Veenman, Betty; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Objective: The Positivity and Rules program (PR program), a low-level behavioral teacher program targeting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has shown positive effects on teacher-rated ADHD symptoms and social functioning. This study aimed to assess whether program effects could be confirmed by instruments assessing classroom behavior other than teacher-ratings, given teachers' involvement with the training. Methods: Participants were 114 primary school children (age = 6-13) displaying ADHD symptoms in the classroom, who were randomly assigned to the treatment (n = 58) or control group (n = 65). ADHD symptoms were measured using classroom observations and actigraphy, and peer acceptance was measured using peer ratings. Intention-to-treat multilevel analyses were conducted to assess program effects. Results: No beneficial program effects were found for any of the measures. Conclusion: The earlier beneficial program effects on both ADHD symptoms and social functioning reported by teachers, may be explained by a change in the perception of teachers rather than changes in the child's behavior. Other methodological explanations are also discussed, such as differences between instruments in the sensitivity to program-related changes. The current study underlines the importance of using different measures of classroom behavior to study program effects. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02518711.
Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire V; Chiodo, Debbie; Hughes, Raymond; Ellis, Wendy
This study examines peer resistance skills following a 21-lesson classroom-based intervention to build healthy relationships and decrease abusive and health-risk behaviors among adolescents. The Fourth R instructs students in positive relationship skills, such as negotiation and delay, for navigating challenging peer and dating scenarios. Observational data from 196 grade 9 students participating in a larger cluster randomized controlled trial were used to evaluate post-intervention acquisition of peer resistance skills. Pairs of students engaged in a role play paradigm with older student actors, where they were subjected to increasing pressure to comply with peer requests related to drugs and alcohol, bullying, and sexual behavior. Specific and global measures of change in peer resistance responses were obtained from two independent sets of observers, blinded to condition. Specific peer resistance responses (negotiation, delay, yielding to pressure, refusal, and compliance) were coded by research assistants; global peer resistance responses were rated by teachers from other schools (thinking / inquiry, application, communication, and perceived efficacy). Students who received the intervention were more likely to demonstrate negotiation skills and less likely to yield to negative pressure relative to controls. Intervention students were also more likely to use delay than controls; control girls were more likely to use refusal responses; the number of times students complied with peer requests did not differ. Teacher ratings demonstrated significant main effects favoring intervention youth on all measures. Program and research implications are highlighted.
Full Text Available Giving instructions is a part of basic skills that should be owned by a prospective teacher. Student teachers of English Education Department, as prospective English teachers, should be exposed to an intensive practice of using Classroom English to help them improve competence of giving instructions in English. In the class, they can use peer modeling as a media of reflecting their effort to do rehearsal. Peer teaching can be an alternative activity to give them opportunities for them to do intensive practice of giving instructions using classroom English. This study aims to describe how peer modeling of Classroom English in peer teaching activities are used by student teachers of English Education Department of Universitas Muria Kudus to prepare them for a program of field teaching practicum at schools. Peer modeling is believed to be able to reduce psychological gap among students during their simulation of teaching using Classroom English. Student teachers will not feel awkward physiologically to give feedback to their friends‘ performance. The study finds out that the student teachers of English Education Department of Universitas Muria Kudus show good effort of using better Classroom English.
Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Ellingsen, Ruth; Sanderson, Jennifer; Tucci, Lara; Bates, Shannon
Social skills training is a common treatment method for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet very few evidence-based interventions exist to improve social skills for high-functioning adolescents on the spectrum, and even fewer studies have examined the effectiveness of teaching social skills in the classroom. This study examines change in social functioning for adolescents with high-functioning ASD following the implementation of a school-based, teacher-facilitated social skills intervention known as Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS (®) ). Seventy-three middle school students with ASD along with their parents and teachers participated in the study. Participants were assigned to the PEERS (®) treatment condition or an alternative social skills curriculum. Instruction was provided daily by classroom teachers and teacher aides for 14-weeks. Results reveal that in comparison to an active treatment control group, participants in the PEERS (®) treatment group significantly improved in social functioning in the areas of teacher-reported social responsiveness, social communication, social motivation, social awareness, and decreased autistic mannerisms, with a trend toward improved social cognition on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Adolescent self-reports indicate significant improvement in social skills knowledge and frequency of hosted and invited get-togethers with friends, and parent-reports suggest a decrease in teen social anxiety on the Social Anxiety Scale at a trend level. This research represents one of the few teacher-facilitated treatment intervention studies demonstrating effectiveness in improving the social skills of adolescents with ASD in the classroom: arguably the most natural social setting of all.
Stoilescu, Dorian; Egodawatte, Gunawardena
Research shows that female and male students in undergraduate computer science programs view computer culture differently. Female students are interested more in the use of computers than in doing programming, whereas male students see computer science mainly as a programming activity. The overall purpose of our research was not to find new…
Angrist, Joshua, D.; Lang, Kevin
This paper studies the impact of the Metropolitan Council for Educational Opportunities (METCO), a desegregation program that sends mostly black students out of the Boston public school district to attend schools in more affluent suburban districts. It examines METCO's impact on the test scores of third, fifth, and seventh graders in a large…
Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.
Teachers and students in 39 1st, 3rd and 5th grade classrooms participated in a study of teaching practices and classroom peer networks. Teachers reported on their attitudes towards aggression and withdrawal, provided rationales for their seating arrangements, and were observed on patterns of emotional and instructional support and classroom…
Liu, Jianguo; Pysarchik, Dawn Thorndike; Taylor, William W.
Explains the importance of peer assessment in professional life and describes a course using peer review processes to teach modeling in natural resource management. Uses a typical scientific research protocol and assigns students to review peer proposals considering their expertise and area of interest. Presents guidelines for proposal review,…
Wellein, Marlea G; Ragucci, Kelly R; Lapointe, Marc
Describe the planning, implementation, and faculty perceptions of a classroom peer-review process, including an evaluation tool. A process for peer evaluation of classroom teaching and its evaluation tool were developed and implemented by a volunteer faculty committee within our department. At the end of the year, all faculty members were asked to complete an online anonymous survey to evaluate the experience. The majority of faculty members either agreed or strongly agreed that the overall evaluation process was beneficial for both evaluators and for those being evaluated. Some areas of improvement related to the process and its evaluation tool also were identified. The process of developing and implementing a peer-evaluation process for classroom teaching was found to be beneficial for faculty members, and the survey results affirmed the need and continuation of such a process.
Hattie, John A. C.
This chapter examines the extent to which the composition of classes affects learning outcomes. The aim is to explore peer effects when students are organized into classes on the basis of ability, ethnicity, or gender, as well as the effects of multigrade and multi-age classes and class size. The argument is defended that these composition factors…
Greenfield, Susan D.; McNeil, Mary E.
Whole-class peer tutoring programs have been found by some to be an effective way of providing students with a one-to-one instructional setting. This document reports on a study in which a peer tutoring program on mathematics fact acquisition was assessed using a second grade classroom consisting of 21 learners who possessed below average…
Bennett, Paul N; Parker, Steve; Smigiel, Heather
Peer review of university classroom teaching can increase the quality of teaching but is not universally practiced in Australian universities. To report an evaluation of paired peer-review process using both paper and web based teaching evaluation tools. Twenty university teachers in one metropolitan Australian School of Nursing and Midwifery were randomly paired and then randomly assigned to a paper based or web-based peer review tool. Each teacher reviewed each other's classroom teaching as part of a peer review program. The participants then completed an 18 question survey evaluating the peer review tool and paired evaluation process. Responses were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Regardless of the tool used, participants found this process of peer review positive (75%), collegial (78%), supportive (61%) and non-threatening (71%). Participants reported that the peer review will improve their own classroom delivery (61%), teaching evaluation (61%) and planning (53%). The web-based tool was found to be easier to use and allowed more space than the paper-based tool. Implementation of a web-based paired peer review system can be a positive method of peer review of university classroom teaching. Pairing of teachers to review each other's classroom teaching is a promising strategy and has the potential to improve teaching in teaching universities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peer teaching is a reciprocal style of learning that traditionally involves older students passing knowledge to younger less capable peers. Utilising this teaching method in the EFL classroom has the potential to bridge the gap between students and materials, increase collaborative learning, and promote active learning. The aim of this paper is to report on a classroom project in which near peer role models (NPRMs) assisted in the teaching of critical incidents within a unit on intercultural ...
Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)
This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.
The purpose of this project was to implement a peer-to-peer drivers safety program designed for high school students. : This project builds upon an effective peer-to-peer outreach effort in Texas entitled Teens in the Driver Seat (TDS), the : nati...
Zadzora, Kathleen; Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.
The objective of this poster is to examine whether differences in the structural features of classroom peer networks (tight-knittedness, hierarchy, salience norms) are associated with differences in how individual students perceive the classroom environment (relational support from teachers and peers) and express achievement-related beliefs…
Kurth, Ruth J.
This study developed and tested a model for using peer coaching to improve college instruction of culturally diverse students. The model's four elements include: change based on collegial relationships combined with peer interactions; dealing with classroom problems through positive behavior change of professors; presentation of observation…
Gedera, Dilani S. P.
Over the past decade aspects pertinent to the area of feedback have been extensively explored by researchers. While some of the studies show positive effects of peer review, others discuss its problematic areas. In spite of the controversies the new ways of integrating peer feedback in ESL classrooms are being explored. Researchers show an…
Gaughf, Natalie White; Foster, Penni Smith
Peer tutoring has been found to be beneficial to both students and peer tutors in health sciences education programs. This article describes the implementation of a centralized, institutional peer tutoring program at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, an academic health science center in the U.S. The Program: This multispecialty peer tutoring program paired students experiencing academic difficulties with peer tutors who showed prior academic success, professionalism and effective communication skills. The program allowed students and peer tutors to coordinate their own tutoring services. Evaluations by both students and peer tutors showed satisfaction with the program. Recommendations for developing and implementing an effective peer tutoring program are presented, including utilization of an online system, consistent program policy with high professionalism expectations, funding, program evaluation and data tracking.
Trujillo, Jennifer M; DiVall, Margarita V; Barr, Judith; Gonyeau, Michael; Van Amburgh, Jenny A; Matthews, S James; Qualters, Donna
To develop a formalized, comprehensive, peer-driven teaching assessment program and a valid and reliable assessment tool. A volunteer taskforce was formed and a peer-assessment program was developed using a multistep, sequential approach and the Peer Observation and Evaluation Tool (POET). A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and practicality of the process and to establish interrater reliability of the tool. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. ICCs for 8 separate lectures evaluated by 2-3 observers ranged from 0.66 to 0.97, indicating good interrater reliability of the tool. Our peer assessment program for large classroom teaching, which includes a valid and reliable evaluation tool, is comprehensive, feasible, and can be adopted by other schools of pharmacy.
The objective of this study is to determine the behavior of teachers in inclusive classrooms and peers' acceptance levels towards students with intellectual disabilities in these classrooms. The qualitative research method was selected for collecting adequate data for the study. Information was collected from 16 teachers and 371 students in 16…
The classroom is a fundamentally social setting, which can foster students’ learning but can also seriously hamper students’ functioning in school. Positive relationships with the teacher and peers are essential for students’ social and academic adjustment. To connect these two social agents, this
Schenk, Matthew D.
The United States is facing an unprecedented teacher shortage. With many studies estimating that 17-33% of teachers leave the profession within their first five years of starting a career, something needs to change to keep new teachers in the classroom. This study evaluates the effectiveness of peer observation as a learning tool to supplement the…
This paper investigates educational production with a focus on the influence that socio-economic status of class peers has on academic outcomes of students in a streaming system. Employing the Swiss subsample of the PISA data, I provide evidence that while classroom assignment is not random within...
Mikami, Amori Yee; Boucher, Margaret A; Humphreys, Keith
This project evaluated an intervention for preventing peer rejection in middle school that promoted social acceptance in the classroom environment. The systems-level and preventive focus of this intervention differed markedly from traditional interventions that target putative deficits within individual rejected children. In collaboration with 24 teachers and their classrooms, the intervention team led mixed groups of accepted and rejected children in cooperative games that required teamwork and mutual respect among all members in order to succeed. To reinforce these alliances between children, as well as to prevent future peer rejection, teachers were encouraged to use cooperative, teamwork-based group activities for academic instruction. The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control (waitlist) design. Results suggested that the intervention reduced the amount of self-reported peer rejection in classrooms. Implications for the further development and evaluation of systems-level interventions to prevent peer rejection are discussed. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The use of a systems-based prevention program shows promise for the prevention of children's perceived peer rejection. The authors demonstrate a model of university-community collaboration with a plan for sustainability and a focus on low-income and minority populations. Educators, school administrators, and researchers will be intrigued by the positive experiences of non-rejected peers and teachers in promoting a socially accepting school climate.
Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.
Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…
Buhs, Eric S.; Ladd, Gary W.; Herald, Sarah L.
Longitudinal data from a study of kindergarten through 5th graders were used to estimate a structural model in which chronic peer exclusion and chronic peer abuse were hypothesized to mediate the link between children's early peer rejection, later classroom engagement, and achievement. Peer exclusion and abuse were expected to predict changes in 2…
Gest, Scott D; Rodkin, Philip C
... risk that claims of teacher influence on classroom social processes could become an empty truism that lacks the specificity that could guide teacher professional development efforts. In the present paper, we aim to illustrate one strategy for focusing research efforts in this area by integrating recent advances in the measurement of teacher–student...
Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric
Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide students two opportunities to answer each question—once after a round of individual reflection and then again after a discussion round with a peer. The second round provides students the choice to "switch" their original response to a different answer. The percentage of right answers typically increases after peer discussion: most students who answer incorrectly in the individual round switch to the correct answer after the peer discussion. However, for any given question there are also students who switch their initially right answer to a wrong answer and students who switch their initially wrong answer to a different wrong answer. In this study, we analyze response switching over one semester of an introductory electricity and magnetism course taught using Peer Instruction at Harvard University. Two key features emerge from our analysis: First, response switching correlates with academic self-efficacy. Students with low self-efficacy switch their responses more than students with high self-efficacy. Second, switching also correlates with the difficulty of the question; students switch to incorrect responses more often when the question is difficult. These findings indicate that instructors may need to provide greater support for difficult questions, such as supplying cues during lectures, increasing times for discussions, or ensuring effective pairing (such as having a student with one right answer in the pair). Additionally, the connection between response switching and self-efficacy motivates interventions to increase student self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester by helping students develop early mastery or
Nguyen, Huy; Xiong, Wenting; Litman, Diane
A peer-review system that automatically evaluates and provides formative feedback on free-text feedback comments of students was iteratively designed and evaluated in college and high-school classrooms. Classroom assignments required students to write paper drafts and submit them to a peer-review system. When student peers later submitted feedback…
Buhs, Eric S.
Data gathered from a short term longitudinal study within fifth grade classrooms (n=378) were used to evaluate two process-oriented models linking peer rejection and negative peer treatment to children's self-concept, school engagement and adjustment. Both structural models linked peer rejection, victimization, and exclusion to children's…
Thijs, Jochem; Verkuijten, Maykel; Grundel, Malin
This study examined the imbalance of power thesis by investigating the link between ethnic classroom composition and peer victimization in 94 Turkish-Dutch (minority) and 374 native Dutch (majority) preadolescents (ages 9-13) living in the Netherlands. These children came from the same multi-ethnic
The article discusses relationships between codeswitching and identities in classroom peer group talk among students from a variety of Asian and European backgrounds who were studying English in Australia. The article focusses on talk that, in being concealed from the teacher through codeswitching, allows expression of identities that are not…
Kehayan, V. Alex
This paper describes the Peer Outreach Service Team (POST), a peer multi-service, student support system organization operating in the Fort Lee schools in Fort Lee, New Jersey. The goals of the POST program are described as reducing numbers of school dropouts as well as levels of negative behavior, chemical dependency, teenage depression, and…
Hollett, Douglas [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Stillman, Greg [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)
On June 6-10, 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP or the Program) conducted its annual program peer review in Bethesda, Maryland. In accordance with the EERE Peer Review Guide, the review provides an independent, expert evaluation of the strategic goals and direction of the program and is a forum for feedback and recommendations on future program planning. The purpose of the review was to evaluate DOE-funded projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.
Latz, Amanda O.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Adams, Cheryll M.; Pierce, Rebecca L.
As traditional pull-out programs for students who are identified as gifted and talented (GT) decrease in number, classroom differentiation is becoming more essential for general education teachers at the elementary level. Despite the importance of differentiation, teachers are still not implementing it on a regular basis. One strategy that may…
Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.
The long-term goal of this program of research is to clarify how teachers may influence features of peer networks that, in turn, may affect students' perceptions of social support, achievement-related beliefs and academic achievement. As a first step in this process, in this study the authors focus on identifying teaching practices that are…
Santee, Jennifer; Garavalia, Linda
Peer tutoring programs may be one method of maintaining quality of pharmacy education in the face of growing student enrollment and a small faculty body. A critical review of the literature was performed to ascertain whether peer tutoring programs improve or maintain the academic performance of health care professional students. Various electronic databases and abstracts from past American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's annual meetings were searched to identify pertinent research. Only those articles with quantitative data, an experimental design, and comparative statistical analysis were included for review. Most studies found that peer tutoring had a positive impact on academic performance. These results may not be readily generalizable as there were numerous methodological flaws and limited descriptions of the programs and participants. Studies with better designs and more detail are needed to answer definitively whether peer tutoring is of benefit. Details of what resources were required should be included in the study to allow the reader to determine the feasibility of the intervention.
Barth, Joan M; McDonald, Kristina L; Lochman, John E; Boxmeyer, Carolyn; Powell, Nicole; Dillon, Casey; Sallee, Meghann
The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects that a child's race and the racial composition of a classroom have on a variety of sociometric measures. Sociometric nominations were collected from 872 fifth-grade students (48% male, 48% Black) who were in classrooms that ranged from nearly all Black to nearly all White students. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses indicated that the race of the child, the race of the rater, and the classroom race composition each impacted sociometric nominations. Results suggest that schools that are more balanced in the distribution of Black and White students might promote more positive interracial peer relationships. However, opportunities to be highly liked and to be perceived as a leader might be greatest in a school in which the child is in the clear racial majority. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.
This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations between cross-racial/ethnic friendships and relative changes in forms of peer victimization or peer support and the roles of classroom diversity and sociometric status (i.e., social preference) in these associations. A total of 444 children (age range: 9-10 years) from…
Mikami, Amori Yee; Ruzek, Erik A; Hafen, Christopher A; Gregory, Anne; Allen, Joseph P
Secondary school is a vulnerable time where stagnation or declines in classroom behavioral engagement occur for many students, and peer relationships take on a heightened significance. We examined the implications of adolescents' perceptions of relatedness with classroom peers for their academic learning. Participants were 1084 adolescents (53% female) in 65 middle and high school classrooms. Multilevel cross-lagged path analyses found that adolescents' perceived relatedness with classroom peers subsequently predicted their increased self-reported behavioral engagement in that classroom from fall to winter and again from winter to spring. Higher engagement in spring predicted higher end of year objective achievement test scores after statistical control of prior year test scores. Implications are discussed for increasing classroom peer relatedness to enhance adolescents' achievement.
Full Text Available Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.
Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric
Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs)] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.
This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biomass Program Peer Review for the Thermochemical Platform, held on July 9th and 10th in Golden, Colorado.
Cooc, North; Kim, James S.
Research has found that peers influence the academic achievement of children. However, the mechanisms through which peers matter remain underexplored. The present study examined the relationship between peers' reading skills and children's own reading skills among 4,215 total second- and third-graders in 294 classrooms across 41 schools. One…
Peer review can be a valuable tool in the writing development of high school sophomores. Specifically, this research study explores the use of peer review to improve writing skills and to build content knowledge in a social studies high school classroom through the use of peer interaction. The problem in social studies high school instruction is…
Several studies have reported the benefits of peer reviews in English as a second language (ESL) and English as a foreign language (EFL) writing classrooms. However, there has been little empirical research on whether such peer reviews improve students' writing abilities. The current study investigated the effects of peer review on the development…
Zayas, Jose [Energy Efficiencey and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Higgins, Mark [Energy Efficiencey and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)
This report summarizes the proceedings of the 2012 Wind Program Peer Review, the goals of which were to review and evaluate the strategy and goals of the Wind Program; review and evaluate the progress and accomplishments of the program's projects funded in fiscal year (FY) 2010 and FY 2011; and foster interactions among the national laboratories, industry, and academic institutions conducting research and development on behalf of the program.
Vallenari, Alison; Epps, Pat
CHAMPS Peer Leadership is a program for the prevention of drug, alcohol, and tobacco use, and other negative behaviors and issues facing children. The program asks children to take responsibility for themselves and make positive changes in their schools and communities. Students who have process skills such as goal setting, team building,…
The Wind Program Peer Review Meeting was held March 24-28, 2014 in Arlington, VA. Principle investigators from the Energy Department, National Laboratories, academic, and industry representatives presented the progress of their DOE-funded research. This report documents the formal, rigorous evaluation process and findings of nine independent reviewers who examined the technical, scientific, and business results of Wind Program funded projects, as well as the productivity and management effectiveness of the Wind Program itself.
This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Feedstock Platform Portfolio Peer Review held on August 21st through 23rd in Washington D.C.
Gerhardt, Jill; Olan, Michael
This article describes our experience with peer tutoring in introductory programming courses. This tutoring concept was one of the integral support services out of five student services, which were part of a National Science Foundation Grant, designed to improve education, increase retention, improve professional development and employability, and…
The Water Power Peer Review Meeting was held February 24-28, 2014 in Arlington, VA. Principle investigators from the Energy Department National Laboratories, academic, and industry representatives presented the progress of their DOE-funded research. This report documents the formal, rigorous evaluation process and findings of nine independent reviewers who examined the technical, scientific, and business results of 96 projects of the Water Power Program, as well as the productivity and management effectiveness of the Water Power Program itself.
Full Text Available One of the issues affecting the efficacy of peer revision in the writing classroom is that of the knowledge of peer reviewers. Do peer reviewers have sufficient knowledge of content and language to critique the works of their peer writers? Do they provide feedback on content as much as they do for language? Proponents of social constructivism posit that learners learn best when they are involved in exploring, discovering and transforming their ideas and those of their peers through interaction, negotiation and collaboration. In the writing classroom, student writers and reviewers are given the opportunity to build meaning based on their own experiences. This study examined the types of comments made by Malay ESL peer reviewers and their perceived usefulness towards improving peer writers’ composition. Comments on peer writing were collected from ten upper secondary school peer reviewers for equal number of peer writers through reviewer feedback form, peer conferencing session, reviewer field notes and writers’ multiple drafts. Findings of the study show that peer reviewers were able to provide revisions in both areas of content and language. Additionally, the strategies used to providing feedback on content included alteration and reordering, clarification and suggestion, as well as praise and criticism. Overall peer revision has a positive impact on writing and this has implications for teaching and learning, more so for teachers who are overburdened with marking.
Leadership development is an outcome of colleges and universities today stressed both in and out of the classroom. Additionally, leadership is often included in institutional missions, with emphasis on students developing as responsible citizens or leaders. The use of peer educators is standard in many student leadership development programs. In…
Gottfried, Michael A.
This study evaluates the effects of classroom peers on standardized testing achievement for all third- and fourth-grade students in the Philadelphia School District over 6 school years. With a comprehensive individual-and multilevel data set of all students matched to teachers, classrooms, and schools, two empirical strategies are employed. The…
Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.
This study investigates the extent to which teacher-student interactions in fifth grade classrooms are associated with peer behavior in fifth grade, accounting for prior peer functioning. Participants included 894 fifth grade students from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. The quality of teacher-student interactions…
Written to accompany a videotape, the handbook is presented as a guide for school psychologists on peer tutoring in the regular classroom. A general overview of the peer tutoring process (including selecting and pairing students, supervising the process, and scheduling and feedback) is presented, followed by basic steps in developing a tutoring…
Swenson, Lisa M.; Strough, Jonell
Peer collaboration can be a useful tool in a school classroom to help students perform at their best. With whom should students be paired, though? Previous research yields inconsistent findings regarding whether the benefits of peer collaboration depend on the gender or friendship of collaborators. We paired students with a same-gender friend or a…
Choudry, Sophina; Williams, Julian; Black, Laura
The aim of this article is to explore the structure of social capital in peer networks and its relation to the unequal access of educational resources within mathematics classrooms. We hypothesise that learners can gain access to mathematics through friendship networks which provide more or less help from peers that might sustain (or curtail)…
Nossal, S. M.; Jacob, A. T.; Buehlman, J. D.; Middlecamp, C. H.
The Peer Mentor Tutor (PMT) program in the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Physics Department matches upper level undergraduate physics majors in small groups with students potentially at-risk for having academic trouble with their gateway introductory non-calculus physics course or for feeling isolated at the University. The program enhances students'learning and confidence by providing an emphasis on problem solving, a supportive environment for asking questions, and opportunities for acquiring missing math skills. The students assisted include, among others, returning adults, students of color,students with English as a second language, and students who have never taken physics in high school. The tutors acquire teaching and leadership experience with ongoing training throughout the year. The Physics PMT program is run in collaboration with a similar program in Chemistry. The peer model is also being applied to other science courses at the University of Wisconsin. We will describe the structure of the Physics PMT program and our current efforts to expand the program into a broader Physics Learning Center that may serve multiple purposes and courses.
The present review examined the effectiveness of three peer tutoring programs: cross-age peer tutoring, Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), and Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), for elementary students in the academic areas of math and reading. The research reviewed indicates students who participated in cross-age peer tutoring and CWPT had improved test scores on basic math facts as well as increased math scores on standardized assessments. Students also showed improvement in reading flu...
Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)
This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s 2009 peer review meeting, held on July 14–15, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia. The document also includes summary information from the six separate platform reviews conducted between March and April 2009 in the Washington, D.C., and Denver, Colorado, areas. The platform reviews provide evaluations of the program‘s projects in applied research, development, and demonstration as well as analysis and deployment activities. The July program peer review was an evaluation of the program‘s overall strategic planning, management approach, priorities across research areas, and resource allocation.
Ladd, Gary W.; Herald-Brown, Sarah L.; Reiser, Mark
A sample of 398 children was followed up from ages 5 to 12 to investigate the relation between peer group rejection and classroom participation. The participation trajectories of individuals and groups of children who were rejected for differing periods of time were examined both during and after rejection using piecewise growth curve analyses.…
Gao, Ni; Dolce, Joni; Rio, John; Heitzmann, Carma; Loving, Samantha
This column describes a goal-oriented, time-limited in vivo coaching/training approach for skills building among peer veterans vocational rehabilitation specialists of the Homeless Veteran Supported Employment Program (HVSEP). Planning, implementing, and evaluating the training approach for peer providers was intended, ultimately, to support veterans in their goal of returning to community competitive employment. The description draws from the training experience that aimed to improve the ability of peer providers to increase both rates of employment and wages of the homeless veterans using their services. Training peers using an in vivo training approach provided a unique opportunity for the veterans to improve their job development skills with a focus to support employment outcomes for the service users. Peers who received training also expressed that learning skills through an in vivo training approach was more engaging than typical classroom trainings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Graziano, Kevin J.
More and more school administrators are expecting new teachers to flip their classrooms prior to completing their teacher certification. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of preservice teachers who facilitated learning in a flipped classroom, to identify the benefits and challenges of flipped instruction on preservice…
With the growing need to make the curriculum accessible to students with special needs, there has been an increase in the inclusion of special education students with learning disabilities in general education classroom. The major challenge that has faced teachers in inclusive classrooms is using instructional strategies that will accommodate the…
In his model of classroom social identification and learning, Wortham (2006. "Learning Identity". New York: Cambridge University Press) conceptualizes identity processes as enveloped within multiple timescales unfolding simultaneously in varying paces. For Wortham (2008. "Shifting Identities in the Classroom." In "Identity…
Erin B. Jensen
Full Text Available Peer-review workshops are commonly used in writing courses as a way for students to give their peers feedback as well as help their own writing. Most of the research on peer-review workshops focuses on workshops held in traditional in-person courses, with less research on peer-review workshops held online. Students in a freshman writing course experienced both a classroom based writing workshop and an online workshop and then took a survey about their experiences. The majority of the students preferred the online writing workshop because of the convenience of the workshop and being able to post anonymous reviews. Students whom preferred the traditional in-person writing workshop liked being able to talk with their peers about their papers. This research article focuses on the students’ responses and experiences with traditional and online peer-reviews.
Jones, K M; Drew, H A; Weber, N L
A functional analysis isolated peer attention as the primary maintaining variable for disruptive behavior displayed by a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Using a brief reversal design, noncontingent reinforcement was then shown to reduce disruptive behavior relative to the peer attention condition. Implications for assessing behavior disorders in mainstream school settings are discussed.
Li, Jinrong; Li, Mimi
Despite the benefits of peer review, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to make it more effective for L2 students. With the development of technology, computer-mediated peer review has captured increasing attention from L2 writing researchers and instructors. While Turnitin is known for its use in detecting plagiarism, its newly…
Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Khalil, Mahmood; Ron, Salit
The model of the six mirrors of the classroom and its use in teaching biology in a cooperative learning mode were implemented in high school classrooms. In this study we present: a) The model of the six mirrors of the classroom (MSMC). b) Cooperative learning settings: 1. The Group Investigation; 2. The Jigsaw Method; and 3. Peer Tutoring in Small…
Mikami, Amori Yee; Gregory, Anne; Allen, Joseph P; Pianta, Robert C; Lun, Janetta
We investigated the effects of My Teaching Partner-Secondary (MTP-S), a teacher professional development intervention, on students' peer relationships in middle and high school classrooms. MTP-S targets increasing teachers' positive interactions with students and sensitive instructional practices and has demonstrated improvements in students' academic achievement and motivation. The current study tested the prediction from systems theory that effects of MTP-S on students would extend beyond the academic domain-that is, the ecology of teachers' behaviors towards students should also influence the ecology of students' behaviors towards one another. Participants were 88 teachers (43 randomly assigned to MTP-S and 45 assigned to a control group that received the regular professional development offerings in their school) and 1423 students in their classrooms. Observations and student self-report of classroom peer interactions were collected at the start and at the end of the course. Results indicated that in MTP-S classrooms, students were observed to show improvement in positive peer interactions, although this pattern was not found in self-report data. However, moderation analyses suggested that for students with high disruptive behavior at the start of the course, teacher participation in MTP-S mitigated a typical decline towards poorer self-reported peer relationships. The relevance of findings for the social ecology of classrooms is discussed.
Mikami, Amori Yee; Gregory, Anne; Allen, Joseph P.; Pianta, Robert C.; Lun, Janetta
We investigated the effects of My Teaching Partner—Secondary (MTP-S), a teacher professional development intervention, on students’ peer relationships in middle and high school classrooms. MTP-S targets increasing teachers’ positive interactions with students and sensitive instructional practices and has demonstrated improvements in students’ academic achievement and motivation. The current study tested the prediction from systems theory that effects of MTP-S on students would extend beyond the academic domain—that is, the ecology of teachers’ behaviors towards students should also influence the ecology of students’ behaviors towards one another. Participants were 88 teachers (43 randomly assigned to MTP-S and 45 assigned to a control group that received the regular professional development offerings in their school) and 1423 students in their classrooms. Observations and student self-report of classroom peer interactions were collected at the start and at the end of the course. Results indicated that in MTP-S classrooms, students were observed to show improvement in positive peer interactions, although this pattern was not found in self-report data. However, moderation analyses suggested that for students with high disruptive behavior at the start of the course, teacher participation in MTP-S mitigated a typical decline towards poorer self-reported peer relationships. The relevance of findings for the social ecology of classrooms is discussed. PMID:22736890
DuPaul, G J; Ervin, R A; Hook, C L; McGoey, K E
We investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the classroom behavior and academic performance of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typical instructional activities were contrasted with CWPT for 18 children with ADHD and 10 peer comparison students attending first- through fifth-grade general education classes. CWPT led to increases in active engagement in academic tasks along with reductions in off-task behavior for most participants. Of student...
Çengel, Meltem; Türkoglu, Adil
Classroom climate is the key context that facilitates or complicates the learning process. Peer relationships are some of the principal determinants of this concept, especially for adolescent groups. Analyzing the classroom climate deeply in terms of peer relations can be vital in understanding the students' continuity, success, and connection…
Carter, Erik W.; Gustafson, Jenny R.; Sreckovic, Melissa A.; Dykstra Steinbrenner, Jessica R.; Pierce, Nigel P.; Bord, Aimee; Stabel, Aaron; Rogers, Sally; Czerw, Alicia; Mullins, Teagan
Even with inclusive general education classrooms, high school students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have few social interactions with classmates. Peer support arrangements hold promise for increasing peer interactions and shared learning within general education classrooms. However, previous evaluations of this intervention have…
Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Carter, Tracy M.; Dietrich, Sandy L. R.
Research Findings: The present study examined the degree to which the association between interactive peer play and academic skills was dependent upon the level of classroom quality for a representative sample of culturally and linguistically diverse urban Head Start children (N = 304 children across 53 classrooms). Peer play interactions within…
This document summarizes the comments provided by the peer reviewers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s Peer Review meeting, held on November 14-15, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and Platform Reviews conducted over the summer of 2007. The Platform Reviews provide evaluations of the Program’s projects in applied research, development, and demonstration.
Barlow, Constance A.; Waegemakers Schiff, Jeannette; Chugh, Urmil; Rawlinson, Dixie; Hides, Elizabeth; Leith, Judy
Peer support, a cornerstone in recovery programs for mental illness and addiction, has not been widely applied to service programs for survivors of suicide. In 2004-2006 Canadian Mental Health Association Suicide Services in Calgary, Alberta, introduced the Peer Support Program for adults, an adjunct to conventional individual and group…
Chesterfield, Ray A.; Chesterfield, Kathleen Barrows
Presents the instructional episodes engaged in by bilingual first graders. Findings indicate that peer instruction occurred frequently and that proficiency in English was not a determining factor in the language choices made by individual students. (Author/CB)
Cappella, Elise; Kim, Ha Yeon; Neal, Jennifer W.; Jackson, Daisy R.
Applying social capital and systems theories of social processes, we examine the role of the classroom peer context in the behavioral engagement of low-income students (N = 80) in urban elementary school classrooms (N = 22). Systematic child observations were conducted to assess behavioral engagement among second to fifth graders in the fall and spring of the same school year. Classroom observations, teacher and child questionnaires, and social network data were collected in the fall. Confirming prior research, results from multilevel models indicate that students with more behavioral difficulties or less academic motivation in the fall were less behaviorally engaged in the spring. Extending prior research, classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties—social network equity—had more behaviorally engaged students in the spring, especially in classrooms with higher levels of observed organization (i.e., effective management of behavior, time, and attention). Moreover, social network equity attenuated the negative relation between student behavioral difficulties and behavioral engagement, suggesting that students with behavioral difficulties were less disengaged in classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties. Findings illuminate the need to consider classroom peer contexts in future research and intervention focused on the behavioral engagement of students in urban elementary schools. PMID:24081319
Cappella, Elise; Kim, Ha Yeon; Neal, Jennifer W; Jackson, Daisy R
Applying social capital and systems theories of social processes, we examine the role of the classroom peer context in the behavioral engagement of low-income students (N = 80) in urban elementary school classrooms (N = 22). Systematic child observations were conducted to assess behavioral engagement among second to fifth graders in the fall and spring of the same school year. Classroom observations, teacher and child questionnaires, and social network data were collected in the fall. Confirming prior research, results from multilevel models indicate that students with more behavioral difficulties or less academic motivation in the fall were less behaviorally engaged in the spring. Extending prior research, classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties-social network equity-had more behaviorally engaged students in the spring, especially in classrooms with higher levels of observed organization (i.e., effective management of behavior, time, and attention). Moreover, social network equity attenuated the negative relation between student behavioral difficulties and behavioral engagement, suggesting that students with behavioral difficulties were less disengaged in classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties. Findings illuminate the need to consider classroom peer contexts in future research and intervention focused on the behavioral engagement of students in urban elementary schools.
Jesnek, Lindsey M.
Since its emergence in the 1960s, critics and instructors alike have lauded the benefits of peer collaboration in the college composition classroom, and more specifically, the value of peer editing. However, the benefits of peer editing are not necessarily realized in traditional entry level writing classes. A consultation of both quantitative and…
Avant, Tamara Spangler; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard
This study tests the ability of classroom emotional climate to moderate anxious solitary children's risk for peer exclusion over a 3-year period from 3rd through 5th grade. Six hundred eighty-eight children completed peer nominations for anxious solitude and peer exclusion in the fall and spring semesters of each grade, and observations of…
Harding, Mary; Haven, Becky
The intent of this action research study was to determine the effect peer coaching had on transfer of skills and content in the secondary arts classroom. Incorporating both qualitative and quantitative methods, the study took place in two public high schools, one a suburban high school and the other a first ring suburban high school (close to an…
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of co-operative games and circle time activities in fostering positive peer relations in two French Primary classrooms (N = 40). It presents French teachers' and pupils' perceptions of a set of co-operative games and circle time activities implemented within a year long study on personal, social…
DuPaul, George J.; Ervin, Ruth A.; Hook, Christine L.; McGoey, Kara E.
A study investigated effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on classroom behavior and academic performance of 18 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). CWPT led to improvements in performance in math or spelling for 50% of students with ADHD, along with reductions in off-task behavior for most participants. (Author/CR)
Allsopp, David H.
This study compared the effectiveness of using classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) in 14 heterogeneous eighth-grade math classrooms with traditional independent student practice to teach problem-solving skills to students in beginning algebra. Both CWPT and independent practice were equally effective strategies with students identified as at risk or…
Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Christen, Margaret H.
This articles describes the Scale for Coaching Instructional Effectiveness, an instrument to help special education peer coaches observe general education teachers' skills, strategies, and techniques and provide feedback in the areas of planning and organization, instruction, and classroom management. Presents three examples of the instrument…
Parr, Judy M.; Hawe, Eleanor
This study investigates conditions designed to optimize learning where professionals utilize the expertise and support of one another. It describes a research--practice collaboration to enhance teacher knowledge and practice through peer observation of, and feedback about, classroom practice in writing. A collaboratively designed observation…
Hendrickx, Marloes M H G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/404047947; Mainhard, M. Tim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483517X; Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Cillessen, Antonius H M; Brekelmans, Mieke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074625411
By showing support and conflict, teachers may function as a model for students regarding how to interact and how to evaluate each other, thereby shaping the classroom peer ecology. Associations of general and student-specific levels and differential provision of teacher support and conflict with the
Hendrickx, M.M.H.G.; Mainhard, M.T.; Boor-Klip, H.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Brekelmans, M.
By showing support and conflict, teachers may function as a model for students regarding how to interact and how to evaluate each other, thereby shaping the classroom peer ecology. Associations of general and student-specific levels and differential provision of teacher support and conflict with the
Walvoord, Mark E.; Hoefnagels, Marielle H.; Gaffin, Douglas D.; Chumchal, Matthew M.; Long, David A.
Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is an online tool being used to integrate a writing component in classrooms. In an introductory zoology lecture class, the authors found that CPR-assigned scores were significantly higher than instructor-assigned scores on two of three essay assignments. They also found that neither students' technical-writing skills…
Bevington, J; Wishart, J G
Identifying factors linked to underachievement is fundamental to understanding the associated academic difficulties and crucial to the development of effective intervention strategies. Underachievement in a number of academic domains has been shown to be associated with behavioural problems in the classroom but the nature of the association and direction of any causal link has yet to be clarified. This study explored the association between poor academic achievement and behavioural problems by examining the direct effects of peer presence on classroom performance in children with identified behavioural difficulties. Specifically, it was hypothesised that independent performance on a cognitive task would decrease as number of classroom peers present increased. A total of 24 children attending two special schools for children with emotional and behavioural difficulties participated in the study. Age range was 9-14 years. A within-subjects design was used in which performance on a set of perceptual/conceptual matching tasks was assessed under three conditions: the child working alone, alongside one other peer, or within a group of six. Measures of non-verbal intelligence and academic attainment were collected, along with teacher ratings of the severity of each child's problem behaviour. Performance was found to be significantly influenced by peer presence, both in terms of number of correct responses and time taken to complete the matching tasks. Direction of effects on these two performance indicators differed according to number of peers present. Findings highlight the importance of contextual factors in determining classroom performance in children with behavioural difficulties. Given the current pressure to educate all children in mainstream classes, findings have implications for classroom management.
Foster, Pauline; Ohta, Amy Snyder
This paper investigates the value of language classroom negotiation of meaning from both cognitive and sociocultural perspectives. According to Long (1985, 1996) comprehensible input gained through interactional adjustments such as negotiating meaning and modifying output is central to second language acquisition, and much research has been…
Landini, Fabio; Montinari, Natalia; Pin, Paolo
: parents expect peer effects on school achievement to be stronger than what they really are. Thus, parents of low-performing students report their children to be friends of high-performing students. Our numerical simulations indicate that when this bias is combined with a bias on how some children target...
Jensen, Lars Peter
in these programmes are often very motivated and they follow the flipped instructions and read the suggested material, but do they also use their study group and experience peer learning? This question is investigated in this paper using one semester in the 2-year part-time programme: Master in Problem Based Learning...
Martín Babarro, Javier; Díaz-Aguado, María José; Martínez Arias, Rosario; Steglich, Christian
This study addresses the interacting effects of classroom cohesion and hierarchy on the relationships between victimization and aggression with peer acceptance and rejection. Classroom cohesion and hierarchy were constructed from friendship nominations. Multilevel analysis conducted in a sample of seventh- and eighth-grade students from the…
Oldenburg, Beau; van Duijn, Marijtje; Sentse, Miranda; Huitsing, Gijs; van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Salmivalli, Christina; Veenstra, René
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between teacher characteristics and peer victimization in elementary schools. We used data of 3,385 elementary school students (M age = 9.8) and 139 of their teachers (M age = 43.9) and employed Poisson regression analyses to explain the classroom victimization rate. Results showed a higher victimization rate in the classrooms of teachers who attributed bullying to external factors-factors outside of their control. In addition, the results suggest that both teachers' perceived ability to handle bullying among students and teachers' own bullying history were positively associated with the classroom victimization rate. We also took into account classroom composition characteristics and found lower victimization rates in multi-grade classrooms and in classrooms with older students. The results support the notion of an association between teacher characteristics and peer victimization. Findings are discussed with regards to current literature and suggestions for future research are made.
de Menezes, Sara; Premnath, Daphne
This study aims to: 1) Evaluate whether a near-peer program improves perceived OSCE performance; 2) Identify factors motivating students to teach; 3) Evaluate role of near-peer teaching in medical education. A near-peer OSCE teaching program was implemented at Monash University's Peninsula Clinical School over the 2013 academic year. Forty 3rd-year and thirty final-year medical students were recruited as near-peer learners and educators, respectively. A post-program questionnaire was completed by learners prior to summative OSCEs (n=31), followed by post-OSCE focus groups (n=10). Near-peer teachers were interviewed at the program's conclusion (n=10). Qualitative data was analysed for emerging themes to assess the perceived value of the program. Learners felt peer-led teaching was more relevant to assessment, at an appropriate level of difficulty and delivered in a less threatening environment than other methods of teaching. They valued consistent practice and felt confident approaching their summative OSCEs. Educators enjoyed the opportunity to develop their teaching skills, citing mutual benefit and gratitude to past peer-educators as strong motivators to teach others. Near-peer education, valued by near-peer learners and teachers alike, was a useful method to improve preparation and perceived performance in summative examinations. In particular, a novel year-long, student-run initiative was regarded as a valuable and feasible adjunct to faculty teaching.
Falk, Diane S.; Pettet, Kristen; Mpagi, Charles
In this paper, children attending a U.S.-sponsored private primary school serving orphaned and vulnerable children in Uganda were interviewed in focus groups about their participation in a peer-to-peer health education program in which they used music, dance, poetry, art, and drama to convey health information. The children reported enhanced…
Kollerová, Lenka; Smolík, Filip
Past research has shown that peer victimization by bullying is associated with peer rejection and fear of victimization, but little is known about the interplay between victimization and other characteristics in the prediction of these experiences. We assume that the associations between victimization and peer rejection/fear of victimization are moderated by multiple characteristics, including aspects of peer ecology. The study tested whether the links between victimization and peer rejection/fear of victimization are moderated by gender, peer support, and two features of classroom peer ecology: classroom victimization rate and classroom hierarchy (the variability of popularity among students). The sample included 512 early adolescents attending sixth grade retrieved from 25 elementary school classrooms. Participants completed a set of self-report and peer nomination instruments in classroom settings. Multilevel linear modelling showed that higher levels of peer rejection were associated with higher victimization, male gender, and lower peer support. The association between victimization and peer rejection was attenuated for females and when the classroom victimization rate was higher. A higher fear of victimization was related to higher victimization, female gender, lower peer support, and a higher classroom victimization rate. The link between victimization and fear of victimization was strengthened by female gender and higher levels of classroom hierarchy. The results indicate the relevance of the interplay between victimization and gender and between victimization and classroom peer ecology in understanding peer rejection and fear of victimization. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Weyns, Tessa; Colpin, Hilde; De Laet, Steven; Engels, Maaike; Verschueren, Karine
Although research has examined the bivariate effects of teacher support, peer acceptance, and engagement, it remains unclear how these key classroom experiences evolve together, especially in late childhood. This study aims to provide a detailed picture of their transactional relations in late childhood. A sample of 586 children (M age = 9.26 years, 47.1% boys) was followed from fourth to sixth grade. Teacher support and engagement were student-reported and peer acceptance was peer-reported. Autoregressive cross-lagged models revealed unique longitudinal effects of both peer acceptance and teacher support on engagement, and of peer acceptance on teacher support. No reverse effects of engagement on peer acceptance or teacher support were found. The study underscores the importance of examining the relative contribution of several social actors in the classroom. Regarding interventions, improving both peer acceptance and teacher support can increase children's engagement, and augmenting peer acceptance can help to increase teacher support.
Silverman, Rebecca D.; Martin-Beltran, Melinda; Peercy, Megan M.; Hartranft, Anna M.; McNeish, Daniel M.; Artzi, Lauren; Nunn, Stephanie
This study evaluated the effects of a cross-age peer learning program targeting vocabulary and comprehension in kindergarten and fourth-grade classrooms with substantial proportions of English Learners (ELs). The study followed a quasi-experimental design with 12 classrooms (6 kindergarten and 6 fourth grade) in the intervention group and 12…
Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H
Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ann Rosnida Md. Deni
Full Text Available Small scale studies have shown that peer-editing is beneficial to students as it increases their awareness of the complex process of writing, it improves their knowledge of and skills in writing and helps them become more autonomous in learning. Teachers too may benefit from peer-editing as this practice discloses invaluable information on students’ writing weaknesses and strengths: and teachers’ teaching effectiveness. This is a small scale study conducted on fifteen first-year degree students majoring in Tourism to view the usefulness of peer-editing practice in enhancing their writing skills. Retrospective notes were taken to record students’ receptiveness and reaction towards peer editing practice: students writing samples and peer- editing questionnaires were analyzed to view students’ revisions and comments; and an open— ended questionnaire was distributed to identify students perceptions of peer—editing practice in the writing classroom. Analysis of data gathered revealed that peer-editing practice benefitted both the teacher and most of her students as it exposed important information that could improve her teaching of writing and her students’ writing practices. Data analysis also. however, discloses that peer-editing practice may have adverse effects on students’ motivation and improvement in writing if they are not deployed properly.
Mentoring programs are a well recognized means to quicken students' assimilation and increase retention, but not all mentoring programs are successful. It seems that for a peer student mentoring program to be effective, the program would need mandatory participation on both ends. Perhaps both mentors and mentees could voluntarily enroll in…
The 2013 Building Technologies Office Program Peer Review Report summarizes the results of the 2013 Building Technologies Office (BTO) peer review, which was held in Washington, D.C., on April 2–4, 2013. The review was attended by over 300 participants and included presentations on 59 BTO-funded projects: 29 from BTO’s Emerging Technologies Program, 20 from the Commercial Buildings Integration Program, 6 from the Residential Buildings Integration Program, and 4 from the Building Energy Codes Program. This report summarizes the scores and comments provided by the independent reviewers for each project.
DuPaul, G J; Ervin, R A; Hook, C L; McGoey, K E
We investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the classroom behavior and academic performance of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typical instructional activities were contrasted with CWPT for 18 children with ADHD and 10 peer comparison students attending first- through fifth-grade general education classes. CWPT led to increases in active engagement in academic tasks along with reductions in off-task behavior for most participants. Of students with ADHD, 50% exhibited improvements in academic performance in math or spelling during CWPT conditions, as measured by a treatment success index. Participating teachers and students reported a high level of satisfaction with intervention procedures. Our results suggest that peer tutoring appears to be an effective strategy for addressing the academic and behavioral difficulties associated with ADHD in general education settings.
Tatiani dos Santos
Full Text Available This study aimed at to investigate of the procedure of peer tutoring on the academic performance of pupils with intellectual disability in common classrooms of Early Education schools. Participate on the study two children with intellectual disability and twelve typical developmental as tutorial. The taught task was the recognition and the nomination of vowels of the alphabet, through playful activities, being that in the condition without peer tutoring the task was individualized and in the tutoring condition, the task was made in pairs. The results even so point that the peer tutoring can be effective in the improvement of the academic performance, although that is not applied for all of the children and the subject deserve more inquiry.
This study is aimed to gain insights into adolescents' classroom peer climate by examining descriptive and status norms of academic and social behaviors. Descriptive norm was assessed as the average score for each behavior and status norm was assessed using the correlation between each behavior and social status within each classroom. Expanded…
Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B.
Purpose: In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a…
Furrer, Carrie J.; Skinner, Ellen A.; Pitzer, Jennifer R.
The quality of students' relationships with teachers and peers is a fundamental substrate for the development of academic engagement and achievement. This chapter offers teachers and researchers a motivational framework that explains how positive and negative student-teacher and student-peer relationships are sustained in the classroom, and…
Canam, Connie J.
The paper presents a model for developing a special educational program for pregnant and parenting teens, with a rationale for its effectiveness. The curriculum is outlined, and program logistices are covered, including selection of leaders; recruitment, utilization and supervision of peer helpers; and evaluation of the program. (Author/CL)
Kohler, F W; Greenwood, C R
A classwide peer tutoring procedure was implemented in an urban elementary school classroom to improve students' spelling performance. Three students combined untrained or collateral tutoring behaviors with the core behaviors initially taught. To explore the function of these natural and spontaneous behaviors, a multielement single-subject experiment with replications was conducted. Results indicated that the additional tutoring behaviors increased (a) the academic response frequencies of 3 tutees and (b) the weekly spelling achievement of 1 target tutee. The remaining class members were successfully taught and continued to use these behaviors over the final 3 weeks of the school year. These findings are discussed with regard to academic instruction, natural communities of peer reinforcement, and the social validation of intervention procedures.
Grunspan, Daniel Z; Eddy, Sarah L; Brownell, Sara E; Wiggins, Benjamin L; Crowe, Alison J; Goodreau, Steven M
Women who start college in one of the natural or physical sciences leave in greater proportions than their male peers. The reasons for this difference are complex, and one possible contributing factor is the social environment women experience in the classroom. Using social network analysis, we explore how gender influences the confidence that college-level biology students have in each other's mastery of biology. Results reveal that males are more likely than females to be named by peers as being knowledgeable about the course content. This effect increases as the term progresses, and persists even after controlling for class performance and outspokenness. The bias in nominations is specifically due to males over-nominating their male peers relative to their performance. The over-nomination of male peers is commensurate with an overestimation of male grades by 0.57 points on a 4 point grade scale, indicating a strong male bias among males when assessing their classmates. Females, in contrast, nominated equitably based on student performance rather than gender, suggesting they lacked gender biases in filling out these surveys. These trends persist across eleven surveys taken in three different iterations of the same Biology course. In every class, the most renowned students are always male. This favoring of males by peers could influence student self-confidence, and thus persistence in this STEM discipline.
Daniel Z Grunspan
Full Text Available Women who start college in one of the natural or physical sciences leave in greater proportions than their male peers. The reasons for this difference are complex, and one possible contributing factor is the social environment women experience in the classroom. Using social network analysis, we explore how gender influences the confidence that college-level biology students have in each other's mastery of biology. Results reveal that males are more likely than females to be named by peers as being knowledgeable about the course content. This effect increases as the term progresses, and persists even after controlling for class performance and outspokenness. The bias in nominations is specifically due to males over-nominating their male peers relative to their performance. The over-nomination of male peers is commensurate with an overestimation of male grades by 0.57 points on a 4 point grade scale, indicating a strong male bias among males when assessing their classmates. Females, in contrast, nominated equitably based on student performance rather than gender, suggesting they lacked gender biases in filling out these surveys. These trends persist across eleven surveys taken in three different iterations of the same Biology course. In every class, the most renowned students are always male. This favoring of males by peers could influence student self-confidence, and thus persistence in this STEM discipline.
High attrition rates among students in associate degree nursing programs are a concern for faculty, administrators, and students. Programs offering academic and emotional support for students at risk for failing a clinical course may decrease attrition rates and improve academic performance. A peer tutoring program was developed for returning nursing students who were unsuccessful in a previous clinical course. Peer tutors met with returning students weekly to review course work, complete case studies and practice NCLEX questions. Trusting, supportive relationships developed among students and a significant increase in grades was noted at the end of the course for 79% of students. Implementation of peer tutoring was beneficial for returning students, tutors, and the nursing program and may be valuable in other courses where academic achievement is a concern.
Mayorga, Mary G.; Oliver, Marvarene
Conflict resolution programs are one part of peer programs offered in schools to enhance the development of life skills of students. This article addresses the need for and role of conflict resolution education in the schools. It then describes several approaches to conflict resolution education. A review of outcome research concerning conflict…
Hundert, Joel; Rowe, Sarah; Harrison, Erin
One of the challenges in supporting young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in inclusive classrooms is the generalization of improved social behaviors. Using a multiple-baseline design across participants, this study examined the generalized effects of social script training alone and combined with peer buddies on the interactive play…
Swisher, Randy [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Clark, Charlton [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Beaudry-Losique, Jacques [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)
This report documents the evaluation of the technical, scientific, and business results of over 80 projects of the Wind Program, as well as the productivity and management effectiveness of the Wind Program itself.
This document summarizes the comments provided by the peer reviewers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s Peer Review meeting, held on November 14-15, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and Platform Reviews conducted over the summer of 2007. The Platform Reviews provide evaluations of the Program’s projects in applied research, development, and demonstration.
Full Text Available Peer advising is an integral part of our undergraduate advising system in the Public Health Sciences major at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. The program was developed in 2009 to address the advising needs of a rapidly growing major that went from 25 to over 530 majors between 2007 and 2014. Each year, 9-12 top performing upper-level students are chosen through an intensive application process. A major goal of the program is to provide curriculum and career guidance to students in the major and empower students in their academic and professional pursuits. The year-long program involves several components, including: staffing the drop-in advising center, attending training seminars, developing and presenting workshops for students, meeting prospective students and families, evaluating ways to improve the program, and collaborating on self-directed projects. The peer advisors also provide program staff insight into the needs and perspectives of students in the major. In turn, peer advisors gain valuable leadership and communication skills, and learn strategies for improving student success. The Peer Advising Program builds community and fosters personal and professional development for the peer advisors. In this paper, we will discuss the undergraduate peer advising model, the benefits and challenges of the program, and lessons learned. Several methods were used to understand the perceived benefits and challenges of the program and experiences of students who utilized the Peer Advising Center. The data for this evaluation were drawn from three sources: 1 archival records from the Peer Advising Center; 2 feedback from peer advisors who completed the year-long internship; and 3 a survey of students who utilized the Peer Advising Center. Results of this preliminary evaluation indicate that peer advisors gain valuable skills that they can carry into their professional world. The program is also a way to engage students in building community
Hughes, Jan N; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E
This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students' individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students' peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students' peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students' academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers' perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children's social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kamps, D M; Leonard, B R; Vernon, S; Dugan, E P; Delquadri, J C; Gershon, B; Wade, L.; Folk, L
We investigated the use of social skills groups to facilitate increased social interactions for students with autism and their nonhandicapped peers in an integrated first-grade classroom. Social skills groups consisted of training students and peers in initiating, responding, and keeping interactions going; greeting others and conversing on a variety of topics; giving and accepting compliments; taking turns and sharing; asking for help and helping others; and including others in activities. T...
Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.; Dishion, Thomas J., Ed.; Lansford, Jennifer E., Ed.
Most interventions for at-risk youth are group based. Yet, emerging research indicates that young people often learn to become deviant by interacting with deviant peers. In this important volume, leading intervention and prevention experts from psychology, education, criminology, and related fields analyze how, and to what extent, programs that…
Arendale, David R., Comp.
Purpose: This 2016 annotated bibliography reviews seven postsecondary peer cooperative learning programs that have been implemented nationally to increase student achievement. Methodology: An extensive literature search was conducted of published journal articles, newspaper accounts, book chapters, books, ERIC documents, thesis and dissertations,…
Epps, Patricia; Vallenari, Alison
CHAMPS Peer Leadership is a program designed to prepare school and community teams to empower youth to take responsibility for themselves and to prevent abusive behaviors. Students who master process skills such as goal setting, team building, communication, self-responsibility, self-esteem, and empowerment, also have the capability to respond…
Arendale, David R., Comp.
This 2017 annotated bibliography reviews seven postsecondary peer cooperative learning programs that have been implemented nationally to increase student achievement. An extensive literature search was conducted of published journal articles, newspaper accounts, book chapters, books, ERIC documents, thesis and dissertations, online documents, and…
This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Integrated Biorefinery Platform Review held on August 13-15, 2007 in Golden, Colorado.
group that was not yet exposed to this learning environment. Although the ... environment . The Green Classroom. The 'Green classroom' is an environmental education program that wants to address knowledge, skills and attitude at the same time. ..... programme on children´s perception of biodiversity, The Journal.
Turney, Kristilynn M.
This action research study describes implementation of a peer mentorship program to improve the performance of English language learners at the research site, a suburban high school in Ohio. With the rapidly increasing number of English language learners at the research site as well as schools across the country and the expectations of No Child…
Despite being the focus of decades of research as well as interventions, gender inequality in representation in many STEM fields, including physics, engineering, and computer science remains. Recent research indicates that high school is a particularly important time point to investigate regarding the roots of inequality, as this is when many young women decide that they are not interested in pursuing degrees in these STEM fields. This presentation will focus on the role of local contexts, including communities, classrooms, and peers, in contributing to such decisions. Specifically, sociological theories suggest that role models and peers within young people's immediate environment can send both implicit and explicit messages that contradict larger social stereotypes, and promote perceptions and experiences of inclusion. Alternatively, adults and peers can endorse and behave in a manner consistent with stereotypes, leading to overtly exclusionary messages and actions. Utilizing data from a large urban district in the Southwest, as well as a national sample of high school students, this presentation will examine how such factors within local contexts can work in both positive and negative ways to shape girls' interests and expectations in STEM fields.
Rudsberg, Karin; Östman, Leif; Aaro Östman, Elisabeth
The aim is to investigate how encounters with peers affect an individual's meaning making in argumentation about socio-scientific issues, and how the individual's meaning making influences the argumentation at the collective level. The analysis is conducted using the analytical method "transactional argumentation analysis" (TAA) which enables in situ studies. TAA combines a transactional perspective on meaning making based on John Dewey's pragmatic philosophy with an argument analysis based on Toulmin's argument pattern. Here TAA is developed further to enable analysis that in detail clarifies the dynamic interplay between the individual and the collective—the intra- and the inter-personal dimensions—and the result of this interplay in terms of meaning making and learning. The empirical material in this study consists of a video-recorded lesson in a Swedish upper secondary school. The results show that the analysed student is influenced by peers when construing arguments, and thereby acts on others' reasoning when making meaning. Further, the results show that most of the additions made by the analysed student are taken further by peers in the subsequent discussion. This study shows how an individual's earlier experiences, knowledge and thinking contribute to the collective meaning making in the classroom.
Gertner, B L; Rice, M L; Hadley, P A
Recent research suggests that children's linguistic competence may play a central role in establishing social acceptance. That possibility was evaluated by examining children's peer relationships in a preschool classroom attended by children with varying degrees of communication ability. Three groups of children were compared: children with normally developing language skills (ND), children with speech and/or language impairments (S/LI), and children learning English as a second language (ESL). Two sociometric tasks were used to measure peer popularity: positive nominations and negative nominations. Children in the ND group received more positive nominations than the children in either the ESL or S/LI groups. When the children's positive and negative nominations were combined to classify them as Liked, Disliked, Low Impact, or Mixed, the ND children predominated in the Liked cell, whereas the other two groups of children fell into the Disliked or Low Impact cells. In addition, the PPVT-R, a receptive measure of single-word vocabulary, was found to be the best predictor of peer popularity. The findings are discussed in terms of a social consequences account of language limitations.
Full Text Available Using peer assessment in the classroom to increase student engagement by actively involving the pupils in the assessment process has been practiced and researched for decades. In general, the literature suggests using peer review for project-based exercises. This paper analyzes the applicability of peer assessment to smaller exercises at secondary school level and makes recommendations for its use in computer science courses. Furthermore, a school pilot project introducing student-centered classrooms, called “learning office”, is described. Additionally, a concept for the implementation of peer assessment in such student-centered classrooms is outlined. We introduced two traditional secondary school classes consisting of a total of 57 students to the peer assessment method within the scope of the same software engineering course. The peer students assessed two of 13 exercises using the Moodle workshop activity. The students evaluated these two exercises using an anonymous online questionnaire. At the end of the course, they rated each of the 13 exercises regarding their learning motivation. Overall, the anonymous feedback on the peer review exercises was very positive. The students not only obtained more feedback, but also received it in a timelier manner compared to regular teacher assessment. The results of the overall rating of all 13 exercises revealed that the two peer reviewed exercises have been rated significantly better than the other eleven exercises assessed by the teacher. Evidence therefore suggests that peer review is a viable option for small- and medium-sized exercises in the context of computer science education at secondary school level under certain conditions, which we discuss in this paper.
Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E.
This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students’ individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students’ peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students’ peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students’ academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers’ perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children’s social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:24930822
Baker, Angela K; Barthelemy, Kimberly J; Kurdek, Lawrence A
... peers were reported more likely to have experienced parental divorce, reported less supervision, and'reported more authoritarion discipline. Compared to average peers, neglected peers reported playing with younger neighborhood friends. The findings underscore the need to examine linkages among classroom, family, and neighborhood contexts. Bec...
Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram
This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47 boys with no disabilities in general education…
Coogan, Brenda Anne; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.
Considerable research has demonstrated the effectiveness of interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies on reducing inappropriate classroom behavior. Several investigators have focused on the addition of self-monitoring and peer feedback to these interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies in order to further improve…
Dame, Nadine Filosi
This study examines the differences between spacing of instruction and the classroom involvement of a cross-ability peer tutor on mathematical achievement in a developmental mathematics course. Grounded in spacing effect theory, this study examines how variations in the frequency of instruction affect student learning. The study consists of two…
Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Siekkinen, Martti; Ahonen, Timo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined the role of a supportive classroom climate, class size, and length of teaching experience as protective factors against children's peer rejection. A total of 376 children were assessed in kindergarten for risk for reading disabilities (RD) and rated by their teachers on socially withdrawn and disruptive behaviors. The grade 1…
Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Hong, Soo-Young; Jeon, Hyun-Joo
The current study examined (1) associations among teachers' experiences regarding children with disabilities (i.e., education, specialized training, years of work experience), their attitudes toward disabilities, and their classroom practices in relation to inclusion and (2) associations among children's attitudes toward peers with disabilities…
Nomi, Takako; Raudenbush, Stephen W.
In 2003, Chicago launched "Double-Dose Algebra," requiring students with pretest scores below the national median to take two periods of math--algebra and supplemental coursework. In many schools, assignment to Double Dose changed the peer composition of the algebra classroom. Using school-specific instrumental variables within a…
Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram
This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47
Hawi, Nazir S.
This paper presents a CAD (classroom assessment design) of an entry-level undergraduate computer programming course "Computer Programming I". CAD has been the product of a long experience in teaching computer programming courses including teaching "Computer Programming I" 22 times. Each semester, CAD is evaluated and modified…
Capodieci, Agnese; Rivetti, Thomas; Cornoldi, Cesare
The hypothesis behind this study was that trained teachers using cooperative learning procedures with children in their classroom (aged from 6 to 10 years) can influence the social skills of children with ADHD symptoms and their acceptance by their peers. The study involved 30 children with ADHD symptoms attending 12 different classes, where cooperative learning was adopted in some, and standard practices in others. ADHD children's symptoms, social skills, and cooperative behavior were assessed by means of a teacher's questionnaire, and the social preferences of the children in their class were collected. Changes emerged in teachers' assessments of the children's cooperative behavior in the experimental classes. Improvements in the sociometric status of children with ADHD symptoms were only seen in the cooperative learning classes. These results show the importance of well-structured intervention in classes that include children with ADHD symptoms. Implications of these findings for future intervention are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Fleming, Geoffrey M; Simmons, Jill H; Xu, Meng; Gesell, Sabina B; Brown, Rebekah F; Cutrer, William B; Gigante, Joseph; Cooper, William O
To explore the design, implementation, and efficacy of a faculty development program in a cohort of early career junior faculty. Interested junior faculty members were divided into interdisciplinary small groups led by senior faculty facilitators. The groups met monthly for 1.5 hours to review a modular curriculum from 2011 to 2013. Using a survey at two time points (September 2011 and 2013) and an interim program evaluation, the authors collected data on participants' demographics, faculty interconnectedness, and self-reported knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA) in the domains of professional development and scholarship, including the ability to write career goals and align activities with those goals. A total of 104 junior faculty participated in the program. They demonstrated changes in self-reported KSA in the domains of professional development (P = .013, P = .001) and scholarship (P = .038, P = .015) with an increase in ability to write career goals (P < .001), ability to align activities with those goals (P < .001), and number of and amount of time spent pursuing activities related to those goals (P = .022). These changes were more significant among female faculty and were not affected by academic rank or time since last training. Interconnectedness among faculty increased during the period of study-the number of nodes and ties between nodes within the network increased. This facilitated peer mentoring program for junior faculty was effective in improving the KSA necessary to promote early career advancement and peer networking, especially for women.
Greenwood, C R; Terry, B; Arreaga-Mayer, C; Finney, R
We conducted a study designed to assess implementation of the classwide peer tutoring program and the relationship between implementation variation and student outcome. A clinical replication design was used. Five volunteer elementary teachers were trained to implement the program; their implementation was monitored for 19 consecutive weeks during 1 school year. Overall, the results indicated that specific variations in program implementation were associated with students' responses to treatment. It was also demonstrated that different teachers' applications of the program produced differential levels of student outcome. Implementation factors related to lower spelling achievement were (a) reduced opportunities to receive program sessions, (b) reduced probabilities of students' participation in program opportunities, (c) too many students assigned unchallenging spelling words, and (d) reduced rates of daily point earning reflecting lower levels of spelling practice during tutoring sessions. The implications of these findings and methods of preventing these implementation problems are discussed in the context of quality assurance and social validity.
Thomson, Norman D
The idea for this book grew out of proposals at the APL86 con ference in Manchester which led to the initiation of the I-APL (International APL) project, and through it to the availability of an interpreter which would bring the advantages of APL within the means of vast numbers of school children and their teachers. The motivation is that once school teachers have glimpsed the possibilities, there will be a place for an "ideas" book of short programs which will enable useful algorithms to be brought rapidly into classroom use, and perhaps even to be written and developed in front of the class. A scan of the contents will show how the conciseness of APL makes it possible to address a huge range of topics in a small number of pages. There is naturally a degree of idiosyncrasy in the choice of topics - the selection I have made reflects algo rithms which have either proved useful in real work, or which have caught my imagination as candidates for demonstrating the value of APL as a mathematical notation. Wh...
Adriaensens, Stefanie; Van Waes, Sara; Struyf, Elke
Recent work has reported adverse effects of students' stuttering on their social and emotional functioning at school. Yet, few studies have provided an in-depth examination of classroom interaction of students who stutter (SWS). The current study uses a network perspective to compare acceptance and rejection in the classroom interaction between SWS and their peers in secondary education. The sample comprised 22 SWS and 403 non-stuttering peers (22 classes) of secondary education in Flanders (Belgium). Students' nominations regarding three acceptance and three rejection criteria were combined. Social network analysis offered procedures that considered direct and indirect interaction between all classmates. We found few significant differences: SWS and their peers were distributed similarly across positive and negative status groups. Both considered and were considered by, on average, six or seven classmates as 'a friend', who they liked and could count on, and nominated or were nominated by one or two classmates as 'no friend', somebody who they disliked and could not count on. On average, SWS and their classmates also did not differ in terms of structural position in the class group (degree, closeness and betweenness), reciprocated rejection, and clique size. However, SWS do tend to be slightly more stringent or more careful in nominating peers, which led to fewer reciprocated friendships. Our results suggest that SWS are quite accepted by peers in secondary education in Flanders. Such positive peer interaction can create a supportive and encouraging climate for SWS to deal with specific challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aladag, Mine; Tezer, Esin
The purpose of this study was to develop a peer helping training program for university students in Turkey and to examine its effectiveness in improving the helping skills and self-growth of peer helpers. A pre-test, post-test, follow-up-test experimental design, involving a treatment and control group, was carried out with a total sample of 31…
Morgan, M.P.; Draper, D.G.
During the period of August 13, 1990 through September 6, 1991 the Savannah River Peer Evaluation Program was administered during three distinct phases to 73 certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors, and Shift Technical Engineers assigned to the K Reactor, on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This program was conceived and developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and it's implementation satisfies recommendations made by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. The review identified both strengths and weaknesses of the procedures and personnel.
Morgan, M.P.; Draper, D.G.
During the period of August 13, 1990 through September 6, 1991 the Savannah River Peer Evaluation Program was administered during three distinct phases to 73 certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors, and Shift Technical Engineers assigned to the K Reactor, on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This program was conceived and developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and it`s implementation satisfies recommendations made by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. The review identified both strengths and weaknesses of the procedures and personnel.
Sheppard, Christopher S; Golonka, Megan; Costanzo, Philip R
The current study involved an examination of the impact of a peer-led substance use intervention program on the peer leaders beyond the substance use-related goals of the intervention. Specifically, unintended consequences of an adult-sanctioned intervention on the targeted peer leader change agents were investigated, including whether their participation affected their peer status, social influence, or self perceptions. Twenty-two 7th grade peer-identified intervention leaders were compared to 22 control leaders (who did not experience the intervention) and 146 cohort peers. Three groups of measures were employed: sociometric and behavioral nominations, social cognitive mapping, and leadership self-perceptions. Results indicated that unintended consequences appear to be a legitimate concern for females. Female intervention leaders declined in perceived popularity and liked most nominations over time, whereas males increased in total leader nominations. Explanations for these results are discussed and further directions suggested.
Stone, Mary Lou; Waters, Elinor
Describes a stress management program for older adults, discusses the advantages and limitations of using peer counselors, and makes suggestions for professionals who work with both older adults and peer counselors. Notes benefits of program include reinforcement of participants' coping skills and opportunity for peer interaction. (Author/NB)
Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B
In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a 2-week period. Coders documented classroom social communication during situations of Cooperation and following School Rules by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (SCCS). The SCCS consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking). The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension were recorded. These measures were then used to examine variability in performance within and across days (changeability and stability, respectively). Independent of classroom situation, children with FASD were more variable than their typically developing peers in terms of changing behavioral dimensions more often (changeability) and varying their behavior more from day to day (stability). Documenting performance variability may provide a clearer understanding of the classroom social communication difficulties of the child with mild FASD.
de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy; Minnaert, Alexander
To understand the difficulties students with disabilities experience in their social participation in general education, this study examined which child, peer, and class variables relate to peer acceptance and friendships. In a cross-sectional study, sociometric data were gathered for students
Vonlintel, Drew James
This dissertation examines the efficacy of peer tutor training in adapted physical education (APE). A peer tutor evaluation form was created to assess the skills of untrained peer tutors (n = 12). Once skills were assessed, a peer tutor training protocol was created. The protocol was implemented in a peer tutor training program. After peer tutors…
The results of a study that examined the peer tutoring program at a middle school are discussed in this article. In an effort to determine ways to improve the peer tutoring program an action research (AR) mixed design study was developed. AR is practitioner based research. Its purpose is to examine the work of practitioners for effectiveness and…
Bierman, Karen L; Heinrichs, Brenda S; Welsh, Janet A; Nix, Robert L; Gest, Scott D
Growing up in poverty undermines healthy development, producing disparities in the cognitive and social-emotional skills that support early learning and mental health. Preschool and home-visiting interventions for low-income children have the potential to build early cognitive and social-emotional skills, reducing the disparities in school readiness that perpetuate the cycle of poverty. However, longitudinal research suggests that the gains low-income children make during preschool interventions often fade at school entry and disappear by early elementary school. In an effort to improve the benefits for low-income children, the REDI program enriched Head Start preschool classrooms (study one) and home visits (study two) with evidence-based programming, documenting positive intervention effects in two randomized trials. In this study, REDI participants were followed longitudinally, to evaluate the sustained impact of the classroom and home-visiting enrichments 3 years later, when children were in second grade. The combined sample included 556 children (55% European American, 25% African American, 19% Latino; 49% male): 288 children received the classroom intervention, 105 children received the classroom intervention plus the home-visiting intervention, and 173 children received usual practice Head Start. The classroom intervention led to sustained benefits in social-emotional skills, improving second grade classroom participation, student-teacher relationships, social competence, and peer relations. The coordinated home-visiting intervention produced additional benefits in child mental health (perceived social competence and peer relations) and cognitive skills (reading skills, academic performance). Significant effects ranged from 25% to 48% of a standard deviation, representing important effects of small to moderate magnitude relative to usual practice Head Start. Preschool classroom and home-visiting programs for low-income children can be improved with the use
Carter, Erik W; Sisco, Lynn G; Brown, Lissa; Brickham, Dana; Al-Khabbaz, Zainab A
We examined the peer interactions and academic engagement of 23 middle and high school students with developmental disabilities within inclusive academic and elective classrooms. The extent to which students with and without disabilities interacted socially was highly variable and influenced by instructional format, the proximity of general and special educators, and curricular area. Peer interactions occurred more often within small group instructional formats, when students were not receiving direct support from a paraprofessional or special educator, and in elective courses. Academic engagement also varied, with higher levels evidenced during one-to-one or small group instruction and when in proximity of general or special educators. Implications for designing effective support strategies for students with autism and/or intellectual disability within general education classrooms are discussed.
This paper explores threats as they appear in children's everyday dispute interactions. The main purpose is to extend understandings of children's interactions and disputes in order to show how young boys construct threats in pretend frames within a classroom peer dispute by drawing upon the resources of the video game world and a verbally constructed fight. The conceptual and methodological frameworks underpinning the analysis are conversation analysis and Goffman's concept of frame. The ana...
This paper looks critically at the Responsive Classroom (RC) program, a social/emotional learning program used ubiquitously in elementary schools for teacher and student training, in the US as well as in Australia, the UK, and other parts of Western Europe. The paper examines empirical studies on RC's efficacy and outcomes, many of which were…
Minnear, Holly J.
This dissertation was designed to examine the impact of Conversation, Help, Activity, Movement, Participation, Success (CHAMPS), a classroom management program in elementary schools in a district in North Carolina. The participants included principals and teachers who attended a 2-day training course and implemented the CHAMPS program at their…
Graham, Candida R; Larstone, Roseann; Griffiths, Brenda; de Leeuw, Sarah; Anderson, Lesley; Powell-Hellyer, Stephanie; Long, Nansi
Mental health service users (MHSUs) have elevated rates of cardiometabolic disturbance. Improvements occur with physical activity (PA) programs. We report the development and evaluation of three innovative peer-developed and peer-led PA programs: 1) walking; 2) fitness; and 3) yoga. Qualitative evaluation with 33 MHSUs in British Columbia, Canada, occurred. These programs yielded improvements for participants, highlighted by powerful narratives of health improvement, and improved social connections. The feasibility and acceptability of innovative peer-developed and peer-led programs were shown. Analyses revealed concepts related to engagement and change. Relating core categories, we theorize effective engagement of MHSUs requires accessibility on three levels (geographic, cost, and program flexibility) and health behavior change occurs within co-constituent relationships (to self, to peers, and to the wider community). This study highlights the benefits of peer involvement in developing and implementing PA programs and provides a theoretical framework of understanding engagement and behavior change in health programs for MHSUs.
Bergsmann, Evelyn M; Van De Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane
Teachers promote student learning and well-being in school by establishing a supportive classroom structure. The term classroom structure refers to how teachers design tasks, maintain authority, and evaluate student achievement. Although empirical studies have shown the relation of classroom structure to student motivation, achievement, and well-being, no prior investigations have examined the influence of classroom structure on aggression among peers. The present study examined whether a supportive classroom structure has an impact on verbal and physical aggression. At two points in time, data were collected from 1680 students in Grades 5 to 7 using self-report questionnaires. The results of structural equation modeling revealed that a supportive classroom structure at Time 1 was associated with less perpetrated verbal aggression at Time 2, 9months later. This finding has practical relevance for teacher training as well as for aggression prevention and intervention among children. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.
We examine the validity of peer observation of classroom instruction for purposes of faculty evaluation. Using both a multi-section course sample and a sample of different courses across a university's School of Business and Economics we find that the results of annual classroom observations of faculty teaching are significantly and positively…
Olswang, Lesley B.; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan
Purpose: In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders…
Lubbers, M.J.; Snijders, T.A.B.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.
This article examines the dynamics of peer relationships across the first 2 grades of Dutch junior high schools (average age 13-14). Specifically, we studied how gender and compositional changes in classrooms structured the changes in peer relationships between the 2 grades. Expectations were
Lubbers, Miranda J.; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Van Der Werf, Margaretha P. C.
This article examines the dynamics of peer relationships across the first 2 grades of Dutch junior high schools (average age 13-14). Specifically, we studied how gender and compositional changes in classrooms structured the changes in peer relationships between the 2 grades. Expectations were derived from past research, and we tested whether these…
Asendorpf, Jens B; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso
In multiethnic classrooms, acceptance and rejection by classmates of one's own versus other ethnicity is influenced by in-group preference, the societal status of the ethnicities, and composition of classrooms. We aimed at (a) confirming these effects for immigrant versus nonimmigrant adolescents in newly formed classrooms, (b) longitudinally studying the change of these effects over the next 2 years, and (c) studying the longitudinal links between immigrants' acculturation and acceptance/rejection by (non)immigrants. This was a multilevel, longitudinal study of 1,057 13-year-old students nested in 49 classrooms over the first 3 years of middle school in Greece. Immigrant composition of classrooms varied strongly (average 44%), and immigrants in a classroom were ethnically homogeneous (78% same-ethnic). Students' acceptance and rejection by Greek and immigrant students were sociometrically assessed every year. Multilevel analyses were conducted for questions a and b and cross-lagged analyses for question c. Initially, immigrants were less accepted and more rejected by their classmates than Greeks. However, in classrooms with more than 66% immigrants, they were more accepted and less rejected. Over time, (a) immigrants and Greeks did not differ in being rejected and (b) immigrants in classrooms with few immigrants became increasingly more accepted. Finally, immigrants with higher involvement with the Greek culture were more accepted by their Greek classmates. Immigrants' peer relations with Greeks were positively affected by increasing opportunity for intergroup contact and involvement with the Greek culture. Interventions supporting acculturation and intergroup contact may prove beneficial for immigrant students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer; Vardiman, Phillip
Objective: To explore the effect of an intentional Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) program on peer-tutors and peer-tutees for performance on specific psychomotor skills. Design and Setting: Randomized, pretest-posttest experimental design. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 69, 42 females and 27 males, all participants were 18 to 22 years old,…
Allicock, Marlyn; Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Carr, Carol; Orr, Melinda; Kahwati, Leila C; Weiner, Bryan J.; Kinsinger, Linda
Introduction The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has implemented MOVE!, a weight-management program for veterans designed to address the increasing proportion of overweight and obese veterans. The objective of our study was to determine whether peer support employing motivational interviewing (MI) could positively influence lifestyle changes, thus expanding the reach of the MOVE! program. We describe the initial evaluation of the peer training program. Methods We developed an MI peer cou...
Prichard, J. Roxanne
Although the majority of scientific information is communicated in written form, and peer review is the primary process by which it is validated, undergraduate students may receive little direct training in science writing or peer review. Here, I describe the use of Calibrated Peer Review? (CPR), a free, web-based writing and peer review program designed to alleviate instructor workload, in two undergraduate neuroscience courses: an upper- level sensation and perception course (41 students, t...
Blackwell, Stacey; Katzen, Sari; Patel, Nipa; Sun, Yan; Emenike, Mary
The authors introduce the Preparation in STEM Leadership Program at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. This NSF-Funded program and research study creates a centralized training program for peer leaders that includes a battery of assessments to evaluate peer leaders' content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, communication skills, and…
- PEER REVIEWER Effectivity of Locally Wood Rot Fungal Isolates in Decomposition of Leaf and Cocoa Pod Husk Waste.Int.J.Curr.Res.Aca. Rev.2014; 2 (11): 59-65. ISSN: 2347-3215. Penulis ke empat dari lima orang
Richmond, James; McLachlan, Neil M.; Ainley, Mary; Osborne, Margaret
Rates of music participation are low in developed nations. This may be attributed in part to the failure of school music to engage children sufficiently to motivate them to continue learning and participating in music. We tested the "Harmonix" program of classroom music education, which is currently being designed to maximize engagement…
Dunham, Charlotte Chorn; Casadonte, Dominick
This research reports findings from an intergenerational science program, Project Serve, which placed senior volunteers in elementary and junior high science classrooms to assist teachers and augment instruction. Items from the Children's View of Aging survey (Newman, 1997; Newman & Faux, 1997) were administered before and after the project with…
Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.
Students and teachers experience the world primarily through visual, kinesthetic, or auditory representational systems. If teachers are aware of their own favored system and those of their students, classroom communication will improve. Neurolinguistic programing can help teachers become more effective communicators. (PP)
Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Mashburn, Andrew
With an increasing number of young children participating in preschool education, this study determined whether peer effects are present in this earliest sector of schooling. Specifically, this work examined whether peer effects were influential to preschoolers' growth in language skills over an academic year and whether peer effects manifest…
Chetcuti, Deborah; Cutajar, Catherine
This study explores the implementation of peer assessment with a group of students studying physics at Advanced level in a post-secondary school in Malta. The study that draws on action research methodology looks at how the views of students regarding peer assessment evolve as they engage with peer assessment. The research involved the actual…
This study investigated the effects of writing with peer response using genre knowledge of 6th grade students. Meta-studies (Hillocks 1984; Graham & Perin, 2007) indicated that peer response is effective for writing. However, these studies did not focus on what makes peer response working. In
This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biodiesel and Other Technologies, held on August 14th and 15th in Golden, Colorado.
This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biochemical and Products Platform Review held on August 7-9, 2007 in Denver, Colorado.
This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the FY 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held June 7-11, 2010 in Washington, D.C.
Greenfield, Susan D.; McNeil, Mary E.
An intensive 10-day peer tutor training component is described as a key element in the success of a peer tutoring program in mathematics for 21 low-achieving second graders. Results suggest the program's effectiveness in increasing the speed and accuracy of responses on written speed tests of addition facts. (Author/JW)
Lundmark, Jennifer; Paradis, Jeffrey; Kapp, Micaela; Lowe, Elizabeth; Tashiro, Lynn
In late 2011, we created a Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) program focused on improving student performance in high-risk STEM courses. Our PALs are modeled after the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) program, which has been shown to provide long- and short-term benefits to both students (Chan & Bauer, 2015; Gosser, Kampeier, & Pratibha, 2010;…
Cotabish, Alicia; Robinson, Ann
To increase knowledge and skills in program evaluation, a peer-coaching intervention provided one-on-one professional development to gifted program administrators. This randomized field study examined the effects of peer coaching on evaluation knowledge and skills and on administrators' concerns about implementing more rigorous program…
Jennings, J M; Howard, S; Perotte, C L
This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections...
Full Text Available Here we describe a pilot Dog-Assisted Activity program that was designed to improve wellbeing and social integration in a multi-cultural elementary classroom in which some episodes of bullying had been reported. We developed a 5-encounters protocol with the aim of introducing pet dogs into the class to stimulate understanding of different types of communication and behavior, ultimately facilitating positive relationships among peers. A preliminary evaluation was carried out in order to assess the effect of the program on teachers’ perception of children’s difficulties (e.g., peer relationship problems and strengths (prosocial behaviors by means of a brief behavioral screening tool, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ—Teacher version. Overall results indicate that, by means of the recognition of the dogs’ behavior and non-verbal communication, children were able to express their emotions and to show behaviors that had not been recognized by the teachers prior to the intervention. In particular, the SDQ Total Difficulties scores suggest that the teacher had increased awareness of the students’ difficulties as a result of the dog-assisted program. Overall, the presence of animals in the educational environment may provide enjoyment and hands-on educational experiences, enhanced psychological wellbeing, and increased empathy and socio-emotional development.
Correale, Cinzia; Crescimbene, Lara; Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca
Here we describe a pilot Dog-Assisted Activity program that was designed to improve wellbeing and social integration in a multi-cultural elementary classroom in which some episodes of bullying had been reported. We developed a 5-encounters protocol with the aim of introducing pet dogs into the class to stimulate understanding of different types of communication and behavior, ultimately facilitating positive relationships among peers. A preliminary evaluation was carried out in order to assess the effect of the program on teachers' perception of children's difficulties (e.g., peer relationship problems) and strengths (prosocial behaviors) by means of a brief behavioral screening tool, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Teacher version). Overall results indicate that, by means of the recognition of the dogs' behavior and non-verbal communication, children were able to express their emotions and to show behaviors that had not been recognized by the teachers prior to the intervention. In particular, the SDQ Total Difficulties scores suggest that the teacher had increased awareness of the students' difficulties as a result of the dog-assisted program. Overall, the presence of animals in the educational environment may provide enjoyment and hands-on educational experiences, enhanced psychological wellbeing, and increased empathy and socio-emotional development.
Cheng, Adam; Grant, Vincent; Huffman, James; Burgess, Gavin; Szyld, Demian; Robinson, Traci; Eppich, Walter
Formal faculty development programs for simulation educators are costly and time-consuming. Peer coaching integrated into the teaching flow can enhance an educator's debriefing skills. We provide a practical guide for the who, what, when, where, why, and how of peer coaching for debriefing in simulation-based education. Peer coaching offers advantages such as psychological safety and team building, and it can benefit both the educator who is receiving feedback and the coach who is providing it. A feedback form for effective peer coaching includes the following: (1) psychological safety, (2) framework, (3) method/strategy, (4) content, (5) learner centeredness, (6) co-facilitation, (7) time management, (8) difficult situations, (9) debriefing adjuncts, and (10) individual style and experience. Institutional backing of peer coaching programs can facilitate implementation and sustainability. Program leaders should communicate the need and benefits, establish program goals, and provide assessment tools, training, structure, and evaluation to optimize chances of success.
"Double-dose" coursework has become an increasingly popular strategy to assist low-performing students succeed in academic coursework. Chicago implemented a "double-dose" English policy in 2003. This policy not only provided additional instructional time to struggling readers, but also intensified skill-based sorting in English classes. I use policy-induced variation to infer the policy effect on students' reading achievement and the effect mediated by classroom peer ability change. Results show very weak, but positive effects of taking double-dose English for students with average skills. However, potential benefits of doubled instructional time are likely to be offset by negative effects of declines in classroom peer ability. Students with very weak skills experienced minimal change in classroom peer ability, and two-period coursework is likely to benefit these students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jellison, Judith; Brown, Laura; Draper, Ellary
Contemporary music classrooms include a beautiful mosaic of individual children from diverse backgrounds, children who vary considerably in their capabilities, interests, and levels of motivation. Some of the variations we observe are related to social skills and knowledge. The effects of appropriate classroom behavior and positive social…
Sana, Faria; Weston, Tina; Cepeda, Nicholas J.
Laptops are commonplace in university classrooms. In light of cognitive psychology theory on costs associated with multitasking, we examined the effects of in-class laptop use on student learning in a simulated classroom. We found that participants who multitasked on a laptop during a lecture scored lower on a test compared to those who did not…
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
reflections and enactments in own classroom could be identified. Decisive aspects were about 1) alignment between the teacher’s beliefs and the approaches taken in the CPD program, 2) the support to try out new approaches in own classroom and in collaboration with colleagues, and, 3) the autonomy handed over...... participation. This paper presents findings from a case-study in the frames of a large scale, long term CPD program designed according to these criteria. Science teachers from 42 schools participated from 2012-15 in CPD-activities changing rhythmically between network seminars, collaborative inquiries organized...... by the local professional learning communities, and individual trials. The research examined the development over time of the case-teacher’s reflections and new enactments in own classroom and in collegial interactions. A multiple methods design with repeated observations and interviews was applied. Findings...
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
participation. This paper presents findings from a case-study in the frames of a large scale, long term CPD program designed according to these criteria. Science teachers from 42 schools participated from 2012-15 in CPD-activities changing rhythmically between network seminars, collaborative inquiries organized...... by the local professional learning communities, and individual trials. The research examined the development over time of the case-teacher’s reflections and new enactments in own classroom and in collegial interactions. A multiple methods design with repeated observations and interviews was applied. Findings......’s reflections and enactments in own classroom could be identified. Decisive aspects were about 1) alignment between the teacher’s beliefs and the approaches taken in the CPD program, 2) the support to try out new approaches in own classroom and in collaboration with colleagues, and, 3) the autonomy handed over...
Rawlings, Jared R.; Stoddard, Sarah A.
Previous research suggests that students participating in school-based musical ensembles are more engaged in school and more likely to connect to their peers in school; however, researchers have not specifically investigated peer connectedness among adolescents in school-based music ensembles. The purpose of this study was to explore middle school…
Deni, Ann Rosnida Md.; Zainal, Zainor Izat
Small scale studies have shown that peer-editing is beneficial to students as it increases their awareness of the complex process of writing, it improves their knowledge of and skills in writing and helps them become more autonomous in learning. Teachers too may benefit from peer-editing as this practice discloses invaluable information on…
Carman, K.G.; Zhang, L.
This paper estimates peer effects on student achievement using a panel data set from a middle school in China. Unique features of the organization of Chinese middle schools (Grades 7 to 9) and panel data allow us to overcome difficulties that have hindered the separation of peer effects from omitted
Taylor, T; Serrano, E; Anderson, J
To explore the influence of administrative aspects of a nutrition education program with peer educators delivering the program. Telephone interviews with peer educators trained to deliver La Cocina Saludable, a nutrition education program for Hispanics. Open- and closed-ended questions. Abuelas (grandmothers) recruited and trained as peer educators for the program. The sample included peer educators no longer teaching (22%), currently teaching (30%), and who never taught after training. Motives and incentives for becoming peer educators, challenges for peer educators, and reasons peer educators withdrew from the program. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data from the closed-ended questions. Qualitative analysis was applied to data from open-ended questions. Working with community and learning about nutrition were prime motivators. Recruiting participants and coordination of classes appeared to be major challenges. Personal issues and traveling in a large geographic area were cited as the main reasons for quitting. The effectiveness of using peer educators for La Cocina Saludable may be improved through empowerment, additional training, a structured and equitable reimbursement system, and assistance to carry out administrative tasks.
Smith, Deborah J.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether a self-evaluation procedure paired with a token economy would be effective in reducing the off-task and talk-out behavior of behaviorally disordered and learning disabled high school students in a resource classroom. The study also examined the effects of the seIf evaluation procedures when monitored by regular education peers on target students' behavior in their regular education English class . In addition to improving classroom b...
Nagy, A.; Lee, R. L.
The General Atomics education program ``Scientist in the Classroom'' now in its third year, uses scientists and engineers to present ``Plasma the fourth state of matter,'' to students in the classroom. A program goal is to make science an enjoyable experience while showing students how plasma plays an important role in their world. A fusion overview is presented, including topics on energy and environment. Using hands-on equipment, students manipulate a plasma discharge using magnets, observe its spectral properties and observe the plasma in a fluorescent tube. In addition, they observe physical properties of liquid nitrogen, and use an infrared camera to observe radiant heat energy. Several program benefits are; it costs less than facility tours, is more flexible in scheduling, and is adaptable for grades 2--adult. The program has doubled in coverage since last year, with over 2200 students at 20 schools visited by 8 scientists. Increased participation by the DIII-D staff in this program has been achieved by enlisting them to bring the program to their children's school.
... Peer Review Organization program is distinguishable in purpose and impact from other activities... method, nature of care, or other potential utilization or quality issue. (3) Peer review activities by... an MTF reserves authority to separate an MTF determination on medical necessity from a CHAMPUS PRO...
Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…
Marty, Melissa Catherine
Peer assessment/feedback is clearly occurring in athletic training education programs. However, it remains unclear whether students would improve their ability to assess their peers and provide corrective feedback if they received formal training in how to do so. The purpose of this study was to determine the following: (1) if a peer…
Murray, Donell Cochran
Peer mentoring is a way to help guide and form valuable relationships between two or more students and plays an important role in the success, both academically and socially, of students. At Morehead State University (MSU), the International Peer Mentoring Program (IPMP) was designed and implemented in the Fall of 2016 to assist in the academic…
Farley, Justina A.; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Cihak, David F.
Few researchers have examined peer mentors in a postsecondary program for students with intellectual disabilities. Peer mentors (N=39) were surveyed regarding their TypeFocus personality type and how the experience of mentoring affected them. The mentoring experience was assessed qualitatively and results are reported. Results indicated a strong…
Weeks, Lori E.; Bryanton, Olive; McInnis-Perry, Gloria; Chaulk, Paul
There continues to be lack of public awareness about elder abuse. To help address this issue, we developed and piloted an elder abuse peer educator training program from an educational gerontology and health empowerment perspective. We describe the process employed to train older adults as peer educators. We present evaluation results from data…
Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R.; Mogil, Catherine
The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social…
F Sardari Kashkooli
Results: There was a significant difference between stress scores before and after of the intervention in both groups (p=0.00. Mean difference of clinical environment stress factors in two groups were not statistically significant (p=0.99. Conclusions: Peer-mentoring program is not significant effective on clinical environment stress reduction. Key Words: Nursing Education, Peer Mentoring, Clinical Environment Stressors
Mahoney, Joseph L.; Lord, Heather; Carryl, Erica
This longitudinal study assessed the role of afterschool program (ASP) participation in the development of child obesity and peer acceptance in a sample of 439 children. Most participants lived in poverty and were Hispanic or African American. Measurements of height and weight determined obesity status and peer acceptance was assessed through…
Prichard, J Roxanne
Although the majority of scientific information is communicated in written form, and peer review is the primary process by which it is validated, undergraduate students may receive little direct training in science writing or peer review. Here, I describe the use of Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR), a free, web-based writing and peer review program designed to alleviate instructor workload, in two undergraduate neuroscience courses: an upper- level sensation and perception course (41 students, three assignments) and an introductory neuroscience course (50 students; two assignments). Using CPR online, students reviewed primary research articles on assigned 'hot' topics, wrote short essays in response to specific guiding questions, reviewed standard 'calibration' essays, and provided anonymous quantitative and qualitative peer reviews. An automated grading system calculated the final scores based on a student's essay quality (as determined by the average of three peer reviews) and his or her accuracy in evaluating 1) three standard calibration essays, 2) three anonymous peer reviews, and 3) his or her self review. Thus, students were assessed not only on their skill at constructing logical, evidence-based arguments, but also on their ability to accurately evaluate their peers' writing. According to both student self-reports and instructor observation, students' writing and peer review skills improved over the course of the semester. Student evaluation of the CPR program was mixed; while some students felt like the peer review process enhanced their understanding of the material and improved their writing, others felt as though the process was biased and required too much time. Despite student critiques of the program, I still recommend the CPR program as an excellent and free resource for incorporating more writing, peer review, and critical thinking into an undergraduate neuroscience curriculum.
Quoß, Maximilian; Rüttermann, Stefan; Gerhardt-Szep, Susanne
The inverted classroom model (ICM) represents a special combination of online and attendance learning. The implementation of the didactic concept of "peer-assisted learning" (PAL) within an ICM design has not yet been described in the literature for the field of restorative dentistry. It was the goal of the present study to develop an ICM offering in a cross-year PAL format (ICM-cyPAL), and then introduce and evaluate it. The pilot project was conducted at the dental clinic at the Goethe University of Frankfurt/Main, where following its conceptual development and implementation with three consecutive cohorts of students in their first clinical semester (the sixth semester at university) the ICM-cyPAL offering was evaluated. Data on acceptance, tutor effectiveness, group interaction models and learning strategies were collected using an evaluative instrument. 121 students (tutees) participated in three cohorts. The response rate reached 98.3 %. In total, the offering was given an average rating of 6.97±1.93 (from 1 = unsatisfactory to 10 = excellent). As the tutees explained the attention that the tutors employed gave to the group was "just right" (4.65±1.04; where 1 = too controlling and 4 = just right to 7 = left the group on their own too long) and talked "just the right amount" (4.54±0.95; where 1 = too much and 4 = just right to 7 = talked too little). The results for tutor effectiveness reached values between 3.26±0.94 and 3.78±0.87; for the evaluation of group interaction models average values were obtained from 3.41±0.98 to 3.89±0.73 (on a Likert scale of 1 = do not at all agree to 5 = completely agree). Concerning the surveyed learning strategies, the dimensions of "resource management" and "implementation of the learning materials" were given the highest and lowest rankings, respectively. The tutees' ratings of the newly developed and implemented ICM-cyPAL offering in the dental context were mainly positive. The thematic orientation of the
Crean PM, Stokes MA, Williamson C, Hatch DJ. Quality in paediatric anaesthesia: a pilot study of interdepartmental peer review. Anaesthesia. 2003...Vol 30, pp 213-250 Damiano-PC Shugars-DA Freed-JR, "Assessing Quality in Dentistry - Dental Boards, Peer-Review Vary on Disciplinary Actions", JOURNAL...Healthc. 1998 Jul 20;28(29):43. . Moore R, Shiau YY. Dentistry in Taiwan, Republic of China: national health insurance reforms, illegal dentistry
Saunders, M D; Saunders, J L; Saunders, R R
A technology incorporating bar code symbols and hand-held optical scanners was evaluated for its utility for routine data collection in a special education classroom. A different bar code symbol was created for each Individualized Educational Plan objective, each type of response occurrence, and each student in the first author's classroom. These symbols were organized by activity and printed as data sheets. The teacher and paraprofessionals scanned relevant codes with scanners when the students emitted targeted behaviors. The codes, dates, and approximate times of the scans were retained in the scanner's electronic memory until they could be transferred by communication software to a computer file. The data from the computer file were organized weekly into a printed report of student performance using a program written with commercially available database software. Advantages, disadvantages, and costs of using the system are discussed.
Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gérard
This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from classrooms with an included child with mild or moderate ID, and a control group of 202 pupils from classrooms with no included children with special educational needs (matched pairs sample). The progress of these 2 groups in their academic achievement was compared over a period of 1 school year. No significant difference was found in the progress of the low-, average-, or high-achieving pupils from classrooms with or without inclusion. The results suggest that including children with ID in primary general education classrooms with support does not have a negative impact on the progress of pupils without disability.
Full Text Available Combatting violent extremism can involve organizing Peer-to-Peer (P2P preventing violent extremism (PVE programs and social media campaigns. While hundreds of PVE campaigns have been launched around the world in recent months and years, very few of these campaigns have actually been reviewed, analyzed, or assessed in any systematic way. Metrics of success and failure have yet to be fully developed, and very little is publically known as to what might differentiate a great and successful P2P campaign from a mediocre one. This article will provide first-hand insight on orchestrating a publically funded, university-based, online, peer-to-peer PVE campaign – 60 Days of PVE – based on the experience of a group of Canadian graduate students. The article provides an account of the group’s approach to PVE. It highlights the entirety of the group’s campaign, from theory and conceptualization to branding, media strategy, and evaluation, and describes the campaign’s core objectives and implementation. The article also analyzes the campaign’s digital footprint and reach using data gleamed from social media. Finally, the article discusses the challenges and difficulties the group faced in running their campaign, lessons that are pertinent for others contemplating a similar endeavour.
Speizer, I S; Tambashe, B O; Tegang, S P
A quasi-experimental design is used in this study to evaluate the "Entre Nous Jeunes" peer-educator program to promote STI/HIV-preventive behaviors in Nkongsamba, Cameroon. The main objective of the study is to assess whether the young people exposed to a peer educator gained greater knowledge and practiced more protective behaviors than did those in the control community and those who were not exposed. During the 18-month intervention period, the peer educators were able to reach a large number of young people, specifically those who were sexually experienced and in need of reproductive health information. Multivariate analyses indicate that contact with a peer educator is statistically significantly associated with greater spontaneous knowledge of modern contraception, the symptoms of sexually transmitted infections, and greater use of modern contraceptives, including the condom. In the absence of a peer-education program, current contraceptive use in the intervention community would have been significantly lower.
de Oliveira, Camila Aparecida Machado; de França Carvalho, Carolina Prado; Céspedes, Isabel Cristina; de Oliveira, Flávia; Le Sueur-Maluf, Luciana
The Federal University of São Paulo, Baixada Santista Campus was founded in 2006 with five degree-granting programs in physical education, physiotherapy, nutrition, psychology, and occupational therapy. The guiding principle behind the programs' educational mission was centered on the development of health care professionals capable of working in interdisciplinary teams with an emphasis on holistic patient care. This pedagogical structure required peer-mentoring programs in order to integrate different areas of knowledge and to improve learning strategies among new generations of students. The authors' objective in the present report is to discuss the strategies and activities of the peer-mentoring program in histophysiology and gross anatomy in an interdisciplinary and interprofessional curriculum. Evaluations by students, mentors and professors are presented, along with a statistical analysis of variance comparing student performance in the module assessments according to their participation in the peer-mentoring activities. The results demonstrated that students who participated in peer-mentoring activities enjoyed a higher rate of academic success than those who did not participate. In addition, student and mentor evaluations of the peer mentoring program were highly positive. The program enabled mentors to gain a deeper knowledge of the subjects addressed in the learning modules, as well as to develop intrinsic teaching skills during their time as mentors. In short, the authors believe that the peer-mentoring program has been validated for its effectiveness in raising student academic performance. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Conclusions: A peer-led MMP is feasible and may be a promising approach to enhance medical student wellbeing. Further research is needed to explore strategies to improve program compliance in this student population.
Jennings, J.M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.
This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May 2008. The sample consisted of 96 intervention (i.e. Teen PEP peer educators) and 61 comparison students from five high schools in New Jersey. Baseline a...
Allison, Tracy Michelle Hunter
The researcher employed two designs to address the research question for this particular study. This quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group study compared the math achievement of 92 eighth grade students who received Classroom Performance System (CPS)-based instruction using Peer Instruction (PI) to 76 eighth grade students who received…
Diego Fernando Ubaque Casallas
Full Text Available This paper presents an exploratory action research study carried out by two English as a foreign language teachers in a private, non-profit institution in Bogota, Colombia, with a group of 12 learners in a B1 English course. These students faced difficulties elaborating on their ideas when discussing issues in class. The study placed emphasis on the use of argumentation outlines and peer assessment to boost learners’ argumentative abilities. Audio-taped conversations and open-ended interviews were used to understand the impact on the pedagogical intervention. Findings revealed that argumentation outlines and peer assessment can promote learners’ awareness and ability to engage in argumentation processes. Moreover, peer assessment appears to be an essential tool for enhancing personal and collaborative learning, as well as for promoting learner reflection and agency.
Park, Kyung Min; Park, Heeok
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors. This study is a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-post-test design. A total of 47 fourth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The program was provided for 45 minutes once a week; a total of 12 sessions were completed with a group in the classroom for the experimental group. Child Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire was used to measure problematic behavior. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Questionnaire, and peer attachment was measured using the Inventory of Parent and Attachment. Measuring was performed right after the program was done (post 1) and 1 month after the program was finished (post 2). To compare the differences in self-esteem and peer attachment between groups, repeated measures analysis of variance was used. Most participants in the experimental group were 10 years old (62.5%, range 10-11), male (52.0%) and with middle grade point average (64.0%). The self-esteem scores in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (F = 26.64, p attachment scores in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (F = 6.48, p = .014). The self-esteem improvement program in this study improved the self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children. The self-esteem program helped acknowledge the peer's name and increased their connections. The program needs to be considered as a formal and consistent program. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
’s reflections and enactments in own classroom could be identified. Decisive aspects were about 1) alignment between the teacher’s beliefs and the approaches taken in the CPD program, 2) the support to try out new approaches in own classroom and in collaboration with colleagues, and, 3) the autonomy handed over...... participation. This paper presents findings from a case-study in the frames of a large scale, long term CPD program designed according to these criteria. Science teachers from 42 schools participated from 2012-15 in CPD-activities changing rhythmically between network seminars, collaborative inquiries organized...... by the school-leader e.g. to develop the local science team to also involve primary science teachers. The case-study exemplifies the complex interplay between individual and collaborative agency among teachers, and contextual factors like leadership, in starting and sustaining a positive spiral....
This paper reports an exploratory study of a school peer mediation program implemented as an alternative way to manage bullying and other destructive conflict. The study explores the effects of the program on the well-being of members of the school community by examining perceptions of students, staff and a sample of parents and former students. Drawing on therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) the study explores whether the component parts of the program, separately or together, promote intended or unintended therapeutic effects. The preliminary findings of the study emphasise the importance of peer mediation training and suggest that existing scholarship in the area of school conflict resolution and peer mediation, when viewed through a TJ lens, may provide valuable insights into how to optimally configure programs for development and adoption in schools and other community settings. The study highlights the lack of attention paid by the legal system to valuable scholarship in the area of school conflict resolution and peer mediation, which may have implications for the understanding and development of legal processes and the law in general. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schmalbach, Cecelia E
Current otolaryngology literature and future scientific direction rely heavily on a rigorous peer review process. Just as manuscripts warrant thoughtful review with constructive feedback to the authors, the same can be said for critiques written by novice peer reviewers. Formal scientific peer review training programs are lacking. Recognizing this knowledge gap, Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery is excited to offer its new Resident Reviewer Development Program. All otolaryngology residents who are postgraduate year 2 and above and in excellent academic standing are eligible to participate in this mentored program, during which they will conduct 6 manuscript reviews under the direction of a seasoned reviewer in his or her subspecialty area of interest. By completing reviews alongside a mentor, participants gain the required skills to master the peer review process-a first step that often leads to journal editorial board and associate editor invitations. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.
Lundblom, Erin E. G.; Woods, Juliann J.
Idioms occur frequently in classroom language. Students with literacy or language weaknesses are often challenged by idioms; therefore, the failure to comprehend idioms can impact academic performance. Four 7th-grade female students (mean age: 12 years, 6 months) participated in a multiple baseline single subject study during their general…
Yager, Zali; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Halliwell, Emma
Governments, schools, and curriculum authorities are increasingly recognizing that body image during adolescence is a public health issue that warrants attention in the school setting. After 30 years of eating disorder prevention research, and given the current interest in this area, it seems timely to review the research on interventions to improve body image in schools. We reviewed universal-selective, classroom-based programs that have been conducted since the year 2000, among adolescents, and found 16 eligible intervention programs. Seven of these programs were effective in improving body image on at least one measure, from pre to post test, though effect sizes were small (d=0.22-0.48). These effective programs were conducted among younger adolescents 12.33-13.62 years, and included activities focusing on media literacy, self esteem, and the influence of peers. Implications for school personnel and curriculum authorities are discussed, and we provide recommendations for a strategic approach to future research in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Colver, Mitchell; Fry, Trevor
The present study examined undergraduate peer tutoring in three phases. Phase I qualitatively surveyed students' perceptions about the effectiveness of tutoring. Phase II examined the usefulness of promoting regular use of services through a tutoring contract. Phase III utilized an archival, quasi-experimental approach to estimate the effect of…
ICTD is the world's premier conference examining the role of computers and communications in social, economic and political development. The conference consists of two days of single-track paper presentations that have made it through a rigorous peer review process and two days of open sessions including workshops, ...
Fleak, Sandra K.; Romine, Jeff; Gilchrist, Neil
To achieve cultural change in a business management/accounting department, annual peer review of faculty portfolios documenting teaching, advising, service, and scholarship was instituted. The process improved the department's alignment with the university's mission. Scholarly productivity quadrupled from 1998-2001. Portfolio assessment had little…
Oldenburg, Beau; van Duijn, Marijtje; Sentse, Miranda; Huitsing, Gijs; van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Salmivalli, Christina; Veenstra, René
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between teacher characteristics and peer victimization in elementary schools. We used data of 3,385 elementary school students (M age = 9.8) and 139 of their teachers (M age = 43.9) and employed Poisson regression analyses
Rudsberg, Karin; Östman, Leif; Aaro Östman, Elisabeth
The aim is to investigate how encounters with peers affect an individual's meaning making in argumentation about socio-scientific issues, and how the individual's meaning making influences the argumentation at the collective level. The analysis is conducted using the analytical method "transactional argumentation analysis" (TAA) which…
The aims of this study are to investigate the difference between peer- and teacher-assessment and to identify and explore the components in given criteria that students find easy or difficult when writing essays. One hundred and four essays and a survey were collected from 26 students at a Korean university in Seoul. The essays were analyzed to…
Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Hadden, D. Sarah
Play allows preschoolers to use creativity while developing their imagination, dexterity, motor, cognitive, language, and socioemotional abilities (Ginsberg, 2007). Play gives children the opportunity to be creative, develop their verbal skills, and learn how to get along with their peers. Skills that children learn during play include sharing,…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of social skills intervention program via peer tutoring on aggression level of secondary school students. The study was a semi-experimental model using experimental group with pre and post-tests. Eleven (eighth class students were selected to have skills for being peer helper. The population of this research consisted 56 secondary school students at Kahramanmaraş. In order to evaluate aggression level of students, Aggression Scale developed by Tuzgöl (1998 was used. . Additionally, a Personal Information Sheet developed by the researcher was used to record certain demographic variables. Researcher applied social skills invention program to 11 students (peer helpers for eight weeks. Later, peer helpers applied intervention program to selected 56 students as well. After application, last-test was applied to selected 56 students, again. To analyze the data collected, SPSS 15 for computer was used. Results of the research revealed that the social skill program via peer helping (peer guidance considerably decreased the level of aggression of students at secondary school students. Students’ aggression level differentiated according to their sex, but not their class levels. Results were discussed in the light of literature
Barr, Judith; Gonyeau, Michael; Matthews, S. James; Van Amburgh, Jenny; Qualters, Donna; Trujillo, Jennifer
Objective. To assess a previously described peer observation and evaluation program 2 years after implementation. Methods. An pre-implementation survey assessed faculty needs and attitudes related to peer evaluation. Two years after implementation, the survey was repeated and additional questions asked regarding adherence to peer observation and evaluation policies and procedures, feedback received, and impact on teaching. Results. Faculty attitudes towards peer evaluation stayed the same or improved post-implementation. Adherence to the initial 3 steps of the process was high (100%, 100%, and 94%, respectively); however, step 4, which required a final discussion after student assessments were finished, was completed by only 47% of the respondents. All faculty members reported receiving a balance of positive and constructive feedback; 78% agreed that peer observation and evaluation gave them concrete suggestions for improving their teaching; and 89% felt that the benefits of peer observation and evaluation outweighed the effort of participating. Conclusions. Faculty members adhered to the policies and procedures of peer observation and evaluation and found peer feedback was beneficial. PMID:22611270
CLASSROOM. 378. RESONANCE │ April 2012. Classroom. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom ... or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal ..... In the present investigation, a question may arise as to what will be ...
Plenty, Stephanie; Jonsson, Jan O
Increasing immigration and school ethnic segregation have raised concerns about the social integration of minority students. We examined the role of immigrant status in social exclusion and the moderating effect of classroom immigrant density among Swedish 14-15-year olds (n = 4795, 51 % females), extending conventional models of exclusion by studying multiple outcomes: victimization, isolation, and rejection. Students with immigrant backgrounds were rejected more than majority youth and first generation non-European immigrants were more isolated. Immigrants generally experienced more social exclusion in immigrant sparse than immigrant dense classrooms, and victimization increased with higher immigrant density for majority youth. The findings demonstrate that, in addition to victimization, subtle forms of exclusion may impede the social integration of immigrant youth but that time in the host country alleviates some risks for exclusion.
Allicock, Marlyn; Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Carr, Carol; Orr, Melinda; Kahwati, Leila C; Weiner, Bryan J; Kinsinger, Linda
The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has implemented MOVE!, a weight-management program for veterans designed to address the increasing proportion of overweight and obese veterans. The objective of our study was to determine whether peer support employing motivational interviewing (MI) could positively influence lifestyle changes, thus expanding the reach of the MOVE! program. We describe the initial evaluation of the peer training program. We developed an MI peer ounselor training program for volunteer veterans, the "Buddies" program, to provide one-on-one telephone support for veterans enrolled in MOVE!. Buddies were recruited at 5 VHA sites and trained to provide peer support for the 6-month MOVE! intervention. We used a DVD to teach MI skills and followed with 2 to 3 booster sessions. We observed training, conducted pre- and posttraining surveys, and debriefed focus groups to assess training feasibility. Fifty-six Buddies were trained. Results indicate positive receipt of the program (89% reported learning about peer counseling and 87% reported learning communication skills). Buddies showed a small improvement in MI self-efficacy on posttraining surveys. We also identified key challenges to learning MI and training implementation. MI training is feasible to implement and acceptable to volunteer Buddies. Trainers must assess how effectively volunteers learn MI skills in order to enhance its effective use in health promotion.
Moir, Fiona; Henning, Marcus; Hassed, Craig; Moyes, Simon A; Elley, C Raina
There is evidence that peer-support programs can improve mental health indices and help-seeking behavior among students in some secondary school and university settings and that mindfulness can improve mental health in medical students. Peer-led programs have not been formally assessed in a medical student population, where psychological issues exist and where it has been shown that students approach peers for help in preference to staff members or professional services. Medical students elected peer leaders who underwent training and then provided the intervention. The peer leaders provided support to students in the intervention group, as well as offering teaching in mindfulness meditation. An exploratory study was conducted with 2nd- and 3rd-year medical students at 1 medical school in New Zealand randomized into 2 groups. In addition to existing mental health resources, intervention participants received a program including peer support and peer-taught mindfulness practice. Study participants not offered the intervention participants could use existing mental health resources. Primary measures included depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) scores. Secondary measures were quality of life, resilience (15-item resilience scale), academic self-concept, and motivation to learn, assessed at baseline and 6 months. Of the 402 students eligible, 275 (68%) participated and 232 (58%) completed the study. At baseline, 53% were female and mean age was 21 years (SD = 3)-PHQ-9 score (M = 5.2, SD = 3.7) and GAD-7 score (M = 4.5, SD = 3.4). Twelve peer leaders were elected. There was good participation in the intervention. One fourth of intervention students used the face-to-face peer support and more than 50% attended a peer social event and/or participated in the mindfulness program. Although improvements in mental health were seen in the intervention group, the difference between the intervention and nonintervention groups did not reach statistical significance. Although
The fiscal year 2016 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 6-10, 2016, in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.
The fiscal year 2017 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June June 5-9, 2017, in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.
Hussmann, Peter Munkebo; Bisi, Anita; Malmqvist, Johan
peer evaluations of educational programs to enable their further development and close the quality circle. In addition, the project will contribute to the consolidation of the N5T alliance by facilitating contacts between faculty members and providing them with an in-depth knowledge of the study...... programs within their field at another N5T institution. The article describes the quality enhancement tool in detail, its contribution to the development of the involved programs, and how international peer evaluation can contribute to closing the quality circle. Finally, it assesses the value...... of the approach to contribute to the creation of long-term relationships in educational networks....
Jonikas, Jessica A; Kiosk, Stephen; Grey, Dennis D; Hamilton, Marie M; McNulty, James; Cook, Judith A
The study explored perceptions of adults with psychiatric disabilities regarding cultural competency of peer-run mental health support groups and programs. Web survey respondents were recruited via mental health list-servs, web sites, newsletters, emails, and word of mouth. A total of 527 peers were surveyed about cultural competency barriers facing peer-run programs; common reasons for not using peer services; and strategies to engage diverse communities. Both multicultural and Caucasian respondents agreed that lack of funding and staff education about diversity were barriers to cultural competency in peer programs. Multicultural respondents were more likely than whites to feel that both the recognition of the need for and interest in attending cultural competency training is lacking in peer programs, as well as information about the diverse composition of peer program memberships. Among those who had never participated in peer support, people of color were more likely than whites to endorse feeling they would not belong and believing their languages would not be spoken in peer programs. Whites, on the other hand, were more likely to cite a preference for professional over peer support, while nearly half of both groups indicated that the main reason for non-attendance is a lack of knowledge about peer programs. Qualitative results highlighted successful outreach and engagement strategies. Study findings informed development of a cultural competency tool that was pilot-tested among peer-run programs. Given the importance of peer support in recovery, these findings suggest the need for additional research on cultural competency in peer programs.
The main goal this diploma thesis is to explore the influence of peer mentoring programs as a tool of community intervention for children and adolescents from the point of view of civic engagement and social capital. The influence is assessed to the recipients of mentoring programs care- to children and adolescents exposed to risk factors or risk environment. This thesis is secondary analysis of Mentoring programs evaluating research in mentoring programs Big Brother Big Sisters- Pět P in Cze...
Hanley, Gregory P.; Fahmie, Tara A.; Heal, Nicole A.
In an attempt to address risk factors associated with extensive nonfamilial child care, we implemented the preschool life skills (PLS) program (Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007) in two community-based Head Start classrooms. A multiple baseline design across classrooms, repeated across skills, showed that the program resulted in a 5-fold…
Kines, Scott Wayne
English television programs have been incorporated within public-school classrooms in western countries for a long time to capture student interest in various subjects. Many researchers favor English programs as a partner inside of classrooms while others hold negative perceptions of the concept. However, there is little research to provide a…
Nelson, Larry; Evans, Melissa; Guess, Wendy; Morris, Mary; Olson, Terry; Buckwalter, John
We examined how different types of dance activities, along with their duration, influenced heart rate responses among fifth-grade physical education students (N = 96) who participated in the Dancing Classrooms program. Results indicated that the overall Dancing Classrooms program elicits a moderate cardiovascular heart rate response (M = 124.4…
This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 9-13, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.
This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; and systems analysis.
This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 13-17, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.
This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.
This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.
This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 9-13, 2008, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; systems analysis; and manufacturing.
This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.
Zamberlan, Lisa; Wilson, Stephanie
An improved first year student experience is a strategic focus for higher education in an increasingly competitive marketplace. A successful peer tutoring program creates a visible community of practice, supports the student learning experience, elevates senior students as ambassadors of the program, and reinforces an emphasis on learning through…
Goetz, Joseph W.; Durband, Dorothy B.; Halley, Ryan E.; Davis, Kimberlee
This paper presents a peer-based financial planning and education program as a strategy to address the lack of financial literacy among college students and provide an experiential learning opportunity for students majoring in financial planning or other financial services-related disciplines. Benefits of such programs to campus communities are…
Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.
This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May…
Macro, Bronwen; Huang, Lee Ann
This report focuses on the innovative strategies study component of the Peer Assessment and Compliance Review (PACR) project. California (Court Appointed Special Advocates) CASA programs have developed many innovative strategies to serve children in their communities. At each of the programs visited during the PACR project, the team identified at…
Satyapal, S. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)
This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 18-22, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; education; safety, codes, and standards; technology validation; systems analysis; and manufacturing R&D.
Petursdottir, Anna-Lind; McComas, Jennifer; McMaster, Kristen; Horner, Kathy
This study examined the effects of scripted peer-tutoring reading activities, with and without programmed common play-related stimuli, on social interactions between a kindergartner with autism spectrum disorder and his typically developing peer-tutoring partners during free play. A withdrawal design with multiple baselines across peers showed no…
VanWeelden, Kimberly; Heath-Reynolds, Julia; Leaman, Scott
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a peer mentorship program on students' perceptions of comfort, skills obtained, and feelings of success while working with a peer with dissimilar abilities. The participants (N = 14), enrolled in choral ensemble classes, were divided into two groups: the peer mentors (n = 7), who were…
Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Shah, Megha; Choi, Hwajung; Heisler, Michele
Objective In a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of diabetes reciprocal peer support, we examined characteristics of peers associated with improvements in their partner's glycemic control. Methods A total of 102 adults with diabetes were randomized to the reciprocal peer support arm (vs. a nurse care management arm). The primary outcome was change in A1c over six months. Intermediate outcomes were insulin initiation and peer engagement. A number of baseline characteristics of peers were hypothesized to influence outcomes for their peer, and concordant characteristics of peer dyads were hypothesized that would influence outcomes for both peer partners. Results Improvement in A1c was associated with having a peer older than oneself ( P characteristics were not associated with A1c improvements. Participants whose peers had a more controlled self-regulation style were more likely to initiate insulin ( P characteristics that lead to improved outcomes. This could allow for better matching and more effective partnerships.
Bell, Cheryl A.
Science teaching and learning has been the focus of reform efforts for many years. The most recent efforts call for change in the way science is taught and the way students learn science in our nation's classrooms, with an effort to move toward an inquiry-based approach. These efforts present challenges for today's teachers. Many teachers want to do an effective job of teaching science, yet are not sure of what inquiry teaching should look like in the classroom or what they need to change to move toward inquiry-based instruction. The problem posed for the educational community is to identify means to provide teachers with the experiences they need to develop the knowledge and techniques necessary to teach using an inquiry approach in their classrooms. This research addressed this problem by developing a case study of a professional development program designed to enhance the inquiry knowledge and inquiry-based teaching of middle level teachers through the development of leadership teams and peer training. Teachers participated at one of two levels: Level I received intense training at a major university; and Level II received their training from their Level I teammates. Two teams of teachers participated in this research, involving five teachers. The program's effectiveness varied in the changes evident in the teachers' knowledge and use of inquiry in their classrooms. The Level I teachers' knowledge and use of inquiry was influenced by their interpretations of their experiences and how these related to what occurred in their classrooms prior to the institute. Similarly, their interpretation influenced the emphasis placed on including information about inquiry and involving their Level II teammates in inquiry-based instructional experiences during the peer-training sessions. The peer-training session for Team 1 provided a stimulus for the Level II teacher to reflect on her teaching and her students' questions and, consequently, change the level of inquiry in her
Leadbeater, Bonnie; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena
Past research demonstrates the promise of multicomponent programs in reducing peer victimization and bullying in older elementary and middle school children, however little research focuses on young children. The current study examines the effectiveness of the WITS Primary program on trajectories of victimization and social responsibility in…
The objectives of the District Department of Transportation (DDOT) Research, Development, & Technology Transfer (RDT) Branch Peer Exchange were: : 1. Receive peer input and perspective on RDT Strategic Plan. : 2. Obtain assistance in assessing validi...
Harris, V. William; Sherman, James A.
The effects of unstructured peer-tutoring procedures on the math performance of fourth- and fifth-grade students were investigated. Students' performances in two daily math sessions, during which they worked problems of the same type and difficulty, were compared. When students tutored each other over the same math problems as they subsequently worked, higher accuracies and rates of performance were associated with the tutored math sessions. The use of consequences for accurate performance seemed to enhance the effects of tutoring on accuracy. The results from an independent-study control condition, which was the same peer-tutoring except that students did not interact with each other, suggested that interactions between students during the tutoring procedure were, in part, responsible for improved accuracy and rate of performance. When students tutored each other over different but related problems to those that they were subsequently asked to solve, accuracies and rates during tutored math sessions were also higher, suggesting the development of generalized skills in solving particular types of math problems. PMID:16795443
Harris, V W; Sherman, J A
The effects of unstructured peer-tutoring procedures on the math performance of fourth- and fifth-grade students were investigated. Students' performances in two daily math sessions, during which they worked problems of the same type and difficulty, were compared. When students tutored each other over the same math problems as they subsequently worked, higher accuracies and rates of performance were associated with the tutored math sessions. The use of consequences for accurate performance seemed to enhance the effects of tutoring on accuracy. The results from an independent-study control condition, which was the same peer-tutoring except that students did not interact with each other, suggested that interactions between students during the tutoring procedure were, in part, responsible for improved accuracy and rate of performance. When students tutored each other over different but related problems to those that they were subsequently asked to solve, accuracies and rates during tutored math sessions were also higher, suggesting the development of generalized skills in solving particular types of math problems.
Turner, Simon R; White, Jonathan; Poth, Cheryl
One effective way to help prepare medical students for clinical training is the implementation of a near-peer shadowing program, in which pre-clinical trainees shadow clinical trainees. This article describes techniques for ensuring the effectiveness of a near-peer shadowing program in the hope of improving the preparedness of students for clinical training. A list of 12 tips were developed by combining a review of the literature with a reflection upon the authors' own experiences with developing a near-peer shadowing program, in which first-year medical students shadowed first-year residents. Both successes and failures were identified, both in the literature and in the author's own experiences. These can be used to inform the development of future programs. A near-peer shadowing program has the strong potential to play a key role in preparing students to enter clinical training. These 12 tips, drawn from the literature and our own experience, will maximize the benefits for both student and tutor learning and minimize the potential pitfalls encountered by other programs.
Rafael Bisquerra Alzina
Full Text Available Positive psychology has multiple applications. This article is focused on formal education, from the ages of 3 to 18 years. The development of well-being should be one of the aims of education, which would affect teachers, students, families and by extension society at large. This has been a clear aim for emotional education (Bisquerra, 2000, 2009, from the outset. With the emergence of positive psychology, there was a renewed effort in this direction, as a means of providing a better foundation. GROP (Grup de Recerca en Orientación Psicopedagógica [Research in Psychopedagogical Education Group] at the University of Barcelona is conducting research on this subject. The Happy Classrooms (“Aulas felices” program developed by the SATI team is the first program in Spanish aimed at working on positive education. It is designed for children and youths in pre-school, primary and secondary education. The program focuses its applications on character strengths and mindfulness. It is freely available for access and distribution. This article argues for the importance of enhancing well-being in education. Practical activities and intervention strategies are presented, with special reference to the importance of teacher training.
Foley, B C; Shrewsbury, V A; Hardy, L L; Flood, V M; Byth, K; Shah, S
Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB) change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA) program on SALSA peer leaders' EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. We used a pre-post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15-16 year olds) who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13-14 year olds). This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders' fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415) who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P leaders' intentions, except MVPA which remained stable. The SALSA program had a positive impact on peer leaders' EBRBs, with gender and socio-economic status moderating some outcomes. ACTRN12617000712303 retrospectively registered.
Hunter, Wanda M; Schmidt, Ellen R; Zakocs, Ronda
To conduct a formative and pilot impact evaluation of the State Technical Assessment Team (STAT) program, a visitation-based (visitatie) peer assessment program designed to enhance the organizational capacity of state health department injury prevention programs. The formative evaluation was based on observational, record review, and key informant interview data collected during the implementation of the first 7 STAT visits. Pilot impact data were derived from semi-structured interviews with state injury prevention personnel one year after the visit. Formative evaluation identified 6 significant implementation problems in the first visits that were addressed by the program planners, resulting in improvements to the STAT assessment protocol. Impact evaluation revealed that after one year, the 7 state injury prevention programs had acted on 81% of the recommendations received during their STAT visits. All programs reported gains in visibility and credibility within the state health department and increased collaboration and cooperation with other units and agencies. Other significant program advancements were also reported. Specific program standards and review procedures are important to the success of peer assessment programs such as STAT. Early impact evaluation suggests that peer assessment protocols using the visitatie model can lead to gains in organizational capacity.
In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invitt responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching ...
In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...
In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with th,em, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally ti forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...
Classroom. In this section of Resonance, we in'Vite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or in'Vite .... boron-10 which demonstrated that some very beautiful work done by a. Caltech group headed by T Lauritsen and W A Fowler was wrong.
In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or botlt. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...
Reinhardt, Claus H; Löpker, Nadine; Noack, Michael J; Klein, Klaus; Rosen, Evelyne
Caries prevalence in underprivileged children is particularly high and, even though many efforts have been made, adherence to dental preventive programs is low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a tutoring program can improve oral health behavior in underprivileged and/or immigrant children. Thirty fourth-grade children (mean age = 9.6), over 50 percent of immigrant background, participated in this longitudinal pilot study. The fourth graders were invited to develop on oral health program for their first-grade peers. For this purpose, the fourth graders learned oral health practices and developed the peer tutoring program. Prior to the intervention and after having instructed their first-grade peers, all fourth graders were interviewed about their oral health habits and their tooth-brushing was recorded on video. Toothbrushing time, performance of circular tooth-brushing movements, and systematic cleaning of all dental surfaces were analyzed before and after the intervention. After peer teaching, there was a significant increase concerning tooth-brushing time (P = .004), performance of circular tooth-brushing movements (P tutoring program yielded a significant improvement in relevant oral care behavior. This approach provided an environment which, in contrast to traditional approaches, facilitates empowerment.
Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy
Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…
Ibarra, D. L.; Forder, S. E.; Pritchard, M.
The ISF Academy was founded by Charles Kao, a Nobel Prize laureate. In 2011, the Shuyuan programs were established at The ISF Academy to operate both as a "school within a school" and as a "school outside the classroom." The Shuyuan programs work together with the IBO Science and Technology subject areas to develop comprehensive and challenging opportunities that address the 14 Grand Engineering Challenges. The goal is to establish co-curricular programs that go beyond the taught curriculum and support STEM curricula. Several programs outside of the classroom include an onsite robotics researcher, underwater and land based robotics programs, field trips, whole school food waste composting and the implementation of an energy tracking system. Relationships with several local universities allow students to work closely with professors in research settings and, annually, a leading researcher gives a keynote speech to our students. Other signature Shuyuan programs have developed international strategic relationships with the NRI at Cambridge University, where students spend several weeks studying science and civilization in China using primary source materials. Additionally, Shuyuan has supported extension opportunities for classroom teachers with institutional partnerships that include the British Council, governmental organizations, local universities, corporations, and NGOs. In conclusion, the overall goal of the Shuyuan Programs is to provide experiential learning opportunities that challenge conventional curriculum design in a manner that is supportive and innovative!
O'Keeffe, Margaret M; Davis, Todd M; Siminoski, Kerry
The surrogate indicator of radiological excellence that has become accepted is consistency of assessments between radiologists, and the technique that has become the standard for evaluating concordance is peer review. This study describes the results of a workstation-integrated peer review program in a busy outpatient radiology practice. Workstation-based peer review was performed using the software program Intelerad Peer Review. Cases for review were randomly chosen from those being actively reported. If an appropriate prior study was available, and if the reviewing radiologist and the original interpreting radiologist had not exceeded review targets, the case was scored using the modified RADPEER system. There were 2,241 cases randomly assigned for peer review. Of selected cases, 1,705 (76%) were interpreted. Reviewing radiologists agreed with prior reports in 99.1% of assessments. Positive feedback (score 0) was given in three cases (0.2%) and concordance (scores of 0 to 2) was assigned in 99.4%, similar to reported rates of 97.0% to 99.8%. Clinically significant discrepancies (scores of 3 or 4) were identified in 10 cases (0.6%). Eighty-eight percent of reviewed radiologists found the reviews worthwhile, 79% found scores appropriate, and 65% felt feedback was appropriate. Two-thirds of radiologists found case rounds discussing significant discrepancies to be valuable. The workstation-based computerized peer review process used in this pilot project was seamlessly incorporated into the normal workday and met most criteria for an ideal peer review system. Clinically significant discrepancies were identified in 0.6% of cases, similar to published outcomes using the RADPEER system. Reviewed radiologists felt the process was worthwhile.
This research aims to determine the opinions of prospective classroom teachers about preparation and implementation of Individualized Education Program (IEP). In this study, a qualitative research method was used. The participants were 20 classroom-teaching students that had been selected through the purposive sampling method. In the study, the…
Rodger, Susan; Tremblay, Paul F.
The present study examines the effect of participation of first-year university students in a full-year peer mentoring program as well as individual differences in motivation in relation to outcome measures of retention and achievement. A sample of 983 first year students completed the Academic Motivation Inventory (Tremblay, 1998) and agreed to…
Epps, Patricia; Vallenari, Alison
CHAMPS Peer Leadership is a program designed to prepare school and community teams that can empower youth to take responsibility for themselves and to prevent abusive behaviors. Students who can set goals, build teams, communicate, take self-responsibility, possess self-esteem, and feel empowered, also have the capability to respond positively to…
de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander; Post, Wendy
In this study we examine the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of elementary school students towards peers with intellectual, physical and severe physical and intellectual disabilities. A quasi-experimental longitudinal study was designed with an experimental group and
Esplin, Pat; Seabold, Jenna; Pinnegar, Fred
The research literature in higher education is abundantly clear that each student's engagement and involvement in the college experience make a difference in the kind of education the student receives as well as the outcomes. Peer leadership programs in higher education are growing in popularity because they provide a variety of ways to…
Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Brown, Stephen L.
Background: Physical inactivity is a primary contributor to decreasing functional physical fitness and increasing chronic disease in older adults. Purpose: This study assessed the health-related benefits of ExerStart for Lay Leaders, a 20-week, community based, peer-led, low-impact exercise program for older adults. ExerStart focuses on aerobic…
Wright, Robin; John, Lindsay; Duku, Eric; Burgos, Giovani; Krygsman, Amanda; Esposto, Charlene
This study reports on the longitudinal analysis of a structured after-school arts program for Canadian youth, ages 9 to 15 years, from low-income communities where the relationship of peer social support, family interactions, and psychosocial outcomes is evaluated. Multi-level growth curve analyses suggest an increase in prosocial development with…
Chung, Kyong-Mee; Reavis, Shaye; Mosconi, Matt; Drewry, Josiah; Matthews, Todd; Tasse, Marc J.
One of the most prevailing characteristics of children with autism is their deficit in social communication skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-mediated social skills training (SST) program combined with video feedback, positive reinforcement and token system in increasing social communication skills in…
Wang, Yanqing; Li, Hang; Feng, Yuqiang; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Ying
The traditional assessment approach, in which one single written examination counts toward a student's total score, no longer meets new demands of programming language education. Based on a peer code review process model, we developed an online assessment system called "EduPCR" and used a novel approach to assess the learning of computer…
B. C. Foley
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA program on SALSA peer leaders’ EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. Methods We used a pre–post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15–16 year olds who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13–14 year olds. This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders’ fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. Results There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415 who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P < 0.01; eating ≥5 serves vegetables/day from 8 to 12% (P < 0.01; and drinking <1 cup/day of SSBs from 56 to 62% (P < 0.01. Change in ≥60 min MVPA participation/day depended on gender (P < 0.01: Boys increased 14% while girls decreased −2%. Changes in eating breakfast daily also depended on gender (P < 0.004: Boys increased 13% while girls decreased −0.4%. The change in peer leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P < 0.05: above average
This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the FY 2011 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held May 9-13, 2011 in Arlington, Virginia
Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal ... published this paper as a short communication in the Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal, in February 1854. Ray Optics and Mathematical Preliminaries.
This document represents a collection of all presentations given during the EERE Wind and Water Power Program's 2014 Marine and Hydrokinetic Peer Review. The purpose of the meeting was to evaluate DOE-funded hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic R&D projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Water Power Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.
This document represents a collection of all presentations given during the EERE Wind and Water Power Program's 2014 Hydropower Peer Review. The purpose of the meeting was to evaluate DOE-funded hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic R&D projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Water Power Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.
This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2007, in Washington, D.C. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.
Chalk, S. G.
This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 23-26, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.
This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 16-19, 2006, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.
Altintas, Tugba; Gunes, Ali; Sayan, Hamiyet
Peer learning or, as commonly expressed, peer-assisted learning (PAL) involves school students who actively assist others to learn and in turn benefit from an effective learning environment. This research was designed to support students in becoming more autonomous in their learning, help them enhance their confidence level in tackling computer…
Thato, Ratsiri; Penrose, Joyce
To test the effectiveness of a brief theory-based HIV prevention program led by peers among college students. A quasi-experimental research using a pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design with 2-mo follow-up. A university in Bangkok. For peer leaders, 70 undergrad students taking health sexuality course were invited to participate in the study. Then, a convenience sample of undergraduate students was recruited through peer leaders, 226 for experimental group and 209 for control group. Information, motivation, behavioral skills, and AIDS/STIs preventive behaviors. The study revealed that a Brief, Peer-Led HIV Prevention Program significantly increased knowledge of preventive behaviors (β = 2.67, P motivated participants to have a better attitude toward preventive behaviors (β = -5.26, P .05). Findings of this study provide initial evidence as to how theoretical variables were operated to effectively increase knowledge, change motivation, and behavioral skills of AIDS/STIs preventive behavior among Thai college students. More research is needed to further test the effectiveness of the program on AIDS/STIs preventive behaviors among college students. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Keeffe, Margaret M; Davis, Todd M; Siminoski, Kerry
To assess review completion rates, RADPEER score distribution, and sources of disagreement when using a workstation-integrated radiology peer review program, and to evaluate radiologist perceptions of the program. Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Large private outpatient radiology practice. Radiologists (n = 66) with a mean of 16.0 (standard deviation, 9.2) years of experience. Prior studies and reports of cases being actively reported were randomly selected for peer review using the RADPEER scoring system (a 4-point scale, with a score of 1 indicating agreement and scores of 2-4 indicating increasing levels of disagreement). Assigned peer review completion rates, review scores, sources of disagreement and radiologist survey responses. Of 31 293 assigned cases, 29 044 (92.8%; 95% CI 92.5-93.1%) were reviewed. Discrepant scores (score = 2, 3 or 4) were given in 0.69% (95% CI 0.60-0.79%) of cases and clinically significant discrepancy (score = 3 or 4) was assigned in 0.42% (95% CI 0.35-0.50%). The most common cause of disagreement was missed diagnosis (75.2%; 95% CI 66.8-82.1%). By anonymous survey, 94% of radiologists felt that peer review was worthwhile, 90% reported that the scores they received were appropriate and 78% felt that the received feedback was valuable. Workstation-based peer review can increase completion rates and levels of radiologist acceptance while producing RADPEER scores similar to those previously reported. This approach may be one way to increase radiologist engagement in peer review quality assurance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Serpanos, Yula C; Senzer, Deborah; Gordon, Daryl M
This study reports on interprofessional peer-assisted learning (PAL) as a model of instruction in the preparation of doctoral audiology students. Ten Doctor of Audiology (AuD) students provided training in audiologic screening for 53 graduate speech-language pathology students in 9 individual PAL sessions. Pre- and post-surveys assessed the peer teaching experience for AuD students in 5 areas of their confidence in audiologic screening: knowledge, skill, making a referral based on outcomes, teaching, and supervising. Pre- and post-learning outcomes in audiologic screening for the speech-language pathology student trainees determined the effectiveness of training by their AuD student peers. Survey outcomes revealed significant (p < .001) improvement in the overall confidence of AuD student peer instructors. Speech-language pathology students trained by their AuD peers exhibited significant (p = .003) improvements in their knowledge and skill and making outcome-based referrals in audiologic screening, supporting the effectiveness of the PAL paradigm. In addition to meeting required accreditation and professional certification competency standards, the PAL instructional model offers an innovative curricular approach in interprofessional education and in the teaching and supervisory preparation of students in doctoral audiology programs.
Wollersheim, Dennis; Koh, Lee; Walker, Rae; Liamputtong, Pranee
Refugee women have poor psychosocial health as a result of past trauma and difficulties associated with settlement. This study was a pilot to find out how to use mobile phone-based peer support to improve the psychosocial health of, and facilitate settlement in a group of nine Nuer refugee women in Melbourne, Australia. Nine participants recruited by a community leader received peer support training over two five-week periods. They were further provided with mobile phone recharge vouchers to call one another to practice peer support techniques. The fifth and final sessions were focus groups to evaluate the intervention. Notes from the focus groups were thematically analysed. The women reported greater confidence and empowerment as they received more support, had better connections within the group and better access to information. Relationships with friends, family and the community became richer as they adopted and experienced more functional communication patterns. Using mobile phones for peer support helped to re-create community by bridging the geographical distance that separates refugee women. It allowed the women, from similar backgrounds and with similar experiences, to provide mutual support and exchange information through a verbal channel, the form of communication they are most comfortable with. The program demonstrates the positive psychosocial effect of peer support in a refugee community, and provides a viable model for using mobile phones in health promotion interventions. The successful outcomes, as perceived by the participants, are indicative of the potential of using technology to bridge health inequities in a marginalised group.
Bergsmann, Evelyn M.; Van De Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane
Teachers promote student learning and well-being in school by establishing a supportive classroom structure. The term "classroom structure" refers to how teachers design tasks, maintain authority, and evaluate student achievement. Although empirical studies have shown the relation of classroom structure to student motivation, achievement, and…
Classroom matters: The incidence of classroom climate on perceptions of peer intimidation and victimization [La sala de clases sí importa: Incidencia del clima de aula sobre la percepción de intimidación y victimización entre escolares
Full Text Available Research on peer aggression (bullying places emphasis on individual characteristics of aggressors and victims, and scarcely on context variables. This article provides evidence of classroom climate acting as predictor of perceived peer aggression. 444 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eight grade were administered instruments measuring self-reported and peer-reported intimidation and victimization. We analyzed the effect of classroom climate on these indicators. For intimidation, the regression model proved significant even after controlling for socioeconomic status, and explained 40.1 % of variance; and for victimization, 33.5 % of variance. Specifically, the dimensions of classroom climate associated with peer aggression were friction, satisfaction, and competitiveness. These results are discussed within the framework of research on peer aggression from a social-ecological perspective.
Full Text Available This presentation focussed on an innovative approach to developing peer mentoring programs. Drawing upon a ‘student as partners’ framework, the presentation explored how this has been used to underpin an approach to peer mentoring from the ground up. University peer mentoring programs are largely designed and developed by staff, who not only recruit and train student mentors but also select frequency and type of involvement for all parties. This pilot project proposes a different approach by collaborating with students in the design, development and enactment of a peer-mentoring program within one School of Education. From this pilot, we will develop guidelines and recommendations for the implementation of student-led peer mentoring programs (Students as Partners in Mentoring: SaPiM across the University of Wollongong (UOW.
Thomas, Anne B; Ward, Ellie
Peer Power is an innovative school-based program that trains high school students as health educators and mentors for middle school students. The program was designed to produce positive health behavior changes in youth and reduce long-term incidence of chronic diseases of the heart and lung. This program, developed at the Management Academy for Public Health, has been successful in receiving grant funds and has demonstrated positive behavioral changes in youth in the areas of physical activity, nutrition, and tobacco use. Peer Power has far exceeded the anticipated outcomes and proven to be a catalyst for improved health behaviors throughout the community. Positive unintended consequences of Peer Power include the development of an effective social marketing campaign, reduction in tobacco sales to minors, and an increase in smoke-free restaurants in Dare County. Benefits received by Management Academy participants are evident through improved business and administrative skills at the Dare County Department of Public Health, the number of new and innovative programs that have succeeded in securing grant funds, and the sustainability of the programs developed.
Siew, Choo Ting; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Rooney, Rosanna; Girdler, Sonya
The provision of peer mentoring may improve tertiary education outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluated the pilot year of the Curtin Specialist Mentoring Program (CSMP), a specialised peer mentoring program for university students with ASD aimed at improving self-reported well-being, academic success and retention in university studies. A single group pre-test, post-test design was employed. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were undertaken with 10 young adults with ASD to explore the effectiveness and acceptability of the CSMP program. Students completed a battery of questionnaires focused on general anxiety, state communication apprehension, perceived communication competence, and communication apprehension both prior to, and five months after commencing enrolment in the CSMP. Information regarding academic success and retention was also obtained. Interviews with participants provided further insight into their experience of the program. Students enrolled in the CSMP showed significant improvement in social support and general communication apprehension assessment scores. Interviews revealed key features of the CSMP that may have contributed to these positive outcomes. The current study provides preliminary evidence that a specialised peer mentoring program can improve the well-being of students with ASD, and highlights the importance of interventions which are individualised, flexible, based on a social model, and target environmental factors such as social support.
Choo Ting Siew
Full Text Available The provision of peer mentoring may improve tertiary education outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study evaluated the pilot year of the Curtin Specialist Mentoring Program (CSMP, a specialised peer mentoring program for university students with ASD aimed at improving self-reported well-being, academic success and retention in university studies.A single group pre-test, post-test design was employed. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were undertaken with 10 young adults with ASD to explore the effectiveness and acceptability of the CSMP program. Students completed a battery of questionnaires focused on general anxiety, state communication apprehension, perceived communication competence, and communication apprehension both prior to, and five months after commencing enrolment in the CSMP. Information regarding academic success and retention was also obtained. Interviews with participants provided further insight into their experience of the program.Students enrolled in the CSMP showed significant improvement in social support and general communication apprehension assessment scores. Interviews revealed key features of the CSMP that may have contributed to these positive outcomes.The current study provides preliminary evidence that a specialised peer mentoring program can improve the well-being of students with ASD, and highlights the importance of interventions which are individualised, flexible, based on a social model, and target environmental factors such as social support.
Rachel C. F. Sun
Full Text Available This case study was based on a school where the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. was integrated into the formal curriculum. In this case study, an interview with the school principal, vice-principal, and social worker was conducted in order to understand their perceptions of administrative arrangements and issues in the school, implementation characteristics, program effectiveness, program success, and overall impression. Results showed that several positive school and classroom attributes were conducive to program success, including positive school culture and belief in students' potentials, an inviting school environment, an encouraging classroom environment, high involvement of school administrative personnel, and systematic program arrangement.
Kudish, Philip; Shores, Robin; McClung, Alex; Smulyan, Lisa; Vallen, Elizabeth A; Siwicki, Kathleen K
Study group meetings (SGMs) are voluntary-attendance peer-led team-learning workshops that supplement introductory biology lectures at a selective liberal arts college. While supporting all students' engagement with lecture material, specific aims are to improve the success of underrepresented minority (URM) students and those with weaker backgrounds in biology. Peer leaders with experience in biology courses and training in science pedagogy facilitate work on faculty-generated challenge problems. During the eight semesters assessed in this study, URM students and those with less preparation attended SGMs with equal or greater frequency than their counterparts. Most agreed that SGMs enhanced their comprehension of biology and ability to articulate solutions. The historical grade gap between URM and non-URM students narrowed slightly in Biology 2, but not in other biology and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. Nonetheless, URM students taking introductory biology after program implementation have graduated with biology majors or minors at the same rates as non-URM students, and have enrolled in postcollege degree programs at equal or greater rates. These results suggest that improved performance as measured by science grade point average may not be necessary to improve the persistence of students from underrepresented groups as life sciences majors. © 2016 P. Kudish et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Rhee, Hyekyun; Belyea, Michael J; Hunt, John F; Brasch, Judith
To evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-led asthma self-management program for adolescents. Randomized controlled trial comparing a peer-led asthma program (intervention group) and a conventional adult-led asthma program (control group). Each program was implemented at a full-day camp. A city and adjacent suburbs in upstate New York. A total of 112 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years with persistent asthma. A peer-led asthma self-management program implemented at a day camp. The Child Attitude Toward Illness Scale and the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire were administered at baseline and immediately and 3, 6, and 9 months after the intervention. Spirometry was conducted twice: before and 9 months after the intervention. The intervention group reported more positive attitudes at 6 months (mean difference, 4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-7.56) and higher quality of life at 6 months (difference, 11.38; 95% CI, 0.96-21.79) and 9 months (difference, 12.97; 95% CI, 3.46-22.48) than the control group. The intervention was found to be more beneficial to adolescents of male gender or low family income, as shown by greater improvement in positive attitudes toward asthma and quality of life than their counterparts. An asthma self-management program led by peer leaders is a developmentally appropriate approach that can be effective in assisting adolescents with asthma in improving their attitudes and quality of life, particularly for males and those of low socioeconomic status. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01161225.
Ford, Pauline; Clifford, Anton; Gussy, Kim; Gartner, Coral
The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities. PMID:24169412
Hegerle, Dana R.; And Others
A group-contingency behavior game significantly decreased disruptive classroom behavior after five weeks. The classroom observers gradually phased themselves out of the program, while training the teacher to continue the game unaided. Further analysis of the relative influences of peer pressure and competition v social reinforcement is needed. (CP)
Results of 11 studies of classroom practices used with activity-based elementary science programs were combined quantitatively using a composite category system. One finding reported is that teachers trained in program use spent less time talking and more on activities than untrained teachers using the programs. (Author/JM)
Janet L. Goosney
Full Text Available For librarians engaged in teaching and learning, reflection has the potential to create opportunities to examine one’s instructional practice, identify and address challenges, and find new instructional pathways. It can also lead to a deeper understanding of one’s teaching. As valuable as it is, it can be challenging for librarians to find time to deeply contemplate instruction experiences. In the fast-paced environment of academic libraries, reflection is too often passed over as we rush from one teaching experience to the next. Recognizing the value of reflective practice, a team of academic librarians at Memorial University created a peer mentoring program for librarians involved in information literacy and other forms of teaching. The goal was to create an inviting and collaborative environment for exploring and developing instructional self-awareness by working with librarian colleagues. The resulting Reflective Peer Mentoring (RPM program requires minimal librarian time yet offers satisfying opportunities for brainstorming, problem solving, and reflection by bringing colleagues together into small co-mentored learning communities. This paper explores the successful evolution of this peer-based, collegial approach to reflection. It describes the inspiration and experimentation that led to the eventual creation of the RPM model, including Reflective Teaching & Observation (RTO, an earlier program founded on peer observation and collaborative exploration. It also describes the foundational principles that form the basis for the RPM program as well as the three-step framework on which it is structured. Finally, the article examines the information gathered and lessons learned from assessment of the program during the first year of implementation.
Carey, M I
Health promoters in the United States need to address the challenge of reducing health risks in young adults. The conditions that lead to the largest percentages of early disabilities and deaths are related to lifestyle characteristics. As health care costs continue spiraling upward, many professionals question the use of solely medical solutions to health problems. Health leaders have called for a change in priorities from curing the sick to keeping people well. Reducing health risks will increase longevity, improve quality of life, and reduce health care costs. It is widely believed that during the adolescent and young adult years many important health habits are formed and set. An individual person's health destiny can, in fact, be greatly shaped by the attitudes, behavior, and knowledge adopted during the early years of independence. For these reasons, wellness and self-care programming for college students is vital and worthy of being rigorously explored and evaluated. In this health promotion proposal, peers deliver a Lifestyle Health Planning Program to university students. They can encourage an internal locus of control over health matters and a perception of choice in those they counsel. The peer advisors conduct one-on-one sessions and outreach programs in the subject areas of fitness, nutrition, health-impairing habits, stress management, and sexuality. Promoting self-responsibility during college years can set lifelong positive health habits. A group of trained peer health advisors can be an innovative device to implement a health promotion program in a university setting.
Estela Ines Moyano
Full Text Available The following paper focuses on the description and exemplification of a device which is the core of the Academic Reading and Writing Program (PROLEA, for its acronym in Spanish conducting at University of Flores (UFLO: the “negotiation between peers” or “negotiation between teaching partners”. The Program design is based on the Sydney School's developments in Systemic Functional Linguistics. The negotiation between peers comprises the work between a professor on academic and professional literacies, who is a member of the Program, and the professors of each of the specific subjects involved. In order to successfully implement this modality, the realization of the negotiation between peers is necessary. This device entails a series of agreements between the professors involved about the teaching of the curricula contents through reading and writing tasks. First in this paper, the negotiation between peers is characterized, and its function and value in the Program are highlighted; second, two scenarios of application are presented in order to show the device contribution as well as its difficulties and the way of resolution of the problems found.
Estela Ines Moyano
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n3p157 The following paper focuses on the description and exemplification of a device which is the core of the Academic Reading and Writing Program (PROLEA, for its acronym in Spanish conducting at University of Flores (UFLO: the “negotiation between peers” or “negotiation between teaching partners”. The Program design is based on the Sydney School's developments in Systemic Functional Linguistics. The negotiation between peers comprises the work between a professor on academic and professional literacies, who is a member of the Program, and the professors of each of the specific subjects involved. In order to successfully implement this modality, the realization of the negotiation between peers is necessary. This device entails a series of agreements between the professors involved about the teaching of the curricula contents through reading and writing tasks. First in this paper, the negotiation between peers is characterized, and its function and value in the Program are highlighted; second, two scenarios of application are presented in order to show the device contribution as well as its difficulties and the way of resolution of the problems found.
Burgess, Annette; Roberts, Chris; van Diggele, Christie; Mellis, Craig
The need for developing healthcare professional students' peer teaching skills is widely acknowledged, and a number of discipline-based peer teacher training programs have been previously reported. However, a consensus on what a student peer teaching skills program across the health professions should entail, and the associated benefits and challenges, has not been previously described. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the design and implementation of an interprofessional Peer Teacher Training (PTT) program, and explore outcomes and participant perceptions, using Experience-Based Learning (ExBL) theory. In 2016, an interprofessional team of academics from across three healthcare faculties: Medicine, Pharmacy and Health Sciences, developed and implemented a six module, flipped learning, interprofessional PTT program. Pre- and post questionnaires, using a Likert scale of 1-5, as well as open ended questions, were distributed to students. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, and thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. Ninety senior students from across the three faculties participated. Eighty nine percent of participants completed a pre- and post-course questionnaire. Students felt the required pre-class preparation, including online pre-reading, discussion board, videos, and teaching activities enhanced their face-to-face learning experience. In class, students valued the small-group activities, and the opportunities to practice their teaching skills with provision of feedback. Students reported increased confidence to plan and deliver peer teaching activities, and an increased awareness of the roles and responsibilities of health professionals outside of their own discipline, and use of different terminology and communication methods. Students' suggestions for improving the PTT, included; less large group teaching; more online delivery of theory; and inclusion of a wider range of health professional disciplines
Plumer, Pamela J; Stoner, Gary
This study investigates the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) and peer coaching on the peer social behaviors of children with ADHD. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design is used with three elementary-school students in Grades 3 and 4. Following a baseline period, CWPT is implemented in each student's classroom. During the second intervention phase, CWPT is continued and peer coaching is added. Peer social behaviors are observed in both academic and social settings, with a primary focus on intervention effects on the latter setting. Results suggest that students participating in CWPT are actively and positively engaged with their peers while carrying out the CWPT program in the academic setting. However, when only CWPT is implemented, increases in positive peer social behaviors are not observed in social settings. The addition of peer coaching results in enhanced social behaviors during recess and lunch.
tum associated with such an apparently simple purely oscillatory 1D harmonic lattice system. The classroom exercise will conclude with a sug- gestion for the possibility that the 'Concrete' case may well correspond to that of hard nanopar- ticulate crystallites embedded in a 1D elastic con- tinuum, e.g., a spider dragline silk, ...
CLASSROOM relate, for comparison, a school experience. There is an experi- ment in textbooks about measuring the percentage of oxygen in air. What the textbook prescribes is this: take a bowl with a little water, light a candle at the centre and then place an inverted glass over it. Soon the flame gets extinguished and ...
sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. A W Joshil,. Umapati Pattar2 and F I Surve3. lDepartment of Physics ... Introduction. Diffraction from a plane grating is a familiar topic in undergraduate optics. Students study the theory in the classroom where they derive the ...
"Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related ... sented the statement of the experimental problem of the. InternationalPhysics Olympiad'98 (IPhO). ... The justification of this model comes from electromagnetic theory. In conducting materials, the ...
CLASSROOM. 655. RESONANCE | July 2016. References. . C Alsina, R B Nelsen, Icons of Mathematics, The Mathematical Asso- ciation of America, Washington, DC, 2011. . W Dunham, Journey through Genius, Penguin Books, 1991. which contradicts (2). So t = 0, i.e., 4r2. = a2. + b2 . Hence AB. 2. + AC. 2. = a2. + b2.
In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, ... weekends at the Bangalore. Association for Science Educa- tion, Jawaharlal Nehru Plan- etarium, Bangalore. Keywords. Planetary motion,.
In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...
is, as evident from the normal meaning of the English word, a correspondence which associates to each mem ..... write it as a product of 3-cycles and go through the above analysis to actually arrive at a sequence of sliding moves which reaches the starting position. CLASSROOM. Look at the cycles. 0"1 = (1,2,. ,n,2n,. 2. 2. 1.
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ite image of the Mercury. Transit, taken by Domin- ique Derrick, Belgium, on the 7th of May 2003. (repro- duced with permission). CLASSROOM scale in our understanding of the Universe - the Astronomical. Unit, or the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Historically, the transits of Venus were the first opportunity.
CLASSROOM. Figure 3. An antibubble undergoing breakup, note the expanding circular hole at the bottom. Figure 4. An antibubble trapped in a vortex flow, just prior to breakup. of the antibubble into two smaller antibubbles (see Figure 4), an observation which is worthy of theoretical investigation. In the following video ...
61. RESONANCE │ January 2011. CLASSROOM. Investigation of Structures Similarity of. Organic Substances. Keywords. Structures similarity, Tanimoto coefficient, Euclidean distance, fingerprints (bit-string represen- tations). Ajay Kumar. Guru Tegh Bahadur Institute of. Technology. G–8 Area, Rajouri Garden. New Delhi ...
classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Sheep Distribution Problem Through Egyptian Fractions.
Williford, Anne; Boulton, Aaron; Noland, Brian; Little, Todd D.; Karna, Antti; Salmivalli, Christina
The present study investigated the effects of the KiVa antibullying program on students' anxiety, depression, and perception of peers in Grades 4-6. Furthermore, it was investigated whether reductions in peer-reported victimization predicted changes in these outcome variables. The study participants included 7,741 students from 78 schools who were…
Carter, Erik W.; Hughes, Carolyn; Copeland, Susan R.; Breen, Catherine
A study examined differences between 30 high school students who participated in a peer buddy program with peers with severe disabilities and 30 who chose not to volunteer. After one semester, participants showed greater social willingness to interact with those with disabilities, greater knowledge of disabilities, and increased contact scores.…
Cutright, Teresa J.; Evans, Edward
The last year of a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded scholarship program was used to provide pseudo-formal peer mentoring activities to engineering, mathematics, and science undergraduates. A one-credit class was used to afford time for peer mentors and mentees to interact. During the fall semester, seniors augmented each week's topics with…
Ross, Michael W.; Harzke, Amy Jo; Scott, Deborah P.; McCann, Kelly; Kelley, Michael
We report select outcomes from an evaluation of Project Wall Talk, a community-based, peer-led HIV prevention education program implemented in 36 Texas State prison units. Peer educators completed questionnaires prior to receipt of a 40-hour intensive training (N = 590) and at 9-month follow-up (N = 257). Students (N = 2506) completed…
Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Stefancic, Ana; O'Hara, Kathleen; El-Bassel, Nabila; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Luchsinger, José A; Gates, Lauren; Younge, Richard; Wall, Melanie; Weinstein, Lara; Palinkas, Lawrence A
The risk for obesity is twice as high in people with serious mental illness (SMI) compared to the general population. Racial and ethnic minority status contribute additional health risks. The aim of this study is to describe the protocol of a Hybrid Trial Type 1 design that will test the effectiveness and examine the implementation of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention in supportive housing agencies serving diverse clients with serious mental illness who are overweight or obese. The Hybrid Trial Type 1 design will combine a randomized effectiveness trial with a mixed-methods implementation study. The effectiveness trial will test the health impacts of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention versus usual care in supportive housing agencies. The healthy lifestyle intervention is derived from the Group Lifestyle Balanced Program, lasts 12 months, and will be delivered by trained peer specialists. Repeated assessments will be conducted at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months post randomization. A mixed-methods (e.g., structured interviews, focus groups, surveys) implementation study will be conducted to examine multi-level implementation factors and processes that can inform the use of the healthy lifestyle intervention in routine practice, using data from agency directors, program managers, staff, and peer specialists before, during, and after the implementation of the effectiveness trial. This paper describes the use of a hybrid research design that blends effectiveness trial methodologies and implementation science rarely used when studying the physical health of people with SMI and can serve as a model for integrating implementation science and health disparities research. Rigorously testing effectiveness and exploring the implementation process are both necessary steps to establish the evidence for large-scale delivery of peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention to improve the physical health of racial/ethnic minorities with SMI. www
Full Text Available Abstract Background An innovative program, the Practice Support Program (PSP, for full-service family physicians and their medical office assistants in primary care practices was recently introduced in British Columbia, Canada. The PSP was jointly approved by both government and physician groups, and is a dynamic, interactive, educational and supportive program that offers peer-to-peer training to physicians and their office staff. Topic areas range from clinical tools/skills to office management relevant to General Practitioner (GP practices and “doable in real GP time”. PSP learning modules consist of three half-day learning sessions interspersed with 6–8 week action periods. At the end of the third learning session, all participants were asked to complete a pen-and-paper survey that asked them to rate (a their satisfaction with the learning module components, including the content and (b the perceived impact the learning has had on their practices and patients. Methods A total of 887 GPs (response rates ranging from 26.0% to 60.2% across three years and 405 MOAs (response rates from 21.3% to 49.8% provided responses on a pen-and-paper survey administered at the last learning session of the learning module. The survey asked respondents to rate (a their satisfaction with the learning module components, including the content and (b the perceived impact the learning has had on their practices and patients. The psychometric properties (Chronbach’s alphas of the satisfaction and impact scales ranged from .82 to .94. Results Evaluation findings from the first three years of the PSP indicated consistently high satisfaction ratings and perceived impact on GP practices and patients, regardless of physician characteristics (gender, age group or work-related variables (e.g., time worked in family practice. The Advanced Access Learning Module, which offers tools to improve office efficiencies, decreased wait times for urgent, regular and third
MacCarthy, Dan; Kallstrom, Liza; Kadlec, Helena; Hollander, Marcus
An innovative program, the Practice Support Program (PSP), for full-service family physicians and their medical office assistants in primary care practices was recently introduced in British Columbia, Canada. The PSP was jointly approved by both government and physician groups, and is a dynamic, interactive, educational and supportive program that offers peer-to-peer training to physicians and their office staff. Topic areas range from clinical tools/skills to office management relevant to General Practitioner (GP) practices and "doable in real GP time". PSP learning modules consist of three half-day learning sessions interspersed with 6-8 week action periods. At the end of the third learning session, all participants were asked to complete a pen-and-paper survey that asked them to rate (a) their satisfaction with the learning module components, including the content and (b) the perceived impact the learning has had on their practices and patients. A total of 887 GPs (response rates ranging from 26.0% to 60.2% across three years) and 405 MOAs (response rates from 21.3% to 49.8%) provided responses on a pen-and-paper survey administered at the last learning session of the learning module. The survey asked respondents to rate (a) their satisfaction with the learning module components, including the content and (b) the perceived impact the learning has had on their practices and patients. The psychometric properties (Chronbach's alphas) of the satisfaction and impact scales ranged from .82 to .94. Evaluation findings from the first three years of the PSP indicated consistently high satisfaction ratings and perceived impact on GP practices and patients, regardless of physician characteristics (gender, age group) or work-related variables (e.g., time worked in family practice). The Advanced Access Learning Module, which offers tools to improve office efficiencies, decreased wait times for urgent, regular and third next available appointments by an average of 1.2, 3
Burke, H. M.; Pedersen, K. F.; Williamson, N. E.
Youth peer education (YPE) programs are a popular strategy for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, research on the effectiveness of YPE programs is scarce and the wide variation in programs makes it difficult to generalize research findings. Measuring quality and comparing program effectiveness require the use of standardized…
Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Ze; Newcomer, Lori; King, Kathleen
Even with the use of effective universal classroom management practices, some students will need additional behavioral supports. However, to translate implementation of new strategies into the classroom, professional development programs need to be adaptive to the complexities teachers face in providing instruction and managing classroom behaviors…
Shibru, Daniel; Zahnd, Elaine; Becker, Marla; Bekaert, Nic; Calhoun, Deane; Victorino, Gregory P
Exposure to violence predisposes youths to future violent behavior. Breaking the cycle of violence in inner cities is the primary objective of hospital-based violence intervention and prevention programs. An evaluation was undertaken to determine if a hospital-based, peer intervention program, "Caught in the Crossfire," reduces the risk of criminal justice involvement, decreases hospitalizations from traumatic reinjury, diminishes death from intentional violent trauma, and is cost effective. We designed a retrospective cohort study conducted between January 1998 and June 2003 at a university-based urban trauma center. The duration of followup was 18 months. Patients were 12 to 20 years of age and were hospitalized for intentional violent trauma. The "enrolled" group had a minimum of five interactions with an intervention specialist. The control group was selected from the hospital database by matching age, gender, race or ethnicity, type of injury, and year of admission. All patients came from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The total sample size was 154 patients. Participation in the hospital-based peer intervention program lowered the risk of criminal justice involvement (relative risk=0.67; 95% CI, 0.45, 0.99; p=0.04). There was no effect on risks of reinjury and death. Subsequent violent criminal behavior was reduced by 7% (p=0.15). Logistic regression analysis showed age had a confounding effect on the association between program participation and criminal justice involvement (relative risk=0.71; p=0.043). When compared with juvenile detention center costs, the total cost reduction derived from the intervention program annually was $750,000 to $1.5 million. This hospital-based peer intervention program reduces the risk of criminal justice system involvement, is more effective with younger patients, and is cost effective. Any effect on reinjury and death will require a larger sample size and longer followup.
Marshall, Carley; Perreault, Michel; Archambault, Léonie; Milton, Diana
Take-home naloxone programs (THN) are harm reduction programs with the aim of reducing the number of deaths caused by opioid overdoses. A THN program in Montreal called the PROFAN project was implemented with the goal of reducing overdoses through the use of peer-trainers. Peer-trainers are people who are currently or have previously used drugs, who are trained in overdose prevention and are then responsible for delivering a training session to other individuals who use drugs. While studies on other peer-led programs have shown that peer-helpers gain numerous benefits from their role, little attention has been devoted to understanding this role in the context of overdose prevention. Additionally, to our knowledge, this is the first time that the impacts of the peer-trainer role are being studied and documented for a scientific journal. This research represents a qualitative study using individual interviews with the six peer-trainers of the Montreal program to explore the benefits and challenges encountered in their role. Interview results suggest that there are psychological benefits received through the peer-trainer role, such as empowerment and recovery. As well, there are a number of challenges associated with their role and suggestions to improve the program. Knowledge about the impacts of the peer-trainer role will contribute to the development of THN programs. Additionally, the findings may also serve to demonstrate that THN programs are capable of not only reducing the number of deaths by opioid overdose, but that these programs may also have wider effects on a psychological level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
小手川, 雄一; 松田, 文子; コテガワ, ユウイチ; マツダ, フミコ; Yuichi, Kotegawa; Fumiko, Matsuda
The aim of this paper was to clarify effects of a peer support program for 7^th grade students (n=46) in two classes in a junior high school on self-efficacy, self-esteem, sociability, and aggression. These four traits were measured by a questionnaire that were self-rated by the students. Sociability and aggression were also rated for every student by the class teachers. These measurements were carried out just before the beginning of the program (pre-measurement), just after it (post-measure...
This report highlights key themes identified at the Regional Cooperation and Performance-Based Planning and Programming in Indiana Peer Exchange held on May 25, 2016 in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Regional Models of Cooperation Initiative, which...
To stimulate classroom interactions, this study employed two different smartphone application modes, providing an additional instant interaction channel in a flipped classroom teaching fundamental computer science concepts. One instant interaction mode provided the students (N = 36) with anonymous feedback in chronological time sequence, while the…
Vincent, Susan, Ed.
In multigrade instruction, children of at least a 2-year grade span and diverse ability levels are grouped in a single classroom and share experiences involving intellectual, academic, and social skills. "The Multigrade Classroom" is a seven-book series that provides an overview of current research on multigrade instruction, identifies key issues…
Boulton, Michael; Woodmansey, Helen; Williams, Emma; Spells, Ruth; Nicholas, Beth; Laxton, Eleanor; Holman, Gemma; Duke, Elizabeth
Being bullied is associated with a psycho-social maladjustment during childhood. One hitherto largely overlooked correlate is disrupted classroom concentration. Using data collected from 364 9-11-year-old children attending seven junior schools in the UK, we tested a model in which children's perceived safety in two contexts (classroom and…
also supplied a means for students to develop relationships with their peers as ... promoting 'real world' skills they could transfer outside of the classroom and into their lives. ... Keywords: digital storytelling, classrooms as safe houses, personal writing, ...... British Journal of Educational Technology, DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12540.
Jacques van der Meer
Full Text Available Peer learning has long been recognised as an effective way to induct first-year students into the academic skills required to succeed at university. One recognised successful model that has been extensively researched is the Supplemental Instruction (SI model; it has operated in the US since the mid-1970s. This model is commonly known in Australasia as the Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS program. Although there is a considerable amount of research into SI and PASS, very little has been published about the impact of peer learning on different student groups, for example indigenous and other ethnic groups. This article reports on the results from one New Zealand university of the effectiveness of PASS for Māori and Pasifika students. The questions this article seeks to address are whether attendance of the PASS program results in better final marks for these two groups of students, and whether the number of sessions attended has an impact on the final marks.
Mu, Keli; Siegel, Ellin B.; Allinder, Rose M.
A study examined the social status of six high school students with moderate or severe disabilities in general education cooking classes. Although no participants were classified as popular among their peers, the majority obtained average social status ratings. Students with disabilities were involved in fewer social interactions than their peers.…
Mikami, Amori Yee; Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Lerner, Matthew D.; Emeh, Christina C.; Reuland, Meg M.; Jack, Allison; Anthony, Maria R.
Objective: Interventions for peer problems among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) typically focus on improving these children's behaviors. This study tested the proposition that an adjunctive component encouraging the peer group to be socially inclusive of children with ADHD would augment the efficacy of traditional…
Benoit, Cecilia; Belle-Isle, Lynne; Smith, Michaela; Phillips, Rachel; Shumka, Leah; Atchison, Chris; Jansson, Mikael; Loppie, Charlotte; Flagg, Jackson
Social marginalization and criminalization create health and safety risks for sex workers and reduce their access to health promotion and prevention services compared to the general population. Community empowerment-based interventions that prioritize the engagement of sex workers show promising results. Peer-to-peer interventions, wherein sex workers act as educators of their colleagues, managers, clients and romantic partners, foster community mobilization and critical consciousness among sex workers and equip them to exercise agency in their work and personal lives. A pilot peer health education program was developed and implemented, with and for sex workers in one urban centre in Canada. To explore how the training program contributed to community empowerment and transformative learning among participants, the authors conducted qualitative interviews, asked participants to keep personal journals and to fill out feedback forms after each session. Thematic analysis was conducted on these three data sources, with emerging themes identified, organized and presented in the findings. Five themes emerged from the analysis. Our findings show that the pilot program led to reduced internalized stigma and increased self-esteem in participants. Participants' critical consciousness increased concerning issues of diversity in cultural background, sexual orientation, work experiences and gender identity. Participants gained knowledge about how sex work stigma is enacted and perpetuated. They also became increasingly comfortable challenging negative judgments from others, including frontline service providers. Participants were encouraged to actively shape the training program, which fostered positive relationships and solidarity among them, as well as with colleagues in their social network and with the local sex worker organization housing the program. Resources were also mobilized within the sex worker community through skills building and knowledge acquisition. The peer
This study explores teacher perceptions of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) programs in the classroom, with a focus on teacher use, student equity of access, and student ability to use their devices as learning tools. While one-to-one laptop programs (students assigned identical school-owned laptop or tablet) has an extensive body of literature behind…
This article examines the application Higher Diploma training skills in classroom instruction as well as pinning to the possible bottlenecks that hamper the successful application of the training skills. To this end, graduates of the first two batches, heads of the ten departments operating under the Faculty of Education and ...
Wolfe, Leslie R.; And Others
Designed to provide classroom teachers with activities to enhance computer equity for female students, this kit is divided into four sections which present excerpts from four other publications: (1) "The Neuter Computer: Computers for Boys and Girls" (Jo Schuchat Sanders and Antonia Stone for the Computer Equity Training Project, Women's…
Johnson, Stacy R.; Finlon, Kristy J.; Kobak, Roger; Izard, Carroll E.
Peer coaching provides an attractive alternative to traditional professional development for promoting classroom quality in a sustainable, cost-effective manner by creating a collaborative teaching community. This exploratory study describes the development and evaluation of the Colleague Observation And CoacHing (COACH) program, a peer coaching…
Godar, Patrick G.
Describes an aerobic exercise program that (1) improved the physical condition, self-image, and self-control of emotionally disabled, middle school students; (2) increased positive peer attention; and (3) decreased stigma for the emotional disabilities special education program. (SV)
Frazier, Wendy Michelle
Science Work Experience Programs for Teachers (SWEPTs) provide an opportunity for science and math teachers to work in research laboratories during the summer to experience science as it is practiced in the laboratory-setting. Through the use of interviews with teachers and students, classroom observations, and an analysis of printed student sheets and student work, the lived experience of a cohort of program participants in Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Secondary School Science Teachers was recorded in an effort to describe the effect of experience in a SWEPT on the classroom environment of teacher participants and student outcomes. Relying on Social Learning Theory and science education reform documentation as a theoretical framework the following dimensions of the classroom were examined: (1) emergent themes that include the participants' perceptions of the importance of technology in the classroom, (2) interpersonal relationships with the teachers at the participants' schools, fellow program participants, research scientists, and students, and (3) changes in epistemological structure, curriculum, instructional strategies, and classroom practices. Methodological and theoretical implications are addressed with respect to future studies, and suggestions for refinement of SWEPTs are provided.
Erik O Kimbrough; McGee, Andrew; Shigeoka, Hitoshi
Classroom peers are believed to influence learning by teaching each other, and the efficacy of this teaching likely depends on classroom composition in terms of peers' ability. Unfortunately, little is known about peer-to-peer teaching because it is never observed in field studies. Furthermore, identifying how peer-to-peer teaching is affected by ability tracking – grouping students of similar ability – is complicated by the fact that tracking is typically accompanied by changes in curriculum...
Korpershoek, Hanke; Harms, Truus; de Boer, Hester; van Kuijk, Mechteld; Doolaard, Simone
This meta-analysis examined which classroom management strategies and programs enhanced students’ academic, behavioral, social-emotional, and motivational outcomes in primary education. The analysis included 54 random and nonrandom controlled intervention studies published in the past decade
Johnson, Stacy R; Finlon, Kristy J; Kobak, Roger; Izard, Carroll E
Peer coaching provides an attractive alternative to traditional professional development for promoting classroom quality in a sustainable, cost-effective manner by creating a collaborative teaching community. This exploratory study describes the development and evaluation of the Colleague Observation And CoacHing (COACH) program, a peer coaching program designed to increase teachers' effectiveness in enhancing classroom quality in a preschool Head Start setting. The COACH program consists of a training workshop on coaching skills and student-teacher interactions, six peer coaching sessions, and three center meetings. Pre-post observations of emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System of twelve classrooms assigned to peer coaching were compared to twelve control classrooms at baseline and following the intervention. Findings provide preliminary support that the peer coaching program is perceived as acceptable and feasible by the participating preschool teachers and that it may strengthen student-teacher interactions. Further program refinement and evaluation with larger samples is needed to enhance student-teacher interactions and, ultimately, children's adaptive development.
Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Preventive Classroom Management Training Program (PCMTP on approval and disapproval behaviors of teachers working in inclusive classrooms was investigated. The study group consisted of 45 teachers who were working in public schools and had students with special needs in their classrooms. Data were gathered using Teacher Behaviors Observation Form, which was developed by the researcher, and during one lesson which was videotaped in the classrooms of teachers in the experimental group (n=21 who had a training using PCMTP and the control group (n=24. The analysis of the research data revealed that PCMTP did not make significant differences in the approval/disapproval behaviors of the teachers in terms of the post-test results but the maintenance results showed that disapproval behaviors of the teachers were significantly lower.
Dunn, Lillian L; Venturanza, Jazmine A; Walsh, Rhonda J; Nonas, Cathy A
Few children in the United States achieve the recommended 60 minutes of physical activity per day. Identifying successful interventions that increase physical activity for children is critical. This observational study evaluated the effects of Move-To-Improve (MTI), a classroom-based physical education program designed for kindergarten to third-grade teachers in New York City public schools. MTI organizes 3-hour trainings for teachers that demonstrate strategies for integrating activity into daily classroom schedules. Randomly sampled elementary schools (N = 39) with classrooms trained in MTI in spring 2010 participated in the evaluation. In each school, we observed 2 classrooms trained in MTI and 2 untrained classrooms in the same school matched by grade level for 1 full school day. We analyzed data from 72 trained and 72 untrained classrooms. Ninety-nine percent of MTI-trained classroom teachers led their students in physical activity. MTI-trained classrooms spent an average of 9.5 minutes in physical activity per day, compared with 2.4 minutes in untrained classrooms (P trained versus untrained classrooms regardless of grade level or class size. Teachers trained in MTI led their classrooms in significantly more physical activity compared with teachers who were not trained. The MTI program is an effective strategy for increasing physical activity during the school day. A curriculum that empowers classroom teachers to incorporate activity into their regular day is a practical approach to promoting healthier living for children.
Poureslami, Iraj; Camp, Pat; Shum, Jessica; Afshar, Rowshanak; Tang, Tricia; FitzGerald, John Mark
There has been limited research on the role of peer support in self-management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs. This research explored patient acceptability of "peer supporters" in promoting sustained self-management practices after PR and to assess their perceived self-efficacy to manage their disease. This qualitative study used focus groups and individual interviews to identify perspectives of peer supporters and benefits of participation in a PR program. The analysis included systematically reading and reviewing transcripts of the sessions, establishing themes, and sorting responses into thematic categories. A total of 28 patients with COPD (15 males) participated in either a focus group or interview. The majority of participants considered peer supporters to be good facilitators for motivating ongoing exercise after completing PR. Exercise sessions were viewed as extremely beneficial for disease management, and many were satisfied with the care they had received. Most subjects wanted to receive followup sessions with either a professional or peer after the intensive phase of PR. Overall, the concept of having a peer supporter involved in ongoing maintenance of self-management efforts after PR was generally viewed as positive. Integrating a peer support model into PR programs may improve better long-term health outcomes for COPD management as many participants endorsed the need for continued support after the program. It also improved our understanding of the role of "peer supports" in exercise and self-care maintenance after PR. The selection of peers and the specific model used warrants further investigation in a randomized controlled trial.
Goodspeed, Kate; Lu, Dan; Bailey, Ellen; Wei-ping, Wen
These tips from the classroom showcase a variety of oral communication and performance activities that invite both teachers and students to explore the power and pleasure of using creative, kinesthetic strategies. (Author/VWL)
Gürkan, Özlem C; Kömürcü, Nuran
Student nurses in Turkey need to be exposed to appropriate undergraduate training if they are to acquire the required knowledge, attitudes and skills that will help them to fight the issue of violence against women (VAW). The aim of this research study was to assess the effect of a peer education program about combating VAW on the knowledge, attitudes and skills of nursing students. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. The participants in the intervention group received peer education on combating VAW. 136 nursing students (intervention group: n=63, control group: n=73) were included in the study. Participants in both the intervention and control groups were assessed at pre-training and at two months post-training. Pre-training and post-training knowledge and attitudes were significantly different in the intervention group (p<0.001). Moreover, the intervention group displayed a statistically significant difference in their ability to explain the correct interventions in a case study about VAW (p<0.001). Our results indicate that peer education should be used as a part of undergraduate nursing education on VAW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bekar, Ozlem; Fried, Emily; Guadalupe, Zana; Logan, Marybeth; Shahmoon- Shanok, Rebecca; Steele, Howard; Steele, Miriam
Preschool-age children who have had traumatic experiences often experience several challenges as they enter school. They are frequently preoccupied with the trauma and display both externalizing and internalizing behaviors in their classrooms, significantly impairing their abilities to learn. With few additional resources and the lack of…
Kwok, Jason; Liao, Walter; Baxter, Stephanie
Direct ophthalmoscopy is an important clinical skill that is often poorly performed by medical professionals and students. This is attributable to a declining emphasis on ophthalmology in medical school. We present and evaluate a self-directed approach of teaching ophthalmoscopy to medical students that is suitable for the current medical curriculum. Prospective medical education trial. Ninety-five second-year medical students at Queen's University: 32 in the experimental group and 63 in the control group. The experimental group consisted of medical students who practised ophthalmoscopy with one another using an online peer fundus photograph matching exercise created by the Department of Ophthalmology at Queen's University. To use the program, students first examined a peer with an ophthalmoscope and then selected an online photograph of a fundus corresponding to that of the examinee. The program notifies students if a correct selection is made. To encourage use of the program, students participated in a 2-week ophthalmoscopy competition during their ophthalmology rotation. The control group consisted of students who did not participate in the learning exercise. On assessment at the end of the ophthalmology rotation, the experimental group (n = 32) was more accurate in matching fundus photographs compared with the control group (n = 63) (p = 0.02). Participants were faster at performing ophthalmoscopy at the end of the learning exercise (p < 0.01). All students in the experimental group reported increased confidence levels in ophthalmoscopy after participation in the learning exercise. Matching online peer fundus photographs in a self-directed manner appeared to increase the skill and confidence of medical students in ophthalmoscopy. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wong, Jeffrey G; Waldrep, Thomas D; Smith, Thomas G
Formal systems of peer teaching are common in many advanced-degree graduate school programs but are less prevalent in medical schools. In 1997, The Medical University of South Carolina's Center for Academic Excellence created a Supplemental Instructor (SI) program in which interested upper-level medical students are hired to teach a small group of junior peers, primarily in basic science topics. The purpose of this study was to examine if participation as an SI leader resulted inmeasurable academic improvement for those students. This study examined if participation as a teacher in the SI program (SI leader) resulted in measurable academic improvement for those students. Admission characteristics (grade point average [GPA], Medical College Aptitude Test score, age, year of enrollment, and gender) of all SI leaders were compiled from the academic years 1996-2001. A second cohort of students, who shared the first group's admission characteristics but who chose not to teach as SIs, was identified as a comparison control group. Outcome measures included United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and 2 scores and final medical school GPA. Paired student two-tailed t -test statistics compared group means on all outcome variables. There were 199 SI leaders with non-SI students matched controls studied. There were no significant differences upon admission between the two groups; however, the SI leader group had significantly higher USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 scores and final medical school GPA compared to the non-SI group. The activity of formal peer-teaching was beneficial to the SI leaders' own academic success as measured by GPA and USMLE test scores.
Kyung Min Park, PhD, RN
Conclusions: The self-esteem improvement program in this study improved the self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children. The self-esteem program helped acknowledge the peer's name and increased their connections. The program needs to be considered as a formal and consistent program.
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine
We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…
Linda C. Watson
Full Text Available Having enough staff to provide high-quality care to cancer patients will become a growing issue across Canada over the next decades. Statistical predictions indicate that both the number of new diagnoses and the prevalence of cancer will increase dramatically in the next two decades. When combining these trends with the simultaneous trend toward health human resource shortage in Canada, the urgency of assuring we have adequate staff to deliver cancer care becomes clear. This research study focuses directly on oncology nurses. Guided by the grounded theory methodology, this research study aims to formulate a strategic, proactive peer preceptorship program through a four-phased research process. The goal of this research is to develop a program that will support experienced staff members to fully implement their role as a preceptor to new staff, to facilitate effective knowledge transfer between experienced staff to the new staff members, and to assure new staff members are carefully transitioned and integrated into the complex ambulatory cancer care workplaces. In this article, the data from the first phase of the research project will be explored specifically as it relates to establishing the foundation for the development of a provincial ambulatory oncology nursing peer preceptorship program.
Watson, Linda C; Raffin-Bouchal, Shelley; Melnick, Amy; Whyte, Darlene
Having enough staff to provide high-quality care to cancer patients will become a growing issue across Canada over the next decades. Statistical predictions indicate that both the number of new diagnoses and the prevalence of cancer will increase dramatically in the next two decades. When combining these trends with the simultaneous trend toward health human resource shortage in Canada, the urgency of assuring we have adequate staff to deliver cancer care becomes clear. This research study focuses directly on oncology nurses. Guided by the grounded theory methodology, this research study aims to formulate a strategic, proactive peer preceptorship program through a four-phased research process. The goal of this research is to develop a program that will support experienced staff members to fully implement their role as a preceptor to new staff, to facilitate effective knowledge transfer between experienced staff to the new staff members, and to assure new staff members are carefully transitioned and integrated into the complex ambulatory cancer care workplaces. In this article, the data from the first phase of the research project will be explored specifically as it relates to establishing the foundation for the development of a provincial ambulatory oncology nursing peer preceptorship program.
Popovich, Neil A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
The fiscal year 2017 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June June 5-9, 2017, in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.
Bates, Lucy S W; Warman, Sheena; Pither, Zoe; Baillie, Sarah
Based on an idea from a final-year student, Bristol Veterinary School introduced vetPAL, a student-led, peer-assisted learning program. The program involved fifth-year (final-year) students acting as tutors and leading sessions for fourth-year students (tutees) in clinical skills and revision (review) topics. The initiative aimed to supplement student learning while also providing tutors with opportunities to further develop a range of skills. All tutors received training and the program was evaluated using questionnaires collected from tutees and tutors after each session. Tutees' self-rated confidence increased significantly in clinical skills and for revision topics. Advantages of being taught by students rather than staff included the informal atmosphere, the tutees' willingness to ask questions, and the relatability of the tutors. The small group size and the style of learning in the revision sessions (i.e., group work, discussions, and interactivity) were additional positive aspects identified by both tutees and tutors. Benefits for tutors included developing their communication and teaching skills. The training sessions were considered key in helping tutors feel prepared to lead sessions, although the most difficult aspects were the lack of teaching experience and time management. Following the successful pilot of vetPAL, plans are in place to make the program permanent and sustainable, while incorporating necessary changes based on the evaluation and the student leader's experiences running the program. A vetPAL handbook has been created to facilitate organization of the program for future years.
Flower, Andrea; McKenna, John William; Haring, Christa D.
Research suggests that many teachers are underprepared for the behaviors that their students may bring to the classroom, resulting in challenges to teaching and learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the behavior management content included in preservice teacher preparation programs for general education and special education teachers.…
Sazak Pinar, Elif; Sucuoglu, Bülbin
In this study, the effectiveness of a Social Skills Teaching Program (SSTP) prepared for inclusive classroom teachers was investigated. The SSTP gauged (1) teachers' expectations related to social skills of students with special needs, (2) their knowledge levels related to teaching social skills, and (3) their use of social skills teaching…
Greenwood, C R; Hops, H; Walker, H M; Guild, J J; Stokes, J; Young, K R; Keleman, K S; Willardson, M
A comprehensive validation study was conducted of the Program for Academic Survival Skills (PASS), a consultant-based, teacher-mediated program for student classroom behavior. The study addressed questions related to: (a) brief consultant training, (b) subsequent teacher training by consultants using PASS manuals, (c) contrasts between PASS experimental teachers and students and equivalent controls on measures of teacher management skills, student classroom behavior, teacher ratings of student problem behaviors, and academic achievement, (d) reported satisfaction of participants, and (e) replication of effects across two separate school sites. Results indicated that in both sites significant effects were noted in favor of the PASS experimental group for (a) teacher approval, (b) student appropriate classroom behavior, and (c) four categories of student inappropriate behavior. Program satisfaction ratings of students, teachers, and consultants were uniformly positive, and continued use of the program was reported a year later. Discussion focused upon issues of cost-effectiveness, differential site effects, and the relationship between appropriate classroom behavior and academic achievement.
The objective of this study is to investigate how the classroom practice in teaching listening comprehension at English Education Program of STKIP Tapanuli Selatan in 2016/2017 Academic Year is. The informants of this research were all of second semester students of STKIP Tapanuli Selatan in 2016/2017 academic year and a lecturer of listening…
Aydin, Belgin; Yuzer, T. Volkan
This paper reports a synchronous project, "the virtual classroom" prepared for the Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program. The process of developing the synchronous project and the interface with its specific components were reported with examples and supported by theoretical background from the related literature.…
In March 2010, the first floor of the main library at The Florida State University was renovated as a learning commons. With this change in design, all tutoring that existed throughout the library was moved into the commons. The crown jewel of these programs is the library's in-house, late-night peer tutoring program that has seen incredible…
Zohreh Zare Toofan
Full Text Available Writing is an important experience through which we are able to share ideas, arouse feelings, persuade and convince other people (white & Arndt, 1991. It is important to view writing not solely as the product of an individual, but as a cognitive, social and cultural act. Writing is an act that takes place within a context, that accomplishes a particular purpose and that is appropriately shaped for its intended audience (Hamplyones & Condon, 1989. Here, the present research considers the significance effects of two important independent variables self-monitoring and peer-monitoring in writing activities on Iranian EFL learners. In this research it was supposed to study new effects of two Meta cognitive strategies self-monitoring and peer-monitoring on 173 male and female learners' writing activities whose age ranged between the age 16-27, and they had a composing description writing paragraph as pre & post test in the same conditions. Although many studies have been conducted on the effects of self-monitoring with a variety of students across a variety of settings (Amato-Zech, Hoff, & Doepke, 2006 Cooper et al., 2007, Dunlap, Dunlap, Koegel, & Koegel 1991. But goal of this study was to increase the participant’s on-task behavior in self & peer-monitoring (E. Johnson, 2007, Self &Peer-monitoring added. Although both of them were useful for providing challengeable students, and became useful for prosocial life, but self-monitoring helped them to become awareness of their weaknesses and strengths to increase positive way of the quality and quantity of their learning in written task, and peer-monitoring occurred when the students achieved recognition level to evaluate the other peers' behavior, and it was obviously understood that it needed more training time to arrive at the level of recognition of each others' behavior.
Borne, Isabelle; Girardot, Colette
Describes the use of Smalltalk-80, a French programing language, to teach young children to program effectively using object-oriented concepts. Learning processes involving problem solving and programing are examined, the object-oriented environment is discussed, teacher training is described, and future work is suggested. (21 references) (LRW)
McCollum, Brett M.; Fleming, Cassidy L.; Plotnikoff, Kara M.; Skagen, Darlene N.
This study examines the effectiveness of flipped classrooms in chemistry, and identifies relationships as a major factor impacting the success of flipped instruction methods. Examination of student interview data reveals factors that affect the development of peer-peer, peer-peer leader, and peer-expert relationships in firstyear general chemistry…
Druss, Benjamin G; Zhao, Liping; von Esenwein, Silke A; Bona, Joseph R; Fricks, Larry; Jenkins-Tucker, Sherry; Sterling, Evelina; Diclemente, Ralph; Lorig, Kate
Persons with serious mental illnesses (SMI) have elevated rates of comorbid medical conditions, but may also face challenges in effectively managing those conditions. The study team developed and pilot-tested the Health and Recovery Program (HARP), an adaptation of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) for mental health consumers. A manualized, six-session intervention, delivered by mental health peer leaders, helps participants become more effective managers of their chronic illnesses. A pilot trial randomized 80 consumers with one or more chronic medical illness to either the HARP program or usual care. At six month follow-up, participants in the HARP program had a significantly greater improvement in patient activation than those in usual care (7.7% relative improvement vs. 5.7% decline, p=0.03 for group *time interaction), and in rates of having one or more primary care visit (68.4% vs. 51.9% with one or more visit, p=0.046 for group *time interaction). Intervention advantages were observed for physical health related quality of life (HRQOL), physical activity, medication adherence, and, and though not statistically significant, had similar effect sizes as those seen for the CDSMP in general medical populations. Improvements in HRQOL were largest among medically and socially vulnerable subpopulations. This peer-led, medical self-management program was feasible and showed promise for improving a range of health outcomes among mental health consumers with chronic medical comorbidities. The HARP intervention may provide a vehicle for the mental health peer workforce to actively engage in efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality among mental health consumers. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Drusilla Brewington
Student mastery of the academic vocabulary of course content is an important component of learning that content. This research study investigated the combination of two active multimedia strategies within 10 different high school science classrooms, to test for retention of science terminology. The dual process of learner-generated drawings…
Our study contributes on several levels: firstly, we provide course responsibles with a detailed insight into how a seminar redesign to RPT can be achieved. Secondly, we provide a basis for introducing such change by documenting the positive assessment as an outcome of the monitoring. We thereby address diversity and in-classroom heterogeneity on a didactical level.
Lee, Boh Young
Fifteen toddlers (2- to 3-years old, nine boys and six girls) in a university preschool classroom were observed for 7 months while spending time with books during transition time, between story time and lunch. This qualitative case study investigated the ways that teachers can facilitate toddlers' reading habits by providing literacy opportunities…
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
network seminars, collaborative inquiries organized by the local professional learning community (PLC), and individual inquiries. Research questions for the case study are about how the teacher’s reflections and new enactments in own classroom and in collaboration with colleagues developed over time...
Lueg, Klarissa; Lueg, Rainer
This case study documents a seminar redesign from a teacher-centered instruction format to collaborative "reciprocal peer tutoring" (RPT) at Aarhus University, Denmark. Departing from concepts by Bourdieu and Vertovec, we argue that teaching concepts should meet the needs of students within Higher Education (HE). Our student sample is…
Kudish, Philip; Shores, Robin; McClung, Alex; Smulyan, Lisa; Vallen, Elizabeth A.; Siwicki, Kathleen K.
Study group meetings (SGMs) are voluntary-attendance peer-led team-learning workshops that supplement introductory biology lectures at a selective liberal arts college. While supporting all students' engagement with lecture material, specific aims are to improve the success of underrepresented minority (URM) students and those with weaker…
Tarullo, Amanda R.; Mliner, Shanna; Gunnar, Megan R.
Associations between behavioral inhibition and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, a stress-sensitive neuroendocrine system indexed by salivary cortisol, have varied widely across studies. In the current study, we examined the role of peer social experiences in moderating patterns of association between…
Kamps, Debra M.; And Others
Three seven-year-old males with autism included in social skills groups with nonhandicapped peers were successfully trained in such social skills as initiating, responding, keeping interactions going, greeting, conversing, giving and accepting compliments, taking turns and sharing, asking for help and helping others, and including others in…
Bauer, Sarah M; McGuire, Alan B; Kukla, Marina; McGuire, Shannon; Bair, Matthew J; Matthias, Marianne S
Goal setting is a common element of self-management support programs; however, little is known about the nature of patients' goals or how goals change during pain self-management. The purpose of the current study is to explore how patients' goals and views of goal setting change over the course of a peer-led pain self-management program. Veterans (n=16) completing a 4-month peer-led pain self-management program completed semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up regarding their goals for their pain. Interviews were analyzed using immersion/crystallization. Analyses revealed six themes: motivation to do something for their pain, more goal-oriented, actually setting goals, clarity of goal importance, more specific/measurable goal criteria, and more specific/measurable strategies. The current analyses illustrate how participants' goals can evolve over the course of a peer-led pain self-management program. Specifically, increased motivation, more openness to using goals, greater clarity of goal importance, more specific and measurable goals and strategies, and the influence of the peer coach relationship were described by participants. Pain self-management interventions should emphasize goal setting, and development of specific, measurable goals and plans. Trainings for providers should address the potential for the provider-patient relationship, particularly peer providers, to facilitate motivation and goal setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bauer, Sarah M.; McGuire, Alan B.; Kukla, Marina; McGuire, Shannon; Bair, Matthew J.; Matthias, Marianne S.
Objective Goal setting is a common element of self-management support programs; however, little is known about the nature of patients' goals or how goals change during pain self-management. The purpose of the current study is to explore how patients' goals and views of goal setting change over the course of a peer-led pain self-management program. Methods Veterans (n = 16) completing a 4-month peer-led pain self-management program completed semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up regarding their goals for their pain. Interviews were analyzed using immersion/crystallization. Results Analyses revealed six themes: motivation to do something for their pain, more goal-oriented, actually setting goals, clarity of goal importance, more specific/measurable goal criteria, and more specific/measurable strategies. Conclusion The current analyses illustrate how participants' goals can evolve over the course of a peer-led pain self-management program. Specifically, increased motivation, more openness to using goals, greater clarity of goal importance, more specific and measurable goals and strategies, and the influence of the peer coach relationship were described by participants. Practice implications Pain self-management interventions should emphasize goal setting, and development of specific, measurable goals and plans. Trainings for providers should address the potential for the provider-patient relationship, particularly peer providers, to facilitate motivation and goal setting. PMID:27516437
Full Text Available This is a pilot study to explore the classroom implementation of the Lions Quest Program in Turkey. Teachers of first through eighth grades at two elementary schools who applied the program were interviewed about the program and their classroom practices while they were also observed and their classrooms were also observed. Considerable program implementation differences were found within and between the schools. Three main issues were raised in the interviews, namely that the teachers were not clear about whether social emotional learning (SEL skills should be taught to students as a separate lesson or not; they seemed to doubt whether school personnel should be responsible for SEL implementation; and although they had positive views of the implementation, they underlined that students’ social and emotional wellbeing is dependent on family background and the developing maturity of the child. In conclusion, the teachers expressed positive views about the Lions Quest Program, yet lacked strong opinions about when, where, and by whom the program needed to be included in the curriculum. Limitations, implementation challenges, and implications for SEL in the Turkish context were also identified.
Young, Timothy P; Bailey, Caleb J; Guptill, Mindi; Thorp, Andrea W; Thomas, Tamara L
A "flipped classroom" educational model exchanges the traditional format of a classroom lecture and homework problem set. We piloted two flipped classroom sessions in our emergency medicine (EM) residency didactic schedule. We aimed to learn about resident and faculty impressions of the sessions, in order to develop them as a regular component of our residency curriculum. We evaluated residents' impression of the asynchronous video component and synchronous classroom component using four Likert items. We used open-ended questions to inquire about resident and faculty impressions of the advantages and disadvantages of the format. For the Likert items evaluating the video lectures, 33/35 residents (94%, 95% CI 80%-99%) responded that the video lecture added to their knowledge about the topic, and 33/35 residents felt that watching the video was a valuable use of their time. For items evaluating the flipped classroom format, 36/38 residents (95%, 95% CI 82%-99%) preferred the format to a traditional lecture on the topic, and 38/38 residents (100%, 95% CI 89%-100%) felt that the small group session was effective in helping them learn about the topic. Most residents preferred to see the format monthly in our curriculum and chose an ideal group size of 5.5 (first session) and 7 (second session). Residents cited the interactivity of the sessions and access to experts as advantages of the format. Faculty felt the ability to assess residents' understanding of concepts and provide feedback were advantages. Our flipped classroom model was positively received by EM residents. Residents preferred a small group size and favored frequent use of the format in our curriculum. The flipped classroom represents one modality that programs may use to incorporate a mixture of asynchronous and interactive synchronous learning and provide additional opportunities to evaluate residents.
kimberly A. collica-cox
Full Text Available This article explores the importance of social bonds in facilitating an investment in prosocial behavior amongst female prisoners working as HIV peer educators. Female prisoners can lack strong prosocial attachments to both individuals and institutions prior to incarceration. Absent this bond, little prevents the female prisoner from recidivating. Prison provides an opportunity to fashion new attachments that will assist in the reintegrative process. One way to create strong bonds of attachment, particularly for women, is through working as an HIV peer educator while incarcerated. In order to measure attachment levels, interviews were conducted with 49 female prisoners who worked in two HIV prison-based peer programs during their incarceration. Female peers developed strong attachments to one another. Such attachments were formed while incarcerated and were maintained upon release, thus serving to bolster support for newfound prosocial identities.
Shojai, Siamack; Davis, William J.; Root, Patricia S.
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the impact and effectiveness of developmental relationships provided through academic intervention programs at a medium-size master's level public university in the Northeastern United States. The programs' curriculum follows the Model of Strategic Learning's four pillars of learning and is administered…
Sutherland, Kevin S; Conroy, Maureen A; McLeod, Bryce D; Algina, James; Kunemund, Rachel L
Teachers sometimes struggle to deliver evidence-based programs designed to prevent and ameliorate chronic problem behaviors of young children with integrity. Identifying factors associated with variations in the quantity and quality of delivery is thus an important goal for the field. This study investigated factors associated with teacher treatment integrity of BEST in CLASS, a tier-2 prevention program designed for young children at risk for developing emotional/behavioral disorders. Ninety-two early childhood teachers and 231 young children at-risk for emotional/behavioral disorders participated in the study. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that both adherence and competence of delivery increased across six observed time points. Results suggest that teacher education and initial levels of classroom quality may be important factors to consider when teachers deliver tier-2 (i.e., targeted to children who are not responsive to universal or tier-1 programming) prevention programs in early childhood settings. Teachers with higher levels of education delivered the program with more adherence and competence initially. Teachers with higher initial scores on the Emotional Support subscale of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) delivered the program with more competence initially and exhibited higher growth in both adherence and competence of delivery across time. Teachers with higher initial scores on the Classroom Organization subscale of the CLASS exhibited lower growth in adherence across time. Contrary to hypotheses, teacher self-efficacy did not predict adherence, and teachers who reported higher initial levels of Student Engagement self-efficacy exhibited lower growth in competence of delivery. Results are discussed in relation to teacher delivery of evidence-based programs in early childhood classrooms.
Elkin, Mollie; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi
KIBO is a developmentally appropriate robotics kit for young children that is programmed using interlocking wooden blocks; no screens or keyboards are required. This study describes a pilot KIBO robotics curriculum at an urban public preschool in Rhode Island and presents data collected on children's knowledge of foundational programming concepts…
Schulman, Jerome L.; And Others
Describes a mental health program that makes use of teacher-taught materials that do not require extensive preparation by the teachers involved. The program attempts to alter personality through the use of techniques that promote education in mental health and experimentation with group and individual behavior. (Author)
Foxwell, Aleksandra A; Kennard, Beth D; Rodgers, Cynthia; Wolfe, Kristin L; Cassedy, Hannah F; Thomas, Anna
Supervision has recently been recognized as a core competency for clinical psychologists. This recognition of supervision as a distinct competency has evolved in the context of an overall focus on competency-based education and training in health service psychology, and has recently gained momentum. Few clinical psychology doctoral programs offer formal training experiences in providing supervision. A pilot peer mentorship program (PMP) where graduate students were trained in the knowledge and practice of supervision was developed. The focus of the PMP was to develop basic supervision skills in advanced clinical psychology graduate students, as well as to train junior doctoral students in fundamental clinical and practical skills. Advanced doctoral students were matched to junior doctoral students to gain experience in and increase knowledge base in best practices of supervision skills. The 9-month program consisted of monthly mentorship meetings and three training sessions. The results suggested that mentors reported a 30% or more shift from the category of not competent to needs improvement or competent, in the following supervision competencies: theories of supervision, improved skill in supervision modalities, acquired knowledge in supervision, and supervision experience. Furthermore, 50% of the mentors reported that they were not competent in supervision experience at baseline and only 10% reported that they were not competent at the end of the program. Satisfaction data suggested that satisfaction with the program was high, with 75% of participants indicating increased knowledge base in supervision, and 90% indicating that it was a positive addition to their training program. This program was feasible and acceptable and appears to have had a positive impact on the graduate students who participated. Students reported both high satisfaction with the program as well as an increase in knowledge base and experience in supervision skills.
Davis, Sage; Keep, Suzanne; Edie, Alison; Couzens, Suzan; Pereira, Katherine
Peer-led diabetes education has been shown to be as effective, or more effective, than traditional education in improving glycemic control and diabetes self-care measures. A 4-week peer-led diabetes education program was conducted in a homeless community in Grand Rapids, Michigan to increase diabetes knowledge and empowerment. Knowledge scores increased significantly during sessions covering signs, symptoms, and complications of diabetes and diabetes medications (ps <.05). Empowerment scores after attending the 4-week program were significantly increased when compared to scores prior to the first session (p = .027). Field notes and postimplementation focus group support increased empowerment and knowledge among participants.
Nelson, Larry; Evans, Melissa; Guess, Wendy; Morris, Mary; Olson, Terry; Buckwalter, John
We examined how different types of dance activities, along with their duration, influenced heart rate responses among fifth-grade physical education students (N = 96) who participated in the Dancing Classrooms program. Results indicated that the overall Dancing Classrooms program elicits a moderate cardiovascular heart rate response (M = 124.4 bpm), in which 47% of class time was spent above a 60% maximal heart rate threshold. The swing dance in particular (M = 143.4 bpm) stimulated a much higher heart rate level than all other dances in the program, with a mean heart rate change of 52.6 bpm. Girls (127.3 bpm) achieved marginally higher heart rates (p = .059) than boys (121.1 bpm).
This report summarizes the outcomes of a Peer Exchange conducted at : the request of the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) on June 17-20, 2002. Peer : exchanges are required of State Departments of Transportation as a condition of receipt ...
Riddell Michaela A
measures are collected on all participants at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is change in cardiovascular disease risk using the UKPDS risk equation. Secondary outcomes include biomedical, quality of life, psychosocial functioning, and other lifestyle measures. An economic evaluation will determine whether the program is cost effective. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial of group-based peer support for people with type 2 diabetes in a community setting. Results from this trial will contribute evidence about the effectiveness of peer support in achieving effective self-management of diabetes. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR; ACTRN12609000469213
In 2002, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children(WIC) introduced an innovative approach for breastfeeding mothers and their spouses. The Pilot Peer Dad Program targeted fathers to promote and support their spouse in breastfeeding. This study evaluated duration of...
Fellmer-Drüg, Erika; Drude, Nina; Sator, Marlene; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Irniger, Erika; Chur, Dietmar; Neumann, Boris; Resch, Franz; Jünger, Jana
Student tutorials are now firmly anchored in medical education. However, to date there have only been isolated efforts to establish structured teacher training for peer tutors in medicine. To close this gap, a centralized tutor training program for students, culminating in an academic certificate, was implemented at Heidelberg University Medical School. The program also counts within the scope of the post-graduate Baden-Württemberg Certificate in Academic Teaching (Baden-Württemberg Zertifikat für Hochschuldidaktik). Based on a needs assessment, a modular program comprised of four modules and a total of 200 curricular units was developed in cooperation with the Department for Key Competencies and Higher Education at Heidelberg University and implemented during the 2010 summer semester. This program covers not only topic-specific training sessions, but also independent teaching and an integrated evaluation of the learning process that is communicated to the graduates in the form of structured feedback. In addition, to evaluate the overall concept, semi-structured interviews (N=18) were conducted with the program graduates. To date, 495 tutors have been trained in the basic module on teaching medicine, which is rated with a mean overall grade of 1.7 (SW: 0.6) and has served as Module I of the program since 2010. A total of 17% (N=83) of these tutors have gone on to enroll in the subsequent training modules of the program; 27 of them (m=12, f=15) have already successfully completed them. Based on qualitative analyses, it is evident that the training program certificate and its applicability toward the advanced teacher training for university instructors pose a major incentive for the graduates. For successful program realization, central coordination, extensive coordination within the medical school, and the evaluation of the attained skills have proven to be of particular importance. The training program contributes sustainably to both quality assurance and
Christensen, Lynnette; Young, K. Richard; Marchant, Michelle
This study explored the results of aligning functional behavioral assessment (FBA) information with positive behavior support plans (PBS plans) designed with consideration for teacher acceptability. The independent variable had the three major components of a package, including assessment and planning (FBA), training (teachers, students, and…
Copeland, H Liesel; Kinzy, Terri Goss
Many interdisciplinary Ph.D. programs admit students of different educational backgrounds who receive a first year of a general curriculum education. However, student preparation for this curriculum varies, and methods are needed to provide academic support. Graduate student peer tutoring was piloted as an initiative funded by a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Initiative for Minority Student Development award to the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (UMDNJ-RWJMS) and is now offered to all students in the interdisciplinary Molecular Biosciences Ph.D. program between Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, and UMDNJ-RWJMS. Tutoring occurs individually or in small groups and has grown over the past 5 years in the number of students tutored and hours of tutoring. The program was evaluated by surveying and interviewing both tutors and students concerning process variables (e.g. awareness, frequency) and impact variables (e.g. perceived benefits, motivators), as well as by assessing changes in exam scores for the four core courses of the first-year graduate curriculum. Copyright © 2005 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Timothy P. Young
Full Text Available Introduction: A “flipped classroom” educational model exchanges the traditional format of a classroom lecture and homework problem set. We piloted two flipped classroom sessions in our emergency medicine (EM residency didactic schedule. We aimed to learn about resident and faculty impressions of the sessions, in order to develop them as a regular component of our residency curriculum. Methods: We evaluated residents’ impression of the asynchronous video component and synchronous classroom component using four Likert items. We used open-ended questions to inquire about resident and faculty impressions of the advantages and disadvantages of the format. Results: For the Likert items evaluating the video lectures, 33/35 residents (94%, 95% CI 80%-99% responded that the video lecture added to their knowledge about the topic, and 33/35 residents felt that watching the video was a valuable use of their time. For items evaluating the flipped classroom format, 36/38 residents (95%, 95% CI 82%-99% preferred the format to a traditional lecture on the topic, and 38/38 residents (100%, 95% CI 89%-100% felt that the small group session was effective in helping them learn about the topic. Most residents preferred to see the format monthly in our curriculum and chose an ideal group size of 5.5 (first session and 7 (second session. Residents cited the interactivity of the sessions and access to experts as advantages of the format. Faculty felt the ability to assess residents’ understanding of concepts and provide feedback were advantages. Conclusion: Our flipped classroom model was positively received by EM residents. Residents preferred a small group size and favored frequent use of the format in our curriculum. The flipped classroom represents one modality that programs may use to incorporate a mixture of asynchronous and interactive synchronous learning and provide additional opportunities to evaluate residents. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.
Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.
Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a method that teachers can use to increase their communication effectiveness by matching their communication patterns with those of their students. The basic premise of NLP is that people operate and make sense of their experience through information received from the world around them. This information is…
Siyez, Digdem M.; Kaya, Alim; Uz Bas, Asli
Problem Statement: Comprehensive, developmental guidance and counseling programs are vital to the achievement of excellence in education for all students. The purpose of the guidance curriculum is to help all students develop basic life skills in the areas of personal/social, career planning, and academic development. Although the counselors'…
Peer tutoring is essentially peers teaching each other. Many teachers already incorporate this idea into their classrooms in other curricular areas and appreciate the benefits that come from this type of teaching. Teachers can implement peer tutoring by teaching a small group of students a subject, or using a group that already understands the…
Carlson, Kerri; Celotta, Dayius Turvold; Curran, Erin; Marcus, Mithra; Loe, Melissa
There has been a national call to transition away from the traditional, passive, lecture-based model of STEM education towards one that facilitates learning through active engagement and problem solving. This mixed-methods research study examines the impact of a supplemental Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) program on knowledge and skill acquisition…
Cook, Jacqueline Yvonne; Boes, Susan R.
A literature review was conducted to understand how mediators and faculty view a Peer Mediation Program (PMP). The review identified four subgroups: mediators, teachers, administrators, and school counselors as well as their views on the success or lack of success of PMPs. The research also reflects how to best engage stakeholders in the mediation…
Bruno, Paul A.; Love Green, Jennifer K.; Illerbrun, Sara L.; Holness, Duncan A.; Illerbrun, Samantha J.; Haus, Kara A.; Poirier, Sylvianne M.; Sveinson, Katherine L.
The educational literature generally suggests that supplemental instruction (SI) is effective in improving academic performance in traditionally difficult courses. A pilot program of peer teaching based on the SI model was implemented for an undergraduate course in human anatomy. Students in the course were stratified into three groups based on…
Fraser, Mark W.; Day, Steven H.; Galinsky, Maeda J.; Hodges, Vanessa G.; Smokowski, Paul R.
This article discusses the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention designed to disrupt developmental processes associated with conduct problems and peer rejection in childhood. Compared with 41 children randomized to a wait list control condition, 45 children in an intervention condition received a social skills training program. At the…
Wozny, Darren A.; Porter, Julia Y.; Watson, Joshua C.
Campus students are most likely to confide with other students (Brownson, 2007). Thus, the student peer program's rationale is that it is a vital component of our campus suicide prevention project's purpose to early identify at-risk students, engage at-risk students, and utilize appropriate helping interventions (may include referral to the…
Jenkinson, Kate A.; Benson, Amanda C.
In the teacher education context, most peer mentoring programs have focused on pre-service teachers and a qualified teacher mentor within schools (Hobson, et.al., 2009; Ambrosetti, Knight & Dekkers, 2014). Few studies have focused on mentoring between pre-service physical education teachers. Therefore, we describe the Assessment and Mentoring…
Filella, G.; Cabello, E.; Pérez-Escoda, N.; Ros-Morente, A.
Introduction: Coexistence in schools inevitably implies conflicts among peers, which can have a negative impact in both the students' well-being and their academic achievement. In this sense, the main objective of the present article is to introduce and describe the evaluation of the Training Program in Emotional Management Happy 8-12. This…
Brugman, D.; Bink, M.D.
EQUIP is a multicomponent peer-helping program that aims to reduce recidivism among delinquent adolescents by decreasing their cognitive distortions, improv¬ing their social skills and stimulating their moral development. In an earlier study in a high-security juvenile correctional facility in the
Nava-Whitehead, Susan M.
This study examine the educative aspects of environmental education and the dynamics of innovation initiation in schools. Environmental education is an approach to learning that includes teaching methods which education reformers are currently advocating: interdisciplinary, relevant context; child-centered constructivist approach; inquiry, problem-solving based; cooperative learning and team teaching. The program under study is the comprehensive environmental education program, Nature's Classroom. Nature's Classroom is a veteran in the field of environmental education and covers a broad geographic base and diverse community. An earlier qualitative examination of the program (Whitehead, 1999) indicated that the affective aspects of the environmental education approach are a pivotal element of the program. This study attempts to define and quantify this phenomenon. It is hypothesized that a student's disposition to learn, and inter alia academic success, is enriched through the affective-cognitive synergy enhanced by the environmental education approach. Using quantitative methodology, the School Attitude Measurement (SAM) was used to capture the concept of Disposition to learn. SAM is a self-report instrument and provides scores on five sub-scales as well as a total score. The sample understudy is composed of 110 participants in of two groups of intact sixth grade public school classrooms. The treatment imposed was participation in a five-day residential Nature's Classroom program. Results from SAM were examined for statistical difference pre- and post-treatment. Findings indicate that the environmental education program, Nature's Classroom positively affects a student's disposition to learn. In particular, a student's sense of control is strongly impacted by the program. This study also examined the social-psychological underpinnings of school culture and structure with respect to innovation initiation. Specifically, it considers the dynamics and difficulties of
This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the fiscal year (FY) 2012 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, VA.
T. Volkan YUZER; Aydin, Belgin
This paper reports a synchronous project, “the virtual classroom” prepared for the Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program. The process of developing the synchronous project and the interface with its specific components were reported with examples and supported by theoretical background from the related literature. The evaluation of the project concludes that the virtual classroom facilitated increased authentic interaction and encouraged learners to become more autonomous...
Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.
NASA’s Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program has Lucite disks containing Apollo lunar samples and meteorite samples that are available for trained educators to borrow for use in classrooms, museums, science center, and libraries.
Hutchings, Judy; Martin-Forbes, Pam; Daley, David; Williams, Margiad Elen
This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management (TCM; Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2002) program to assess whether training teachers in IY-TCM principles improve teacher behavior, whether any observed improvements impact pupil behavior classroom-wide, and whether these effects can be demonstrated with children at risk of developing conduct problems. Six intervention and six control classrooms comprising 12 teachers and 107 children (aged 3 to 7years) were recruited. Children were screened for high or low behavior problems using the cut-off points of the teacher-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). The primary outcome measure was independent classroom observations using the Teacher-Pupil Observation Tool (Martin et al., 2010). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the intervention on teacher, classroom, and child behavior. Results showed a significant reduction in classroom off-task behavior (d=0.53), teacher negatives to target children (d=0.36), target child negatives towards the teacher (d=0.42), and target child off-task behavior (d=0.48). These preliminary results demonstrate the potential impact of IY-TCM on both teacher and child behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
One-to-one laptop programs, where each student has their own laptop to use in classroom, are becoming popular in schools especially in Australia and the Unites States. The purpose of the study was to contribute to the limited knowledgebase explaining the implementation of laptop programs specifically with English language learners. Four ESL classroom teachers, six ESL students, and three school administrators participated in individually conducted, semi-structured interviews. Additionally, a ...
Jewett-Tennant, Jeri; Collins, Cyleste; Matloub, Jacqueline; Patrick, Alison; Chupp, Mark; Werner, James J; Borawski, Elaine A
Community engagement and rigorous science are necessary to address health issues. Increasingly, community health organizations are asked to partner in research. To strengthen such community organization-academic partnerships, increase research capacity in community organizations, and facilitate equitable partnered research, the Partners in Education Evaluation and Research (PEER) program was developed. The program implements an 18-month structured research curriculum for one mid-level employee of a health-focused community-based organization with an organizational mentor and a Case Western Reserve University faculty member as partners. The PEER program was developed and guided by a community-academic advisory committee and was designed to impact the research capacity of organizations through didactic modules and partnered research in the experiential phase. Active participation of community organizations and faculty during all phases of the program provided for bidirectional learning and understanding of the challenges of community-engaged health research. The pilot program evaluation used qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques, including experiences of the participants assessed through surveys, formal group and individual interviews, phone calls, and discussions. Statistical analysis of the change in fellows' pre-test and post-test survey scores were conducted using paired sample t tests. The small sample size is recognized by the authors as a limitation of the evaluation methods and would potentially be resolved by including more cohort data as the program progresses. Qualitative data were reviewed by two program staff using content and narrative analysis to identify themes, describe and assess group phenomena and determine program improvements. The objective of PEER is to create equitable partnerships between community organizations and academic partners to further research capacity in said organizations and develop mutually beneficial research
Jewett-Tennant, Jeri; Collins, Cyleste; Matloub, Jacqueline; Patrick, Alison; Chupp, Mark; Werner, James J.; Borawski, Elaine A.
Background Community engagement and rigorous science are necessary to address health issues. Increasingly, community health organizations are asked to partner in research. To strengthen such community organization–academic partnerships, increase research capacity in community organizations, and facilitate equitable partnered research, the Partners in Education Evaluation and Research (PEER) program was developed. The program implements an 18-month structured research curriculum for one mid-level employee of a health-focused community-based organization with an organizational mentor and a Case Western Reserve University faculty member as partners. Methods The PEER program was developed and guided by a community–academic advisory committee and was designed to impact the research capacity of organizations through didactic modules and partnered research in the experiential phase. Active participation of community organizations and faculty during all phases of the program provided for bidirectional learning and understanding of the challenges of community-engaged health research. The pilot program evaluation used qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques, including experiences of the participants assessed through surveys, formal group and individual interviews, phone calls, and discussions. Statistical analysis of the change in fellows’ pre-test and post-test survey scores were conducted using paired sample t tests. The small sample size is recognized by the authors as a limitation of the evaluation methods and would potentially be resolved by including more cohort data as the program progresses. Qualitative data were reviewed by two program staff using content and narrative analysis to identify themes, describe and assess group phenomena and determine program improvements. Objectives The objective of PEER is to create equitable partnerships between community organizations and academic partners to further research capacity in said organizations and
repeat his social security number. 65. One of the vehicles are broken. 66. The rifle team beat its closest competition in the final. 67. The deuce -and-a...could of, could have) arrived a little earlier. 22. My commander said I (done good, did well) on the task. 23. The deuce -and-a-half failed to see the...this idea of promotions by a leads to. link (a dotted line with an "l" in Figure 2). Another feature of the ID is its many educational programs. The ID
The fiscal year (FY) 2013 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from May 13-16, 2013, at the Crystal City Marriott and Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
Korpershoek, Hanke; Harms, Truus; de Boer, Hester; van Kuijk, Mechteld; Doolaard, Simone
This meta-analysis examined which classroom management strategies and programs enhanced students' academic, behavioral, social-emotional, and motivational outcomes in primary education. The analysis included 54 random and nonrandom controlled intervention studies published in the past decade (2003-2013). Results showed small but significant…
Garcia, Irène; James, Richard W; Bischof, Paul; Baroffio, Anne
Good teaching requires spontaneous, immediate, and appropriate action in response to various situations. It is even more crucial in problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials, as the tutors, while directing students toward the identification and attainment of learning objectives, must stimulate them to contribute to the process and provide them with constructive feedback. PBL tutors in medicine lack opportunities to receive feedback from their peers on their teaching strategies. Moreover, as tutorials provide little or no time to stop and think, more could be learned by reflecting on the experience than from the experience itself. We designed and evaluated a faculty development approach to developing PBL tutors that combined self-reflection and peer feedback processes, both powerful techniques for improving performance in education. We developed an observation instrument for PBL facilitation to be used both by tutors to self-observe and reflect on own teaching strategies and by peers to observe and provide feedback to tutors. Twenty PBL sessions were video-recorded. Tutors completed the instrument immediately after their PBL session and again while watching their video-recorded session (self-observation). A group of three observers completed the instrument while watching each recorded session and provided feedback to each tutor (peer observation and feedback). We investigated tutors' perceptions of the feasibility and acceptability of the approach and gathered data on its effectiveness in enhancing tutors' facilitation skills. The preclinical medical curriculum at the University of Geneva is essentially taught by PBL. A new program of faculty development based on self-observation and peer feedback was offered to voluntary tutors and evaluated. Our results suggest that self-observation and peer feedback, supported by an instrument, can be effective in enhancing tutors' facilitation skills. Reflection on self-observation raised teachers' awareness of the effectiveness of
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
Continuous Professional Development (CPD) can be crucial in qualifying teaching, and student learning. Extant research suggests consensus pertaining to the core features of effective CPD including content focus, active learning, coherence, duration, collaborative activities and collective...... by the local professional learning communities, and individual trials. The research examined the development over time of the case-teacher’s reflections and new enactments in own classroom and in collegial interactions. A multiple methods design with repeated observations and interviews was applied. Findings...... by the school-leader e.g. to develop the local science team to also involve primary science teachers. The case-study exemplifies the complex interplay between individual and collaborative agency among teachers, and contextual factors like leadership, in starting and sustaining a positive spiral....
Yam, Kevin Kei Nang; Lo, William Tak Lam; Chiu, Rose Lai Ping; Lau, Bien Shuk Yin; Lau, Charles Ka Shing; Wu, Jen Kei Yu; Wan, Siu Man
The present study reviews the delivery of a pilot curriculum-mentorship-based peer vocational support workers training in a Hong Kong public psychiatric hospital. The present paper reports (1) on the development of a peer vocational support workers training - Job Buddies Training Program (JBTP) in Hong Kong; and (2) preliminary findings from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. The curriculum consists of 15-session coursework, 8-session storytelling workshop and 50-hour practicum to provide Supported Employment Peer Service (SEPS) under the mentorship of occupational therapists. Six trainees were assessed using three psychosocial assessments and qualitative methods. Compared to the baseline, the Job Buddies (JB) trainees showed an increase in awareness of their own recovery progress, occupational competence and problem-solving skills at the end of the training. Their perceived level of self-stigma was also lessened. In post-training evaluation, all Job Buddies trainees said they perceived positive personal growth and discovered their own strengths. They also appreciated the help from their mentors and gained mutual support from other trainees and from exposure with various mini-projects in the training. This pilot study provides an example of incorporating peer support and manualized training into existing work rehabilitation service for our JB trainees. Further studies on the effectiveness of service provided by peer support workers and for development on the potential use of peer support workers in other clinical and rehabilitation settings with larger subjects will be fruitful. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.
Teachers in today s classrooms need to find creative ways to connect students with science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) experts. These STEM experts can serve as role models and help students think about potential future STEM careers. They can also help reinforce academic knowledge and skills. The cost of transportation restricts teachers ability to take students on field trips exposing them to outside experts and unique learning environments. Additionally, arranging to bring in guest speakers to the classroom seems to happen infrequently, especially in schools in rural areas. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program , facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate Education Program at the NASA Johnson Space Center has created a way to enable teachers to connect their students with STEM experts virtually. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. Through EEAB, scientists are able to actively engage with students across the nation in multiple ways. They can work with student teams as mentors, participate in virtual student team science presentations, or connect with students through Classroom Connection Distance Learning (DL) Events.
Blondin, Stacy A; Cash, Sean B; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Griffin, Timothy S; Economos, Christina D
To measure fluid milk waste in a US School Breakfast in the Classroom Program and estimate its nutritional, economic, and environmental effects. Fluid milk waste was directly measured on 60 elementary school classroom days in a medium-sized, urban district. The US Department of Agriculture nutrition database, district cost data, and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions and water footprint estimates for fluid milk were used to calculate the associated nutritional, economic, and environmental costs. Of the total milk offered to School Breakfast Program participants, 45% was wasted. A considerably smaller portion of served milk was wasted (26%). The amount of milk wasted translated into 27% of vitamin D and 41% of calcium required of School Breakfast Program meals. The economic and environmental costs amounted to an estimated $274 782 (16% of the district's total annual School Breakfast Program food expenditures), 644 893 kilograms of CO2e, and 192 260 155 liters of water over the school year in the district. These substantial effects of milk waste undermine the School Breakfast Program's capacity to ensure short- and long-term food security and federal food waste reduction targets. Interventions that reduce waste are urgently needed.
Gassaway, Julie; Jones, Michael L; Sweatman, W Mark; Young, Tamara
Evaluate effects of revised education classes on classroom engagement during inpatient rehabilitation for individuals with spinal cord injury/disease (SCI/D). Multiple-baseline, quasi-experimental design with video recorded engagement observations during conventional and revised education classes; visual and statistical analysis of difference in positive engagement responses observed in classes using each approach. 81 patients (72% male, 73% white, mean age 36 SD 15.6) admitted for SCI/D inpatient rehabilitation in a non-profit rehabilitation hospital, who attended one or more of 33 care self-management education classes that were video recorded. All study activities were approved by the host facility institutional review board. Conventional nurse-led self-management classes were replaced with revised peer-led classes incorporating approaches to promote transformative learning. Revised classes were introduced across three subject areas in a step-wise fashion over 15 weeks. Positive engagement responses (asking questions, participating in discussion, gesturing, raising hand, or otherwise noting approval) were documented from video recordings of 14 conventional and 19 revised education classes. Significantly higher average (per patient per class) positive engagement responses were observed in the revised compared to conventional classes (p=0.008). Redesigning SCI inpatient rehabilitation care self-management classes to promote transformative learning increased patient engagement. Additional research is needed to examine longer term outcomes and replicability in other settings.
Wolfberg, Pamela J.; Zercher, Craig; Lieber, Joan; Capell, Karen; Matias, Sonya; Hanson, Marci; Odom, Samuel L.
A study explored the peer cultures of 10 children with significant disabilities in six inclusive preschools and found that the children expressed the desire to participate in peer culture through a range of social-communicative and symbolic behaviors, and experienced inclusion by coordinating social activity and establishing reciprocal…
Wang, Yanqing; Ai, Wenguo; Liang, Yaowen; Liu, Ying
Peer assessment is an efficient and effective learning assessment method that has been used widely in diverse fields in higher education. Despite its many benefits, a fundamental problem in peer assessment is that participants lack the motivation to assess others' work faithfully and fairly. Nonconsensus is a common challenge that makes the…
This report provides a summary of a peer exchange sponsored by the Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans). The peer exchange : convened Vermonts Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) Core Group to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of Vermont...
Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Pelletier, Marie E
A multilevel design was used to test a model in which teachers' attitudes (beliefs) about bullying (e.g., it is normative; assertive children do not get bullied; children wouldn't be bullied if they avoided mean kids) were hypothesized to influence if and how they intervene in bullying interactions. In turn, it was hypothesized that teachers' strategies would influence how their students cope with victimization and the frequency of victimization reported by their students. Data were gathered on 34 2nd and 4th grade teachers and 363 ethnically-diverse students (188 boys; 175 girls; M age=9 years 2 months). Results indicated that teachers were not likely to intervene if they viewed bullying as normative behavior, but were more likely to intervene if they held either assertion or avoidant beliefs. Moreover, avoidant beliefs were predictive of separating students which was then associated both directly and indirectly (via reduced revenge seeking) with lower levels of peer victimization. No grade differences emerged for teachers' views or management strategies; however, minor sex differences were detected which will be discussed.
Goldberg, Jennifer Sarah
This dissertation explores two classroom communities during the implementation of a new environmental science curriculum. The classrooms are similar in that both are located in the same middle school and led by experienced classroom teachers. Despite these similarities, differences among learning outcomes are found in analyses of student pre- and post-science tests in the two rooms. Through videotape analysis of classroom interaction within parallel curricular activities, learning opportunities are contrasted in terms of the social and cognitive organization of science activities and the roles played by teachers, students, and scientists as manifested in their discourse. In one classroom, tasks flow between whole class discussions and small group work. Curricular activities are interwoven with transitions eased as goals are shared with students. Scientific concepts are connected through various activities and related to ideas outside of the classroom. Furthermore, the classroom community is united, established largely through the teacher's discourse patterns, such as deictics (specifically, inclusive personal pronouns). Moreover, the teacher emphasizes that she is learning alongside the students. In the other classroom, the focus of their science period is typically centered around whole class instruction or small group work depending on the particular lesson. This organization accompanied by a heavy use of directives leads to an implicit goal of completing the assigned task. Curricular activities are isolated, with an emphasis on following protocol instructions. Through discursive patterns, such as endearing address terms and exclusive pronouns, a dichotomy is created between the teacher and student. As the designated expert, this teacher imparts her knowledge of science to the students. Several implications emerge from this study. Although pre-packaged, curricular lessons appear identical on paper, the enacted curriculum differs, even in similar settings. Without
Allen, J. S.
NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and
Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Yeung, Suey Shuk Yu; Lee, Paul Hong; Ng, Shamay Sheung Mei
OBJECTIVES : To examine the feasibility of a peer-led pain management program among nursing home residents. DESIGN : A quasi-experimental design. SETTING : Two nursing homes. SUBJECTS : Fifty nursing home residents. METHODS : The experimental group (n = 32) was given a 12-week group-based peer-led pain management program. There were two 1-hour sessions per week. Education in pain and demonstrations of nonpharmacological pain management strategies were provided. The research team and 12 trained peers led the sessions. The control group (n = 18) received one 1-hour session of pain management program each week over 12 weeks from the research team only. Outcome measures for the participants were collected at baseline (P1) and at week 12 (P2). Data from peer volunteers were collected prior to training (V1) and at week 12 (V2). T-tests were used to compare the differences in outcome measures collected at two time points. RESULTS : There was a significant reduction in pain intensity from 5.8 ± 2.6 (P1) to 3.4 ± 2.5 (P2) for the experimental group (p = 0.003) and from 6.3 ± 3.0 (P1) to 3.1 ± 2.4 (P2) for the control group (p = 0.001). Activities of daily living significantly improved for both the experimental group (p = 0.008) and the control group (p = 0.014). There was an enhancement in happiness level for the experimental group (p peer volunteers showed a significant increase in self-rated pain management knowledge (2.9 ± 2.6 to 8.1 ± 1.2, p peer-led pain management program was feasible and has potential in relieving chronic pain and enhancing the physical and psychological health of nursing home residents. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
D. Gavin Luter
Full Text Available The present study investigates the extent to which a program guided by the principles of critical pedagogy, which seeks to develop critical consciousness, is associated with the improved academic performance of students attending a low-performance middle-school in Buffalo, New York. The students were enrolled in an in-school academic support program called the Community as Classroom, which used critical project-based learning to show students how to improve neighborhood conditions. The study found that the Community as Classroom program bolstered student engagement as reflected in improved attendance, on-time-arrival at school, and reduced suspensions. Although class grades did not improve, standardized scores, particularly in Math and Science, dramatically improved for these students from the lowest scoring categories. We suspect that given increased student engagement and dramatically improved standardized test scores, teacher bias might be the cause of no improvements in class grades. We conclude that critical pedagogy, which leads to increased critical consciousness, is a tool that can lead to improved academic performance of students. Such a pedagogy, we argue, should be more widely used in public schools, with a particular emphasis on their deployment in Community Schools.
Wittich, Christopher M; Agrawal, Anoop; Wang, Amy T; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Chaudhry, Saima; Dupras, Denise M; Oxentenko, Amy S; Beckman, Thomas J
To begin to quantify and understand the use of the flipped classroom (FC)-a progressive, effective, curricular model-in internal medicine (IM) education in relation to residency program and program director (PD) characteristics. The authors conducted a survey that included the Flipped Classroom Perception Instrument (FCPI) in 2015 regarding programs' use and PDs' perceptions of the FC model. Among the 368 IM residency programs, PDs at 227 (61.7%) responded to the survey and 206 (56.0%) completed the FCPI. Regarding how often programs used the FC model, 34 of the 206 PDs (16.5%) reported "never"; 44 (21.4%) reported "very rarely"; another 44 (21.4%) reported "somewhat rarely"; 59 (28.6%) reported "sometimes"; 16 (7.8%) reported "somewhat often"; and 9 (4.4%) reported "very often." The mean FCPI score (standard deviation [SD]) for the in-class application factor (4.11 [0.68]) was higher (i.e., more favorable) than for the preclass activity factor (3.94 [0.65]) (P 50 years, 3.94 [0.61]; P = .04) and women compared with men (4.28 [0.56] vs. 3.91 [0.62]; P < .001). PDs with better perceptions of FCs had higher odds of using FCs (odds ratio, 4.768; P < .001). Most IM programs use the FC model at least to some extent, and PDs prefer the interactive in-class components over the independent preclass activities. PDs who are women and younger perceived the model more favorably.
Layne, Jennifer E; Sampson, Susan E; Mallio, Charlotte J; Hibberd, Patricia L; Griffith, John L; Das, Sai Krupa; Flanagan, William J; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen
The objective of this longitudinal study was to determine the feasibility of a model for disseminating community-based strength training programs for older adults through leadership training of laypersons or "peers" and health and fitness professionals. The intervention consisted of a progressive strength training, balance, and flexibility exercise program and a leader training and certification workshop. Feasibility was defined as 75% or more of individuals who completed leader training establishing or teaching at least two 12-week strength training classes within 1 year. Program dissemination was quantified as the number of classes established between January 2005 and December 2006. Demographic characteristics and health status of leaders and program participants were evaluated. Two hundred forty-four leaders (peers, n=149; professionals, n=95) were trained and certified. Seventy-nine percent of all leaders (n=193) met the feasibility criteria of establishing or teaching strength training classes. There was no difference in the percentage of peer leaders (80%, n=119) and professional leaders (78%, n=74) who established or taught classes (P5.71) despite significant differences in their demographic and health profiles. Ninety-seven self-sustaining strength training classes were established in senior and community centers, and 2,217 older adults (women, n=1,942; men, n=275) aged 50 to 97 with multiple chronic medical conditions enrolled. In conclusion, training peer and professional leaders is a feasible and successful model for disseminating a community strength training program for older adults. Widespread dissemination of this program has significant public health implications for increasing physical activity participation by older adults.
Crawford, Joanne; Frisina, Angela; Hack, Tricia; Parascandalo, Faye
This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier.
Adams, Alyson; Ross, Dorene; Swain, Colleen; Dana, Nancy; Leite, Walter; Sandbach, Robert
This article presents findings from a study about the perceived impact of a job-embedded graduate program designed to prepare teacher leaders within the context of university-district-school partnerships. Study participants completed a 30-item survey about impact of the program on instructional practices, collaboration with peers, participation in…
Lovell, Nikki; Hachmeister, Paula
This is a manual for peer counselors and parents in an alcohol and drug abuse prevention program for teenagers. The document opens with the training objectives for the peer helpers: to know yourself, to be a resource, and to promote and establish a drug-free peer group and drug-free activities in school. Discussion on these topics is provided: (1)…
The two-fold purpose of this study was to explore the peer education experiences of registered nurses and solutions for developing peer education as an effective method of adult learning. Eleven designated peer nurse teachers and 13 peer nurse learners were asked to complete a questionnaire. Three peer nurse teachers and three peer nurse learners were further interviewed in focus groups. The metathemes of peer role conflict, organizational stress, and the timing of new role integration were identified. The study found nurses believed that to have a successful peer education program, the scope of the peer education program and the peer roles should be clarified, peer time should be available and accessible, positive motivational techniques (including a just peer selection process) should be present, and other resources should be provided.
Full Text Available Deakin University’s online study environment continues to grow with over 12,000 students now studying in the Cloud. It is important to provide these students not only academic support, but also a sense of inclusion and community. This will improve their social engagement and from there, they will more likely succeed. In 2015, the Division of Student Life ran an online pilot based on their successful Peer-Assisted Study Sessions program. Results from the pilot were positive. Students reported greater connection with the subject and with their fellow students. The program will be expanded in 2016 based on this pilot.
Park, Kyung Min; Park, Heeok
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors...
Kollerová, Lenka; Smolík, Filip
Background: Past research has shown that peer victimization by bullying is associated with peer rejection and fear of victimization, but little is known about the interplay between victimization and other characteristics in the prediction of these experiences. We assume that the associations between victimization and peer rejection/fear of…
Gómez-Pardo, Emilia; Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Vilanova, Marta; Haro, Domingo; Martínez, Ramona; Carvajal, Isabel; Carral, Vanesa; Rodríguez, Carla; de Miguel, Mercedes; Bodega, Patricia; Santos-Beneit, Gloria; Peñalvo, Jose Luis; Marina, Iñaki; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Dal Re, Marian; Villar, Carmen; Robledo, Teresa; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Bansilal, Sameer; Fuster, Valentin
reported here to determine long-term sustainability of the improvements associated with peer group intervention. (Peer-Group-Based Intervention Program [Fifty-Fifty]; NCT02367963). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dielman, T E; Kloska, D D; Leech, S L; Schulenberg, J E; Shope, J T
A school-based alcohol misuse prevention program had differential effects on students' susceptibility to peer pressure, depending on prior experience with alcohol. These effects paralleled those on alcohol use and misuse, indicating program effects on use and misuse were mediated by reductions in the rate of increase on susceptibility to peer pressure. Experimental group students with prior unsupervised use of alcohol showed a significantly greater reduction than their controls in the rate of increase in susceptibility to peer pressure, alcohol use, and alcohol misuse. This difference was not found among students without prior unsupervised use of alcohol.
Riddell, Michaela A; Renwick, Carla; Wolfe, Rory
-based peer support for people with type 2 diabetes in a community setting. Results from this trial will contribute evidence about the effectiveness of peer support in achieving effective self-management of diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR); ACTRN...... support. (2) Support through regular supporter-participant or participant-participant contact, between monthly sessions, is also promoted in order to maintain motivation and encourage self-improvement and confidence in diabetes self-management. (3) Participants receive a workbook containing diabetes......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Well managed diabetes requires active self-management in order to ensure optimal glycaemic control and appropriate use of available clinical services and other supports. Peer supporters can assist people with their daily diabetes self-management activities, provide emotional...
Furman, Melina Gabriela
The current scenario in American education shows a large achievement and opportunity gap in science between urban children in poverty and more privileged youth. Research has shown that one essential factor that accounts for this gap is the shortage of qualified science teachers in urban schools. Teaching science in a high poverty school presents unique challenges to beginner teachers. Limited resources and support and a significant cultural divide with their students are some of the common problems that cause many novice teachers to quit their jobs or to start enacting what has been described as "the pedagogy of poverty." In this study I looked at the case of the Urban Science Education Fellows Program. This program aimed to prepare preservice teachers (i.e. "fellows") to enact socially just science pedagogies in urban classrooms. I conducted qualitative case studies of three fellows. Fellows worked over one year with science teachers in middle-school classrooms in order to develop transformative action research studies. My analysis focused on how fellows coauthored hybrid spaces within these studies that challenged the typical ways science was taught and learned in their classrooms towards a vision of socially just teaching. By coauthoring these hybrid spaces, fellows developed grounded generativity, i.e. a capacity to create new teaching scenarios rooted in the pragmatic realities of an authentic classroom setting. Grounded generativity included building upon their pedagogical beliefs in order to improvise pedagogies with others, repositioning themselves and their students differently in the classroom and constructing symbols of possibility to guide their practice. I proposed authentic play as the mechanism that enabled fellows to coauthor hybrid spaces. Authentic play involved contexts of moderate risk and of distributed expertise and required fellows to be positioned at the intersection of the margins and the center of the classroom community of practice. In
Associations Between Peer Counseling and Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration: An Analysis of Minnesota Participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).
McCoy, Marcia Burton; Geppert, Joni; Dech, Linda; Richardson, Michaela
Background Peer counseling (PC) has been associated with increased breastfeeding initiation and duration, but few analyses have examined the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) model for peer counseling or the continuation of breastfeeding from birth through 12 months postpartum. Objectives Identify associations between Minnesota WIC Peer Breastfeeding Support Program services and breastfeeding initiation and continuation. Methods Retrospective analysis of observational data from the Minnesota WIC program's administrative database of women who gave birth in 2012 and accepted a PC program referral prenatally (n = 2219). Multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression models examined associations between peer services and breastfeeding initiation and continuation of any breastfeeding. Results Among women who accepted referral into a PC program, odds of initiation were significantly higher among those who received peer services (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.66; 95% CI 1.19-2.32), after adjusting for confounders. Women who received peer services had a significantly lower hazard of breastfeeding discontinuation from birth through 12 months postpartum than women who did not receive services. (Hazard Ratio (HR) month one: 0.45; 95% CI 0.33-0.61; months two through twelve: 0.33; 95% CI 0.18-0.60). The effect of peer counseling did not differ significantly by race and ethnicity, taking into account mother's country of origin. Conclusion for practice Receipt of peer services was positively associated with breastfeeding initiation and continued breastfeeding from birth through 12 months postpartum. Making peer services available to more women, especially in communities with low initiation and duration, could improve maternal and child health in Minnesota.
Full Text Available This research examines chemistry teachers’ understanding on Classroom Action Research (CAR and their ability to design CAR in hybrid learning-based self-development program. The research employed one group pretest posttest design. Fifteen high school chemistry teachers in Sleman were involved. The program was carried out through course work and training following In-On-In format (face to face, practice, and face to face meetings. It was supported by the use of Tinular website (http://dikkitinular.wix.com/titinular. The research findings show that the increase of chemistry teachers’ understanding on CAR can be categorized as ‘medium’. Their ability to design a CAR can be categorized as ‘good’. The appropriateness of the action and data collection instrument constitute the ability with the lowest score. Continuous implementation of the program, appropriate supervision and scaffolding from the tutor significantly enhance teachers’ self-development. KEMAMPUAN MERANCANG PENELITIAN TINDAKAN KELAS GURU KIMIA DALAM PROGRAM BERBASIS HYBRID LEARNING Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pemahaman guru kimia tentang penelitian tindakan kelas (PTK dan kemampuan mereka dalam merancang PTK dalam program pengembangan diri berbasis hybrid learning. Desain penelitian yang digunakan one group pretest posttest design. Subjek penelitian adalah 15 orang guru kimia SMA di Kabupaten Sleman. Program pengembangan diri berbasis hybrid learning dilaksanakan melalui kegiatan pendidikan dan pelatihan dengan pola In-On-In. Program diawali dengan tatap muka, praktik dan ditutup dengan tatap muka. Selama pelaksanaan program didukung penggunaan website Tinular (http://dikkitinular.wix.com/titinular. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemahaman seluruh guru kimia tentang PTK mengalami peningkatan dengan kategori peningkatan “sedang”. Guru kimia memiliki kemampuan dalam merancang PTK dengan kategori baik. Ketepatan rancangan tindakan dan ketepatan
The author investigated the role of individual characteristics (self-esteem, social anxiety, and self-reported classroom participation) and peer reactions (peer-perceived shyness, peer nominations) in classroom loneliness in a sample of 704 preadolescent boys (360) and girls (344). It was hypothesized that classroom participation functions as a…
Chu, Chia-Hua; Pan, Chien-Yu
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of peer- and sibling-assisted learning on interaction behaviors and aquatic skills in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Outcome measures were also examined in their typically developing (TD) peers/siblings. Twenty-one children with ASD and 21 TD children were assigned in three groups:…
Holsen, Ingrid; Larsen, Torill; Tjomsland, Hege Eikeland; Servan, Annette Kathinka
This study explores the experiences of using peers as leaders in a secondary school intervention in Norway from the perspectives of the principals, the teachers and the peer leaders. The overall aims of the intervention are to improve the psychosocial learning environment and promote positive mental health. Five secondary schools which had used…
Rivard, Léonard P.; Gueye, Ndeye R.
Literacy in the Science Classroom Project was a three-year professional development (PD) program supporting minority-language secondary teachers' use of effective language-based instructional strategies for teaching science. Our primary objective was to determine how teacher beliefs and practices changed over time and how these were enacted in different classrooms. We also wanted to identify the challenges and enablers to implementing these literacy strategies and practices at the classroom, school, and district levels. Data collection involved both qualitative and quantitative methodologies: student questionnaires; interviews with teachers, principals, and mentor; and focus groups with students. The findings suggest that the program had an impact on beliefs and practices commensurate with the workshop participation of individual teachers. These language-enhanced teacher practices also had a positive impact on the use of talking, reading and writing by students in the science classroom. Finally, continuing PD support may be needed in certain jurisdictions for strengthening minority-language programs given the high teacher mobility in content-area classrooms evident in this study.
Twomey, Janine Louise
The peer mentor program at the two-year campus of New Mexico State University at Alamogordo utilizes a stress prevention model of social support. In an effort to determine the most successful program design, two social support models were introduced into the program. In the first, 14 participants received individual, one-on-one support from a…
Carlson, Kathryn R.
Research shows that probable causes for disruptive classroom behavior are broken social bonds, violent environment, stress and conflict, and inadequate curriculum coupled with ineffective teaching methods. This report discusses a program to decrease negative peer interaction in order to improve academic achievement and interpersonal relationships.…
This article reports on a major action research program that experimented with the use of cross-age peer teaching in schools to assist teachers to manage conflict issues in their classrooms, and to re-engage disaffected students in learning. The research, which was conducted in a range of elementary and secondary schools in Australia, was part of…
Conrad, Eva; And Others
This booklet contains ideas, organized by curriculum area, for using peer tutoring as a planned classroom activity. Included are outlines of the tutoring process, tutor training, ways for incorporating tutor teams into classroom routines, and type of materials needed. Activity ideas for math and language arts are presented, and record keeping…
Gruber, Melinda Marie
Many new and emerging leaders will move into leadership positions in healthcare as experienced leaders retire or move to other positions. These individuals need leadership development that supports them in becoming transformational change leaders. This study explored the topic of peer learning as a leadership development approach in a healthcare…
Fasko, Sharla Nichols
This study used a multiple-baseline-across-subjects design to assess the effectiveness of a peer tutoring intervention for fluency in basic math facts. Specifically, this study assessed the rate of recall of multiplication facts throughout the intervention period and determined whether the progress was matched by improvement in actual classwork.…
Toth, Kate E.; McKey, Colleen A.
The literature on educational peer review (EPR) has focused on evaluating EPR's impact on faculty and/or student learning outcomes; no literature exists on the potential organizational impact. A qualitative (case study) research design explored perceptions of 17 faculty and 10 administrators within a school of nursing in an Ontario university…
Toth, Kate E.; McKey, Colleen A.
The purpose of faculty development in terms of the educational role is to assist faculty in becoming better educators. Educational peer review (EPR) is one method of faculty development. This article is based on a study that explored the different development needs of nursing faculty within a school of nursing at an Ontario university. The study…
Horn, Michael S.
In considering ways to improve the use of digital technology in educational settings, it is helpful to look beyond desktop computers and conventional modes of interaction and consider the flood of emerging technologies that already play a prominent role in the everyday lives of children. In this dissertation, I will present a research project that builds on tangible user interface (TUI) technology to support computer programming and robotics activities in education settings. In particular, I will describe the design and implementation of a novel tangible computer programming language called Tern. I will also describe an evaluation of Tern's use in both formal and informal educational settings--as part of an interactive exhibit on robotics and computer programming called Robot Park on display at the Boston Museum of Science; and as part of a curriculum unit piloted in several kindergarten classrooms in the greater Boston area. In both cases, Tern allows children to create simple computer programs to control a robot. However, rather than using a keyboard or mouse to write programs on a computer screen, children instead use Tern to construct physical algorithmic structures using a collection of interlocking wooden blocks. The goal of this work is not to propose that tangible programming languages are general purpose tools that should replace existing graphical programming languages; rather, I will present evidence to support the argument that tangible programming begins to make sense when one considers the contexts and constraints of specific educational settings. Moreover, in these settings tangible languages can compensate for some of the shortcomings of graphical and text-based systems that have limited their use.
Incorporating research into a high school classroom is an excellent way to teach students fundamental concepts in science. One program that incorporates this approach is the Waksman Student Scholar Program (WSSP), which allows high school students, teachers and Rutgers professors to work side by side on an ongoing molecular biology research program. Students in the program first isolated plasmid clones from bacteria that contain cDNA fragments of genes from the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana. They then determined the size of the DNA by performing molecular biology experiments. Students then analyzed the DNA sequence and after review from WSSP staff and high school teachers, the student's sequences were published in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. This was often the last step in the project the students performed. However, if the project were being conducted in a research lab instead of a high school, the cDNA clone would often be further analyzed. In the past, safety, convenience, and affordability have limited the availability of these experiments in a high school setting. Although additional bioinformatic experiments could easily be performed in the high school, there is a strong need for additional "wet lab" experiments to keep the students engaged and motivated to work on the project. I have worked on developing three experimental modules that can be performed in a high school setting. These experiments were tested with the students and teachers of the WSSP. This work will expand the scope of experiments that can be performed in a high school environment.
This study investigates the effectiveness of pair programming on student learning and satisfaction in introductory programming courses. Pair programming, used in the industry as a practice of an agile development method, can be adopted in classroom settings to encourage peer learning, increase students' social skills, and enhance student…
Munns, Ailsa; Watts, Robin; Hegney, Desley; Walker, Roz
Designing child and family health services to meet the diverse needs of contemporary families is intended to minimize impacts of early disadvantage and subsequent lifelong health and social issues. Innovative programs to engage families with child and family support services have led to interest in the potential value of peer-led home visiting from parents in local communities. There is a range of benefits and challenges identified in a limited number of studies associated with home visiting peer support. The objective of the review is to identify: INCLUSION CRITERIA PARTICIPANTS: Families/parents with one or more children aged zero to four years, peer support workers and their supervisors. Peer-led home visiting parenting support programs that use volunteer or paraprofessional home visitors from the local community compared to standard community maternal-child care. The phenomenon of interest will be the relationships between participants in the program. Quantitative studies: randomized control trials (RCTs). Qualitative studies: grounded theory and qualitative descriptive studies. Parental attitudes and beliefs, coping skills and confidence in parenting, parental stress, compliance with child health checks/links with primary healthcare services, satisfaction with peer support and services and the nature of the relationship between parents and home visitors. The search strategy will include both published and unpublished studies. Seven journal databases and five other sources will be searched. Only studies published in the English language from 2000 to 2015 will be considered. Studies were assessed by two independent reviewers using standardized critical appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) and the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI) as appropriate. Both quantitative and qualitative data were independently extracted by two reviewers
Rousseau, Cécile; Benoit, Maryse; Gauthier, Marie-France; Lacroix, Louise; Alain, Néomée; Rojas, Musuk Viger; Moran, Alejandro; Bourassa, Dominique
This evaluative study assesses the effects of a school drama therapy program for immigrant and refugee adolescents designed to prevent emotional and behavioral problems and to enhance school performance. The 9-week program involved 136 newcomers, aged 12 to 18, attending integration classes in a multiethnic school. Pretest and posttest data were collected from the students and their teachers. The self-report and teacher's forms of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to assess emotional and behavioral symptoms. At the end of the program, although there were no reported improvement in self-esteem or emotional and behavioral symptoms, the adolescents in the experimental group reported lower mean levels of impairment by symptoms than those in the control group, when baseline data were controlled for. Their performance in mathematics also increased significantly compared to that of their control peers. The findings suggest that the workshops may have an impact on social adjustment of recently arrived immigrants and refugees. This drama therapy program appears to be a promising way of working preventively and in a nonstigmatizing manner with adolescents who have been exposed to diverse forms of adversity, among which are war and violence.
Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T
To address a dearth of mentoring and to avoid the pitfalls of dyadic mentoring, the authors implemented and evaluated a novel collaborative group peer mentoring program in a large academic department of medicine. The mentoring program aimed to facilitate faculty in their career planning, and targeted either early-career or midcareer faculty in 5 cohorts over 4 years, from 2010 to 2014. Each cohort of 9-12 faculty participated in a yearlong program with foundations in adult learning, relationship formation, mindfulness, and culture change. Participants convened for an entire day, once a month. Sessions incorporated facilitated stepwise and values-based career planning, skill development, and reflective practice. Early-career faculty participated in an integrated writing program and midcareer faculty in leadership development. Overall attendance of the 51 participants was 96%, and only 3 of 51 faculty who completed the program left the medical school during the 4 years. All faculty completed a written detailed structured academic development plan. Participants experienced an enhanced, inclusive, and appreciative culture; clarified their own career goals, values, strengths and priorities; enhanced their enthusiasm for collaboration; and developed skills. The program results highlight the need for faculty to personally experience the power of forming deep relationships with their peers for fostering successful career development and vitality. The outcomes of faculty humanity, vitality, professionalism, relationships, appreciation of diversity, and creativity are essential to the multiple missions of academic medicine. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
Full Text Available One-to-one laptop programs, where each student has their own laptop to use in classroom, are becoming popular in schools especially in Australia and the Unites States. The purpose of the study was to contribute to the limited knowledgebase explaining the implementation of laptop programs specifically with English language learners. Four ESL classroom teachers, six ESL students, and three school administrators participated in individually conducted, semi-structured interviews. Additionally, a total of twelve observations were completed in four ESL classrooms. Data was interpreted through Grounded Theory and open-, axial-, and selective-coding was used for coding. Three themes emerged from data analysis. The first theme focused on explaining how teacherlaptops were used. Results indicated that use of teacher-laptops ranged from making instruction visual to playing music to create a soothing classroom environment. The second theme explained use of student-laptops and indicated that they were mainly used to develop English language skills and complete projects. The third and last theme portrayed some concerns teachers and students had about technical issues and overreliance on laptops impacting instruction and classroom culture unfavorably. Implications are discussed while reporting findings of the study. The study concludes with limitations of the study and suggestions for future research
Shepherd, J. Marshall
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission is the first mission dedicated to measuring tropical and subtropical rainfall using a variety of remote sensing instrumentation, including the first spaceborne rain-measuring radar. Since the energy released when tropical rainfall occurs is a primary "fuel" supply for the weather and climate "engine"; improvements in computer models which predict future weather and climate states may depend on better measurements of global tropical rainfall and its energy. In support of the STANYS conference theme of Education and Space, this presentation focuses on one aspect of NASA's Earth Systems Science Program. We seek to present an overview of the TRMM mission. This overview will discuss the scientific motivation for TRMM, the TRMM instrument package, and recent images from tropical rainfall systems and hurricanes. The presentation also targets educational components of the TRMM mission in the areas of weather, mathematics, technology, and geography that can be used by secondary school/high school educators in the classroom.
Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan; Gill, Anneliese; Toukhsati, Samia R.
Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…
Pierce, Donna M.; Radencic, Sarah P.; Walker, Ryan M.; Cartwright, John H.; Schmitz, Darrel W.; Bruce, Lori M.; McNeal, Karen S.
Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) is a five-year partnership between Mississippi State University and three school districts in Mississippi’s Golden Triangle region. This fellowship program is designed to strengthen the communication and scientific reasoning skills of STEM graduate students by having them design and implement inquiry-based lessons which channel various aspects of their research in our partner classrooms. Fellows are encouraged to explore a diversity of approaches in classroom lesson design and to use various technologies in their lessons, including GIS, SkyMaster weather stations, Celestia, proscopes, benchtop SEM, and others. Prior to entering the classrooms for a full school year, Fellows go through an intense graduate-level training course and work directly with their partner teachers, the program coordinator, and participating faculty, to fold their lessons into the curricula of the classrooms to which they’ve been assigned. Here, we will discuss the various written, oral, and visual exercises that have been most effective for training our Fellows, including group discussions of education literature, role playing and team-building exercises, preparation of written lesson plans for dissemination to other teachers nationwide, the Presentation Boot Camp program, and production of videos made by the Fellows highlighting careers in STEM fields. We will also discuss the changes observed in Fellows’ abilities to communicate science and mathematics over the course of their fellowship year. INSPIRE is funded by the NSF Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellowship Program, award number DGE-0947419.
Rajan, Rekha S.
The purpose of this study was to explore how preschool teachers use music and identify the types of music activities available to children in their classrooms. Preschool teachers (N = 178) at park district programs throughout a large state in the American Midwest responded to an online questionnaire. Although teachers acknowledged using music…
Wen, Xiaoli; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; Korfmacher, Jon
Guided by a developmental-ecological framework and Head Start's two-generational approach, this study examined two dimensions of Head Start program quality, classroom quality and parent involvement and their unique and interactive contribution to children's vocabulary, literacy, and mathematics skills growth from the beginning of Head Start…
This article examines how three urban elementary school teachers adapted pedagogical strategies from a school district--adopted core reading program to increase their students' access to the curriculum. Using teacher interviews and classroom observations to construct a descriptive case study of teacher adaptation, analysis reveals that the…
Carlson, Sarah E.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a play-based teacher consultation (PBTC) program on individual teachers' interpersonal classroom behaviors and teacher-child relationships. The research questions addressed the application of child-centered play therapy principles and PBTC increasing teacher responsiveness, decreasing…
Alotaibi, Khaled Nahes; Almutairy, Sultan
The present study aims at showing the effectiveness of a suggested training program for staff members at Teachers' College of King Saud University to develop their skills of using virtual classrooms. The research is empirical as it used two experimental groups. The first group is taught how to use the common teaching method and the second group is…
Catholic Extension and Loyola Marymount University (LMU) have engaged in a partnership to offer a graduate level, virtual classroom-based Certificate in Catholic School Administration (CCSA) program for novice and prospective leaders in Catholic schools in mission dioceses throughout the United States. This synchronous online Catholic School…
Best, Krista L; Routhier, François; Sweet, Shane N; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Borisoff, Jaimie F; Noreau, Luc; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A
Physical activity (PA) must be performed regularly to accrue health benefits. However, the majority of manual wheelchair users do not meet PA recommendations. Existing community-based PA programs for manual wheelchair users appear to work, but effect sizes are small and retention is low. Existing PA programs may not fully implement some psychosocial factors that are strongly linked with PA (eg, autonomy). The use of peers and mobile phone technology in the Smartphone Peer PA Counseling (SPPAC) program represents a novel approach to cultivating a PA-supportive environment for manual wheelchair users. The primary objective is to compare change in objective PA between the experimental (SPPAC) and control groups from baseline to postintervention (10 weeks) and follow-up (3 months). Changes in and relationships between subjective PA, wheelchair skills, motivation, self-efficacy (for overcoming barriers to PA for manual wheelchair use), satisfaction of psychological needs for PA, and satisfaction with PA participation will be explored (secondary outcome). Program implementation will be explored (tertiary objective). A total of 38 community-living manual wheelchair users (≥18 years) will be recruited in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants in both the control and experimental groups will receive existing PA guidelines. Participants in the experimental group will also receive the SPPAC program: 14 sessions (~30 min) over a 10-week period delivered by a peer trainer using a mobile phone. PA activities will be based on individuals' preferences and goals. Implementation of important theoretical variables will be enforced through a peer-trainer checklist. Outcomes for objective PA (primary) and subjective PA, wheelchair skills, motivation, self-efficacy, satisfaction of psychological needs, and satisfaction with participation will be collected at three time points (baseline, postintervention, follow-up). Multiple imputations will be used to treat missing data. A