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Sample records for program conestoga valley

  1. Baseline requirements can hinder trades in water quality trading programs: Evidence from the Conestoga watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Gaurav; Ribaudo, Marc; Shortle, James

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are promoting point/nonpoint trading as a way of reducing the costs of meeting water quality goals. Farms can create offsets by implementing management practices such as conservation tillage, nutrient management and buffer strips. To be eligible to sell offsets or credits, farmers must first comply with baseline requirements. USEPA guidance recommends that the baseline for nonpoint sources be management practices that are consistent with the water quality goal. A farmer would not be able to create offsets until the minimum practice standards are met. An alternative baseline is those practices being implemented at the time the trading program starts, or when the farmer enters the program. The selection of the baseline affects the efficiency and equity of the trading program. It has major implications for which farmers benefit from trading, the cost of nonpoint source offsets, and ultimately the number of offsets that nonpoint sources can sell to regulated point sources. We use a simple model of the average profit-maximizing dairy farmer operating in the Conestoga watershed in Pennsylvania to evaluate the implications of baseline requirements on the cost and quantity of offsets that can be produced for sale in a water quality trading market, and which farmers benefit most from trading. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Environmental Assessment: Conestoga Reservoir Maintenance and Aquatic Habitat Rehabilitation Project Lancaster County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Currently, wetland vegetation along the shoreline is limited at Conestoga Reservoir. Small patches of cattails and river bulrush can be found growing among ...occupations (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). The unemployment rate for Lancaster County was 4.3 percent compared to the statewide unemployment rate of 3.8...facility will have accessibility for handicap, disabled, and/or elderly visitors as a priority. The proposed project is mindful of the contextual

  3. DoD Procurements Through the Tennessee Valley Authority Technology Brokering Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-20

    OIG, DoD, Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program Through the Tennessee Valley Authority...SUMMARY OF PRIOR AUDITS AND OTHER REVIEWS Office of the Inspector General, DoD Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti

  4. Feasibility Study for Aviation Programs at Hudson Valley Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Edward P.

    This is a report on a survey to determine the feasibility of establishing aviation training programs at a New York community college. It examines existing sources, and present and future needs for commercial pilots, aviation mechanics, and airline stewardesses. Among the conclusions are the discovery that the aviation industry is on the threshold…

  5. Duck Valley Resident Fish Stocking Program, 2000 Final Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    The Shoshone-Paiute Tribes fish-stocking program was begun in 1988 and is intended to provide a subsistence fishery for the tribal members. The program stocks catchable and fingerling size trout in Mt. View and Sheep Creek Reservoirs. Rainbow trout are purchased from only certified disease-free facilities to be stocked in our reservoirs. This project will help restore a fishery for tribal members that historically depended on wild salmon and steelhead in the Owyhee and Bruneau Rivers and their tributaries for their culture as well as for subsistence. This project is partial substitution for loss of anadromous fish production due to construction and operation of hydroelectric dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Until anadromous fish can be returned to the Owyhee and Bruneau Rivers this project will continue indefinitely. As part of this project the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes will also receive income in the form of fees from non-tribal members who come to fish these reservoirs. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the fishery will include sampling for length/weight/condition and for signs of disease. A detailed Monitoring and evaluation plan has been put in place for this project. However due to budget limitations on this project only the fishery surveys and limited water quality work can be completed. A creel survey was initiated in 1998 and we are following the monitoring and evaluation schedule for this program (as budget allows) as well as managing the budget and personnel. This program has been very successful in the past decade and has provided enjoyment and sustenance for both tribal and non-tribal members. All biological data and stocking rates will be including in the Annual reports to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

  6. Analysis of Well ER-EC-5 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-5 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-5 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  7. Analysis of Well ER-EC-2a Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-2a during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-2a Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  8. Analysis of Well ER-EC-1 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-1 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-1 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  9. Analysis of Well ER-EC-8 testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-8 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-8 Data Report for development and Hydraulic Testing.

  10. Analysis of Well ER-EC-7 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-7 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program was documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-7 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  11. Analysis of Well ER-EC-4 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-4 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-4 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  12. Analysis of well ER-18-2 testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-18-2 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-18-2 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  13. Analysis of Well ER-EC-6 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-6 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-6 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  14. Mishal: A Case Study of a Deradicalization and Emancipation Program in SWAT Valley, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Azam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nestled in the SWAT valley lies Pakistan’s earliest known deradicalization initiative for former militants, the Mishal Deradicalization and Emancipation Program (DREP. The Deradicalization program was launched following a military operation in 2009 against the Pakistan wing of the Taliban, namely, the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP. The program aimed to deradicalize and rehabilitate arrested militants, with what officials claim is a 99 percent success rate and with more than 2,500 former Taliban fighters now ‘reformed’. The program abides by a ‘no blood on hand’ policy, whereby it only takes in militants who have not caused any bodily harm to others. In this paper, we analyze the deradicalization program and highlight the limits and challenges it faces. The paper also highlights the common individual and environmental factors among the beneficiary population of the deradicalization program. This study finds that most participants of the program belonged to large or broken families with weak socio-economic profiles. Additionally, these individuals had very little technical knowledge of religion. This study also finds that the program is more oriented towards re-integration rather than deradicalization due to its policy of inducting only low and mid-level cadre militants. The program also has other severe limitations including lack of credible religious scholars, limited financial and human resources.

  15. Economic potential of agroforestry and forestry in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley with incentive programs and carbon payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Robert C. Abt

    2011-01-01

    Conversion of bottomland hardwood forests in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) to agricultural land has caused a loss of ecosystem services. The primary approaches to reverse this have been the Wetlands Reserve Program and the Conservation Reserve Program, which provide financial incentives to landowners to reforest. However, other forest production regimes...

  16. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Death Valley Lower Carbonate Aquifer Monitoring Program Wells Down gradient of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inyo County

    2006-07-26

    Inyo County has participated in oversight activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository since 1987. The overall goal of these studies are the evaluation of far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, or radionuclides into Inyo County, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Our oversight and completed Cooperative Agreement research, and a number of other investigators research indicate that there is groundwater flow between the alluvial and carbonate aquifers both at Yucca Mountain and in Inyo County. In addition to the potential of radionuclide transport through the LCA, Czarnecki (1997), with the US Geological Survey, research indicate potential radionuclide transport through the shallower Tertiary-age aquifer materials with ultimate discharge into the Franklin Lake Playa in Inyo County. The specific purpose of this Cooperative Agreement drilling program was to acquire geological, subsurface geology, and hydrologic data to: (1) establish the existence of inter-basin flow between the Amargosa Basin and Death Valley Basin; (2) characterize groundwater flow paths in the LCA through Southern Funeral Mountain Range, and (3) Evaluation the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and the major springs in Death Valley through the LCA.

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  19. Wetland Reserve Program enhances site occupancy and species richness in assemblages of anuran amphibians in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Faulkner, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    We measured amphibian habitat use to quantify the effectiveness of conservation practices implemented under the Wetland Reserve Program (WRP), an initiative of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service. From February to June 2007, we quantified calling male anurans in cultivated cropland, former cultivated cropland restored through the WRP, and mature bottomland hardwood forest. Sites were located in two watersheds within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Arkansas and Louisiana, USA. We estimated detection probability and site occupancy within each land use category using a Bayesian hierarchical model of community species occurrence, and derived an estimate of species richness at each site. Relative to sites in cultivated cropland, nine of 1 l species detected were significantly more likely to occur at WRP sites and six were more likely to occur at forested sites. Species richness estimates were also higher for WRP and forested sites, compared to those in cultivated cropland. Almost half (45 %) of the species responded positively to both WRP and forested sites, indicating that patches undergoing restoration may be important transitional habitats. Wetland Reserve Program conservation practices are successful in restoring suitable habitat and reducing the impact of cultivation-induced habitat loss on amphibians in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley.

  20. Groundwater Quality Data for the Northern Sacramento Valley, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Peter A.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,180-square-mile Northern Sacramento Valley study unit (REDSAC) was investigated in October 2007 through January 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within REDSAC and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 66 wells in Shasta and Tehama Counties. Forty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 23 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 275 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and sampmatrix spikes) were collected at approximately 8

  1. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program, Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Kevin D.; Drake, J.; Strassman, Andrew C.; Hoy, Erin E.; Menard, Shannon; Jakusz, J.W.; Dieck, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Vegetation Inventory Program (VIP) is an effort to classify, describe, and map existing vegetation of national park units for the NPS Natural Resource Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program. The NPS VIP is managed by the NPS Biological Resources Management Division and provides baseline vegetation information to the NPS Natural Resource I&M Program. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Vegetation Characterization Program lends a cooperative role in the NPS VIP. The USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, NatureServe, and NPS Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CUVA) have completed vegetation classification and mapping of CUVA.Mappers, ecologists, and botanists collaborated to identify and describe vegetation types within the National Vegetation Classification Standard (NVCS) and to determine how best to map them by using aerial imagery. The team collected data from 221 vegetation plots within CUVA to develop detailed descriptions of vegetation types. Data from 50 verification sites were also collected to test both the key to vegetation types and the application of vegetation types to a sample set of map polygons. Furthermore, data from 647 accuracy assessment (AA) sites were collected (of which 643 were used to test accuracy of the vegetation map layer). These data sets led to the identification of 45 vegetation types at the association level in the NVCS at CUVA.A total of 44 map classes were developed to map the vegetation and general land cover of CUVA, including the following: 29 map classes represent natural/semi-natural vegetation types in the NVCS, 12 map classes represent cultural vegetation (agricultural and developed) in the NVCS, and 3 map classes represent non-vegetation features (open-water bodies). Features were interpreted from viewing color-infrared digital aerial imagery dated October 2010 (during peak leaf-phenology change of trees) via digital onscreen three-dimensional stereoscopic workflow systems in geographic

  2. Landscape genetics of raccoons (Procyon lotor) associated with ridges and valleys of Pennsylvania: implications for oral rabies vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, J Jeffrey; Puskas, Robert B; Fischer, Justin W; Swope, Craig B; Neubaum, Melissa A; Reeder, Serena A; Piaggio, Antoinette J

    2009-12-01

    Raccoons are the reservoir for the raccoon rabies virus variant in the United States. To combat this threat, oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs are conducted in many eastern states. To aid in these efforts, the genetic structure of raccoons (Procyon lotor) was assessed in southwestern Pennsylvania to determine if select geographic features (i.e., ridges and valleys) serve as corridors or hindrances to raccoon gene flow (e.g., movement) and, therefore, rabies virus trafficking in this physiographic region. Raccoon DNA samples (n = 185) were collected from one ridge site and two adjacent valleys in southwestern Pennsylvania (Westmoreland, Cambria, Fayette, and Somerset counties). Raccoon genetic structure within and among these study sites was characterized at nine microsatellite loci. Results indicated that there was little population subdivision among any sites sampled. Furthermore, analyses using a model-based clustering approach indicated one essentially panmictic population was present among all the raccoons sampled over a reasonably broad geographic area (e.g., sites up to 36 km apart). However, a signature of isolation by distance was detected, suggesting that widths of ORV zones are critical for success. Combined, these data indicate that geographic features within this landscape influence raccoon gene flow only to a limited extent, suggesting that ridges of this physiographic system will not provide substantial long-term natural barriers to rabies virus trafficking. These results may be of value for future ORV efforts in Pennsylvania and other eastern states with similar landscapes.

  3. Knowledge Sharing Dan Inovasi Pada Industri Startup (Studi pada 15 Perusahaan Startup di Program Indigo Incubator, Bandung Digital Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodi Jayen Suwarno

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Year 2014 become the beginning of massive investments of foreign investors to several startups in Indonesia. It triggers the creation of making startup incubation program by considering the use of knowledge sharing activity, which has been previously known as a success factor of former startups in the world. Knowledge sharing itself can increase innovation. Indigo Incubator program made by Telkom Group is of the example located in Bandung Digital Valley. With the expectation of innovation enhancement after incubation, we still know there are some startups that failed and dipersed at the end. This study aims to determine whether there is influence of knowledge sharing on innovation, and the statistical amount of the contributions. The object of research are determined based on the 15 startups incubated at Indigo Incubator program batch 2015. The method used by distributing a questionnaire, which is then processed using linear regression technique. Based on the analysis that there is significant influence of knowledge sharing on innovation. Tthe result illustrates that knowledge sharing need to be considered for various parties in the future to create high competitive startup with advanced innovation. This research is also beneficial for scientific literature development, especially Human Resources, as well can become the reference materials for business related to knowledge sharing practice and its linking to Innovation. Keywords: knowledge sharing, innovation, startup, incubation.

  4. Regional estimates of ecological services derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Stephen P.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Waddle, Hardin; Keeland, Bobby D.; Walls, Susan C.; James, Dale; Moorman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) is the Nation?s largest floodplain and this once predominantly forested ecosystem provided significant habitat for a diverse flora and fauna, sequestered carbon in trees and soil, and stored floodwater, sediments, and nutrients within the floodplain. This landscape has been substantially altered by the conversion of nearly 75% of the riparian forests, predominantly to agricultural cropland, with significant loss and degradation of important ecosystem services. Large-scale efforts have been employed to restore the forest and wetland resources and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent some of the most extensive restoration programs in the MAV. The objective of the WRP is to restore and protect the functions and values of wetlands in agricultural landscapes with an emphasis on habitat for migratory birds and wetland-dependent wildlife, protection and improvement of water quality, flood attenuation, ground water recharge, protection of native flora and fauna, and educational and scientific scholarship.

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon, Sawtooth Valley Project : 1992 Juvenile and Adult Trapping Program : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs in the Snake River Basin have severely declined. Redfish Lake near Stanley, Idaho is the only lake in the drainage known to still support a run. In 1989, two adults were observed returning to this lake and in 1990, none returned. In the summer of 1991, only four adults returned. If no action is taken, the Snake River sockeye salmon will probably cease to exist. On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared the Snake River sockeye salmon ``endangered`` (effective December 20, 1991), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. In 1991, in response to a request from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded efforts to conserve and begin rebuilding the Snake River sockeye salmon run. The initial efforts were focused on Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Valley of southcentral Idaho. The 1991 measures involved: trapping some of the juvenile outmigrants (O. nerka) from Redfish Lake and rearing them in the Eagle Fish Health Facility (Idaho Department of Fish and Game) near Boise, Idaho; Upgrading of the Eagle Facility where the outmigrants are being reared; and trapping adult Snake River sockeye salmon returning to Redfish Lake and holding and spawning them at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental effects of the proposed actions for 1992. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and section 7 of the ESA of 1973.

  6. "Fort Valley State University Cooperative Developmental Energy Program: Broadening the Participation of Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbly, I.; Hodges, J.; Kar, A.; Rashidi, L.

    2015-12-01

    According to the American Geological Institute's Status of Recent Geoscience Graduates, 2014, underrepresented minorities (URMs) make up only 7%, 5%, and 2% of graduates at the BS/BA, MA/MS, and Ph.D levels, respectively. Recruiting academically-talented URMs to major in the geosciences instead of majoring in other fields such as medicine, law, business, or engineering is a major undertaking. Numerous factors may contribute as to why few URMs choose geoscience careers. To address the underrepresentation of URMs in the geosciences 1992, the Cooperative Developmental Energy Program (CDEP) of Fort Valley State University (FVSU) and the College of Geosciences at the University of Oklahoma (OU) implemented a 3 + 2 dual degree program specifically in geology and geophysics. Since 1992, FVSU-CDEP has added the University of Texas at Austin (2004), Pennsylvania State University (2005), University of Arkansas (2010), and the University of Nevada at Las Vegas (2015) as partners to offer degrees in geology and geophysics. The dual degree programs consist of students majoring in chemistry or mathematics at FVSU for the first three years and transferring to one of the above partnering universities for years four and five to major in geology or geophysics. Upon completion of the program, students receive a BS degree in chemistry or mathematics from FVSU and a BS degree in geology or geophysics from a partnering university. CDEP has been responsible for recruiting 33 URMs who have earned BS degrees in geology or geophysics. Females constitute 50% of the graduates which is higher than the national average. Also, 56% of these graduates have earned the MS degree and 6% have earned the Ph.D. Currently, 60% of these graduates are employed with oil and gas companies; 20% work for academia; 12% work for governmental agencies; 6 % are professionals with environmental firms; and 2% of the graduate's employment is unknown.

  7. California GAMA Program: Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Results for the Sacramento Valley and Volcanic Provinces of Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2005-01-20

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the California Aquifer Susceptibility (CAS) project (under the GAMA Program) is to assess water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2003, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the Sacramento Valley and Volcanic Provinces. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  8. Evaluation of the Chagas Disease Control Program in Açucena Municipality, Rio Doce Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Açucena Municipality, Rio Doce Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil temporarily (2001-2005 interrupted epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Chagas Disease Control Program (CDCP in Açucena and to offer suggestions for improving local epidemiological surveillance. Methods This study was conducted in three phases: I a serological investigation of schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test performed on blood collected on filter paper followed by ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and indirect hemaglutination (IHA on venous blood for borderline cases and those in the gray zone of reactivity; II vector evaluation using the data obtained by local health agents during 2006-2010; and III examination by ELISA, IIF and IHA of serum samples from the inhabitants of houses where infected Triatoma vitticeps was found and evaluation of their knowledge about Chagas disease. Results Five individuals had inconclusive results in the ELISA screening but were seronegative for Chagas disease. The triatomine evaluation revealed the presence of three species: Triatoma vitticeps, Panstrongylus megistus and Panstrongylus diasi. Triatoma vitticeps was the most prevalent and widespread, with a higher (67% index of Trypanosoma cruzi flagellates and evidence of colonization. Most of the inhabitants of the infested houses recognized triatomines and had basic knowledge about Chagas disease. Conclusions Although T. vitticeps is not clearly associated with Chagas disease transmission, these results highlight the importance of maintaining CDCP in endemic areas and the need for greater emphasis on epidemiological surveillance, especially in areas with important vectorial changes or that have been modified by human intervention.

  9. Valley fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially the first trimester) People of Native American, African, or Philippine descent may also get more severe ... that causes Valley fever) Chest x-ray Sputum culture Sputum smear (KOH test) Tests done for more ...

  10. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss Headache Valley fever Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. Development of a black willow improvement program for biomass production in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell J. Rousseau; Emile S. Gardiner; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) has the potential to be a significant feedstock source for bioenergy and biofuels production in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV). This potential is based on a number of primary factors including rapid growth, ease of vegetative propagation, excellent rooting, and the ability to regenerate from coppice...

  12. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  13. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  14. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Antelope Valley Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,600 square-mile Antelope Valley study unit (ANT) was investigated from January to April 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within ANT, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 57 wells in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-six of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and one additional well was selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding well). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline additives and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, fumigants, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (strontium, tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 239 constituents and water-quality indicators (field parameters) were investigated. Quality

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  17. Groundwater-quality data in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Landon, Matthew K.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 2,170-square-mile Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March to July 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The WSJV study unit was the twenty-ninth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Western San Joaquin Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the WSJV study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the WSJV study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 58 wells in 2 study areas (Delta-Mendota subbasin and Westside subbasin) in Stanislaus, Merced, Madera, Fresno, and Kings Counties. Thirty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 wells were selected to aid in the understanding of aquifer-system flow and related groundwater-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level fumigants, and pesticides and pesticide degradates

  18. Assessing re-introductions of the African Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in the Limpopo Valley Conservancy, South Africa, using the stochastic simulation program VORTEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lars A.; Pedersen, Rikke B. F.; Hayward, Matt W.

    2010-01-01

    and South Africa). In 1998, a plan was launched in South Africa to manage sub-populations of the African wild dog in several small, geographically isolated, conservation areas. This management program involved the reintroduction of wild dogs into suitable conservation areas and periodic translocations among...... them. We used the stochastic population simulation model VORTEX to evaluate the Limpopo Valley Conservancy in the north of South Africa, as a possible reintroduction site for African wild dogs. The simulations showed that the size of the initial population released only had a small effect......The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is one of Africa's most endangered species and therefore classified as endangered by IUCN. Earlier distributions included most of Africa but currently the African wild dog only has populations larger than 300 individuals in three countries (Botswana, Tanzania...

  19. The Applied and Industrial Mathematics Program with Example Project: Efficient Routing for Meals on Wheels in the Shenandoah Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axvig, Nathan; David, John; Falcetti, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The Applied and Industrial Mathematics program partners applied mathematics students with businesses, governments, laboratories, and agencies to solve real problems. We will discuss the logistics of the program and give advice on starting and running similar programs. We also give a detailed example of a specific project, namely our work with the…

  20. Immersion in a Hudson Valley Tidal Marsh and Climate Research Community - Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, D. M.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    A primary advantage of place-based research is the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research that can be applied to a single locale, with a depth of continued study through time. Through the last decade, Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program (SSFRP) has promoted scientific inquiry, mostly among groups under-represented in STEM fields, in Piermont Marsh, a federally protected marsh in the Hudson estuary. At the same time, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) scientists have become more involved, through mentoring by researchers, postdocs and graduate students, often paired with high school teachers. The sustained engagement of high school students in a natural environment, experiencing the Hudson River and its tidal cycles, protection of coastline, water quality improvement, native and invasive plant communities, is fundamental to their understanding of the importance of wetlands with their many ecosystem services. In addition, the Program has come to see "place" as inclusive of the Observatory itself. The students' work at Lamont expands their understanding of educational opportunities and career possibilities. Immersing students in a research atmosphere brings a level of serious inquiry and study to their lives and provides them with concrete contributions that they make to team efforts. Students select existing projects ranging from water quality to Phragmites removal, read papers weekly, take field measurements, produce lab results, and present their research at the end of six weeks. Ongoing results build from year to year in studies of fish populations, nutrients, and carbon sequestration, and the students have presented at professional scientific meetings. Through the Program students gain a sense of ownership over both their natural and the academic environments. Challenges include sustained funding of the program; segmenting the research for reproducible, robust results; fitting the projects to PIs' research goals, time

  1. Energy valley in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwayen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Valley foundation was born in 2004. It functions as a catalyst and platform for private and public organisations. It has a supporting and facilitating role in realising projects on energy conservation and sustainable energy. The Energy Valley a

  2. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Owens and Indian Wells Valleys Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,630 square-mile Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study unit (OWENS) was investigated in September-December 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within OWENS study unit, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 74 wells in Inyo, Kern, Mono, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 21 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry in areas of interest (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater- indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3- trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. This study evaluated the quality of raw ground water in the aquifer in the OWENS study unit and did not attempt to evaluate the quality of treated water

  3. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  4. Businessman's Efforts Help Reinvent Valley Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Diane B.

    2007-01-01

    Machine shop and metal fabrication programs across the country have struggled since the mid-1980s when the rise in global competition resulted in more manufacturing jobs going overseas. Blackstone Valley Regional Vocational Technical High School in Upton, Massachusetts, was able to keep its program up and running due in large part to its…

  5. Silicon Valley: Planet Startup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. P. Ester; dr. A. Maas

    2016-01-01

    For decades now, Silicon Valley has been the home of the future. It's the birthplace of the world's most successful high-tech companies-including Apple, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, Twitter, and many more. So what's the secret? What is it about Silicon Valley that fosters entrepreneurship and

  6. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  7. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-125 (Echo Lake-Maple Valley #1 [Mile 1-9], Adno 8258)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Aaron [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-02-18

    Vegetation Management for portion of the Echo Lake – Maple Valley #1 500 kV transmission line located from tower structure 1/1 to 9/2. BPA proposes to clear targeted vegetation within the Right-of-Ways along access roads and around towers that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines. See Section 1.4 of the attached checklists for a complete description of the proposed action.

  8. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-124 (Echo Lake-Maple Valley #1 [Mile 9-16], Adno 8258)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Aaron [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-02-18

    Vegetation Management for portion of the Echo Lake – Maple Valley #1 500 kV transmission line located from tower structure 9/2 to 16/5. BPA proposes to clear targeted vegetation within the Right-of-Ways along access roads and around towers that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines. See Section 1.4 of the attached checklists for a complete description of the proposed action.

  9. Geometry of Valley Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  10. Intermontane valley fills

    OpenAIRE

    Mey, Jürgen (Diplom-Geologe)

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentary valley fills are a widespread characteristic of mountain belts around the world. They transiently store material over time spans ranging from thousands to millions of years and therefore play an important role in modulating the sediment flux from the orogen to the foreland and to oceanic depocenters. In most cases, their formation can be attributed to specific fluvial conditions, which are closely related to climatic and tectonic processes. Hence, valley-fill deposits constitute v...

  11. Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge Common Dragonflies and Damselflies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Canaan Valley NWR is cooperating with the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program to inventory dragonflies and damselflies in an...

  12. Investigating the factors that motivate and engage native American students in math and science on the Duck Valley Indian reservation following participation in the NASA summer of innovation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, John B.

    In response to the Obama Administration's launch of the "Educate to Innovate" campaign in 2010, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed the NASA Summer of Innovation (SOI) program, designed to bring NASA educational materials to students and teachers in underserved and underrepresented communities. This study consisted of a mixed methods analysis to determine if the students on the Duck Valley Indian Reservation in southern Idaho experienced a positive change in attitude toward math and science due to their participation in the 2010 NASA SOI, both in the short-term and over a three-year period. Specifically, the quantitative analyses consisted of single-subject visual analysis, a paired-samples t-test, and a factorial ANOVA to analyze baseline and follow-up surveys conducted before and immediately after the summer program. Also, a qualitative case study was conducted to determine if the NASA SOI had a lasting impact on the students' positive attitude toward math and science, three years after the completion of the program. The results of the quantitative analyses did not indicate a statistically significant effect of the summer program on the attitudes of the students with respect to science and mathematics over the course of the program (time), between genders, or a combination of both time and gender. However, the narratives derived from the case study indicated the students' attitudes toward science were increased following their participation in the summer program. The qualitative data supported previous research on the importance of family, culture, hands-on experiential and collaborative learning as essential components in Native American students' motivation and engagement with respect to education and science. Additionally, the study found an absence of curriculum that presented historical examples of Native Americans as natural scientists and engineers.

  13. Boyne Valley Tombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Frank

    The passage tombs of the Boyne Valley exhibit the greatest level of development of the megalithic tomb building tradition in Ireland in terms of their morphology, embellishment, burial tradition, grave goods, clustering, and landscape siting. This section examines these characteristics and gives a summary archaeoastronomical appraisal of their orientation and detected astronomical alignment.

  14. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  15. VALMET: a valley air pollution model. Final report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1985-04-01

    An air quality model is described for predicting air pollution concentrations in deep mountain valleys arising from nocturnal down-valley transport and diffusion of an elevated pollutant plume, and the fumigation of the plume on the valley floor and sidewalls after sunrise. Included is a technical description of the model, a discussion of the model's applications, the required model inputs, sample calculations and model outputs, and a full listing of the FORTRAN computer program. 55 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Bringing Silicon Valley inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  17. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas (BEAR) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The BEAR study unit was the thirty-first study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as the zones corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the BEAR study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallow or deep water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the BEAR study unit, groundwater samples were collected from two study areas (Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas) in San Bernardino County. Of the 38 sampling sites, 27 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining 11 sites were selected to aid in the understanding of the potential groundwater-quality issues associated with septic tank use and with ski areas in the study unit (understanding sites). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and

  18. Green valley galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “green valley” is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech, in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u−r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, “main” sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominantly disk morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the “green valley” using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012, Salim et al. (2012 and Martin et al. (2007, as well as other results.

  19. Transforming the "Valley of Death" into a "Valley of Opportunity"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Merceret, Francis J.; O'Brien, T. P.; Roeder, William P.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2014-01-01

    Transitioning technology from research to operations (23 R2O) is difficult. The problem's importance is exemplified in the literature and in every failed attempt to do so. Although the R2O gap is often called the "valley of death", a recent a Space Weather editorial called it a "Valley of Opportunity". There are significant opportunities for space weather organizations to learn from the terrestrial experience. Dedicated R2O organizations like those of the various NOAA testbeds and collaborative "proving ground" projects take common approaches to improving terrestrial weather forecasting through the early transition of research capabilities into the operational environment. Here we present experience-proven principles for the establishment and operation of similar space weather organizations, public or private. These principles were developed and currently being demonstrated by NASA at the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The AMU was established in 1991 jointly by NASA, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) to provide tools and techniques for improving weather support to the Space Shuttle Program (Madura et al., 2011). The primary customers were the USAF 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG who provided the weather observing and forecast support for Shuttle operations). SPoRT was established in 2002 to transition NASA satellite and remote-sensing technology to the NWS. The continuing success of these organizations suggests the common principles guiding them may be valuable for similar endeavors in the space weather arena.

  20. Exploring Effects of Organizational Culture upon Implementation of Information Security Awareness and Training Programs within the Defense Industry Located in the Tennessee Valley Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Robert Luther

    2017-01-01

    Data breaches due to social engineering attacks and employee negligence are on the rise. The only known defense against social engineering attacks and employee negligence is information security awareness and training. However, implementation of awareness and training programs within organizations are lagging in priority. This research used the…

  1. Fluvial valleys and Martian palaeoclimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Virginia C.; Baker, Victor R.

    1989-10-01

    Theoretical models of early Martian atmospheric evolution describe the maintenance of a dense CO2 atmosphere and a warm, wet climate until the end of the heavy-bombardment phase of impacting. However, the presence of very young, earthlike fluvial valleys on the northern flank of Alba Patera conflicts with this scenario. Whereas the widespread ancient Martian valleys generally have morphologies indicative of sapping erosion by the slow outflow of subsurface water, the local Alba valleys were probably formed by surface-runoff processes. Because subsurface water flow might be maintained by hydrothermal energy inputs and because surface-runoff valleys developed late in Martian history, it is not necessary to invoke drastically different planet-wide climatic conditions to explain valley development on Mars. The Alba fluvial valleys can be explained by hydrothermal activity or outflow-channel discharges that locally modified the atmosphere, including precipitation and local overland flow on low-permeability volcanic ash.

  2. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  3. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2017-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  4. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  5. A compliance monitoring program for use and operation of the Grasslands Bypass for drainage conveyance in the western San Joaquin Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1995-11-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) signed a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) No. 92-02-MP dated October 18, 1991 and a Supplement to the FONSI No. 92-03-MP dated April 15, 1991, for use of a 19 mile segment of the San Luis Drain, renamed the Grasslands Bypass, to convey agricultural drainage waters to the San Joaquin River. An Environmental Assessment was prepared and published in support of the FONSI. On September 7, 1995 a Supplemental Environmental Assessment was prepared to update the original document to account for changes to the original project. These changes included a change to the point of entry to the Drain and an increase in the length of the Drain utilized by the Project from 19 to 28 miles. Environmental commitments and a schedule of fees for non-compliance with monthly and annual selenium load targets were also agreed upon for the current Project. Environmental documents preceding the FONSI outlined a monitoring program that obtained general and informal concurrence by technical staff of the participating agencies. A revised version of the proposed monitoring program was distributed by Reclamation for review and comment by the agencies in July 1992. A final monitoring plan document was issued in June 1993 and was subsequently approved by the Oversight Committee. This document includes substantial revisions to the existing June 1993 monitoring plan to reflect the compliance requirements of the current Project.

  6. Fish survey, fishing duration, and other data from net and otter trawls from the BIG VALLEY as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 20 May 1976 to 30 June 1976 (NODC Accession 7601547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish survey, fishing duration, and other data were collected from net and otter trawls from the BIG VALLEY from 20 May 1976 to 30 June 1976. Data were collected by...

  7. Benthic organism and other data from otter trawls from the Gulf of Alaska from the BIG VALLEY as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 17 June 1976 to 18 March 1977 (NODC Accession 7700849)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organism and other data were collected from otter trawls in the Gulf of Alaska from the BIG VALLEY by University of Alaska; Institute of Marine Science...

  8. Groundwater availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  9. Nutrient Management Programs, Nitrogen Fertilizer Practices, and Groundwater Quality in Nebraska’s Central Platte Valley (U.S., 1989–1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Daberkow

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the societal concern about groundwater pollution from agricultural sources, public programs have been proposed or implemented to change farmer behavior with respect to nutrient use and management. However, few of these programs designed to change farmer behavior have been evaluated due to the lack of detailed data over an appropriate time frame. The Central Platte Natural Resources District (CPNRD in Nebraska has identified an intensively cultivated, irrigated area with average groundwater nitrate-nitrogen (N levels about double the EPA’s safe drinking water standard. The CPNRD implemented a joint education and regulatory N management program in the mid-1980s to reduce groundwater N. This analysis reports N use and management, yield, and groundwater nitrate trends in the CPNRD for nearly 3000 continuous-corn fields from 1989 to 1998, where producers faced limits on the timing of N fertilizer application but no limits on amounts. Groundwater nitrate levels showed modest improvement over the 10 years of this analysis, falling from the 1989–1993 average of 18.9 to 18.1 mg/l during 1994–1998. The availability of N in excess of crop needs was clearly documented by the CPNRD data and was related to optimistic yield goals, irrigation water use above expected levels, and lack of adherence to commercial fertilizer application guidelines. Over the 10-year period of this analysis, producers reported harvesting an annual average of 9729 kg/ha, 1569 kg/ha (14% below the average yield goal. During 1989�1998, producers reported annually applying an average of 162.5 kg/ha of commercial N fertilizer, 15.7 kg/ha (10% above the guideline level. Including the N contribution from irrigation water, the potential N contribution to the environment (total N available less estimated crop use was estimated at 71.7 kg/ha. This is an estimate of the nitrates available for denitrification, volatilization, runoff, future soil N, and leaching to groundwater. On

  10. Canaan Valley A Watershed Protection Approach An Integrated Approach To Problem Solving Through An Open Forum Known As The Canaan Valley Task Force

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Canaan Valley Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies, program...

  11. Agricultural Development, Land Change, and Livelihoods in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, John Patrick

    The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their

  12. Dark Valley in Newton Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-418, 11 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows part of a dark-floored valley system in northern Newton Crater. The valley might have been originally formed by liquid water; the dark material is probably sand that has blown into the valley in more recent times. The picture was acquired earlier this week on July 6, 2003, and is located near 39.2oS, 157.9oW. The picture covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  13. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  14. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  15. Opening remarks for the Fort Valley Centennial Celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sam Foster

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station recognizes and values the contributions of our scientists and collaborators for their work over the past century at Fort Valley Experimental Forest. With the help of our partners and collaborators, Rocky Mountain Research Station is working to improve coordination across its research Program Areas and Experimental Forests and Ranges...

  16. Opening remarks for the Fort Valley Centennial Celebration (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sam Foster

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station recognizes and values the contributions of our scientists and collaborators for their work over the past century at Fort Valley Experimental Forest. With the help of our partners and collaborators, Rocky Mountain Research Station is working to improve coordination across its research Program Areas and Experimental Forests and Ranges...

  17. Factors limiting recruitment in valley and coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia M. Tyler; Bruce E. Mahall; Frank W. Davis; Michael Hall

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Barbara County Oak Restoration Program was initiated in 1994 to determine the major factors limiting recruitment of valley oak (Quercus lobata) and coast live oak (Q. agrifolia). At Sedgwick Reserve in Santa Barbara County, California, we have replicated large-scale planting experiments in four different years to...

  18. Public Assistance Worksheets for Damage from 2010 Floods to the East Valley Water District

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Valley Water District (EVWD) in San Bernardino, California had significant damage due to flooding in December 2010. There was a presidentially-declared disaster. EVWD applied to FEMA under the Public Assistance Grant Program.

  19. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  20. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  1. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  2. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  3. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  4. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1. Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model...

  5. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  6. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  7. Groundwater-quality data in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010--Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Wright, Michael T.; Beuttel, Brandon S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 12,103-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (CLUB) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from December 2008 to March 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CLUB study unit was the twenty-eighth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA CLUB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) are defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CLUB study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CLUB study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 52 wells in 3 study areas (Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts) in San Bernardino, Riverside, Kern, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. Forty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and three wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile

  8. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  9. West Valley feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirro, J.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems.

  10. Mechanically and optically controlled graphene valley filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun, E-mail: gjin@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the valley-dependent electronic transport through a graphene monolayer modulated simultaneously by a uniform uniaxial strain and linearly polarized light. Within the Floquet formalism, we calculate the transmission probabilities and conductances of the two valleys. It is found that valley polarization can appear only if the two modulations coexist. Under a proper stretching of the sample, the ratio of the light intensity and the light frequency squared is important. If this quantity is small, the electron transport is mainly contributed by the valley-symmetric central band and the conductance is valley unpolarized; but when this quantity is large, the valley-asymmetric sidebands also take part in the transport and the valley polarization of the conductance appears. Furthermore, the degree of the polarization can be tuned by the strain strength, light intensity, and light frequency. It is proposed that the detection of the valley polarization can be realized utilizing the valley beam splitting. Thus, a graphene monolayer can be used as a mechanically and optically controlled valley filter.

  11. The Microclimate of Valley Glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Oerlemans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers have fascinated mankind throughout history. Glaciers look solid and robust, but observing them for only a couple of years shows that they are dynamic and change shape all the time. The lower glaciers come, the greater the contrast with the surrounding landscape. Many glaciers in the world enter pastures and forests. It is not surprising that laymen, artists and scientists have reported on the behaviour of large valley glaciers. A wealth of information on glacier fluctuations in histo...

  12. A Comprehensive Analysis and Interpretation of Contaminant Data from the San Luis Valley, Colorado, 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Luis Valley was chosen as a contaminant study site under the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (Service) Region 6 "Hot Spot" study program in 1987. The...

  13. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  14. Spin-Valley Beam Splitter in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yu; Shi, Zhi-Gui; Li, Shun; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The fourfold spin-valley degenerate degrees of freedom in bulk graphene can support rich physics and novel applications associated with multicomponent quantum Hall effects and linear conductance filtering. In this work, we study how to break the spin-valley degeneracy of electron beams spatially. We propose a spin-valley beam splitter in a gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We demonstrate that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all spin-valley beam components, the formation of quasi-standing waves can lead four giant lateral Goos-H\\"{a}nchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the two modulated regions can lead difference of resonant angles or energies for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting an effective spin-valley beam splitting effect. The beam splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  15. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  16. From Okra to Oak: Reforestation of Abandoned Agricultural Fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; John A. Stanturf

    1997-01-01

    There has been a tremendous upsurge in interest in reforestation of bottomland hardwoods. In the lower Mississippi alluvial valley, reforestation projects are occurringon a large scale on abandoned agricultural fields, often in conjunction with state or federal cost-share programs. This paper describes some of the cost share programs used to establish bottomland...

  17. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  18. Rock-fall Hazard In The Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent slope movements in Yosemite Na- tional Park, California. In historical time (1851-2001), more than 400 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the preliminary results of an attempt to assess rockfall hazard in the Yosemite Valley using STONE, a 3-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock-fall trajectories starting from a digital terrain model (DTM), the location of rock-fall release points (source areas), and maps of the dynamic rolling coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tan- gential energy restitution. For each DTM cell the software also calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock-fall velocity and the maxi- mum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DTM with a ground resolution of 10 x 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from USGS 1:24,000-scale maps. Rock-fall release points were identified as DTM cells having a slope steeper than 60 degrees, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the nor- mal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to cali- brate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls confirmed the accuracy of the model. The model results are also compared with a geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazard based on potential energy referred to as a "shadow angle" approach, recently completed for the Yosemite Valley.

  19. Vernal Pool Distribution - Central Valley, 2005 [ds650

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — "Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution", originally mapped by Bob Holland, 2005. This dataset contains vernal pool areas mapped over Califorina's Central Valley,...

  20. Valley filtering due to orbital magnetic moment in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Soo

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effect of valley-dependent orbital magnetic moment on the transmission of quasiparticles through biased bilayer graphene npn and pnp junctions in the presence of out-of-plane magnetic field. It is shown that the valley-polarized Zeeman-like energy splitting, due to the interaction of orbital magnetic moment with magnetic field, can suppress the transmission of quasiparticles of one valley while transmitting those of the other valley. This valley-selective transmission property can be exploited for valley filtering. We demonstrate that the npn and pnp junction, respectively, filters off the K‧-valley and K-valley particles, with nearly perfect degree of filtration.

  1. 27 CFR 9.100 - Mesilla Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mesilla Valley. 9.100 Section 9.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Mesilla Valley viticultural area is located within Dona Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas...

  2. Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  3. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Predicting the valley physics of silicon quantum dots directly from a device layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John King; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Bacewski, Andrew D.; Nielsen, Erik; Montaño, Inès; Rudolph, Martin; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Muller, Richard P.

    Qubits made from electrostatically-defined quantum dots in Si-based systems are excellent candidates for quantum information processing applications. However, the multi-valley structure of silicon's band structure provides additional challenges for the few-electron physics critical to qubit manipulation. Here, we present a theory for valley physics that is predictive, in that we take as input the real physical device geometry and experimental voltage operation schedule, and with minimal approximation compute the resulting valley physics. We present both effective mass theory and atomistic tight-binding calculations for two distinct metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dot systems, directly comparing them to experimental measurements of the valley splitting. We conclude by assessing these detailed simulations' utility for engineering desired valley physics in future devices. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Sandia National Laboratories Truman Fellowship Program, which is funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program.

  5. Wetland Survey of the X-10 Bethel Valley and Melton Valley Groundwater Operable Units at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.

    1993-01-01

    This wetland survey report regarding wetlands within Melton Valley and Bethel Valley areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. This work was done under Work Breakdown Structure number 1.4.12.6.1.15.41. This document provides the Environmental Restoration program with information on the results of the wetland survey conducted during fiscal year 1995. it includes information on the physical characteristics, location, approximate size, and classification of wetland areas identified during the field survey.

  6. Application of MODFLOW’s farm process to California’s Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia; Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. During 1980–2007, the population nearly doubled in the Central Valley, increasing the competition for water. Because of the importance of ground water in the Central Valley, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Ground-Water Resources Program is evaluating ground-water conditions in the valley on the basis of historical and anticipated water use. This study updates the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CVRASA) model that was originally? calibrated to observed conditions for the period 1961-77. The model developed for this study utilizes MODFLOW-2000, and was calibrated to observed conditions for the period 1961-2003. Key updates include characterization of the aquifer system using a detailed textural analysis of more than 8,500 drillers’ logs; use of the MODFLOW subsidence package (SUB) to simulate aquifer-system compaction; and, most importantly, use of the newly developed MODFLOW Farm Process (FMP) for simulating irrigation and other

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmospheres of two French alpine valleys: sources and temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marchand

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine valleys represent some of the most important crossroads for international heavy-duty traffic in Europe, but the full impact of this traffic on air quality is not known due to a lack of data concerning these complex systems. As part of the program "Pollution des Vallées Alpines" (POVA, we performed two sampling surveys of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in two sensitive valleys: the Chamonix and Maurienne Valleys, between France and Italy. Sampling campaigns were performed during the summer of 2000 and the winter of 2001, with both periods taking place during the closure of the "Tunnel du Mont-Blanc". The first objective of this paper is to describe the relations between PAH concentrations, external parameters (sampling site localization, meteorological parameters, sources, and aerosol characteristics, including its carbonaceous fraction (OC and EC. The second objective is to study the capacity of PAH profiles to accurately distinguish the different emission sources. Temporal evolution of the relative concentration of an individual PAH (CHR and the PAH groups BghiP+COR and BbF+BkF is studied in order to differentiate wood combustion, gasoline, and diesel emissions, respectively. The results show that the total particulate PAH concentrations were higher in the Chamonix valley during both seasons, despite the cessation of international traffic. Seasonal cycles, with higher concentrations in winter, are also stronger in this valley. During winter, particulate PAH concentration can reach very high levels (up to 155 ng.m-3 in this valley during cold anticyclonic periods. The examination of sources shows the impact during summer of heavy-duty traffic in the Maurienne valley and of gasoline vehicles in the Chamonix valley. During winter, Chamonix is characterized by the strong influence of wood combustion in residential fireplaces, even if the temporal evolution of specific PAH ratios are difficult to interpret. Information on sources

  8. Photosensitive Epilepsy In Kashmir Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem S M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A random population of 618 people with epilepsy hailing from different parts of Kashmir valley was screened for photosensitivity both clinically and on a standard protocol of intermittent photic stimulation (IPS provoked EEG recordings. Six (0.9% patients with a mean age of 15+6.57 years were found to be photosensitive; five had generalized and one had absence seizures. The baseline EEG in all patients showed generalized epileptiform discharges. On IPS, similar EEG findings were obtained with a narrow range of stimulus frequency i.e. 7-12 cycles/sec. There appears to be a low prevalence of photo-sensitivity in our epileptic population, possibly related to genetic factors.

  9. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  10. Qena Valley Evolution, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkareem, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Remotely sensed topographic and optical data were used to identify tectonic phenomena in Qena Valley. Using digital elevation model, morphotectonic features were identified. Processing and analysis were carried out by the combined use of: (1) digital elevation model, (2) digital drainage network analysis, (3) optical data analysis, and (4) lineament extraction and analysis. Structural information from other sources, such as geological maps, remotely sensed images and field observations were analyzed with geographic information system techniques. The analysis results reveal that the linear features of Qena Valley controlled by several structural elements have different trends NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S trends. Basement rocks at Qena valley has a major NE-SW trending and the sedimentary rocks are dominated by a NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S trends while, E-W are less abundant. The NE-SW trends at north Eastern Desert Egypt attain to normal faults that reflect extension in NW-SE direction, which is related to strike slip faulting along NW-SE directed Najd fault system. Further, the NE-SW is abundant as joints and fractures seem to have controlled the path of the Nile in Qift - Qena area. The NW-SE direction are abundant in the rock fracture trends (Gulf of Suez or Red Sea) and reflects Neoproterozoic faults have been reactivated in Neogene during rifting events of the Red Sea opening and marked the sedimentary rocks at Qena valley. The results of the lineament density map reveals that Qena valley was originated along one fault that trend like the Gulf of Suez and the range of the Red Sea Hills. This major fault was dissected by several lateral faults are seen well exposed at numerous places within the valley, especially on its eastern side. Both sides of Qena valley have a similar density matching may attain to that this lineaments affected Qena valley during rifting. This rifts it probably happened in Early Miocene associated with Red Sea tectonics. The general southward slope of

  11. 27 CFR 9.78 - Ohio River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ohio River Valley. 9.78... River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ohio River Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Ohio River Valley...

  12. Control of medfly by SIT in the Nereva river valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjelis, Mario, E-mail: mario.bjelis@zzb.h [Institut for Plant Protection in Agriculture and Foresty of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, Zvonimirova (Croatia); Ljubetic, Visnja [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Watter Managment of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb (Croatia); Novosel, Nevenka [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    A feasibility study of medfly suppression by means of sterile males released program in the Neretva Vallley, Croatia, is presented. The increase of medfly infestation is considered, as almost all cultures of the region represent host plants for the insect. Environmental friendly methods such well developed SIT technique associated with other organic methods are mentioned as an option of no disruption of the present natural balance. Area study and strategy planning is briefly presented. Population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata in the different parts of the delta Neretva valley, during period 2002 - 2004 Year is reported. Medfly capture on selected locations with different host availability in Neretva river is studied. (MAC)

  13. Hydrothermal system of Long Valley caldera, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Lewis, R.E.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic setting of the hydrothermal system are described. The geochemical and thermal characteristics of the system are presented. A mathematical model of the Long Valley caldera is analyzed. (MHR)

  14. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  15. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  16. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  17. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  18. Detection of valley currents in graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    There are two valleys in the band structure of graphene zigzag ribbons, which can be used to construct valleytronic devices. We studied the use of a T junction formed by an armchair ribbon and a zigzag ribbon to detect the valley-dependent currents in a zigzag graphene ribbon. A current flowing in a zigzag ribbon is divided by the T junction into the zigzag and armchair leads and this separation process is valley dependent. By measuring the currents in the two outgoing leads, the valley-dependent currents in the incoming lead can be determined. The method does not require superconducting or magnetic elements as in other approaches and thus will be useful in the development of valleytronic devices.

  19. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  20. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  1. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  2. Half a century of research - Fort Valley Experimental Forest 1908-1958

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward M. Gaines; Elmer W. Shaw

    1958-01-01

    Fifty years ago in 1908, the U. S. Forest Service launched its research program in forest management on the Fort Valley Experimental Forest near Flagstaff, Arizona. This was the first scientific venture of its kind in America - - now the oldest.From the beginning the chief aim of research here has been to work out better ways of managing ponderosa...

  3. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

    2008-12-17

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2007-09-27

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment.

  5. The production potential of the Eastern Cape Valley Bushveld. | A.J. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Valley Bushveld has an accumulated fodder reserve of which only a small percentage is really available to the grazing animal for production purposes. Results indicate that to increase the production potential of browse any utilization program should be constructed around long rest periods. However, grasses make an ...

  6. Great Valley Riparian Habitats and the National Registry of Natural Landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Holland; Cynthia L. Roye

    1989-01-01

    The National Registry of Natural Landmarks is a program established by the National Park Service that seeks to recognize nationally significant examples of the Nation's natural history. Nearly 100 Great Valley riparian sites were evaluated using Park Service criteria. Three sites illustrative of the range of this biotic theme were recommended to the National Park...

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendard Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2006-09-21

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs.

  8. 76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Programs,'' US EPA, January 2001. 5. ``Interim White Paper--Midwest RPO Candidate Control Measure: Glass...

  9. Participation in Summer School and High School Graduation in the Sun Valley High School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a summer school credit recovery program in the Sun Valley High School District. Using logistic regression I assess the relationship between race, gender, course failure, school of origin and summer school participation for a sample of students that failed one or more classes in their first year of high…

  10. New River Valley Agriculture & Agritourism Strategic Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Martha A.; Scott, Kelli H.

    2017-01-01

    This strategic plan discusses plans for improving the marketing of agritourism and agribusiness in the New River Valley (Floyd, Giles, Montgomery and Pulaski Counties), and potentially increasing community wealth while improving the access to local crops and products. Includes Planning for an Agricultural Future in Giles, Montgomery, and Pulaski Counties: An Agricultural Regional Assessment, prepare for the New River Valley Agricultural & Agritourism Project Management Team by Matson Consu...

  11. Community Response to Concentrating Solar Power in the San Luis Valley: October 9, 2008 - March 31, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.; Hunter, L. M.; Kirkland, T. M.; Tierney, K. J.

    2010-06-01

    This report is about the social acceptance of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) plants in the San Luis Valley, approximately 200 miles southwest of Denver, Colorado. The research focused on social factors that may facilitate and impede the adoption and implementation of CSP. During the winter of 2008-2009, interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 CSP-related stakeholders inside and outside the Valley. Interviews focused on the perceived advantages and disadvantages of siting a hypothetical 100-MW CSP facility in the Valley, the level of community support and opposition to CSP development, and related issues, such as transmission. State policy recommendations based on the findings include developing education programs for Valley residents, integrating Valley decision makers into an energy-water-land group, providing training for Valley decision makers, offering workforce training, evaluating models of taxation, and forming landholder energy associations. In addition, the SLV could become a laboratory for new approaches to CSP facility and transmission siting decision-making. The author recommends that outside stakeholders address community concerns and engage Valley residents in CSP decisions. Engaging the residents in CSP and transmission decisions, the author says, should take parallel significance with the investment in solar technology.

  12. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  13. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  14. Groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed study areas in southern California compose one of the study units being evaluated.

  15. Monitoring the hydrothermal system in Long Valley caldera, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, C.D.; Sorey, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    An ongoing program to monitor the hydrothermal system in Long Valley for changes caused by volcanic or tectonic processes has produced considerable data on the water chemistry and discharge of springs and fluid temperatures and pressures in wells. Chemical and isotopic data collected under this program have greatly expanded the knowledge of chemical variability both in space and time. Although no chemical or isotopic changes in hot spring waters can be attributed directly to volcanic or tectonic processes, changes in hot spring chemistry that have been recorded probably relate to interactions between and variations in the quantity of liquid and gas discharged. Stable carbon isotope data are consistent with a carbon source either perform the mantle or from metamorphosed carbonate rocks. Continuous and periodic measurements of hot spring discharge at several sites show significant co seismic and a seismic changes since 1980.

  16. Microseisms in geothermal exploration: studies in Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, A.L.C.

    1977-11-01

    Frequency-wavenumber (f-k) spectra of seismic noise in the bands 1 less than or equal to f less than or equal to 10 Hz in frequency and parallel bar k parallel bar less than or equal to 35.7 cycles/km in wavenumber, measured at several places in Grass Valley, Nevada, exhibit numerous features which can be correlated with variations in surface geology and sources associated with hot spring activity. Exploration techniques for geothermal reservoirs, based upon the spatial distribution of the amplitude and frequency characteristics of short-period seismic noise, are applied and evaluated in a field program at a potential geothermal area in Grass Valley, Nevada. A detailed investigation of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the noise field was made to guide subsequent data acquisition and processing. Contour maps of normalized noise-level derived from carefully sampled data are dominated by the hot spring noise source and the generally high noise levels outlining the regions of thick alluvium. Major faults are evident when they produce a shallow lateral contrast in rock properties. Conventional seismic noise mapping techniques cannot differentiate noise anomalies due to buried seismic sources from those due to shallow geological effects. The noise radiating from a deep reservoir ought to be evident as body waves of high phase velocity with time-invariant source azimuth. A small two-dimensional array was placed at 16 locations in the region to map propagation parameters. The f-k spectra reveal local shallow sources, but no evidence for a significant body wave component in the noise field was found. With proper data sampling, array processing provides a powerful method for mapping the horizontal component of the vector phase velocity of the noise field. In Grass Valley, and probably in most areas, the 2 to 10 Hz microseismic field is predominantly fundamental mode Rayleigh waves controlled by the very shallow structure.

  17. Estimated Withdrawals from Stream-Valley Aquifers and Refined Estimated Withdrawals from Selected Aquifers in the United States, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, B. Pierre; Maupin, Molly A.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Information Program compiles estimates of fresh ground-water withdrawals in the United States on a 5-year interval. In the year-2000 compilation, withdrawals were reported from principal aquifers and aquifer systems including two general aquifers - Alluvial and Other aquifers. Withdrawals from a widespread aquifer group - stream-valley aquifers - were not specifically identified in the year-2000 compilation, but they are important sources of ground water. Stream-valley aquifers are alluvial aquifers located in the valley of major streams and rivers. Stream-valley aquifers are long but narrow aquifers that are in direct hydraulic connection with associated streams and limited in extent compared to most principal aquifers. Based in large part on information published in U.S. Geological Survey reports, preliminary analysis of withdrawal data and hydrogeologic and surface-water information indicated areas in the United States where possible stream-valley aquifers were located. Further assessment focused on 24 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Withdrawals reported from Alluvial aquifers in 16 states and withdrawals reported from Other aquifers in 6 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico were investigated. Two additional States - Arkansas and New Jersey - were investigated because withdrawals reported from other principal aquifers in these two States may be from stream-valley aquifers. Withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers were identified in 20 States and were about 1,560 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), a rate comparable to withdrawals from the 10 most productive principal aquifers in the United States. Of the 1,560 Mgal/d of withdrawals attributed to stream-valley aquifers, 1,240 Mgal/d were disaggregated from Alluvial aquifers, 150 Mgal/d from glacial sand and gravel aquifers, 116 Mgal/d from Other aquifers, 28.1 Mgal/d from Pennsylvanian aquifers, and 24.9 Mgal/d from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial

  18. Measured compaction for 24 extensometers in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the compaction data for 24 extensometers used for observations in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  19. Evapotranspiration Input Data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains monthly reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  20. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  1. Radon in water of Shu river valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Kuyanova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The values of radon and its daughter products in water of Shu River valley have been received, using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The radon concentration naturally increases in investigated water samples downstream the Shu River, reaching the maximum value in the Tashutkolsky basin. The radon and its daughter products in a human body of 15 % are in soft tissues have been calculated by a mathematical modeling method. The annual dose from radon and its daughter products calculated by a mathematical modeling method received by the residents living in Shu river valley is 0,03 mSv/year.

  2. The Health Valley: Global Entrepreneurial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    In the space of a decade, the Lake Geneva region has become the Health Valley, a world-class laboratory for discovering and developing healthcare of the future. Through visionary individuals and thanks to exceptional infrastructure this region has become one of the most dynamic in the field of innovation, including leading scientific research and exceptional actors for the commercialization of academic innovation to industrial applications that will improve the lives of patients and their families. Here follows the chronicle of a spectacular expansion into the Health Valley.

  3. Advanced seismic imaging of overdeepened alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burschil, Thomas; Buness, Hermann; Tanner, David; Gabriel, Gerald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Major European alpine valleys and basins are densely populated areas with infrastructure of international importance. To protect the environment by, e.g., geohazard assessment or groundwater estimation, understanding of the geological structure of these valleys is essential. The shape and deposits of a valley can clarify its genesis and allows a prediction of behaviour in future glaciations. The term "overdeepened" refers to valleys and basins, in which pressurized melt-water under the glacier erodes the valley below the fluvial level. Most overdeepened valleys or basins were thus refilled during the ice melt or remain in the form of lakes. The ICDP-project Drilling Overdeepened Alpine Valleys (DOVE) intends to correlate the sedimentary succession from boreholes between valleys in the entire alpine range. Hereby, seismic exploration is essential to predict the most promising well path and drilling site. In a first step, this DFG-funded project investigates the benefit of multi-component techniques for seismic imaging. At two test sites, the Tannwald Basin and the Lienz Basin, the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics acquired P-wave reflection profiles to gain structural and facies information. Built on the P-wave information, several S-wave reflection profiles were acquired in the pure SH-wave domain as well as 6-C reflection profiles using a horizontal S-wave source in inline and crossline excitation and 3-C receivers. Five P-wave sections reveal the structure of the Tannwald Basin, which is a distal branch basin of the Rhine Glacier. Strong reflections mark the base of the basin, which has a maximum depth of 240 metres. Internal structures and facies vary strongly and spatially, but allow a seismic facies characterization. We distinguish lacustrine, glacio-fluvial, and deltaic deposits, which make up the fill of the Tannwald Basin. Elements of the SH-wave and 6-C seismic imaging correlate with major structures in the P-wave image, but vary in detail. Based on

  4. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Weyer, Jacqueline; Leman, Patricia A.; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 198 Rift Valley fever virus isolates and 5 derived strains obtained from various sources in Saudi Arabia and 16 countries in Africa during a 67-year period (1944–2010). A maximum-likelihood tree prepared with sequence data for a 490-nt section of the Gn glycoprotein gene showed that 95 unique sequences sorted into 15 lineages. A 2010 isolate from a patient in South Africa potentially exposed to co-infection with live animal vaccine and wild virus was a reassortant. The potential influence of large-scale use of live animal vaccine on evolution of Rift Valley fever virus is discussed. PMID:22172568

  6. Science guide for the Long Valley Caldera deep hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundle, J.B.; Eichelberger, J.C. (eds.)

    1989-05-01

    The Magma Energy Program of the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Technology Division, is planning to begin drilling a deep (6 km) exploration well in Long Valley Caldera, California, in September 1988. The location of the well is in the central part of the caldera, coincident with a large number of shallow (5-7 km) geophysical anomalies identified through many independent investigations. Results from the hole will permit the following: direct investigation of the geophysical anomalies interpreted to be magma; investigation of the patterns and conditions of deep fluid circulation and heat transport below the caldera floor; determination of the amount of collapse and subsequent resurgence of the central portion of Long Valley caldera; and determination of the intrusion history of the central plutonic complex beneath the caldera, and establishment of the relationship of intrusive to eruptive events. The hole will thus provide a stringent test of the hypothesis that magma is still present within the central plutonic complex. If the interpretation of geophysical anomalies is confirmed, the hole will provide the first observations of the environment near a large silicic magma chamber. 80 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Conference report: 1st Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastow, Orest

    2013-02-01

    The 1st Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium was arranged by the Medicon Valley Inhalation Consortium. It was held at the Medicon Village site, which is the former AstraZeneca site in Lund, Sweden. It was a 1-day symposium focused on inhaled drug delivery and inhalation product development. A total of 90 delegates listened to 15 speakers. The program was organized to follow the value chain of an inhalation product development. The benefits and future opportunities of inhaled drug delivery were discussed together with some new disease areas that can be targeted with inhalation. The pros and cons of the two main formulation types; dry powder and liquid formulations, were discussed by a panel. The different requirements of the drug molecules from a pharmacology, chemical and physical perspective were explained. The modeling of the physics inside an inhaler was demonstrated and the potential strategic benefits of device design were highlighted together with the many challenges of formulation manufacturing. Lung deposition mechanisms and the difficulties of the generic bioequivalence concept were discussed. Using an anatomically correct impactor inlet is a valuable tool in lung deposition predictions and the planning of clinical trials. The management of the biological material generated in clinical studies is key to successful studies.

  8. Ocular morbidity among street children in Kathmandu Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Mukund; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Joshi, Niraj Dev

    2014-12-01

    Prevalence of ocular morbidity among street children is largely unknown. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ocular morbidity among street children in the Kathmandu Valley. A cross-sectional study consisting of an eye examination program among 569 street children aged younger than 18 years was conducted from March 2013 to February 2014. Children were included from 11 safe houses of 6 non-governmental organizations and an independent eye camp. Eye examination included visual acuity testing, anterior segment and posterior segment examination, retinoscopy and refraction, cover test, convergence, accommodation and color vision tests. Chi-square test was used to analyze the association of ocular morbidity with age, sex and living conditions. The majority of children (43.8%) were in the age group of 12-15 years, and the male to female ratio was 3.9:1. Uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity ≥6/9 in at least one eye was found in 89.8% and 98.4% of children, respectively. Total ocular morbidity was observed at 31.6%. The most common types of ocular morbidity were conjunctivitis (11.0%) and refractive error (11.6%). Ocular morbidity was more common in children over 15 years of age (40.9%; p morbidities in street children in the Kathmandu Valley.

  9. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-04-01

    The discussion is presented under the following chapter titles: geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California; the source of geothermal heat; status of geothermal resources (worldwide); geothermal aspects of Imperial Valley, California; potential geothermal development in Imperial Valley; environmental considerations; and proposed plan for development. (JGB)

  10. Observation of acoustic valley vortex states and valley-chirality locked beam splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin; Lu, Jiuyang; Wen, Xinhua; Shen, Yuanyuan; Ke, Manzhu; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Zhengyou

    2017-05-01

    We report an experimental observation of the classical version of valley polarized states in a two-dimensional hexagonal sonic crystal. The acoustic valley states, which carry specific linear momenta and orbital angular momenta, were selectively excited by external Gaussian beams and conveniently confirmed by the pressure distribution outside the crystal, according to the criterion of momentum conservation. The vortex nature of such intriguing bulk crystal states was directly characterized by scanning the phase profile inside the crystal. In addition, we observed a peculiar beam-splitting phenomenon, in which the separated beams are constructed by different valleys and locked to the opposite vortex chirality. The exceptional sound transport, encoded with valley-chirality locked information, may serve as the basis of designing conceptually interesting acoustic devices with unconventional functions.

  11. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... resources within this remote area, many people associate Saline Valley only with Warm Springs. Since the... by partnerships between the NPS and the Tribe. As a consequence of conflicting perceptions and values...

  12. College in Paradise! (Paradise Valley Shopping Mall).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolland, Lucile B.

    Rio Salado Community College (RSCC), a non-campus college within the Maricopa Community College District, offers hundreds of day, late afternoon, and evening classes at locations throughout the county. The Paradise Valley community had always participated heavily in the evening classes offered by RSCC at local high schools. In fall 1982, an effort…

  13. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  14. 27 CFR 9.103 - Mimbres Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mimbres Valley. 9.103 Section 9.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Counties, New Mexico. The boundaries are as follows: The beginning point is located at Faywood Station on...

  15. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located within Napa County, California. From the beginning point at the conjuction of the Napa County-Sonoma County line and the Napa County-Lake County line, the boundary runs along— (1) The Napa County-Lake County line; (2) Putah Creek and the western and southern shores of Lake...

  16. 27 CFR 9.76 - Knights Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located in northeastern Sonoma County, California. From the beginning point lying at the intersection of the Sonoma/Lake County line and the north line of Section 11, Township 10...,” and “Mount St. Helena Quadrangle” maps to the point of intersection with the Lake County line on the...

  17. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the

  18. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research time periods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  19. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  20. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  1. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  2. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Ying-Tao

    2011-09-28

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device.

  3. Low frequency electromagnetic prospecting system. [Grass Valley, KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, B.K.

    1978-04-01

    A prototype portable electromagnetic sounding system was assembled and depth sounding survey was conducted in Grass Valley, Nevada, as a part of a program to evaluate geophysical techniques in geothermal exploration. A horizontal loop transmitter of radius 50 meters operating between .01 Hz and 100 Hz was used in conjunction with a SQUID magnetometer. A digital synchronous detector was used for on site processing of magnetometer output. This detector allowed useful data acquisition with transmitter-receiver separation of up to 2 km with power requirements of less than 72 watts. Conductive sediments (1 to 10 ohm-m) of thicknesses of up to 1.5 km were well resolved with this system, and the interpreted sections compared very well with dc resistivity measurements made with much heavier equipment and larger arrays in the same area.

  4. Methane emissions from a high arctic valley: findings and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, Mikhail; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Ström, Lena

    2008-01-01

    Wet tundra ecosystems are well-known to be a significant source of atmospheric methane. With the predicted stronger effect of global climate change on arctic terrestrial ecosystems compared to lower-latitudes, there is a special obligation to study the natural diversity and the range of possible...... feedback effects on global climate that could arise from Arctic tundra ecosystems. One of the prime candidates for such a feedback mechanism is a potential change in the emissions of methane. Long-term datasets on methane emissions from high arctic sites are almost non-existing but badly needed...... for analyses of controls on interannual and seasonal variations in emissions. To help fill this gap we initiated a measurement program in a productive high arctic fen in the Zackenberg valley, NE Greenland. Methane flux measurements have been carried out at the same location since 1997. Compared...

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-09-28

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendall, John D. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [URS Professional Solutions (URSPS); Klenk, David P. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

    2013-09-19

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2012. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2012. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2012 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2011. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2011. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2011 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendall, John D. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Steiner, Alison F. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Pendl, Michael P. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Biedermann, Charles A. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Steiner, II, Robert E. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Fox, James R. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Hoch, Jerald J. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Werchowski, Rebecca L. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States)

    2015-09-15

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2014. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2014. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2014 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  9. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendall, John D. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Pendl, Michael P. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

    2014-09-16

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2013. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2013. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2013 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS Corporation

    2010-09-17

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) Calendar Year (2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Alison F. [CH2M Hill BWXT West Valley, LLC, NY (United States); Pendl, Michael P. [CH2M Hill BWXT West Valley, LLC, NY (United States); Steiner, II, Robert E. [CH2M Hill BWXT West Valley, LLC, NY (United States); Fox, James R. [CH2M Hill BWXT West Valley, LLC, NY (United States); Hoch, Jerald J. [CH2M Hill BWXT West Valley, LLC, NY (United States); Williams, Janice D. [CH2M Hill BWXT West Valley, LLC, NY (United States); Wrotniak, Chester M. [CH2M Hill BWXT West Valley, LLC, NY (United States); Werchowski, Rebecca L. [CH2M Hill BWXT West Valley, LLC, NY (United States)

    2017-09-12

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2016. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2016. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2016 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  12. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendall, John D. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Steiner, Alison F. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Pendl, Michael P. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Biedermann, Charles A. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Steiner, II, Robert E. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Fox, James R. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Hoch, Jerald J. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Wrotniak, Chester M. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Werchowski, Rebecca L. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States)

    2016-09-15

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2015. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2015. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2015 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  13. Robinson Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan; Middletown Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan, Scotts Valley Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan, Elem Indian Colony Strategic Energy Plan, Upperlake Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan, Big Valley Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis and Associates LLC

    2008-08-01

    The Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians is located in Lake County in Northern California. Similar to the other five federally recognized Indian Tribes in Lake County participating in this project, Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians members are challenged by generally increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. Currently, Tribal decision makers lack sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribes have committed to the Lake County Tribal Energy Program, a multi Tribal program to be based at the Robinson Rancheria and including The Elem Indian Colony, Big Valley Rancheria, Middletown Rancheria, Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake and the Scotts Valley Pomo Tribe. The mission of this program is to promote Tribal energy efficiency and create employment opportunities and economic opportunities on Tribal Lands through energy resource and energy efficiency development. This program will establish a comprehensive energy strategic plan for the Tribes based on Tribal specific plans that capture economic and environmental benefits while continuing to respect Tribal cultural practices and traditions. The goal is to understand current and future energy consumption and develop both regional and Tribe specific strategic energy plans, including action plans, to clearly identify the energy options for each Tribe.

  14. Understory vegetation as an indicator for floodplain forest restoration in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Stephen P. Faulkner; Bobby D. Keeland; Michael J. Baldwin; John W. McCoy; Steven C. Hughes

    2015-01-01

    In the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV), complete alteration of river-floodplain hydrology allowed for widespread conversion of forested bottomlands to intensive agriculture, resulting in nearly 80% forest loss. Governmental programs have attempted to restore forest habitat and functions within this altered landscape by the methods of tree planting (...

  15. Pioneer Valley Life Sciences Institute Program in Endocrinology and Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneyer, Alan; Brown, Melissa; Schwartz, Lawrence; Yadava, Nagendra; and Jerry, D Joseph

    2012-04-24

    Specific Aim - To determine the role of TGFBeta superfamily ligands in regulating Beta-cell function, proliferation, and survival (Drs. Schneyer and Brown) Specific Aim - To determine the feasibility of using respiratory activity and extracellular acidification rates of myoblasts to decipher the state of insulin resistance in cultured myoblastsMyoblast physiology (Drs. Schwartz and Yadava)

  16. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Water Management Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the refuge's water management plan is to create water conditions that will result in an ecologically diverse wetland community....

  17. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    Predicting the effects of hydrological alterations on terrestrial stream valley ecosystems requires multidisciplinary approaches involving both engineers and ecologists. Groundwater discharge in stream valleys and other lowland areas support a number of species rich ecosystems, and their protection...... is prioritised worldwide. Protection requires improved knowledge on the functioning of these ecosystems and especially the linkages between vegetation, groundwater discharge and water level conditions are crucial for management applications. Groundwater abstraction affects catchment hydrology and thereby also...... groundwater discharge. Numerical hydrological modelling has been widely used for evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources and effects of abstraction, however, the importance of local scale heterogeneity becomes increasingly important in the assessment of local damage to these groundwater dependent...

  18. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Kashmir Valley ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Kashmir Valley, India. 1033. Figure 1. Geology of the study area and the location of sampling sites. 4. Results and discussion ..... 1036. G H Jeelani et al. F ig u re. 2 . Spa tia l v a ria tio n o f m a jo r io ns in g ro undw a ter a cro ss the a llu via l ba sin o f the. Ka sh mir. V a lley.

  19. 27 CFR 9.35 - Edna Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Edna Valley. 9.35 Section 9.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... identified as “T31S/T32S” on the U.S.G.S. map; (4) Thence east along township line “T31S/T32S”, across Price...

  20. Flood Frequency Analysis of Main Nara Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Manohar Lal; Bakhshal Khan Lashari; Khalifa Qasim Laghari

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the flood of 2007 and its frequency analysis at MNY (Main Nara Valley), and generally describe flood of 2010 in Sindh Pakistan. Heavy monsoon rain and cyclones cause the flood conditions in Sindh. The damages happened to the infrastructure of the MNVD from RD (Reduced Distance) 0-100 and the ecological impacts of the flood on the local region of Taluka Johi, District Dadu. For flood risk assessment and its description, knowledge of extreme flood events and...

  1. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366) FY2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; McCurdy, Greg; Campbell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events. Field measurements at the T-4 Atmospheric Test Site (CAU 370) suggest that radionuclide-contaminated soils may have migrated along a shallow ephemeral drainage that traverses the site (NNSA/NSO, 2009). (It is not entirely clear how contaminated soils got into their present location at the T-4 Site, but flow to the channel has been redirected and the contamination does not appear to be migrating at present.) Aerial surveys in selected portions of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) also suggest that radionuclide-contaminated soils may be migrating along ephemeral channels in Areas 3, 8, 11, 18, and 25 (Colton, 1999). In Area 11, several low-level airborne surveys of the Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites (CAU 366) show plumes of Americium 241 (Am-241) extending along ephemeral channels (Figure 1, marker numbers 5 and 6) below Corrective Action Site (CAS) 11-23-03 (marker number 3) and CAS 11 23-04 (marker number 4) (Colton, 1999). Plutonium Valley in Area 11 of the NNSS was selected for the study because of the aerial survey evidence suggesting downstream transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil. The aerial survey (Figure 1) shows a well defined finger of elevated radioactivity (marker number 5) extending to the southwest from the southernmost detonation site (marker number 4). This finger of contamination overlies a drainage channel mapped on the topographic base map used for presentation of the survey data suggesting surface runoff as a likely cause of the contaminated area. Additionally, instrumenting sites strongly suspected of conveying

  2. Stakeholder Evaluation for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Completion Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Burkardt, Nina; Swann, Margaret Earlene; Stewart, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), is the largest system of public lands in the world dedicated to wildlife conservation. There are over 545 national wildlife refuges nationwide, encompassing 95 million acres. As part of the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997, each refuge is developing 15-year comprehensive conservation plans (CCPs). Each CCP describes a vision and desired future condition for the refuge and outlines goals, objectives, and management strategies for each refuge's habitat and visitor service programs. The CCP process for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in Davis, West Virginia was initiated in 2006. This planning process provides a unique opportunity for public input and involvement. Public involvement is an important part of the CCP process. Participation by parties with a stake in the resource (stakeholders) has the potential to increase understanding and support and reduce conflicts. Additionally, meaningful public participation in a decision process may increase trust and provide satisfaction in terms of both process and outcome for management and the public. Public meetings are a common way to obtain input from community members, visitors, and potential visitors. An 'Issues Workbook' is another tool the FWS uses to obtain public input and participation early in the planning process. Sometimes, however, these traditional methods do not capture the full range of perspectives that exist. A stakeholder evaluation is a way to more fully understand community preferences and opinions related to key topics in refuge planning. It can also help refuge staff understand how changes in management affect individuals in terms of their preference for services and experiences. Secondarily, a process such as this can address 'social goals' such as fostering trust in regulating agencies and reducing conflict among stakeholders. As part of the CCP planning effort at Canaan

  3. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-05-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600.

  4. Optical manipulation of valley pseduospin in 2D semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang

    Valley polarization associated with the occupancy in the energy degenerate but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in the momentum space closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for future quantum information technologies. Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) crystals, with broken inversion symmetry and large spin-orbital coupling, support robust valley polarization and therefore provide an important platform for studying valley-dependent physics. Besides optical excitation and photoluminescence detection, valley polarization has been electrically measured through the valley Hall effect and created through spin injection from ferromagnetic semiconductor contacts. Moreover, the energy degeneracy of the valley degree of freedom has been lifted by the optical Stark effect. Recently, we have demonstrated optical manipulation of valley coherence, i.e., of the valley pseudospin, by the optical Stark effect in monolayer WSe2. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotated the valley pseudospin on the femtosecond time scale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be optically controlled by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. The pseudospin rotation was identified by changes in the polarization of the photoluminescence. In addition, by varying the time delay between the excitation and control pulses, we directly probed the lifetime of the intervalley coherence. Similar rotation levels have also been observed in static magneto-optic experiments. Our work presents an important step towards the full control of the valley degree of freedom in 2D semiconductors. The work was done in collaboration with Dr. Dezheng Sun and Prof. Tony F. Heinz.

  5. Hydrologic reconnaissance of Rush Valley, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, James W.; Price, Don; Waddell, K.M.

    1969-01-01

    This report is the third in a series by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, which describes the water resources of the western basins of Utah. Its purpose is to present available hydrologic data for Rush Valley, to provide an evaluation of the potential water-resources development of the valley, and to identify needed studies that would help provide an understanding of the valley's water supply.

  6. Hydrologic reconnaissance of Skull Valley, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, James W.; Waddell, K.M.

    1968-01-01

    This report is the second in a series by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, which describes the water resources of the western basins of Utah. Its purpose is to present available hydrologic data on Skull Valley, to provide an evaluation of the potential water-resource development of the valley, and to identify needed studies that would help provide an understandingof the valley's water supply.

  7. Summary and evaluation of existing geological and geophysical data near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; DiSilvestro, L.A. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of the Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, is the preferred location of the surface facilities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. One goal in siting these surface facilities is to avoid faults that could produce relative displacements in excess of 5 cm in the foundations of the waste-handling buildings. This study reviews existing geologic and geophysical data that can be used to assess the potential for surface fault rupture within Midway Valley. Dominant tectonic features in Midway Valley are north-trending, westward-dipping normal faults along the margins of the valley: the Bow Ridge fault to the west and the Paintbrush Canyon fault to the east. Published estimates of average Quaternary slip rates for these faults are very low but the age of most recent displacement and the amount of displacement per event are largely unknown. Surface mapping and interpretive cross sections, based on limited drillhole and geophysical data, suggest that additional normal faults, including the postulated Midway Valley fault, may exist beneath the Quaternary/Tertiary fill within the valley. Existing data, however, are inadequate to determine the location, recency, and geometry of this faulting. To confidently assess the potential for significant Quaternary faulting in Midway Valley, additional data are needed that define the stratigraphy and structure of the strata beneath the valley, characterize the Quaternary soils and surfaces, and establish the age of faulting. The use of new and improved geophysical techniques, combined with a drilling program, offers the greatest potential for resolving subsurface structure in the valley. Mapping of surficial geologic units and logging of soil pits and trenches within these units must be completed, using accepted state-of-the-art practices supported by multiple quantitative numerical and relative age-dating techniques.

  8. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfi, J; Mol, J A; Rahman, R; Klimeck, G; Simmons, M Y; Hollenberg, L C L; Rogge, S

    2014-06-01

    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization.

  9. Disorder-dependent valley properties in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Kha

    2017-07-19

    We investigate the effect of disorder on exciton valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WSe2. By analyzing the polarization properties of photoluminescence, the valley coherence (VC) and valley polarization (VP) are quantified across the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance. We find that disorder plays a critical role in the exciton VC, while affecting VP less. For different monolayer samples with disorder characterized by their Stokes shift (SS), VC decreases in samples with higher SS while VP does not follow a simple trend. These two methods consistently demonstrate that VC as defined by the degree of linearly polarized photoluminescence is more sensitive to disorder, motivating further theoretical studies.

  10. Subsurface stratigraphy of the eastern Hollister Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMasters, Catherine R.; Herd, Darrell G.; Throckmorton, Constance K.; Heusser, Linda E.

    1987-01-01

    In September 1977, four cores were recovered by shallow auger drilling from Hollister Valley, California, near the Calaveras fault. The wells were drilled to search for evidence that Hollister Valley may have been occupied by a large lake during the late Pleistocene or Holocene. This small valley, near Monterey Bay, may have been dammed by a large landslide on the San Andreas fault (Jenkins, 1973; Herd and Helley, 1977). The cores sampled the first 38 m of sediment below the valley floor, but no lacustrine deposits were found at these sites; a very detailed record to Holocene alluviation in a tectonically subsiding basin. 

  11. Rockfall hazard and risk assessment in the Yosemite Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent types of slope movements in Yosemite National Park, California. In historical time (1857-2002) 392 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the results of an attempt to assess rock fall hazards in the Yosemite Valley. Spatial and temporal aspects of rock falls hazard are considered. A detailed inventory of slope movements covering the 145-year period from 1857 to 2002 is used to determine the frequency-volume statistics of rock falls and to estimate the annual frequency of rock falls, providing the temporal component of rock fall hazard. The extent of the areas potentially subject to rock fall hazards in the Yosemite Valley were obtained using STONE, a physically-based rock fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock fall trajectories starting from a digital elevation model (DEM), the location of rock fall release points, and maps of the dynamic rolling friction coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tangential energy restitution. For each DEM cell the software calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock fall velocity and the maximum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DEM with a ground resolution of 10 × 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from the U.S. Geological Survey 1:24 000-scale maps. Rock fall release points were identified as DEM cells having a slope steeper than 60°, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the normal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to calibrate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls confirmed the accuracy of

  12. Rockfall hazard and risk assessment in the Yosemite Valley, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guzzetti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent types of slope movements in Yosemite National Park, California. In historical time (1857–2002 392 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the results of an attempt to assess rock fall hazards in the Yosemite Valley. Spatial and temporal aspects of rock falls hazard are considered. A detailed inventory of slope movements covering the 145-year period from 1857 to 2002 is used to determine the frequency-volume statistics of rock falls and to estimate the annual frequency of rock falls, providing the temporal component of rock fall hazard. The extent of the areas potentially subject to rock fall hazards in the Yosemite Valley were obtained using STONE, a physically-based rock fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock fall trajectories starting from a digital elevation model (DEM, the location of rock fall release points, and maps of the dynamic rolling friction coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tangential energy restitution. For each DEM cell the software calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock fall velocity and the maximum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DEM with a ground resolution of 10 × 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from the U.S. Geological Survey 1:24 000-scale maps. Rock fall release points were identified as DEM cells having a slope steeper than 60°, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the normal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to calibrate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls

  13. Vegetation patterns and land use types in the Patia valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Rafael Vergara Varela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation of dry forest ecosystem of the Patia valley located in the department of Cauca has been altered and replaced by crops and pastures. The forest remnants were characterized in terms of their structure and floristic composition at altitudes between 500 and 800 m. This study evaluated changes in land cover  using aerial photographs and satellite image as input to produce land cover maps in order to assess changes associated with land use types. Data were analyzed by multivariate methods using the TWINSPAN program to produce a vegetation classification, identifying six vegetation structure types and six floristic types. The floristic gradient thrown by the program describes structural types, ranging from forests to shrublands and grasslands. Successional plant communities reflect conditions of the fragments, Citharexylum kunthianum community contrasts with riparian forests determined by Eugenia sp the dominant specie in disturbed areas. Handroanthus chrysanthus community shows a transition to xerophyte vegetation of the south of Colombia. Land use types and land cover classes have remained since 1961. Tropical dry forests are reduced in its structure, considering that forests are disturbed. In the long history of the land use and disturbance of this area, a reduction in forest fragments is evident, social and economic factors are a force for a change in plant communities in rural areas.

  14. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part I. Cultural Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Delmues (or Swiss Bob) Well where there was a station, then west across Dry Lake Valley toward Coyote Spring to another station (Lloyd, 1980). The line...in the recorded surface assemblages of the temporary camps. Further investigations may $ Etag E-TR-48-III-I 120 clarify the specific nature of the

  15. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.

    2016-01-10

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  16. Nitrate Contamination of Deep Aquifers in the Salinas Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Holtz, M.; Roberts, S. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Belitz, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Salinas Valley, known as 'the salad bowl of the world', has been an agricultural center for more than 100 years. Irrigated row crops such as lettuce and strawberries dominate both land use and water use. Groundwater is the exclusive supply for both irrigation and drinking water. Some irrigation wells and most public water supply wells in the Salinas Valley are constructed to draw water from deep portions of the aquifer system, where contamination by nitrate is less likely than in the shallow portions of the aquifer system. However, a number of wells with top perforations greater than 75 m deep, screened below confining or semi-confining units, have nitrate concentrations greater than the Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) of 45 mg/L as NO3-. This study uses nitrate concentrations from several hundred irrigation, drinking water, and monitoring wells (Monterey County Water Resources Agency, 1997), along with tritium-helium groundwater ages acquired at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through the State of California Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program (reported in Kulongoski et al., 2007 and in Moran et al., in press), to identify nitrate 'hot spots' in the deep aquifer and to examine possible modes of nitrate transport to the deep aquifer. In addition, observed apparent groundwater ages are compared with the results of transport simulations that use particle tracking and a stochastic-geostatistical framework to incorporate aquifer heterogeneity to determine the distribution of travel times from the water table to each well (Fogg et al., 1999). The combined evidence from nitrate, tritium, tritiogenic 3He, and radiogenic 4He concentrations, reveals complex recharge and flow to the capture zone of the deep drinking water wells. Widespread groundwater pumping for irrigation accelerates vertical groundwater flow such that high nitrate groundwater reaches some deep drinking water wells. Deeper portions of the wells often draw in water that recharged

  17. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various

  18. Volume of Valley Networks on Mars and Its Hydrologic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Cang, X.; Howard, A. D.; Heo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Valley networks on Mars are river-like features that offer the best evidence for water activities in its geologic past. Previous studies have extracted valley network lines automatically from digital elevation model (DEM) data and manually from remotely sensed images. The volume of material removed by valley networks is an important parameter that could help us infer the amount of water needed to carve the valleys. A progressive black top hat (PBTH) transformation algorithm has been adapted from image processing to extract valley volume and successfully applied to simulated landform and Ma'adim Valles, Mars. However, the volume of valley network excavation on Mars has not been estimated on a global scale. In this study, the PBTH method was applied to the whole Mars to estimate this important parameter. The process was automated with Python in ArcGIS. Polygons delineating the valley associated depressions were generated by using a multi-flow direction growth method, which started with selected high point seeds on a depth grid (essentially an inverted valley) created by PBTH transformation and grew outward following multi-flow direction on the depth grid. Two published versions of valley network lines were integrated to automatically select depression polygons that represent the valleys. Some crater depressions that are connected with valleys and thus selected in the previous step were removed by using information from a crater database. Because of large distortion associated with global dataset in projected maps, the volume of each cell within a valley was calculated using the depth of the cell multiplied by the spherical area of the cell. The volumes of all the valley cells were then summed to produce the estimate of global valley excavation volume. Our initial result of this estimate was ~2.4×1014 m3. Assuming a sediment density of 2900 kg/m3, a porosity of 0.35, and a sediment load of 1.5 kg/m3, the global volume of water needed to carve the valleys was

  19. Knickpoints and Hanging Valleys of Licus Vallis, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, T. A.; Fassett, C.

    2016-12-01

    Licus Vallis is a 350 km long valley system located along the dichotomy boundary on Mars. The main trunk of the valley is incised 200-700 m into the surrounding terrain. The valley heads at an outlet breach of a shallow, 30 km diameter impact crater, and is also fed by a system of tributaries incised into the plateau surrounding Licus Vallis. Many of the tributary valleys, as well as the main stem of the valley fed by the paleolake outlet, have profiles that are not smoothly graded, but rather have distinct reaches with concave downward topography. These sections are either knickpoints or hanging valleys that develop in response to changes in the effective local base level, changes in climate conditions during incision of the valley, or lithologic boundaries in the substrate. Here we present remote sensing observations from images and topography to test these competing hypotheses and further characterize the evolution of this large valley system. Slope-watershed area relationships for the tributaries and main trunk valley are used to distinguish between knickpoints and hanging valleys. Analysis of orbital images does not reveal any distinct layer above which knickpoints develop, and the elevation of knickpoints show no systematic trends that might be expected of a regional lithologic unit(s). Our preliminary results suggest that the distance of knickpoint retreat is correlated with the position of the tributary valley and not the watershed area. Downstream valleys have retreated the most, suggesting they have had the most time to adjust to lowering of the local base level associated with incision of the main valley. These results are most consistent with a wave of incision sweeping up the valley system as it adjusts to a low base level in the northern plains. This conclusion is also consistent with observations of the incision depth of Licus Vallis, which increases approximately linearly downstream. Understanding this signature of base level control on the incision

  20. Historical Geography of the Upper Tombigbee Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    0-0117 005 AL4AA8A IIV IN BZFI~~N$A cmkf FOR TH4I STW ~V O5-C PlO 5/4045TORICAL W5APm or T~iq LP t’ viLLEY. tuM AY t an 0 Po ot C4714(76) iL d Au rI...Archeology Upper Tombigbee Valley Cultural Resources Tombigbee River Predictive Models * A Settlement Patterns Transportation Activities cont on n xt...Tombigbee River Multi- Resource District of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway in Alabama and Mississippi. THE CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF SOUTHERN HISTORY

  1. Pleistocene glaciation in the Logar Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Stojilković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the glacial remains from the time of the last glacial maximum in the Logar Valley in the Kamnik-Savinja Alps. The purpose of the work is to reinterpret the findings written so far and the geomorphologic remains from the time of the Pleistocene glaciation and to prepare a new proposal of the circumference of the last glacial maximum in this area. The numerical analysis was based on the findings gained with field work. According to the findings, the maximum glacier extent was drawn and a three-dimensional reconstruction of the topography of the surface was created.

  2. Afforestation for improving valley urban air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Peter C.; Chen, Y.C.; Lu, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Air Quality Management at Urban, Regional, and Global Scales, Third International Symposium on Air Quality Management Lanzhou is one of the major cities in northwest China and the capital of Gansu Province and located at a narrow (2-8 km width), long (40-km), NW-SE oriented valley basin (elevation: 1,500- 1,600-m) with the Tibetan plateau in the west, Baita mountain (above 1,700-m elevation) in the north, and the Gaolan mountain in the south. Due to topographic and meteorol...

  3. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  4. The uncanny valley in games and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Tinwell, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Advances in technology have enabled animators and video game designers to design increasingly realistic, human-like characters in animation and games. Although it was intended that this increased realism would allow viewers to appreciate the emotional state of characters, research has shown that audiences often have a negative reaction as the human likeness of a character increases. This phenomenon, known as the Uncanny Valley, has become a benchmark for measuring if a character is believably realistic and authentically human like. This book is an essential guide on how to overcome the Uncanny

  5. Oscillating Nocturnal Slope Flow in a Coastal Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mahrt, Larry

    1985-01-01

    over the sloping valley floor was studied during a special observing campaign. A downslope gravity flow interacts with even colder surface air at the valley floor. The latter originates as cold marine air or previous drainage of cold air. Regular oscillations which appear to be trapped, terrain...

  6. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of viticultural...

  7. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock, Mozambique, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Peter; Mubemba, Benjamin; Nhambirre, Ofélia; Neves, Luis; Coetzer, J.A.W.; Venter, Estelle H.

    2016-01-01

    In early 2014, abortions and death of ruminants were reported on farms in Maputo and Gaza Provinces, Mozambique. Serologic analysis and quantitative and conventional reverse transcription PCR confirmed the presence of Rift Valley fever virus. The viruses belonged to lineage C, which is prevalent among Rift Valley fever viruses in southern Africa. PMID:27869589

  8. Some Environmental Issues of Inland Valleys: A Case Study | Asiam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that inland valleys can be real environmental liability because produce from such valleys can be polluted and hence can be a source of social conflict particularly when they fringe mineral concessions as the adverse impacts could be unfortunately attributed to mining activity and similar land uses.

  9. Characterization of inland-valleys for smallholder dairy production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-level (village or town, household level) characterization of inland-valley areas was undertaken in order to assess the potentials and constraints associated with inland-valleys agriculture production in a croplivestock system in 3 west african countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Nigeria). User groups and opinion leaders in ...

  10. Groundwater recharge on east side soils of the Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    After four years of drought, groundwater levels in the Salinas Valley are at historically low levels which threaten to adversely affect farming in the Salinas Valley. Given the prospect of a strong El Niño this coming winter, it seems prudent to plan to capture as much of the rainfall as possible to...

  11. Valley Fever: Danger Lurking in a Dust Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Larry; Gaab, Erin M.; Sanchez, Javier; Bui, Phuong Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Hoyer, Katrina K.; Peterson, Michael W.; Ojcius, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii contribute to the development of Valley Fever. The ability of these fungal pathogens to evade the host immune system creates difficulty in recognition and treatment of this debilitating infection. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of Valley Fever and approaches to improve prevention, detection, and treatment. PMID:25038397

  12. Cache valley virus in a patient diagnosed with aseptic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nang L; Zhao, Guoyan; Hull, Rene; Shelly, Mark A; Wong, Susan J; Wu, Guang; St George, Kirsten; Wang, David; Menegus, Marilyn A

    2013-06-01

    Cache Valley virus was initially isolated from mosquitoes and had been linked to central nervous system-associated diseases. A case of Cache Valley virus infection is described. The virus was cultured from a patient's cerebrospinal fluid and identified with real-time reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing, which also yielded the complete viral coding sequences.

  13. 36 CFR 7.26 - Death Valley National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Monument. 7.26 Section 7.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.26 Death Valley National Monument. (a) Mining. Mining in Death Valley National Monument is subject to the following regulations, which are...

  14. A plateau-valley separation method for multifunctional surfaces characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    method based on the separation between the plateau and valley regions has been developed. After properly determining a threshold between plateaus and valleys, the two regions are divided in two distinct profiles, which can be studied separately according to the specific function....

  15. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  16. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  17. Geddes, Zoos and the Valley Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Thompson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Edinburgh Zoological Garden was a pioneering example of the modern approach to animal display, placing animals in naturalistic settings that demanded innovative landscape design. The concept for Edinburgh Zoo, opened in 1913, was devised by Patrick Geddes and developed in collaboration with Frank C Mears and Geddes's daughter, Norah. This paper draws on Welter's (2002 important study of Geddes's vision of the city and on Geddes biographies, as well as on original archive material, to explore aspects of Geddes's vision for landscape architecture in the early twentieth century. The paper discusses Geddes's contribution to contemporary design and planning theory through the concept of the valley section, which comes to an understanding of the global through the local and in turn inspires a vision of the universal. Geddes was influenced by Hagenbeck's design for his zoo, near Hamburg, and by the New York Zoological Park, in developing displays for Edinburgh zoo that attempted to show animal behaviour as it would be in its natural habitat. The work of the German evolutionary biologist, Ernst Haeckel, further inspired Geddes to conceptualise the design as one where, just as ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, so human civilisation might be recapitulated. He developed a three-dimensional expression of his hypothetical 'valley section' as a model for interaction between life and the environment. The zoo 'within' a city becomes a model for the ideal city, a city 'within' its region, reflecting the highest attainment of human development, yet still linked to the most primitive of origins.

  18. Amelioration of the irrigated lands of the Vakhsh valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikromov, Islomkul; Mirzoev, Mm

    2015-04-01

    In the agro-industrial country like Tajikistan, the efficient use of irrigation of arable land is important because it contributes to the solution of the State Program of the Food independence of the country, by increasing the yield of agricultural production per unit of irrigated area. The irrigated area in the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1.01.2014g. equal to about 750 thousand. ha, per capita, on average, less than 0.10 hectares. and its share in relation to agricultural land is only 10.5%. However, more than 90% of crop production are grown on these lands. Given the demographic growth of the population of the republic specific area of irrigated land from year to year is becoming less and less of that call into question the successful solution of the above program. Therefore, in our view, to ensure food independence of the country in addition to the development of land from the reserve, should focus on the amelioration of existing irrigated areas, improve the culture of land and water, on modernization of reclamation systems contribute to a high degree of adaptability based on a high degree of water metering, water distribution, water and resource conservation, the use of the latest technology and irrigation techniques. Condition of the soil is their estimated figures is mainly determined by its productivity. It is determined by the degree of salinity of soils, the depth of the groundwater level and salinity, erosion and on stony ground. Vakhsh valley in Tajikistan is one of the main oases, ensuring production of agricultural products but, in recent years due to a number of man-made reasons: Adherence crop irrigation, low technical condition of irrigation systems and as a consequence their efficiency and utilization of irrigation water and farming, inoperable drainage system, or lack of them all, the virtual absence of vodouchёta on the field, no use of it modern technology and irrigation techniques, etc., the level of both fresh and saline groundwater rose

  19. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Owens Valley, a long, narrow valley located along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada in east-central California, is the main source of water for the city of Los Angeles. The city diverts most of the surface water in the valley into the Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct system, which transports the water more than 200 miles south to areas of distribution and use. Additionally, ground water is pumped or flows from wells to supplement the surface-water diversions to the river-aqueduct system. Pumpage from wells needed to supplement water export has increased since 1970, when a second aqueduct was put into service, and local concerns have been expressed that the increased pumpage may have had a detrimental effect on the environment and the indigenous alkaline scrub and meadow plant communities in the valley. The scrub and meadow communities depend on soil moisture derived from precipitation and the unconfined part of a multilayered aquifer system. This report, which describes the hydrogeology of the aquifer system and the water resources of the valley, is one in a series designed to (1) evaluate the effects that groundwater pumping has on scrub and meadow communities and (2) appraise alternative strategies to mitigate any adverse effects caused by, pumping. Two principal topographic features are the surface expression of the geologic framework--the high, prominent mountains on the east and west sides of the valley and the long, narrow intermountain valley floor. The mountains are composed of sedimentary, granitic, and metamorphic rocks, mantled in part by volcanic rocks as well as by glacial, talus, and fluvial deposits. The valley floor is underlain by valley fill that consists of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated alluvial fan, transition-zone, glacial and talus, and fluvial and lacustrine deposits. The valley fill also includes interlayered recent volcanic flows and pyroclastic rocks. The bedrock surface beneath the valley fill is a narrow, steep-sided graben

  20. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  1. Detection of valley polarization in graphene by a superconducting contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmerov, A R; Beenakker, C W J

    2007-04-13

    Because the valleys in the band structure of graphene are related by time-reversal symmetry, electrons from one valley are reflected as holes from the other valley at the junction with a superconductor. We show how this Andreev reflection can be used to detect the valley polarization of edge states produced by a magnetic field. In the absence of intervalley relaxation, the conductance GNS=(2e2/h)(1-cosTheta) of the junction on the lowest quantum Hall plateau is entirely determined by the angle Theta between the valley isospins of the edge states approaching and leaving the superconductor. If the superconductor covers a single edge, Theta=0 and no current can enter the superconductor. A measurement of GNS then determines the intervalley relaxation time.

  2. Fracture controls on valley persistence: the Cairngorm Granite pluton, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. M.; Gillespie, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Valleys are remarkably persistent features in many different tectonic settings, but the reasons for this persistence are rarely explored. Here, we examine the structural controls on valleys in the Cairngorms Mountains, Scotland, part of the passive margin of the eastern North Atlantic. We consider valleys at three scales: straths, glens and headwater valleys. The structural controls on valleys in and around the Cairngorm Granite pluton were examined on satellite and aerial photographs and by field survey. Topographic lineaments, including valleys, show no consistent orientation with joint sets or with sheets of microgranite and pegmatitic granite. In this granite landscape, jointing is not a first-order control on valley development. Instead, glens and headwater valleys align closely to quartz veins and linear alteration zones (LAZs). LAZs are zones of weakness in the granite pluton in which late-stage hydrothermal alteration and hydro-fracturing have greatly reduced rock mass strength and increased permeability. LAZs, which can be kilometres long and >700 m deep, are the dominant controls on the orientation of valleys in the Cairngorms. LAZs formed in the roof zone of the granite intrusion. Although the Cairngorm pluton was unroofed soon after emplacement, the presence of Old Red Sandstone (ORS) outliers in the terrain to the north and east indicates that the lower relief of the sub-ORS basement surface has been lowered by 1 km of vertical erosion and for 400 Myr. This valley persistence is a combined product of regionally low rates of basement exhumation and of the existence of LAZs in the Cairngorm pluton and sub-parallel Caledonide fractures in the surrounding terrain with depths that exceed 1 km.

  3. A Crustal Velocity Model for South Mexicali Valley, Baja California, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, E.; Vidal-Villegas, A.; Stock, J. M.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.

    2016-12-01

    The northern Baja California region consists of two subregions of different geological features: the Peninsular Ranges of Baja California, of granitic composition, and the Mexicali Valley region, characterized by a series of sedimentary basins: the Laguna Salada and the Mexicali Valley. Due to the lack of an appropriate crust model for South Mexicali Valley, a refraction study was conducted. We installed 16 three-component short period stations (2 Hz) and one broadband station (100 s - 50 Hz). The stations, spaced 6 km along a refraction profile, recorded a blast performed in the southwest Arizona near the border with Sonora, Mexico. Records gathered were used to estimate a crust velocity structure model for South Mexicali Valley. The beginning of the profile is at San Luis Rio Colorado (SLRC), Sonora and its ending is at the middle of Sierra Juarez, Baja California. As a "reverse shot", for a 47 km section between SLRC and El Mayor Mountain, we used an aftershock M 3.4 of the 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake. Record sections show seismograms with impulsive P arrivals for nearby stations. The arrival Pn wave is observed at three stations located in Laguna Salada and Sierra Juarez. From the first arrivals of refractions and reflections of the P wave we performed direct modeling of travel times and relative amplitudes (normalized synthetic seismograms). Method based on asymptotic ray theory programed in the RAYINVR software (Zelt and Smith, 1992). We propose an average-three-layer velocity structure model: 2.9, 5.6 and 6.9 km/s, with thicknesses of 1.2, 4.4 and 9.6 km, respectively. Velocities of our model for the region under study are about 1 km/s higher than the model proposed by McMechan and Mooney (1984) for the Imperial Valley. The preliminary interpretation using the "reverse shot" indicates a crust of 15 km depth beneath the Mexicali Valley and 19 km under the El Mayor Mountain and Laguna Salada basin. On the eastern side of the El Mayor Mountain we

  4. Geothermal environmental studies, Heber Region, Imperial Valley, California. Environmental baseline data acquisition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been studying the feasibility of a Low Salinity Hydrothermal Demonstration Plant as part of its Geothermal Energy Program. The Heber area of the Imperial Valley was selected as one of the candidate geothermal reservoirs. Documentation of the environmental conditions presently existing in the Heber area is required for assessment of environmental impacts of future development. An environmental baseline data acquisition program to compile available data on the environment of the Heber area is reported. The program included a review of pertinent existing literature, interviews with academic, governmental and private entities, combined with field investigations and meteorological monitoring to collect primary data. Results of the data acquisition program are compiled in terms of three elements: the physical, the biological and socioeconomic settings.

  5. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  6. Fracture density and spacing along Washita Valley fault, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferebee, C.D.; Tapp, J.B. (Univ. of Tulsa, OK (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The authors document fracture density and spacing associated with the Washita Valley fault, a major strike-slip fault. The Washita Valley fault strikes northwest-southeast with up to 80 mi of exposure in southern Oklahoma and may be an early bounding fault of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen (Ardmore/Marietta basins). Horizontal displacement on the fault has been estimated to be up to 40 mi, with vertical displacement on the order of 10,000 ft. Samples collected from traverses across the Washita Valley fault have been analyzed. The traverses cross the fault at different stratigraphic levels from Proterozoic igneous basement, through the Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group, Ordovician Simpson and Viola Groups, to the Silurian-Devonian Hunton Group. Several types of fracture systems are documented that reflect mechanical stratigraphy, burial depth during deformation, and episodic movement on the fault. The fractures in the study area include open fracture systems, calcite-filled fractures, tension gashes, and fractures related to pressure solution. The samples were cut parallel to the strike of the fault, vertical-normal to the fault, and horizontal-normal to the fault. These cuts allow examination of the total fracture strain, characterization of the fractures, and statistical analysis of fracture density. From these data, fracture density is shown to decrease exponentially moving away from the primary fault zone. The increased understanding of fracture patterns and characteristics will assist future exploration and development programs involving carbonate reservoirs associated with strike-slip systems.

  7. Using Technology to Enhance an Automotive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Denis Ashton uses technology in his automotive technology program at East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) to positively impact student outcomes. Ashton, the department chair for the automotive programs at EVIT, in Mesa, Arizona, says that using an interactive PowerPoint curriculum makes learning fun for students and provides immediate…

  8. An epidemiological model of Rift Valley fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Leahy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We present and explore a novel mathematical model of the epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever (RVF. RVF is an Old World, mosquito-borne disease affecting both livestock and humans. The model is an ordinary differential equation model for two populations of mosquito species, those that can transmit vertically and those that cannot, and for one livestock population. We analyze the model to find the stability of the disease-free equlibrium and test which model parameters affect this stability most significantly. This model is the basis for future research into the predication of future outbreaks in the Old World and the assessment of the threat of introduction into the New World.

  9. Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradaib, Imadeldin E.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Elageb, Rehab M.; Khristova, Marina L.; Carroll, Serena A.; Elkhidir, Isam M.; Karsany, Mubarak E.; Karrar, AbdelRahim E.; Elbashir, Mustafa I.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the 2007 and 2010 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan, which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the 2006–2008 eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the 2007 and 2010 Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa 1996. The data suggest multiple introductions of RVFV into Sudan as part of sweeping epizootics from eastern Africa. The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas. PMID:23347790

  10. Identifying Methane Emission Sources in the San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, K. E.; Hughes, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its emission sources need to be evaluated. During the 2016 NASA Student Airborne Research Program, whole air samples were collected throughout the San Joaquin Valley aboard the NASA DC-8. The area southeast of Fresno was found to have elevated methane concentrations (2320 ± 2 ppbv). Samples from 2009-2015 SARP flights also exhibited elevated methane in this region. To determine the source of methane in this area, thermogenic and biogenic tracers were analyzed. This area exhibited elevated acetonitrile (399 ± 12 pptv) indicating a small contribution from thermogenic methane. Enhanced methanol (8727 ± 2618 pptv), ethanol (1981 ± 594 pptv), dimethyl sulfide (3.3 ± 0.3 pptv), and isoprene (193 ± 6 pptv) were observed and indicate a large contribution from biogenic sources. Methane to ethane ratios were used to determine two distinct sources of methane in this region. It is difficult to define a single source as the cause of the enhancement as it is most likely from a mixture of sources. Research in this region should be continued, as a more thorough analysis using isotopic and radiocarbon signatures could confirm and quantify individual methane contributions from each potential source.

  11. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai

    2016-02-29

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time—a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation—is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron–hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron–hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  12. Origin and evolution of valleys on Martian volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulick, V.C.; Baker, V.R. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1990-08-30

    Morphological analyses of six Martian volcanoes, Ceraunius Tholus, Hecates Tholus, Alba Patera, Hadriaca Patera, Apollinaris Patera, and Tyrrhena Patera, indicate that fluvial processes were the dominant influence in the initiation and subsequent development of many dissecting valleys. Lava processes and possibly volcanic density flows were also important as valley-forming processes. Fluvial valleys are especially well developed on Alba Patera, Ceraunius Tholus, and Hecates Tholus. These valleys are inset into the surrounding landscape. They formed in regions of subdued lava flow morphology, contain tributaries, and tend to widen slightly in the downstream direction. Lava channels on Alba Patera are located on the crest of lava flows and have a discontinuous, irregular surface morphology, and distributary patterns. These channels sometimes narrow toward their termini. Possible volcanic density flow channels are located on the northern flank of Ceraunius Tholus. Valleys dissecting Apollinaris Patera, Hadriaca Patera, and Tyrrhena Patera appear to have a complex evolution, probably a mixed fluvial and lava origin. They are inset into a subdued (possibly mantled) surface, lack tributaries, and either have fairly constant widths or widen slightly downvalley. Valleys surrounding the caldera of Apollinaris appear to have formed by fluvial and possibly by volcanic density flow processes, while those on the Apollinaris fan structure may have a mixed lava and fluvial origin. Valleys on Tyrrhena have broad flat floors and theater heads, which have been extensively enlarged, probably by sapping.

  13. Topological valley transport at bilayer graphene domain walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Long; Shi, Zhiwen; Nair, Nityan; Lv, Yinchuan; Jin, Chenhao; Velasco, Jairo; Ojeda-Aristizabal, Claudia; Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C; Zettl, Alex; Analytis, James; Wang, Feng

    2015-04-30

    Electron valley, a degree of freedom that is analogous to spin, can lead to novel topological phases in bilayer graphene. A tunable bandgap can be induced in bilayer graphene by an external electric field, and such gapped bilayer graphene is predicted to be a topological insulating phase protected by no-valley mixing symmetry, featuring quantum valley Hall effects and chiral edge states. Observation of such chiral edge states, however, is challenging because inter-valley scattering is induced by atomic-scale defects at real bilayer graphene edges. Recent theoretical work has shown that domain walls between AB- and BA-stacked bilayer graphene can support protected chiral edge states of quantum valley Hall insulators. Here we report an experimental observation of ballistic (that is, with no scattering of electrons) conducting channels at bilayer graphene domain walls. We employ near-field infrared nanometre-scale microscopy (nanoscopy) to image in situ bilayer graphene layer-stacking domain walls on device substrates, and we fabricate dual-gated field effect transistors based on the domain walls. Unlike single-domain bilayer graphene, which shows gapped insulating behaviour under a vertical electrical field, bilayer graphene domain walls feature one-dimensional valley-polarized conducting channels with a ballistic length of about 400 nanometres at 4 kelvin. Such topologically protected one-dimensional chiral states at bilayer graphene domain walls open up opportunities for exploring unique topological phases and valley physics in graphene.

  14. Geothermal hydrology of Warner Valley, Oregon: a reconnaissance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammel, E.A.; Craig, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Warner Valley and its southern extension, Coleman Valley, are two of several high-desert valleys in the Basin and Range province of south-central Oregon that contain thermal waters. At least 20 thermal springs, defined as having temperatures of 20/sup 0/C or more, issue from Tertiary basaltic flows and tuffs in and near the valleys. Many shallow wells also produce thermal waters. The highest measured temperature is 127/sup 0/C, reported from a well known as Crump geyser, at a depth of 200 meters. The hottest spring, located near Crump geyser, has a surface temperature of 78/sup 0/C. The occurrence of these thermal waters is closely related to faults and fault intersections in the graben and horst structure of the valleys. Chemical analyses show that the thermal waters are of two types: sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate waters. Chemical indicators show that the geothermal system is a hot-water rather than a vapor-dominated system. Conductive heat flow in areas of the valley unaffected by hydrothermal convection is probably about 75 milliwatts per square meter. The normal thermal gradient in valley-fill dpeosits in these areas may be about 40/sup 0/C per kilometer. Geothermometers and mixing models indicate that temperatures of equilibration are at least 170/sup 0/C for the thermal components of the hotter waters. The size and location of geothermal reservoirs are unknown.

  15. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:23671121

  16. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B; Farrell, Roberta L

    2013-05-28

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution.

  17. Near-surface heat flow in Saline Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mase, C.W.; Galanis, S.P. Jr.; Munroe, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    With the exception of values from one borehole drilled at Palm Spring and three boreholes drilled around Saline Valley dry lake, eight new heatflow values in Saline Valley, California, are within or somewhat below the range one would expect for this region of the Basin and Range heat-flow province. The lack of recent volcanism in the area and the apparently normal Basin and Range heat flow suggest that geothermal systems within the valley are stable stationary phases supported by high regional heat flow and forced convection.

  18. Valley-selective topologically ordered states in irradiated bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chunlei; Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Gapless bilayer graphene is susceptible to a variety of spontaneously gapped states. As predicted by theory and observed by experiment, the ground state is, however, topologically trivial, because a valley-independent gap is energetically favorable. Here, we show that under the application of interlayer electric field and circularly polarized light, one valley can be selected to exhibit the original interaction instability while the other is frozen out. Tuning this Floquet system stabilizes multiple competing topologically ordered states, distinguishable by edge transport and circular dichroism. Notably, quantized charge, spin, and valley Hall conductivities coexist in one stabilized state.

  19. Holocene alluvial fills in the South Loup Valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, David W.

    1989-07-01

    Four Holocene alluvial fills are present in Nebraska's South Loup River valley. Fill IV, the oldest and thickest, was deposited between 10,200 and 4800 14C yr B.P.; Fill III has an age of about 3000 14C yr B.P.; Fill II is younger than 2100 and older than 900 14C yr B.P.; and Fill I is younger than 900 14C yr B.P. Regional contemporaneity of valley alluviation in the eastcentral Great Plains suggests that climate has controlled long-term sediment storage in the South Loup River valley.

  20. High-resolution seismic reflection/refraction imaging from Interstate 10 to Cherry Valley Boulevard, Cherry Valley, Riverside County, California: implications for water resources and earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhok, G.; Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Horta, E.; Rymer, M.J.; Martin, P.; Christensen, A.

    1999-01-01

    This report is the second of two reports on seismic imaging investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during the summers of 1997 and 1998 in the Cherry Valley area in California (Figure 1a). In the first report (Catchings et al., 1999), data and interpretations were presented for four seismic imaging profiles (CV-1, CV-2, CV-3, and CV-4) acquired during the summer of 1997 . In this report, we present data and interpretations for three additional profiles (CV-5, CV-6, and CV-7) acquired during the summer of 1998 and the combined seismic images for all seven profiles. This report addresses both groundwater resources and earthquake hazards in the San Gorgonio Pass area because the shallow (upper few hundred meters) subsurface stratigraphy and structure affect both issues. The cities of Cherry Valley and Beaumont are located approximately 130 km (~80 miles) east of Los Angeles, California along the southern alluvial fan of the San Bernardino Mountains (see Figure 1b). These cities are two of several small cities that are located within San Gorgonio Pass, a lower-lying area between the San Bernardino and the San Jacinto Mountains. Cherry Valley and Beaumont are desert cities with summer daytime temperatures often well above 100 o F. High water usage in the arid climate taxes the available groundwater supply in the region, increasing the need for efficient management of the groundwater resources. The USGS and the San Gorgonio Water District (SGWD) work cooperatively to evaluate the quantity and quality of groundwater supply in the San Gorgonio Pass region. To better manage the water supplies within the District during wet and dry periods, the SGWD sought to develop a groundwater recharge program, whereby, excess water would be stored in underground aquifers during wet periods (principally winter months) and retrieved during dry periods (principally summer months). The SGWD preferred a surface recharge approach because it could be less expensive than a

  1. Response of Table Grape to Irrigation Water in the Aconcagua Valley, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Zúñiga-Espinoza; Cristina Aspillaga; Raúl Ferreyra; Gabriel Selles

    2015-01-01

    The irrigation water available for agriculture will be scarce in the future due to increased competition for water with other sectors, and the issue may become more serious due to climate change. In Chile, the table grape is only cultivated under irrigation. A five-year research program (2007–2012) was carried out in the Aconcagua Valley, the central area of grapes in Chile, to evaluate the response of table grape vines (Vitis vinifera L., cv Thompson Seedless) to different volumes of irrigat...

  2. Storage capacity of the Fena Valley Reservoir, Guam, Mariana Islands, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marineau, Mathieu D.; Wright, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The Fena Valley Reservoir is in southern Guam and is the primary source of water for the U.S. Naval Base Guam and nearby village residents. Since the construction of the Fena Dam in 1951, sediment has accumulated in the reservoir and reduced its storage capacity. The reservoir was surveyed previously in 1973, 1979, and 1990 to estimate the loss in storage capacity. To determine the current storage capacity, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, surveyed the bathymetry of the reservoir in February 2014.

  3. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2001-2002 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Mattie H.; Sellman, Jake (Shoshone-Paiute Nation, Duck Valley Indian Reservation, Owyhee, NV)

    2003-03-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservation's Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect critical riparian areas, natural springs, the Owhyee River and its tributaries, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project commenced in 1997 and addresses the Northwest Power Planning Council's measures 10.8C.2, 10.8C.3, and 10.8C.5 of the 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The performance period covers dates from April 2001 through August 2002.

  4. Bibliography of literature pertaining to Long Valley Caldera and associated volcanic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, John W.; Harpel, Christopher J.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Marcaida, Mae

    2011-01-01

    On May 25-27, 1980, Long Valley caldera was rocked by four M=6 earthquakes that heralded the onset of a wave of seismic activity within the caldera which has continued through the present. Unrest has taken the form of seismic swarms, uplift of the resurgent dome, and areas of vegetation killed by increased CO2 emissions, all interpreted as resulting from magma injection into different levels beneath the caldera, as well as beneath Mammoth Mountain along the southwest rim of the caldera. Continuing economic development in the Mammoth Lakes area has swelled the local population, increasing the risk to people and property if an eruption were to occur. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring geophysical activity in the Long Valley area since the mid-1970s and continues to track the unrest in real time with a sophisticated network of geophysical sensors. Hazards information obtained by this monitoring is provided to local, State, and Federal officials and to the public through the Long Valley Observatory. The Long Valley area also was scientifically important before the onset of current unrest. Lying at the eastern foot of the Sierra Nevada, the deposits from this active volcanic system have provided fertile ground for research into Neogene tectonics, Quaternary geology and geomorphology, regional stratigraphy, and volcanology. In the early 1970s, intensive studies of the area began through the USGS Geothermal Investigations Program, owing to the presence of a large young silicic volcanic system. The paroxysmal eruption of Long Valley caldera about 760,000 years ago produced the Bishop Tuff and associated Bishop ash. The Bishop Tuff is a well-preserved ignimbrite deposit that has continued to provide new and developing insights into the dynamics of ignimbrite-forming eruptions. Another extremely important aspect of the Bishop Tuff is that it is the oldest known normally magnetized unit of the Brunhes Chron. Thus, the age of the Bishop Tuff is used to

  5. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  6. Bird Use of Imperial Valley Crops [ds427

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Agriculture crops in the Imperial Valley of California provide valuable habitat for many resident and migratory birds and are a very important component of the...

  7. Comparison of access to medicines between Klang Valley and East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    income of USD1/person/day) between urbanised Klang Valley and rural East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: A semi-structured interview was conducted with caregivers to determine demographics, access to medicines, knowledge, ...

  8. Anuran Call Survey Summary 2006 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anuran call surveys were conducted at Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in April-June 2006 using the protocol developed by the North American Amphibian...

  9. Fishery Management Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) contains a limited fishery resource. Hogback Ponds, Round Lake, Bituminous Pond, and Blick Estate Stream have fishery...

  10. Law Enforcement Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Valley NWR Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about...

  11. NPP Tropical Forest: Magdalena Valley, Colombia, 1970-1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass, litterfall, and nutrient content of above-ground vegetation and soil for a tropical seasonal evergreen forest at Magdalena Valley, Columbia,...

  12. Networking With Landscape: Local Initiatives in an Italian Alpine Valley

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giorgio De Ros; Astrid Mazzola

    2012-01-01

    ...? To increase our understanding of these issues, an analysis was carried out by using the theoretical framework of the sociology of translation on 8 landscape-based initiatives in an Italian Alpine valley...

  13. Rock glacier inventory, Printse Valley, Valais, Switzerland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Printse Valley is a 16-km-long north-orientated basin. The south-part (summits at 300 m asl) is glacierized. The intermediate sector, more continental, is very...

  14. Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ∼−π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  15. A Statistical Model of Rift Valley Fever Activity in Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John M. Drake; Ali N. Hassan; John C. Beier

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral disease of animals and humans and a global public health concern due to its ecological plasticity, adaptivity, and potential for spread to countries with a temperate climate...

  16. Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Rappahannock River Valley NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge...

  17. Vernal Pool Complexes - Central Valley, 1989-1998 [ds36

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Arc/Info coverage is a polygon layer of vernal pool complexes greater than 40 acres in size for 29 counties throughout the greater Central Valley, and some...

  18. Groundwater discharge area for Diamond Valley, Central Nevada, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents "phreatophyte areas" mapped as part of an analysis of irrigation pumping in Diamond Valley, Nevada published in 1968. The data were digitized...

  19. Fire Management Plan Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan for the Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge will provide guidance on a wide range of fire management activities including preparedness,...

  20. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with staff to survey for and treat 17 different invasive species within the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and William L....

  1. Stakeholder Evaluation for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge : Completion Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a summary of results for the stakeholder evaluation conducted for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in winter 2006–2007. The purpose of...

  2. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with staff to map and control invasive species within the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex refuges (William L. Finley, Ankeny,...

  3. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  4. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  5. Trip report (12-13 September 1995) - Canaan Valley NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reports describes recommendations for management practices at Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge. Topics include the following: deer herd management,...

  6. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan Amendment No. 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Master Plan developed for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge proposed that a refuge administration office and maintenance facility be located on an upland...

  7. Trip Report (November 29 - December 1, 2005) - Canaan Valley NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report describes suggestions for management alternatives to the Canaan Valley NWR. The major issues, or impediments to habitat management, that Sepik and Laskowski...

  8. Avian botulism in the southern San Joaquin valley 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A joint effort of the Department of Fish and' Game and the U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife contained botulism losses in the southern San Joaquin Valley...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Coachella Valley NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Coachella Valley National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  10. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds123

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Central Valley Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  11. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  12. Stillwater Marsh and Lahontan Valley Wetlands Literature Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of known literature on Lahontan Valley marshlands was made by The Nature Conservancy in preparation for the Stillwater Water Management Analysis Scoping...

  13. Factors influencing immunisation coverage in Mathare Valley, Nairobi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : Cross section destrictive study. Setting: Mathare valley slums in Central district of Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Seven hundred and twelve children aged 12-23 months. Results: Access to immunisation services was excellent at 95.6%. However ...

  14. Fire Management Plan Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge will provide guidance on a wide range of fire management activities including preparedness,...

  15. Adapting to Climate Change in Peru's Mantaro Valley | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Mantaro Valley in central Peru is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods, and frost. According to recent projections, this vulnerability will increase in coming years due to climate change.

  16. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals for this Wildlife Inventory Plan for Minnesota Valley NWR are: (1) to provide as good a survey method as possible to estimate population levels of key...

  17. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with refuge staff to survey for and treat invasive species on the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and WL Finley NWR). False brome...

  18. English Language as a Requirement Course for Information Students--A Content Analysis of English Syllabus in the Faculty of Arabic and Islamic Studies/Nile Valley University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mustafa Shazali Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the importance of two elements in the process of syllabus design (ends / means specifications, program implementation) in the faculty of Islamic and Arabic studies, Nile Valley University, designed in 1995. Results indicate that the ends/means specifications stage is used to present the general aims and the objective of each…

  19. Inspiring the next generation of scientists with their observations of quasars, black holes, Jupiter, and SETI with the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope, GAVRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauncey, D. L.; Levin, S.; Teitelbaum, L.; Hofstadter, M.; Arballo, J.; McConnell, S.; Dorcey, R.; Cole, K.; Kreuser-Jenkins, N.; Leflang, J.; Kruzins, E.; Ricardo, L.; Horiuchi, S.; Nagle, G.; Miro, C. G.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a radio astronomy programfor schools, the Goldstone-AppleValley Radio Telescope,GAVRT. The GAVRT program is designed to bring the inspiration and enthusiasm to a younger generation of teachers and children who learn about science by doing real science, just as Iosif Shklovsky brought to an older generation.

  20. Product acceptance of a certified Class C low-level waste form at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, P.J. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., NY (United States); Maestas, E.; Yeazel, J.A. [Dept. of Energy, West Valley, NY (United States). West Valley Project Office; McIntosh, T.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology

    1989-11-01

    The Department of Energy, is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste (HLW) remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities, which were conducted at West Valley, New York between 1966 and 1972. One important aspect of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s fully integrated waste program is the treatment and conditioning of low-level wastes which result from processing liquid high-level waste. The treatment takes place in the project`s Integrated Radwaste Treatment System which removes Cesium-137 from the liquid or supernatant phase of the HLW by utilizing an ion exchange technique. The resulting decontaminated and conditioned liquid waste stream is solidified into a Class C low-level cement waste form that meets the waste form criteria specified in NRC 10 CFR 61. The waste matrix is placed in 71-gallon square drums, remotely handled and stored on site until determination of final disposition. This paper discusses the programs in place at West Valley to ensure production of an acceptable cement-based product. Topics include the short and long term test programs to predict product storage and disposal performance, description of the Process Control Plan utilized to control and maintain cement waste form product specifications and finally discuss the operational performance characteristics of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System. Operational data and product statistics are provided.

  1. Geology and ground-water resources of Ogden Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggette, R.M.; Taylor, G.H.

    1937-01-01

    Ogden Valley is a fault trough bounded on both the east and west by faults that dip toward the middle of the valley. This fault trough contains unconsolidated deposits of clay, sand, and gravel, whose thickness is more than 600 feet. These materials are stream and lake deposits and in places are well sorted and stratified. The lake sediments were laid down in a small lake that occupied Ogden Valley and that was connected with glacial Lake Bonneville at its high stage by an arm of water that occupied Ogden Canyon. During this stage of Lake Bonneville the Ogden Valley was completely filled with lake sediments up to an altitude of about 4,900 feet. These sediments include about 70 feet of clay, sand, and gravel in alternating layers, below which is a bed of varved clay whose maximum thickness is about 70 feet. This clay is continuous under the lower parts of the valley and is the confining bed that produces the artesian conditions. Below the varved clay is a deposit of silt, sand, and gravel of unknown thickness, most of which is believed to be pre-Bonneville alluvium.In most summers the streams entering Ogden Valley are diverted for irrigation, and the upper parts of their channels are generally dry during the irrigation season. Lower down in the valley seepage water appears in the channels, and below these points there is continuous flow. The flow of the Ogden River increases as it passes through Ogden Canyon. This gain in flow is believed to be derived chiefly from ground-water seepage from the canyon walls, although there is probably some groundwater underflow from Ogden Valley at the head of Ogden Canyon. Some of the gain is also due to leakage from pipe lines in the canyon.Of the 146 wells whose records are given in this report, 70 are flowing wells.

  2. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step t...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  3. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.

    1982-07-08

    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  4. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide

  5. Valley-selective optical Stark effect probed by Kerr rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMountain, Trevor; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Stanev, Teodor K.; Hersam, Mark C.; Stern, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to monitor and control distinct states is at the heart of emerging quantum technologies. The valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers is a promising degree of freedom for such control, with the optical Stark effect allowing for valley-selective manipulation of energy levels in WS2 and WSe2 using ultrafast optical pulses. Despite these advances, understanding of valley-sensitive optical Stark shifts in TMDCs has been limited by reflectance-based detection methods where the signal is small and prone to background effects. More sensitive polarization-based spectroscopy is required to better probe ultrafast Stark shifts for all-optical manipulation of valley energy levels. Here, we show time-resolved Kerr rotation to be a more sensitive probe of the valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer TMDCs. Compared to the established time-resolved reflectance methods, Kerr rotation is less sensitive to background effects. Kerr rotation provides a fivefold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the Stark effect optical signal and a more precise estimate of the energy shift. This increased sensitivity allows for observation of an optical Stark shift in monolayer MoS2 that exhibits both valley and energy selectivity, demonstrating the promise of this method for investigating this effect in other layered materials and heterostructures.

  6. Assessment of Wastewater in Duhok Valley, Kurdistan Region/Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmaldin E. Hassan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the waste water in Duhok valley in Duhok governorate, during 25km, seven sites were selected in Duhok valley, to represent their water quality. Monthly samples were collected from the Duhok valley for the period from, April to September, 2015. The qualitative study of Duhok valley water tested, as considered one of the main sources of water pollution for Musol Lake. The physical and chemical test for water samples are taken from different locations in Duhok valley. To know the degree of pollution, and the impact of self-purification processes to improve water quality before arriving to the Mosul Lake, and the indicated results of the study a lack of dissolved oxygen in the water (DO. And high organic load values, (BOD and most of the bad qualities during water passage within the city of Duhok, while meat a significant improvement in the quality of water downstream before arriving at the dam Lake, is attributed to the effect of operations of self- purification ability of water. In spite of salinity problems and toxicity, the quality of water is suitable for irrigation crops on both sides of the valley .The all samples were tested for conductivity, TDS, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity, sulfate, BOD, and phosphate, according to the standard methods.

  7. Antifan activism as a response to MTV's The Valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MTV has launched several reality TV shows in the United Kingdom, but one, The Valleys (2012–14, about youth moving from the South Wales Valleys to Cardiff, has received much criticism. Grassroots criticism of the show arose, and a Valleys-centric campaign, The Valleys Are Here, took direct action. I adopt Jonathan Gray's definition of antifans to complicate ideas of fan activism. I utilize comments and posts made on the Valleys Are Here Twitter feed and Facebook account, as well as the organization's Web site, to examine the ways in which they encourage activism among antifans of the series. I pay particular attention to activist calls for MTV to be held accountable for its positioning of Wales and the Valleys, and to how it encourages participation among varied groups of people whose common denominator is their dislike of the series. Fan activism is not exclusive to people who consider themselves fans, and notions of fan activism can be complicated by drawing in antifans.

  8. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Salinity Control Unit was 10,700 tons/year. This accounts for approximately 27 percent of the decrease observed downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Salinity loads were decreasing at the fastest rate (6,950 tons/year) in Region 4, which drains an area between the Colorado River at Cameo, Colorado (station CAMEO) and Colorado River above Glenwood Springs, Colorado (station GLEN) streamflow-gaging stations. Trends in salinity concentration and streamflow were tested at station CAMEO to determine if salinity concentration, streamflow, or both are controlling salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Trend tests of individual ion concentrations were included as potential indicators of what sources (based on mineral composition) may be controlling trends in the upper Colorado. No significant trend was detected for streamflow from 1986 to 2003 at station CAMEO; however, a significant downward trend was detected for salinity concentration. The trend slope indicates that salinity concentration is decreasing at a median rate of about 3.54 milligrams per liter per year. Five major ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride) were tested for trends. The results indicate that processes within source areas with rock and soil types (or other unidentified sources) bearing calcium, sodium, and sulfate had the largest effect on the downward trend in salinity load upstream from station CAMEO. Downward trends in salinity load resulting from ground-water sources and/or land-use change were thought to be possible reasons for the observed decreases in salinity loads; however, the cause or causes of the decreasing salinity loads are not fully understood. A reduction in the amount of ground-water percolation from Region 4 (resulting from work done through Federal irrigation system improvement programs as well as privately funded irrigation system improvements) has helped reduce annual salinity load from Region 4 by approxima

  9. The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Dale E.; Hurford, G. J.; Nita, G. M.; White, S. M.; Tun, S. D.; Fleishman, G. D.; McTiernan, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) is now under construction near Big Pine, CA as a solar-dedicated microwave imaging array operating in the frequency range 1-18 GHz. The solar science to be addressed focuses on the 3D structure of the solar corona (magnetic field, temperature and density), on the sudden release of energy and subsequent particle acceleration, transport and heating, and on space weather phenomena. The project will support the scientific community by providing open data access and software tools for analysis of the data, to exploit synergies with on-going solar research in other wavelengths. The New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is expanding OVSA from its previous complement of 7 antennas to a total of 15 by adding 8 new antennas, and will reinvest in the existing infrastructure by replacing the existing control systems, signal transmission, and signal processing with modern, far more capable and reliable systems based on new technology developed for the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR). The project will be completed in time to provide solar-dedicated observations during the upcoming solar maximum in 2013 and beyond. We provide an update on current status and our preparations for exploiting the data through modeling and data analysis tools. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-0908344, and AGS-0961867 and NASA grant NNX10AF27G to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  10. Calibrating Treasure Valley Groundwater Model using MODFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J.; Tan, K.

    2016-12-01

    In Idaho, groundwater plays an especially important role in the state. According to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, groundwater supplies 95% of the state's drinking water (2011). The USGS estimates that Idaho withdraws 117 million cubic meters (95,000 acre-feet) per year from groundwater sources for domestic usage which includes drinking water. The same report from the USGS also estimates that Idaho withdraws 5,140 million cubic meters (4,170,000 acre-feet) per year from groundwater sources for irrigation usage. Quantifying and managing that resource and estimating groundwater levels in the future is important for a variety of socio-economic reasons. As the population within the Treasure Valley continues to grow, the demand of clean usable groundwater increases. The objective of this study was to develop and calibrate a groundwater model with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes. Hydrologic simulations were done using the MODFLOW-2000 model. The model was calibrated for predevelopment period by reproducing and comparing groundwater levels of the years before 1925 using steady state boundary conditions representing no change in the land use. Depending on the reliability of the groundwater source, the economic growth of the area can be constrained or allowed to flourish. Mismanagement of the groundwater source can impact its sustainability, quality and could hamper development by increasing operation and maintenance costs. Proper water management is critical because groundwater is such a limited resource.

  11. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleine, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Ventura, Stefano; D'Acqui, Luigi Paolo; Onofri, Silvano; Zucconi, Laura

    2015-10-10

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  12. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Coleine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  13. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references. (MCW)

  14. Soil formation in the Tsauchab Valley, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Marie; Bens, Oliver; Ramisch, Arne; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The BMBF-funded project GeoArchives (Spaces) investigates soils and sediments in Southern Africa. A focus area lies on the Tsauchab Valley (Namibia), South of the Naukluft mountain range (24°26'40'' S, 16°10'40'' E). On a gently sloping alluvial fan facing East towards the river, the surface is characterized by a desert pavement covering soils used as farmland. The landscape units were mapped and the area at the lower slope of a hill was divided into three units: a rinsing surface and a gravel plain, separated by a channel. On these surfaces soil profiles were excavated. Profile description followed the German system (Bodenkundliche Kartieranleitung KA 5) and disturbed samples were taken at various depths and analysed in the lab. Undisturbed soil cores with a volume of 100 cm³ were taken just below the surface at a depth of ~1-6 cm. Lab analyses included texture and gravel content, colour, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonates, CNS, cation exchange capacity, pedogenic oxides, main and trace elements (XRF), and clay mineral distribution (XRD). Undisturbed samples were used to determine soil water retention curve, air permeability and bulk density. The profiles revealed moderately developed cambic soils rich in clay minerals and with total carbon contents ranging up to 1.8 %, bearing shrubs and after episodic rainfall a dense grass vegetation. Their genesis is discussed and interpreted in the context of the landscape and climate history of this semi-desert environment.

  15. The Role of Source Material in Basin Sedimentation, as Illustrated within Eureka Valley, Death Valley National Park, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, M. J.; Yin, A.; Rhodes, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Steep landscapes are known to provide sediment to sink regions, but often petrological factors can dominate basin sedimentation. Within Eureka Valley, in northwestern Death Valley National Park, normal faulting has exposed a steep cliff face on the western margin of the Last Chance range with four kilometers of vertical relief from the valley floor and an angle of repose of nearly 38 degrees. The cliff face is composed of Cambrian limestone and dolomite, including the Bonanza King, Carrara and Wood Canyon formations. Interacting with local normal faulting, these units preferentially break off the cliff face in coherent blocks, which result in landslide deposits rather than as finer grained material found within the basin. The valley is well known for a large sand dune, which derives its sediment from distal sources to the north, instead of from the adjacent Last Chance Range cliff face. During the Holocene, sediment is sourced primary from the northerly Willow Wash and Cucomungo canyon, a relatively small drainage (less than 80 km2) within the Sylvan Mountains. Within this drainage, the Jurassic quartz monzonite of Beer Creek is heavily fractured due to motion of the Fish Valley Lake - Death Valley fault zone. Thus, the quartz monzonite is more easily eroded than the well-consolidated limestone and dolomite that forms the Last Change Range cliff face. As well, the resultant eroded material is smaller grained, and thus more easily transported than the limestone. Consequently, this work highlights an excellent example of the strong influence that source material can have on basin sedimentation.

  16. UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIPS OF PROGRAM SATISFACTION, PROGRAM LOYALTY AND STORE LOYALTY AMONG CARDHOLDERS OF LOYALTY PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Asiah Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Loyalty programs have increasingly attracted interest in both academic marketing research and practice. One major factor that has been increasingly discussed is loyalty. In this study we examine the influence of cardholders' satisfaction on loyalty (program loyalty and store loyalty in a retail context, namely, in department stores and superstores. Data were collected from 400 cardholders of a retail loyalty program in Klang Valley, Malaysia via the drop-off-and-collect technique. Structural modelling techniques were applied to analyze the data. The results indicated that program satisfaction is not related to store loyalty (share-of-wallet, share-of-visit and store preference. However, loyalty to the program (program loyalty plays a crucial intervening role in the relationship between program satisfaction and store loyalty. The study underscores the principal importance of program loyalty in the retail loyalty program.

  17. A Survey of Light Pollution in the Rogue Valley, Southwest Oregon, By St. Mary’s School, Medford, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensel, Holly; Arianna Ashby, Colin Cai, Thomas Cox, Genna Dorrell, Gabe FitzPatrick, Meaghan FitzPatrick, Jason Mars Liu, Mitchell Moczygemba, Kieran Rooney, Emry Timmons,; Ray You, students, (St. Mary's. School)

    2015-01-01

    Rural areas in Oregon, including the Rogue Valley, are renowned for beautiful dark skies. Electric light came to Medford, Oregon, the largest town in the Rogue Valley, in 1894. During the past 100 years the Rogue Valley grew from 2,500 individuals in 1895 to a population of 76,462 and a metropolitan area population of 208,545, in 2012. The increased population density resulted in increased light pollution. A light pollution chart using DMSP, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, data was published in 2006, but did not show the spatial variation in detail. In the spring of 2014, the 9th grade physics students, astronomy students, and members of the Astronomy Club from St. Mary's School conducted the first detailed night sky survey. The purpose of the survey is to create a baseline of the variations in light pollution in the Rogue Valley.The project started with a talk by Steve Bosbach, former Texas IDA coordinator, on the topic of light pollution and how it affects our lives and the environment. Groups of students were given the tasks of measuring the night sky brightness in the Rogue Valley, doing a light audit in an area of their choice, and researching what light pollution is and its effects on the environment. From this they created a presentation for a final physics grade. The basis for this project, along with procedures can be found on the Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) website. The light audit and research portion were developed from the Dark Sky Rangers section (www.globeatnight.org/dsr/) of the website. In the fall of 2014, astronomy students and club members extended this study to the town of Ashland and the Sothern Oregon University campus, areas of the valley not surveyed in the Spring.This survey will increase awareness of light pollution in the Rogue Valley, as well as educate developers and city planners on the impact that light pollution has on the environment in Southern Oregon. It will help determine areas of concern and areas of dark

  18. Phase III Drilling Operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVF 51-20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1999-06-01

    During July-September, 1998, a jointly funded drilling operation deepened the Long Valley Exploratory Well from 7178 feet to 9832 feet. This was the third major drilling phase of a project that began in 1989, but had sporadic progress because of discontinuities in tiding. Support for Phase III came from the California Energy Commission (CEC), the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and DOE. Each of these agencies had a somewhat different agenda: the CEC wants to evaluate the energy potential (specifically energy extraction from magma) of Long Valley Caldera; the ICDP is studying the evolution and other characteristics of young, silicic calderas; the USGS will use this hole as an observatory in their Volcano Hazards program; and the DOE, through Sandia, has an opportunity to test new geothermal tools and techniques in a realistic field environment. This report gives a description of the equipment used in drilling and testing; a narrative of the drilling operations; compiled daily drilling reports; cost information on the project; and a brief summary of engineering results related to equipment performance and energy potential. Detailed description of the scientific results will appear in publications by the USGS and other researchers.

  19. 1978 annual report, INEL geothermal environmental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Sullivan, J.F.; Stanley, N.E.

    1979-04-01

    The objective of the Raft River Geothermal Environmental Program, in its fifth year, is to characterize the beneficial and detrimental impacts resulting from the development of moderate-temperature geothermal resources in the valley. This report summarizes the monitoring and research efforts conducted as part of this program in 1978. The results of these monitoring programs will be used to determine the mitigation efforts required to reduce long-term impacts resulting from geothermal development.

  20. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  1. The Evaporation Valley in the Kepler Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, James E.; Wu, Yanqin

    2017-09-01

    A new piece of evidence supporting the photoevaporation-driven evolution model for low-mass, close-in exoplanets was recently presented by the California-Kepler Survey. The radius distribution of the Kepler planets is shown to be bimodal, with a “valley” separating two peaks at 1.3 and 2.6 R ⊕. Such an “evaporation valley” had been predicted by numerical models previously. Here, we develop a minimal model to demonstrate that this valley results from the following fact: the timescale for envelope erosion is the longest for those planets with hydrogen/helium-rich envelopes that, while only a few percent in weight, double its radius. The timescale falls for envelopes lighter than this because the planet’s radius remains largely constant for tenuous envelopes. The timescale also drops for heavier envelopes because the planet swells up faster than the addition of envelope mass. Photoevaporation therefore herds planets into either bare cores (˜1.3 R ⊕), or those with double the core’s radius (˜2.6 R ⊕). This process mostly occurs during the first 100 Myr when the stars’ high-energy fluxes are high and nearly constant. The observed radius distribution further requires the Kepler planets to be clustered around 3 M ⊕ in mass, born with H/He envelopes more than a few percent in mass, and that their cores are similar to the Earth in composition. Such envelopes must have been accreted before the dispersal of the gas disks, while the core composition indicates formation inside the ice line. Lastly, the photoevaporation model fails to account for bare planets beyond ˜30-60 days; if these planets are abundant, they may point to a significant second channel for planet formation, resembling the solar system terrestrial planets.

  2. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

    2009-09-24

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  3. Remedial investigation report on the Melton Valley watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Melton Valley watershed presents a multifaceted management and decision-making challenge because of the very heterogeneous conditions that exist with respect to contaminant type, disposal unit age, mode of disposal, release mechanism, and potential risk-producing pathways. The investigation presented here has assembled relevant site data in the geographic context with the intent of enabling program managers and decision-makers to understand site conditions and evaluate the necessity, relative priority, and scope of potential remedial actions. The industrial and recreational exposure scenarios are used to provide a risk assessment reference context to evaluate levels of contamination in surface water, groundwater, soil, and sediment within each subbasin of the Melton Valley watershed. All available analytical results for the media of interest that could be qualified for use in the risk assessment were screened to determine carcinogenic risk values and noncarcinogenic hazard indexes and to identify the chemicals of concern (COCs) for each evaluated media in each subbasin.

  4. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Effects of valley meteorology on forest pesticide spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1990-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this study for the Missoula Technology and Development Center of the US Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. The purpose of the study was to summarize recent research on valley meteorology during the morning transition period and to qualitatively evaluate the effects of the evolution of valley temperature inversions and wind systems on the aerial spraying of pesticides in National Forest areas of the western United States. Aerial spraying of pesticides and herbicides in forests of the western United States is usually accomplished in the morning hour after first light, during the period known to meteorologists as the morning transition period.'' This document describes the key physical processes that occur during the morning transition period on undisturbed days and the qualitative effects of these processes on the conduct of aerial spraying operations. Since the timing of valley meteorological events may be strongly influenced by conditions that are external to the valley, such as strong upper-level winds or the influence of clouds on the receipt of solar energy in the valley, some remarks are made on the qualitative influence of these processes. Section 4 of this report suggests ways to quantify some of the physical processes to provide useful guidance for the planning and conduct of spraying operations. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Mollusca, Hirudinea, and Amphibia biogeography and paleobiology in Tule Valley and adjacent regions of Bonneville Basin, western USA [draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mollusk, leeches (Hirudinea), and amphibian distribution are described for Tule Valley and adjacent Snake Valley and Fish Springs Flat, Tule Valley aquatic resources...

  7. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree species (e.g., cottonwood [Populus deltoides], or sycamore [Platanus occidentalis]) in the planting stock

  8. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near the boundary of the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    The increasing demands on groundwater for water supply in desert areas in California and the western United States have resulted in the need to better understand groundwater sources, availability, and sustainability. This is true for a 650-square-mile area that encompasses the Antelope Valley, El Mirage Valley, and Upper Mojave River Valley groundwater basins, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles, California, in the western part of the Mojave Desert. These basins have been adjudicated to ensure that groundwater rights are allocated according to legal judgments. In an effort to assess if the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins could be better defined, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 2014 with the Mojave Water Agency to better understand the hydrogeology in the area and investigate potential controls on groundwater flow and availability, including basement topography.Recharge is sporadic and primarily from small ephemeral washes and streams that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains to the south; estimates range from about 400 to 1,940 acre-feet per year. Lateral underflow from adjacent basins has been considered minor in previous studies; underflow from the Antelope Valley to the El Mirage Valley groundwater basin has been estimated to be between 100 and 1,900 acre-feet per year. Groundwater discharge is primarily from pumping, mostly by municipal supply wells. Between October 2013 and September 2014, the municipal pumpage in the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins was reported to be about 800 and 2,080 acre-feet, respectively.This study was motivated by the results from a previously completed regional gravity study, which suggested a northeast-trending subsurface basement ridge and saddle approximately 3.5 miles west of the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins that might influence groundwater flow. To better define potential basement

  9. Perceptual discrimination difficulty and familiarity in the Uncanny Valley: more like a "Happy Valley".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) predicts that greater difficulty perceptually discriminating between categorically ambiguous human and humanlike characters (e.g., highly realistic robot) evokes negatively valenced (i.e., uncanny) affect. An ABX perceptual discrimination task and signal detection analysis was used to examine the profile of perceptual discrimination (PD) difficulty along the UVH' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This was represented using avatar-to-human morph continua. Rejecting the implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty underlying the UVH' prediction, Experiment 1 showed that PD difficulty was reduced for categorically ambiguous faces but, notably, enhanced for human faces. Rejecting the UVH' predicted relationship between PD difficulty and negative affect (assessed in terms of the UVH' familiarity dimension), Experiment 2 demonstrated that greater PD difficulty correlates with more positively valenced affect. Critically, this effect was strongest for the ambiguous faces, suggesting a correlative relationship between PD difficulty and feelings of familiarity more consistent with the metaphor happy valley. This relationship is also consistent with a fluency amplification instead of the hitherto proposed hedonic fluency account of affect along the DHL. Experiment 3 found no evidence that the asymmetry in the profile of PD along the DHL is attributable to a differential processing bias (cf. other-race effect), i.e., processing avatars at a category level but human faces at an individual level. In conclusion, the present data for static faces show clear effects that, however, strongly challenge the UVH' implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty along the DHL and the predicted relationship between this and feelings of familiarity.

  10. Estimating Vehicular Emission in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Ghimire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study estimate, the vehicular emission load for CO, CO2 , HCs, NOX, SO2, Dioxin/Furans, Particulate Matters (PM10, PM2.5, Black carbon and Organic Carbon by using emission factors and Global Warming Potentials (GWPs of the pollutants (CO2, NOX, BC and OC. For this purpose, data were collected through the video tape record (in 30 sites, questionnaire survey, field visit, and literatures review. The total estimated emission of Kathmandu Valley (KV was 7231053.12 ton/year. Of the total emission, CO2 emission was highest i.e., 91.01% followed by CO 5.03%, HC 0.96%, NOX 0.60%, PM10 0.18% and SO2 0.10%. Annually 529353.36 μg Toxic Equivalent (TEQ of Dioxin/Furan produced and directly disperse to the ambient environment. The total estimated PM2.5, BC and OC emission were 9649.40 ton/year, 1640.4 ton/year and 2894.82 ton/year. The total carbon equivalence of the combined emissions (CO2, NOX and BC for 100-years standard time horizon is 10579763.6 ton CO2-eq i.e., 2885390.07 ton carbon.CO2 alone will be responsible, for about 62% of the impacts for the next century from current emissions of CO2, NOX and BC. Of the total emission Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV emits 50%, Light Duty Vehicles (LDV emits, 27%, 2-Wheelers emits 22% and 3-Wheeler (Tempo emits 1%. The total emission of all pollutants combined per vehicle together was estimated to be 5.46 ton/year which was estimated as 23.63, 10.35, 1.83 and 5.58 ton/year for HDV, LDV, 2-Wheelers and 3-Wheeler respectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i4.11742      International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 133-146 

  11. Rivers and valleys of Pennsylvania, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisawa, Marie

    1989-09-01

    The 1889 paper by William Morris Davis on the "Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania" is a landmark in the history of geomorphology. It was in this manuscript that he set forth what came to be known as the Davisian system of landscape. It is important to understand that Davis' interpretation of landforms was restricted by the geologic paradigms of his day. Uniformitarianism was strongly entrenched and Darwin's theory of evolution had become popularly accepted. The concept of the landmass Appalachia and then current theories on mountain building affected the approach that Davis took in hypothesizing the origin and development of the Folded Appalachian drainage. All of these geologic precepts influenced the formulation and explanation of his theories. In his exposition he adapted, synthesized and embellished on ideas he derived from fellow geologists such as Gilbert, Dutton, Powell, and McGee. A number of the concepts he proposed in the 1889 paper quickly became the bases for geomorphic studies by others: the cycles of river erosion and landscape evolution and the peneplain (here called base level erosion). The cycle of erosion became the model for subsequent geomorphic analyses, and peneplain hunting became a popular sport for geomorphologists. Davis' hypothesis of the origin and development of Pennsylvanian drainage stimulated subsequent discussion and further hypotheses by others. In fact, many of the later theories were refinements and/or elaborations of ideas mentioned in this paper of Davis. He proposed the origin of the drainage as consequent streams, then antecedence, superposition, headward extension of divides by piracy, erosion along lines of weaknesses (faults, easily erodible beds) through resistant ridges and normal fluvial erosion. Thus, the hypotheses of regional superposition (Johnson), extended consequents (Ruedemann), consequents and local superposition (Meyerhoff and Olmstead), the utilization of structural weaknesses in development of transverse

  12. Surface Deformation in Imperial Valley, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneva, M.; Adams, D.; Falorni, G.; Morgan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Imperial Valley in southern California is subjected to significant tectonic deformation resulting from the relative movement of the North American and Pacific plates. It is characterized by large earthquakes, frequent swarm activity, and aseismic events. High heat flow makes possible the operation of geothermal fields, some of which cause man-made surface displacements superimposed on the tectonic deformation. We apply radar interferometry (InSAR) to analyze Envisat ASAR data for the period 2003-2010. The SqueeSAR technique is used to obtain deformation time series and annual rates at numerous locations of permanent and distributed scatterers (PS and DS). SqueeSAR works very well in agricultural areas, where conventional differential InSAR (DinSAR) fails. We observe differential movements marking the Superstition Hills, San Andreas, and Imperial faults. The Imperial fault traverses agricultural fields, where DInSAR does not work and thus our SqueeSAR observations are the first for this fault (Fig. 1). We also observe steps in the deformation time series around the Superstition Hills fault from an October 2006 aseismic event and the April 2010 M7.2 earthquake south of the U.S.-Mexico border. Significant annual deformation rates are detected in the current geothermal fields. For example, subsidence of up to -50 mm/year is seen at the Salton Sea field (Fig. 2), and both subsidence and uplift are seen at Heber. We also determine the deformation baseline at prospective geothermal fields, thus making it possible in the future to distinguish between man-made and tectonic causes of surface deformation. Fig. 1. Line-of-sight (LOS) deformation indicates differential displacement on both sides of Imperial Fault. Movements away from the satellite are shown in yellow to red, and towards the satellite in blue. Larger deformation is associated with two geothermal fields, Heber (to the south-west) and East Mesa (to the east). Fig. 2. Subsidence in the Salton Sea geothermal

  13. Reflection Seismic Imaging of Buried Valleys, Onshore Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke-Andersen, H.; Jørgensen, F.; Nørmark, E.

    The steadily increasing demands for securing supplies of clean groundwater have in recent years led to the adoption of reflection seismics in the family of geophysical methods used for groundwater research in Denmark. Buried valleys- often some km wide and a few hundred metres deep - have proved to be important sites for deeply seated, well protected groundwater reservoirs. It is a well known fact that the structure of buried valleys is complicated. With their potential for generation of relatively high resolution images of depositional and tectonic structures, reflection seismics have be- come a valuable supplement to the traditional resistivity methods in the study of buried valleys. Reflection seismic is an expensive method compared to other methods in use for groundwater research; therefore, careful selection of profile locations is mandatory. A practice has developed where selection of locations are based on mapping results obtained by resistivity methods. Results obtained by dynamite and vibrator sources are presented. Experience shows that the quality of the two data types is comparable. Vertical resolution better than ca. 10 m can be obtained, but the bandwidth of data is variable. In areas where non-(water) saturated shallow sediments are present; the bandwidth may be strongly reduced. Depth penetration down to at least one km is normally obtained. The seismic data are tied to wells by means of vertical seismic profiles in exploratory wells. Results are presented to illustrate: 1) potentials and limi- tations of the method and 2) a number of valleys with different types of valley-fill and relationships with the substratum. The genesis of the valleys will be briefly discussed.

  14. Surface-Water Network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an approximate...

  15. Monthly Diversions from the Surface-Water Network of the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly diversions from the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  16. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``develop criteria for...

  17. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * * develop...

  18. EPA Region 1 - Map Layers for Valley ID Tool (Hosted Feature Service)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Valley Service Feature Layer hosts spatial data for EPA Region 1's Valley Identification Tool. These layers contain attribute information added by EPA R1 GIS...

  19. Grid cells used for Surface-Water Network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the segment and reaches for the surface-water network by model cell for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  20. Monthly Precipitation Input Data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly precipitation for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an approximate 50,000...

  1. Monthly inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  2. Streamflow-gain- and streamflow-loss data for streamgages in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains 61 sets of annual streamflow gains and losses between 1961 and 1977 along Central Valley surface-water network for the Central Valley...

  3. Location of 24 extensometers used to measure compaction in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset describes the location of 21 extensometers used for observations of subsidence in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  4. Virtual wells used for pumpage for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Abstract: This digital dataset contains the virtual wells used for pumpage for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  5. Inflow Locations and Magnitude Input Files to the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the name and location for the inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  6. Giant and tunable valley degeneracy splitting in MoTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Qi, Jingshan; Niu, Qian; Feng, Ji

    Valleys in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides seamlessly connect two basic carriers of quantum information, namely, the electron spin and photon helicity. Lifting the valley degeneracy is an attractive route to achieve further optoelectronic manipulations. However, the magnetic field only creates a very small valley splitting. We propose a strategy to create giant valley splitting by the proximity-induced Zeeman effect. Our first principles calculations of monolayer MoTe2 on a EuO substrate show that valley splitting over 300 meV can be generated. Interband transition energies become valley dependent, leading to selective spin-photon coupling by optical frequency tuning. The valley splitting is also continuously tunable by rotating the substrate magnetization. The giant and tunable valley splitting adds a different dimension to the exploration of unique optoelectronic devices based on magneto-optical coupling and magnetoelectric coupling.

  7. How Silicon Valley Journalists Talk about: Independence in Innovation Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten; Nordfors, David

    2010-01-01

    Silicon Valley has become known for innovations that have led to substantial changes for citizens around the world. In 1960s’-80s’ the innovation had to do with computers and electronics, 1990s-00s’ it was on Internet and Web services. Since the later part of the 00’s, clean tech has emerged......-structured interviews with journalists who cover the innovation economy in Silicon Valley, the paper seeks to understand the professional challenges the network structure create for journalists and the strategies they apply. Comparing the results with previous research in journalism norms, this study suggests...

  8. Summary Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "THE MAN BEHIND THE MICROCHIP: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley""by Leslie Berlin.The Man behind the Microchip is Leslie Berlin's first book. This author is project historian for the Silicon Valley Archives, a division of the Stanford University Department of Special Collections. This book tells the story of a giant of the high-tech industry: the multimillionaire Bob Noyce. This co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel co-invented the integrated circuit which became the electronic heart of every modern computer, automobile, advance

  9. Hydrogeology of the carbonate rocks of the Lebanon Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisler, Harold

    1963-01-01

    The Lebanon Valley, which is part of the Great Valley in southeastern Pennsylvania, is underlain by carbonate rocks in the southern part and by shale in the northern part. The carbonate rocks consist of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite of Cambrian and Ordovician age. Although the beds generally dip to the south, progressively younger beds crop out to the north, because the rocks are overturned. The stratigraphic units, from oldest to youngest, are: the Buffalo Springs Formation, Snitz Creek, Schaefferstown, Millbach, and Richland Formations of the Conococheague Group; the Stonehenge, Rickenbach, Epler, and Ontelaunee Formations of the Beekmantown Group; and the Annville, Myerstown, and Hershey Limestones.

  10. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  11. Valley fill in the Roswell-Artesia area, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, Forest P.

    1973-01-01

    Drill samples from 225 water and oil wells in an area 70 miles long and 20 miles wide in the Roswell-Artesia area, southeastern New Mexico were examined. A thickness map and a saturated thickness map of the valley-fill sediments were constructed. Maximum depth of valley fill is about 300 feet in large closed depressions near Roswell, Hagerman, and Artesia. The depressions were formed by the solution of carbonates and evaporites that underlie the fill. Maximum saturated thickness is about 250 feet in depressions near Hagerman and Artesia and about 300 feet in a depression near Roswell.

  12. A skin test survey of valley fever in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrich, B E

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of the prevalence of valley fever among 1128 residents of Tijuana, Baja California are presented. Children from primary and middle schools (n = 497) and adults from technical institutes and maquiladoras (assembly plants) were tested for reaction to both spherulin and coccidioidin during 1985-1986, and they completed a questionnaire containing 23 variables on their socio-environment. Place of residence was mapped. The population sampled is largely middle class. Discriminant analysis indicates the distribution of positive cases is not clustered, nor can it be correlated with geomorphic factors such as mesa tops, canyons, or valley bottoms.

  13. Inca expansion and parasitism in the lluta valley: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Calogero; Vinton, Sheila Dorsey; Reinhard, Karl J

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  14. Program Needs Assessment: The Telephone Survey Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishler, Carol

    This guidebook explains how to conduct a telephone survey that will gather the information necessary for new program needs assessment in the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education system. The guidebook is based on pilot assessments conducted by Fox Valley Technical College. The guidebook contains five sections: (1) introduction--why…

  15. Subsidence due to Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, F.; Harter, T.; Sneed, M.

    2011-12-01

    Francis Corbett1, Thomas Harter1 and Michelle Sneed2 1Department of Land Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis. 2U.S. Geological Survey Western Remote Sensing and Visualization Center, Sacramento. Abstract: Groundwater development within the Central Valley of California began approximately a century ago. Water was needed to supplement limited surface water supplies for the burgeoning population and agricultural industries, especially within the arid but fertile San Joaquin Valley. Groundwater levels have recovered only partially during wet years from drought-induced lows creating long-term groundwater storage overdraft. Surface water deliveries from Federal and State sources led to a partial alleviation of these pressure head declines from the late 1960s. However, in recent decades, surface water deliveries have declined owing to increasing environmental pressures, whilst water demands have remained steady. Today, a large portion of the San Joaquin Valley population, and especially agriculture, rely upon groundwater. Groundwater levels are again rapidly declining except in wet years. There is significant concern that subsidence due to groundwater withdrawal, first observed at a large scale in the middle 20th century, will resume as groundwater resources continue to be depleted. Previous subsidence has led to problems such as infrastructure damage and flooding. To provide a support tool for groundwater management on a naval air station in the southern San Joaquin Valley (Tulare Lake Basin), a one-dimensional MODFLOW subsidence model covering the period 1925 to 2010 was developed incorporating extensive reconstruction of historical subsidence and water level data from various sources. The stratigraphy used for model input was interpreted from geophysical logs and well completion reports. Gaining good quality data proved problematic, and often values needed to be estimated. In part, this was due to the historical lack of awareness/understanding of

  16. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plan, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-01-07

    This report includes an evaluation of deep rock formations with the objective of providing practical maps, data, and some of the issues considered for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage projects in the Ohio River Valley. Injection and storage of CO{sub 2} into deep rock formations represents a feasible option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal-burning power plants concentrated along the Ohio River Valley area. This study is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office, Schlumberger, and Battelle along with its Pacific Northwest Division. An extensive program of drilling, sampling, and testing of a deep well combined with a seismic survey was used to characterize the local and regional geologic features at AEP's 1300-megawatt (MW) Mountaineer Power Plant. Site characterization information has been used as part of a systematic design feasibility assessment for a first-of-a-kind integrated capture and storage facility at an existing coal-fired power plant in the Ohio River Valley region--an area with a large concentration of power plants and other emission sources. Subsurface characterization data have been used for reservoir simulations and to support the review of the issues relating to injection, monitoring, strategy, risk assessment, and regulatory permitting. The high-sulfur coal samples from the region have been tested in a capture test facility to evaluate and optimize basic design for a small-scale capture system and eventually to prepare a detailed design for a capture, local transport, and injection facility. The Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project was conducted in phases with the ultimate objectives of demonstrating both the technical aspects of CO{sub 2} storage and the testing, logistical, regulatory, and outreach issues related to conducting such a project at a large point source under realistic constraints. The site

  17. Evaluation of the water quality in the releases from thirty dams in the Tennessee River Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkus, S.R.

    1990-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has routinely monitored dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature from the tailwater releases of its dams since the 1950s. The original objective of this monitoring was to collect baseline information to support reaeration research and determine the relative impact of impoundments on the assimilative capacity of the river system. This monitoring has continued even though the original objective was satisfied. New purposes for this monitoring data have arisen in support of several programs, without new consideration of the monitoring strategy and sampling design. The primary purpose of this report is to compare the historical release data for 30 dams in the Tennessee Valley based on four different objectives: (1) comparison of seasonal patterns, (2) comparison of baseline conditions using descriptive statistics, (3) evaluation of monotonic trends, and (4) discussion of monitoring strategies that might be required to determine compliance with existing and proposed criteria. A secondary purpose of the report is to compile the existing database into tables and figures that would be useful for other investigators. 51 refs., 210 figs., 1 tab.

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report.

  19. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A didactical geological path in Val Rosandra valley (Trieste - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godini, E.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: the presented field work is aimed to involve a group of 15-17 years old students in building a simplified geomorphological and geological model of Val Rosandra valley, by means of guided observations and data collection. The didactical path may be changed according to age, skills or particular needs of students and meteorological conditions; at best, 4-5 hours are needed for the complete field trip. Some ideas about sedimentary rocks, folding and faulting, and the principle of superposition could be useful as pre-concepts, but "could" also be learnt during the experience. Organization: students will be divided into small groups (3-4 students each), possibly with different roles within the group (topographer, photographer, draftsman, geologist, geomorphologist,…). Needed materials for each group: notebook, paper, pencil, rubber, photo camera, ruler, compass, scale 10.000 topographic map, stratigraphic chart, altimeter, diluted hydrochloric acid. Observation points: 1. Bagnoli spring, marl outcrop 2. Bagnoli village, towards the "heart-shaped quarry" 3. By the river, in the lower part of the valley 4. Moccò lookout 5. Marl outcrop, from Moccò to the old railway 6. From the old railway, above the valley 7. By the river, in the upper part of the valley The field work: at first, students will be guided to observe and take notes of the main morphological characteristics, so that the different "observation points" will be drawn on the map, with the help of compass. An easily recognizable system of faults cuts the valley; a "V" profile is visible in the lower part of the valley (a small amount of sediment is present), while a calcareous gorge is evident in the upper valley, where there are no sediments (observation points 3, 4, 6 and 7). The morphology is asymmetric, due to the different arrangement of strata in the left and right side of the valley: right side shows big "steps" (horizontal arrangement of strata), left side is rich in slopes (tilted

  1. 76 FR 31009 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. (YVRR) has agreed to grant, pursuant to a prospective written..., Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.--Discontinuance Exemption--in Richland and Dawson Counties, Montana, in...

  2. 78 FR 34127 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Coachella Valley History Museum, Indio, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Coachella Valley History Museum, Indio, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Coachella Valley History Museum has completed... funerary objects should submit a written request to the Coachella Valley History Museum. If no additional...

  3. 76 FR 38572 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality...

  4. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality...

  5. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of... Rule 431.1 was actually for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope... Antelope Valley amended or rescinded the rule. On January 1, 2002, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  6. 75 FR 17756 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on..., Executive Director, John H. Chafee, Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission, One Depot...

  7. 75 FR 64741 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... the meeting to: Jan H. Reitsma, Executive Director, John H. Chafee, Blackstone River Valley National...

  8. 75 FR 2885 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on...: Jan H. Reitsma, Executive Director, John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor...

  9. 77 FR 2496 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  10. 77 FR 2469 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution.... * * * * * (G) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 1134, ``Stationary Gas Turbines... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality...

  11. Hydrogeology of, and simulation of ground-water flow in a mantled carbonate-rock system, Cumberland Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in a highly productive and complex regolith-mantled carbonate valley in the northeastern part of the Cumberland Valley, Pa., as part of its Appalachian Valleys and Piedmont Regional Aquifer-system Analysis program. The study was designed to quantify the hydrogeologic characteristics and understand the ground-water flow system of a highly productive and complex thickly mantled carbonate valley. The Cumberland Valley is characterized by complexly folded and faulted carbonate bedrock in the valley bottom, by shale and graywacke to the north, and by red-sedimentary and diabase rocks in the east-southeast. Near the southern valley hillslope, the carbonate rock is overlain by wedge-shaped deposit of regolith, up to 450 feet thick, that is composed of residual material, alluvium, and colluvium. Locally, saturated regolith is greater than 200 feet thick. Seepage-run data indicate that stream reaches, near valley walls, are losing water from the stream, through the regolith, to the ground-water system. Results of hydrograph-separation analyses indicate that base flow in stream basins dominated by regolith-mantled carbonate rock, carbonate rock, and carbonate rock and shale are 81.6, 93.0, and 67.7 percent of total streamflow, respectively. The relative high percentage for the regolith-mantled carbonate-rock basin indicates that the regolith stores precipitation and slowly, steadily releases this water to the carbonate-rock aquifer and to streams as base flow. Anomalies in water-table gradients and configuration are a result of topography and differences in the character and distribution of overburden material, permeability, rock type, and geologic structure. Most ground-water flow is local, and ground water discharges to nearby springs and streams. Regional flow is northeastward to the Susquehanna River. Average-annual water budgets were calculated for the period of record from two continuous streamflow-gaging stations. Average

  12. INEL Geothermal Environmental Program. 1979 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurow, T.L.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1980-04-01

    The Raft River Geothermal Environmental Program is designed to assess beneficial and detrimental impacts to the ecosystem resulting from the development of moderate temperature geothermal resources in the valley. The results of this research contribute to developing an understanding of Raft River Valley ecology and provide a basis for making management decisions to reduce potential long-term detrimental impacts on the environment. The environmental monitoring and research efforts conducted during the past six years of geothermal development and planned future research are summarized.

  13. CRYOGENESIS AND GEODYNAMICS OF ICING VALLEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseyev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to local groundwater seeping and freezing in layers that accumulate over each other and create large ice clusters on the ground surface, specific conditions of energy and mass transfer are created in the atmosphere–soil–lithosphere system. In winter, the vertical temperature distribution curve is significantly deformed due to heat emission from the water layer above the ice cover during its freezing, and a thermocline is thus formed. Deformation of the temperature curve is gradually decreasing in size downward the profile and decays at the interface of frozen and thaw rocks. Values and numbers of temperature deviations from a 'normal' value depend on heat reserves of aufeis water and the number of water seeps/discharges at a given location. The production of the thermocline alters freezing conditions for underlying ground layers and changes the mechanism of ice saturation, thus leading to formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC. IGCs are drastically different from cryogenic formations in the neighbouring sections of the river valley. Based on genetic characteristics and the ratios of components in the surface and subsurface layers, seven types of aufeis IGCs are distinguished: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressure-injection, and fissure-vein. Annual processes of surface and subsurface icing and ice ablation are accompanied by highly hazardous geodynamic phenomena, such as winter flooding, layered water freezing, soil heaving/pingo, thermokarst and thermal erosion. Combined, these processes lead to rapid and often incidental reconfigurations of the surface and subsurface runoff channels, abrupt uplifting and subsiding of the ground surface, decompaction and 'shaking-up' of seasonally freezing/thawing rocks, thereby producing exceptionally unfavourable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures.Formation and development of river networks are

  14. CRYOGENESIS AND GEODYNAMICS OF ICING VALLEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to local groundwater seeping and freezing in layers that accumulate over each other and create large ice clusters on the ground surface, specific conditions of energy and mass transfer are created in the atmosphere–soil–lithosphere system. In winter, the vertical temperature distribution curve is significantly deformed due to heat emission from the water layer above the ice cover during its freezing, and a thermocline is thus formed. Deformation of the temperature curve is gradually decreasing in size downward the profile and decays at the interface of frozen and thaw rocks. Values and numbers of temperature deviations from a 'normal' value depend on heat reserves of aufeis water and the number of water seeps/discharges at a given location. The production of the thermocline alters freezing conditions for underlying ground layers and changes the mechanism of ice saturation, thus leading to formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC. IGCs are drastically different from cryogenic formations in the neighbouring sections of the river valley. Based on genetic characteristics and the ratios of components in the surface and subsurface layers, seven types of aufeis IGCs are distinguished: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressure-injection, and fissure-vein. Annual processes of surface and subsurface icing and ice ablation are accompanied by highly hazardous geodynamic phenomena, such as winter flooding, layered water freezing, soil heaving/pingo, thermokarst and thermal erosion. Combined, these processes lead to rapid and often incidental reconfigurations of the surface and subsurface runoff channels, abrupt uplifting and subsiding of the ground surface, decompaction and 'shaking-up' of seasonally freezing/thawing rocks, thereby producing exceptionally unfavourable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures.Formation and development of river networks are

  15. The Best Little Teacher Education Program in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Many undergraduate teacher education programs still treat technology as an elective, instead of an integral and inseparable part of the curriculum. So when "T.H.E. Journal" set out to find the best program for training tomorrow's teachers, it found one at a K-12 school district in Kansas. The Blue Valley School District in Overland Park,…

  16. A Mentoring Program Drills down on the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Emily; Sinclair, Steve; Gschwend, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Santa Cruz/Silicon Valley New Teacher Project--under the aegis of the New Teacher Center--devised a program to train teacher mentors to help new teachers incorporate the Common Core standards into their teaching. The three-year program yielded five critical lessons: Mentors need ongoing support to develop their readiness and willingness to…

  17. 18 CFR 1312.20 - Public awareness programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public awareness programs. 1312.20 Section 1312.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.20 Public awareness programs. (a) Each...

  18. Education Outreach Associated with Technology Transfer in a Colonia of South Texas: Green Valley Farms Science and Space Club for Middle School Aged Children in Green Valley Farms, San Benito, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potess, Marla D.; Rainwater, Ken; Muirhead, Dean

    2004-01-01

    Texas colonias are unincorporated subdivisions characterized by inadequate water and wastewater infrastructure, inadequate drainage and road infrastructure, substandard housing, and poverty. Since 1989 the Texas Legislature has implemented policies to halt further development of colonias and to address water and wastewater infrastructure needs in existing and new colonias along the border with Mexico. Government programs and non-government and private organization projects aim to address these infrastructure needs. Texas Tech University's Water Resources Center demonstrated the use of alternative on-site wastewater treatment in the Green Valley Farms colonia, San Benito, Texas. The work in Green Valley Farms was a component of a NASA-funded project entitled Evaluation of NASA's Advanced Life Support Integrated Water Recovery System for Non-Optimal Conditions and Terrestrial Applications. Two households within the colonia are demonstration sites for constructed wetlands. A colonia resident and activist identified educational opportunities for colonia children as a primary goal for many colonia residents. Colonia parents view education as the door to opportunity and escape from poverty for their children. The educational outreach component of the project in Green Valley Farms was a Science and Space Club for middle-school age students. Involved parents, schoolteachers, and school administrators enthusiastically supported the monthly club meetings and activities. Each month, students participated in interactive learning experiences about water use and reuse in space and on earth. Activities increased knowledge and interest in water resource issues and in science and engineering fields. The Institute for the Development and Enrichment of Advanced Learners (IDEAL) at Texas Tech University provided full scholarships for five students from Green Valley Farms to attend the Shake Hands With Your Future camp at Texas Tech University in June 2003. The educational outreach

  19. DoD-GEIS Rift Valley Fever Monitoring and Prediction System as a Tool for Defense and US Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Tucker, Compton J.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Witt, Clara J.; Gaydos, Joel C.; Russell, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (GEIS) partnering with NASA'S Goddard Space Flight Center and USDA's USDA-Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology established and have operated the Rift Valley fever Monitoring and Prediction System to monitor, predict and assess the risk of Rift Valley fever outbreaks and other vector-borne diseases over Africa and the Middle East. This system is built on legacy DoD basic research conducted by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research overseas laboratory (US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya) and the operational satellite environmental monitoring by NASA GSFC. Over the last 10 years of operation the system has predicted outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in the Horn of Africa, Sudan, South Africa and Mauritania. The ability to predict an outbreak several months before it occurs provides early warning to protect deployed forces, enhance public health in concerned countries and is a valuable tool use.d by the State Department in US Diplomacy. At the international level the system has been used by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAD) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to support their monitoring, surveillance and response programs in the livestock sector and human health. This project is a successful testament of leveraging resources of different federal agencies to achieve objectives of force health protection, health and diplomacy.

  20. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity anomalies, historical records of exploratory oil wells and oil seeps, new organic-geochemical results, and new stratigraphic and structural data indicate the presence of a concealed, oil-bearing sedimentary basin beneath a highly urbanized part of the Santa Clara Valley, Calif. A conspicuous isostatic-gravity low that extends about 35 km from Palo Alto southeastward to near Los Gatos reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata, principally of Miocene age, that rest on higher-density rocks of Mesozoic and Paleogene(?) age. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest (approx 4 km thick) accumulation of low-density material occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which may be controlled by buried, northeast-dipping normal faults that were active during the Miocene. Movement along these hypothetical normal faults may been contemporaneous (approx 17–14 Ma) with sedimentation and local dacitic and basaltic volcanism, possibly in response to crustal extension related to passage of the northwestward-migrating Mendocino triple junction. During the Pliocene and Quaternary, the normal faults and Miocene strata were overridden by Mesozoic rocks, including the Franciscan Complex, along northeastward-vergent reverse and thrust faults of the Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista Fault zones. Movement along these fault zones was accompanied by folding and tilting of strata as young as Quaternary and by uplift of the modern Santa Cruz Mountains; the fault zones remain seismically active. We attribute the Pliocene and Quaternary reverse and thrust faulting, folding, and uplift to compression caused by local San Andreas Fault tectonics and regional transpression along the Pacific-North American Plate boundary. Near the southwestern margin of the Santa Clara Valley, as many as 20 exploratory oil wells were drilled between 1891

  1. Pediatric Burns at The Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim To determine the etiology and outcome of pediatric burns (0-12 years). Design A retrospective study of burn victims hospitalized at the Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital, Nakuru, Kenya from April 2004 to March 2007. Method Charts of all children hospitalized for burn injury were reviewed for patient demographics, ...

  2. Pediatric Burns at The Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical/female burn ward were eligible. On average the ward admits 680 patients a year out of which 170 pa- tients (25.7 %) are due to pediatric burns. The Hospital attracts patients mostly from low socioeconomic status. Pediatric Burns at The Rift Valley. Provincial General Hospital, Nakuru,. Kenya. Author: Oduor P.R. ...

  3. Rio Grande Valley State Park maintenance, improvements, and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Barron

    1996-01-01

    Managing the Rio Grande Valley State Park as a valued riparian-wetland area is very important as it encourages conditions for the growth of vegetation. This growth supports a riparian community consisting of various insects, animals, birds, and fish, as well as other wildlife. Human activity in riparian areas has led to historic use patterns causing erosion, re-...

  4. A DECADE FROM THE MAJOR LAYOFFS IN THE JIU VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN VALENTIN FULGER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an overview of how the population of the largest coalfield of Romania Jiu Valley, the perceived major staff cuts in the mining industry, the solutions required for economic rehabilitation of the area and difficulties of everyday faced by residents of the region.

  5. Feasibility of target communities in a Dutch brook valley system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, AH; Bekker, RM

    As a reaction to the ongoing deterioration of nature conservation interest in The Netherlands, an offensive nature strategy was formulated in the 1990 Nature Policy Plan. In this Plan, target communities and target plant species are mentioned. For the 'Drentse A brook valley system', target

  6. Valley segments, stream reaches, and channel units [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter A. Bisson; David R. Montgomery; John M. Buffington

    2006-01-01

    Valley segments, stream reaches, and channel units are three hierarchically nested subdivisions of the drainage network (Frissell et al. 1986), falling in size between landscapes and watersheds (see Chapter 1) and individual point measurements made along the stream network (Table 2.1; also see Chapters 3 and 4). These three subdivisions compose the habitat for large,...

  7. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  8. Comparison of access to medicines between Klang Valley and East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. ... available [5], suggesting that problems may exist ... access to medicines for children living in poor households in the economically contrasting areas of Klang Valley and East Coast of Peninsular. Malaysia.

  9. Forest pathology and entomology at Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    Forest pathology and entomology have been researched at Fort Valley Experimental Forest throughout its history. The pathogens and insects of particular interest are mistletoes, decay and canker fungi, rusts, bark beetles, and various defoliators. Studies on life history, biotic interactions, impacts, and control have been published and incorporated into silvicultural...

  10. HBO-I on tour in Silicon Valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. Deny Smeets; Drs. Miranda W Valkenburg

    2005-01-01

    Wat is 'hot' en wat is 'not' in de ict? Dat was 'in a nutshell' de reden voor het HBO-I om een studiereis te maken naar het Mekka voor ict'ers: Silicon Valley. Voor VS-verhoudingen een klein gebied met relatief veel belangrijke ict-bedrijven: SUN, Intel, Oracle, Hewlett-Packard. En twee van de beste

  11. A case study: Death Valley National Monument California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Hamson; Ristau Toni

    1979-01-01

    With passage of the Mining in the Parks Act (P.L. 94-429) in 1976, the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, was given the responsibility of preparing a report to Congress outlining the environmental consequences of mining on claims within Death Valley National Monument. In addition, the Secretary of the Interior is required to formulate a recommendation...

  12. Birds of Rishi Valley, and Renewal of their Habitats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 1. Birds of Rishi Valley, and Renewal of their Habitats. Mahesh Rangarajan. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 1 January 2000 pp 105-106 ... Author Affiliations. Mahesh Rangarajan1. Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, New Delhi, India.

  13. Fluoride Contamination in Drinking Water in the Rift Valley, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the amount of Fluoride in ground, potable water in Njoro division, Nakuru district and some parts outside the division was conducted to determine the concentration of Fluoride the residents are consuming through water. This area is situated in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa, which is known to have high levels ...

  14. Pathways to High-tech Valleys and Research Triangles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsink, W.; Dons, H.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon Valley and the industrial districts of Italy, where shared identity, superior skills, regional specialization and trust-based networking among local firms have produced dynamic and flexible ecosystems, are inspiring examples of the successful promotion of thriving technology and business

  15. Birds of Rishi Valley, and Renewal of their Habitats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nehru Memorial Museum Library. New Delhi, 1993, pp. 235. At a time when environmental concerns are commonly identified with lost causes and battles fought against heavy odds, it is a delight to come across a story of hope. Rishi. Valley's is a tale of ecological renewal in more ways than one. Rayalaseema, in Andhra.

  16. A Student Government Guidebook for Evergreen Valley College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Mauro

    Designed to help develop informed and capable student leadership in student affairs at Evergreen Valley College (EVC), this student government guide and text for Government 91 focuses on the major leadership needs and objectives of student government within a participatory framework. After an explanation of course objectives and requirements,…

  17. An Instructional Guide for Ethnic Studies at Evergreen Valley College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Mauro

    Guidelines and conceptual parameters are presented for ethnic studies courses at Evergreen Valley College (EVC). Introductory material discusses the requirement that all associate degree students complete three units of ethnic studies; presents general guidelines for ethnic studies; defines "ethnic-racial minority"; and suggests criteria for…

  18. Fort Valley studies: A natural laboratory for research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    Drought, wildfire, extinction, and invasive species are considered serious threats to the health of our forests. Although these issues have global connections, we most readily see their consequences locally and attempt to respond with management based on science. For 100 years, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) has provided educational and experimental support...

  19. Hydropluviometric variability in the low valley of the mono | Vissin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show the dependence of flow and recharge from rainfall fluctuations. Keywords: Low Valley of Mono, hydropluviometric variability, impact, hydropluviometric deficits. Resume Cette recherche est consacrée à l'analyse de l'impact de la variabilité pluviométrique sur le cycle hydrologique et les ressources en eau.

  20. Appendix C: The sources of Copan Valley obsidian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Neff, H.; Bishop, R.L. [Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States). Conservation Analytical Lab.

    1995-05-01

    One hundred thirty-nine obsidian samples from the Copan Valley were subjected to neutron activation analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Obsidian sources from Mesoamerica have been characterized by a number of different laboratories using several techniques. Over 1,800 samples from Mesoamerica have been analyzed by neutron activation at BNL. These data are now housed both at BNL and in the Smithsonian Archaeometric Research Collections and Records (SARCAR) data base. Previous statistical analysis of the Mesoamerican obsidian artifacts and source samples has produced reference groups representing many of the sources, including Ixtepeque, San Martin Jilotepeque, and El Chayal, the three sources closest to the Copan Valley and therefore most likely to be represented in the analyzed sample. As anticipated, the overwhelming majority of obsidian recovered in the Copan Valley comes from the closest source, Ixtepeque. Of the seven El Chayal specimens, four pertain to CV-43 and three pertain to CV-20. These data provide no evidence of a difference between the two localities in external obsidian exchange relations. Thus, the authors find no grounds for questioning the assumption that the minor quantities of El Chayal obsidian that reached the Copan Valley were distributed through the same channels responsible for distribution of the more common Ixtepeque obsidian.

  1. Blue and Valley Oak Seedling Establishment on California's Hardwood Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore E. Adams Jr.; Peter B. Sands; William H. Weitkamp; Neil K. McDougald

    1991-01-01

    Factors contributing to poor establishment of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and valley oak (Q. lobata) in California oak-grassland savannas were studied in a series of acorn seeding experiments initiated in 1985. Exclusion of large herbivores permitted examination of herbaceous interference and small mammal and insect depredation....

  2. Integrated management of water resources in the valley of Oued ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study designed to analyze and evaluate the results of trend scenarios of the strategy management of water resources used in the valley of Oued-Souf, who led the region to a truly dramatic situation and almost desperate: rise of groundwater and its adverse consequences. In terms of this work, we seek a model (plan) ...

  3. Analysis of the Malaria situation in Hippo Valley Estates | Chirebvu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... not infected with sporozoites. The malaria control programme for Hippo Valley Estates appears to be effective in controlling malaria disease. However, some other factors could be contributing to the low malaria transmission pattern observed in the estates. The Zimbabwe Science News Volume 34(2) June 2000, pp. 34-37 ...

  4. Leishmaniases survey in the Awash Valley: The magnitude of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are reckoned to be endemic in Ethiopia in magnitudes of undetermined prevalence and distribution. There is considerable information pertaining to the public health importance of leishmaniases in the lower course of the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, there is ...

  5. Herpetology of the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 110 species of amphibians (18 frogs and toads, and 1 salamander) and reptiles (47 snakes, 39 lizards, and 5 turtles) are known from the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys. The high diversity of the herpetofauna comes from a variety of factors, including a convergence of biotic communities representing deserts, grasslands, and mountains....

  6. Forecast and Outbreak of Rift valley fever in Sudan, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks occur during heavy rainfall in various sub-Saharan countries including Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania and more recently in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Given the wide geographic and ecological range of RVF virus, it is necessary to monitor large areas for condit...

  7. Rift Valley fever Entomology, Ecology, and Outbreak Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease of domestic ruminants and humans in Africa. The disease is most severe in cattle, sheep, and goats, and it causes high mortality in young animals and abortion in adults. Exotic aanimal breeds from areas where RVF is not endemic tend to be ...

  8. Sound propagation from a ridge wind turbine across a valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Sound propagation outdoors can be strongly affected by ground topography. The existence of hills and valleys between a source and receiver can lead to the shielding or focusing of sound waves. Such effects can result in significant variations in received sound levels. In addition, wind speed and air temperature gradients in the atmospheric boundary layer also play an important role. All of the foregoing factors can become especially important for the case of wind turbines located on a ridge overlooking a valley. Ridges are often selected for wind turbines in order to increase their energy capture potential through the wind speed-up effects often experienced in such locations. In this paper, a hybrid calculation method is presented to model such a case, relying on an analytical solution for sound diffraction around an impedance cylinder and the conformal mapping (CM) Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) technique. The various aspects of the model have been successfully validated against alternative prediction methods. Example calculations with this hybrid analytical-CM-GFPE model show the complex sound pressure level distribution across the valley and the effect of valley ground type. The proposed method has the potential to include the effect of refraction through the inclusion of complex wind and temperature fields, although this aspect has been highly simplified in the current simulations. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  9. Status and population of vultures in Moyar Valley, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venkitachalam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Four species of vultures were surveyed using road transects in two parts of the Moyar Valley, three of these are Critically Endangered by IUCN criteria and one is Endangered.  The vulture study was done for the first time in Nilgiri North Forest Division and Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve of Moyar Valley to determine the flock size in the three species of vultures and also to get a rough estimation of vultures. The results show higher flock size and higher densities in Nilgiri North Forest Division than in Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve and the most numerous of these was the White-rumped Vulture.  There is also evidence of seasonal movements in Nilgiri North Forest Division.  These data represent the first systematic survey results from the area and demonstrate the significance of the Moyar Valley for all four Endangered vulture species, probably the main stronghold remaining in southern India.  They are White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis, Indian Vulture Gyps indicus, Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvus and Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus.  The study recommends that immediate long-term conservation efforts should be taken to save the Critically Endangered vultures in the Moyar Valley

  10. Business plan Seed potato programmes Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, F.; Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand/start their business portfolio and are looking for an opportunity of investment in the agricultural sector in the Zambezi Valley in Mozambique. We propose the creation of a seed potato programme for the red skinned

  11. Effective utilization of the valley bushveld | AJ | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the arid Valley Bushveld to its full potential is discussed. Boer goats and Dorpers select forage of different quality within this veld type. In addition, Dorpers are chiefly grazers while Boer goats are browsers. The results show that more browsers can be maintained per unit area than grazers and that the ...

  12. Summertime wind climate in Yerevan: valley wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Artur

    2017-03-01

    1992-2014 wind climatology analysis in Yerevan is presented with particular focus given to the summertime thermally induced valley wind systems. Persistence high winds are observed in Yerevan during July-August months when the study region is strongly affected by a heat-driven plain-plateau circulation. The local valley winds arrive in Yerevan in the evening hours, generally, from 1500 to 1800 UTC, leading to rapid enhancement of wind speeds and dramatic changes in wind direction. Valley-winds significantly impact the local climate of Yerevan, which is a densely populated city. These winds moderate evening temperatures after hot and dry weather conditions observed during summertime afternoons. On the other hand, valley winds result in significantly higher nocturnal temperatures and more frequent occurrence of warm nights (tn90p) in Yerevan due to stronger turbulent mixing of boundary layer preventing strong surface cooling and temperature drop in nighttime and morning hours. The applied WRF-ARW limited area model is able to simulate the key features of the observed spatial pattern of surface winds in Armenia associated with significant terrain channeling, wind curls, etc. By contrast, ECMWF EPS global model fails to capture mesoscale and local wind systems over Armenia. However, the results of statistical verification of surface winds in Yerevan showed that substantial biases are present in WRF 18-h wind forecasts, as well as, the temporal variability of observed surface winds is not reproduced adequately in WRF-ARW model.

  13. Business plan Tilapia Pond Farming in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Herman; Meer, van der Magnus

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand their business portfolio or to start a value chain business in the aquaculture sector in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique.

    Freshwater aquaculture in Mozambique consists mainly of small-scale tilapia

  14. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research timeperiods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  15. pastoralist tribes in lower Omo Valley, Southwestern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACIPH_Admin

    Abstract. Background: Survey of intestinal parasites provides information about the burden of parasites in a community and helps in making decisions for intervention. Nevertheless, such information on the communities living in the Lower. Omo Valley is scanty. Objective: To study the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ...

  16. Gravity Data from Newark Valley, White Pine County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.

    2007-01-01

    The Newark Valley area, eastern Nevada is one of thirteen major ground-water basins investigated by the BARCAS (Basin and Range Carbonate Aquifer Study) Project. Gravity data are being used to help characterize the geophysical framework of the region. Although gravity coverage was extensive over parts of the BARCAS study area, data were sparse for a number of the valleys, including the northern part of Newark Valley. We addressed this lack of data by establishing seventy new gravity stations in and around Newark Valley. All available gravity data were then evaluated to determine their reliability, prior to calculating an isostatic residual gravity map to be used for subsequent analyses. A gravity inversion method was used to calculate depths to pre-Cenozoic basement rock and estimates of maximum alluvial/volcanic fill. The enhanced gravity coverage and the incorporation of lithologic information from several deep oil and gas wells yields a view of subsurface shape of the basin and will provide information useful for the development of hydrogeologic models for the region.

  17. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. 7.17 Section 7.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can, or...

  18. Martian channels and valleys - Their characteristics, distribution, and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Clow, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and ages of Martian channels and valleys, which are generally believed to have been cut by running water, are examined with particular emphasis on the small branching networks referred to as runoff channels or valley networks. Valleys at latitudes from 65 deg S to 65 deg N were surveyed on Viking images at resolutions between 125 and 300 m. Almost all of the valleys are found in the old cratered terrain, in areas characterized by high elevations, low albedos and low violet/red ratios. The networks are deduced to have formed early in the history of the planet, with a formation rate declining rapidly shortly after the decline of the cratering rate 3.9 billion years ago. Two types of outflow channels are distinguished: unconfined, in which broad swaths of terrain are scoured, and confined, in which flow is restricted to discrete channels. Both types start at local sources, and have formed episodically throughout Martian history. Fretted channels, found mainly in two latitude belts characterized by relatively rapid erosion along escarpments, are explained by the lateral enlargement of other channels by mass wasting.

  19. Neotectonics of the Roer Valley Rift System, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtgast, R.F.; van Balen, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    The Roer Valley Rift System (RVRS) is located in the southern part of the Netherlands and adjacent parts of Germany and Belgium. The last rifting episode of the RVRS started in the Late Oligocene and is still ongoing. The present-day seismic activity in the rift system is part of that last rifting

  20. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  1. Fort Valley's early scientists: A legacy of distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Susan D. Olberding

    2008-01-01

    When the Riordan brothers of Flagstaff, Arizona, asked Gifford Pinchot to determine why there was a deficit in ponderosa pine seedlings, neither party understood the historical significance of what they were setting in motion for the field of forest research. The direct result of that professional favor was the establishment of the Fort Valley Experiment Station (Fort...

  2. Fort Valley's early scientists: A legacy of distinction (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Susan D. Olberding

    2008-01-01

    When the Riordan brothers of Flagstaff, Arizona asked Gifford Pinchot to determine why there was a deficit in ponderosa pine seedlings, neither party understood the historical significance of what they were setting in motion for the field of forest research. The direct result of that professional favor was the establishment of the Fort Valley Experiment Station (Fort...

  3. 1 characteristics, classification and management of inland valley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    ABSTRACT. Inland valley bottoms (IVBs) on basement complex in sub-humid southwestern Nigeria were studied for water-table (WT) dynamics, and physical and chemical characteristics for their classification and management needs for crop production. The IVBs are generally small in size. About 64% of the.

  4. Impact of Global Climate on Rift Valley Fever Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Since the virus was first isolated in Kenya in 1930 it has caused significant impact to animal and human health and national economies, and it is of concern to the internationa...

  5. Sound propagation from a ridge wind turbine across a valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Timothy

    2017-04-13

    Sound propagation outdoors can be strongly affected by ground topography. The existence of hills and valleys between a source and receiver can lead to the shielding or focusing of sound waves. Such effects can result in significant variations in received sound levels. In addition, wind speed and air temperature gradients in the atmospheric boundary layer also play an important role. All of the foregoing factors can become especially important for the case of wind turbines located on a ridge overlooking a valley. Ridges are often selected for wind turbines in order to increase their energy capture potential through the wind speed-up effects often experienced in such locations. In this paper, a hybrid calculation method is presented to model such a case, relying on an analytical solution for sound diffraction around an impedance cylinder and the conformal mapping (CM) Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) technique. The various aspects of the model have been successfully validated against alternative prediction methods. Example calculations with this hybrid analytical-CM-GFPE model show the complex sound pressure level distribution across the valley and the effect of valley ground type. The proposed method has the potential to include the effect of refraction through the inclusion of complex wind and temperature fields, although this aspect has been highly simplified in the current simulations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. The Sweet Valley High Gang Goes to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Joyce A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the first 14 books of the "Sweet Valley University" series. Finds that the storylines on sex send conflicting messages that make readers believe that premarital sex is not an important issue. Notes that date rape and a brief look at racism and alcohol abuse are the only serious topics addressed. (RS)

  7. Rift Valley fever: current challenges and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himeidan YE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yousif E Himeidan Vector Control Unit, Africa Technical Research Centre, Vector Health International, Arusha, Tanzania Abstract: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a zoonotic, mosquito-borne viral disease that affects human health and causes significant losses in the livestock industry. Recent outbreaks have led to severe human infections with high mortality rates. There are many challenges to applying effective preventive and control measures, including weak infrastructure of health facilities, lack of capacity and support systems for field logistics and communication, access to global expert organizations, and insufficient information on the epidemiological and reservoir status of the RVF virus. The health systems in East African countries are underdeveloped, with gaps in adaptability to new, more accurate and rapid techniques, and well-trained staff that affect their capacity to monitor and evaluate the disease. Surveillance and response systems are inadequate in providing accurate information in a timely manner for decision making to deal with the scope of interrupting the disease transmission by applying mass animal vaccination, and other preventive measures at the early stage of an outbreak. The historical vaccines are unsuitable for use in newborn and gestating livestock, and the recent ones require a booster and annual revaccination. Future live-attenuated RVF vaccines should possess lower safety concerns regardless of the physiologic state of the animal, and provide rapid and long-term immunity after a single dose of vaccination. In the absence of an effective vaccination program, prevention and control measures must be immediately undertaken after an alert is generated. These measures include enforcing and adapting standard protocols for animal trade and movement, extensive vector control, safe disposal of infected animals, and modification of human–animal contact behavior. Directing control efforts on farmers and workers who deal with

  8. Paleoenvironment reconstruction from channel and valley morphometry on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, A.

    The characteristics of the channels and valleys on Mars hold information on various environmental conditions were present during their formation. This work focuses on their easily observable main morphological and morphometrical aspects from a point of view how much are they useful for paleoenvironment reconstruction. The author analyzed longitudinal and cross sectional profiles of channels and valleys at Xanthe, Margaritifer, Noachis Terra and their surroundings from MOLA data, and morphological characteristics from MOC, THEMIS and HRSC images. During the work correlations were searched between the quantitative parameters (length, width, depth, slope, volume, curvature) and the geomorphological structures (regional topography, sedimentary infill, erodible/competent bedrock, inner channels etc.). The author tried to elucidate to what extent could the channels and valleys be used for the estimation of ancient environmental parameters (erosion, paleodischarge, ice covered/ice free surfaces, cutting into bedrock, water sources and sinks etc.). Among the results concave and convex longitudinal profiles were observed at Bahram and Tyras Valles respectively, while no general trend was visible at many other valleys. Several longitudinal profiles showed signs of knickpoints and some short reaches with increasing elevation in the flow direction. The cross-sectional profiles of Tyras Valles showed more V-shaped of upper and U-shaped profiles of lower reaches, but the great variety of profiles of other channels suggests a complex relationship. Tyras Valles could be divided into upper and lower sections that probably formed at different periods and conditions. The largest observed valleys contain small, previously unnoticed inner channels. There is no correlation between the shape of cross-sectional profiles and the direction of curvature of the valley's long axis, as is found in riverbeds on the Earth, suggesting that they are probably valleys and not dry riverbeds. The

  9. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  10. Wintertime Atmospheric Stability and PM Variability in Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandana Gamalathge, T. D.; Green, M.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution has already become a global threat. Particulate Matter (PM) which is commonly known as `aerosols' plays a significant role in negatively impacting the climate and human health. PM2.5 which are particles less than aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm can go deeply in to human lungs and cause serious health issues. Due to trapping of pollution, people living in cities that can be considered `valleys' are subjected to higher exposure, particularly in winter when there is less dispersion due to enhanced atmospheric stability. To identify whether there are any special atmospheric conditions or geographical locations that leads to increases in PM2.5 concentrations, we have gathering radiosonde data and PM2.5 data for cities within valleys. Although radiosonde archives consist of multi-decadal data and are easily accessible, it has been a difficult task to collect air quality data. Most of the developed countries have provided public access to their data bases, but different cities have measurements in different temporal resolutions. Apart from that, valleys to be used in our work should have both atmospheric soundings and air quality monitoring stations that are close together. Despite these constraints, we have selected about 100 cities which geographically represent various valley configurations (e.g. width, depth) and are in the process of categorizing them. We are limiting our work to winter season in each city and our goal is to see whether there are globally common relationships between atmospheric stability and PM variability. Initial results for a subset of cities are presented. Keywords: PM2.5, Valleys, Radiosonde data, Atmospheric stability

  11. INEL geothermal environmental program. 1980 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahn, L.S.; Thurow, T.L.; Martinez, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    An overview of continuing environmental research and monitoring programs conducted at the Raft River Geothermal Site is provided. The monitoring programs are designed to collect data on the physical, biological and human environments of the development area. Primary research during 1980 emphasized completing baseline studies on terrestrial fauna, establishing an air quality monitoring network, investigating potential sources of fluoride in the Raft River Valley, and studying water level changes in the shallow monitor wells in response to development of the geothermal resource.

  12. Geophysical Data from Spring Valley to Delamar Valley, East-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Roberts, Carter W.; McKee, Edwin H.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Morin, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Cenozoic basins in eastern Nevada and western Utah constitute major ground-water recharge areas in the eastern part of the Great Basin and these were investigated to characterize the geologic framework of the region. Prior to these investigations, regional gravity coverage was variable over the region, adequate in some areas and very sparse in others. Cooperative studies described herein have established 1,447 new gravity stations in the region, providing a detailed description of density variations in the middle to upper crust. All previously available gravity data for the study area were evaluated to determine their reliability, prior to combining with our recent results and calculating an up-to-date isostatic residual gravity map of the area. A gravity inversion method was used to calculate depths to pre-Cenozoic basement rock and estimates of maximum alluvial/volcanic fill in the major valleys of the study area. The enhanced gravity coverage and the incorporation of lithologic information from several deep oil and gas wells yields a much improved view of subsurface shapes of these basins and provides insights useful for the development of hydrogeologic models for the region.

  13. Workshop on hydrologic and geochemical monitoring in the Long Valley Caldera: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Farrar, C.D.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1984-10-01

    A workshop reviewed the results of hydrologic and geochemical monitoring in the Long Valley caldera. Such monitoring is being done to detect changes in the hydrothermal system induced by ongoing magmatic and tectonic processes. Workshop participants discussed the need to instrument sites for continuous measurements of several parameters and to obtain additional hydrologic and chemical information from intermediate and deep drill holes. In addition to seismic and deformation monitoring, programs are currently in progress to monitor changes in the discharge characteristics of hot springs, fumaroles, and soil gases, as well as pressures and temperatures in wells. Some hydrochemical parameters are measured continuously, others are measured monthly or at longer intervals. This report summarizes the information presented at the hydrologic monitoring workshop, following the workshop agenda which was divided into four sessions: (1) overview of the hydrothermal system; (2) monitoring springs, fumaroles, and wells; (3) monitoring gas emissions; and (4) conclusions and recommendations.

  14. Proceedings of the symposium on the Long Valley Caldera: A pre-drilling data review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This proceedings volume contains papers or abstracts of papers presented at a two-day symposium held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on 17 and 18 March 1987. Speakers presented a large body of new scientific results and geologic-hydrogeoloic interpretations for the Long Valley caldera. The talks and the discussions that followed focused on concepts and models for the present-day magmatic-hydrothermal system. Speakers at the symposium also addressed the topic of where to site future scientific drill holes in the caldera. Deep scientific drilling projects such as those being contemplated by the DOE Division of Geothermal Technology (DGT), under the Magma Energy Program, and by the DOE Office of Energy Research, Division of Engineering and Geosciences (DEG), along with the USGS and NSE, under the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP), will be major and expensive national undertakings. DOE/DEG is sponsoring a program of relatively shallow coreholes in the caldera, and DOE/DGT is considering the initiation of a multiphase program to drill a deep hole for geophysical observations and sampling of the ''near magmatic'' environment as early as FY 1988, depending on the DOE budget. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers.

  15. Yellowstone and Long Valley - A Comparison of Two Restless Calderas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D. P.; Smith, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Three large, silicic calderas in the conterminous United States have explosively erupted volumes > 300 km3 within in the last 2 million years -- Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming) Long Valley caldera (California) and the Vallez caldera (New Mexico) all located in extensional tectonic environments. All have shown varying levels of historic unrest. Pronounced unrest episodes at Yellowstone and Long Valley calderas over the past three decades stimulated extensive research on these two closely monitored calderas, and we explore some emerging similarities and differences. Yellowstone caldera is underlain by a long-lived (> 17 my) upper-mantle hot-spot that has fed a series of caldera-forming, extending to the southwest across southern Idaho to central Oregon including three caldera-forming eruptions from the Yellowstone caldera system in the last 2 my, the most recent at 600,000 ybp. It is marked by relatively low density and low seismic velocities extending to depths of at least 400 km and a regional topographic swell with elevations exceeding 2000 m. The extensive Yellowstone hydrothermal system has a thermal output of 5 GW. The most recent magmatic eruption dated at 70,000 ybp. By comparison, Long Valley caldera is underlain by a relatively modest "hot-spot", the locus of which appears to be influenced by a dilatational jog between the dextral Eastern California Shear Zone and the Walker Lane and westward delamination of the dense lithospheric root of the adjacent Sierra Nevada. The Long Valley system has fed multiple eruptions of over the past 4 my and a single caldera-forming eruption at 760,000 ybp. It is marked by a limited topographic swell but with the elevation of the caldera floor and adjacent basins comparable to the 2000-plus m elevation of the Yellowstone swell. Long Valley caldera hydrothermal system has a thermal output of 0.3 GW (including a 40 MW geothermal power plant). The most recent eruptions from the Long Valley Caldera- Mono Domes volcanic field

  16. Stratigraphic variations and secondary porosity within the Maynardville Limestone in Bear Creek Valley, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstrand, P.M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-05-01

    To evaluate groundwater and surface water contamination and migration near the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, a Comprehensive Groundwater Monitoring Plan was developed. As part of the Maynardville exit pathways monitoring program, monitoring well clusters were ii installed perpendicular to the strike of the Maynardville Limestone, that underlies the southern part of the Y-12 Plant and Bear Creek Valley (BCV). The Maynardville Project is designed to locate potential exit pathways of groundwater, study geochemical characteristics and factors affecting the occurrence and distribution of water-bearing intervals, and provide hydrogeologic information to be used to reduce the potential impacts of contaminants entering the Maynardville Limestone.

  17. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Madera–Chowchilla and Kings subbasins, San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-08

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Many households and small communities in the Madera– Chowchilla and Kings subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley rely on private domestic wells for their drinking-water supplies.

  18. Hydrogeology and water quality of the stratified-drift aquifer in the Pony Hollow Creek Valley, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugliosi, Edward F.; Miller, Todd S.; Reynolds, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The lithology, areal extent, and the water-table configuration in stratified-drift aquifers in the northern part of the Pony Hollow Creek valley in the Town of Newfield, New York, were mapped as part of an ongoing aquifer mapping program in Tompkins County. Surficial geologic and soil maps, well and test-boring records, light detection and ranging (lidar) data, water-level measurements, and passive-seismic surveys were used to map the aquifer geometry, construct geologic sections, and determine the depth to bedrock at selected locations throughout the valley. Additionally, water-quality samples were collected from selected streams and wells to characterize the quality of surface and groundwater in the study area. Sedimentary bedrock underlies the study area and is overlain by unstratified drift (till), stratified drift (glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial deposits), and recent post glacial alluvium. The major type of unconsolidated, water-yielding material in the study area is stratified drift, which consists of glaciofluvial sand and gravel, and is present in sufficient amounts in most places to form an extensive unconfined aquifer throughout the study area, which is the source of water for most residents, farms, and businesses in the valleys. A map of the water table in the unconfined aquifer was constructed by using (1) measurements made between the mid-1960s through 2010, (2) control on the altitudes of perennial streams at 10-foot contour intervals from lidar data collected by Tompkins County, and (3) water surfaces of ponds and wetlands that are hydraulically connected to the unconfined aquifer. Water-table contours indicate that the direction of groundwater flow within the stratified-drift aquifer is predominantly from the valley walls toward the streams and ponds in the central part of the valley where groundwater then flows southwestward (down valley) toward the confluence with the Cayuta Creek valley. Locally, the direction of groundwater flow is radially

  19. Two-dimensional stock cutting processes :an algorithm to optimize two-dimensional stock cutting at New River Valley Workshop, Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Hogge, Jerome W. III

    1991-01-01

    This research addresses a two-dimensional stock cutting problem encountered at the New River Valley Workshop (NRV), Inc. in Radford, VA. This research considers recent literature on two-dimensional stock cutting techniques, pattern generating methods, solution approaches, and practical problem considerations in addressing the NRV cutting problem. Linear Programming analysis is applied to NRV's two-dimensional cutting problem. A computer-based implementation of the LP s...

  20. Remedial investigation report on the Melton Valley Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Evaluation, interpretation, and data summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Melton Valley watershed presents a multifaceted management and decision-making challenge because of the very heterogeneous conditions that exist with respect to contaminant type, disposal unit age, mode of disposal, release mechanism, and potential risk-producing pathways. The investigation presented here has assembled relevant site data in the geographic context with the intent of enabling program managers and decision-makers to understand site conditions and evaluate the necessity, relative priority, and scope of potential remedial actions.

  1. Geology and formation of titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area, Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Fanuj titaniferous placer deposits are located 35 km northwest of the Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province (1 . The studied area comprises a (2 small part of the late Cretaceous Fanuj-Maskutan (Rameshk ophiolite complex (Arshadi and Mahdavi, 1987. Reconnaissance and comprehensive exploration programs in the Fanuj district (East of the 1:100000 Fanuj quadrangle map,Yazdi, 2010 revealed that the Upper Jogaz Valley area has the highest concentration of titaniferous placer deposits. In this study, geology and formation of the titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area are discussed. Materials and Methods (3 Forty samples were collected from surface and drainage sediments to evaluate the potential for titaniferous placers. Mineralogical studies indicated the high Ti (ilmenite bearing areas, which led to detailed exploration by 29 shallow drill holes and 9 trenches. A total of 61 sub-surface samples were collected for heavy mineral studies and ore grade determination. The exploration studies suggest that the the Upper Jogaz Valley area in the Fanuj district has a high potential for titaniferous placer deposits. Extensive exposures of black sands in the sreambeds of this area suggested detailed sampling, so that 12 holes were drilled (2-3 m depthfrom which 26 samples were collected, and five trenches were excavated to 2-4 m depth (4. The distribution of drill holes and trenches were plotted with “Logplot” software for further interpretation. Twenty-two samples from these drill holes were analyzed for TiO2. Results The reconnaissance and comprehensive exploration in Fanuj district shows that the Upper Jogaz Valley area has the highest concentration of titaniferous placer deposits. The general geology of the region and petrology and mineralogy of collected samples suggest that the source rock of the Upper Jogaz Valley titaniferous placers is the hornblende- and olivine-gabbro unit of the Fanuj-Ramesh ophiolites. The Ti

  2. Updated glacial chronology of the South Fork Hoh River valley, Olympic Peninsula, Washington through detailed stratigraphy and OSL dating

    OpenAIRE

    Wyshnytzky, Cianna E.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Thackray, Glenn D.

    2012-01-01

    Four glacial advances are preserved and exposed in the stratigraphy of the South Fork Hoh River valley. The oldest of these advances extended beyond the South Fork valley into the Hoh River valley. The three younger advances are preserved in the stratigraphy cut bank exposures in the valley and geomorphically by moraines and outwash plains. One of these advances represents a re-advance to the same terminal position of the previous advance and has not previously been recognized in this valley ...

  3. Shallow ground-water quality beneath rice areas in the Sacramento Valley, California, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey installed and sampled 28 wells in rice areas in the Sacramento Valley as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of the study was to assess the shallow ground-water quality and to determine whether any effects on water quality could be related to human activities and particularly rice agriculture. The wells installed and sampled were between 8.8 and 15.2 meters deep, and water levels were between 0.4 and 8.0 meters below land surface. Ground-water samples were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 29 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, dissolved organic carbon, 86 pesticides, tritium (hydrogen- 3), deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. At least one health-related state or federal drinking-water standard (maximum contaminant or long-term health advisory level) was exceeded in 25 percent of the wells for barium, boron, cadmium, molybdenum, or sulfate. At least one state or federal secondary maximum contaminant level was exceeded in 79 percent of the wells for chloride, iron, manganese, specific conductance, or dissolved solids. Nitrate and nitrite were detected at concentrations below state and federal 2000 drinking-water standards; three wells had nitrate concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water redox conditions were anoxic in 26 out of 28 wells sampled (93 percent). Eleven pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples. Four of the detected pesticides are or have been used on rice crops in the Sacramento Valley (bentazon, carbofuran, molinate, and thiobencarb). Pesticides were detected in 89 percent of the wells sampled, and rice pesticides were detected in 82 percent of the wells sampled. The most frequently detected pesticide was the rice herbicide bentazon, detected in 20 out of 28 wells (71 percent); the other pesticides detected have been used for rice, agricultural

  4. The Audio-Visual Vocabulary Program (AVVP): An Innovation in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete-Karzag, Elizabeth A.

    This paper describes the development at Evergreen Valley College in San Jose, California, of a vocabulary mastery program using a multisensory approach. It includes a detailed outline of the development of the program, the procedures students follow for self-instruction and self-pacing, and the results of the program for the first 12 participants.…

  5. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. The Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Arnoldus Huyzendveld

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley project is the creation of an integrated digital system for the knowledge, valorisation and communication of the cultural landscape, archaeological and naturalistic sites along the Tiber Valley, in the Sabina area between Monte Soratte and the ancient city of Lucus Feroniae (Capena. Virtual reality applications, multimedia contents, together with a web site, are under construction and they will be accessed inside the museums of the territory and in a central museum in Rome. The different stages of work will cover the building of a geo-spatial archaeological database, the reconstruction of the ancient potential landscape and the creation of virtual models of the major archaeological sites. This paper will focus on the methodologies used and on present and future results.

  7. Laboratory work in support of West Valley glass development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnell, L.R.

    1988-05-01

    Over the past six years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted several studies in support of waste glass composition development and testing of glass compositions suitable for immobilizing the nuclear wastes stored at West Valley, New York. As a result of pilot-scale testing conducted by PNL, the glass composition was changed from that originally recommended in response to changes in the waste stream, and several processing-related problems were discovered. These problems were solved, or sufficiently addressed to determine their likely effect on the glass melting operations to be conducted at West Valley. This report describes the development of the waste glass composition, WV-205, and discusses solutions to processing problems such as foaming and insoluble sludges, as well as other issues such as effects of feed variations on processing of the resulting glass. An evaluation of the WV-205 glass from a repository perspective is included in the appendix to this report.

  8. Hydrogeologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley in northern California was redefined on the basis of new data and a new hydrologic model. The regional groundwater flow systems can be subdivided into upper-aquifer and lower-aquifer systems that form a convergent flow system within a basin bounded by mountains and hills on three sides and discharge to pumping wells and the southern San Francisco Bay. Faults also control the flow of groundwater within the Santa Clara Valley and subdivide the aquifer system into three subregions.After decades of development and groundwater depletion that resulted in substantial land subsidence, Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) and the local water purveyors have refilled the basin through conservation and importation of water for direct use and artificial recharge. The natural flow system has been altered by extensive development with flow paths toward major well fields. Climate has not only affected the cycles of sedimentation during the glacial periods over the past million years, but interannual to interdecadal climate cycles also have affected the supply and demand components of the natural and anthropogenic inflows and outflows of water in the valley. Streamflow has been affected by development of the aquifer system and regulated flow from reservoirs, as well as conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water. Interaquifer flow through water-supply wells screened across multiple aquifers is an important component to the flow of groundwater and recapture of artificial recharge in the Santa Clara Valley. Wellbore flow and depth-dependent chemical and isotopic data indicate that flow into wells from multiple aquifers, as well as capture of artificial recharge by pumping of water-supply wells, predominantly is occurring in the upper 500 ft (152 m) of the aquifer system. Artificial recharge represents about one-half of the inflow of water into the valley for the period 1970–1999. Most subsidence is occurring below 250 ft

  9. Metallic iron for water treatment: leaving the valley of confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makota, Susanne; Nde-Tchoupe, Arnaud I.; Mwakabona, Hezron T.; Tepong-Tsindé, Raoul; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Nassi, Achille; Njau, Karoli N.

    2017-07-01

    Researchers on metallic iron (Fe0) for environmental remediation and water treatment are walking in a valley of confusion for 25 years. This valley is characterized by the propagation of different beliefs that have resulted from a partial analysis of the Fe0/H2O system as (1) a reductive chemical reaction was considered an electrochemical one and (2) the mass balance of iron has not been really addressed. The partial analysis in turn has been undermining the scientific method while discouraging any real critical argumentation. This communication re-establishes the complex nature of the Fe0/H2O system while recalling that, finally, proper system analysis and chemical thermodynamics are the most confident ways to solve any conflicting situation in Fe0 environmental remediation.

  10. Valley blockade in a silicon double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Justin K.; Gullans, Michael J.; Taylor, Jacob M.; Stewart, M. D.; Zimmerman, Neil M.

    2017-11-01

    Electrical transport in double quantum dots (DQDs) illuminates many interesting features of the dots' carrier states. Recent advances in silicon quantum information technologies have renewed interest in the valley states of electrons confined in silicon. Here we show measurements of dc transport through a mesa-etched silicon double quantum dot. Comparing bias triangles (i.e., regions of allowed current in DQDs) at positive and negative bias voltages we find a systematic asymmetry in the size of the bias triangles at the two bias polarities. Asymmetries of this nature are associated with blocked tunneling events due to the occupation of a metastable state. Several features of our data lead us to conclude that the states involved are not simple spin states. Rather, we develop a model based on selective filling of valley states in the DQD that is consistent with all of the qualitative features of our data.

  11. Metallic iron for water treatment: leaving the valley of confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makota, Susanne; Nde-Tchoupe, Arnaud I.; Mwakabona, Hezron T.; Tepong-Tsindé, Raoul; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Nassi, Achille; Njau, Karoli N.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers on metallic iron (Fe0) for environmental remediation and water treatment are walking in a valley of confusion for 25 years. This valley is characterized by the propagation of different beliefs that have resulted from a partial analysis of the Fe0/H2O system as (1) a reductive chemical reaction was considered an electrochemical one and (2) the mass balance of iron has not been really addressed. The partial analysis in turn has been undermining the scientific method while discouraging any real critical argumentation. This communication re-establishes the complex nature of the Fe0/H2O system while recalling that, finally, proper system analysis and chemical thermodynamics are the most confident ways to solve any conflicting situation in Fe0 environmental remediation.

  12. Venusian channels and valleys - Distribution and volcanological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Goro; Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1993-01-01

    An updated map is presented which shows the distribution of more than 200 channels and valleys on Venus. A large number of channels are concentrated in equatorial regions characterized by highlands, rift and fracture zones, an associated volcanic features. Many channels associated with flow deposits are similar to typical terrestrial lava drainage channels. They are associated with a wide range of volcanic edifices. More than half of the sinuous rilles are associated with coronae, coronalike features, or arachnoids. Corona volcanism driven by mantle plume events may explain this association. Many valley network are observed in highlands and in association with coronae, coronalike features, or arachnoids. This indicates that highlands and coronae provided fractures and flow-viscosity lavas, both of which seem to be required for network formation by lava sapping processes. Canali-type channels have a unique distribution limited to some plains regions.

  13. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366) FY2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil transport from the Plutonium Valley Contamination Area (CA) as a result of wind transport and storm runoff in support of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the contamination areas. The DRI work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism(s) of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils. The emphasis of the work is on collecting sediment transported by channelized storm runoff at the Plutonium Valley investigation sites. These data will inform closure plans that are being developed, which will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring.

  14. Regulatory, Land Ownership, and Water Availability Factors for a Magma Well: Long Valley Caldera and Coso Hot Springs, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackett, Robert

    1985-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently engaged in a program to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of extracting thermal energy from high-level molten magma bodies. The program is being carried out under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories where a number of individual projects support the overall program. The existing program elements include (1) high-temperature materials compatibility testing; (2) studies of properties of melts of various compositions; and (3) the investigation of the economics of a magma energy extraction system. Another element of the program is being conducted with the cooperation of the U.S. Geological Survey, and involves locating and outlining magma bodies at selected sites using various geophysical techniques. The ultimate goal here will be to define the limits of a magma body as a drilling target. During an earlier phase of the program, more than twenty candidate study sites considered were evaluated based upon: (1) the likelihood of the presence of a shallow magma chamber, (2) the accessibility of the site, and (3) physical and institutional constraints associated with each site with respect to performing long-term experiments. From these early phase activities, the number of candidate sites were eventually narrowed to just 2. The sites currently under consideration are Coso Hot Springs and the Long Valley caldera (Figure 1). This report describes certain attributes of these sites in order to help identify potential problems related to: (1) state and federal regulations pertaining to geothermal development; (2) land ownership; and (3) water resource availability. The information sources used in this study were mainly maps, publications, and informative documents gathered from the California Division of Oil and Gas and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Environmental studies completed for the entire Long Valley caldera study area, and for portions of the Coso Hot Springs study area were also used for reference.

  15. Optically initialized robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting

    2015-11-25

    A robust valley polarization is a key prerequisite for exploiting valley pseudospin to carry information in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Although monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides with inherent spin–valley coupling offer a unique platform to develop such valleytronic devices, the anticipated long-lived valley pseudospin has not been observed yet. Here we demonstrate that robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2 can be initialized by optical pumping. Using time-resolved Kerr rotation spectroscopy, we observe a long-lived valley polarization for positive trion with a lifetime approaching 1 ns at low temperatures, which is much longer than the trion recombination lifetime (~10–20 ps). The long-lived valley polarization arises from the transfer of valley pseudospin from photocarriers to resident holes in a specific valley. The optically initialized valley pseudospin of holes remains robust even at room temperature, which opens up the possibility to realize room-temperature valleytronics based on transition metal dichalcogenides.

  16. Water Allocation and Supply Reliability in the Murrumbidgee Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Randall E.; Musgrave, Warren F.; Bryant, Mike

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the average annual income and income variance of alternative irrigation water allocations and associated supply reliabilities in the Murrumbidgee Valley. Traditionally, water supply authorities have aimed to supply irrigators with their full allocations in all but the most severe drought years. This means that a substantial amount of water is held in storage as a reserve and in most years it is not utilised for irrigation or other, including environ...

  17. ADVERTISING AND AN ACCIDENTAL CLASSIC: ILLUSTRATED SKETCHES OF DFATH VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Steeples

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Illustrated Sketches of Death Valley (1891 originated as a hastily-written series of journalistic sketches of our Western borax deserts. They were written on commission to supplement their authors income. Conceived as a means subtly to promote the borax industry the Sketches in time won unintended recognition as a classic source for their subject. They also assumed unforeseen importance as an illustration of the role of advertising in America’s changing economy.

  18. Wright Valley Sediments as Potential Analogs for Martian Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, P. A. J.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) may provide a unique terrestrial analog for current Martian surface processes. The Wright Valley located in the ADV contains streams, lakes and ponds that host highly saline, sedimentary environments. This project highlights comparisons of formation and salt accumulation processes at the Don Juan Pond (DJP) and Don Quixote Pond (DQP). These are located in the north and south forks of the Wright Valley, which are unique areas where unusual terrestrial processes can be studied. DQP is located in the western part of the north fork about 100 m above mean seawater level. The DQP Valley walls are up to 2500 m high and the brine is seasonally frozen. DJP from the south fork is located ~9 km west of Lake Vanda. The basin floor is 117 m above mean seawater level with activity to the north and south rising above 1000 m. The DJP brine does not freeze and may be a model environment for Ca and Cl weathering and distribution on Mars. Our findings indicate that DJP and DQP have formed in similar climatic and geological environments, but likely experienced different formation conditions. Samples were collected from surface, soil pits and depth profiles during the 1979/1980, the 1990/1991 and the 2005/2006 field seasons. Elemental abundances and mineralogy were evaluated for several sets of sediments. The DJP basin shows low surface abundances of halite and relatively high abundances of sulfates throughout with gypsum or anhydrite dominating at different locations. The DQP area has high surface abundances of halite with gypsum present as the major sulfate. Two models have been proposed to explain these differences: DQP may have formed through a combination of shallow and some deep groundwater influx, while deep groundwater upwelling likely played the dominant role of salt formation at DJP. Our study seeks to understand the formation of DQP and DJP as unique terrestrial processes and as models for Ca, Cl, and S weathering and distribution on Mars.

  19. A novel cause of chronic viral meningoencephalitis: Cache Valley virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael R; Suan, Dan; Duggins, Andrew; Schubert, Ryan D; Khan, Lillian M; Sample, Hannah A; Zorn, Kelsey C; Rodrigues Hoffman, Aline; Blick, Anna; Shingde, Meena; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2017-07-01

    Immunodeficient patients are particularly vulnerable to neuroinvasive infections that can be challenging to diagnose. Metagenomic next generation sequencing can identify unusual or novel microbes and is therefore well suited for investigating the etiology of chronic meningoencephalitis in immunodeficient patients. We present the case of a 34-year-old man with X-linked agammaglobulinemia from Australia suffering from 3 years of meningoencephalitis that defied an etiologic diagnosis despite extensive conventional testing, including a brain biopsy. Metagenomic next generation sequencing of his cerebrospinal fluid and brain biopsy tissue was performed to identify a causative pathogen. Sequences aligning to multiple Cache Valley virus genes were identified via metagenomic next generation sequencing. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry subsequently confirmed the presence of Cache Valley virus in the brain biopsy tissue. Cache Valley virus, a mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus, has only been identified in 3 immunocompetent North American patients with acute neuroinvasive disease. The reported severity ranges from a self-limiting meningitis to a rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis with multiorgan failure. The virus has never been known to cause a chronic systemic or neurologic infection in humans. Cache Valley virus has also never previously been detected on the Australian continent. Our research subject traveled to North and South Carolina and Michigan in the weeks prior to the onset of his illness. This report demonstrates that metagenomic next generation sequencing allows for unbiased pathogen identification, the early detection of emerging viruses as they spread to new locales, and the discovery of novel disease phenotypes. Ann Neurol 2017;82:105-114. © 2017 The Authors Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  20. Temperature and Precipitation trends in Kashmir valley, North Western Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Mifta Ul; Rasool, Rehana; Ahmed, Pervez; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as an important issue ever to confront mankind. This concern emerges from the fact that our day-to-day activities are leading to impacts on the Earth's atmosphere that has the potential to significantly alter the planet's shield and radiation balance. Developing countries particularly whose income is particularly derived from agricultural activities are at the forefront of bearing repercussions due to changing climate. The present study is an effort to analyze the changing trends of precipitation and temperature variables in Kashmir valley along different elevation zones in the north western part of India. As the Kashmir valley has a rich repository of glaciers with its annual share of precipitation, slight change in the temperature and precipitation regime has far reaching environmental and economic consequences. The results from Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) data of the period 1980-2014 reveals that the annual mean temperature of Kashmir valley has increased significantly. Accelerated warming has been observed during 1980-2014, with intense warming in the recent years (2001-2014). During the period 1980-2014, steeper increase, in annual mean maximum temperature than annual mean minimum temperature, has been observed. In addition, mean maximum temperature in plain regions has shown higher rate of increase when compared with mountainous areas. In case of mean minimum temperature, mountainous regions have shown higher rate of increase. Analysis of precipitation data for the same period shows a decreasing trend with mountainous regions having the highest rate of decrease which can be quite hazardous for the fragile mountain environment of the Kashmir valley housing a large number of glaciers.

  1. Water resources of No Name Valley, Colville Indian Reservation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Denzel R.

    1978-01-01

    No Name Creek valley is a trough cut in granitic bedrock in north-central Washington. A low topographic divide in the northern third of the valley separates it into the No Name Creek basin on the south and Omak Creek basin on the north. Omak Creek is the larger stream and enters the valley through a narrow gorge in the eastern granite wall. Partly filled with unconsolidated sand, gravel, and silt to depths as great as 163 feet, the valley contains a ground-water reservoir which supplies four irrigation wells and several domestic-supply wells. The ground-water reservoir also feeds springs which give rise to No Name Creek, and it contributes some water to Omak Creek to the north. Under conditions of the pre-1976 development the ground-water divide was naturally about 3,000 feet north of Omak Creek gorge, and about 580 acre-feet of leakage from Omak Creek recharges the No Name Creek ground-water reservoir. By 1977, ground-water withdrawal of 994 acre-feet per year in No Name Creek basin had caused the ground-water divide to shift to a position about 4,000 feet north of the topographic divide. This increased the drainage area contributing to the No Name Creek ground-water reservoir for about three months so that during a year of normal flow a total of about 600 acre-feet of leakage from Omak Creek can be captured. It is postulated that as much as 1,100 acre-feet per year can be pumped in the central part of the reservoir. This pumpage would cause the ground-water divide to shift farther north, resulting in the capture of additional recharge from Omak Creek; the total leakage would be about 700 acre-feet per year. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Intelligent electric vehicle charging: Rethinking the valley-fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Keenan; Temple, William G.; Zhang, K. Max

    This study proposes an intelligent PEV charging scheme that significantly reduces power system cost while maintaining reliability compared to the widely discussed valley-fill method of aggregated charging in the early morning. This study considers optimal PEV integration into the New York Independent System Operator's (NYISO) day-ahead and real-time wholesale energy markets for 21 days in June, July, and August of 2006, a record-setting summer for peak load. NYISO market and load data is used to develop a statistical Locational Marginal Price (LMP) and wholesale energy cost model. This model considers the high cost of ramping generators at peak-load and the traditional cost of steady-state operation, resulting in a framework with two competing cost objectives. Results show that intelligent charging assigns roughly 80% of PEV load to valley hours to take advantage of low steady-state cost, while placing the remaining 20% equally at shoulder and peak hours to reduce ramping cost. Compared to unregulated PEV charging, intelligent charging reduces system cost by 5-16%; a 4-9% improvement over the flat valley-fill approach. Moreover, a Charge Flexibility Constraint (CFC), independent of market modeling, is constructed from a vehicle-at-home profile and the mixture of Level 1 and Level 2 charging infrastructure. The CFC is found to severely restrict the ability to charge vehicles during the morning load valley. This study further shows that adding more Level 2 chargers without regulating PEV charging will significantly increase wholesale energy cost. Utilizing the proposed intelligent PEV charging method, there is a noticeable reduction in system cost if the penetration of Level 2 chargers is increased from 70/30 to 50/50 (Level 1/Level 2). However, the system benefit is drastically diminished for higher penetrations of Level 2 chargers.

  3. Governing Rural Health: Making Manageable Citizens in Colca Valley, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Skoftedalen, Kaja Bergskås

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is about public healthcare in the Andes and how women in the Colca Valley, an area located in the southern region of Arequipa, are made subjects by health-development projects Women in the Andes, especially those who are targeted in health-development programmes, are understood in certain ways by state-actors according to their ethnic identity. They are targeted by development programmes due to their socioeconomic status, but also because of their placement (by outsiders) in racia...

  4. Climate change and agricultural transformation in the Oaxaca Valley, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Valley of Oaxaca, a semi-arid region in the central highlands of southern Mexico, provides a case study through which to develop a methodology for climate change impact assessment. The causes and impacts of climate change originate in dialectic processes within a nexus of inter-dependent social, technical, environmental, cultural and academic production relations. Agriculture is the most important economic activity in the Valley, and rain-fed maize the most important crop. Harvest failures from droughts occur one year in four. Annual rainfall varies with large-scale convection of water vapor transported from the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico during summer, upper-air disturbances caused by hurricanes and El Ninos. Variations in maize yields and losses have roughly moisture availability during August. Yields and losses can be predicted using precipitation during this time, or directly from atmospheric circulation. Contemporary agriculture in the Valley of Oaxaca has both traditional and modern sectors, of which both may appear within individual communities and households. The traditional sector consists of semi-autonomous rural communities using traditional technology for subsistence farming. The modern sector uses tractors, irrigation pumps, agricultural chemicals and hybrid seeds to produce cash crops and dairy products. The evidence for climate change in the Valley is ambiguous and contradictory. Under wet or dry scenarios, climate change affects the rate and pathway of the absorption of Oaxaca's traditional rural communities into the wage labor market of the larger capitalist system. Increased moisture availability would raise land productivity, promoting cash cropping and development of the modern market-oriented agricultural sector and leading to land consolidation and rural-to-urban migration. Decreased moisture availability would inhibit cash-cropping but also lead to rural-to-urban migration due to decreased land productivity.

  5. Calleguas Creek Simi Valley to Moorpark Ventura County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    limestone deposit in the Modelo Formation in Tapo Canyon. It is the only limestone deposit to have been mined in southern Ventura County. The product...provides an excellent habitat for invertebrate life and associated vertebrate consumers. Small rodents, rabbits, song birds, quail, doves, raptors, wading...park the length of Simi Valley that offers excellent recreational opportunities. 76. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES. The draft environmental statement was sent

  6. Electronic, Spin and Valley Transport in Two Dimensional Dirac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongya

    This dissertation aims to study and understand relevant issues related to the electronic, spin and valley transport in two-dimensional Dirac systems for different given physical settings. In summary, four key findings are achieved. First, studying persistent currents in confined chaotic Dirac fermion systems with a ring geometry and an applied Aharonov-Bohm flux, unusual whispering-gallery modes with edge-dependent currents and spin polarization are identified. They can survive for highly asymmetric rings that host fully developed classical chaos. By sustaining robust persistent currents, these modes can be utilized to form a robust relativistic quantum two-level system. Second, the quantized topological edge states in confined massive Dirac fermion systems exhibiting a remarkable reverse Stark effect in response to an applied electric field, and an electrically or optically controllable spin switching behavior are uncovered. Third, novel wave scattering and transport in Dirac-like pseudospin-1 systems are reported. (a), for small scatterer size, a surprising revival resonant scattering with a peculiar boundary trapping by forming unusual vortices is uncovered. Intriguingly, it can persist in arbitrarily weak scatterer strength regime, which underlies a superscattering behavior beyond the conventional scenario. (b), for larger size, a perfect caustic phenomenon arises as a manifestation of the super-Klein tunneling effect. (c), in the far-field, an unexpected isotropic transport emerges at low energies. Fourth, a geometric valley Hall effect (gVHE) originated from fractional singular Berry flux is revealed. It is shown that gVHE possesses a nonlinear dependence on the Berry flux with asymmetrical resonance features and can be considerably enhanced by electrically controllable resonant valley skew scattering. With the gVHE, efficient valley filtering can arise and these phenomena are robust against thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging.

  7. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-27

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.  Created: 5/27/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/27/2010.

  8. Evaluation of the location and recency of faulting near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Angell, M.M.; Thomas, A.P.; Whitney, J.W.; Gibson, J.D.

    2002-01-17

    Evaluation of surface faulting that may pose a hazard to prospective surface facilities is an important element of the tectonic studies for the potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository in southwestern Nevada. For this purpose, a program of detailed geologic mapping and trenching was done to obtain surface and near-surface geologic data that are essential for determining the location and recency of faults at a prospective surface-facilities site located east of Exile Hill in Midway Valley, near the eastern base of Yucca Mountain. The dominant tectonic features in the Midway Valley area are the north- to northeast-trending, west-dipping normal faults that bound the Midway Valley structural block-the Bow Ridge fault on the west side of Exile Hill and the Paint-brush Canyon fault on the east side of the valley. Trenching of Quaternary sediments has exposed evidence of displacements, which demonstrate that these block-bounding faults repeatedly ruptured the surface during the middle to late Quaternary. Geologic mapping, subsurface borehole and geophysical data, and the results of trenching activities indicate the presence of north- to northeast-trending faults and northwest-trending faults in Tertiary volcanic rocks beneath alluvial and colluvial sediments near the prospective surface-facilities site. North to northeast-trending faults include the Exile Hill fault along the eastern base of Exile Hill and faults to the east beneath the surficial deposits of Midway Valley. These faults have no geomorphic expression, but two north- to northeast-trending zones of fractures exposed in excavated profiles of middle to late Pleistocene deposits at the prospective surface-facilities site appear to be associated with these faults. Northwest-trending faults include the West Portal and East Portal faults, but no disruption of Quaternary deposits by these faults is evident. The western zone of fractures is associated with the Exile Hill fault. The eastern

  9. Mapping Evapotranspiration over Agricultural Land in the California Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, F. S.; Huntington, J. L.; Guzman, A.; Johnson, L.; Morton, C.; Nemani, R. R.; Post, K. M.; Rosevelt, C.; Shupe, J. W.; Spellenberg, R.; Vitale, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in satellite mapping of evapotranspiration (ET) have made it possible to largely automate the process of mapping ET over large areas at the field-scale. This development coincides with recent drought events across the western U.S. which have intensified interest in mapping of ET and consumptive use to address a range of water management challenges, including resolving disputes over water rights, improving irrigation management, and developing sustainable management plans for groundwater resources. We present a case study for California that leverages two automated ET mapping capabilities to estimate ET at the field scale over agricultural areas in the California Central Valley. We utilized the NASA Earth Exchange and applied a python-based implementation of the METRIC surface energy balance model and the Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) system, which uses a surface reflectance-based approach, to map ET over agricultural areas in the Central Valley. We present estimates from 2014 from both approaches and results from a comparison of the estimates. Though theoretically and computationally quite different from each other, initial results from both approaches show good agreement overall on seasonal ET totals for 2014. We also present results from comparisons against ET measurements collected on commercial farms in the Central Valley and discuss implications for accuracy of the two different approaches. The objective of this analysis is to provide data that can inform planning for the development of sustainable groundwater management plans, and assist water managers and growers in evaluating irrigation demand during drought events.

  10. Detection of chiral anomaly and valley transport in Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Enze; Liu, Yanwen; Chen, Zhigang; Liang, Sihang; Cao, Junzhi; Yuan, Xiang; Tang, Lei; Li, Qian; Gu, Teng; Wu, Yizheng; Zou, Jin; Xiu, Faxian

    Chiral anomaly is a non-conservation of chiral charge pumped by the topological nontrivial gauge field, which has been predicted to exist in the emergent quasiparticle excitations in Dirac and Weyl semimetals. However, so far, such pumping process hasn't been clearly demonstrated and lacks a convincing experimental identification. Here, we report the detection of the charge pumping effect and the related valley transport in Cd3As2 driven by external electric and magnetic fields (EB). We find that the chiral imbalance leads to a non-zero gyrotropic coefficient, which can be confirmed by the EB-generated Kerr effect. By applying B along the current direction, we observe a negative magnetoresistance despite the giant positive one at other directions, a clear indication of the chiral anomaly. Remarkably, a robust nonlocal response in valley diffusion originated from the chiral anomaly is persistent up to room temperature when B is parallel to E. The ability to manipulate the valley polarization in Dirac semimetal opens up a brand-new route to understand its fundamental properties through external fields and utilize the chiral fermions in valleytronic applications.

  11. Evapotranspiration of applied water, Central Valley, California, 1957-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Alex K.

    1982-01-01

    In the Central Valley, Calif., where 57% of the 20,000 square miles of land is irrigated, ground-water recharge from agricultural lands is an important input to digital simulation models of ground-water flow. Several methods of calculating recharge were explored for the Central Valley Aquifer Project and a simplified water budget was designed where net recharge (recharge minus pumpage) equals net surface water diverted minus evapotranspiration of applied water (ETAW). This equation eliminates the need to determine pumpage from the water-table aquifer, assuming that the time lag for infiltration is not longer than the time intervals of interest for modeling. This study evaluates only the evapotranspiration of applied water. Future reports will describe the other components of the water budget. ETAW was calculated by summing the products of ETAW coefficients and respective crop areas for each 7 1/2-minute quadrangle area in the valley, for each of three land-use surveys between 1957 and 1978. In 1975 total ETAW was 15.2 million acre-feet, a 43% increase since 1959. The largest increases were in the south, especially Kern County, which had a sixfold increase, which was caused by the import of surface water in the California Aqueduct. (USGS)

  12. Quaternary Glaciations in the Rio Mendoza Valley, Argentine Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espizua, Lydia E.

    1993-09-01

    In the Rio Mendoza valley, five Pleistocene drifts and one Holocene drift are distinguished by multiple relative-age criteria, including surface-rock weathering, development of rock varnish, moraine morphology, soil-profile development, and stratigraphic relationships. Several absolute ages suggest a preliminary chronology. During the oldest (Uspallata) glaciation, a system of valley glaciers flowed 110 km from the Andean drainage divide and 80 km from Cerro Aconcagua to terminate at 1850 m. Drift of this ice advance is older than a widespread tephra dated by fission-track at 360,000 ± 36,000 yr. During the Punta de Vacas advance, ice terminated at 2350 m, while during the subsequent Penitentes advance, the glacier system ended at 2500 m. A travertine layer overlying Penitentes Drift has U-series age of 24,200 ± 2000 yr B.P. The distribution of Horcones Drift, which is inferred to represent the last glacial maximum, delimits an independent ice stream that flowed 22 km down Horcones valley to 2750 m. A later readvance (Almacenes) reached 3250 m. Confluencia Drift is considered to be Neoglacial in age and extends downvalley to 3300 m. The moraine sequence is compared with those studied by Caviedes (1972) along Rio Aconcagua on the Chilean flank of the Andes.

  13. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  14. Geologic evaluation of the Oasis Valley basin, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridrich, C.J.; Minor, S.A.; and Mankinen, E.A.

    2000-01-13

    This report documents the results of a geologic study of the area between the underground-nuclear-explosion testing areas on Pahute Mesa, in the northwesternmost part of the Nevada Test Site, and the springs in Oasis Valley, to the west of the Test Site. The new field data described in this report are also presented in a geologic map that is a companion product(Fridrich and others, 1999) and that covers nine 7.5-minute quadrangles centered on Thirsty Canyon SW, the quadrangle in which most of the Oasis Valley springs are located. At the beginning of this study, published detailed maps were available for 3 of the 9 quadrangles of the study area: namely Thirsty Canyon (O'Connor and others, 1966); Beatty (Maldonado and Hausback, 1990); and Thirsty Canyon SE (Lipman and others, 1966). Maps of the last two of these quadrangles, however, required extensive updating owing to recent advances in understanding of the regional structure and stratigraphy. The new map data are integrated in this re port with new geophysical data for the Oasis Valley area, include gravity, aeromagnetic, and paleomagnetic data (Grauch and others, 1997; written comm., 1999; Mankinen and others, 1999; Hildenbrand and others, 1999; Hudson and others, 1994; Hudson, unpub. data).

  15. Record of recent river channel instability, Cheakamus Valley, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, John J.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Reyes, Alberto V.

    2003-07-01

    Rivers flowing from glacier-clad Quaternary volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia have high sediment loads and anabranching and braided planforms. Their floodplains aggrade in response to recurrent large landslides on the volcanoes and to advance of glaciers during periods of climate cooling. In this paper, we document channel instability and aggradation during the last 200 years in lower Cheakamus River valley. Cheakamus River derives much of its flow and nearly all of its sediment from the Mount Garibaldi massif, which includes a number of volcanic centres dominated by Mount Garibaldi volcano. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of recent floodplain sediments at North Vancouver Outdoor School in Cheakamus Valley show that Cheakamus River aggraded its floodplain about 1-2 m and buried a valley-floor forest in the early or mid 1800s. The aggradation was probably caused by a large (ca. 15-25×10 6 m 3) landslide from the flank of Mount Garibaldi, 15 km north of our study site, in 1855 or 1856. Examination of historical aerial photographs dating back to 1947 indicates that channel instability triggered by this event persisted until the river was dyked in the late 1950s. Our observations are consistent with data from many other mountain areas that suggest rivers with large, but highly variable sediment loads may rapidly aggrade their floodplains following a large spike in sediment supply. Channel instability may persist for decades to centuries after the triggering event.

  16. Statistical modeling of valley fever data in Kern County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamantes, Jorge; Behseta, Sam; Zender, Charles S

    2007-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a fungal infection found in the southwestern US, northern Mexico, and some places in Central and South America. The fungus that causes it (Coccidioides immitis) is normally soil-dwelling but, if disturbed, becomes air-borne and infects the host when its spores are inhaled. It is thus natural to surmise that weather conditions that foster the growth and dispersal of the fungus must have an effect on the number of cases in the endemic areas. We present here an attempt at the modeling of valley fever incidence in Kern County, California, by the implementation of a generalized auto regressive moving average (GARMA) model. We show that the number of valley fever cases can be predicted mainly by considering only the previous history of incidence rates in the county. The inclusion of weather-related time sequences improves the model only to a relatively minor extent. This suggests that fluctuations of incidence rates (about a seasonally varying background value) are related to biological and/or anthropogenic reasons, and not so much to weather anomalies.

  17. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366) FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil transport from the Plutonium Valley Contamination Area (CA) as a result of wind transport and storm runoff in support of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the contamination areas. The DRI work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism(s) of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils. The emphasis of the work is on collecting sediment transported by channelized storm runoff at the Plutonium Valley investigation sites. These data will inform closure plans that are being developed, which will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring. In 2011, DRI installed two meteorological monitoring stations south (station #1) and north (station #2) of the Plutonium Valley CA and a runoff sediment sampling station within the CA. Temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and airborne particulate concentration are collected at both meteorological stations. The maximum, minimum, and average or total (as appropriate) for each of these parameters are recorded for each 10-minute interval. The sediment sampling station includes an automatically activated ISCO sampling pump with collection bottles for suspended sediment, which is activated when sufficient flow is present in the channel, and passive traps for bedload material that is transported down the channel during runoff events. This report presents data collected from these stations during fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  18. Interaction Induced Quantum Valley Hall Effect in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We use pseudo-quantum electrodynamics in order to describe the full electromagnetic interaction of the p electrons in graphene in a consistent 2D formulation. We first consider the effect of this interaction in the vacuum polarization tensor or, equivalently, in the current correlator. This allows us to obtain the T→0 conductivity after a smooth zero-frequency limit is taken in Kubo’s formula. Thereby, we obtain the usual expression for the minimal conductivity plus corrections due to the interaction that bring it closer to the experimental value. We then predict the onset of an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum valley Hall effect below an activation temperature of the order of 2 K. The transverse (Hall valley conductivity is evaluated exactly and shown to coincide with the one in the usual quantum Hall effect. Finally, by considering the effects of pseudo-quantum electrodynamics, we show that the electron self-energy is such that a set of P- and T-symmetric gapped electron energy eigenstates are dynamically generated, in association with the quantum valley Hall effect.

  19. Basic subsurface geology of the south-central Sacramento Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, S.T.

    1978-01-01

    The generalized east-west cross section of the south-central Sacramento Valley shows the subsurface geology underlying the 27 miles long Interstate Highway 5 and State Highway 16 from the Yuba City turnoff I-5 to Esparto on Highway 16. The uppermost 2,000 to 3,000 ft of section consists of the Mid-Miocene Valley Springs, Upper Miocene Mehrten and Pliocene Upper Mehrten, and Tehama and the Pleistocene Red Bluff gravels. These formations are not differentiated on the section. A westward thickening wedge of Upper Cretaceous to Oligocene marine units underlies the continental deposits. Basement complexes are Sierran on the east and Coast Range on the west. The boundary between these basement assemblages probably underlies the area just to the east of Woodland. The east-west portion of I-5 parallels a break in the geology of the Sacramento Valley. To the north, the Martinez, H and T, Starkey sands, and Winters Formation are soon truncated by the unconformity at the base of the Capay Shale. These units are important gas reservoirs adjacent to the south of the highway. To the north, most production is from the Cretaceous F Zone.

  20. Early to middle Holocene valley glaciations in northernmost Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Per; Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2010-01-01

    the period from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18e22 cal ka BP) into the Holocene. It records the history of a shelf-based glaciation with ice flowing eastward along the coast as well as two local valley glacier advances from the south during the Holocene. With ice on the coastal plain during the LGM...... formed prominent valley mouth moraines, especially in Sifs valley. Here, both glaciolacustrine and marine sediments were remoulded and/or dislocated as thrust blocks into a moraine ridge spanning more than 1 km in width and >60 m in height. Radiocarbon ages of sediments incorporated in this moraine......, as well as from onlapping sediments, suggest that the moraine formed between 9.6 and 6.3 cal ka BP. Based on 14C dating results, the youngest ice advance phase can be narrowed down to 14C ages between w5.5e5.0 cal ka BP. The recorded ice advances took place during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM...

  1. Hyperfine-induced valley mixing and the spin-valley blockade in carbon-based quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palyi, Andras; Burkard, Guido [Department of Physics, University Konstanz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Hyperfine interaction (HFI) in carbon nanotube and graphene quantum dots is due to the presence of {sup 13}C atoms. We theoretically show that in these structures the short-range nature of the HFI gives rise to a coupling between the valley degree of freedom of the electron and the nuclear spin, in addition to the usual electron spin-nuclear spin coupling. We predict that this property of the HFI affects the Pauli blockade transport in carbon-based double quantum dots. In particular, we show that transport is blocked only if both the spin and the valley degeneracies of the quantum dot levels are lifted, e.g., by an appropriately oriented magnetic field. The blockade is caused by four ''supertriplet'' states in the (1,1) charge configuration.

  2. Artificial-recharge tests in Upper Black Squirrel Creek basin, Jimmy Camp Valley, and Fountain Valley, El Paso County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Artificial-recharge tests were conducted in the alluvium in upper Black Squirrel Creek basin, the alluvium in Jimmy Camp Valley, and in the alluvium overlying the Widefield aquifer which is located in an ancestral channel in Fountain Valley, Colo. Nine artificial-recharge pits with areas of approximately 9,200 square feet each were excavated in the unsaturated zones above the three aquifers. Each artificial-recharge site was instrumented to measure inflow, stage fluctuations, and water-table fluctuations. Artificial-recharge tests of approximately 10 days ' duration were conducted at each of the nine artificial-recharge sites and one extended test of approximately 30 days ' duration was conducted in each of the three study areas. Periphyton growth, present in most of the artificial-recharge ponds, was insufficient to cause noticeable decline in the rate of infiltration. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  4. Landslide oil field, San Joaquin Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, B.P.; March, K.A.; Caballero, J.S.; Stolle, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    The Landslide field, located at the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 by a partnership headed by Channel Exploration Company, on a farm out from Tenneco Oil Company. Initial production from the Tenneco San Emidio 63X-30 was 2064 BOPD, making landslide one of the largest onshore discoveries in California during the past decade. Current production is 7100 BOPD from a sandstone reservoir at 12,500 ft. Fifteen wells have been drilled in the field, six of which are water injectors. Production from the Landslide field occurs from a series of upper Miocene Stevens turbidite sandstones that lie obliquely across an east-plunging structural nose. These turbidite sandstones were deposited as channel-fill sequences within a narrowly bounded levied channel complex. Both the Landslide field and the larger Yowlumne field, located 3 mi to the northwest, comprise a single channel-fan depositional system that developed in the restricted deep-water portion of the San Joaquin basin. Information from the open-hole logs, three-dimensional surveys, vertical seismic profiles, repeat formation tester data, cores, and pressure buildup tests allowed continuous drilling from the initial discovery to the final waterflood injector, without a single dry hole. In addition, the successful application of three-dimensional seismic data in the Landslide development program has helped correctly image channel-fan anomalies in the southern Maricopa basin, where data quality and severe velocity problems have hampered previous efforts. New exploration targets are currently being evaluated on the acreage surrounding the Landslide discovery and should lead to an interesting new round of drilling activity in the Maricopa basin.

  5. Model for bridging the translational "valleys of death" in spinal cord injury research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrable B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bill Barrable,1 Nancy Thorogood,1 Vanessa Noonan,1,2 Jocelyn Tomkinson,1 Phalgun Joshi,1 Ken Stephenson,1 John Barclay,1 Katharina Kovacs Burns3 1Rick Hansen Institute, 2Division of Spine, Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 3Health Sciences Council, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: To improve health care outcomes with cost-effective treatments and prevention initiatives, basic health research must be translated into clinical application and studied during implementation, a process commonly referred to as translational research. It is estimated that only 14% of health-related scientific discoveries enter into medical practice and that it takes an average of 17 years for them to do so. The transition from basic research to clinical knowledge and from clinical knowledge to practice or implementation is so fraught with obstacles that these transitions are often referred to as “valleys of death”. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed a unique praxis model for translational research in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI. The praxis model involves three components. The first is a coordinated program strategy of cure, care, consumer engagement, and commercialization. The second is a knowledge cycle that consists of four phases, ie, environmental scanning, knowledge generation and synthesis, knowledge validation, and implementation. The third is the provision of relevant resources and infrastructure to overcome obstacles in the “valleys of death”, ie, funding, clinical research operations, informatics, clinical research and best practice implementation, consumer engagement, collaborative networks, and strategic partnerships. This model, which is to be independently evaluated in 2018 to determine its strengths and limitations, has been used to advance treatments for pressure ulcers in SCI. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed an innovative solution to move knowledge into action by

  6. WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-12

    This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9

  7. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume II, Part II. Biological Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii), is found in large areas of Wah Wah Valley. Winterfat (Ceratoides lanata) is often found in pure stands within the...America. Domestic livestock eating green Salsola are subject to scours (Hitchcock et al., 1964). Blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) and galleta grass...glabrata The galleta grass (Hilaria spp.)/three-awn grass (Aristida spp.) community is considered by Conquist (1972) to belong to the sagebrush zone

  8. Sediment budget in a Himalayan Valley (Middle Kali Gandaki, Nepal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, M.; Cossart, E.

    2012-04-01

    Active mountains supply the largest sediment fluxes experienced on earth. At mountain range scale, sediment budgets are controlled by rock uplift and climate, hence by a wide range of erosion processes (detachment, transport and deposition), all operating within drainage basin units, with time and spatial patterns that indeed are quite complex at local scale. In the Himalayas, the sediment cascade is particularly efficient, as favoured by high, glaciated peaks, together with narrow valleys and steep hillslopes, in a monsoon-contrasted, climatic context. We focus on the Kali Gandaki valley, along the gorge section across Higher Himalaya (e.g. from Jomosom down to Tatopani). Along this reach, we identify sediment sources, sediment stores and sinks, and specifically consider hillslope interactions with valley floor at short and longer time scales, and their impact on sediment budgets and fluxes. We present a detailed sediment budget, constrained by available dates and/or relative chronology. Studied sites include rock-avalanches (Jomosom, Dhumpu), Pairothapla-Talbagar and Tatopani landslides, Ghatte khola debris fan, and terraces systems preserved at confluence sites along the lower slopes of the valley. On the basis of geomorphic surveys and mapping, and thanks to DEM facilities, we estimate the volume of each sedimentary unit, including lacustrine sediments trapped upstream of landslide and/or glacial dams. Debris volume eroded and/or deposited during the last decades is also calculated. Alternation of alluviation events and incision stages are then reconstructed, and their relation with sismo-tectonic and/or climatic triggering events suggested, according to the time scale considered. From our results it appears that if large landslides contribute significantly to the denudation history of active mountain range, more frequent, medium to small scales landslides are in fact of primary concern for Himalayan population. This conclusion suggests that in this very

  9. The persistence of glacier moraines in Ong Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. J.; Sams, S.; Balco, G.; Putkonen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Glacier moraines are the most prominent feature created by glacier advances, and they are the primary landform used to map the extent and determine the timing of past ice ages. Although glacial tills that are millions of years old can be found on and near Earth's surface, moraines are often removed as topographic features by the readvance of glaciers and the action of geomorphic processes. Here we report the persistence of a glacier end moraine in Ong Valley, Antarctica for a minimum of 2 Myrs, with a likely minimum age of 7 Myrs. Ong Valley is in the Miller Range of the central Transantarctic Mountains, and contains three distinct glacial drifts on the valley floor due to the expansion of the Argosy glacier. The oldest drift records the farthest expansion of ice into Ong Valley, and is marked by a clear set of lateral moraines that wrap around to the end moraine, which stands in relief 10 m above the valley floor. Because of the cold and hyperarid environment, ablation of glacier ice happens by sublimation, and there are no apparent signs of flowing liquid water on the surface. At the crest of the end moraine, we collected bulk sediment samples in a vertical profile, and measured the concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in quartz in these samples. Assuming zero erosion has occurred, the minimum exposure age that these concentrations represent is 2 Myrs. However, the pit stratigraphy indicates that the site has undergone erosion, so we use exposure models to constrain the erosion rate, inherited nuclide concentrations due to previous exposure, and any information about exposure age that the concentrations reflect. The measured concentrations indicate a steady-state erosion rate of 0.4 m/Myrs, with zero inherited nuclide component, and the concentrations appear to have reached equilibrium with this erosion rate. The amount of time that it would take for the Ne-21 concentrations to reach 95% of the equilibrium concentration, which is the point where it is

  10. Structural Evolution of the East Sierra Valley System (Owens Valley and Vicinity, California: A Geologic and Geophysical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Blakely

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS, which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm, which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3–3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  11. Taxonomic and Functional Diversity of Soil and Hypolithic Microbial Communities in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sean T. S.; Lacap-Bugler, Donnabella C.; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Caruso, Tancredi; Rao, Subramanya; de los Rios, Asunción; Archer, Stephen K.; Chiu, Jill M. Y.; Higgins, Colleen; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Hopkins, David W.; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are an extreme polar desert. Mineral soils support subsurface microbial communities and translucent rocks support development of hypolithic communities on ventral surfaces in soil contact. Despite significant research attention, relatively little is known about taxonomic and functional diversity or their inter-relationships. Here we report a combined diversity and functional interrogation for soil and hypoliths of the Miers Valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The study employed 16S rRNA fingerprinting and high throughput sequencing combined with the GeoChip functional microarray. The soil community was revealed as a highly diverse reservoir of bacterial diversity dominated by actinobacteria. Hypolithic communities were less diverse and dominated by cyanobacteria. Major differences in putative functionality were that soil communities displayed greater diversity in stress tolerance and recalcitrant substrate utilization pathways, whilst hypolithic communities supported greater diversity of nutrient limitation adaptation pathways. A relatively high level of functional redundancy in both soil and hypoliths may indicate adaptation of these communities to fluctuating environmental conditions. PMID:27812351

  12. Taxonomic and functional diversity of soil and hypolithic microbial communities in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are an extreme polar desert. Mineral soils support subsurface microbial communities and translucent rocks support development of hypolithic communities on ventral surfaces in soil contact. Despite significant research attention relatively little is known about taxonomic and functional diversity or their inter-relationships. Here we report a combined diversity and functional interrogation for soil and hypoliths of the Miers Valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The study employed 16S rRNA fingerprinting and high throughput sequencing combined with the GeoChip functional microarray. The soil community was revealed as a highly diverse reservoir of bacterial diversity dominated by actinobacteria. Hypolithic communities were less diverse and dominated by cyanobacteria. Major differences in putative functionality were that soil communities displayed greater diversity in stress tolerance and recalcitrant substrate utilization pathways, whilst hypolithic communities supported greater diversity of nutrient limitation adaptation pathways. A relatively high level of functional redundancy in both soil and hypoliths may indicate adaptation of these communities to fluctuating environmental conditions.

  13. Groundwater-flow and land-subsidence model of Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Rewis, Diane L.; Martin, Peter; Phillips, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley groundwater basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, groundwater provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most groundwater pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley groundwater basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Groundwater-level declines of more than 270 feet in some parts of the groundwater basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may increase reliance on groundwater.

  14. Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, J.

    2014-12-04

    The valley pseudospin is a degree of freedom that emerges in atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2). The capability to manipulate it, in analogy to the control of spin in spintronics, can open up exciting opportunities. Here, we demonstrate that an ultrafast and ultrahigh valley pseudo-magnetic field can be generated by using circularly polarized femtosecond pulses to selectively control the valley degree of freedom in monolayer MX2. Using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, we observed a pure and valley-selective optical Stark effect in WSe2 monolayers from the nonresonant pump, resulting in an energy splitting of more than 10 milli-electron volts between the K and K′ valley exciton transitions. Our study opens up the possibility to coherently manipulate the valley polarization for quantum information applications.

  15. Valley-polarized quantum transport generated by gauge fields in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Garcia, Jose H; Roche, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    We report on the possibility to simultaneously generate in graphene a bulk valley-polarized dissipative transport and a quantum valley Hall effect by combining strain-induced gauge fields and real magnetic fields. Such unique phenomenon results from a ‘resonance/anti-resonance’ effect driven by t...... Kubo transport methods combined with a valley projection scheme to access valley-dependent conductivities and show that the results are robust against disorder.......We report on the possibility to simultaneously generate in graphene a bulk valley-polarized dissipative transport and a quantum valley Hall effect by combining strain-induced gauge fields and real magnetic fields. Such unique phenomenon results from a ‘resonance/anti-resonance’ effect driven...

  16. Deep Resistivity Structure of Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Erin L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site northwest of Las Vegas (DOE UGTA, 2003). Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the ground-water table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near, or within, the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the Nevada Test Site including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM), Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) (National Security Technologies, 2007). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-Tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations for that research (Williams and others, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d, 2005e, and 2005f). In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations (Williams and others, 2006) located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat, further refining what is known about the pre

  17. Promoting Undergraduate Research at Grand Valley State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemersma, P.; Mekik, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    Grand Valley State University (GVSU) is a relatively young, rapidly growing, predominately undergraduate institution of about 20,000 students located in western Michigan in which undergraduate research plays a vital role in the education of our students. Student research is supported and actively promoted by 1) creating university funding opportunities and taking advantage of small outside funding sources 2) building a tradition of undergraduate research 3) incorporating small research activities into classes and 4) educating students explicitly in how to prepare a professional poster, give a professional talk and write a journal article. As the saying goes, if you have money, the students will come. At GVSU most students recognize the value of a research experience but need income to pay for college expenses. The internally funded Student Summer Scholars program at GVSU provides student salary and faculty stipend for a summer research project (\\6000 per grant). The geology department has also been successful at obtaining grants from the NASA Michigan Space Grant Consortium (\\5,000 plus a 100% GVSU match). We have been successful in using these easier to obtain smaller grants to fund undergraduate projects. In some cases small grants actually allow us to pursue "risky" or otherwise difficult to fund projects. Undergraduate research "counts" at GVSU and once a tradition and critical mass of undergraduate research has been established, it can become self-sustaining. To recognize the achievements of undergraduate research at GVSU, there is an annual Student Scholarship Day in which the students (580 university wide) present the results of their research. Also, by persuading students in our introductory classes (for extra credit) to attend Student Scholarship Day, the students, early in their college career, can see what fellow students can accomplish and student presenters can revel in their role of researcher and educator. Such an event helps to build a tradition

  18. Salmon Lifecycle Considerations to Guide Stream Management: Examples from California’s Central Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Merz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act is to at least double natural production of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in California Central Valley (CV streams on a sustainable basis. Achievement relies on restoration actions that involve both discharge (e.g., dam releases and non-discharge (e.g., gravel augmentation, screening components. Annual adult and juvenile abundance estimates for individual watersheds must be tracked to assess effectiveness of individual actions. However, to date, no substantial efforts have been taken to demonstrate success or deficiencies of their implementations. A major challenge in interpreting time series of counts at any one life stage is that they reflect the cumulative effects of both freshwater and marine factors over the full life cycle. To address this issue, we developed a conceptual framework based on ratios of the abundance of consecutive CV fall-run Chinook salmon life stages and how variation in these ratios tracks key independent variables during the freshwater portion of the life cycle. Model validation with several case studies shows that estimates of previous stage class production correlate well with estimated individuals produced in the next class, indicating that transition rates tend to vary within a constrained range, and that monitoring programs generate abundance estimates whose errors are small enough not to swamp out the underlying signal. When selected environmental parameters were added to demonstration models, abundance estimates were more closely modeled and several tested relationships between environmental drivers and life-stage transition rates proved consistent across watersheds where data were available. Results from this generalized life-stage conceptual model suggest a potential framework for tracking the success of actions meant to improve survival for a given life stage within an individual stream and for determining how successive stages respond to

  19. Monitoring and evaluation of aquatic resource health and use suitability in Tennessee Valley Authority reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dycus, D.L.; Meinert, D.L.

    1993-06-01

    TVA initiated a Reservoir Monitoring Program in 1990 with two objectives -- to evaluate the health of the reservoir ecosystem and to examine how well each reservoir meets the swimmable and fishable goals of the Clean Water Act. In 1990 reservoir health was evaluated subjectively using a weight-of-evidence approach (a reservoir was deemed healthy if most of the physical, chemical, and biological monitoring components appeared healthy). In the second year (1991) a more objective, quantitative approach was developed using information on five important indicators of reservoir health -- dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, sediment quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fishes. The most recent information (1992) was evaluated with the same basic approach, modified to incorporate improvements based on comments from reviewers and additional data. Reservoirs were stratified into two groups for evaluation: run-of-the-river reservoirs and tributary storage reservoirs. Key locations are sampled in each reservoir (forebay, transition zone or midreservoir, inflow, and major embayments) for most or all of these five reservoir health indicators. For each indicator (or metric), scoring criteria have been developed that assign a score ranging from 1 to 5 representing poor to good conditions, respectively. Scores for the metrics at a location are summed and then the sums for all locations are totaled. Each reservoir has one to four sample locations depending on reservoir characteristics. The resultant total is divided by the maximum possible score (all metrics good at all locations) for the reservoir. Thus, the possible range of scores is from 20 percent (all metrics poor) to 100 percent (all metrics good). This reservoir ecological health evaluation method is proving to be a valuable tool for providing the public with information about the condition of the Valley`s reservoirs, for allowing meaningful comparisons among reservoirs, and for tracking changes in reservoir health with time.

  20. Plant Community Composition and Structure of Chenab Valley in a Part of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinaba MAJUMDAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the vegetation communities and their diversity patterns in Chenab valley, the buffer zone of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR in Chamoli District of Uttarakhand, India. A total of 42 sites were selected randomly based on the landform heterogeneity of the area. Eight forest communities with overlap among vegetation types and also various plant associations were noticed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA following PAST program and two shrub communities identified separately were, Berberis and bamboo. The range of density in various forest communities was from 203-545 trees ha-1 and total basal area from 17.5-71.7 m2 ha-1. The range of species richness of tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer was from 2-14, 1-10 and 4-14 and diversity from 0.693-2.304, 0.514-2.052 and 1.202-2.583, respectively. The distribution pattern of trees, shrubs and herbs shows that the species were evenly distributed in most of the sites and the -diversity of the present study area is 7.4. Rhododendron and Taxus, the undercanopy species facilitated the regeneration of Chimnobambusa falcata, while the conversion of lower girth class individuals to higher girth class individuals is steady and progressive. Though, evergreen and deciduous species had good population of seedlings and saplings, but the conversion to next girth class was very poor due to the high anthropogenic pressure. The present study reveals that the forest vegetation in Chenab valley is better than that of other parts of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, for which conservation strategies have been discussed in the paper.

  1. A study of valley winds using the MIUU meso-scale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Hans; Juuso, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    High winds are sometimes found in low-altitude terrain in mountain valleys. The reasons for this and the possibilities to find such sites from modelled wind fields are investigated. The higher-order closure MIUU model developed at Uppsala University is used for a general study of channelling of winds in mountain valleys. The importance of length, width and depth of the valley is investigated. Comparisons are made with wind measurements. Copyright

  2. Hybrid spin and valley quantum computing with singlet-triplet qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, Niklas; Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    2014-10-24

    The valley degree of freedom in the electronic band structure of silicon, graphene, and other materials is often considered to be an obstacle for quantum computing (QC) based on electron spins in quantum dots. Here we show that control over the valley state opens new possibilities for quantum information processing. Combining qubits encoded in the singlet-triplet subspace of spin and valley states allows for universal QC using a universal two-qubit gate directly provided by the exchange interaction. We show how spin and valley qubits can be separated in order to allow for single-qubit rotations.

  3. Disorder-mediated electron valley resonance in carbon nanotube quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pályi, András; Burkard, Guido

    2011-02-25

    We propose a scheme for coherent rotation of the valley isospin of a single electron confined in a carbon nanotube quantum dot. The scheme exploits the ubiquitous atomic disorder of the nanotube crystal lattice, which induces time-dependent valley mixing as the confined electron is pushed back and forth along the nanotube axis by an applied ac electric field. Using experimentally determined values for the disorder strength we estimate that valley Rabi oscillations with a period on the nanosecond time scale are feasible. The valley resonance effect can be detected in the electric current through a double quantum dot in the single-electron transport regime. © 2011 American Physical Society

  4. Hydrological responses to channelization and the formation of valley plugs and shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Aaron R.; King, Sammy L.

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of floodplain systems focuses on restoring interactions between the fluvial system and floodplain, however, there is a paucity of information on the effects of valley plugs and shoals on floodplain hydrological processes. We investigated hydrologic regimes in floodplains at three valley plug sites, two shoal sites, and three unchannelized sites. Valley plug sites had altered surface and sub-surface hydrology relative to unchannelized sites, while only sub-surface hydrology was affected at shoal sites. Some of the changes were unexpected, such as reduced flood duration and flood depth in floodplains associated with valley plugs. Our results emphasize the variability associated with hydrologic processes around valley plugs and our rudimentary understanding of the effects associated with these geomorphic features. Water table levels were lower at valley plug sites compared to unchannelized sites, however, valley plug sites had a greater proportion of days when water table inundation was above mean root collar depth than both shoal and unchannelized sites as a result of lower root collar depths and higher deposition rates. This study has provided evidence that valley plugs can affect both surface and sub-surface hydrology in different ways than previously thought and illustrates the variability in hydrological responses to valley plug formation.

  5. Long valley relaxation time of free carriers in monolayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tengfei; Yang, Siyuan; Li, Dian; Cui, Xiaodong

    2017-06-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) feature a valley degree of freedom, giant spin-orbit coupling, and spin-valley locking. These exotic natures have stimulated efforts of exploring potential applications in conceptual spintronics, valleytronics, and quantum computing. Among all the exotic directions, a long relaxation time of spin and/or valley polarization is critical. The present valley dynamics studies concentrate on the band edge excitons which predominate the optical response due to an enhanced Coulomb interaction in two dimensions. The valley relaxation time of free carriers remains ambiguous. In this Rapid Communication, we use time-resolved Kerr rotation spectroscopy to probe the valley dynamics of excitons and free carriers in monolayer tungsten diselenide. The valley relaxation time of free carriers is found around 2 ns at 70 K, about three orders of magnitude longer than the excitons of about 2 ps, and 15 times larger than that of trions (130 ps). The extended valley relaxation time of free carriers evidences that an exchange interaction dominates the valley relaxation in optical excitations. The pump-probe spectroscopy also reveals an exciton binding energy of 0.60 eV in monolayer WSe2.

  6. Valley Zeeman effect in elementary optical excitations of monolayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ajit; Sidler, Meinrad; Allain, Adrien V.; Lembke, Dominik S.; Kis, Andras; Imamoğlu, A.

    2015-02-01

    A monolayer of a transition metal dichalcogenide such as WSe2 is a two-dimensional direct-bandgap valley-semiconductor having an effective honeycomb lattice structure with broken inversion symmetry. The inequivalent valleys in the Brillouin zone could be selectively addressed using circularly polarized light fields, suggesting the possibility for magneto-optical measurement and manipulation of the valley pseudospin degree of freedom . Here we report such experiments that demonstrate the valley Zeeman effect--strongly anisotropic lifting of the degeneracy of the valley pseudospin degree of freedom using an external magnetic field. The valley-splitting measured using the exciton transition deviates appreciably from values calculated using a three-band tight-binding model for an independent electron-hole pair at +/-K valleys. We show, on the other hand, that a theoretical model taking into account the strongly bound nature of the exciton yields an excellent agreement with the experimentally observed splitting. In contrast to the exciton, the trion transition exhibits an unexpectedly large valley Zeeman effect that cannot be understood within the same framework, hinting at a different contribution to the trion magnetic moment. Our results raise the possibility of controlling the valley degree of freedom using magnetic fields in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides or observing topological states of photons strongly coupled to elementary optical excitations in a microcavity.

  7. Electrical control of the anomalous valley Hall effect in antiferrovalley bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2017-08-01

    In analogy to all-electric spintronics, all-electric valleytronics, i.e., valley manipulation via electric means, becomes an exciting new frontier as it may bring revolutions in the field of data storage with ultra-high speed and ultra-low power consumption. The existence of the anomalous valley Hall effect in ferrovalley materials demonstrates the possibility of electrical detection for valley polarization. However, in previously proposed valley-polarized monolayers, the anomalous valley Hall effect is controlled by external magnetic fields. Here, through elaborate structural design, we propose the antiferrovally bilayer as an ideal candidate for realizing all-electric valleytronic devices. Using the minimal k.p model, we show that the energy degeneracy between valley indexes in such system can be lifted by electric approaches. Subsequently, the anomalous valley Hall effect strongly depends on the electric field as well. Taking the bilayer VSe2 as an example, all-electric tuning and detecting of anomalous valley Hall effect is confirmed by density-functional theory calculations, indicating that the valley information in such antiferrovalley bilayer can be reversed by an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the system and easily probed through the sign of the Hall voltage.

  8. Hydrologic effects of stress-relief fracturing in an Appalachian Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Granville G.; Borchers, James W.

    1981-01-01

    A hydrologic study at Twin Falls State Park, Wyoming County, West Virginia, was made to determine how fracture systems affect the occurrence and movement of ground water in a typical valley of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province. Twin Falls was selected because it is generally unaffected by factors that would complicate an analysis of the data. The study area was the Black Fork Valley at Twin Falls. The valley is about 3 miles long and 400 to 600 feet wide and is cut into massive sandstone units interbedded with thin coal and shale beds. The study was made to determine how aquifer characteristics were related to fracture systems in this valley, so that the relation could be applied to studies of other valleys. Two sites were selected for test drilling, pumping tests, and geophysical studies. One site is in the upper part of the valley, and the second is near the lower central part. At both sites, ground water occurs mainly in horizontal bedding-plane fractures under the valley floor and in nearly vertical and horizontal slump fractures along the valley wall. The aquifer is under confined conditions under the valley floor and unconfined conditions along the valley wall. The fractures pinch out under the valley walls, which form impermeable barriers. Tests of wells near the valley center indicated a change in storage coefficient as the cone of depression caused by pumping reached the confined-unconfined boundaries; the tests also indicated barrier-image effects when the cone reached the impermeable boundaries. Drawdown from pumping near the center of the valley affected water levels at both sites, indicating a hydraulic connection from the upper to the lower end of the valley. Stream gain-and-loss studies show that ground water discharges to the stream from horizontal fractures beneath Black Fork Falls, near the mouth of Black Fork. The fracture systems that constitute most of the transmissive part of the aquifer at Twin Falls are like those described as

  9. Resolving the interactions between population density and air pollution emissions controls in the San Joaquin Valley, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Mark; Mahmud, Abdullah; Hu, Jianlin; Kleeman, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    The effectiveness of emissions control programs designed to reduce concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter system that simultaneously considered interactions between land use and transportation, area source, and point source emissions. The ambient PM2.5 response to each combination of population density and emissions control was evaluated using a regional chemical transport model over a 3-week winter stagnation episode. Comparisons between scenarios were based on regional average and population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations. In the absence of any emissions control program, population-weighted concentrations of PM2.5 in the future San Joaquin Valley are lowest undergrowth scenarios that emphasize low population density. A complete ban on wood burning and a 90% reduction in emissions from food cooking operations and diesel engines must occur before medium- to high-density growth scenarios result in lower population-weighted concentrations of PM2.5. These trends partly reflect the fact that existing downtown urban cores that naturally act as anchor points for new high-density growth in the San Joaquin Valley are located close to major transportation corridors for goods movement. Adding growth buffers around transportation corridors had little impact in the current analysis, since the 8-km resolution of the chemical transport model already provided an artificial buffer around major emissions sources. Assuming that future emissions controls will greatly reduce or eliminate emissions from residential wood burning, food cooking, and diesel engines, the 2030 growth scenario using "as-planned" (medium) population density achieves the lowest population-weighted average PM2.5 concentration in the future San Joaquin Valley during a severe winter stagnation event. The San Joaquin Valley is one of the most heavily polluted air basins in the United States that are projected to experience strong population growth in the coming decades. The best

  10. Low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada: area specific studies, Pumpernickel Valley, Carlin and Moana. Final report June 1, 1981-July 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Koenig, B.A.; Bell, E.J.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys were used in conjunction with temperature gradient hole drilling to assess the geothermal resources in Pumpernickel Valley and Carlin, Nevada. This program is based on a statewide assessment of geothermal resources that was completed in 1979. The exploration techniques are based on previous federally-funded assessment programs that were completed in six other areas in Nevada and include: literature search and compilation of existing data, geologic reconnaissance, chemical sampling of thermal and non-thermal fluids, interpretation of satellite imagery, interpretation of low-sun angle aerial photographs, two-meter depth temperature probe survey, gravity survey, seismic survey, soil-mercury survey, and temperature gradient drilling.

  11. Remedial investigation report on the Melton Valley watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Melton Valley watershed presents a multifaceted management and decision-making challenge because of the very heterogeneous conditions that exist with respect to contaminant type, disposal unit age, mode of disposal, release mechanism, and potential risk-producing pathways. The investigation presented here has assembled relevant site data in the geographic context with the intent of enabling program managers and decision-makers to understand site conditions and evaluate the necessity, relative priority, and scope of potential remedial actions. The industrial and recreational exposure scenarios are used to provide a risk assessment reference context to evaluate levels of contamination in surface water, groundwater, soil, and sediment within each subbasin of the Melton Valley watershed. All available analytical results for the media of interest that could be qualified for use in the risk assessment were screened to determine carcinogenic risk values and noncarcinogenic hazard indexes and to identify the chemicals of concern (COCs) for each evaluated media in each subbasin.

  12. Documentation of Model Input and Output Values Used for Analyses of Simulated Development in Stagecoac Valley, Lyon and Storey Counties, Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Anne E.

    1994-01-01

    A previously published Geological Survey report (Professional Paper 1409-H) describes ground-water flow and simulated development scenarios in Stagecoach Valley, Lyon and Storey Counties, Nevada. This study was done as part of the Survey's Great Basin Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis program. Documentation of model input and output values used for analysis of ground-water flow and simulated development scenarios in Stagecoach Valley, Lyon and Storey Counties, in western Nevada, has not been published previously. In this report, the documen- tation, consisting of a listing of input values and sample output, is contained on a 5-1/4-inch diskette in files presented according to the American International Standard Code for Information Inter- change (ASCII) format. These files require approxi- mately 760,000 bytes of disk space on an IBM- compatible microcomputer using the MS-DOS operating system.

  13. Fena Valley Reservoir watershed and water-balance model updates and expansion of watershed modeling to southern Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sarah N.; Hay, Lauren E.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense’s Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, initiated a project to evaluate the potential impacts of projected climate-change on Department of Defense installations that rely on Guam’s water resources. A major task of that project was to develop a watershed model of southern Guam and a water-balance model for the Fena Valley Reservoir. The southern Guam watershed model provides a physically based tool to estimate surface-water availability in southern Guam. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Precipitation Runoff Modeling System, PRMS-IV, was used to construct the watershed model. The PRMS-IV code simulates different parts of the hydrologic cycle based on a set of user-defined modules. The southern Guam watershed model was constructed by updating a watershed model for the Fena Valley watersheds, and expanding the modeled area to include all of southern Guam. The Fena Valley watershed model was combined with a previously developed, but recently updated and recalibrated Fena Valley Reservoir water-balance model.Two important surface-water resources for the U.S. Navy and the citizens of Guam were modeled in this study; the extended model now includes the Ugum River watershed and improves upon the previous model of the Fena Valley watersheds. Surface water from the Ugum River watershed is diverted and treated for drinking water, and the Fena Valley watersheds feed the largest surface-water reservoir on Guam. The southern Guam watershed model performed “very good,” according to the criteria of Moriasi and others (2007), in the Ugum River watershed above Talofofo Falls with monthly Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency statistic values of 0.97 for the calibration period and 0.93 for the verification period (a value of 1.0 represents perfect model fit). In the Fena Valley watershed, monthly simulated streamflow volumes from the watershed model compared reasonably well with the

  14. Shoals and valley plugs in the Hatchie River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural land use and gully erosion have historically contributed more sediment to the streams of the Hatchie River watershed than those streams can carry. In 1970, the main sedimentation problem in the watershed occurred in the tributary flood plains. This problem motivated channelization projects (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1970). By the mid-1980's, concern had shifted to sedimentation in the Hatchie River itself where channelized tributaries were understood to contribute much of the sediment. The Soil Conservation Service [Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) since 1996] estimated that 640,000 tons of bedload (sand) accumulates in the Hatchie River each year and identified roughly the eastern two-thirds of the watershed, where loess is thin or absent, as the main source of sand (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1986a). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the West Tennessee River Basin Authority (WTRBA), conducted a study of sediment accumulation in the Hatchie River and its tributaries. This report identifies the types of tributaries and evaluates sediment, shoal formation, and valley-plug problems. The results presented here may contribute to a better understanding of similar problems in West Tennessee and the rest of the southeastern coastal plain. This information also will help the WTRBA manage sedimentation and erosion problems in the Hatchie River watershed.The source of the Mississippi section of the Hatchie River is in the sand hills southwest of Corinth, Mississippi (fig. 1). This section of the Hatchie River flows northward in an artificial drainage canal, gathering water from tributary streams that also are channelized. The drainage canal ends 2 miles south of the Tennessee State line. The Tennessee section of the Hatchie River winds north and west in a meandering natural channel to the Mississippi River. Although most of the Hatchie River tributaries are also drainage canals, the river's main stem has kept most of

  15. Ground-water conditions in Las Veags Valley, Clark County, Nevada; part 1 Hydrogeologic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plume, Russell W.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the lithology, thickness, and extent of valley-fill deposits in Las Vegas Valley, Nev. This information will be used to develop a hydraulic model of the valley's ground-water system. Las Vegas Valley is a structural basin formed by bedrock that ranges in age from Precambrian through Miocene. Gravity data indicate that the deeper parts of the basin are filled with 3,000-5,000 feet of clastic sedimentary deposits that range in age from Miocene through Holocene. These deposits constitute the valley-fill aquifer and yield most of the water pumped in the valley. The upper 1,000 feet of this valley fill consist of coarse-grained deposits (sand and gravel), fine-grained deposits (silt and clay), and heterogeneous deposits that comprise either thinly interbedded coarse- and fine-grained deposits or mixtures of the two. Coarse-grained deposits, in places more than 1,000 feet thick, underlie the south and west sides of the valley and interfinger with fine-grained and heterogeneous deposits toward the center of the valley. Intervals of fairly thin heterogeneous deposits underlie parts of the valley, but they are not laterally persistent. The distribution of coarse-grained and fine-grained deposits in three depth zones of the valley fill (0-200 feet, 200-700 feet, and 700-1,000 feet) suggests that: (1) the Spring Mountains and McCullough Range were the major sources of clastic material for the valley fill; (2) Frenchman Mountain and the Las Vegas Range were emplaced later than the Spring Mountains; (3) the east side of the Spring Mountains, which was originally closer to the center of the valley, has receded westward because of erosion; and (4) shallow, fine-grained deposits (0-200 feet deep) are more susceptible to subsidence than deeper ones. The bedrock basin that underlies Las Vegas Valley consists of a deeply buried part that underlies most of the valley and a shallow bedrock surface on the west side of the valley. The deep part of the basin is

  16. CSUB CREST Research on Climate Change and the San Joaquin Valley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugh, W. C.; Negrini, R. M.; Baron, D.; Gillespie, J.; Horton, R. A.; Montoya, E.; Cruz-Boone, C.; Andrews, G. D.; Guo, J.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the NSF-supported Centers for Excellence in Science and Technology (CREST), student and faculty researchers at California State University, Bakersfield (CSUB) have been investigating the regional impacts of climate change as well as evaluating the potential of local contributions to its abatement. Highlights of this research include; 1) the development of a high-resolution climate record from Tulare Lake sediments that spans the past 20,000 years, 2) the quantitative analysis and prediction of climate change impacts on Sierra Nevada snowpack, 3) the detailed subsurface characterization of San Joaquin Valley oilfields targeted for CO2 sequestration, and 4) the evaluation of proposed host rock suitability under simulated CO2 injection conditions. To date, CSUB CREST supported research has resulted in 26 contributions to peer-reviewed journals (currently published or in-review). A primary goal of CSUB CREST is to improve the recruitment, retention, and success of students from the local community, the majority of whom are from backgrounds under-represented in STEM disciplines. More than 28 students have been directly involved in the basic and applied research projects supported by this program. The majority of these students have received, or are on track to receive, an M.S. degree and have ultimately gained employment in a STEM field or been accepted into a Ph.D. program. This presentation, and others in this session, will focus on the accomplishments, challenges, and strategies for success gleaned from CSUB CREST Phase 1.

  17. Modelling the Crust beneath the Kashmir valley in Northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, R. R.; Parvez, I. A.; Gaur, V. K.; A.; Chandra, R.; Romshoo, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure beneath five broadband seismic stations in the NW-SE trendingoval shaped Kashmir valley sandwiched between the Zanskar and the Pir Panjal ranges of thenorthwestern Himalaya. Three of these sites were located along the southwestern edge of the valley andthe other two adjoined the southeastern. Receiver Functions (RFs) at these sites were calculated usingthe iterative time domain deconvolution method and jointly inverted with surface wave dispersiondata to estimate the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station. To further test the results ofinversion, we applied forward modelling by dividing the crust beneath each station into 4-6homogeneous, isotropic layers. Moho depths were separately calculated at different piercing pointsfrom the inversion of only a few stacked receiver functions of high quality around each piercing point.These uncertainties were further reduced to ±2 km by trial forward modelling as Moho depths werevaried over a range of ±6 km in steps of 2 km and the synthetic receiver functions matched with theinverted ones. The final values were also found to be close to those independently estimated using theH-K stacks. The Moho depths on the eastern edge of the valley and at piercing points in itssouthwestern half are close to 55 km, but increase to about 58 km on the eastern edge, suggesting thathere, as in the central and Nepal Himalaya, the Indian plate dips northeastwards beneath the Himalaya.We also calculated the Vp/Vs ratio beneath these 5 stations which were found to lie between 1.7 and1.76, yielding a Poisson's ratio of ~0.25 which is characteristic of a felsic composition.

  18. COMPLEX LANDSLIDE IN THE RJEČINA RIVER VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Benac

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first phase investigation results of the complex landslide situated on north-eastern slope of the Rječina valley, between Valići damm and the village of Pašac. The valley slopes were formed in Paleogene flysch and Quaternary formations. The limestone rocks are present on the top sites, forming the scarps there. The complex landslide formation has been preconditioned by the geological structure and morphogenesis of the Rječina valley. This is the type of complex retrogressive landslide, starting with its development from toe to head. Thirteen individual landslide bodies were discovered on the slope. The material of slope formation and a part of weathering zone is caught by the landsliding. The larger part of landslide body is saturated by underground water penetrating through the covering zone in contact with flysch bedrock. The landsliding is relatively shallow, because there is no visible damage affected by sliding in the hydrotechnical tunnel, situated below the landslide toe. The mega-blocks of the limestone rock have also been moved and, most probably, are sliding down the flysch bedrock. This is a special phenomenon, atypical of the flysch slope landslide type in the area of Rijeka. The limestone rock on a scarp is extremely disintegrated, with new visible fractures in it. The site investigations comprised the surveying, seismic and engineering geological explorations. The surveying was performed by the method of terrestrial photogrammetry. The results are compared with aerial photos from 1981. In this respect, it was possible to discover the changes of slope morphology during the period 1981 — 1997. The photos were also used for the engineering geological mapping supplementation. The seismic surveying was performed by the surface seismic refraction method (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Catastrophic valley fills record large Himalayan earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhara basin, which has the largest and most extensively dated archive of earthquake-triggered valley fills in the Himalayas. These sediments form a 148-km2 fan that issues from the steep Seti Khola gorge in the Annapurna Massif, invading and plugging 15 tributary valleys with tens of meters of debris, and impounding several lakes. Nearly a dozen new radiocarbon ages corroborate at least three episodes of catastrophic sedimentation on the fan between ∼700 and ∼1700 AD, coinciding with great earthquakes in ∼1100, 1255, and 1344 AD, and emplacing roughly >5 km3 of debris that forms the Pokhara Formation. We offer a first systematic sedimentological study of this formation, revealing four lithofacies characterized by thick sequences of mid-fan fluvial conglomerates, debris-flow beds, and fan-marginal slackwater deposits. New geochemical provenance analyses reveal that these upstream dipping deposits of Higher Himalayan origin contain lenses of locally derived river clasts that mark time gaps between at least three major sediment pulses that buried different parts of the fan. The spatial pattern of 14C dates across the fan and the provenance data are key to distinguishing these individual sediment pulses, as these are not evident from their sedimentology alone. Our study demonstrates how geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of catastrophic valley infill can help to independently verify and augment paleoseismological fault-trench records of great Himalayan earthquakes, while offering unparalleled insights into their long-term geomorphic impacts on major drainage basins.

  20. W. W. Hansen, Microwave Physics, and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, David

    2009-03-01

    The Stanford physicist W. W. Hansen (b. 1909, AB '29 and PhD '32, MIT post-doc 1933-4, Prof. physics '35-'49, d. 1949) played a seminal role in the development of microwave electronics. His contributions underlay Silicon Valley's postwar ``microwave'' phase, when numerous companies, acknowledging their unique scientific debt to Hansen, flourished around Stanford University. As had the prewar ``radio'' companies, they furthered the regional entrepreneurial culture and prepared the ground for the later semiconductor and computer developments we know as Silicon Valley. In the 1930's, Hansen invented the cavity resonator. He applied this to his concept of the radio-frequency (RF) linear accelerator and, with the Varian brothers, to the invention of the klystron, which made microwave radar practical. As WWII loomed, Hansen was asked to lecture on microwaves to the physicists recruited to the MIT Radiation Laboratory. Hansen's ``Notes on Microwaves,'' the Rad Lab ``bible'' on the subject, had a seminal impact on subsequent works, including the Rad Lab Series. Because of Hansen's failing health, his postwar work, and MIT-Stanford rivalries, the Notes were never published, languishing as an underground classic. I have located remaining copies, and will publish the Notes with a biography honoring the centenary of Hansen's birth. After the war, Hansen founded Stanford's Microwave Laboratory to develop powerful klystrons and linear accelerators. He collaborated with Felix Bloch in the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance. Hansen experienced first-hand Stanford's evolution from its depression-era physics department to corporate, then government funding. Hansen's brilliant career was cut short by his death in 1949, after his induction in the National Academy of Sciences. His ideas were carried on in Stanford's two-mile long linear accelerator and the development of Silicon Valley.