victor); I.F. Zhimulev (Igor); T. Orr-Weaver (T.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProper control of DNA replication is essential to ensure faithful transmission of genetic material and prevent chromosomal aberrations that can drive cancer progression and developmental disorders. DNA replication is regulated primarily at the level of initiation and is under strict

  17. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - DEWALT RECIPROCATING SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-01, VERSION A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-01-31

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The DeWalt reciprocating saw was assessed on August 13, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The DeWalt reciprocating saw is a hand-held industrial tool used for cutting numerous materials, including wood and various types of metals depending upon the chosen blade. Its design allows for cutting close to floors, corners, and other difficult areas. An adjustable shoe sets the cut at three separate depths. During the demonstration for the dismantling of the fiberglass-reinforced plywood crate, the saw was used for extended continuous cutting, over a period of approximately two hours. The dismantling operation involved vertical and horizontal cuts, saw blade changes, and material handling. During this process, operators experienced vibration to the hand and arm in addition to a temperature rise on the handgrip. The blade of the saw is partially exposed during handling and fully exposed during blade changes. Administrative controls, such as duty time of the operators and the machine, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, should be considered when using the saw in this application. Personal noise sampling indicated that both workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 88.3 and 90.6 dBA. Normally, a worker would be placed in a hearing conservation program if his

  18. The Effects of Program Control, Learner Control, and Learner Control with Advisement Lesson Control Strategies on Anxiety and Learning from Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorough, Randall P.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three computer-assisted instruction (CAI) locus of instructional control strategies--learner control, learner control with advisement, and program control--on posttest performance and anxiety. The instructional content was a lesson addressing the effects of alcohol on the body. To examine the…

  19. Processes Controlling the Seasonal Cycle of Arctic Aerosol Number and Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, G.; Croft, B.; Martin, R.; Leaitch, W. R.; Tunved, P.; Breider, T. J.; D'Andrea, S.; Pierce, J. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Kodros, J.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements at high-Arctic sites show a strong seasonal cycle in aerosol number and size. The number of aerosols with diameters larger than 20 nm exhibits a maximum in late spring associated with a dominant accumulation mode, and a second maximum in the summer associated with a dominant Aitken mode. Seasonal-mean aerosol effective diameter ranges from about 160 nm in summer to 250 nm in winter. This study interprets these seasonal cycles with the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model. We find improved agreement with in situ measurements (SMPS) of aerosol size at both Alert, Nunavut, and Mt. Zeppelin, Svalbard following model developments: 1) increase the efficiency of wet scavenging in the Arctic summer and 2) represent coagulation between interstitial aerosols and aerosols activated to form cloud droplets. Our simulations indicate that the dominant summer-time Aitken mode is associated with increased efficiency of wet removal, which limits the number of larger aerosols and promotes local new-aerosol formation. We also find an important role of interstitial coagulation in clouds in the Arctic, which limits the number of Aitken-mode aerosols in the non-summer seasons when direct wet removal of these aerosols is inefficient. The summertime Arctic atmosphere is particularly pristine and strongly influenced by natural regional emissions which have poorly understood climate impacts. Especially influenced are the climatic roles of atmospheric particles and clouds. Here we present evidence that ammonia (NH3) emissions from migratory-seabird guano (dung) are the primary contributor to summertime free ammonia levels recently measured in the Canadian Arctic atmosphere. These findings suggest that ammonia from seabird guano is a key factor contributing to bursts of new-particle formation, which are observed every summer in the near-surface atmosphere at Alert, Canada. Chemical transport model simulations show that these newly formed particles can grow by vapour

  20. 75 FR 8732 - Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0092; Federal Fish and Wildlife Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... et seq.) makes it unlawful to import or export fish, wildlife, or plants without obtaining prior... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0092; Federal Fish and Wildlife Permit Applications and Reports--Law Enforcement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...

  1. 40 CFR 91.113 - Requirement of certification-emission control information label and engine identification number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (10) Engine displacement ; and (11) Advertised power; (12) Engine tuneup specifications and... control information label and engine identification number. 91.113 Section 91.113 Protection of... MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.113 Requirement of...

  2. 76 FR 27074 - Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

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  3. 75 FR 82038 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0058...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...-1137] Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0058... Information Collection Requests (ICRs) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and...-0058, Application for Permit to Transport Municipal and Commercial Waste, 1625-0072, Waste Management...

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    2010-02-10

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    2011-06-14

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    2010-09-22

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    2010-04-14

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    2010-09-27

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    2010-01-08

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  11. 15 CFR 30.63 - Office of Management and Budget control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Management and Budget control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act. 30.63 Section 30.63 Commerce and Foreign... FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Administrative Provisions § 30.63 Office of Management and Budget...

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    2010-07-12

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    2010-11-19

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  17. 76 FR 8764 - Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget: OMB Control Number...

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  18. 75 FR 39552 - Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number...

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    2010-07-09

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  20. 76 FR 5817 - Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget: OMB Control Number...

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    2011-02-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget: OMB Control... Collection Request (ICR), abstracted below, to the, Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of.... ADDRESSES: You may submit comments identified by Coast Guard docket number to the Docket Management Facility...

  1. Control of a high Reynolds number Mach 0.9 heated jet using plasma actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney-Fischer, M.; Kim, J.-H.; Samimy, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gas Dynamics and Turbulence Laboratory, Ohio State University (GDTL/OSU), 2300 West Case Road, Columbus, Ohio 43235-7531 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The results of particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a high subsonic, heated, jet forced using localized arc filament plasma actuators (LAFPAs) show that LAFPAs can consistently produce significant mixing enhancement over a wide range of temperatures. These actuators have been used successfully in high Reynolds number, high-speed unheated jets. The facility consists of an axisymmetric jet with different nozzle blocks of exit diameter of 2.54 cm and variable jet temperature in an anechoic chamber. The focus of this paper is on a high subsonic (M{sub j}=0.9) jet. Twelve experiments with various forcing azimuthal modes (m=0, 1, and {+-}1) and temperatures (T{sub o}/T{sub a}=1.0, 1.4, and 2.0) at a fixed forcing Strouhal number (St{sub DF}=0.3) have been conducted and PIV results compared with the baseline results to characterize the effectiveness of LAFPAs for mixing enhancement. Centerline velocity and turbulent kinetic energy as well as jet width are used for determining the LAFPAs' effectiveness. The characteristics of large-scale structures are analyzed through the use of Galilean streamlines and swirling strength. Across the range of temperatures collected, the effectiveness of LAFPAs improves as temperature increases. Possible reasons for the increase in effectiveness are discussed.

  2. PLC and DTAM Software Programs for Pumping Instrumentation and Control Skid P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-05-11

    This document describe the software programs for the Programmable Logic Controller and the Datable Access Module for Pumping Instrumentation and Control skid ''P''. The Appendices contains copies of the printouts of these software programs.

  3. Perancangan Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djunaidi Santoso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In making controller, there must be knowledge about component controlling functions that used for controller designing. In the control unit, it needs simple method as micro programming. This micro programming is to create a micro program in binary numbering that used for controlling pin’s component controller and outside the controller. Controller design in general needs several prerequisites, which are digital system and controller and assembly language. 

  4. Holding back the tiger: Successful control program protects Australia from Aedes albopictus expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Gregor; Davis, Joseph; Crunkhorn, Bruce; van den Hurk, Andrew; Whelan, Peter; Russell, Richard; Walker, James; Horne, Peter; Ehlers, Gerhard; Ritchie, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Background The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses and is a highly invasive and aggressive biter. Established populations of this species were first recognised in Australia in 2005 when they were discovered on islands in the Torres Strait, between mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea. A control program was implemented with the original goal of eliminating Ae. albopictus from the Torres Strait. We describe the evolution of management strategies that provide a template for Ae. albopictus control that can be adopted elsewhere. Methodology / Principal findings The control strategy implemented between 2005 and 2008 targeted larval habitats using source reduction, insect-growth regulator and pyrethroid insecticide to control larvae and adults in the containers. However, the infrequency of insecticide reapplication, the continual accumulation and replacement of containers, and imminent re-introduction of mosquitoes through people’s movement from elsewhere compromised the program. Consequently, in 2009 the objective of the program changed from elimination to quarantine, with the goal of preventing Ae albopictus from infesting Thursday and Horn islands, which are the transport hubs connecting the Torres Strait to mainland Australia. However, larval control strategies did not prevent the species establishing on these islands in 2010. Thereafter, an additional strategy adopted by the quarantine program in early 2011 was harborage spraying, whereby the vegetated, well shaded resting sites of adult Ae. albopictus were treated with a residual pyrethroid insecticide. Inclusion of this additional measure led to a 97% decline in Ae. albopictus numbers within two years. In addition, the frequency of container treatment was increased to five weeks between treatments, compared to an average of 8 weeks that occurred in the earlier iterations of the program. By 2015 and 2016, Ae. albopictus populations on the two

  5. Holding back the tiger: Successful control program protects Australia from Aedes albopictus expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzari, Mutizwa Odwell; Devine, Gregor; Davis, Joseph; Crunkhorn, Bruce; van den Hurk, Andrew; Whelan, Peter; Russell, Richard; Walker, James; Horne, Peter; Ehlers, Gerhard; Ritchie, Scott

    2017-02-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses and is a highly invasive and aggressive biter. Established populations of this species were first recognised in Australia in 2005 when they were discovered on islands in the Torres Strait, between mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea. A control program was implemented with the original goal of eliminating Ae. albopictus from the Torres Strait. We describe the evolution of management strategies that provide a template for Ae. albopictus control that can be adopted elsewhere. The control strategy implemented between 2005 and 2008 targeted larval habitats using source reduction, insect-growth regulator and pyrethroid insecticide to control larvae and adults in the containers. However, the infrequency of insecticide reapplication, the continual accumulation and replacement of containers, and imminent re-introduction of mosquitoes through people's movement from elsewhere compromised the program. Consequently, in 2009 the objective of the program changed from elimination to quarantine, with the goal of preventing Ae albopictus from infesting Thursday and Horn islands, which are the transport hubs connecting the Torres Strait to mainland Australia. However, larval control strategies did not prevent the species establishing on these islands in 2010. Thereafter, an additional strategy adopted by the quarantine program in early 2011 was harborage spraying, whereby the vegetated, well shaded resting sites of adult Ae. albopictus were treated with a residual pyrethroid insecticide. Inclusion of this additional measure led to a 97% decline in Ae. albopictus numbers within two years. In addition, the frequency of container treatment was increased to five weeks between treatments, compared to an average of 8 weeks that occurred in the earlier iterations of the program. By 2015 and 2016, Ae. albopictus populations on the two islands were undetectable in 70-90% of surveys

  6. A Fully Automated Diabetes Prevention Program, Alive-PD: Program Design and Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Azar, Kristen Mj; Block, Torin J; Romanelli, Robert J; Carpenter, Heather; Hopkins, Donald; Palaniappan, Latha; Block, Clifford H

    2015-01-21

    In the United States, 86 million adults have pre-diabetes. Evidence-based interventions that are both cost effective and widely scalable are needed to prevent diabetes. Our goal was to develop a fully automated diabetes prevention program and determine its effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial. Subjects with verified pre-diabetes were recruited to participate in a trial of the effectiveness of Alive-PD, a newly developed, 1-year, fully automated behavior change program delivered by email and Web. The program involves weekly tailored goal-setting, team-based and individual challenges, gamification, and other opportunities for interaction. An accompanying mobile phone app supports goal-setting and activity planning. For the trial, participants were randomized by computer algorithm to start the program immediately or after a 6-month delay. The primary outcome measures are change in HbA1c and fasting glucose from baseline to 6 months. The secondary outcome measures are change in HbA1c, glucose, lipids, body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Randomization and delivery of the intervention are independent of clinic staff, who are blinded to treatment assignment. Outcomes will be evaluated for the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. A total of 340 subjects with pre-diabetes were randomized to the intervention (n=164) or delayed-entry control group (n=176). Baseline characteristics were as follows: mean age 55 (SD 8.9); mean BMI 31.1 (SD 4.3); male 68.5%; mean fasting glucose 109.9 (SD 8.4) mg/dL; and mean HbA1c 5.6 (SD 0.3)%. Data collection and analysis are in progress. We hypothesize that participants in the intervention group will achieve statistically significant reductions in fasting glucose and HbA1c as compared to the control group at 6 months post baseline. The randomized trial will provide rigorous evidence regarding the efficacy of this Web- and Internet-based program in reducing or

  7. History of Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control with Emphasis on Flight Resrearch: Monographs in Aerospace History Number 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braslow, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    The paper contains the following sections: Foreword; Preface; Laminar-Flow Control Concepts and Scope of Monograph; Early Research on Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control (Research from the 1930s through the War Years; Research from after World War II to the Mid-1960s); Post X-21 Research on Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control; Status of Laminar-Flow Control Technology in the Mid-1990s; Glossary; Document 1-Aeronautics Panel, AACB, R&D Review, Report of the Subpanel on Aeronautic Energy Conservation/Fuels; Document 2-Report of Review Group on X-21A Laminar Flow Control Program; Document 3-Langley Research Center Announcement, Establishment of Laminar Flow Control Working Group; Document 4-Intercenter Agreement for Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Glove Flights, LaRC and DFRC; Document 5-Flight Report NLF-144, of AFTIF-111 Aircraft with the TACT Wing Modified by a Natural Laminar Flow Glove; Document 6-Flight Record, F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Aircraft; Index; and About the Author.

  8. Randomized controlled trial on timing and number of sampling for bile aspiration cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Ebata, Tomoki; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Gen; Kato, Katsuyuki; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Nagino, Masato

    2014-06-01

    The issue on timing and number of bile sampling for exfoliative bile cytology is still unsettled. A total of 100 patients with cholangiocarcinoma undergoing resection after external biliary drainage were randomized into two groups: a 2-day group where bile was sampled five times per day for 2 days; and a 10-day group where bile was sampled once per day for 10 days (registered University Hospital Medical Information Network/ID 000005983). The outcome of 87 patients who underwent laparotomy was analyzed, 44 in the 2-day group and 43 in the 10-day group. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between the two groups. Positivity after one sampling session was significantly lower in the 2-day group than in the 10-day group (17.0 ± 3.7% vs. 20.7 ± 3.5%, P = 0.034). However, cumulative positivity curves were similar and overlapped each other between both groups. The final cumulative positivity by the 10th sampling session was 52.3% in the 2-day group and 51.2% in the 10-day group. We observed a small increase in cumulative positivity after the 5th or 6th session in both groups. Bile cytology positivity is unlikely to be affected by sample time. © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  9. Quelling targets the rDNA locus and functions in rDNA copy number control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecere Germano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA silencing occurs in a broad range of organisms. Although its ancestral function is probably related to the genome defense mechanism against repetitive selfish elements, it has been found that RNA silencing regulates different cellular processes such as gene expression and chromosomal segregation. In Neurospora crassa, a RNA silencing mechanism, called quelling, acts to repress the expression of transgenes and transposons, but until now no other cellular functions have been shown to be regulated by this mechanism. Results Here, we detected by northern blotting endogenous short interfering RNA (siRNAs from the repetitive ribosomal DNA locus (rDNA that are loaded onto the argonaute protein QDE-2. Moreover, we found a bidirectional transcription that can generate double strand RNA (dsRNA molecules. Interestingly, quelling mutants have a reduced rDNA gene copy number. Conclusion Our finding could suggest a new biological function for RNA silencing in the maintenance of the integrity and stability of the Neurospora rDNA locus.

  10. Operations Program Executive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fague, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Ground Resource Operations Program executive (GROPE) is control program for binding system of programs into single, easily operated entity. It relieves user from complexity arising from decomposition of large application into number of interacting program units. System simplifies job control, data management, and recordkeeping for interacting programs.

  11. Rice Tolerance to Saflufenacil in Clomazone Weed Control Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Camargo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate (1 rice tolerance to saflufenacil applied preemergence (PRE and postemergence (POST and (2 the combination of saflufenacil and clomazone in light-textured soils. No injury from PRE application of saflufenacil was observed in 2009, and minimal injury for saflufenacil alone was observed in 2010. Injury as high as 68% was observed with combinations of 505 g ha−1 of clomazone applied PRE and 50 g ha−1 of saflufenacil applied POST in 2009 early evaluations. No interaction between clomazone and POST saflufenacil rates was observed in 2010. Rice injury intensified with increasing rates of saflufenacil applied POST. However, rice recovered with time for herbicide treatments applied PRE and POST in both years. Consequently, rice yield was not affected by any of the saflufenacil rates applied either PRE or POST in a clomazone weed control program.

  12. Cryogenic instrumentation needs in the controlled thermonuclear research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    The magnet development effort for the controlled thermonuclear research program will require extensive testing of superconducting coils at various sizes from small-scale models to full-size prototypes. Extensive use of diagnostic instrumentation will be required and to make detailed comparisons of predicted and actual performance in magnet tests and to monitor the test facility for incipient failure modes. At later stages of the program, cryogenic instrumentation will be required to monitor magnet system performance in fusion power reactors. Measured quantities may include temperature, strain, deflection, coil resistance, helium coolant pressure and flow, current, voltages, etc. The test environment, which includes high magnetic fields (up to 8-10 T) and low temperature, makes many commercial measuring devices inoperative or at least inaccurate. In order to ensure reliable measurements, careful screening of commercial devices for performance in the test environment will be required. A survey of potentially applicable instrumentation is presented along with available information on operation in the test environment based on experimental data or on analysis of the physical characteristics of the device. Areas where further development work is needed are delineated.

  13. A Controlled Evaluation of a High School Biomedical Pipeline Program: Design and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Ned, Judith; Ahn, David; Koehler, Alana; Fagliano, Kathleen; Crump, Casey

    2013-07-01

    Given limited funding for school-based science education, non-school-based programs have been developed at colleges and universities to increase the number of students entering science- and health-related careers and address critical workforce needs. However, few evaluations of such programs have been conducted. We report the design and methods of a controlled trial to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program's Summer Residential Program (SRP), a 25-year-old university-based biomedical pipeline program. This 5-year matched cohort study uses an annual survey to assess educational and career outcomes among four cohorts of students who participate in the SRP and a matched comparison group of applicants who were not chosen to participate in the SRP. Matching on sociodemographic and academic background allows control for potential confounding. This design enables the testing of whether the SRP has an independent effect on educational- and career-related outcomes above and beyond the effects of other factors such as gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, and pre-intervention academic preparation. The results will help determine which curriculum components contribute most to successful outcomes and which students benefit most. After 4 years of follow-up, the results demonstrate high response rates from SRP participants and the comparison group with completion rates near 90 %, similar response rates by gender and ethnicity, and little attrition with each additional year of follow-up. This design and methods can potentially be replicated to evaluate and improve other biomedical pipeline programs, which are increasingly important for equipping more students for science- and health-related careers.

  14. Expanding the Navy’s Managers Internal Control Program’s (MICP) Capability to Prepare for External Financial Audits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    the Department is well managed. In 2013, The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission ( COSO ) added 17 principles to the five...analyzing the content of the MICP against the COSO and GAO publications, this thesis developed templates to supplement the MICP in order to bring the...Commission’s ( COSO ) 17 Principles, Office of Financial Operations (FMO), Managers’ Internal Control Program, Managers’ Internal Control Manual. 15. NUMBER OF

  15. A Computer Program to Calculate Two-Stage Short-Run Control Chart Factors for (X,MR Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E. Elam

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second in a series of two papers that fully develops two-stage short-run (X, MR control charts. This paper describes the development and execution of a computer program that accurately calculates first- and second-stage short-run control chart factors for (X, MR charts using the equations derived in the first paper. The software used is Mathcad. The program accepts values for number of subgroups, α for the X chart, and α for the MR chart both above the upper control limit and below the lower control limit. Tables are generated for specific values of these inputs and the implications of the results are discussed. A numerical example illustrates the use of the program.

  16. LES of High-Reynolds-Number Coanda Flow Separating from a Rounded Trailing Edge of a Circulation Control Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichino, Takafumi; Hahn, Seonghyeon; Shariff, Karim

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Large Eddy Simulation of a high reynolds number Coanda flow that is separated from a round trailing edge of a ciruclation control airfoil. The objectives of the study are: (1) To investigate detailed physics (flow structures and statistics) of the fully turbulent Coanda jet applied to a CC airfoil, by using LES (2) To compare LES and RANS results to figure out how to improve the performance of existing RANS models for this type of flow.

  17. Number conservation is related to children's prefrontal inhibitory control: an fMRI study of a piagetian task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Poirel

    Full Text Available Although young children can accurately determine that two rows contain the same number of coins when they are placed in a one-to-one correspondence, children younger than 7 years of age erroneously think that the longer row contains more coins when the coins in one of the rows are spread apart. To demonstrate that prefrontal inhibitory control is necessary to succeed at this task (Piaget's conservation-of-number task, we studied the relationship between the percentage of BOLD signal changes in the brain areas activated in this developmental task and behavioral performance on a Stroop task and a Backward Digit Span task. The level of activation in the right insula/inferior frontal gyrus was selectively related to inhibitory control efficiency (i.e., the Stroop task, whereas the activation in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS was selectively related to the ability to manipulate numerical information in working memory (i.e., the Backward Digit Span task. Taken together, the results indicate that to acquire number conservation, children's brains must not only activate the reversibility of cognitive operations (supported by the IPS but also inhibit a misleading length-equal-number strategy (supported by the right insula/inferior frontal gyrus.

  18. Medical Marijuana programs: implications for cannabis control policy--observations from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Room, Robin

    2015-01-01

    While prohibition has been the dominant regime of cannabis control in most countries for decades, an increasing number of countries have been implementing cannabis control reforms recently, including decriminalization or even legalization frameworks. Canada has held out from this trend, although it has among the highest cannabis use rates in the world. Cannabis use is universally criminalized, and the current (conservative) federal government has vowed not to implement any softening reforms to cannabis control. As a result of several higher court decisions, the then federal government was forced to implement a 'medical marijuana access regulations' program in 2001 to allow severely ill patients therapeutic use and access to therapeutic cannabis while shielding them from prosecution. The program's regulations and approval processes were complex and subject to extensive criticism; initial uptake was low and most medical marijuana users continued their use and supply outside the program's auspices. This year, the government introduced new 'marijuana for medical purposes regulations', which allow physicians to 'authorize' medical marijuana use for virtually any health condition for which this is considered beneficial; supply is facilitated by licensed commercial producers. It is expected that some 500,000 users, and dozens of commercial producers will soon be approved under the program, arguably constituting - as with medical marijuana schemes elsewhere, e.g. in California--de facto 'legalization'. We discuss the question whether the evolving scope and realities of 'medical cannabis' provisions in Canada offer a 'sneaky side door' or a 'better third way' to cannabis control reform, and what the potential wider implications are of these developments. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Heavy-section steel technology program: Semiannual progress report for April--September 1996. Volume 13, Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program focus is on the development and validation of technology for the assessment of fracture-prevention margins in commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The HSST Program is organized in seven tasks: (1) program management, (2) constraint effects analytical development and validation, (3) evaluation of cladding effects, (4) ductile to cleavage fracture mode conversion, (5) fracture analysis methods development and applications, (6) material property data and test methods, and (7) integration of results into a state-of-the-art methodology. The program tasks have been structured to place emphasis on the resolution fracture issues with near-term licensing significance. Resources to execute the research tasks are drawn from ORNL with subcontract support from universities and other research laboratories. Close contact is maintained with the sister Heavy-Section Steel irradiation Program at ORNL and with related research programs both in the US and abroad. This report provides an overview of principal developments in each of the seven program tasks from April 1996--September 1996.

  20. Does the Number of College Credits Earned in a Tech Prep and Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program Predict College Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a Tech Prep Program located in Northwest Ohio and determine the degree to which college credits earned in high school through the Tech Prep and PSEO Programs predict college success and if there were any significant gender/race differences in credits earned and college success as well as high school…

  1. "Think aloud": a program for developing self-control in young aggressive boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, B W; Blom, G E; Hebert, F; van Doorninck, W J

    1977-01-01

    "Think Aloud" was designed as a training program to improve self-control in 6- to 8-year-old boys. It involved modeling and verbalization of cognitive activity to foster use of verbal mediation skills in dealing with both cognitive and interpersonal problems. It was hypothesized that this training would lead to improvement in test performance and teacher ratings of classroom behavior in hyperaggressive boys. Twelve aggressive second grade boys participated in daily, 30-minute, individual sessions for 6 weeks. Normal and aggressive control subjects received no intervention. Teachers rated both trained and untrained aggressive boys as improving in aggressive behaviors but they rated the experimental group as showing improvement on a significantly larger number of prosocial behaviors. The pattern of performance on cognitive tests also changed significantly in the experimental group. On pretest, their pattern differed from normals and resembled the aggressive control group, while on posttest their pattern resembled normals and differed from agressive controls. Suggestions were made concerning additional refinements needed in the program, but overall results indicated potential value in the present approach for providing assistance to aggressive boys in the early grades.

  2. Control of water distribution networks with dynamic DMA topology using strictly feasible sequential convex programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert; Abraham, Edo; Parpas, Panos; Stoianov, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    The operation of water distribution networks (WDN) with a dynamic topology is a recently pioneered approach for the advanced management of District Metered Areas (DMAs) that integrates novel developments in hydraulic modeling, monitoring, optimization, and control. A common practice for leakage management is the sectorization of WDNs into small zones, called DMAs, by permanently closing isolation valves. This facilitates water companies to identify bursts and estimate leakage levels by measuring the inlet flow for each DMA. However, by permanently closing valves, a number of problems have been created including reduced resilience to failure and suboptimal pressure management. By introducing a dynamic topology to these zones, these disadvantages can be eliminated while still retaining the DMA structure for leakage monitoring. In this paper, a novel optimization method based on sequential convex programming (SCP) is outlined for the control of a dynamic topology with the objective of reducing average zone pressure (AZP). A key attribute for control optimization is reliable convergence. To achieve this, the SCP method we propose guarantees that each optimization step is strictly feasible, resulting in improved convergence properties. By using a null space algorithm for hydraulic analyses, the computations required are also significantly reduced. The optimized control is actuated on a real WDN operated with a dynamic topology. This unique experimental program incorporates a number of technologies set up with the objective of investigating pioneering developments in WDN management. Preliminary results indicate AZP reductions for a dynamic topology of up to 6.5% over optimally controlled fixed topology DMAs. This article was corrected on 12 JAN 2016. See the end of the full text for details.

  3. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  4. Healthy weight control and dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs: results from a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Trost, Ariel; Chase, Allison

    2003-01-01

    Because universal psychoeducational eating disorder prevention programs have had little success, we developed and evaluated two interventions for high-risk populations: a healthy weight control intervention and a dissonance-based intervention. Adolescent girls (N = 148) with body image concerns were randomized to one of these interventions or to a waitlist control group. Participants completed baseline, termination, and 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up surveys. Participants in both interventions reported decreased thin-ideal internalization, negative affect, and bulimic symptoms at termination and follow-up relative to controls. However, no effects were observed for body dissatisfaction or dieting and effects diminished over time. Results provide evidence that both interventions effectively reduce bulimic pathology and risk factors for eating disturbances. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Increasing the number of inter-arch contacts improves mastication in adults with Down syndrome: a prospective controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin, Martine; Mazille, Marie-Noëlle; Cousson, Pierre-Yves; Nicolas, Emmanuel

    2015-06-01

    Feeding difficulties due to their condition have been widely described for babies, children and adults with Down syndrome (DS). A previous study demonstrated that, compared with wearing a placebo appliance, wearing an occlusal appliance increased inter-arch dental contacts, improved the oral health status of adults with DS and normalised their mandibular rest position. This longitudinal prospective controlled trial aimed to evaluate whether increasing inter-arch contacts in adults with DS would lead to improved masticatory efficiency. Fourteen subjects with DS (mean age±SD: 28.5±9.3years) and twelve controls without DS (24.6±1.0years) were video recorded while chewing samples of carrot and peanuts with and without an oral appliance that was designed to equalise the number of posterior functional units (PFUs) in both groups. Three parameters were collected during mastication for 15cycles and until swallowing: food refusals, food bolus granulometry (D50) and kinematic parameters of the chewing process (number of cycles, chewing duration and cycle frequency within the chewing sequence). In the DS group, increasing the number of PFUs led to a decrease in bolus particle size, to fewer masticatory cycles needed to produce a bolus ready for swallowing and to a decrease in the occurrence of food refusal, while mean chewing frequency did not vary. In the control group, bolus granulometry and chewing time increased with appliance wear while mean chewing frequency decreased. These changes clearly indicate a functional improvement in subjects with DS. This study also demonstrated a causal relationship between the number of functional pairs of posterior teeth and improved mastication. Any evaluation of feeding behaviour in persons with DS should consider inter-arch dental contacts as an explicative variable for feeding problems and their nutritional and respiratory consequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tuberculosis control program in the municipal context: performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tiemi; Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Andrade, Rubia Laine de Paula; Brunello, Maria Eugenia Firmino; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Ruffino-Netto, Antonio; Scatena, Lucia Marina; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Tuberculosis Control Program in municipalities of the State of São Paulo. This is a program evaluation research, with ecological design, which uses three non-hierarchical groups of the municipalities of the State of São Paulo according to their performance in relation to operational indicators. We have selected 195 municipalities with at least five new cases of tuberculosis notified in the Notification System of the State of São Paulo and with 20,000 inhabitants or more in 2010. The multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify the association between the groups of different performances, the epidemiological and demographic characteristics, and the characteristics of the health systems of the municipalities. The group with the worst performance showed the highest rates of abandonment (average [avg] = 10.4, standard deviation [sd] = 9.4) and the lowest rates of supervision of Directly Observed Treatment (avg = 6.1, sd = 12.9), and it was associated with low incidence of tuberculosis, high tuberculosis and HIV, small population, high coverage of the Family Health Strategy/Program of Community Health Agents, and being located on the countryside. The group with the best performance presented the highest cure rate (avg = 83.7, sd = 10.5) and the highest rate of cases in Directly Observed Treatment (avg = 83.0, sd = 12.7); the group of regular performance showed regular results for outcome (avg cure = 79.8, sd = 13.2; abandonment avg = 9.5, sd = 8.3) and supervision of the Directly Observed Treatment (avg = 42.8, sd = 18.8). Large population, low coverage of the Family Health Strategy/Program of Community Health Agents, high incidence of tuberculosis and AIDS, and being located on the coast and in metropolitan areas were associated with these groups. The findings highlight the importance of the Directly Observed Treatment in relation to the outcome for treatment and raise reflections on the

  7. On Static and Dynamic Control-Flow Information in Program Analysis and Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniel

    This thesis addresses several aspects of static and dynamic control-flow information in programming languages, by investigating its interaction with program transformation and program analysis. Control-flow information indicates for each point in a program the possible program points to be executed...... that a non-duplicating CPS transformation does not alter the result of a monovariant constraint-based control-flow analysis. Building on control-flow analysis, we show that traditional constraint-based binding-time analysis and traditional partial evaluation benefit from the effects of a CPS transformation...

  8. A randomized controlled trial of the Cool Teens CD-ROM computerized program for adolescent anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, Viviana M; Rapee, Ronald M; Cunningham, Michael J; Lyneham, Heidi J; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2012-03-01

    Computerized cognitive behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders in adults have been shown to be efficacious, but limited data are available on the use of computerized interventions with young persons. Adolescents in particular are difficult to engage in treatment and may be especially suited to computerized technologies. This paper describes the results of a small randomized controlled trial of the Cool Teens program for adolescent anxiety, and examines potential barriers to treatment and user preferences of computerized technology in this population. Forty-three adolescents with a primary diagnosis of anxiety were randomly allocated to the Cool Teens program, a 12-week computerized cognitive-behavioral therapy program for anxiety management, or a 12-week wait list. Effects on symptoms, negative thoughts, and life interference were assessed at post-treatment and 3-month follow-up, based on diagnosis as well as self and maternal report. Using mixed-model analyses, at post-treatment and follow-up assessments, adolescents in the Cool Teens condition, compared with those on the wait list, were found to have significant reductions in the total number of anxiety disorders, the severity of the primary anxiety disorder, and the average severity for all disorders. These results were matched by significant reductions in mother and child questionnaire reports of anxiety, internalizing symptoms, automatic thoughts, and life interference. Further few barriers to treatment were found, and user preferences indicated that the computerized treatment was well suited to adolescents with anxiety. The Cool Teens program is efficacious for treatment of adolescent anxiety. Clinical trial registration information-A randomized controlled trial of the Cool Teens computerized program for anxious adolescents compared with waist list; http://www.anzctr.org.au; ACTRN12611000508976. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Simple BASIC program for calculating the cervicovaginal FNP and for estimating the sample size of the number of cervicovaginal smears to be rescreened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, J W; Fung, C H

    1999-01-01

    To guide cytotechnologists and pathologists in calculating the false negative proportion, or rate, and the number of Papanicolaou smears to be reevaluated for a meaningful assessment of screening performance, a computer program written in BASIC was prepared, based on several recent publications in the field of cytopathology. A complete program listing and sample runs to help users be cognizant of the necessary inputs to run the program. The output from the program gives the results of the various calculations. Since the tedious manual calculations are handled by the computer program, it is more likely for those involved in the interpretation of Papanicolaou smears to follow the approaches suggested by experts in these two areas.

  10. Analysis of Florida Department Of Transportation Transit Corridor Program/Projects: Technical Memorandum Number Three - General Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    CUTR interviewed FDOT personnel at both the Central Office and Distict Offices and agency personnel to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the overall Transit Corridor Program, including the results of specific projects, as well as the FDOT proce...

  11. The academic productivity and impact of the University of Toronto Neurosurgery Program as assessed by manuscripts published and their number of citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Christopher S; Tam, Joseph; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Lozano, Andres M

    2015-09-01

    Recent works have assessed academic output across neurosurgical programs using various analyses of accumulated citations as a proxy for academic activity and productivity. These assessments have emphasized North American neurosurgical training centers and have largely excluded centers outside the United States. Because of the long tradition and level of academic activity in neurosurgery at the University of Toronto, the authors sought to compare that program's publication and citation metrics with those of established programs in the US as documented in the literature. So as to not rely on historical achievements that may be of less relevance, they focused on recent works, that is, those published in the most recent complete 5-year period. The authors sought to make their data comparable to existing published data from other programs. To this end, they compiled a list of published papers by neurosurgical faculty at the University of Toronto for the period from 2009 through 2013 using the Scopus database. Individual author names were disambiguated; the total numbers of papers and citations were compiled on a yearly basis. They computed a number of indices, including the ih(5)-index (i.e., the number of citations the papers received over a 5-year period), the summed h-index of the current faculty over time, and a number of secondary measures, including the ig(5), ie(5), and i10(5)-indices. They also determined the impact of individual authors in driving the results using Gini coefficients. To address the issue of author ambiguity, which can be problematic in multicenter bibliometric analyses, they have provided a source dataset used to determine the ih(5) index for the Toronto program. The University of Toronto Neurosurgery Program had approximately 29 full-time surgically active faculty per year (not including nonneurosurgical faculty) in the 5-year period from 2009 to 2013. These faculty published a total of 1217 papers in these 5 years. The total number of

  12. Controlling the number of walls in multi walled carbon nanotubes/alumina hybrid compound via ball milling of precipitate catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosbi, Norlin [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Akil, Hazizan Md, E-mail: hazizan@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Cluster for Polymer Composite (CPC), Science and Engineering Research Centre, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report that, to manipulate carbon nanotubes geometry and number of walls are by controlling the precipitate catalyst size. • Number of walls and geometry effects depend on the milling time of the precipitate catalyst. • Increasing milling of time will decrease the carbon nanotubes number of walls. • Increasing milling of time will increase the carbon nanotubes thermal conductivity. - Abstract: This paper reports the influence of milling time on the structure and properties of the precipitate catalyst of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/alumina hybrid compound, produced through the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. For this purpose, light green precipitate consisted of aluminium, nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide mixture was placed in a planetary mill equipped with alumina vials using alumina balls at 300 rpm rotation speed for various milling time (5–15 h) prior to calcinations and CVD process. The compound was characterized using various techniques. Based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis, increasing the milling time up to 15 h decreased the diameter of MWCNT from 32.3 to 13.1 nm. It was noticed that the milling time had a significant effect on MWCNT wall thickness, whereby increasing the milling time from 0 to 15 h reduced the number of walls from 29 to 12. It was also interesting to note that the carbon content increased from 23.29 wt.% to 36.37 wt.% with increasing milling time.

  13. Oral Doxycycline Reduces the Total Number of Intraocular Bevacizumab Injections Needed to Control Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, Ahmad; Azimi, Pourya; Abdolahi, Ali; Mirshahi, Romina; Abdollahian, Mahnaz

    2017-01-01

    Tetracyclines, especially doxycycline, play a role in the regulation of inflammation, immunomodulation, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis. Treatment of corneal angiogenesis or choroidal neovascularization with tetracyclines has been shown to be effective in animal models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral doxycycline in reducing the total number of intraocular injections needed for controlling neovascular age-related macular degeneration in human patients. In this interventional case series, 28 random consecutive patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration from Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran were treated for 4 months with 200 mg doxycycline once a day after the first intravitreal bevacizumab injection in addition to standard therapy in agreement with as-needed regimen. After 12 months of follow-up, total number of injections, foveal thickness and visual acuity were compared to those at baseline and of similar studies. Similar to standard treatment, co-treatment with doxycycline was able to control active disease (intraretinal or subretinal fluid or leakage, new-onset of macular hemorrhage, and reduction of visual acuity more than 5 letters based on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] charts) yet with fewer injections (for current study and standard treatment, respectively 3.14 vs. 5.92, P 0.05). If confirmed in larger studies, the findings of this interventional case series could provide a strategy to control neovascular age-related macular degeneration with fewer intraocular bevacizumab injections by co-administering a well-known oral agent-doxycycline.

  14. Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis of a low-Reynolds-number flow around a square cylinder controlled using plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Yosuke; Fukagata, Koji; Meliga, Philippe; Boujo, Edouard; Gallaire, François

    2017-04-01

    Flow around a square cylinder controlled using plasma actuators (PAs) is numerically investigated by direct numerical simulation in order to clarify the most effective location of actuator installation and to elucidate the mechanism of control effect. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter and the free-stream velocity is set to be 100 to study the fundamental effect of PAs on two-dimensional vortex shedding, and three different locations of PAs are considered. The mean drag and the root-mean-square of lift fluctuations are found to be reduced by 51% and 99% in the case where two opposing PAs are aligned vertically on the rear surface. In that case, a jet flow similar to a base jet is generated by the collision of the streaming flows induced by the two opposing PAs, and the vortex shedding is completely suppressed. The simulation results are ultimately revisited in the frame of linear sensitivity analysis, whose computational cost is much lower than that of performing the full simulation. A good agreement is reported for low control amplitudes, which allows further discussion of the linear optimal arrangement for any number of PAs.

  15. Effectiveness of an exercise program on postural control in frail older adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfieri, Fábio Marcon; Riberto, Marcelo; Abril-Carreres, Angels; Boldó-Alcaine, Maria; Rusca-Castellet, Elisabet; Garreta-Figuera, Roser; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    Exercise programs have proved to be helpful for frail older adults. This study aimed to investigate the effects of an exercise program with a focus on postural control exercises in frail older adults...

  16. A randomized controlled trial of a commercial internet weight loss program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Womble, Leslie G; Wadden, Thomas A; McGuckin, Brian G; Sargent, Stephanie L; Rothman, Rebecca A; Krauthamer-Ewing, E Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    ...) a weight loss manual (i.e., LEARN Program for Weight Control 2000). At baseline, participants in both groups met briefly with a psychologist who instructed them to follow the components of their program as closely as possible...

  17. Number of genes controlling a quantitative trait in a hybrid zone of the aposematic frog Ranitomeya imitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Twomey, Evan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The number of genes controlling mimetic traits has been a topic of much research and discussion. In this paper, we examine a mimetic, dendrobatid frog Ranitomeya imitator, which harbours extensive phenotypic variation with multiple mimetic morphs, not unlike the celebrated Heliconius system....... However, the genetic basis for this polymorphism is unknown, and not easy to determine using standard experimental approaches, for this hard-to-breed species. To circumvent this problem, we first develop a new protocol for automatic quantification of complex colour pattern phenotypes from images. Using...... this method, which has the potential to be applied in many other systems, we define a phenotype associated with differences in colour pattern between different mimetic morphs. We then proceed to develop a maximum-likelihood method for estimating the number of genes affecting a quantitative trait segregating...

  18. Numbers of MD and DO Graduates in Graduate Medical Education Programs Accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Osteopathic Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Paul; Lischka, Terri; Sondheimer, Henry

    2015-07-01

    To determine the number of DO (doctor of osteopathic medicine) and MD (doctor of medicine) residents in training programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) and to examine the behavior of DO residents who moved between the two types of programs. In 2013, the authors linked data on residents reported in ACGME-accredited and AOA-accredited programs in 2009, 2010, and 2011 to produce a count of all residents, including an unduplicated count of residents reported in joint programs. DO residents were identified who moved between AOA-accredited and ACGME-accredited programs. There were 106,923 MD residents and 14,789 DO residents on duty on December 31, 2011. Fifty-one percent of DO residents were in ACGME-accredited programs, 40% in AOA-accredited programs, and 9% in joint programs. DOs were 12% of all residents and 14% of first-year residents. Of 3,742 DOs and 16,863 MDs graduating in 2009-2010, 663 MDs and 222 DOs were not reported in graduate medical education (GME) in either 2010 or 2011. A larger percentage of DO graduates were training in the primary care specialties, especially in family medicine. These data provide the first comprehensive accounting of the numbers of individuals in U.S. GME, in both ACGME- and AOA-accredited residencies. The number of graduates from U.S. medical schools is increasing rapidly; residency positions are growing more slowly. The planned unified accreditation of U.S. GME may cause significant changes in the patterns of GME for future trainees.

  19. Do Dose Numbers Matter?: Evaluation of Differing Infant and Toddler Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccine Programs in Canadian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, Julie A; Vanderkooi, Otto G; Scheifele, David W; Halperin, Scott A; Kellner, James D; Schryvers, Anthony; De Serres, Gaston; Alcantara, Joenel

    2016-11-01

    The diversity of Canadian infant meningococcal C conjugate (MenC) vaccine programs is unique among countries providing MenC vaccines and offers a valuable opportunity to determine the optimal vaccine program. This longitudinal study assessed differences in seroprotection by 3 different vaccine schedules in children two years after receiving either 1 toddler MenC vaccine dose (1 dose), 1 infant and 1 toddler dose (2 doses), or 2 infant and 1 toddler MenC vaccine dose (3 doses). Three similar cohorts of healthy infants from 1, 2 and 3 dose program areas were enrolled before to their 12 month toddler dose and vaccinated with MenC-tetanus toxoid (MenC-TT) conjugate vaccine. Sera obtained 2 years later were assayed for serogroup C bactericidal activity using standardized procedures with rabbit as the exogenous complement source. Serum bactericidal activity titers ≥1:8 were considered protective. Results were available for 384 children. Rates of seroprotection at 36 months of age were significantly different between the 1 and 3 dose programs, but confidence intervals overlapped between the 1 and 2 dose programs and between the 2 and 3 dose programs: 1 dose 92% (95% confidence interval: 86%-96%) versus 99% (95%-100%) with 2 doses and 100% (97%-100%) with 3 doses. Geometric mean titers were significantly different at 12.1 (10.8-13.5), 32.4 (28.9-36.2) and 50.6 (45.7-55.9) in the 1, 2 and 3 dose programs, respectively. At 36 months of age, evidence of seroprotection remained for greater than 90% of participants. Our results indicate that 1 toddler dose or 1 infant plus 1 toddler dose with MenC-TT vaccine provides seroprotection against MenC disease in early childhood.

  20. Functional, interactive and critical health literacy: Varying relationships with control over care and number of GP visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Iris; Heijmans, Monique; Schuit, A Jantine; Uiters, Ellen; Rademakers, Jany

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which functional, interactive and critical health literacy are associated with patients' perceived control over care and frequency of GP visits. Data from the Dutch 'National Panel of People with Chronic Illness or Disability' was used (N=2508). Health literacy was assessed by the Functional, Communicative and Critical Health Literacy measure. Perceived control over care was indicated by perceived ability to organize care, interact with providers and to perform self-care. By multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, associations between health literacy and perceived control over care and subsequently frequency of GP visits were studied. Mainly interactive health literacy was associated with patients' perceived ability to organize care, interact with healthcare providers and perform self-care, whereas only functional health literacy was associated with number of GP visits. The results imply that some patients' may be less able to exert control over their care because of lower health literacy. Functional, interactive and critical health literacy vary in their relevance for patients' ability to exert control. Initiatives for strengthening patients' role in healthcare may be improved by paying attention to patients' health literacy, specifically functional and interactive health literacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part 273—Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority Section 104 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, approved 3...

  2. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports B Appendix B to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. B Appendix B to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports 1. Location and brief...

  3. 76 FR 67315 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Quality Control Error Tolerance Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 275 RIN 0584-AE24 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Quality Control Error... direct final rule is amending the Quality Control (QC) review error threshold in our regulations from $25... Assistance Program: Quality Control Error Tolerance Threshold Direct Rule, in the subject line of the message...

  4. Essentials and guidelines for clinical medical physics residency training programs: executive summary of AAPM Report Number 249.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisciandaro, Joann I; Willis, Charles E; Burmeister, Jay W; Clarke, Geoffrey D; Das, Rupak K; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Gerbi, Bruce J; Harkness, Beth A; Patton, James A; Peck, Donald J; Pizzutiello, Robert J; Sandison, George A; White, Sharon L; Wichman, Brian D; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Both, Stefan

    2014-05-08

    There is a clear need for established standards for medical physics residency training. The complexity of techniques in imaging, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology continues to increase with each passing year. It is therefore imperative that training requirements and competencies are routinely reviewed and updated to reflect the changing environment in hospitals and clinics across the country. In 2010, the AAPM Work Group on Periodic Review of Medical Physics Residency Training was formed and charged with updating AAPM Report Number 90. This work group includes AAPM members with extensive experience in clinical, professional, and educational aspects of medical physics. The resulting report, AAPM Report Number 249, concentrates on the clinical and professional knowledge needed to function independently as a practicing medical physicist in the areas of radiation oncology, imaging, and nuclear medicine, and constitutes a revision to AAPM Report Number 90. This manuscript presents an executive summary of AAPM Report Number 249.

  5. Predictive Event Triggered Control based on Heuristic Dynamic Programming for Nonlinear Continuous Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    Control based on Heuristic Dynamic Programming for Nonlinear Continuous-Time Systems In this paper, a novel predictive event-triggered control...method based on heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) algorithm is developed for nonlinear continuous-time systems. A model network is used to estimate...College Road, Suite II Kingston, RI 02881 -1967 ABSTRACT Predictive Event-Triggered Control based on Heuristic Dynamic Programming for Nonlinear

  6. Communication Sciences Laboratory Quarterly Progress Report, Volume 9, Number 3: Research Programs of Some of the Newer Members of CSL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Stephen H.; And Others

    The research reported in these papers covers a variety of communication problems. The first paper covers research on sound navigation by the blind and involves echo perception research and relevant aspects of underwater sound localization. The second paper describes a research program in acoustic phonetics and concerns such related issues as…

  7. Spent nuclear fuels project: FY 1995 multi-year program plan, WBS {number_sign}1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denning, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) program is to safely, reliably, and efficiently manage, condition, transport, and store Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF, so that it meets acceptance criteria for disposal in a permanent repository. The Hanford Site Spent Nuclear Fuel strategic plan for accomplishing the project mission is: Establish near-term safe storage in the 105-K Basins; Complete national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to obtain a decision on how and where spent nuclear fuel will be managed on the site; Define and establish alternative interim storage on site or transport off site to support implementation of the NEPA decision; and Define and establish a waste package qualified for final disposition. This report contains descriptions of the following: Work Breakdown Structure; WBS Dictionary; Responsibility Assignment Matrix; Program Logic Diagrams; Program Master Baseline Schedule; Program Performance Baseline Schedule; Milestone List; Milestone Description Sheets; Cost Baseline Summary by Year; Basis of Estimate; Waste Type Data; Planned Staffing; and Fiscal Year Work Plan.

  8. No effect of a graded training program on the number of running-related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Ida; Bredeweg, Steef W.; van Mechelen, Willem; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Diercks, Ron L.

    Background: Although running has positive effects on health and fitness, the incidence of a running-related injury (RRI) is high. Research on prevention of RRI is scarce; to date, no studies have involved novice runners. Hypothesis: A graded training program for novice runners will lead to a

  9. No effect of a graded training program on the number of running-related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, I.; Bredeweg, S.W.; van Mechelen, W.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Pepping, G.J.; Diercks, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although running has positive effects on health and fitness, the incidence of a running-related injury (RRI) is high. Research on prevention of RRI is scarce; to date, no studies have involved novice runners. Hypothesis: A graded training program for novice runners will lead to a

  10. CSF biomarker variability in the Alzheimer's Association quality control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Niklas; Andreasson, Ulf; Persson, Staffan; Carrillo, Maria C; Collins, Steven; Chalbot, Sonia; Cutler, Neal; Dufour-Rainfray, Diane; Fagan, Anne M; Heegaard, Niels H H; Robin Hsiung, Ging-Yuek; Hyman, Bradley; Iqbal, Khalid; Kaeser, Stephan A; Käser, Stephan A; Lachno, D Richard; Lleó, Alberto; Lewczuk, Piotr; Molinuevo, José L; Parchi, Piero; Regeniter, Axel; Rissman, Robert A; Rissman, Robert; Rosenmann, Hanna; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Schröder, Johannes; Shaw, Leslie M; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Trojanowski, John Q; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Vandijck, Manu; Verbeek, Marcel M; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj

    2013-05-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid beta 1-42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau are used increasingly for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research and patient management. However, there are large variations in biomarker measurements among and within laboratories. Data from the first nine rounds of the Alzheimer's Association quality control program was used to define the extent and sources of analytical variability. In each round, three CSF samples prepared at the Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory (Mölndal, Sweden) were analyzed by single-analyte enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a multiplexing xMAP assay, or an immunoassay with electrochemoluminescence detection. A total of 84 laboratories participated. Coefficients of variation (CVs) between laboratories were around 20% to 30%; within-run CVs, less than 5% to 10%; and longitudinal within-laboratory CVs, 5% to 19%. Interestingly, longitudinal within-laboratory CV differed between biomarkers at individual laboratories, suggesting that a component of it was assay dependent. Variability between kit lots and between laboratories both had a major influence on amyloid beta 1-42 measurements, but for total tau and phosphorylated tau, between-kit lot effects were much less than between-laboratory effects. Despite the measurement variability, the between-laboratory consistency in classification of samples (using prehoc-derived cutoffs for AD) was high (>90% in 15 of 18 samples for ELISA and in 12 of 18 samples for xMAP). The overall variability remains too high to allow assignment of universal biomarker cutoff values for a specific intended use. Each laboratory must ensure longitudinal stability in its measurements and use internally qualified cutoff levels. Further standardization of laboratory procedures and improvement of kit performance will likely increase the usefulness of CSF AD biomarkers for researchers and clinicians. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Effectiveness of Education and an Antibiotic-Control Program in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anucha Apisarnthanarak; Somwang Danchaivijitr; Thana Khawcharoenporn; Julajak Limsrivilai; Boonyasit Warachan; Thomas C. Bailey; Victoria J. Fraser; The Thammasart University Antibiotic Management Team

    2006-01-01

    Background. We conducted a study to evaluate the impact of education and an antibiotic-control program on antibiotic-prescribing practices, antibiotic consumption, antimicrobial resistance, and cost...

  12. [Attentional control of postural stability in institutionalised elderly people: effects of a physical exercise program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, C; Bernard, P-L; Palut, Y

    2006-12-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of a physical activity program on postural sway and on the attentional control of postural abilities in elderly frail adults. Twelve older adults (age 81.4+/-9 years) institutionalised in a geriatric care institution participated in the physical activity program posture-balance-mobility (PBM) twice a week (1 hour per session) for 12 weeks. We analysed stabilometric data for surface and length of the center of pressure (COP) sway, with eyes open and eyes closed, under single-task and dual-task conditions on a firm floor before and after the training program. During the static postural evaluation and under the dual-task condition, subjects performed an attention-demanding cognitive task, the random number generation task. Only the length of COP sway was more important under the dual-task condition than under the single-task condition (p=0.05). At baseline, cognitive performance was significantly weaker under the dual-task condition (standing) than under the single-task condition (seated), with eyes closed but not eyes open (ptask did not significantly differ between the dual-task condition with eyes closed and the single-task condition with eyes closed. The training program allowed elderly subjects to improve their ability to perform an attention-demanding cognitive task while standing still, in particular with their eyes closed. Although balance seemed to be less stable under the dual-task condition than under the single-task condition, these results could be interpreted as an improvement of the attentional control of postural stability.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide as a signal controlling plant programmed cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, Tsanko S.; Hille, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has established itself as a key player in stress and programmed cell death responses, but little is known about the signaling pathways leading from H2O2 to programmed cell death in plants. Recently, identification of key regulatory mutants and near-full genome coverage

  14. Evaluation of Development Programs: Randomized Controlled Trials or Regressions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, C.T.M.; Gunning, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Can project evaluation methods be used to evaluate programs: complex interventions involving multiple activities? A program evaluation cannot be based simply on separate evaluations of its components if interactions between the activities are important. In this paper a measure is proposed, the total

  15. Identification and Validation of New Alleles of FALSIFLORA and COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE Genes Controlling the Number of Branches in Tomato Inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huan; Kawabata, Saneyuki

    2017-07-20

    The architecture of inflorescences shows extensive diversity in both branching frequency and flower number, which eventually, determines agricultural productivity. In this study, F₂ (second filial) populations derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 10AS111A (highly-branched inflorescence) and the S. pimpinellifolium PI124039 (inflorescence having a single branch) were used to decipher the genetic control of branch number (BN) of inflorescence in plants bearing small-sized tomato fruits. The segregation ratio of single- and moderately-branched types to the highly-branched type was significantly different from 3:1 but not different from 15:1 at p < 0.05, suggesting that more than one gene controls the branch number of the inflorescences. Through genome-wide comparison of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiles between the highly-branched type bulk and the single-branch type bulk constructed using the F₂ plants, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 3 (58.75-61.4 Mb) and a minor QTL on chromosome 2 (32.95-37.1 Mb), which explained 15.7% and 6.1% of the BN variation, respectively. FALSIFLORA (FA) and COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE (S) genes, located in the QTL peak regions, caught our attention. Sequence comparison of the FA and S genes and their promoter regions from the two parental lines revealed that both contain missense mutations in the coding regions. Segregation analysis of FA and S alleles by high-resolution melting (HRM) method confirmed that alleles for both genes from 10AS111A significantly increased the BN and the size of inflorescence. In conclusion, we propose that SNPs in coding sequences might cause changes in the function of FA and S genes, which might be important determinants of BN.

  16. Identification and Validation of New Alleles of FALSIFLORA and COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE Genes Controlling the Number of Branches in Tomato Inflorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of inflorescences shows extensive diversity in both branching frequency and flower number, which eventually, determines agricultural productivity. In this study, F2 (second filial populations derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 10AS111A (highly-branched inflorescence and the S. pimpinellifolium PI124039 (inflorescence having a single branch were used to decipher the genetic control of branch number (BN of inflorescence in plants bearing small-sized tomato fruits. The segregation ratio of single- and moderately-branched types to the highly-branched type was significantly different from 3:1 but not different from 15:1 at p < 0.05, suggesting that more than one gene controls the branch number of the inflorescences. Through genome-wide comparison of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP profiles between the highly-branched type bulk and the single-branch type bulk constructed using the F2 plants, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 3 (58.75–61.4 Mb and a minor QTL on chromosome 2 (32.95–37.1 Mb, which explained 15.7% and 6.1% of the BN variation, respectively. FALSIFLORA (FA and COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE (S genes, located in the QTL peak regions, caught our attention. Sequence comparison of the FA and S genes and their promoter regions from the two parental lines revealed that both contain missense mutations in the coding regions. Segregation analysis of FA and S alleles by high-resolution melting (HRM method confirmed that alleles for both genes from 10AS111A significantly increased the BN and the size of inflorescence. In conclusion, we propose that SNPs in coding sequences might cause changes in the function of FA and S genes, which might be important determinants of BN.

  17. Program manager: The Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 14, Number 2, March-April 1985,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    subsystem. Indeed, acquisition strategy involving an in- leadership is the adhesive at the Memoria war tentional increase in capital investment soldier...may be pc wered by a more reliable -.- , and maintainable generator through -tion. This allowed the program he contractor’s attitude is im- efforts of...assure ade- pc ( Iti(ation So radically drove the quate deceleration, energy capacity, There are risks in this radical tailor- d.ign ot the engine that

  18. Program Manager: Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 22, Number 3, May-June 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    contractor program man- 3. The Wall Street lournal, Federal agers know their own company well. Express Advertisement , various, lanu- They know their...weakened b\\’ subliminal * College (DSMC) faculty members. limitations which included the fear of Forrest Gale and Owen Gadeken, hay- getting hurt and...Real com- dividual physical activity into a social, almost no crowd. This presented us mitment invoives trust in the process. psychological one. WVe

  19. Program Manager: The Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 12, Number 4, July-August 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    Pellegrini . USA Actin Deputy Commandant Colonel T. V. Forburger. USA Dean. Department of Vol. Xll, No. 4 Research and Information Colonel G. Dana... Peter M. Fonash; Lieutenant Commander John F. Kramer, USN;Dorothy L. Reago Lieutenant Colonel Vance A. Mall, USAF and Dr. Robert Mathis Design...language Peter M. Fonash, Army Deputy Director, Ada Joint Program Office Lieutenant Commander lohn F. Kramer, USN, Former Navy Deputy Director, Ada Joint

  20. A Homogeneous and Self-Dual Interior-Point Linear Programming Algorithm for Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Frison, Gianluca; Skajaa, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We develop an efficient homogeneous and self-dual interior-point method (IPM) for the linear programs arising in economic model predictive control of constrained linear systems with linear objective functions. The algorithm is based on a Riccati iteration procedure, which is adapted to the linear...... is significantly faster than several state-of-the-art IPMs based on sparse linear algebra, and 2) warm-start reduces the average number of iterations by 35-40%....

  1. Disease management program for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kathryn L; Dewan, Naresh; Bloomfield, Hanna E; Grill, Joseph; Schult, Tamara M; Nelson, David B; Kumari, Sarita; Thomas, Mel; Geist, Lois J; Beaner, Caroline; Caldwell, Michael; Niewoehner, Dennis E

    2010-10-01

    The effect of disease management for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well established. To determine whether a simplified disease management program reduces hospital admissions and emergency department (ED) visits due to COPD. We performed a randomized, adjudicator-blinded, controlled, 1-year trial at five Veterans Affairs medical centers of 743 patients with severe COPD and one or more of the following during the previous year: hospital admission or ED visit for COPD, chronic home oxygen use, or course of systemic corticosteroids for COPD. Control group patients received usual care. Intervention group patients received a single 1- to 1.5-hour education session, an action plan for self-treatment of exacerbations, and monthly follow-up calls from a case manager. We determined the combined number of COPD-related hospitalizations and ED visits per patient. Secondary outcomes included hospitalizations and ED visits for all causes, respiratory medication use, mortality, and change in Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire. After 1 year, the mean cumulative frequency of COPD-related hospitalizations and ED visits was 0.82 per patient in usual care and 0.48 per patient in disease management (difference, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.52; P management reduced hospitalizations for cardiac or pulmonary conditions other than COPD by 49%, hospitalizations for all causes by 28%, and ED visits for all causes by 27% (P management program reduced hospitalizations and ED visits for COPD. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00126776).

  2. Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategies for Cancer Prevention in Current National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio; Underwood, J Michael; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-10-01

    Obesity, diet and physical inactivity are risk factors for some cancers. Grantees of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) in US states, tribes, and territories develop plans to coordinate funding and activities for cancer prevention and control. Including information and goals related to nutrition and physical activity (NPA) is a key opportunity for primary cancer prevention, but it is currently unclear to what extent NCCCP plans address these issues. We reviewed 69 NCCCP plans and searched for terms related to NPA. Plans were coded as (1) knowledge of NPA and cancer link; (2) goals to improve NPA behaviors; and (3) strategies to increase healthy NPA activities, environments, or systems changes. NPA content was consistently included in all cancer plans examined across all years. Only 4 (6 %) outlined only the relationship between NPA and cancer without goals or strategies. Fifty-nine plans (89 %) contained goals or strategies related to NPA, with 53 (82 %) including both. However, numbers of goals, strategies, and detail provided varied widely. All programs recognized the importance of NPA in cancer prevention. Most plans included NPA goals and strategies. Increasing the presence of NPA strategies that can be modified or adapted appropriately locally could help with more widespread implementation and measurement of NPA interventions.

  3. Trichogramma pretiosum parasitism and dispersal capacity: a basis for developing biological control programs for soybean caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, R C O de Freitas; Parra, J R P; Bueno, A de Freitas

    2012-02-01

    In order to succeed in biological control programs, not only is it crucial to understand the number of natural enemies to be released but also on how many sites per area this releasing must be performed. These variables might differ deeply among egg parasitoid species and crops worked. Therefore, these trials were carried out to evaluate the parasitism (%) in eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis and Pseudoplusia includens after the release of different densities of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum. Field dispersal was also studied, in order to determine appropriate recommendations for the release of this parasitoid in soybean fields. The regression analysis between parasitism (%) and densities of the parasitoid indicated a quadratic effect for both A. gemmatalis and P. includens. The maximum parasitism within 24 h after the release was reached with densities of 25.6 and 51.2 parasitoids per host egg, respectively, for the two pests. Parasitism of T. pretiosum in eggs of P. includens decreased linearly as the distance of the pest eggs from the parasitoid release sites increased. For P. includens, the mean radius of T. pretiosum action and the area of parasitoid dispersal in the soybean crop were 8.01 m and 85.18 m2, respectively. We conclude that for a successful biological control program of lepidopteran pests using T. pretiosum in soybean fields, a density of 25.6 parasitoids per host egg, divided into 117 sites per hectare, should be used.

  4. Development and evaluation of a cancer-related fatigue patient education program: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görres Stefan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related fatigue (CRF and its impact on patients' quality of life has been an increasing subject of research. However, in Germany there is a lack of evidence-based interventions consistent with the multidimensional character of fatigue. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a self-management program for disease-free cancer patients to cope with CRF. Methods Based on evidence extracted from a literature review, a curriculum for the self-management program was elaborated. The curriculum was reviewed and validated by an interdisciplinary expert group and the training-modules will be pretested with a small number of participants and discussed in terms of feasibility and acceptance. To determine the efficacy of the program a randomised controlled trial will be carried out: 300 patients will be recruited from oncological practices in Bremen, Germany, and will be allocated to intervention or control group. The intervention group participates in the program, whereas the control group receives standard care and the opportunity to take part in the program after the end of the follow-up (waiting control group. Primary outcome measure is the level of fatigue, secondary outcome measures are quality of life, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and physical activity. Data will be collected before randomisation, after intervention, and after a follow-up of 6 months. Discussion Because there are no comparable self-management programs for cancer survivors with fatigue, the development of the curriculum has been complex; therefore, the critical appraisal by the experts was an important step to validate the program and their contributions have been integrated into the curriculum. The experts appreciated the program as filling a gap in outpatient cancer care. If the results of the evaluation prove to be satisfactory, the outpatient care of cancer patients can be broadened and supplemented. Trial Registration Clinical

  5. Reducing Violence in Non-Controlling Ways: A Change Program Based on Self Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assor, Avi; Feinberg, Ofra; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Kaplan, Haya

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents and examines the first school change program focusing on violence and caring based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2012). The program aimed at promoting teachers' capacity to cope with violence and enhance caring without becoming more controlling. Comparisons of the effects of a 22-month-long program in three…

  6. Large Space Telescope (LST) Pointing Control System (PCS) analytical Advanced Technical Development (ATD) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    The large space telescope (LST) pointing control system (PCS) advanced technical development (ATD) program is described. The approach used is to describe the overall PCS development effort, showing how the analytical ATD program elements fit into it. Then the analytical ATD program elements are summarized.

  7. Program Manager: Journal of the Defense Systems Management College, Volume 19, Number 6, November-December 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    or in keeping their programs sold and better job for our men and women in even a negative effect, on the fully funded during their watches. uniform...preferential treatment in adefense contractors to bid on defense very important national interests, to-be-defined manner. The EDIG contracts in participating...system concept, identify major cost N9’Q .X, neesar tov asur vih roability ofc~t I re aheeti aac .... -’ .- ’/. i. . ,L.L. . . drivers, assure that

  8. Program Manager, the Journal of the Defense Systems Management College, Volume 14, Number 5, September-October 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    Con- of an uncontrolled government. The - Honore ’ Balzac gress to "raise an army" and to "pro- legacy, however, is a very complex en- vide and...America. do hereby proclaim Friday. July 19. 1985, as National PO W./M.I A. Recognition Day. I call on all Americans to join in honoring all former...Participation in .ive tion Day’ po4er.’ the Vietnam unknown, the President public awareness programs is one way said, "One way to honor those who we can all help

  9. Impact of mesh points number on the accuracy of deterministic calculations of control rods worth for Tehran research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boustani, Ehsan [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Energy Engineering and Physics Dept.; Khakshournia, Samad [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Energy Engineering and Physics Dept.

    2016-12-15

    In this paper two different computational approaches, a deterministic and a stochastic one, were used for calculation of the control rods worth of the Tehran research reactor. For the deterministic approach the MTRPC package composed of the WIMS code and diffusion code CITVAP was used, while for the stochastic one the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was applied. On comparing our results obtained by the Monte Carlo approach and those previously reported in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of Tehran research reactor produced by the deterministic approach large discrepancies were seen. To uncover the root cause of these discrepancies, some efforts were made and finally was discerned that the number of spatial mesh points in the deterministic approach was the critical cause of these discrepancies. Therefore, the mesh optimization was performed for different regions of the core such that the results of deterministic approach based on the optimized mesh points have a good agreement with those obtained by the Monte Carlo approach.

  10. Theoretical and algorithmic advances in multi-parametric programming and control

    KAUST Repository

    Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-04-21

    This paper presents an overview of recent theoretical and algorithmic advances, and applications in the areas of multi-parametric programming and explicit/multi-parametric model predictive control (mp-MPC). In multi-parametric programming, advances include areas such as nonlinear multi-parametric programming (mp-NLP), bi-level programming, dynamic programming and global optimization for multi-parametric mixed-integer linear programming problems (mp-MILPs). In multi-parametric/explicit MPC (mp-MPC), advances include areas such as robust multi-parametric control, multi-parametric nonlinear MPC (mp-NMPC) and model reduction in mp-MPC. A comprehensive framework for multi-parametric programming and control is also presented. Recent applications include a hydrogen storage device, a fuel cell power generation system, an unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV) and a hybrid pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  11. State of South Carolina Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    of a diquat and copper sulfate pentahydrate herbicide combination for hydrilla control was carried out by Yeo et. al. (1974). The copper was applied at...effective combination to control egeria and hydrilla (Gangstad, 1976). A diquat- copper sulfate combination is more effective in controlling hydrilla than the... copper resulting from the use of algacides or herbicides basic copper carbonate (malachite), copper sulfate , and copper tri- ethanolamine to control

  12. Controlled Modulation of Serum Protein Binding and Biodistribution of Asymmetric Cyanine Dyes by Variation of the Number of Sulfonate Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska M. Hamann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the suitability of asymmetric cyanine dyes for in vivo fluoro-optical molecular imaging, a comprehensive study on the influence of the number of negatively charged sulfonate groups governing the hydrophilicity of the DY-67x family of asymmetric cyanines was performed. Special attention was devoted to the plasma protein binding capacity and related pharmacokinetic properties. Four members of the DY-67x cyanine family composed of the same main chromophore, but substituted with a sequentially increasing number of sulfonate groups (n = 1−4; DY-675, DY-676, DY-677, DY-678, respectively, were incubated with plasma proteins dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline. Protein binding was assessed by absorption spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, ultrafiltration, and dialysis. Distribution of dye in organs was studied by intraveneous injection of 62 nmol dye/kg body weight into mice (n = 12; up to 180 minutes postinjection using whole-body near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Spectroscopic studies, gel electrophoresis, and dialysis demonstrated reduced protein binding with increasing number of sulfonate groups. The bovine serum albumin binding constant of the most hydrophobic dye, DY-675, is 18 times higher than that of the most hydrophilic fluorophore, DY-678. In vivo biodistribution analysis underlined a considerable influence of dye hydrophilicity on biodistribution and excretion pathways, with the more hydrophobic dyes, DY-675 and DY-676, accumulating in the liver, followed by strong fluorescence signals in bile and gut owing to accumulation in feces and comparatively hydrophilic DY-678-COOH accumulating in the bladder. Our results demonstrate the possibility of selectively controlling dye-protein interactions and, thus, biodistribution and excretion pathways via proper choice of the fluorophore's substitution pattern. This underlines the importance of structure-property relationships for fluorescent labels. Moreover, our data could provide the

  13. Nuclear LSm8 affects number of cytoplasmic processing bodies via controlling cellular distribution of Like-Sm proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Ivan; Podolská, Katerina; Blazíková, Michaela; Valásek, Leos Shivaya; Svoboda, Petr; Stanek, David

    2012-10-01

    Processing bodies (P-bodies) are dynamic cytoplasmic structures involved in mRNA degradation, but the mechanism that governs their formation is poorly understood. In this paper, we address a role of Like-Sm (LSm) proteins in formation of P-bodies and provide evidence that depletion of nuclear LSm8 increases the number of P-bodies, while LSm8 overexpression leads to P-body loss. We show that LSm8 knockdown causes relocalization of LSm4 and LSm6 proteins to the cytoplasm and suggest that LSm8 controls nuclear accumulation of all LSm2-7 proteins. We propose a model in which redistribution of LSm2-7 to the cytoplasm creates new binding sites for other P-body components and nucleates new, microscopically visible structures. The model is supported by prolonged residence of two P-body proteins, DDX6 and Ago2, in P-bodies after LSm8 depletion, which indicates stronger interactions between these proteins and P-bodies. Finally, an increased number of P-bodies has negligible effects on microRNA-mediated translation repression and nonsense mediated decay, further supporting the view that the function of proteins localized in P-bodies is independent of visible P-bodies.

  14. 78 FR 54862 - Information Collection; General Program Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection; General Program Administration AGENCY: Farm Service Agency... Programs (FLP) General Program Administration. The information collected is used to ensure that applicants... INFORMATION: ] Title: Farm Loan Programs, General Program Administration. OMB Control Number: 0560-0238...

  15. 76 FR 46841 - Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guides and Parental Controls Technology; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guides and Parental Controls Technology; Notice of... Video Properties of Santa Clara, California, ] and Index Systems, Inc., of the British Virgin Islands... program guide and parental controls technology by reason of the infringement of certain claims of U.S...

  16. 76 FR 79214 - Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental Controls Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental Controls Technology... Corporation of Santa Clara, California; and Index Systems, Inc. of Tortola, the British Virgin Islands. The... interactive program guide and parental controls technology by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S...

  17. A numerical approach for optimal control model of the convex semi-infinite programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rouhparvar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, convex semi-infinite programming is converted to an optimal control model of neural networks and the optimal control model is solved by iterative dynamic programming method. In final, numerical examples are provided for illustration of the purposed method.

  18. A numerical approach for optimal control model of the convex semi-infinite programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rouhparvar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, convex semi-infinite programming is converted to an optimal control model of neural networks and the optimal control model is solved by iterative dynamic programming method. In final, numerical examples are provided for illustration of the purposed method.

  19. 42 CFR 456.4 - Responsibility for monitoring the utilization control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... these methods and procedures on file; and (5) Give copies of these methods and procedures to all staff... control program. 456.4 Section 456.4 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL General Provisions...

  20. Effects of a dynamic core stability program on the biomechanics of cutting maneuvers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, E F; Richter, C; O'Connor, S; Moran, K A

    2018-02-01

    Deficits in trunk control predict ACL injuries which frequently occur during high-risk activities such as cutting. However, no existing trunk control/core stability program has been found to positively affect trunk kinematics during cutting activities. This study investigated the effectiveness of a 6-week dynamic core stability program (DCS) on the biomechanics of anticipated and unanticipated side and crossover cutting maneuvers. Thirty-one male, varsity footballers participated in this randomized controlled trial. Three-dimensional trunk and lower limb biomechanics were captured in a motion analysis laboratory during the weight acceptance phase of anticipated and unanticipated side and crossover cutting maneuvers at baseline and 6-week follow-up. The DCS group performed a DCS program three times weekly for 6 weeks in a university rehabilitation room. Both the DCS and control groups concurrently completed their regular practice and match play. Statistical parametric mapping and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to determine any group (DCS vs control) by time (pre vs post) interactions. The DCS resulted in greater internal hip extensor (P=.017, η 2 =0.079), smaller internal knee valgus (P=.026, η 2 =0.076), and smaller internal knee external rotator moments (P=.041, η 2 =0.066) during anticipated side cutting compared with the control group. It also led to reduced posterior ground reaction forces for all cutting activities (P=.015-.030, η 2 =0.074-0.105). A 6-week DCS program did not affect trunk kinematics, but it did reduce a small number of biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury, predominantly during anticipated side cutting. A DCS program could play a role in multimodal ACL injury prevention programs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Multi-cluster processor operating only select number of clusters during each phase based on program statistic monitored at predetermined intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramonian, Rajeev [Sandy, UT; Dwarkadas, Sandhya [Rochester, NY; Albonesi, David [Ithaca, NY

    2009-02-10

    In a processor having multiple clusters which operate in parallel, the number of clusters in use can be varied dynamically. At the start of each program phase, the configuration option for an interval is run to determine the optimal configuration, which is used until the next phase change is detected. The optimum instruction interval is determined by starting with a minimum interval and doubling it until a low stability factor is reached.

  2. An urban intergenerational program for cancer control education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J I; Barg, F K; Norman, S; Mccorkle, R

    1997-01-01

    Recognizing the disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality that exist between African Americans and whites, an urban university and its neighborhood community undertook the development of an education program to transfer state-of-the-art cancer prevention, detection, and treatment information from an academic medical center to community residents, including school-age children. An intergenerational, multilevel intervention was developed to: 1) assess the health beliefs of the community, 2) identify, develop, and train an intergenerational group of community residents who would serve as health educators, and 3) promote behavioral change among the target population. Ten community residents were trained as educators. Over the course of two years they conducted cancer education programs that reached 775 adults. During the same period, the school-based educational intervention reached 264 seventh-grade students. Implications for the design and implementation of community-based cancer education programs in this African American community are identified.

  3. Cox report and the US-China arms control technical exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Capua, M S

    1999-09-01

    The ACE program furthered the national security interests of the US by promoting technical approaches to the implementation and verification of arms control treaties that the international community embraces. The Cox Committee report suggests that uncontrolled interactions were taking place between US and Chinese nuclear weapons scientists in the course of the ACE program. On the contrary, elaborate controls were in place at the very beginning and remained in place to control the interactions and protect US national security information. The ACE program payoff to national security was just beginning and its suspension, resulting from the Cox reports allegations, is a setback to US-China progress on arms control.

  4. Lack of effectiveness of a multidisciplinary fall-prevention program in elderly people at risk: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Marike R C; Bleijlevens, Michel H C; van Haastregt, Jolanda C M; Crebolder, Harry F J M; Diederiks, Joseph P M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Mulder, Wubbo J; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; van Rossum, Erik; Ruijgrok, Joop M; Stalenhoef, Paul A; van Eijk, Jacques Th M

    2008-08-01

    To assess whether a pragmatic multidisciplinary fall-prevention program was more effective than usual care in preventing new falls and functional decline in elderly people. A two-group, randomized, controlled trial with 12 months of follow-up. University hospital and home-based intervention, the Netherlands. Three hundred thirty-three community-dwelling Dutch people aged 65 and over who were seen in an emergency department after a fall. Participants in the intervention group underwent a detailed medical and occupational-therapy assessment to evaluate and address risk factors for recurrent falls, followed by recommendations and referral if indicated. People in the control group received usual care. Number of people sustaining a fall (fall calendar) and daily functioning (Frenchay Activity Index). Results showed no statistically significantly favorable effects on falls (odds ratio=0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.50-1.49) or daily functioning (regression coefficient=0.37, CI=-0.90 to 1.63) after 12 months of follow-up. The multidisciplinary fall-prevention program was not effective in preventing falls and functional decline in this Dutch healthcare setting. Implementing the program in its present form in the Netherlands is not recommended. This trial shows that there can be considerable discrepancy between the "ideal" (experimental) version of a program and the implemented version of the same program. The importance of implementation research in assessing feasibility and effectiveness of such a program in a specific healthcare setting is therefore stressed.

  5. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerome Escota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

  6. Bermudagrass: Spring weed control programs and biotype research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research conducted from 2008 through 2012 evaluated bermudagrass control with Sencor (metribuzin) and Command (clomazone) plus Direx (diuron). Averaged across experiments, bermudagrass was controlled 54, 41, and 43% four weeks after Sencor application at 3 lb/A in mid-February, early-March, and mid-...

  7. Effect of executive programs of infection control committees on the prevalence of nosocomial infections in Kermanshah's Hospitals (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Sodabe; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Karchani, Mohsen; Hosseini, Zahra; Izadi, Babak; Moradi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of executive programs of infection control committees on the incidence of nosocomial infections in hospitals affiliated with the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (Kermanshah, Iran) during 2010 and 2011. The numbers of patients admitted in 2010 and 2011 were 8084 and 7166, respectively, and the average prevalence of nosocomial infections in 2010 and 2011 was 0.8 and 1.9 infections per 100 patients, respectively. In 2010, the mean scores obtained by hospital for regular Infection Control Committee meetings, regular gatherings, registration of program information analysis, and regular follow-up meetings were 19, 31, 30.5, and 41.7 (out of 100), respectively. In 2011, they were 20.2, 36.4, 38.1, and 50, respectively. The results of this study indicated that executive programs of infection control committees had no effect on the incidence of nosocomial infections; therefore, the experts who assess hospitals should pay more attention to the systems that are used to conduct surveillance of nosocomial infection control programs.

  8. Effects of neonatal programming on hypothalamic mechanisms controlling energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, C; Novelle, M G; Leis, R; Diéguez, C; Skrede, S; López, M

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in most developed countries has markedly increased during the last decades. In addition to genetic, hormonal, and metabolic influences, environmental factors like fetal and neonatal nutrition play key roles in the development of obesity. Interestingly, overweight during critical developmental periods of fetal and/or neonatal life has been demonstrated to increase the risk of obesity throughout juvenile life into adulthood. In spite of this evidence, the specific mechanisms underlying this fetal/neonatal programming are not perfectly understood. However, it is clear that circulating hormones such as insulin and leptin play a critical role in the development and programming of hypothalamic circuits regulating energy balance. Here, we review what is currently known about the impact of perinatal malnutrition on the mechanisms regulating body weight homeostasis. Understanding these molecular mechanisms may provide new targets for the treatment of obesity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Overview of the US program of controls for advanced reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.D.; Sackett, J.I.; Monson, R.; Lindsay, R.W.; Carroll, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    An automated control system can incorporate control goals and strategies, assessment of present and future plant status, diagnostic evaluation and maintenance planning, and signal and command validation. It has not been feasible to employ these capabilities in conventional hard-wired, analog, control systems. Recent advances in computer-based digital data acquisition systems, process controllers, fiber-optic signal transmission artificial intelligence tools and methods, and small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers---with both numeric and symbolic capabilities---have provided many of the necessary ingredients for developing large, practical automated control systems. Furthermore, recent reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. This paper presents an overall US national perspective for advanced controls research and development. The goals of high reliability, low operating cost and simple operation are described. The staged approach from conceptualization through implementation is discussed. Then the paper describes the work being done by ORNL, ANL and GE. The relationship of this work to the US commercial industry is also discussed.

  10. Maintenance of Process Control Algorithms based on Dynamic Program Slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Fink; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Today’s industrial control systems gradually lose performance after installation and must be regularly maintained by means of adjusting parameters and modifying the control algorithm, in order to regain high performance. Industrial control algorithms are complex software systems, and it is partic......Today’s industrial control systems gradually lose performance after installation and must be regularly maintained by means of adjusting parameters and modifying the control algorithm, in order to regain high performance. Industrial control algorithms are complex software systems......, and it is particularly difficult to locate causes of performance loss, while readjusting the algorithm once the cause of performance loss is actually realized and found is relatively simple. In this paper we present a software-engineering approach to the maintenance problem, which provides tools for exploring...... the behavior of a control algorithm, enables maintenance personnel to focus on only relevant parts of the algorithm and semi-automatically locate the part of the algorithm that is responsible for the reduced performance. The solution is tuning-free and can be applied to installed and running systems without...

  11. Controlling mercury spills in laboratories with a thermometer exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLouth, Lawrence D.

    2002-03-25

    This paper presents a case for replacing mercury thermometers with their organic-liquid-filled counterparts. A review of liquid-in glass-thermometers is given. In addition, a brief summary of mercury's health effects and exposure limits is presented. Spill cleanup methods and some lessons learned from our experience are offered as well. Finally, an overview of the mercury thermometer exchange program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented.

  12. Establishment of seed quality control programs Implantação de programas de controle de qualidade de sementes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Cicero

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient quality control program should lead to the production of high quality seeds. Consequently, a series of technical and administrative procedures must be adopted in a way that does not compromise this objective. Considering that, in applied terms, external control becomes less important as internal control programs advance technologically, this work emphasizes the principle factors that should be considered in the implantation of a seed quality control program, such as: work groups, physical structure and procedures to initiate the program.Um programa de controle de qualidade deve proporcionar a produção de sementes de alta qualidade. Para que tal objetivo seja alcançado com sucesso, e necessário a adoção de uma serie de procedimentos técnicos e administrativos, sem os quais haverá comprometimento das metas a serem atingidas. Levando-se em conta que, em termos aplicados, o controle externo perde importância na medida que avançam tecnologicamente os programas de controle interno, o presente trabalho aborda os principais fatores que devem ser considerados na implantação de um programa de controle de qualidade de sementes, tais como: equipe de trabalho, estrutura física e procedimentos para iniciar o programa.

  13. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S

    2013-08-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  14. Application of dynamic programming to control khuzestan water resources system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, M.; Heidari, M.

    1977-01-01

    An approximate optimization technique based on discrete dynamic programming called discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP), is employed to obtain the near optimal operation policies of a water resources system in the Khuzestan Province of Iran. The technique makes use of an initial nominal state trajectory for each state variable, and forms corridors around the trajectories. These corridors represent a set of subdomains of the entire feasible domain. Starting with such a set of nominal state trajectories, improvements in objective function are sought within the corridors formed around them. This leads to a set of new nominal trajectories upon which more improvements may be sought. Since optimization is confined to a set of subdomains, considerable savings in memory and computer time are achieved over that of conventional dynamic programming. The Kuzestan water resources system considered in this study is located in southwest Iran, and consists of two rivers, three reservoirs, three hydropower plants, and three irrigable areas. Data and cost benefit functions for the analysis were obtained either from the historical records or from similar studies. ?? 1977.

  15. Results of the Excreta Bioassay Quality Control Program for April 1, 2009 through March 31, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Cheryl L.

    2012-07-19

    A total of 58 urine samples and 10 fecal samples were submitted during the report period (April 1, 2009 through March 31, 2010) to General Engineering Laboratories, South Carolina by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP) to check the accuracy, precision, and detection levels of their analyses. Urine analyses for Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am 235U, 238U, elemental uranium and fecal analyses for 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu were tested this year as well as four tissue samples for 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am and 241Pu. The number of QC urine samples submitted during the report period represented 1.3% of the total samples submitted. In addition to the samples provided by IDP, GEL was also required to conduct their own QC program, and submit the results of analyses to IDP. About 33% of the analyses processed by GEL during the third year of this contract were quality control samples. GEL tested the performance of 21 radioisotopes, all of which met or exceeded the specifications in the Statement of Work within statistical uncertainty (Table 4).

  16. Results of The Excreta Bioassay Quality Control Program For April 1, 2010 Through March 31, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Cheryl L.

    2012-07-19

    A total of 76 urine samples and 10 spiked fecal samples were submitted during the report period (April 1, 2010 through March 31, 2011) to GEL Laboratories, LLC in South Carolina by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP) to check the accuracy, precision, and detection levels of their analyses. Urine analyses for 14C, Sr, for 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am, 235U, 238U, 238U-mass and fecal analyses for 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu were tested this year. The number of QC urine samples submitted during the report period represented 1.1% of the total samples submitted. In addition to the samples provided by IDP, GEL was also required to conduct their own QC program, and submit the results of analyses to IDP. About 31% of the analyses processed by GEL during the first year of contract 112512 were quality control samples. GEL tested the performance of 23 radioisotopes, all of which met or exceeded the specifications in the Statement of Work within statistical uncertainty except the slightly elevated relative bias for 243,244Cm (Table 4).

  17. Randomized controlled trial of postoperative exercise rehabilitation program after lumbar spine fusion: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnanen Sami

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar spine fusion (LSF effectively decreases pain and disability in specific spinal disorders; however, the disability rate following surgery remains high. This, combined with the fact that in Western countries the number of LSF surgeries is increasing rapidly it is important to develop rehabilitation interventions that improve outcomes. Methods/design In the present RCT-study we aim to assess the effectiveness of a combined back-specific and aerobic exercise intervention for patients after LSF surgery. One hundred patients will be randomly allocated to a 12-month exercise intervention arm or a usual care arm. The exercise intervention will start three months after surgery and consist of six individual guidance sessions with a physiotherapist and a home-based exercise program. The primary outcome measures are low back pain, lower extremity pain, disability and quality of life. Secondary outcomes are back function and kinesiophobia. Exercise adherence will also be evaluated. The outcome measurements will be assessed at baseline (3 months postoperatively, at the end of the exercise intervention period (15 months postoperatively, and after a 1-year follow-up. Discussion The present RCT will evaluate the effectiveness of a long-term rehabilitation program after LSF. To our knowledge this will be the first study to evaluate a combination of strength training, control of the neutral lumbar spine position and aerobic training principles in rehabilitation after LSF. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00834015

  18. Results of The Excreta Bioassay Quality Control Program For April 1, 2008 through March 31, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Cheryl L.

    2010-06-01

    A total of 62 urine samples and 6 spiked fecal samples were submitted during the report period (April 1, 2008 through March 31, 2009) to General Engineering Laboratories, South Carolina by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP) to check the accuracy, precision, and detection levels of their analyses. Urine analyses for Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am 235U, 238U, elemental uranium and fecal analyses for 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu were tested this year. The number of QC urine samples submitted during the report period represented 1.3% of the total samples submitted. In addition to the samples provided by IDP, GEL was also required to conduct their own QC program, and submit the results of analyses to IDP. About 34% of the analyses processed by GEL during the third year of this contract were quality control samples. GEL tested the performance of 21 radioisotopes, all of which met or exceeded the specifications in the Statement of Work within statistical uncertainty. IDP concluded that GEL was performing well for all analyses tested, and concerns identified earlier were satisfactorily resolved (see section on Follow-up on Concerns During the Fourth Contract Year).

  19. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Phragmites Control Program Results - 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Phragmites control was initiated during the second week of September this year. The pesticide applied was RODEO. Application was by helicopter flying very low over...

  20. Vehicle-to-infrastructure program cooperative adaptive cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report documents the work completed by the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Consortium during the project titled Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC). Participating companies in the V2I Cons...

  1. Assessing the present state and potential of Medicaid controlled substance lock-in programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew W; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell

    2014-05-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription medications--particularly controlled substances--has risen dramatically in recent decades, resulting in alarming increases in overdose-related health care utilization, costs, and mortality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 80% of abused and misused controlled substances originate as legal prescriptions. As such, policymakers and payers have the opportunity to combat nonmedical use by regulating controlled substance accessibility within legal prescribing and dispensing processes. One common policy strategy is found in Medicaid controlled substance lock-in programs. Lock-in programs identify Medicaid beneficiaries exhibiting high-risk controlled substance seeking behavior and "lock in" these patients to, typically, a single prescriber and pharmacy from which they may obtain Medicaid-covered controlled substance prescriptions. Lock-in restrictions are intended to improve care coordination between providers, reduce nonmedical use behaviors, and limit Medicaid costs stemming from nonmedical use and diversion. Peer-reviewed and gray literature have been examined to assess the current prevalence and design of Medicaid lock-in programs, as well as the current evidence base for informing appropriate program design and understanding program effectiveness. Forty-six state Medicaid agencies currently operate lock-in programs. Program design varies widely between states in terms of defining high-risk controlled substance use, the scope of actual lock-in restrictions, and length of program enrollment. Additionally, there is a remarkable dearth of peer-reviewed literature evaluating the design and effectiveness of Medicaid lock-in programs. Nearly all outcomes evidence stemmed from publicly accessible internal Medicaid program evaluations, which largely investigated cost savings to the state. Lock-in programs are highly prevalent and poised to play a meaningful role in curbing the prescription drug abuse epidemic. However

  2. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  3. Functional Integration of mRNA Translational Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. MacNicol

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulated mRNA translation plays a key role in control of cell cycle progression in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in the self-renewal and survival of stem cells and cancer stem cells. While targeting mRNA translation presents an attractive strategy for control of aberrant cell cycle progression, mRNA translation is an underdeveloped therapeutic target. Regulated mRNAs are typically controlled through interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins (RBPs but the mechanisms by which the functions of distinct RBPs bound to a common target mRNA are coordinated are poorly understood. The challenge now is to gain insight into these mechanisms of coordination and to identify the molecular mediators that integrate multiple, often conflicting, inputs. A first step includes the identification of altered mRNA ribonucleoprotein complex components that assemble on mRNAs bound by multiple, distinct RBPs compared to those recruited by individual RBPs. This review builds upon our knowledge of combinatorial control of mRNA translation during the maturation of oocytes from Xenopus laevis, to address molecular strategies that may mediate RBP diplomacy and conflict resolution for coordinated control of mRNA translational output. Continued study of regulated ribonucleoprotein complex dynamics promises valuable new insights into mRNA translational control and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease.

  4. Advanced control for inductive programming of MST plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumiri, I. R.; McCollam, K. J.; Squitieri, A.; Holly, D. J.; Sarff, J. S.; Jacobson, C. M.

    2017-10-01

    MST is a reversed field pinch whose poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields (Bp and Bt) can be sourced by IGBT-based programmable power supplies. In order to provide real-time simultaneous control of both Bp and Bt circuits, a time-dependent integrated modeling code is developed. Relaxed-state RFP physics simulations provide prediction and interpretive analysis of MST experimental data. The actuators considered for the control are the Bp and Bt primary currents. However, the physical quantities which MST operators want to demand can vary for different experiments and can have complicated dependences on the two actuator quantities as well as time. To develop our advanced control system, we choose to focus on two demand quantities, the plasma current Ip, directly related to Bp, and the reversal parameter F, closely related to Bt. To understand the response of Ip and F to the actuators and to enable systematic design of control algorithms, a linearized dynamic response model is generated using a system identification method. A multi-variable model based control scheme that accounts for the coupled dynamics of the system while mitigating the effect of actuator limitations is designed. A series of experiments are planned to test our controllers and validate our modeling. This work is supported by the U.S DOE.

  5. Economic evaluation of Johne's disease control programs implemented on six Michigan dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillars, R B; Grooms, D L; Wolf, C A; Kaneene, J B

    2009-08-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is an incurable, chronic infectious disease prevalent in dairy herds throughout the US and the world. The substantial economic losses caused by JD have been well documented. However, information on the costs of controlling the disease is limited, yet necessary, if producers are to make sound decisions regarding JD management. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of management changes to control JD on infected dairy farms. A 5-year longitudinal study of six dairy herds infected with JD was performed. Each herd implemented a JD control program upon study enrollment. Prevalence of JD within each herd was monitored with annual testing of all adult cows using fecal culture and/or serum ELISA. Individual cow production and culling information was collected to estimate the annual economic losses caused by JD. An economic questionnaire was developed and administered to each herd annually to estimate costs directly attributable to the JD control program. Based on the costs of the control program, and using the losses to estimate the potential benefits of the control program, the net present value (NPV) of the control program was calculated for each herd during the study and projected into the future for a total of 20 years. The NPV was calculated for four different scenarios: (1) assuming a linear decline in losses beyond the observed period of the study with JD eradication by year 20 of the control program; (2) assuming losses and JD prevalence remain constant at the rate equal to that of the last observed year while continuing the control program; (3) assuming linear increase in losses at rate equal to that in scenario 1 with no control program; and (4) assuming losses remain constant at same level as the beginning of the study with no control plan implemented. The NPV varied greatly across the herds. For scenario 1, only three herds had a positive NPV; and only two herds had a positive NPV under

  6. Generating Functionally Equivalent Programs Having Non-Isomorphic Control-Flow Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Géraud, Rémi; Koscina, Mirko; Lenczner, Paul; Naccache, David; Saulpic, David

    2017-01-01

    One of the big challenges in program obfuscation consists in modifying not only the program's straight-line code (SLC) but also the program's control flow graph (CFG). Indeed, if only SLC is modified, the program's CFG can be extracted and analyzed. Usually, the CFG leaks a considerable amount of information on the program's structure. In this work we propose a method allowing to re-write a code P into a functionally equivalent code P' such that CFG{P} and CFG{P'} are radically different.

  7. Optimal control of an invasive species using a reaction-diffusion model and linear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Mathieu; Johnson, Fred A.; Smith, Brian J.; Romagosa, Christina M.; Martin, Julien; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Managing an invasive species is particularly challenging as little is generally known about the species’ biological characteristics in its new habitat. In practice, removal of individuals often starts before the species is studied to provide the information that will later improve control. Therefore, the locations and the amount of control have to be determined in the face of great uncertainty about the species characteristics and with a limited amount of resources. We propose framing spatial control as a linear programming optimization problem. This formulation, paired with a discrete reaction-diffusion model, permits calculation of an optimal control strategy that minimizes the remaining number of invaders for a fixed cost or that minimizes the control cost for containment or protecting specific areas from invasion. We propose computing the optimal strategy for a range of possible model parameters, representing current uncertainty on the possible invasion scenarios. Then, a best strategy can be identified depending on the risk attitude of the decision-maker. We use this framework to study the spatial control of the Argentine black and white tegus (Salvator merianae) in South Florida. There is uncertainty about tegu demography and we considered several combinations of model parameters, exhibiting various dynamics of invasion. For a fixed one-year budget, we show that the risk-averse strategy, which optimizes the worst-case scenario of tegus’ dynamics, and the risk-neutral strategy, which optimizes the expected scenario, both concentrated control close to the point of introduction. A risk-seeking strategy, which optimizes the best-case scenario, focuses more on models where eradication of the species in a cell is possible and consists of spreading control as much as possible. For the establishment of a containment area, assuming an exponential growth we show that with current control methods it might not be possible to implement such a strategy for some of the

  8. A digital computer program for the dynamic interaction simulation of controls and structure (DISCOS), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodley, C. S.; Devers, A. D.; Park, A. C.; Frisch, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical development and associated digital computer program system for the dynamic simulation and stability analysis of passive and actively controlled spacecraft are presented. The dynamic system (spacecraft) is modeled as an assembly of rigid and/or flexible bodies not necessarily in a topological tree configuration. The computer program system is used to investigate total system dynamic characteristics, including interaction effects between rigid and/or flexible bodies, control systems, and a wide range of environmental loadings. In addition, the program system is used for designing attitude control systems and for evaluating total dynamic system performance, including time domain response and frequency domain stability analyses.

  9. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request... control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this part. No state... crankcase emission standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle...

  10. Simulium spp. control program in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardini Lucia Beatriz LF

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Simuliidae family have been the object of control in Rio Grande do Sul since the 70s. Their constant attacks became a social-economical problem as well as a problem of Public Health, with serious consequences to men and to the economy of the areas in which the insects develop. At first, the control was done with a chemical larvicide Themephos ABATE 500 E, but an imperfect measuring of outflow to determine the quantity of the product made Simulium spp. resistant to it. From 1983 on, following a study of a new method for the outflow measuring, we started to use a biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis based. The biological control uses the new method in 36.4% of the state area, assisting about 3,500,000 inhabitants.

  11. Mesh control information of windmill designed by Solidwork program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, T.; Sebayang, D.; Rafsanjani, A. M. D.; Adani, J. H. D.; Muhyiddin, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the mesh control information imposed on the windmill already designed. The accuracy of Simulation results is influenced by the quality of the created mesh. However, compared to the quality of the mesh is made, the simulation time running will be done software also increases. The smaller the size of the elements created when making the mesh, the better the mesh quality will be generated. When adjusting the mesh size, there is a slider that acts as the density regulator of the element. SolidWorks Simulation also has Mesh Control facility. Features that can adjust mesh density only in the desired part. The best results of mesh control obtained for both static and thermal simulation have ratio 1.5.

  12. Multiple educational programs improves glycemic control, quality of life with diminishing the impact of diabetes in poorly controlled type 1 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Chintan; Dalal, Lopa; Talaviya, Praful; Saboo, Banshi

    2017-12-01

    The aim of present study was to assess the outcomes of multiple educational programs on glycemic control, quality of life and impact of diabetes in poorly controlled Type 1 Diabetic patients. A 12 months diabetes education programs were conducted every week for first one month then followed by every 3 months with follow up on improvement of HbA1c and QOL in T1D patients (n=54). Clinical characteristics were recorded at baseline visit. The QOL was evaluated by 15 set DQOL questionnaires in 40 consecutive patients at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after education programs. The HbA1c level (%) was evaluated at same time point. Decrease in DQOL score was reported as improvement in QOL. The rate of patients response to educational programs was noted 74.07% (n=40) at end of the study (12 months). The prevalence of T1D was reported higher in men than in women. The overall DQOL score and HbA1c% level was significantly (Pdiabetes after educational programs was observed after 3 months and it was continue up to end of study. The frequencies of self-monitoring of blood glucose were increased. Numbers of hypoglycemic and DKA events were decreased after educational programs when compared to baseline. Results of study revealed that the appropriate education and counseling diminish impact of diabetes, improve QOL and help to achieve desired glycemic (HbA1c) level in poorly control T1D patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Possibilities of CoDeSys Programming System during Software Development and Designing of Micro-Processor Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Novikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A great attention is presently paid to technologies pertaining to software development for systems which are applied for control of industrial automatic equipment designed on the basis of programmable logical controllers (PLC and practical programming using languages of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 61131-3 standard.A programming CoDeSys complex is one of the systems for PLC software development. This complex has been developed by 3S-Smart Software Solutions GmbH (3S company. Its main purpose is to program PLC and industrial computers in accordance with the IEC 61131-3 standard. A number of unordinary 3S solutions have led to the fact that the CoDeSys is considered now as a standard PLC programming tool of the leading European manufacturers: ABB, Beckhoff, Beck IPC, Berger Lahr, Bosch Rexroth, ifm, Keb, Kontron, Lenze, Moeller, WAGO, Fastwel и др.An introduction of the standard has served as a foundation for creation of the unified school for specialists’ training. A person who is trained in accordance with the program including the IEC 61131-3 standard shall be able to work with PLC of any company. At the same time if he/she has had some experience of work with any PLC then his/her skills shall be helpful and significantly simplify studying process of new possibilities.

  14. Multicontroller: an object programming approach to introduce advanced control algorithms for the GCS large scale project

    CERN Document Server

    Cabaret, S; Coppier, H; Rachid, A; Barillère, R; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2007-01-01

    The GCS (Gas Control System) project team at CERN uses a Model Driven Approach with a Framework - UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) - based on PLC (Programming Language Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) technologies. The first' UNICOS versions were able to provide a PID (Proportional Integrative Derivative) controller whereas the Gas Systems required more advanced control strategies. The MultiController is a new UNICOS object which provides the following advanced control algorithms: Smith Predictor, PFC (Predictive Function Control), RST* and GPC (Global Predictive Control). Its design is based on a monolithic entity with a global structure definition which is able to capture the desired set of parameters of any specific control algorithm supported by the object. The SCADA system -- PVSS - supervises the MultiController operation. The PVSS interface provides users with supervision faceplate, in particular it links any MultiController with recipes: the GCS experts are ab...

  15. Development and application of an optogenetic platform for controlling and imaging a large number of individual neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    The understanding and treatment of brain disorders as well as the development of intelligent machines is hampered by the lack of knowledge of how the brain fundamentally functions. Over the past century, we have learned much about how individual neurons and neural networks behave, however new tools are critically needed to interrogate how neural networks give rise to complex brain processes and disease conditions. Recent innovations in molecular techniques, such as optogenetics, have enabled neuroscientists unprecedented precision to excite, inhibit and record defined neurons. The impressive sensitivity of currently available optogenetic sensors and actuators has now enabled the possibility of analyzing a large number of individual neurons in the brains of behaving animals. To promote the use of these optogenetic tools, this thesis integrates cutting edge optogenetic molecular sensors which is ultrasensitive for imaging neuronal activity with custom wide field optical microscope to analyze a large number of individual neurons in living brains. Wide-field microscopy provides a large field of view and better spatial resolution approaching the Abbe diffraction limit of fluorescent microscope. To demonstrate the advantages of this optical platform, we imaged a deep brain structure, the Hippocampus, and tracked hundreds of neurons over time while mouse was performing a memory task to investigate how those individual neurons related to behavior. In addition, we tested our optical platform in investigating transient neural network changes upon mechanical perturbation related to blast injuries. In this experiment, all blasted mice show a consistent change in neural network. A small portion of neurons showed a sustained calcium increase for an extended period of time, whereas the majority lost their activities. Finally, using optogenetic silencer to control selective motor cortex neurons, we examined their contributions to the network pathology of basal ganglia related to

  16. Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program: Evolution, Achievements, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devidas Trimbak Khedkar

    2014-01-01

    For this review, information has been collected from official websites of World Health Organisation (WHO Geneva, WHO South East Asia Regional Office (SEARO New Delhi, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; Government of India and published literature, through search engines like Google, Google Scholar and Pub Med using MeSH Terms "DOTS" and "Tuberculosis Control."

  17. Quality Control Charts in Large-Scale Assessment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, William D.; Coverdale, Bradley J.; Luxenberg, Harlan; Jin, Ying

    2011-01-01

    There are relatively few examples of quantitative approaches to quality control in educational assessment and accountability contexts. Among the several techniques that are used in other fields, Shewart charts have been found in a few instances to be applicable in educational settings. This paper describes Shewart charts and gives examples of how…

  18. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. White Amur Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    common carp (Cvprinus carpio) genome , yields androgenetic grass carp. Gynogenetic grass carp may be obtained through reLention of the second polar body...of giass carp as a * weed control agent in the United States. Woods, C. 1975. Weed eating fish released in Florida. Citrus and Vegetable Mag. 38(6

  19. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  20. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TAC). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  1. Near-Optimal Tracking Control of Mobile Robots Via Receding-Horizon Dual Heuristic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Chuanqiang; Xu, Xin; Chen, Hong; He, Haibo

    2016-11-01

    Trajectory tracking control of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) has been an important research topic in control theory and robotics. Although various tracking control methods with stability have been developed for WMRs, it is still difficult to design optimal or near-optimal tracking controller under uncertainties and disturbances. In this paper, a near-optimal tracking control method is presented for WMRs based on receding-horizon dual heuristic programming (RHDHP). In the proposed method, a backstepping kinematic controller is designed to generate desired velocity profiles and the receding horizon strategy is used to decompose the infinite-horizon optimal control problem into a series of finite-horizon optimal control problems. In each horizon, a closed-loop tracking control policy is successively updated using a class of approximate dynamic programming algorithms called finite-horizon dual heuristic programming (DHP). The convergence property of the proposed method is analyzed and it is shown that the tracking control system based on RHDHP is asymptotically stable by using the Lyapunov approach. Simulation results on three tracking control problems demonstrate that the proposed method has improved control performance when compared with conventional model predictive control (MPC) and DHP. It is also illustrated that the proposed method has lower computational burden than conventional MPC, which is very beneficial for real-time tracking control.

  2. Effect of the California tobacco control program on personal health care expenditures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Lightwood

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Large state tobacco control programs have been shown to reduce smoking and would be expected to affect health care costs. We investigate the effect of California's large-scale tobacco control program on aggregate personal health care expenditures in the state.Cointegrating regressions were used to predict (1 the difference in per capita cigarette consumption between California and 38 control states as a function of the difference in cumulative expenditures of the California and control state tobacco control programs, and (2 the relationship between the difference in cigarette consumption and the difference in per capita personal health expenditures between the control states and California between 1980 and 2004. Between 1989 (when it started and 2004, the California program was associated with $86 billion (2004 US dollars (95% confidence interval [CI] $28 billion to $151 billion lower health care expenditures than would have been expected without the program. This reduction grew over time, reaching 7.3% (95% CI 2.7%-12.1% of total health care expenditures in 2004.A strong tobacco control program is not only associated with reduced smoking, but also with reductions in health care expenditures.

  3. Control of adult neurogenesis by programmed cell death in the mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jae Ryun; Hong, Caroline Jeeyeon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Sun, Woong; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2016-04-21

    The presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) and the production of new neurons in the adult brain have received great attention from scientists and the public because of implications to brain plasticity and their potential use for treating currently incurable brain diseases. Adult neurogenesis is controlled at multiple levels, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and programmed cell death (PCD). Among these, PCD is the last and most prominent process for regulating the final number of mature neurons integrated into neural circuits. PCD can be classified into apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagic cell death and emerging evidence suggests that all three may be important modes of cell death in neural stem/progenitor cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate PCD and thereby impact the intricate balance between self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation during adult neurogenesis are not well understood. In this comprehensive review, we focus on the extent, mechanism, and biological significance of PCD for the control of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. The role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the regulation of PCD at the molecular and systems levels is also discussed. Adult neurogenesis is a dynamic process, and the signals for differentiation, proliferation, and death of neural progenitor/stem cells are closely interrelated. A better understanding of how adult neurogenesis is influenced by PCD will help lead to important insights relevant to brain health and diseases.

  4. Application of Oral Fluid Assays in Support of Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. C. Maple

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of specific viral antibody or nucleic acid produced by infection or immunization, using oral fluid samples, offers increased potential for wider population uptake compared to blood sampling. This methodology is well established for the control of HIV and measles infections, but can also be applied to the control of other vaccine preventable infections, and this review describes the application of oral fluid assays in support of mumps, rubella and varicella national immunization programs. In England and Wales individuals with suspected mumps or rubella, based on clinical presentation, can have an oral fluid swab sample taken for case confirmation. Universal varicella immunization of children has led to a drastic reduction of chickenpox in those countries where it is used; however, in England and Wales such a policy has not been instigated. Consequently, in England and Wales most children have had chickenpox by age 10 years; however, small, but significant, numbers of adults remain susceptible. Targeted varicella zoster virus (VZV immunization of susceptible adolescents offers the potential to reduce the pool of susceptible adults and oral fluid determination of VZV immunity in adolescents is a potential means of identifying susceptible individuals in need of VZV vaccination. The main application of oral fluid testing is in those circumstances where blood sampling is deemed not necessary, or is undesirable, and when the documented sensitivity and specificity of the oral fluid assay methodology to be used is considered sufficient for the purpose intended.

  5. Hacking DNA copy number for circuit engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feilun; You, Lingchong

    2017-07-27

    DNA copy number represents an essential parameter in the dynamics of synthetic gene circuits but typically is not explicitly considered. A new study demonstrates how dynamic control of DNA copy number can serve as an effective strategy to program robust oscillations in gene expression circuits.

  6. Effects of Input Voltage on Flow Separation Control for Low-Pressure Turbine at Low Reynolds Number by Plasma Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Matsunuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Active flow control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma actuators was investigated to reattach the simulated boundary layer separation on the suction surface of a turbine blade at low Reynolds number, Re = 1.7 × 104. The flow separation is induced on a curved plate installed in the test section of a low-speed wind tunnel. Particle image velocimetry (PIV was used to obtain instantaneous and time-averaged two-dimensional velocity measurements. The amplitude of input voltage for the plasma actuator was varied from ±2.0 kV to ±2.8 kV. The separated flow reattached on the curved wall when the input voltage was ±2.4 kV and above. The displacement thickness of the boundary layer near the trailing edge decreased by 20% at ±2.0 kV. The displacement thickness was suddenly reduced as much as 56% at ±2.2 kV, and it was reduced gradually from ±2.4 kV to ±2.8 kV (77% reduction. The total pressure loss coefficient, estimated from the boundary layer displacement thickness and momentum thickness, was 0.172 at the baseline (actuator off condition. The total pressure loss was reduced to 0.107 (38% reduction at ±2.2 kV and 0.078 (55% reduction at ±2.8 kV.

  7. Design aspects of a quality control program for the seafood industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amaria, P.J; Ronsivalli, L.J

    1981-01-01

    .... It is extremely important to realize in the design of a seafood quality control program that the industry first establish product quality and reliability objectives and then develop appropriate...

  8. Type, number or both? A population-based matched case-control study on the risk of fall injuries among older people and number of medications beyond fall-inducing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Lucie; Monárrez-Espino, Joel; Johnell, Kristina; Elling, Berty; Möller, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Drug use is a modifiable risk factor for fall-related injuries in older people. Whereas the injurious effect of polypharmacy is established, that of low numbers of medications has not been fully ascertained. Neither do we know whether it is the number per se or the type of medications that actually matters. We assessed this question for fall injuries leading to hospitalization. National register-based, population-based, matched case-control study. Community dwellers aged 65+ years living in Sweden between March 2006 and December 2009. Cases (n = 64,399) were identified in the national inpatient register and four controls per case were randomly matched by gender, date of birth and residential area. The association between number of prescribed medications, assessed through linkage with the Swedish prescribed drug register, and the risk of injurious falls was estimated with odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for demographic and health status. The number of medications was associated with an increased risk of fall injury in a dose-response fashion, even after adjustment for marital status, comorbidity and number of fall-risk-inducing drugs (FRIDs). Using ten or more medications was associated with an almost two-fold higher risk (adjusted OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.66 to 1.88). When stratified by use (or not) of at least one FRID, the association weakened slightly among both non-users (adjusted OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.67) and users (adjusted OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.58 to 1.77). In older people, not only large but also small numbers of medications may affect the risk for them to sustain injurious falls. Although the mechanisms lying behind this are complex, the finding challenges the prevention strategies targeting either specific types of medications (FRIDs) or high numbers of them.

  9. Type, number or both? A population-based matched case-control study on the risk of fall injuries among older people and number of medications beyond fall-inducing drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Laflamme

    Full Text Available Drug use is a modifiable risk factor for fall-related injuries in older people. Whereas the injurious effect of polypharmacy is established, that of low numbers of medications has not been fully ascertained. Neither do we know whether it is the number per se or the type of medications that actually matters. We assessed this question for fall injuries leading to hospitalization.National register-based, population-based, matched case-control study.Community dwellers aged 65+ years living in Sweden between March 2006 and December 2009.Cases (n = 64,399 were identified in the national inpatient register and four controls per case were randomly matched by gender, date of birth and residential area. The association between number of prescribed medications, assessed through linkage with the Swedish prescribed drug register, and the risk of injurious falls was estimated with odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for demographic and health status.The number of medications was associated with an increased risk of fall injury in a dose-response fashion, even after adjustment for marital status, comorbidity and number of fall-risk-inducing drugs (FRIDs. Using ten or more medications was associated with an almost two-fold higher risk (adjusted OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.66 to 1.88. When stratified by use (or not of at least one FRID, the association weakened slightly among both non-users (adjusted OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.67 and users (adjusted OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.58 to 1.77.In older people, not only large but also small numbers of medications may affect the risk for them to sustain injurious falls. Although the mechanisms lying behind this are complex, the finding challenges the prevention strategies targeting either specific types of medications (FRIDs or high numbers of them.

  10. Manned space station environmental control and life support system computer-aided technology assessment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.

  11. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Joling, C.I.; Proper, K.I.; Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program

  12. Evaluation of Parent and Child Enhancement (PACE) Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Lo, Cyrus

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the efficacy of the Parent and Child Enhancement (PACE) program on child learning, child behavior problems, and parental stress, using randomized controlled trial design, in social services centers. Methods: Eligibility criteria were (1) children aged 2 years at program commencement, (2) low-income, new immigrant, or…

  13. Web Environment for Programming and Control of a Mobile Robot in a Remote Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Lopes, Maísa Soares; Gomes, Iago Pacheco; Trindade, Roque M. P.; da Silva, Alzira F.; de C. Lima, Antonio C.

    2017-01-01

    Remote robotics laboratories have been successfully used for engineering education. However, few of them use mobile robots to to teach computer science. This article describes a mobile robot Control and Programming Environment (CPE) and its pedagogical applications. The system comprises a remote laboratory for robotics, an online programming tool,…

  14. Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    separation of two face skins by a core. The most common sandwich assembly has metallic honeycomb core and graphite - resin or metallic skins. 4.8.1...accordance with the contractor’s approved PMP control plan. A-6 3.1.6 Composite Materials Composite materials containing graphite fibers shall be...treated as graphite in MIL-STD-889. 3.2 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 3.2.1 Application In structural applications requiring the selection of

  15. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Program for Foodservice Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control Point ( HACCP ) inspections in foodservice operations throughout the state. The HACCP system, which first emerged in the late 1960s, is a rational...has been adopted for use in the foodservice industry. The HACCP system consists of three main components which are the: (1) Assessment of the hazards...operations. This manual was developed to assist local sanitarians in conducting HACCP inspections and in educating foodservice operators and employees

  16. Nuclear Command and Control: Current Programs and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-03

    Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse ( HEMP ) and High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices: Threat Assessments, by Clay Wilson. 54 Dee Ann Divis, “Protection Not in...Some analysts argue that detonating a high altitude nuclear burst to generate EMP against the U.S. critical infrastructure might be one way that China...infrastructure, including command and control systems, through an electromagnetic pulse (EMP).53 A high altitude nuclear explosion generates an electrical

  17. FPGA LabVIEW Programming, Monitoring and Remote Control

    OpenAIRE

    Petru Cotfas; Marius Ghercioiu; Doru Ursutiu; Cornel Samoila

    2009-01-01

    NI ELVIS is an educational design and prototyping platform from National Instruments Corp. based on NI LabVIEW graphical system design software. The platform is used for teaching concepts in areas such as instrumentation, circuits, control, communication, and embedded design in a hands-on, interactive manner. NI ELVIS contains an integrated suite of the 12 most commonly used instruments – DMM, oscilloscope, function generator, MIO, Counter etc - in a compact, rugged, laboratory-friendly form ...

  18. Policy analysis of the dengue control program in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Fernández, Mariana I; Orozco Núñez, Emanuel; Cifuentes, Enrique

    2010-12-01

    To analyze municipal measures implemented to control the dengue epidemic, giving priority to the functions of intersectoral coordination, policy strengthening and community participation. The observational study was performed in Morelos, Mexico in 2007. Data collected in interviews and direct observations were submitted to contents analysis and policy mapping. Policy Maker software was used to evaluate the values assigned to the stakeholders' performance (i.e., high, medium and low criteria) and to their role (actions undertaken for surveillance, control or management). A strategic analysis of opportunities and challenges regarding public policies and dengue control was conducted. The legal framework indicates that the approach to the dengue epidemic should be an intersectoral response. However, the burden of activities in terms of financial and human resources tends to fall on local health services, which contrasts with the contribution of other sectors (e.g., water and sanitation) that do not recognize their responsibilities. A high degree of operational feasibility links, in terms of optimization of resources and objectives fulfillment was detected, particularly among health authorities at state, jurisdictional and municipal levels. A multidisciplinary approach and strengthening of policy stewardship may allow a more efficient response to dengue outbreaks, sustained by intersectoral coordination and the active participation of the affected population.

  19. Impact of a self-control promotion program on nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima-Ruiz de Angulo, Lidia

    2017-06-01

    To describe the characteristics of positive mental health in nursing students, and to determine the impact of a self-control promotion program. A quasi-experimental controlled trial including 72 second-year of Vitoria-Gasteiz University Nursing School. The lowest scores in every measurement were for the self-control factor (F3). There were no statistically significant differences in self-control (F3) between the groups. This program shows higher scores in inter-personal relationship skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Inventory control program for laboratory equipment written in the C programming language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dishman, J.L.; Shipp, S.G.

    1986-10-01

    A property inventory package has been written in the C programming language to keep track of general laboratory equipment. All functions which would be expected for a master inventory database are available including add, delete, edit, and find. The package was developed on a Digital Equipment Corporation LSI 11/73 computer using the ULTRIX-11 operating system, and can be adapted for use on any UNIX based system, or any operating system with a C compiler.

  1. Control chart monitoring of the numbers of cases waiting when anesthesiologists do not bring in members of call team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledolter, Johannes; Dexter, Franklin; Wachtel, Ruth E

    2010-07-01

    An anesthesia group staffing agreement with a hospital often specifies the minimum number of operating rooms (ORs) to be covered during evening or weekend hours. Frequently, 1 anesthesiologist works in-house and others take call from home, coming in if multiple cases are waiting to be done. The anesthesiologist in-house sometimes does not bring in colleagues from home when the number of ORs he can supervise is less than the number specified in the agreement with the hospital (i.e., assignment is less than staffing). Queuing occurs even if managers have selected an appropriate number of ORs to be run during evenings and weekends (i.e., the number of cases [jobs] exceeds the number of ORs [identical machines] that are actually run). In our study, we used a dataset without trend over 3 years to determine whether we could identify differences among anesthesiologists in queuing behavior. Negative binomial regression was used to model the number of cases waiting while the number of ORs running was fewer than allocated. Multiple variable regressions modeled waiting times among cases. The easy to construct Shewhart chart and the more complicated cumulative sum chart were then compared to test for outliers in the number of cases waiting. Queuing behavior was found to be homogeneous among the 33 anesthesiologists (P > 0.28 among different statistical models). Weekend days differed from evenings. Shewhart and cumulative sum charts were comparable for detecting unusual variations. Anesthesiologists sometimes do not notify call team members when cases are waiting and the number of ORs running is less than allocated. The number of cases waiting, rather than the amount of waiting, is more appropriate for monitoring trends over time. Simple Shewhart charts can be used for monitoring contractually specified staffing.

  2. 75 FR 10297 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0056

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... these documents. Contact Ms. Renee V. Wright, Program Manager, Docket Operations, 202-366-9826, for... seals, labels, plates, insignia, or other devices for certifying or evidencing compliance with safety...

  3. 75 FR 31459 - Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget: OMB Control Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... documents. Contact Ms. Renee V. Wright, Program Manager, Docket Operations, 202-366-9826, for questions on... require the display of seals, labels, plates, insignia, or other devices for certifying/evidencing...

  4. Multihost Tuberculosis: Insights from the Portuguese Control Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica V. Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the current situation of animal tuberculosis in Portugal, reviewing the accomplishments and constraints of the 2001–2009 period. Notwithstanding the substantial progress achieved with the implementation of a comprehensive test and cull scheme, notification, postmortem inspection and surveillance at slaughterhouses, herd and animal prevalence have unexpectedly increased in 2009. In parallel, the recent awareness of tuberculosis in local free-ranging wildlife species causes concern regarding the final steps towards eradication, demanding new approaches to the existing disease control policies.

  5. Controlling Individuals Growth in Semantic Genetic Programming through Elitist Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Mauro; Vanneschi, Leonardo; Popovič, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, Moraglio and coauthors introduced new genetic operators for Genetic Programming, called geometric semantic genetic operators. They have the very interesting advantage of inducing a unimodal error surface for any supervised learning problem. At the same time, they have the important drawback of generating very large data models that are usually very hard to understand and interpret. The objective of this work is to alleviate this drawback, still maintaining the advantage. More in particular, we propose an elitist version of geometric semantic operators, in which offspring are accepted in the new population only if they have better fitness than their parents. We present experimental evidence, on five complex real-life test problems, that this simple idea allows us to obtain results of a comparable quality (in terms of fitness), but with much smaller data models, compared to the standard geometric semantic operators. In the final part of the paper, we also explain the reason why we consider this a significant improvement, showing that the proposed elitist operators generate manageable models, while the models generated by the standard operators are so large in size that they can be considered unmanageable.

  6. Review: Integrating a semen quality control program and sire fertility at a large artificial insemination organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstine, B R; Utt, M D; DeJarnette, J M

    2018-02-22

    The technology available to assess sperm population characteristics has advanced greatly in recent years. Large artificial insemination (AI) organizations that sell bovine semen utilize many of these technologies not only for novel research purposes, but also to make decisions regarding whether to sell or discard the product. Within an AI organization, the acquisition, interpretation and utilization of semen quality data is often performed by a quality control department. In general, quality control decisions regarding semen sales are often founded on the linkages established between semen quality and field fertility. Although no one individual sperm bioassay has been successful in predicting sire fertility, many correlations to various in vivo fertility measures have been reported. The most powerful techniques currently available to evaluate semen are high-throughput and include computer-assisted sperm analysis and various flow cytometric analyses that quantify attributes of fluorescently stained cells. However, all techniques measuring biological parameters are subject to the principles of precision, accuracy and repeatability. Understanding the limitations of repeatability in laboratory analyses is important in a quality control and quality assurance program. Hence, AI organizations that acquire sizeable data sets pertaining to sperm quality and sire fertility are well-positioned to examine and comment on data collection and interpretation. This is especially true for sire fertility, where the population of AI sires has been highly selected for fertility. In the December 2017 sire conception rate report by the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding, 93% of all Holstein sires (n=2062) possessed fertility deviations within 3% of the breed average. Regardless of the reporting system, estimates of sire fertility should be based on an appropriate number of services per sire. Many users impose unrealistic expectations of the predictive value of these assessments due to a

  7. Evaluation of revised national tuberculosis control program, district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Nikhil Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present evaluation study has been conducted with the following objectives: (i To assess the treatment outcomes of revised national tuberculosis control program (RNTCP in five microscopic centers of Kangra district under five tuberculosis units and (ii To identify gaps and underlying contributing factors. Based upon the findings of (i and (ii we suggest appropriate measures to narrow down the existing gaps. Materials and Methods: We identified and interviewed health personnel involved, reviewed the documents and records pertaining to evaluation plan/guidelines, training records and reports generated by five tuberculosis units. We assessed the inputs, processes and outputs of the program across five tuberculosis units. We calculated the proportion of staff of various categories trained and internal quality control (case detection; availability of drugs, directly observed treatment short course (DOTS providers, and supervision (case management and information, education and communication (IEC, and funds distribution. (logic model. Result: Around 60%-88% of staffs of various categories trained with overall 25% gap of supervisory visits. In tuberculosis unit (TU Nurpur, the discordant slides while cross-checking were 8% and 25%. The total proportions of sputum positivity are 5.1%; the highest in Kangra, i.e., 2.3% (national norms of 10-15%.. There was no full cross-checking of the positive slides despite internal quality in place. Increased numbers of the extra pulmonary tuberculosis cases (EPTB are present in all TUs, as high as 61% in TU Dharamshala (Normal range 15%-20%. A gap of 20% DOT center exists-the least in (58% in TU Nurpur. The awareness level in the TU Dehra is minimum (51%; more so in females and rural set up. Conclusion: RNTCP has successfully achieved all its targets in all the five TUs of Kangra District as per national norms despite several gaps. We recommend (i filling of vacancies of medics and paramedics with

  8. Making policy practice in afterschool programs: a randomized controlled trial on physical activity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Weaver, R Glenn; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S; Pate, Russell R; Freedman, Darcy; Hutto, Brent; Moore, Justin B; Beighle, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    In the U.S., afterschool programs are asked to promote moderate to vigorous physical activity. One policy that has considerable public health importance is California's afterschool physical activity guidelines that indicate all children attending an afterschool program accumulate 30 minutes each day the program is operating. Few effective strategies exist for afterschool programs to meet this policy goal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multistep adaptive intervention designed to assist afterschool programs in meeting the 30-minute/day moderate to vigorous physical activity policy goal. A 1-year group randomized controlled trial with baseline (spring 2013) and post-assessment (spring 2014). Data were analyzed 2014. Twenty afterschool programs, serving >1,700 children (aged 6-12 years), randomized to either an intervention (n=10) or control (n=10) group. The employed framework, Strategies To Enhance Practice, focused on intentional programming of physical activity opportunities in each afterschool program's daily schedule and included professional development training to establish core physical activity competencies of staff and afterschool program leaders with ongoing technical assistance. The primary outcome was accelerometry-derived proportion of children meeting the 30-minute/day moderate to vigorous physical activity policy. Children attending intervention afterschool programs had an OR of 2.37 (95% CI=1.58, 3.54) to achieve the physical activity policy at post-assessment compared to control afterschool programs. Sex-specific models indicated that the percentage of intervention girls and boys achieving the physical activity policy increased from 16.7% to 21.4% (OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.43, 5.68) and 34.2% to 41.6% (OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.35, 3.80), respectively. At post-assessment, six intervention afterschool programs increased the proportion of boys achieving the physical activity policy to ≥45% compared to one control afterschool program, whereas three

  9. Effectiveness of an Occupational Health Intervention Program to Reduce Whole Body Vibration Exposure: An Evaluation Study With a Controlled Pretest-Post-test Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background An effective intervention program aiming to reduce whole body vibration (WBV) exposure at work will reduce the number of low back complaints in the near future. Methods An evaluation study with a controlled pretest-post-test design. Nine companies and 126 drivers were included in the

  10. Efficacy of a short multidisciplinary falls prevention program for elderly persons with osteoporosis and a fall history: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Groen, B.E.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Eijsbouts, A.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the Nijmegen Falls Prevention Program (NFPP) for persons with osteoporosis and a fall history in a randomized controlled trial. Persons with osteoporosis are at risk for fall-related fractures because of decreased bone strength. A decrease in the number of

  11. Defeasible Deontic Robot Control Based on Extended Vector Annotated Logic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi; Abe, Jair Minoro; Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    2002-09-01

    We have already proposed an annotated logic program called an EVALPSN (Extended Vector Annotated Logic Program with Strong Negation) to deal with defeasible deontic reasoning. In this paper, we propose a defeasible deontic action control system for a virtual robot based on EVALPSN. We suppose a beetle robot who is traveling a maze with three kinds of obstacles and has some different kinds of sensors to detect the obstacles. If some sensor values are input to the robot control, the next action that the robot should do is computed by the EVALPSN programming system.

  12. Feasibility and Outcomes of an Internet-Based Mindfulness Training Program: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvillemo, Pia; Brandberg, Yvonne; Bränström, Richard

    2016-07-22

    Interventions based on meditation and mindfulness techniques have been shown to reduce stress and increase psychological well-being in a wide variety of populations. Self-administrated Internet-based mindfulness training programs have the potential to be a convenient, cost-effective, easily disseminated, and accessible alternative to group-based programs. This randomized controlled pilot trial with 90 university students in Stockholm, Sweden, explored the feasibility, usability, acceptability, and outcomes of an 8-week Internet-based mindfulness training program. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n=46) or an active control condition (n=44). Intervention participants were invited to an Internet-based 8-week mindfulness program, and control participants were invited to an Internet-based 4-week expressive writing program. The programs were automated apart from weekly reminders via email. Main outcomes in pre- and postassessments were psychological well-being and depression symptoms. To assess the participant's experiences, those completing the full programs were asked to fill out an assessment questionnaire and 8 of the participants were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as content analysis, were performed. In the mindfulness program, 28 out of 46 students (60%) completed the first week and 18 out of 46 (39%) completed the full program. In the expressive writing program, 35 out of 44 students (80%) completed the first week and 31 out of 44 (70%) completed the full program. There was no statistically significantly stronger intervention effect for the mindfulness intervention compared to the active control intervention. Those completing the mindfulness group reported high satisfaction with the program. Most of those interviewed were satisfied with the layout and technique and with the support provided by the study coordinators. More frequent contact with study coordinators was

  13. Programas de controle da toxoplasmose congênita Programs for control of congenital toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes-Mori

    2011-10-01

    44%, respectively. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom, have educational practices to reduce the risk of infection in seronegative pregnant women. In Brazil, prenatal screening is carried out in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Minas Gerais and the cities of Curitiba and Porto Alegre. In Londrina, state of Parana, the "Health Surveillance Program for Toxoplasmosis Acquired during Pregnancy and Congenital Toxoplasmosis" was established, which is based on serological screening, advising on prevention measures and quarterly serological monitoring in pregnant women that are initially seronegative, in addition to the monitoring of pregnant women and children with acute infection and case notification. In the first four years of implementation, the program evaluation showed a 63% reduction in the number of pregnant women and 42% in the number of children referred to reference services, resulting in the opening of vacancies for the care of patients with other diseases. As for medications, there was a 62% reduction in consumption of folic acid and 67% of sulfadiazine. Moreover, the definition of the protocols resulted in the standardization of care and safety for the decision-making by physicians. Therefore, as there are several protocols individualized in various departments and regions, the establishment of an ideal, consensual conduct with technical support, will result in implementing measures that will certainly save public resources, with the decrease in congenital toxoplasmosis.

  14. Safety implications of control systems program at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, O.L.

    1986-01-01

    Simulations of two PWRs point to several conclusions that bear on the principle interests of Unresolved Safety Issue A-47: (1) The simulated control systems of both plants exhibit considerable ability to respond to the investigated classes of off-normal disturbances. (2) Overfill of the steam generators usually produced only minor cooling of the primary side. (3) Despite protective features, substantial amounts of water could be injected into the steam lines because of low steam quality or high water level. Whether this creates the potential for water-hammer damage or other mass or momentum effects requires further analysis. (4) Potential core-uncovery scenarios explored steam generator tube rupture and other small breaks that might lead to loss of primary inventory without actuation of high pressure injection. The results indicated situations in which automatic actuation of high pressure injection would terminate the leak and others in which operator intervention appeared necessary. 19 figs.

  15. Randomized controlled study of a retiree health promotion program. The Bank of American Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J P; Richardson, N; Beck, R; Kerr, C; Harrington, H; Parcell, C L; Fries, J F

    1992-06-01

    The initial results of a 12-month controlled trial of a health promotion program in 5686 Bank of America retirees, randomized into full program, questionnaire only, and insurance claims only groups, were analyzed to determine whether the health promotion program was effective. Comparisons were between program and questionnaire only groups for self-reported health habit changes, health risk scores, medical care utilization, and days confined to home, and between all groups for insurance claims data. The intervention, or full program, included health habit questionnaires administered every 6 months, individualized time-oriented health risk appraisals, personal recommendation letters, self-management materials, and a health promotion book. Twelve-month changes in health habits, health status, and economic variables favored the full program group in 31 of 32 comparisons and were statistically significant at the .05 level in two-tailed tests in 19 comparisons and at the .01 level in two-tailed tests in 13 comparisons. Over 12 months, overall computed health risk scores decreased by 4.3% in the full program experimental group and increased by 7.2% in the questionnaire only control group. Total direct and indirect costs decreased by 11% in the experimental group and increased by 6.3% in the questionnaire only control group. Analysis of claims data confirmed these trends. A low-cost health promotion program for retirees was effective in changing health behaviors and has potential to decrease health care utilization.

  16. Internet-based modular program BADI for adjustment disorder: protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skruibis, Paulius; Eimontas, Jonas; Dovydaitiene, Migle; Mazulyte, Egle; Zelviene, Paulina; Kazlauskas, Evaldas

    2016-07-26

    Adjustment disorder is one of the most common mental health diagnoses. Still it receives relatively little attention from researchers trying to establish best interventions to treat it. With high prevalence of stressful life events, which might be leading to adjustment disorder, and limited resources of mental health service providers, online interventions could be a very practical way of helping people who have these disorders or are in the risk to develop them. The proposed study protocol is aimed to describe a randomized controlled trial of an internet-based modular intervention for adjustment disorder as it is defined in a proposal for the ICD-11. This study is a two-armed Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) to examine the effectiveness of a web-based intervention BADI (Brief Adjustment Disorder Intervention) for adjustment disorder symptoms. BADI has four modules: Relaxation, Time management, Mindfulness and Strengthening relationships. It is based on stress and coping research and integrates evidence-based treatment approaches such as Cognitive Behavioural therapy (CBT), mindfulness and body-mind practices, as well as exercises for enhancing social support. Primary outcome of the study are symptoms of adjustment disorder and well-being. Engagement into the program and motivation for change is a secondary outcome. All participants after completing the baseline assessment are randomly assigned to one of the two groups: either to the one in which participant will instantly gain access to the BADI intervention or a group in which participants will be given access to the BADI program after waiting one month. Participants of BADI can choose exercises of the program flexibly. There is no particular order in which the exercises should be completed. Study will provide new insights of modular internet-based interventions efficacy for adjustment disorders. The study will also provide information about the role of motivation and expectancies on engagement in modular

  17. Variable Cycle Engine Control System Definition Study. Turbine Engine Technology Demonstrator Component Development Program, Project 668A. Controls Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    blow-outs, inlet unstart, buzz , or supercritical operation and reduce spillage drag. o Aircraft Flight Control - provide prorper thrust management to...DwvtmO4JV POt1o Acceletat~ic 8-1 I" M I o ’ " 1 - os OR i, 6OON U l-NUllq-• so in II 11 141 to 0 to S. t 0 S.) I 4,O . .. • _ _.U bee 0 ~e-•me 0 to e to /OCI

  18. Indicators of asthma control among students in a rural, school-based asthma management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Cheung, Karen; Buckley, Rebekah; Dunville, Richard; Daniels, Brandy; Cook, Deborah; Robin, Leah; Dean, Blair

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation sought to determine if a comprehensive, school-based asthma management program in a small, rural school district helped students improve asthma control. To determine if students in the asthma program demonstrated better asthma control than students in a comparison school district, the evaluation team used a quasi-experimental, cross-sectional design and administered questionnaires assessing asthma control (which included FEV1 measurement) to 456 students with asthma in the intervention and comparison districts. Data were analyzed for differences in asthma control between students in the two districts. To determine if students in the intervention experienced increased asthma control between baseline and follow-up, the evaluation team used a one-group retrospective design. Program records for 323 students were analyzed for differences in percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) between baseline and follow-up. Students with asthma in the intervention district exhibited significantly better asthma control than students with asthma in the comparison district. Percent of predicted FEV1 did not change significantly between baseline and follow-up for the intervention participants; however, post hoc analyses revealed students with poorly controlled asthma at baseline had significantly higher FEV1 scores at follow-up, and students with well-controlled asthma at baseline had significantly lower FEV1 scores at follow-up. Findings suggest that the comprehensive school-based program led to improvements in asthma control for students with poorly controlled asthma at baseline, and school-based programs need mechanisms for tracking students with initially well-controlled asthma to ensure they maintain control.

  19. GeoFORCE Texas: An Outreach Program that is Increasing the Number and Diversity of Students Completing STEM Degrees and Entering the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, E.; Moore, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    GeoFORCE Texas is an outreach program of the Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin. Established in 2005 with the goal of increasing the number and diversity of students studying geosciences and engineering and entering the high-tech workforce, GeoFORCE has been highly successful. Key elements to that success will be presented here. GeoFORCE targets bright students in rural and inner-city schools where they are generally not academically challenged. Every summer throughout high school we take them on geologic field trips all over the country. In 2014, GeoFORCE led 15 field academies for about 600 students. The program is rigorous and academic. We emphasize college-level thinking skills. Because it is a 4-year program, they have a pretty good grounding in physical geology by the time they graduate. More importantly, they develop confidence in their ability to handle college, and a strong motivation to earn a college degree. GeoFORCE students are mostly minority (85%) and more than half will be the first in their family to graduate from college. GeoFORCE students exceed national averages in rates of going to college (97%), majoring in STEM fields (66%), majoring in geosciences (15%) and engineering (13%), and graduating from college (~85%). GeoFORCE is a public/private partnership and a workforce-focused program. The Jackson School funds staff and operating expenses (37%). Money for student programs comes from private industry (44%), state and federal grants (14%), and foundations and individual donors (5%). Our corporate partners are in the energy sector. In addition to funding, corporate sponsors attend the summer field programs, mentor GeoFORCE students, and provide opportunities for the students to visit the companies. As our students move toward college graduation, our industry and government partners have begun to hire them as interns. GeoFORCE graduates are now entering the workforce. Our first two cohorts are 4 and 5 years past high

  20. Biological assessment: water hyacinth control program for the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed Biological Assessment was developed for the proposed Areawide Water Hyacinth Control Program to outline the procedures that will be used to control this invasive aquatic plant in the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta, and to help determine if this action is expected to threaten endanger...

  1. The Opposite of Control: A Deweyan Perspective on Intrinsic Motivation in "After 3" Technology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Packard, B.; Girod, M.; Pugh, K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses intrinsic motivation and John Dewey's perspectives on aesthetic experiences in relation to "After 3" technology programs, based on experiences with KLICK (Kids Learning in Computer Klubhouses). Highlights include control and theories of motivation and learning; and Dewey's perspectives on the opposite of control in…

  2. SEWER-SEDIMENT CONTROL: OVERVIEW OF AN EPA WET-WEATHER FLOW RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a historical overview of the sewer sediment control projects conducted by the Wet-Weather Flow Research Program of the USEPA. Research presented includes studies of the causes of sewer solids deposition and development/evaluation of control methods that can pr...

  3. Randomized Control Trial of a CBT Trauma Recovery Program in Palestinian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Ian G.; Abdallah, Ghassan; Smith, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess the Teaching Recovery Techniques (TRT) trauma recovery program within the context of ongoing violence. Utilizing a randomized controlled trial, 11-14-year-old students in Nablus, Palestine, were allocated by class to intervention or wait-list control conditions. Standardized measures assessed trauma exposure,…

  4. Effects of proprioceptive training program on core stability and center of gravity control in sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Martínez-López, Emilio; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a 6-week specific-sprinter proprioceptive training program on core stability and gravity center control in sprinters. Thirty-three athletes (age = 21.82 ± 4.84 years, height = 1.76 ± 0.07 m, weight = 67.82 ± 08.04 kg, body mass index = 21.89 ± 2.37 kg · m(-2)) from sprint disciplines were divided into a control (n = 17) and experimental (n = 16) groups. A 30-minute proprioceptive training program was included in the experimental group training sessions, and it was performed for 6 weeks, 3 times each week. This program included 5 exercises with the BOSU and Swiss ball as unstable training tools that were designed to reproduce different moments of the technique of a sprint race. Stability with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed, postural stability, and gravity center control were assessed before and after the training program. Analyses of covariance (α = 0.05) revealed significant differences in stability in the medial-lateral plane with EO, gravity center control in the right direction and gravity center control in the back direction after the exercise intervention in the experimental athletes. Nevertheless, no other significant differences were demonstrated. A sprinter-specific proprioceptive training program provided postural stability with EO and gravity center control measures improvements, although it is not clear if the effect of training would transfer to the general population.

  5. Eicosanoids: Exploiting Insect Immunity to Improve Biological Control Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, David; Haas, Eric; Miller, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Insects, like all invertebrates, express robust innate, but not adaptive, immune reactions to infection and invasion. Insect immunity is usually resolved into three major components. The integument serves as a physical barrier to infections. Within the hemocoel, the circulating hemocytes are the temporal first line of defense, responsible for clearing the majority of infecting bacterial cells from circulation. Specific cellular defenses include phagocytosis, microaggregation of hemocytes with adhering bacteria, nodulation and encapsulation. Infections also stimulate the humoral component of immunity, which involves the induced expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and activation of prophenoloxidase. These peptides appear in the hemolymph of challenged insects 6–12 hours after the challenge. Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are crucial mediators of innate immune responses. Eicosanoid biosynthesis is stimulated by infection in insects. Inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis lethally renders experimental insects unable to clear bacterial infection from hemolymph. Eicosanoids mediate specific cell actions, including phagocytosis, microaggregation, nodulation, hemocyte migration, hemocyte spreading and the release of prophenoloxidase from oenocytoids. Some invaders have evolved mechanisms to suppress insect immunity; a few of them suppress immunity by targeting the first step in the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways, the enzyme phospholipase A2. We proposed research designed to cripple insect immunity as a technology to improve biological control of insects. We used dsRNA to silence insect genes encoding phospholipase A2, and thereby inhibited the nodulation reaction to infection. The purpose of this article is to place our view of applying dsRNA technologies into the context of eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. The long-term significance of research in this area lies in developing new pest management technologies to contribute to food security in

  6. [Validation of the structure and resources of nosocomial infection control team in hospitals ascribed to VINCat program in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limón, Enrique; Pujol, Miquel; Gudiol, Francesc

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to validate the structure of the infection control team (ICT) in the hospitals adhered to VINCat program and secondary objective was to establish the consistency of resources of each center with the requirements established by the program. Qualitative research consisting of an ethnographic study using participant observation during the years 2008-2010. The centers were stratified in three groups by complexity and beds. The instrument was a semistructured interview to members of the ICT. The transcription of the interview was sent to informants for validation. In November 2010 a questionnaire regarding human resources and number hours dedicated to the ICT was sent. During 2008-2010, 65 centers had been adhered to VINCat program. In 2010, the ICT of Group I hospitals had a mean of two physician, one in full-time and one nurse for every 230 beds. In Group II, one physician part-time and one nurse per 180 beds and in Group III a physician and a nurse for every 98 beds, both part-time. In 2010, all hospitals had a structured ICT, an operative infection committee, and a hospital member representing the center at the program as well as enough electronic resources. The hospitals participating in the program have now VINCat an adequate surveillance structure and meet the minimum technical and human resources required to provide high-quality data. However human resources are not guaranteed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  7. Control PID de un secador mediante autómatas programables conectados por ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo Valencia, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Este proyecto final de carrera se centra en el control PID de temperatura de un secador convencional mediante autómatas programables conectados por Ethernet. Se busca con ello la configuración de un red de comunicaciones entre dos PLC’s industriales (Programmable Logic Controller en sus siglas en inglés) y el control de temperatura mediante un controlador PID. Los controladores lógicos programables o PLC’s son dispositivos electrónicos muy usados en automatización industrial...

  8. Effectiveness of a group-based self-management program for people with chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxsterhuis, Irma; Sandvik, Leiv; Strand, Elin Bolle; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Sveen, Unni

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based self-management program for people with chronic fatigue syndrome. A randomized controlled trial. Four mid-sized towns in southern Norway and two suburbs of Oslo. A total of 137 adults with chronic fatigue syndrome. A self-management program including eight biweekly meetings of 2.5 hours duration. The control group received usual care. Primary outcome measure: Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale. Fatigue severity scale, self-efficacy scale, physical and mental component summary of the Short Form-36, and the illness cognition questionnaire (acceptance subscale). Assessments were performed at baseline, and at six-month and one-year follow-ups. At the six-month follow-up, a significant difference between the two groups was found concerning fatigue severity ( p = 0.039) in favor of the control group, and concerning self-efficacy in favor of the intervention group ( p = 0.039). These significant differences were not sustained at the one-year follow-up. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning physical functioning, acceptance, and health status at any of the measure points. The drop-out rate was 13.9% and the median number of sessions attended was seven (out of eight). The evaluated self-management program did not have any sustained effect, as compared with receiving usual care.

  9. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2013-02-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica [SEIMC]) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2011 controls. Overall, the results obtained in 2011 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. Nevertheless, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls, such as those offered by the SEIMC program, in order to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. GROWTH OR RETRACTION: WHAT TENDENCIES DO INDICES FOR VACANCY OFFER, REGISTRATIONS AND NUMBER OF GRADUATES IN BRAZILIAN ACCOUNTING SCIENCE PROGRAMS EXPOSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Silva Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify possible tendencies from offered vacancy indices, registrations and number of graduates in the field of Accounting Science, both in presential and distance education, from 1995 to 2012. Expansion policies and the increasing access of the Brazilian Higher Education System (“Sistema de Educação Superior” (SES, institutionalized by the government, are considered as a context to understand these tendencies. The main data sources used were micro data from the Higher Education Census (“Censo de Educação Superior” (CES from 1995 to 2012. This study carried out descriptive and analytical procedures in a trending movement for these indices from 1995 to 2012. The results suggest that the growth in the offer of vacancies was expressive throughout the period. This movement was not followed in the same rate by the number of interested candidates to compete for a position in the Accounting Science program. There is an oversupply on offers for vacancies with a rising tendency in private institutions. The evolution in the registration rate in distant education courses (“Cursos de Educação à Distância” (EAD is inconstant. There is a concentration of enrolled students at a lower number in Higher Education Institutions (“Instituições de Ensino Superior” (IES of a public nature, in contrast with the pulverized distribution on registrations among a higher number of private IES. The completion rate in Accounting Science presents high and low alternate periods for the presential modality. However, there is evidence on high evasion and/or retention index. The course assessment tools indicate possible problems in the offering of the education service and deficiencies regarding the under graduation of students in Accounting Science.

  11. Communicating Program Outcomes to Encourage Policymaker Support for Evidence-Based State Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Schmidt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., can be reduced through state-level tobacco prevention and cessation programs. In the absence of research about how to communicate the need for these programs to policymakers, this qualitative study aimed to understand the motivations and priorities of policymakers in North Carolina, a state that enacted a strong tobacco control program from 2003–2011, but drastically reduced funding in recent years. Six former legislators (three Democrats, three Republicans and three lobbyists for health organizations were interviewed about their attitudes towards tobacco use, support of state-funded programs, and reactions to two policy briefs. Five themes emerged: (1 high awareness of tobacco-related health concerns but limited awareness of program impacts and funding, (2 the primacy of economic concerns in making policy decisions, (3 ideological differences in views of the state’s role in tobacco control, (4 the impact of lobbyist and constituent in-person appeals, and (5 the utility of concise, contextualized data. These findings suggest that building relationships with policymakers to communicate ongoing program outcomes, emphasizing economic data, and developing a constituent advocacy group would be valuable to encourage continued support of state tobacco control programs.

  12. Development of a Computer Program for the Integrated Control of the Fuel Homogeneity Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, H. S.; Jang, J. W.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, S. J.; Park, H. D.; Kim, C. K

    2005-11-15

    The computer program is developed based on Visual C++, which is equipped with a user-friendly interface of the input/output(I/O) and a display function for the measuring conditions. This program consists of three parts which are the port communication, PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) and the MCA(Multi Channel Analyzer) control parts. The communication type between the CPU of the PLC module box and the computer is selected as be the Rs-232 asynchronous type and the thread method is adapted in the development of the first part of the program. The PLC-related program has been developed so that the data communication between the PLC CPU and the computer could be harmonized with the unique commands which have already been defined in the PLC. The measuring space and time intervals, the start and end ROI(region of interest) values, and the allowable error limitation are input at each measurement in this program. Finally the controlling MCA program has been developed by using Canberra's programming library which contains several files including the head files in which the variable and the function of C++ are declared according to the MCA function. The performance test has been carried out through an application of the developed computer program to the homogeneity measurement system. The gamma counts at 28 measuring points of a fuel rod of 700 mm in length are measured for 50 sec at each point. It was revealed that the measurement results are better than the previous ones in respects of the measurement accuracy and a measurement time saving could be achieved. It was concluded that the gamma measurement system can be improved through equipping it with the developed control program.

  13. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  14. Practices of Family Health Professionals Regarding Chronic Disease Control and Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Kabasakal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic diseases are of the utmost importance, due to their impact on high death rates, excessive increases in health expenses, and sustainability of health services. Further, it is recommended for individuals, and society at large, to decrease exposure to modifiable risk factors, like tobacco use, malnutrition, and lack of physical activity, and to encourage a lifestyle that supports the fight against chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the practices of health professionals in terms of preventing chronic diseases and improving health. Methods: Health professionals from family health centers participated in this survey study. The data collection tool was developed by the researcher, by considering the nationwide health programs applied in Turkey, namely the Tobacco Control Program, Healthy Nutrition and Active Life Program, Turkey Diabetes Prevention and Control Program, and Cancer Control Programs. Results: Those who received training on health promotion had higher rates of involvement in tobacco cessation guidance, directing individuals to smoking cessation centers, giving trainings to cancer patients and others at risk, following up on individuals with a risk of obesity, raising awareness of healthy individuals concerning obesity, and training patients/patient relatives on diabetes. Discussion: The level of training that health professionals offer to patients and their relatives is higher than the level of training given to healthy individuals in all control programs. This inclination is an indicator of a treatment-oriented service approach to health. The capacity of health professionals should be directed more towards preventive medicine and health improving practices.

  15. Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for NASA space flight programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document establishes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for contractors providing and maintaining space flight and mission-essential or critical ground support equipment for NASA space flight programs. Although the text is worded 'the contractor shall,' the requirements are also to be used by NASA Headquarters and field installations for developing program/project parts management and control requirements for in-house and contracted efforts. This document places increased emphasis on parts programs to ensure that reliability and quality are considered through adequate consideration of the selection, control, and application of parts. It is the intent of this document to identify disciplines that can be implemented to obtain reliable parts which meet mission needs. The parts management and control requirements described in this document are to be selectively applied, based on equipment class and mission needs. Individual equipment needs should be evaluated to determine the extent to which each requirement should be implemented on a procurement. Utilization of this document does not preclude the usage of other documents. The entire process of developing and implementing requirements is referred to as 'tailoring' the program for a specific project. Some factors that should be considered in this tailoring process include program phase, equipment category and criticality, equipment complexity, and mission requirements. Parts management and control requirements advocated by this document directly support the concept of 'reliability by design' and are an integral part of system reliability and maintainability. Achieving the required availability and mission success objectives during operation depends on the attention given reliability and maintainability in the design phase. Consequently, it is intended that the requirements described in this document are consistent with those of NASA publications

  16. [Rating and ranking of medical journals: a randomised controlled evaluation of impact factor and number of listed journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, U; Niem, V

    2012-01-01

    The impact factor is a purely bibliometric parameter built on a number of publications and their citations that occur within clearly defined periods. Appropriate interpretation of the impact factor is important as it is also used worldwide for the evaluation of research performance. It is assumed that the number of medical journals reflects the extent of diseases and patient populations involved and that the number is correlated with the level of the impact factor. 174 category lists (Subject Categories) are included in the area Health Sciences of the ISI Web of Knowledge of Thomson Reuters, 71 of which belong to the field of medicine and 50 of which have a clinical and/or application-oriented focus. These alphabetically arranged 50 category lists were consecutively numbered, randomized by odd and even numbers, respectively, into 2 equal-sized groups and then grouped according to organ specialities, sub-specialities and cross-disciplinary fields. By tossing up a coin it was decided which group should be evaluated first. Only then the category lists were downloaded and the number of journals, as well as the impact factors of journals ranking number 1 and 2, as well as the impact factors of journals at the end of the first third and at the end of the first half of each category list were compared. The number of journals per category list varies considerably between 5 and 252. The lists of organ specialties and cross-disciplinary fields include more than three times as many journals as those of the sub-specialities; the highest numbers of journals are listed for the cross-disciplinary fields. The level of impact factor of journals that rank number 1 in the lists varies considerably and ranges from 3,058 to 94,333; a similar variability exists for the journals at rank 2. On the other hand, the impact factor of journals at the end of the first third of the lists varies from 1,214 and 3,953, and for those journals at the end of the first half of a respective category

  17. Learner-control vs. program-control instructional multimedia: a comparison of two interactions when teaching principles of orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, M; Elen, J; Willems, G

    2005-11-01

    Many studies have compared computer assisted learning (CAL) to more traditional learning formats and have shown CAL to be as effective as or superior to the alternative resources. However, there are only scarce attempts to show which style of CAL leads to the best learning outcomes in orthodontics. To compare the effectiveness of a learner-control (group A) vs. program-control (group B) multimedia learning environment courseware packages regarding knowledge, understanding and transfer of content when applied to teaching principles of orthodontic appliances to undergraduate students. Pre- and post-test assessments of undergraduate dental students (n = 30) who either studied a learner-control multimedia learning environment courseware package (n = 15) or a program-control version (n = 15) on equivalent material of the orthodontic appliances curriculum. Both groups were evaluated by means of multiple-choice questions covering knowledge, understanding and application. A one-way ANOVA was carried out in order to check for statistical difference between the two groups. The P-value was set at 0.05. There was no difference in prior knowledge between both groups at baseline. Although, both groups significantly improved their scores after having studied the course, no significant difference was found between both groups in relation to answers to questions about knowledge, understanding and application. In this study, the learner-control instructional multimedia program was found to be as effective as the program-control version when teaching principles of the orthodontic appliances to undergraduate students. The focus needs to be on improving the value of CAL. Comparative evaluations of how different CAL approaches compare with or complement one another are certainly needed.

  18. Synthesis of nanobioconjugates with a controlled average number of biomolecules between 1 and 100 per nanoparticle and observation of multivalency dependent interaction with proteins and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arindam; Basiruddin, S K; Maity, Amit Ranjan; Jana, Nikhil R

    2013-11-12

    Multivalency of nanoparticle and associated cooperative binding with biological interface is an important aspect in the development of nanoparticle based bioimaging probes. However, the preparation of such a nanobioconjugate with a controlled number of biomolecules per nanoparticle, typically between 1 and 100, is challenging. Here we report a generalized two-step bioconjugation method to prepare nanobioconjugates with a varied average number of biomolecules between 1 to 100 per nanoparticle that can be applied to different nanoparticles and biomolecules. Following this approach we have successfully synthesized quantum dot (QD) based bioconjugates with controlled average numbers of glucose or folate and found their number-dependent interaction with proteins and cells. We propose a method for exploiting the nanoparticle multivalency effect toward various biological interactions and preparing such nanobioconjugates for best performance.

  19. Family leader empowerment program using participatory learning process for dengue vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengvanich, Veerapong

    2011-02-01

    Assess the performance of the empowerment program using participatory learning process for the control of Dengue vector The program focuses on using the leaders of families as the main executer of the vector control protocol. This quasi-experimental research utilized the two-group pretest-posttest design. The sample group consisted of 120 family leaders from two communities in Mueang Municipality, Chachoengsao Province. The research was conducted during an 8-week period between April and June 2010. The data were collected and analyzed based on frequency, percentage, mean, paired t-test, and independent t-test. The result was evaluated by comparing the difference between the mean prevalence index of mosquito larvae before and after the process implementation in terms of the container index (CI) and the house index (HI). After spending eight weeks in the empowerment program, the family leader's behavior in the aspect of Dengue vector control has improved. The Container Index and the House Index were found to decrease with p = 0.05 statistical significance. The reduction of CI and HI suggested that the program worked well in the selected communities. The success of the Dengue vector control program depended on cooperation and participation of many groups, especially the families in the community When the family leaders have good attitude and are capable of carrying out the vector control protocol, the risk factor leading to the incidence of Dengue rims infection can be reduced.

  20. Effectiveness of the home-based alcohol prevention program "In control: No alcohol!": study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdurmen Jacqueline EE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, children start to drink at an early age; of the Dutch 12-year olds, 40% reports lifetime alcohol use, while 9.7% reports last-month drinking. Starting to drink at an early age puts youth at risk of developing several alcohol-related problems later in life. Recently, a home-based prevention program called "In control: No alcohol!" was developed to delay the age of alcohol onset in children. The main aim of this project is to conduct a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Methods/Design The prevention program will be tested with an RCT among mothers and their 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old, randomly assigned to the prevention or control condition. The program consists of five printed magazines and an activity book designed to improve parental alcohol-specific socialization. Parent-child dyads in the control group receive a factsheet information brochure, which is the standard alcohol brochure of the Trimbos Institute (the Netherlands Institute for Mental Health and Addiction. Outcome measures are initiation of alcohol use (have been drinking at least one glass of alcohol, alcohol-specific parenting, susceptibility to drinking alcohol, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and frequency and intensity of child alcohol use. Questionnaires will be administered online on secured Internet webpages, with personal login codes for both mothers and children. Mothers and children in both the experimental and control condition will be surveyed at baseline and after 6, 12, and 18 months (follow-ups. Discussion The present study protocol presents the design of an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of the home-based "In control: No alcohol!" program for 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old. It is hypothesized that children in the prevention condition will be less likely to have their first glass of alcohol, compared to the control condition. When the

  1. 75 FR 14457 - Notice of Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: OMB Control Number 1093-0004, Take Pride in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... individuals--(A) To instill in the public the importance of the appropriate use of, and appreciation for... promote participation by individuals, organizations, and communities of a conservation ethic in caring for.... Businesses and other institutions. State, local and tribal Governments. Estimated annual number of...

  2. Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J; Göbel, Silke M.; Hulme, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3-4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4-5 years, and ...

  3. Preventing eating disorders with an interactive gender-adapted intervention program in schools: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Angelika; Gumz, Antje; Uhlenbusch, Natalie; Wegscheider, Karl; Romer, Georg; Löwe, Bernd

    2015-02-12

    There are a high number of adolescents who are at risk of developing an eating disorder. There is, therefore, a strong need to implement prevention programs aimed at reducing the incidence of eating disorders at this critical age. Among other factors, successful prevention programs have been shown to be interactive, carried out by professionals, focused on educational as well as psychosocial elements and have taken risk factors as well as resources into account. The objective of this study protocol is to present the design of a new prevention program for eating disorders in schools. The gender-adapted prevention program extends over six school hours. It contains interactive and educational elements about eating disorders and their treatment. Participants pass through different exercises and reflect on the influences of the media, self-esteem, body perception and individual resources. A cluster-randomized controlled trial is chosen to evaluate the program. Based on an estimated effect size of d = 0.3 a total of 1848 participants are enrolled in the study. Eating disorder risk, internalization of Western beauty ideals, body dissatisfaction, self-concept as well as anxiety and symptoms of depression are measured before and immediately after the intervention as well as at a six-month follow-up. In addition, the intervention group evaluates the different components of the program. The study intends to test the practicability and efficacy of an interactive, gender-adapted ED prevention program in schools. Moreover, it will provide valuable information about the occurrence of eating disorder risk factors in school-aged children. ISRCTN97989348; Registered 19 December 2012.

  4. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...

  5. Association between knowledge, locus of control and health belief with self-management, Hb A1c level and number of attendances in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour-Ghanaei, Roya; Joukar, Farahnaz; Soati, Fatemeh; Khanegha, Atefeh Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    This survey was designed to determine the association between knowledge, locus of control and health belief with self-management, Hb A1c level and Number of attendances in type 1 diabetic patients in Rasht, Guilan Province - North of Iran. Data was derived from chart reviews of 92 patients. Patients' glycosylated hemoglobin level and their number of health care attendances during the last 6 months were recorded. The four part questionnaires covered patients' demographic data, knowledge, perceived control and health belief of diabetes. A blood sample was taken from each patient. There was no significant relationship between demographic data such as gender, age, marital status, education, occupation, duration of the disease, place of living and family history with knowledge, health belief and locus of control (P > 0.05). Also the results didn't show any significant association between the complicated group and their knowledge and health belief (P > 0.05) while it was significantly related to their locus of control (P knowledge (59.8%), health belief (71.7%) and locus of control (62%). There was no significant relationship between patients' knowledge, health belief and locus of control with their glycosylated hemoglobin level, number of referrals and self-management. It is suggested by the present survey that locus of control, health belief and knowledge of patients are not found to have no practical effect upon diabetic self-management behavior or outcomes, according to the variables used and care for the diabetic patients must be tailored to individual requirements.

  6. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hextan Y. S. Ngan

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  7. Maryland Controlled Fusion Research Program. Progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Drake, J.F.; Guzdar, P.; Hassam, A.; Liu, C.S.; Ott, E.

    1995-05-01

    In the past three years, members of the Maryland Plasma Theory Group have made significant contributions to the national fusion theory program, and, in many cases, these theoretical developments helped to interpret experimental results and to design new experimental programs. In this report, they summarize the technical progress in four major areas of tokamak research: (a) L/H transition and edge turbulence and transport; (b) active control of micro-turbulence and transport; (c) major disruptions; and (d) the sawtooth crash.

  8. Effectiveness of Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs in Reducing Teenage Smoking: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, Melanie A. PhD; Chaloupka, Frank J. PhD

    1999-01-01

    This review focuses on the extent to which comprehensive, statewide, tobacco control programs in the United States have induced change in teenage smoking or made progress towards this goal and under what circumstances such programs are likely to be most effective. The sources for this review include published journal articles, reports and documents, rather than any primary data analysis. We review evidence for the extent to which individual strategies that comprise a comprehensive tobacco con...

  9. Establishment of a national program for quality control of nuclear medicine instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Perez, Marco A; Torres Aroche, Leonel A; Bejerano, Gladys López; Mayor, Roberto Fraxedas; Corona, Consuelo Varela; López, Adlin

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring the quality of instrumentation used in nuclear medicine is mandatory to guarantee the clinical efficacy of medical practice. A national program for the quality control of nuclear medicine instruments was established in Cuba and was certified and approved by the regulatory authorities. The program, which establishes official regulations and audit services, sets up educational activities, distributes technical documentation, and maintains a national phantom bank, constitutes a valuable and useful tool to guarantee the quality of nuclear medicine instrumentation.

  10. Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research in Support of NASA Aeronautics and Exploration Mission Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research and Exploration Systems Missions. This paper provides a brief overview of the various CDB tasks in support of the NASA programs. The programmatic structure of the CDB activities is described along with a brief overview of each of the CDB tasks including research objectives, technical challenges, and recent accomplishments. These tasks include active control of propulsion system components, intelligent propulsion diagnostics and control for reliable fault identification and accommodation, distributed engine control, and investigations into unsteady propulsion systems.

  11. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Orta Mira, Nieves; Del Remedio Guna Serrano, M; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2015-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, molecular microbiology and HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral loads. This manuscript presents the analysis of results obtained of the participants from the 2013 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme, except viral loads controls, that they are summarized in a manuscript abroad. As a whole, the results obtained in 2013 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Productivity of Pair Programming in a Distributed Environment - Results from Two Controlled Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietinen, Sami; Tenhunen, Vesa; Tukiainen, Markku

    Several methods and techniques have surfaced to address the ongoing concerns of quality and productivity of software development. Among these is the Pair Programming (PP) method, which has gained a lot off attention through being an essential part of an agile software development methodology called the eXtreme Programming (XP). In this paper, we present the results of two controlled case studies that investigate the possible productivity improvement through the incorporation of PP over solo programming. The main focus is on implementation task, more specifically in programming, although PP is suitable for other tasks too. Our results show that very high level of PP use might be difficult to achieve in a very tightly scheduled software development project, but some of the benefits can be seen to come true even with proportional use of PP. In our case, PP added the additional effort of 13% over solo programming.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA copy number and future risk of B-cell lymphoma in a nested case-control study in the prospective EPIC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; San Liu, Chin; Cheng, Wen-Ling; Nieters, Alexandra; Guldberg, Per; Tjønneland, Anne; Campa, Daniele; Martino, Alessandro; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Sala, Núria; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J. Ramón; Sánchez, María-José; Melin, Beatrice; Johansson, Ann Sofie; Malm, Johan; Borgquist, Signe; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Brennan, Paul; Siddiq, Afshan; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage are involved in lymphomagenesis. Increased copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a compensatory mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction previously has been associated with B-cell lymphomas, in particular chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, current evidence is limited and based on a relatively small number of cases. Using a nested case-control study, we extended these findings with a focus on subtype-specific analyses. Relative mtDNA copy number was measured in the buffy coat of prospectively collected blood of 469 lymphoma cases and 469 matched controls. The association between mtDNA copy number and the risk of developing lymphoma and histologic subtypes was examined using logistic regression models. We found no overall association between mtDNA and risk of lymphoma. Subtype analyses revealed significant increased risks of CLL (n = 102) with increasing mtDNA copy number (odds ratio = 1.34, 1.44, and 1.80 for quartiles 2-4, respectively; P trend = .001). mtDNA copy number was not associated with follow-up time, suggesting that this observation is not strongly influenced by indolent disease status. This study substantially strengthens the evidence that mtDNA copy number is related to risk of CLL and supports the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction as a possible mechanistic pathway in CLL ontogenesis. PMID:24899624

  14. A novel Python program for implementation of quality control in the ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Hanna N; Cohen, Cinder; Norman, Andrew B; Webster, Rose P

    2017-09-01

    The use of semi-quantitative assays such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) requires stringent quality control of the data. However, such quality control is often lacking in academic settings due to unavailability of software and knowledge. Therefore, our aim was to develop methods to easily implement Levey-Jennings quality control methods. For this purpose, we created a program written in Python (a programming language with an open-source license) and tested it using a training set of ELISA standard curves quantifying the Fab fragment of an anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody in mouse blood. A colorimetric ELISA was developed using a goat anti-human anti-Fab capture method. Mouse blood samples spiked with the Fab fragment were tested against a standard curve of known concentrations of Fab fragment in buffer over a period of 133days stored at 4°C to assess stability of the Fab fragment and to generate a test dataset to assess the program. All standard curves were analyzed using our program to batch process the data and to generate Levey-Jennings control charts and statistics regarding the datasets. The program was able to identify values outside of two standard deviations, and this identification of outliers was consistent with the results of a two-way ANOVA. This program is freely available, which will help laboratories implement quality control methods, thus improving reproducibility within and between labs. We report here successful testing of the program with our training set and development of a method for quantification of the Fab fragment in mouse blood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Masood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. Results HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Conclusion Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective

  16. Components of effective randomized controlled trials of hydrotherapy programs for fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, Luke; Machotka, Zuzana; Kumar, Saravana

    2009-01-01

    Aim Previous systematic reviews have found hydrotherapy to be an effective management strategy for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the components of hydrotherapy programs used in randomized controlled trials. Method A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Only trials that have reported significant FMS-related outcomes were included. Data relating to the components of hydrotherapy programs (exercise type, duration, frequency and intensity, environmental factors, and service delivery) were analyzed. Results Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Overall, the quality of trials was good. Aerobic exercise featured in all 11 trials and the majority of hydrotherapy programs included either a strengthening or flexibility component. Great variability was noted in both the environmental components of hydrotherapy programs and service delivery. Conclusions Aerobic exercise, warm up and cool-down periods and relaxation exercises are common features of hydrotherapy programs that report significant FMS-related outcomes. Treatment duration of 60 minutes, frequency of three sessions per week and an intensity equivalent to 60%–80% maximum heart rate were the most commonly reported exercise components. Exercise appears to be the most important component of an effective hydrotherapy program for FMS, particularly when considering mental health-related outcomes. PMID:21197303

  17. Components of effective randomized controlled trials of hydrotherapy programs for fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Perraton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Luke Perraton, Zuzana Machotka, Saravana KumarInternational Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAim: Previous systematic reviews have found hydrotherapy to be an effective management strategy for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the components of hydrotherapy programs used in randomized controlled trials.Method: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Only trials that have reported significant FMS-related outcomes were included. Data relating to the components of hydrotherapy programs (exercise type, duration, frequency and intensity, environmental factors, and service delivery were analyzed.Results: Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Overall, the quality of trials was good. Aerobic exercise featured in all 11 trials and the majority of hydrotherapy programs included either a strengthening or flexibility component. Great variability was noted in both the environmental components of hydrotherapy programs and service delivery.Conclusions: Aerobic exercise, warm up and cool-down periods and relaxation exercises are common features of hydrotherapy programs that report significant FMS-related outcomes. Treatment duration of 60 minutes, frequency of three sessions per week and an intensity equivalent to 60%–80% maximum heart rate were the most commonly reported exercise components. Exercise appears to be the most important component of an effective hydrotherapy program for FMS, particularly when considering mental health-related outcomes.Keywords: hydrotherapy, fibromyalgia syndrome, exercise, effective, components

  18. Components of effective randomized controlled trials of hydrotherapy programs for fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, Luke; Machotka, Zuzana; Kumar, Saravana

    2009-11-30

    Previous systematic reviews have found hydrotherapy to be an effective management strategy for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the components of hydrotherapy programs used in randomized controlled trials. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Only trials that have reported significant FMS-related outcomes were included. Data relating to the components of hydrotherapy programs (exercise type, duration, frequency and intensity, environmental factors, and service delivery) were analyzed. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Overall, the quality of trials was good. Aerobic exercise featured in all 11 trials and the majority of hydrotherapy programs included either a strengthening or flexibility component. Great variability was noted in both the environmental components of hydrotherapy programs and service delivery. Aerobic exercise, warm up and cool-down periods and relaxation exercises are common features of hydrotherapy programs that report significant FMS-related outcomes. Treatment duration of 60 minutes, frequency of three sessions per week and an intensity equivalent to 60%-80% maximum heart rate were the most commonly reported exercise components. Exercise appears to be the most important component of an effective hydrotherapy program for FMS, particularly when considering mental health-related outcomes.

  19. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  20. A comparison of two programs for the control of behavioral experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Two of the most widely used programs for the control of behavioral experiments are Med Associates' MedState Notation and Coulbourn Instruments' Graphic State 2. The two systems vary considerably in their approach to programming and data recording, with Graphic State 2 using a point-and-click interface that appeals to non-programmers while MedState Notation requires the typing of programming code. Graphic State 2 provides many data analysis routines, while MedState Notation allows the user to embed simple data analysis within the behavioral protocol. Graphic State 2 is simpler to use, but MedState Notation is more versatile.

  1. A Comparison of Two Programs for the Control of Behavioral Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, W. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Two of the most widely used programs for the control of behavioral experiments are Med Associates? MedState Notation and Coulbourn Instruments? Graphic State 2. The two systems vary considerably in their approach to programming and data recording, with Graphic State 2 using a point-and-click interface that appeals to non-programmers while MedState Notation requires the typing of programming code. Graphic State 2 provides many data analysis routines, while MedState Notation allows the user to ...

  2. Particle number size distribution and new particle formation: new characteristics during the special pollution control period in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shulan; Wang, Wenxing

    2012-01-01

    New particle formation is a key process in shaping the size distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere. We present here the measurement results of number and size distribution of aerosol particles (10-10000 nm in diameter) obtained in the summer of 2008, at a suburban site in Beijing, China. We firstly reported the pollution level, particle number size distribution, diurnal variation of the particle number size distribution and then introduced the characteristics of the particle formation processes. The results showed that the number concentration of ultrafine particles was much lower than the values measured in other urban or suburban areas in previous studies. Sharp increases of ultrafine particle count were frequently observed at noon. An examination of the diurnal pattern suggested that the burst of ultrafine particles was mainly due to new particle formation promoted by photochemical processes. In addition, high relative humidity was a key factor driving the growth of the particles in the afternoon. During the 2-month observations, new particle formation from homogeneous nucleation was observed for 42.7% of the study period. The average growth rate of newly formed particles was 3.2 nm/hr, and varied from 1.2 to 8.0 nm/hr. The required concentration of condensable vapor was 4.4 x 10(7) cm(-3), and its source rate was 1.2 x 106 cm(-3) sec(-1). Further calculation on the source rate of sulphuric acid vapor indicated that the average participation of sulphuric acid to particle growth rates was 28.7%.

  3. Plant-specific Histone Deacetylases HDT½ Regulate GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 Expression to Control Arabidopsis Root Meristem Cell Number

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huchen

    2017-08-31

    Root growth is modulated by environmental factors and depends on cell production in the root meristem (RM). New cells in the meristem are generated by stem cells and transit-amplifying cells, which together determine RM cell number. Transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling factors have been implicated in regulating the switch from stem cells to transit-amplifying cells. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific histone deacetylases, HDT1 and HDT2, regulate a second switch from transit-amplifying cells to expanding cells. Knockdown of HDT½ (hdt1,2i) results in an earlier switch and causes a reduced RM cell number. Our data show that HDT½ negatively regulate the acetylation level of the C19-GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 (GA2ox2) locus and repress the expression of GA2ox2 in the RM and elongation zone. Overexpression of GA2ox2 in the RM phenocopies the hdt1,2i phenotype. Conversely, knockout of GA2ox2 partially rescues the root growth defect of hdt1,2i. These results suggest that by repressing the expression of GA2ox2, HDT½ likely fine-tune gibberellin metabolism and they are crucial for regulating the switch from cell division to expansion to determine RM cell number. We propose that HDT½ function as part of a mechanism that modulates root growth in response to environmental factors.

  4. A Data Quality Control Program for Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Squires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers strive to optimize data quality in order to ensure that study findings are valid and reliable. In this paper, we describe a data quality control program designed to maximize quality of survey data collected using computer-assisted personal interviews. The quality control program comprised three phases: (1 software development, (2 an interviewer quality control protocol, and (3 a data cleaning and processing protocol. To illustrate the value of the program, we assess its use in the Translating Research in Elder Care Study. We utilize data collected annually for two years from computer-assisted personal interviews with 3004 healthcare aides. Data quality was assessed using both survey and process data. Missing data and data errors were minimal. Mean and median values and standard deviations were within acceptable limits. Process data indicated that in only 3.4% and 4.0% of cases was the interviewer unable to conduct interviews in accordance with the details of the program. Interviewers’ perceptions of interview quality also significantly improved between Years 1 and 2. While this data quality control program was demanding in terms of time and resources, we found that the benefits clearly outweighed the effort required to achieve high-quality data.

  5. Impact of the number of control points has on isodose distributions in a dynamic multileaf collimator intensity-modulated radiation therapy delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraj, Andrew [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Boer, Steven F. de, E-mail: steven.deboer@roswellpark.org [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a powerful technique in planning the delivery of dose. The most common IMRT delivery requires the use of moving multileaf collimators (MLCs) to deliver the requested fluence pattern. A dynamic delivery IMRT field file will contain several control points that are defined MLC shapes at a marked fraction of the delivered monitor units. The size of this file and the fidelity of the deliverable fluence are proportional to the number of control points defined. This study investigates the effect of reducing the number of control points has on the resultant dose distribution quality in complex IMRT in efforts to reduce transfer times, loading times, check sum times and file storage. Analysis was performed with 6 head and neck patients on an Eclipse version 8.5 treatment planning system (Varian, Palo Alto, CA). To ensure the quality of all treatments, Eclipse defines a minimum of 64 and a maximum of 320 control points per subfield (Eclipse Algorithms Reference guide). All 6 patients' plans were calculated with fixed 64, 166, and 320 control points using the sliding window technique. In addition, each plan was calculated in variable mode (Normal mode) in which the planning system determined the required number of control points. Each of the 4 plans for each patient was renormalized to provide the same mean planning target volume (PTV) 70 dose. Dose values for critical and target structures were examined for each patient. When examining the minimum, maximum, and mean doses to all target structures, it was noted that the greatest reduction in target dose coverage caused by reduced number of control points was 0.5%, which occurred for the minimum dose to the PTV56 structure in one plan.' Dose analysis for critical structures showed no clinically significant increase in dose when compared with the 320 control point plan.

  6. Fibonacci numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'ev, Nikolai Nikolaevich

    2011-01-01

    Fibonacci numbers date back to an 800-year-old problem concerning the number of offspring born in a single year to a pair of rabbits. This book offers the solution and explores the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in number theory, continued fractions, and geometry. A discussion of the ""golden section"" rectangle, in which the lengths of the sides can be expressed as a ration of two successive Fibonacci numbers, draws upon attempts by ancient and medieval thinkers to base aesthetic and philosophical principles on the beauty of these figures. Recreational readers as well as students and teacher

  7. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  8. Algebraic Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watase Yasushige

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides definitions and examples upon an integral element of unital commutative rings. An algebraic number is also treated as consequence of a concept of “integral”. Definitions for an integral closure, an algebraic integer and a transcendental numbers [14], [1], [10] and [7] are included as well. As an application of an algebraic number, this article includes a formal proof of a ring extension of rational number field ℚ induced by substitution of an algebraic number to the polynomial ring of ℚ[x] turns to be a field.

  9. Risk Assessment on the Transition Program for Air Traffic Control Automation System Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the safety risks of the transition program for Air Traffic Control (ATC automation system upgrade by using the event tree analysis method in this paper. We decomposed the occurrence progress of the three transition phase and built the event trees corresponding to the three stages, and then we determined the probability of success of each factor and calculated probability of success of the air traffic control automation system upgrade transition. In the conclusion, we illustrate the transition program safety risk according to the results.

  10. Functional, interactive and critical health literacy: Varying relationships with control over care and number of GP visits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, I.; Heijmans, M.; Schuit, A.J.; Uiters, E.; Rademakers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which functional, interactive and critical health literacy are associated with patients' perceived control over care and frequency of GP visits. Methods: Data from the Dutch 'National Panel of People with Chronic Illness or Disability' was

  11. 75 FR 80512 - Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget: OMB Control Numbers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget: OMB Control...), abstracted below, to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), Office of Management and Budget... Management Facility (DMF) at the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) or to OIRA. To avoid duplication...

  12. 76 FR 11803 - Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget: OMB Control Numbers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget: OMB Control... forwarding Information Collection Requests (ICRs), abstracted below, to the, Office of Management and Budget... Commercial Waste, 1625-0072, Waste Management Plans, Refuse Discharge Logs, Letters of Instruction for...

  13. 76 FR 3644 - Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget: OMB Control Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget: OMB Control... Collection Request (ICR), abstracted below, to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of... Management Facility (DMF) at the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and/or to OIRA. To avoid duplicate...

  14. CAN'T MISS: conquer any number task by making important statistics simple. Part 8. Statistical process control: n, np, c, u control charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John P

    2005-01-01

    A p control chart is used to monitor a proportion from a binomial variable that reflects the output of a process. The p control chart is a graph that includes serial sample proportions (p) as the variables of interest, a centerline that represents the overall proportion of the samples (p), and upper control limits (UCLs) and Lower control Limits (LCLs) that represent three standard errors (SEp) above and below the centerline. We use a p control chart to estimate with 99.7% confidence that the population proportion of an output variable was within the interval defined by the UCLs and LCLs during a period of baseline monitoring. We further assume that if the process remains stable, the values of future population proportions will remain between the established control limits. An np control chart simply plots the numerators of the sample proportions as the variables of interest. A u control chart is used to monitor ratios. In u control charts, ratios are quantities in which the numerator can have one or more occurrences in reference to the denominator. A c control chart is analogous to an np control chart in that it graphs the numerators from the ratios.

  15. An FPGA-Based PID Controller Design for Chaos Synchronization by Evolutionary Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Her-Terng Yau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the design of a field programmable gate arrays- (FPGAs- based digital proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller for synchronization of a continuous chaotic model. By using the evolutionary programming (EP algorithm, optimal control gains in PID-controlled chaotic systems are derived such that a performance index of integrated absolute error (IAE is as minimal as possible. To verify the system performance, basic electronic components, including OPA resistor and capacitor elements, were used to implement the chaotic Sprott circuits, and FPGA technology was used to implement the proposed digital PID controller. Numerical and experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization procedure.

  16. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  17. A Comparison of Types of Robot Control for Programming by Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Kerstin; Kirstein, Franziska; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2016-01-01

    Programming by Demonstration (PbD) is an efficient way for non-experts to teach new skills to a robot. PbD can be carried out in different ways, for instance, by kinesthetic guidance, teleoperation or by using external controls. In this paper, we compare these three ways of controlling a robot...... the problems during teleoperation are due to the fact that users cannot, like in kinesthetic guidance, switch between control points using traditional teleoperation devices, we designed a new device that allows users to switch between controls for large and small movements. A user study with 15 participants...

  18. Nuclear LSm8 affects number of cytoplasmic processing bodies via controlling cellular distribution of Like-Sm proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Novotný, Ivan; Podolská, Kateřina; Blažíková, Michaela; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya; Svoboda, Petr; Staněk, David

    2012-01-01

    Processing bodies (P-bodies) are dynamic cytoplasmic structures involved in mRNA degradation, but the mechanism that governs their formation is poorly understood. In this paper, we address a role of Like-Sm (LSm) proteins in formation of P-bodies and provide evidence that depletion of nuclear LSm8 increases the number of P-bodies, while LSm8 overexpression leads to P-body loss. We show that LSm8 knockdown causes relocalization of LSm4 and LSm6 proteins to the cytoplasm and suggest that LSm8 c...

  19. Control allocation of ASV based on linear programming and fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Pei; Chen, Zongji; Zhou, Rui

    2006-11-01

    Future Aero Space Vehicle flies through both the atmospheric and extra atmospheric fields, which implies the autonomy and adaptability to the uncertainties from the system faults and changing environments. Algorithms based on fuzzy logic and linear programming are presented, which can implement the autonomous control reconfigurations under uncertainties via the redundant actuators. The compensation branch minimizes the difference between the desired control objectives and the actual achievable control if the control power is deficient. Otherwise the optimization branch optimizes some sub-objectives by utilizing the excess control power. The fuzzy logic-based regulator tunes the weight vector of the objective functions by the expert rules to obtain the optimized allocation results under various environments with considerations of the control effectiveness. It is illustrated that the algorithms can satisfy the control performance, save the fuel and smooth the allocation output.

  20. Wind tunnel test results for the direction controlled antitank DCAT missile at Mach numbers from 0.64 to 2.50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T. A.; Spring, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results are presented to show aerodynamic characteristics over the Mach number range of 0.64 to 2.50 of the DCAT missile. Data are presented showing the interference created by the rear mounted reaction control system. Two candidate fins were installed on the model during tests: a flat folding fin and a curved wrap around fin.