Sample records for program classroom instruction

  1. E-learning vs. classroom instruction in infection control in a dental hygiene program. (United States)

    Garland, Kandis V


    The purpose of this project was to evaluate e-learning versus classroom instruction in infection control by comparing outcomes of multiple-choice examination scores and clinical competency-based examinations (CBE) between two groups of first-year dental hygiene students (fall 2008 e-learning: n=26; fall 2009 classroom instruction: n=26). Contents of both instructional units were comparable and were developed by the Organization for Safety, Asepsis, and Prevention. All students in each group were required to complete infection control instruction as part of the preclinical curriculum (didactic and clinical) and were tested on the material using the multiple-choice examination and clinical CBE. Both groups' scores on the multiple-choice examination ranged from 74 percent to 94 percent (n=26 to 33 of 35), with e-learning mean score=82.8 percent, n=29 of 35, and classroom instruction mean score=86.8 percent, n=30 of 35. A two-tailed independent samples t-test indicated a statistically significant difference between the two groups on the multiple-choice examination (p=0.11). The Fisher's exact test indicated no statistically significant difference between the two groups on the first-time pass rate for the clinical CBE (p=0.668). Findings demonstrated little difference between the two methods for teaching infection control. Thus, either method may be chosen. Future research should examine a blended approach with larger samples and longitudinal data.

  2. Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cummins


    Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.

  3. Alternative Approaches to Classroom Instruction. (United States)

    Nunan, David


    Reexamines the notion of "teaching." Drawing on data from a range of classrooms, as well as from recently published teaching texts, particular attention is focused on the question: "What do we mean by teaching/instruction?" (eight references) (Author/JL)

  4. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN FOR TEACHERS: Improving classroom practice


    Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut


    The key to successful learning in most formal instructional settings is effective instructional design (ID). Instructional design for teachers serves as an organized source of directions, which can help classroom teachers to integrate available resources to improve students‘ acquisition of the instructional goals. The book is consisted of 151 pages (+xvii) covering eight chapters which address a commonsense model of instructional design to guide K-12 teachers during their unique instructional...

  5. Improving Classroom Behavior through Effective Instruction: An Illustrative Program Example Using "SRA FLEX Literacy" (United States)

    Martella, Ronald C.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.


    Research has demonstrated a strong positive correlation between behavior problems and low academic achievement. Student success and/or failures are in large part determined by how well teachers provide effective instruction to their students. This article overviews key behavior-management approaches related to academic and behavioral success that…

  6. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs


    Child, Angela R.


    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP reading lessons. This study sought to answer the question: What elements of explicit instruction or instructional moves are included in the five most...

  7. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs (United States)

    Child, Angela R.


    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  8. Differentiated Instruction in the Elementary Classroom (United States)

    Cox, Susan G.


    As classrooms become more culturally diverse, it becomes more imperative that differentiated instruction occur in elementary classrooms. Today's classrooms usually contain students with a wide range of abilities and varied experiential backgrounds. These students learn at different rates and in different ways. Differentiation is important in the…

  9. Ohio's Phonics Demonstration Project: A Longitudinal Study. Reading Instruction in Ohio's Phonics Demonstration Project Classrooms and Teacher Preparation Programs. (United States)

    Gifford, Myrna R.; Cochran, Judith A.; Graham, Glenn; Hudson, Lynne; Wiersma, William

    During the 2000-2001 school year, an 18-month evaluation of Ohio's Phonics Demonstration Program (PDP) was conducted by the same evaluation team that had conducted a similar evaluation in 1997. In addition to evaluating phonics instruction in PDP schools, the evaluation also addressed the preparation of teachers for reading/phonics instruction in…

  10. Transfer of Instructional Practices from Freedom Schools to the Classroom (United States)

    Stanford, Myah D.


    The instructional practices of three current classroom teachers who formerly served as Servant Leader Interns (SLIs) in the Children's Defense Fund Freedom Schools (CDFFS) Program were examined. Haskell ("Transfer of learning: cognition, instruction, and reasoning." Academic Press, San Diego, 2001) outlined eleven principles of transfer…

  11. Flipped Classroom Instruction for Inclusive Learning (United States)

    Altemueller, Lisa; Lindquist, Cynthia


    The flipped classroom is a teaching methodology that has gained recognition in primary, secondary and higher education settings. The flipped classroom inverts traditional teaching methods, delivering lecture instruction outside class, and devoting class time to problem solving, with the teacher's role becoming that of a learning coach and…

  12. Classroom Instruction: The Influences of Marie Clay (United States)

    McNaughton, Stuart


    Marie Clay's body of work has influenced classroom instruction in direct and indirect ways, through large overarching themes in our pedagogical content knowledge as well as specific smart practices. This paper focuses on her the contributions to our thinking about instruction which come from two broad theoretical concepts; emergent literacy…

  13. Use of Instructional Technologies in Science Classrooms: Teachers' Perspectives (United States)

    Savasci Açikalin, Funda


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how science teachers use instructional technologies in science classrooms. Participants were 63 teachers who have just completed an alternative teaching certificate program in one of the largest universities in Turkey. They were asked to make a lesson plan based on any topic by assuming that they had an…

  14. Differentiated Instruction in the Classroom (United States)

    Kelly, Gretchen


    Low achievement on standardized tests may be attributed to many factors, including teaching methods. Differentiated instruction has been identified as a teaching method using different learning modalities that appeal to varied student interests with individualized instruction. The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare whole-group…

  15. Out of Classroom Instruction in the Flipped Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Timcenko, Olga


    This article presents experiences and student perceptions on the introduction of the flipped classroom model in two consecutive semesters at Media Technology department of Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark. We introduced the flipped instruction model to a statistics course and a mathematics...... workshop. We collected data by two online survey studies, which show support for student perceptions that out-of-classroom instruction with online resources enhances learning, by providing visual and in depth explanations, and can engage the learner. However, students stated that they miss just......-in-time explanations when learning with online resources and they questioned the quality and validity of some of them. Based on these findings and our own experience, we discuss requirements for resources and activities in flipped classrooms in order for the student to engage and learn. Finally, we present a framework...

  16. Effectiveness of Admission Criteria on Student Performance in Classroom and Field Instruction


    Thomas, M.; Roseanna McCleary; Patricia Henry


    This study examines the effectiveness of admission criteria on graduate student performance in classroom and field instruction in a new MSW program. Graduate applicants’ undergraduate GPA, GRE, and total weighted admission score consisting of four items were gathered. These were correlated with their classroom and field instruction performance. Findings reveal that GRE, undergraduate GPA, and total weighted admission scores are significantly correlated with their classroom perf...

  17. Developing Effective Instructional Programs. (United States)

    Sizemore, Barbara; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing effective instructional programs, is presented in this document. The first paper, entitled "The Organization--A Viable Instrument for Progress" (Barbara Sizemore), addresses the subject of high-achieving, predominantly black elementary schools. Routines in these schools not present in…

  18. Classroom-based narrative and vocabulary instruction: results of an early-stage, nonrandomized comparison study. (United States)

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Olszewski, Abbie; Fargo, Jamison; Gillam, Ronald B


    This nonrandomized feasibility study was designed to provide a preliminary assessment of the impact of a narrative and vocabulary instruction program provided by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) in a regular classroom setting. Forty-three children attending 2 first-grade classrooms participated in the study. Children in each classroom were divided into high- and low-risk subgroups on the basis of their performance on a narrative test. Narrative and vocabulary instruction was provided by an SLP in 1 classroom for three 30-min periods per week for 6 weeks. The children in the experimental classroom made clinically significant improvements on narrative and vocabulary measures; children in the comparison classroom did not. Within the experimental classroom, children in the high-risk subgroup demonstrated greater gains in narration and fewer gains in vocabulary than children in the low-risk subgroup. There were no subgroup differences in the comparison classroom. These preliminary results provide early evidence of the feasibility of implementing a narrative instruction program in a classroom setting. Children at a high risk for language difficulties appeared to profit more from the narrative instruction than from the embedded vocabulary instruction. More extensive research on this instructional program is warranted.

  19. REVIEW: Instructional Design For Teachers: Improving Classroom Practice


    AKBULUT, Reviewed By Yavuz


    The key to successful learning in most formal instructional settings is effective instructional design (ID). Instructional design for teachers serves as an organized source of directions, which can help classroom teachers to integrate available resources to improve students’ acquisition of the instructional goals. The book is consisted of 151 pages (+xvii) covering eight chapters which address a commonsense model of instructional design to guide K-12 teachers during their unique instructional...

  20. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  1. Subject matter knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices in middle school science classrooms (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    This study examined the interrelationships among three major components of classroom teaching: subject matter content knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices. The study involved two middle school science classes of different achievement levels taught by the same female teacher. The teacher held an undergraduate degree with a major in social studies and a minor in mathematics and science from an elementary teacher education program. The findings indicated that the teacher's limited knowledge of science content and her strict classroom order resulted in heavy dependence on the textbook and students' individual activities (e.g., seatwork) and avoidance of whole-class activities (e.g., discussion) similarly in both classes. Implications for educational practices and further research are discussed.

  2. Twenty-First Century Instructional Classroom Practices and Reading Motivation: Probing the Effectiveness of Interventional Reading Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Boulhrir


    Full Text Available Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading motivation. As motivation hinges around two major theoretical approaches, intrinsic and extrinsic, numerous studies argue for the first to be more sustainable in enhancing reading motivation. Accordingly, many research-based interventional programs have emerged since the late nineties with increasing popularity to offer answers to the dwindling rates in reading among youth. This article discusses traits of 21st century education in light of trends and challenges as it probes the effectiveness of some interventional programs that are meant, and argued for, to enhance literacy skills and reading motivation.

  3. Pre-Service Teachers: An Analysis of Reading Instruction in High Needs Districts Dual Language Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Whitacre


    Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004. The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI, and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003. To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.




  5. Differentiated Instruction in Mixed-Ability Efl Classrooms in Croatia


    Pajalić, Nikolina


    The aim of this paper is to examine the attitudes of Croatian teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) towards the role and use of differentiated instruction in the EFL classroom. Using an online questionnaire an investigation was conducted into how frequently the participants encountered specific classroom situations or performed specific activities when teaching English to mixed-ability groups, and which type of students were most likely to receive differentiated instruction and attr...

  6. Understanding Mathematics Classroom Instruction Through Students and Teachers


    Schenke, Katerina


    High quality instruction is necessary for students of all ages to develop a deep understanding of mathematics. Value-added models, a common approach used to describe teachers and classroom practices, are defined by the student standardized achievement gains teachers elicit. They may, however, fail to account for the complexity of mathematics instruction as it actually occurs in the classroom. To truly understand both a teacher’s impact on his/her students and how best to improve student learn...

  7. Restructuring the Inclusion Classroom to Facilitate Differentiated Instruction (United States)

    Patterson, Joshua L.; Conolly, Mindy C.; Ritter, Shirley A.


    This article describes how the teachers in a sixth grade mathematics inclusion class used differentiated instruction to better meet the needs of all learners in the classroom. In an inclusion class with students of mixed abilities, differentiated instruction allows the teacher to meet the needs of every learner by providing students with multiple…

  8. Recurrent Issues And Problems Of Classroom Instruction | Mbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classroom instruction which is an interactive phenomenon between the teacher, students and instructional resources, is incontestably fundamental to the educational system from whatever perspective. The output of the educational process is measurable principally in terms of students' learning and behavioural outcomes.

  9. Pre-Service Teachers: An Analysis of Reading Instruction in High Needs Districts Dual Language Classrooms


    Whitacre, Michael; Diaz, Zulmaris; Esquierdo, Joy


    Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004). The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument...

  10. Exploring the Amount and Type of Writing Instruction during Language Arts Instruction in Kindergarten Classrooms (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana


    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners’ writing performance. PMID:24578591

  11. Exploring the Amount and Type of Writing Instruction during Language Arts Instruction in Kindergarten Classrooms. (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana


    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.

  12. Factors Related to Computer Use by Teachers in Classroom Instruction


    Blankenship, Strader Eric


    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the following factors predict computer use by teachers in classroom instruction: attitudes of teachers toward computers in the classroom, access by teachers and students to computers, training of teachers in computer use, support of teachers in their use of computers, age of the teacher, grade level in which the teacher teaches, curriculum area in which the teacher teaches, gender of the teacher, and number of years the teacher i...

  13. Planning for Instructional Technology in the Classroom (United States)

    Garza Mitchell, Regina L.


    Community colleges are known for keeping abreast of the latest instructional technologies, but the constant and rapid growth of available technology also presents challenges. This chapter reviews the current literature regarding instructional technology usage, with a focus on beneficial applications of technology for teaching and learning, and…

  14. Research into Practice: Listening Strategies in an Instructed Classroom Setting (United States)

    Graham, Suzanne


    This paper considers research and practice relating to listening in instructed classroom settings, limiting itself to what might be called unidirectional listening (Macaro, Graham & Vanderplank 2007)--in other words, where learners listen to a recording, a TV or radio clip or lecture, but where there is no communication back to the speaker(s).…

  15. Optimizing Classroom Instruction through Self-Paced Learning Prototype (United States)

    Bautista, Romiro G.


    This study investigated the learning impact of self-paced learning prototype in optimizing classroom instruction towards students' learning in Chemistry. Two sections of 64 Laboratory High School students in Chemistry were used as subjects of the study. The Quasi-Experimental and Correlation Research Design was used in the study: a pre-test was…

  16. Using Faculty Peers To Improve Instruction in Diversified College Classrooms. (United States)

    Kurth, Ruth J.

    This study developed and tested a model for using peer coaching to improve college instruction of culturally diverse students. The model's four elements include: change based on collegial relationships combined with peer interactions; dealing with classroom problems through positive behavior change of professors; presentation of observation…

  17. Modeling a Library Media-Classroom Integrated Instructional Process. (United States)

    Bhalla, Pam


    Describes a model for the design, implementation, and evaluation of classroom instruction in which the teacher and media specialist work together and students produce a research paper, oral report, or audiovisual presentation. Both single-facet and multi-facet interdisciplinary approaches to the application of the model are described. (CLB)

  18. Differentiating Instruction for Disabled Students in Inclusive Classrooms (United States)

    Broderick, Alicia; Mehta-Parekh, Heeral; Reid, D. Kim


    Differentiating instruction, a comprehensive approach to teaching, enables the successful inclusion of all students, including the disabled, in general-education classrooms. As inclusive educators, we argue that disability is an enacted, interactional process and not an empirical, stable fact or condition. We recommend planning responsive lessons…

  19. Spatial Mapping as a Method for Observing Classroom Art Instruction. (United States)

    Susi, Frank D.


    Spatial mapping is a category system for directly observing instruction in art classrooms. A rationale for studying the spatial dimensions of teaching is presented, how to train observers is explained, procedures involved in a mapping episode are described, methods for analyzing data are suggested, and examples of instruments are presented.…

  20. Flipped Instruction in a High School Science Classroom (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan; Puzio, Kelly


    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study examining the effectiveness of flipped instruction in a 9th grade biology classroom. This study included four sections of freshmen-level biology taught by the first author at a private secondary school in the Pacific Northwest. Using a block randomized design, two sections were flipped and two…

  1. The Effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction in the Elementary Mathematics Classroom (United States)

    Scott, Brian


    This study was conducted to determine if differentiated instruction improved student growth. The overall effectiveness was studied as well as that of gender and the aptitude of average and above average students. The study was that of a quasi-experimental design using student subjects in the classrooms of three second-grade teachers. The school in…

  2. Classroom instruction versus roadside training in traffic safety education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schagen, I; Rothengatter, J.A.


    This study compares the effectiveness of different approaches to training complex cognitive and psychomotor skills within the framework of road safety education for primary school children. A method involving roadside behavioral training, a classroom instruction method and a method combining these

  3. REACH: A Framework for Differentiating Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Rock, Marcia L.; Gregg, Madeleine; Ellis, Edwin; Gable, Robert A.


    Today, teachers are responsible not only for meeting the diverse needs of all students but also for ensuring improved educational outcomes. Accordingly, school personnel are seeking proven ways to strengthen traditional classroom practices. Beginning with the plight of two teachers--one general and one special education--the authors offer a…

  4. Children's Attitudes and Classroom Interaction in an Intergenerational Education Program (United States)

    Dunham, Charlotte Chorn; Casadonte, Dominick


    This research reports findings from an intergenerational science program, Project Serve, which placed senior volunteers in elementary and junior high science classrooms to assist teachers and augment instruction. Items from the Children's View of Aging survey (Newman, 1997; Newman & Faux, 1997) were administered before and after the project with…

  5. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas


    In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

  6. The Classroom Manager: Procedures and Practices to Improve Instruction (United States)

    Houff, Suzanne G.


    Using William Glasser's five basic needs as a foundation, "The Classroom Manager" provides a theoretical base to guide readers in the understanding and development of an effective classroom management program. The topics of survival, belonging and love, power, fun, and freedom are explored through definitions, practical recommendations and case…

  7. Changes in Teachers' Beliefs and Classroom Practices Concerning Inquiry-Based Instruction Following a Year-Long RET-PLC Program (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel J.; Damico, Julie B.


    This mixed-methods study examines how engaging science teachers in a summer Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) followed by an academic-year Professional Learning Community (PLC) focused on translating teacher research experiences to inquiry-based classroom lessons might facilitate changes in their beliefs and classroom practices regarding…

  8. Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies (United States)

    Ness, Molly


    The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first-…

  9. Teaching Students with Special Needs in Secondary and Vocational Programs: Classroom, Building, Equipment and Instructional Modifications and Adaptations. Working Paper Series. (United States)

    Fletcher, Janice; Parks, A. Lee

    This manuscript, provided in a format that lends itself to workshop presentation, contains materials for vocational and secondary educators on curriculum and classroom modifications for handicapped learners. Content is divided into seven areas. The first section discusses overall curricular modification and adaptation for handicapped students. In…

  10. Teachers' Professional Development for Differentiated Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms: Investigating the Impact of a Development Program on Teachers' Professional Learning and on Students' Achievement (United States)

    Valiandes, Stavroula; Neophytou, Lefkios


    The present article reports the results of a study performed to investigate and examine the characteristics of a teachers' professional development program (Teachers' Professional Development Program for Differentiated Instruction [PDD]) specially designed to support teachers in the design and application of differentiated instruction. Considering…

  11. Differentiated Instruction: Understanding the Personal Factors and Organizational Conditions that Facilitate Differentiated Instruction in Elementary Mathematics Classrooms (United States)

    Abbati, Diana Guglielmo


    Differentiated instruction is a widely held practice used by teachers to provide diverse learners with complex learning opportunities in the area of mathematics. Research on differentiated instruction shows a multitude of factors that support high quality instruction in mixed-ability elementary classrooms. These factors include small-class size,…

  12. Equity Conscious Instruction in Problem-based Multilingual Science Classrooms (United States)

    Wright, Elizabeth

    This dissertation examines the instructional and relational moves implemented by an equity-conscious teacher in service of supporting discursive participation among her English Learners specifically in a problem-based science classroom. The research included also examines the evolution of discursive participation among English Learners as well as the nature of collaboration among English Learners and their English Fluent peers. Initial findings suggest that there were productive, unproductive, and problematic responses to the teacher's caring approach. Students saw the teacher as approachable and accessible which resulted in students seeking the teacher out, which in turn meant that the teacher was able to scaffold instruction for her students. Students recognized and appreciated teacher strategies, but did not generally take up or adopt her instructional supports when working with their peers. English Fluent students shielded English Learners from more rigorous participation in an effort to prevent them from feeling uncomfortable. Furthermore, English Learners and their English Fluent peers defined "help" in the context of group work differently. The implications for this work include further addressing the ways in which teachers support and scaffold science instruction, thinking more critically about the ways in which teachers are explicit in modeling instructional strategies, and working with students to better understand the implications of differences in the ways that they define help and collaborate.

  13. New Teacher Induction Programs: A Case Study of an Exemplary School District, and How It Prepares Its New Teachers for the Use of Instructional Technology in the Classroom (United States)

    Sherman, David B.


    This research study examined Generation Y new teachers, the process of new teacher induction, and the most effective methods for providing professional development in instructional technology for Generation Y teachers. This research study examined Generation Y new teachers, the process of new teacher induction, and the most effective methods for…

  14. Classroom Assessment in Web-Based Instructional Environment: Instructors' Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liang


    Full Text Available While a great deal has been written on the advantage and benefits of online teaching, little is known on how..assessment is implemented in online classrooms to monitor and inform performance and progress. The..purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamics of WebCT classroom assessment by analyzing the..perceptions and experience of the instructors. Grounded theory method was employed to generate a - process..theory- . The study included 10 faculties who taught WebCT classes, and 216 students in the College of..Education in an urban university in the Mid west. Interviews and classroom observations were undertaken..on line. The findings indicated that, performance-based assessment, writing skills, interactive assessment..and learner autonomy were major assessment aspects to inform teaching and enhance learning. If one of..the major roles of online instruction is to increase self-directed learning, as part of the pedagogical..mechanism, web-based classroom assessment should be designed and practiced to impact learner autonomy.

  15. Strategies for Programmed Instruction: An Educational Technology. (United States)

    Hartley, J., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to compare, contrast, and evaluate various strategies of programed instruction (PI). The underlying view is that programed instruction implies a systematic methodological approach to education and training, an approach which bases its decisions on facts rather than value judgements. Several strategies for task analysis…

  16. Differentiated Instruction: Understanding the personal factors and organizational conditions that facilitate differentiated instruction in elementary mathematics classrooms


    Abbati, Diana Guglielmo


    Differentiated instruction is a widely held practice used by teachers to provide diverse learners with complex learning opportunities in the area of mathematics. Research on differentiated instruction shows a multitude of factors that support high quality instruction in mixed-ability elementary classrooms. These factors include small-class size, extra time and resources that allow for a highly individualized approach to instruction, teacher commitment, and subject-matter competency in mathema...

  17. Response switching and self-efficacy in Peer Instruction classrooms (United States)

    Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric


    Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide students two opportunities to answer each question—once after a round of individual reflection and then again after a discussion round with a peer. The second round provides students the choice to "switch" their original response to a different answer. The percentage of right answers typically increases after peer discussion: most students who answer incorrectly in the individual round switch to the correct answer after the peer discussion. However, for any given question there are also students who switch their initially right answer to a wrong answer and students who switch their initially wrong answer to a different wrong answer. In this study, we analyze response switching over one semester of an introductory electricity and magnetism course taught using Peer Instruction at Harvard University. Two key features emerge from our analysis: First, response switching correlates with academic self-efficacy. Students with low self-efficacy switch their responses more than students with high self-efficacy. Second, switching also correlates with the difficulty of the question; students switch to incorrect responses more often when the question is difficult. These findings indicate that instructors may need to provide greater support for difficult questions, such as supplying cues during lectures, increasing times for discussions, or ensuring effective pairing (such as having a student with one right answer in the pair). Additionally, the connection between response switching and self-efficacy motivates interventions to increase student self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester by helping students develop early mastery or

  18. Examining the Effectiveness of Direct Instruction on the Acquisition of Social Skills of Mentally Retarded Students in Regular Classroom Settings (United States)

    Özokcu, Osman; Akçamete, Gönül; Özyürek, Mehmet


    The purpose of this study is to reveal whether or not the social skills teaching program based on the direct instruction approach is effective on the ability of mentally retarded students in regular classroom settings to gain social skills such as apologizing, asking for help and finishing a task on time, and to generalize these abilities. This…

  19. Long Term Effects of a Staff Development Programme on Effective Instruction and Classroom Management for Teachers in Multigrade Classes. (United States)

    Veenman, Simon; Raemaekers, Jan


    Presents the findings of a six-year staff development program for multigrade teachers. Discovers a significant increase in the time on task levels of the pupils and the instructional and classroom management skills of the teachers. Discusses the implications of, and problems with, the study. (MJP)

  20. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Interactive Laser Disc and Classroom Video Tape for Safety Instruction of General Motors Workers. (United States)

    Bosco, James; Wagner, Jerry


    Describes evaluation that assessed the effectiveness of the Interactive Laser Disc System (ILDS) Training Program in comparison with classroom instruction with videotape for training of General Motors workers. Topics discussed include achievement test, attitude scales, opinion surveys, user preference questionnaires, interviews, and variables that…

  1. Integrating Planetarium and Classroom Instruction to Engage Children in the Practices of Science (United States)

    Plummer, J. D.; Small, K. J.


    Children should be learning how to engage in science practices in ways that reflect the domain-specific nature of learning to “do science.” Our work explores methods for engaging children in science practices in astronomy, such as developing representations and models, using evidence, and organizing observations into patterns. We used research literature on learning in formal and informal environments to develop learning environment design principles that integrate classroom and planetarium instruction. These were used to develop an intervention for first-grade students. Children first participated in an anticipatory lesson in their classroom. They next visited the planetarium, where they were engaged in a modular planetarium design program that mixed live interaction with video sequences. Finally, children applied what they learned as they engaged in activities in their classroom. Initial analysis of interviews conducted with children before and after instruction suggest the intervention was successful in improving students' reasoning about the Moon and illustrates successful methods of integrating a field trip with a classroom-based lesson.

  2. Use of Coaching and Behavior Support Planning for Students with Disruptive Behavior within a Universal Classroom Management Program (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Ze; Newcomer, Lori; King, Kathleen


    Even with the use of effective universal classroom management practices, some students will need additional behavioral supports. However, to translate implementation of new strategies into the classroom, professional development programs need to be adaptive to the complexities teachers face in providing instruction and managing classroom behaviors…

  3. Instructional Variability in Bilingual Education Programs: Time of Year, Raters, and Content (United States)

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Foorman, Barbara R.


    There are many types of programs for Spanish speaking students in the US, with varying methods and goals. Some preliminary work suggests that bilingual classrooms may differ widely in instruction, even under the same program labels. However, there are few studies which have compared the extent to which various bilingual program models differ in…

  4. Comparing Vignette Instruction and Assessment Tasks to Classroom Observations and Reflections (United States)

    Jeffries, Carolyn; Maeder, Dale W.


    The growing body of research on the use of vignettes in teacher education courses suggests that vignette-based instruction and assessment tasks may represent a viable alternative to traditional forms of scaffolded instruction and reflective essays following classroom observations, thereby creating a bridge between college and K-12 classrooms for…

  5. Principals' Performance in Supervision of Classroom Instruction in Ebonyi State Secondary Schools (United States)

    Egwu, Sarah Oben


    Effective principals use a variety of techniques to develop productive climates and to motivate students' learning. One of such techniques for effective classroom management is supervision of instruction. This study was therefore conducted to ascertain principals' performance in supervision of classroom instruction in Ebonyi State secondary…

  6. The Multigrade Classroom: A Resource Handbook for Small, Rural Schools. Book 5: Instructional Delivery and Grouping. (United States)

    Vincent, Susan, Ed.

    In multigrade instruction, children of at least a 2-year grade span and diverse ability levels are grouped in a single classroom and share experiences involving intellectual, academic, and social skills. "The Multigrade Classroom" is a seven-book series that provides an overview of current research on multigrade instruction, identifies…

  7. Cognitive Complexity of Mathematics Instructional Tasks in a Taiwanese Classroom: An Examination of Task Sources (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Yu; Silver, Edward A.


    We examined geometric calculation with number tasks used within a unit of geometry instruction in a Taiwanese classroom, identifying the source of each task used in classroom instruction and analyzing the cognitive complexity of each task with respect to 2 distinct features: diagram complexity and problem-solving complexity. We found that…

  8. Engaging Instruction in Middle School Classrooms: An Observational Study of Nine Teachers (United States)

    Raphael, Lisa M.; Pressley, Michael; Mohan, Lindsey


    Observations of instructional practices, teacher interviews, and classroom artifacts were collected in 9 sixth-grade classrooms in 2 middle schools to determine teaching practices associated with student engagement (i.e., being on task, doing thoughtful assignments). The teachers used a variety of instructional practices, with some teachers…

  9. Basketball: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program. (United States)

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    One of a series of coaching guides for Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this booklet focuses on basketball instruction for mentally retarded persons. An initial section introduces the sport and discusses general coaching ideas. Goals, objectives, and benefits are listed along with information on clothing and court…

  10. 43 Computer Assisted Programmed Instruction and Cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Computer Assisted Programmed Instruction and Cognitive Preference Style as. Determinant of Achievement of Secondary School Physics Students. Sotayo, M. A. O.. Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Abstract. The study probes into the effect of Computer Assisted Instruction and Cognitive preference.

  11. Integrating Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction into EFL Classrooms (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Chun


    In the current study, explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction was integrated into an EFL curriculum to investigate its effects on learners' vocabulary acquisition. A total of 180 EFL learners enrolled in the freshmen English program at a university in Taiwan participated in the study. The participants were guided to explore and practice…

  12. Use of the Flipped Classroom Instructional Model in Higher Education: Instructors' Perspectives (United States)

    Long, Taotao; Cummins, John; Waugh, Michael


    The flipped classroom model is an instructional model in which students learn basic subject matter knowledge prior to in-class meetings, then come to the classroom for active learning experiences. Previous research has shown that the flipped classroom model can motivate students towards active learning, can improve their higher-order thinking…

  13. Asking Questions in the Classroom: An Exploration of Tools and Techniques Used in the Library Instruction Classroom (United States)

    Whitver, Sara Maurice; Lo, Leo S.


    This study explores the tools and techniques used within the library instruction classroom to facilitate a conversation about teaching practices. Researchers focused on the questioning methods employed by librarians, specifically the number of questions asked by librarians and students. This study was comprised of classroom observations of a team…

  14. Program algebra with a jump-shift instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.


    We study sequential programs that are instruction sequences with jump-shift instructions in the setting of PGA (ProGram Algebra). Jump-shift instructions preceding a jump instruction increase the position to jump to. The jump-shift instruction is not found in programming practice. Its merit is that

  15. Student evaluation of the flipped classroom instruction method: is it aligned with Problem-Based Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Timcenko, Olga; Kofoed, Lise


    The flipped classroom approach is an instructional method that has gained momentum in the last years. In a flipped classroom the traditional lecture and homework sessions are inverted. We believe that the flipped classroom, which employs computer-based individual instruction outside the classroom...... and devotes classroom time to group activities with the teacher as facilitator is well justified by the core principles of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and therefore we applied for two consecutive years the flipped classroom approach to an undergraduate statistics course during a whole semester. This paper...... presents data from the second year, where we conducted a survey study among students participating in the flipped statistics course. This study consisted of two surveys designed to gather student perceptions on the out-of-classroom preparation material (videos and quizzes) and the flipped classroom...

  16. Using electronic dialogue to augment traditional classroom instruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, H.A.


    This paper demonstrates how an electronic dialogue with a panel of human factors experts was used effectively as an augmentation to traditional classroom instruction. Nine students spent a one and one- half hour class session using a variety of commercial electronic mail software packages available on their own desk-tops (not in a university computer lab) to engage in discussion with remotely distributed instructors on topics generated by the students themselves. Ninety eight messages were exchanged, with about 60% having technical content. Interaction content and style were analyzed, and a survey was distributed to participants to evaluate the session. Process observations by this author augmented these data. Strengths and weaknesses of using technology not specifically designed for this function are discussed.

  17. Role-Playing in an Inclusive Classroom: Using Realistic Simulation to Explore Differentiated Instruction (United States)

    Martin, Peter Clyde


    One of the major hurdles in preparing preservice teachers to differentiate instruction has been that they tend not to see much differentiated instruction in actual classrooms (Benjamin, 2002; Tomlinson, 1999). There always may be a contradiction in wanting to promote change in instructional practices while, at the same time, relying on a teacher…

  18. Teaching Astronomy using a Flipped Classroom Model of Instruction (United States)

    Wenger, Matthew; Impey, Chris D.; Rivera Chavez, Wendy


    Astronomy: State of the Art is a MOOC specifically developed to study student participation in an online learning environment. The project aims to serve multiple audiences of learners. For this project we focused on college students who use the online environment for lectures and quizzes but whose classroom time is devoted to hands-on activities and group work; this is the “flipped classroom” model.In spring 2014, Astronomy: State of the Art was co-convened with “The Physical Universe,” a Natural Sciences course taught at the University of Arizona that satisfies a General Education requirement for non-science majors. Using the same core material as Astronomy - State of the Art (with additional modules on the physics of radiation, atomic structure, energy, and gravity that are not necessary for the informal learners), the local course employed a “flipped” model where the students access lectures and podcasts online but are in a face-to-face classroom two times a week for labs and hands-on activities, lecture tutorials, group discussions, and other research-validated tools for enhancing learning. A flipped or hybrid model gives students flexibility, uses the online medium for the aspects of instruction where interaction with an instructor isn’t required, and optimizes the scarce resource of time in a large classroom.Final student grades were closely related to their attendance, however, performance in this class was not correlated with completion of the online video lectures, even though the quizzes were closely tied to the content of these videos. The course will next be taught using Coursera which allow instructors to more closely examine the relationship between students use of course materials and understanding of course topics. The eventual goal is to recruit undergraduates from anywhere in the United States and award them transferrable credit for completing the class.

  19. The transfer of learning process: From an elementary science methods course to classroom instruction (United States)

    Carter, Nina Leann

    The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore the transfer of learning process in student teachers. This was carried out by focusing on information learned from an elementary science methods and how it was transferred into classroom instruction during student teaching. Participants were a purposeful sampling of twelve elementary education student teachers attending a public university in north Mississippi. Factors that impacted the transfer of learning during lesson planning and implementation were sought. The process of planning and implementing a ten-day science instructional unit during student teaching was examined through lesson plan documentation, in-depth individual interviews, and two focus group interviews. Narratives were created to describe the participants' experiences as well as how they plan for instruction and consider science pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Categories and themes were then used to build explanations applying to the research questions. The themes identified were Understanding of Science PCK, Minimalism, Consistency in the Teacher Education Program, and Emphasis on Science Content. The data suggested that the participants lack in their understanding of science PCK, took a minimalistic approach to incorporating science into their ten-day instructional units, experienced inconsistencies in the teacher education program, and encountered a lack of emphasis on science content in their field experience placements. The themes assisted in recognizing areas in the elementary science methods courses, student teaching field placements, and university supervision in need of modification.

  20. Survey of handwriting instruction practices of elementary teachers and educational programs: implications for occupational therapy. (United States)

    Donica, Denise K; Larson, Michelle H; Zinn, Abbey A


    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of elementary school teachers on training in handwriting instruction received during their education, as well as their current classroom practices. The quantity and quality of training in handwriting instruction provided by baccalaureate degree-granting teacher education programs in North Carolina was also examined. An online survey was administered to each population identified to inquire about handwriting instruction practices. Results from 505 teachers and 16 professors indicated that while handwriting instruction content is valued by both teachers and professors, varied levels of training were provided to the teachers. Implications for occupational therapy practice are discussed including strategies for school-based therapists.

  1. Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders' Word Reading Achievement. (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Fishman, Barry


    Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we present efficacy results for a randomized control field trial of the Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) intervention, which relies on dynamic system forecasting intervention models to recommend amounts of reading instruction for each student, taking into account CXI interactions that consider his or her vocabulary and reading skills. The study, conducted in seven schools with 25 teachers and 396 first graders, revealed that students in the ISI intervention classrooms demonstrated significantly greater reading skill gains by spring than did students in control classrooms. Plus, they were more likely to receive differentiated reading instruction based on CXI interaction guided recommended amounts than were students in control classrooms. The precision with which students received the recommended amounts of each type of literacy instruction, the distance from recommendation, also predicted reading outcomes.

  2. Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders’ Word Reading Achievement (United States)

    Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Fishman, Barry


    Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we present efficacy results for a randomized control field trial of the Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) intervention, which relies on dynamic system forecasting intervention models to recommend amounts of reading instruction for each student, taking into account CXI interactions that consider his or her vocabulary and reading skills. The study, conducted in seven schools with 25 teachers and 396 first graders, revealed that students in the ISI intervention classrooms demonstrated significantly greater reading skill gains by spring than did students in control classrooms. Plus, they were more likely to receive differentiated reading instruction based on CXI interaction guided recommended amounts than were students in control classrooms. The precision with which students received the recommended amounts of each type of literacy instruction, the distance from recommendation, also predicted reading outcomes. PMID:22229058

  3. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Miller


    Full Text Available Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  4. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms (United States)

    Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric


    Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs)] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  5. Programmed Instruction for Slow Learners (United States)

    Holden, Eric; Roberts, Ted


    A description of a project which produced and provided programed learning materials for slow learners. These programs have been printed and distributed in over 30,000 free copies throughout Canada and have been a source of hope and assistance to teachers and parents. (Author)

  6. Teaching the content in context: Preparing "highly qualified" and "high quality" teachers for instruction in underserved secondary science classrooms (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara E.


    This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching

  7. Inquiry-based instruction in secondary science classrooms: A survey of teacher practice (United States)

    Gejda, Linda Muggeo

    The purpose of this quantitative investigation was to describe the extent to which secondary science teachers, who were certified through Connecticut's BEST portfolio assessment process between 1997 and 2004 and had taught secondary science during the past academic year, reported practicing the indicators of inquiry-based instruction in the classroom and the factors that they perceived facilitated, obstructed, or informed that practice. Indicators of inquiry-based instruction were derived from the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) 5E model (Bybee, 1997). The method for data collection was a researcher-developed, self-report, questionnaire entitled "Inquiry-based Instruction in Secondary Science Classrooms: A Survey", which was developed and disseminated using a slightly modified Dillman (2000) approach. Almost all of the study participants reported practicing the 5Es (engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate) of inquiry-based instruction in their secondary science classrooms. Time, resources, the need to cover material for mandatory assessments, the science topics or concepts being taught, and professional development on inquiry-based instruction were reported to be important considerations in participants' decisions to practice inquiry-based instruction in their science classrooms. A majority of the secondary science teachers participating in this study indicated they had the time, access to resources and the professional development opportunities they needed to practice inquiry-based instruction in their secondary classrooms. Study participants ranked having the time to teach in an inquiry-based fashion and the need to cover material for mandated testing as the biggest obstacles to their practice of inquiry-based instruction in the secondary classroom. Classroom experience and collegial exchange informed the inquiry-based instruction practice of the secondary science teachers who participated in this study. Recommendations for further research

  8. `They might know a lot of things that I don't know': investigating differences in preservice teachers' ideas about contextualizing science instruction in multilingual classrooms (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara; Knox, Corey


    This paper describes the results from a qualitative study of 72 preservice teachers' initial ideas about contextualizing science instruction with language minority students. Participants drew primarily on local ecological and multicultural contexts as resources for contextualizing instruction. However, preservice teachers enrolled in the bilingual certification program articulated more asset-oriented and less stereotypical ideas than those not seeking bilingual certification. Results can inform teacher education programs that aim to prepare graduates for teaching science in multilingual classrooms.

  9. The Flipped Classroom Teaching Model and Its Use for Information Literacy Instruction (United States)

    Arnold-Garza, Sara


    The flipped classroom, a teaching method that delivers lecture content to students at home through electronic means and uses class time for practical application activities, may be useful for information literacy instruction. This article describes many of the characteristics of the flipped classroom teaching model, illustrated with examples from…

  10. Virtual Classroom Instruction and Academic Performance of Educational Technology Students in Distance Education, Enugu State (United States)

    Akpan, Sylvester J.; Etim, Paulinus J.; Udom, Stella Ogechi


    The virtual classroom and distance education have created new teaching pedagogy. This study was carried out to investigate Virtual Classroom Instruction on Academic Performance of Educational Technology Students in Distance Education, Enugu State. The population for this study was limited to the Students in National Open University, Enugu study…

  11. Using the ICOT Instrument to Improve Instructional Technology Usage in the ABE Classroom (United States)

    Lentz, Brannon W.


    The International Society for Technology (ISTE) in Education promotes the use of a specific tool--the ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT)--to measure and improve the use of instructional technologies in Adult Basic Education (ABE) classrooms. The purpose of this article is to describe an application process for the use of the ICOT instrument…

  12. The Relationship between Educators' Attitudes towards Instructional Technology and Implementation of the Technology in the Classroom (United States)

    Barley, Leah M.


    Integrating instructional technology within the elementary classroom is required by both state and federal mandates, set forth in the form of standards and guidelines. The integration of technology within the classroom setting requires time, training, and teacher willingness. Teachers are likely to develop beliefs and attitudes regarding the…

  13. Differentiated Instruction for Students with Disabilities: Using DI in the Music Classroom (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann


    Students come to the music classroom with different educational readiness, learning styles, abilities, and preferences. In addition to these learner differences, classrooms in the United States are becoming more linguistically and culturally diverse each year. Differentiated instruction is an approach to teaching and learning that allows for these…

  14. Teachers' Beliefs about Differentiated Instructions in Mixed Ability Classrooms: A Case of Time Limitation (United States)

    Aftab, Jaweria


    Students in today's mixed ability classrooms come from diverse backgrounds with needs. In such a scenario, differentiated instructions are of prime importance for teachers to deal with in mixed ability classrooms. The teaching experiences and academic life mould perceptions of teachers which affects their teaching style; therefore, it is important…

  15. Effective Classroom Management and Instruction: An Exploration of Models. Executive Summary of Final Report. (United States)

    Evertson, Carolyn M.; And Others

    A summary is presented of the final report, "Effective Classroom Management and Instruction: An Exploration of Models." The final report presents a set of linked investigations of the effects of training teachers in effective classroom management practices in a series of school-based workshops. Four purposes were addressed by the study: (1) to…

  16. Optimizing classroom instruction through self-paced learning prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romiro Gordo Bautista


    Full Text Available This study investigated the learning impact of self-paced learning prototype in optimizing classroom instruction towards students’ learning in Chemistry. Two sections of 64 Laboratory High School students in Chemistry were used as subjects of the study. The Quasi-Experimental and Correlation Research Design was used in the study: a pre-test was conducted, scored and analyzed which served as the basis in determining the initial learning schema of the respondents. A questionnaire was adopted to find the learning motivation of the students in science. Using Pearson-r correlation, it was found out that there is a highly significant relationship between their internal drive and their academic performance. Moreover, a post-test was conducted after self-paced learning prototype was used in the development of select topics in their curricular plot. It was found out that the students who experienced the self-paced learning prototype performed better in their academic performance as evidenced by the difference of their mean post-test results. ANCOVA results on the post-test mean scores of the respondents were utilized in establishing the causal-effect of the learning prototype to the academic performance of the students in Chemistry. A highly significant effect on their academic performance (R-square value of 70.7% and significant interaction of the models to the experimental grouping and mental abilities of the respondents are concluded in the study.

  17. Classroom questioning strategies as indicators of inquiry based science instruction (United States)

    Goossen, Linda Hale

    Inquiry teaching often rests upon the assumption that through the use of questioning and response strategies, teachers can stimulate students to actively construct knowledge. Based on this hypothesis, middle-school science lessons were observed and questioning and response strategies were identified that are related to inquiry-based instruction. Twenty-four science lessons were observed, videotaped, and ranked by inquiry characteristics other than questioning strategy. The video and audio portions of the recordings were analyzed to determine the student and teacher's questioning and response strategies in each classroom. These strategies were then compared to teaching style, along a continuum from traditional to inquiry, to identify questioning and response strategies that stimulate students to ask questions, solve problems, analyze evidence, consider alternative explanations, and other similar inquiry behaviors. The analyses indicated several questioning strategies of teachers that are related to inquiry teaching and learning and might be used as indicators of inquiry teaching in middle school science lessons. These include the number of content-related questions asked by teachers, the number of divergent questions asked by teachers, the number of times teachers probe for the intended response, the number of times teachers answer students' questions, and the number questions per concept asked by teachers. Perhaps more important was the observation that even after several decades of emphasizing the importance of inquiry methods in science education, neither students nor teachers participating in this study are asking higher-level cognitive questions deemed to be an important facet in the effective teaching and learning of science.

  18. Data Driven Program Planning for GIS Instruction (United States)

    Scarletto, Edith


    This study used both focus groups (qualitative) and survey data (quantitative) to develop and expand an instruction program for GIS services. It examined the needs and preferences faculty and graduate students have for learning about GIS applications for teaching and research. While faculty preferred in person workshops and graduate students…

  19. Computer Assisted Programmed Instruction and Cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The achievement of students of application learning mode was also significantly higher than those of recall and principle respectively. There was no significant interaction effect between Cognitive Preference Style and Computer Assisted Programmed Instruction. The implications of the result to the stakeholder were ...

  20. The Programmed Instruction Era: When Effectiveness Mattered (United States)

    Molenda, Michael


    Programmed instruction (PI) was devised to make the teaching-learning process more humane by making it more effective and customized to individual differences. B.F. Skinner's original prescription was modified by later innovators to incorporate more human interaction, social reinforcers and other forms of feedback, larger and more flexible chunks…

  1. SERVQUAL-Based Measurement of Student Satisfaction with Classroom Instructional Technologies: A 2001 Update. (United States)

    Kleen, Betty; Shell, L. Wayne

    The researchers, using a variation of the SERVQUAL instrument, repeated a 1999 study to measure students' satisfaction with instructional technology tools used in their classrooms. Student satisfaction varied by course discipline, by instructional technology, by anticipated grade, and by frequency of use. Female respondents were less satisfied…

  2. Behold the Trojan Horse: Instructional vs. Productivity Computing in the Classroom. (United States)

    Loop, Liza

    This background paper for a symposium on the school of the future reviews the current instructional applications of computers in the classroom (the computer as a means or the subject of instruction), and suggests strategies that administrators might use to move toward viewing the computer as a productivity tool for students, i.e., its use for word…

  3. Crossing Boundaries and Initiating Conversations about RTI: Understanding and Applying Differentiated Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Walker-Dalhouse, Doris; Risko, Victoria J.


    The department editors, joined by classroom teachers from Wisconsin and reading specialists from Tennessee, examine across geographical and school boundaries the current practices of teachers who are initiating Response to Intervention (RTI) instruction. They address three goals of RTI that focus on providing systematic instruction of student…

  4. The Relationship between Differentiated Instruction and Student Behavior in Georgia Middle School and High School Classrooms (United States)

    Schuessler, Wesely


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between levels of implementation of Tomlinson's (2015) differentiated instruction and students' disruptive classroom behaviors. This is an area of research that has not been previously explored. Tomlinson's differentiated instruction is a process of teaching in which each student's…

  5. A Matter of Size: Flipping Library Instruction in Various Engineering Classrooms (United States)

    Maddison, Tasha


    This case study explores the use of flipped teaching in three different undergraduate engineering courses, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of class size and how it affects the delivery of information literacy instruction as observed through student engagement and the perceived helpfulness of the instruction. A flipped classroom was…

  6. The relationship between professional preparation and class structure on health instruction in the secondary classroom. (United States)

    Hammig, Bart; Ogletree, Roberta; Wycoff-Horn, Marcie R


    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of professional preparation and class structure on health content delivery and time spent delivering content among required health education classes in the United States. Data from the classroom-level file of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study were utilized. A series of multivariable logistic regression models were employed to determine if instruction of content was dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Years of teaching health topics and size of the school district were included as covariates in the multivariable logistic models. We also conducted a multivariable logistic regression model to examine if time spent teaching each topic area was dependent upon professional preparation and/or class structure. Findings indicated that professionally prepared teachers were significantly more likely to deliver content in 6 of 12 health topic areas when compared to untrained teachers. Class structure was also an important predictor of content delivery among many topic areas. Teachers who taught classes that were devoted to health instruction were significantly more likely to deliver content in the following topic areas: alcohol/drug prevention, tobacco prevention, sexuality, pregnancy, human immuno virus and sexually transmitted disease prevention, emotional/mental health and suicide, and violence prevention. Research concerning the relationship between professional preparation and teaching outcomes is scant. The present study indicates that health content coverage and time spent on instruction are associated with both professional preparation and class structure for many health content areas. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  7. Learning Designs Using Flipped Classroom Instruction (Conception d'apprentissage à l'aide de l'instruction en classe inversée) (United States)

    Mazur, Amber D.; Brown, Barbara; Jacobsen, Michele


    The flipped classroom is an instructional model that leverages technology-enhanced instruction outside of class time in order to maximize student engagement and learning during class time. As part of an action research study, the authors synthesize reflections about how the flipped classroom model can support teaching, learning and assessment…

  8. Vocabulary Instruction: What Goes on in the Classroom? (United States)

    Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.


    Reports on a study of six fourth grade reading groups that were observed to see if vocabulary instruction was a priority, what kinds of vocabulary instruction occurred, and what shaped teaching decisions. (JC)



    Tеtiana M. Derkach; Nadiia V. Stets


    Advantages and scope for application of NetLogo programming environment in chemical discipline instruction have been considered for university curricula. Computer models designed by means of NetLogo language have been used for students’ self-administering tests to study gas laws within the frames of university course of inorganic chemistry. Model features, brief manuals as well as teachers’ guides and some examples of students’ tasks have been described. The use of computer modelling signific...

  10. Teaching the Social Curriculum: Classroom Management as Behavioral Instruction (United States)

    Skiba, Russ; Ormiston, Heather; Martinez, Sylvia; Cummings, Jack


    Psychological science has identified positive classroom management and climate building strategies as a key element in developing and maintaining effective learning environments. In this article, we review the literature that has identified effective strategies that build classroom climates to maximize student learning and minimize disruption. In…

  11. Digital Instructional Strategies and Their Role in Classroom Learning (United States)

    Yarbro, Jessica; McKnight, Katherine; Elliott, Stephen; Kurz, Alexander; Wardlow, Liane


    Research that examines technology use in the context of daily classroom practices is needed to support the effective digital conversion of classrooms. In this study, 65 seventh- through 10th-grade Mathematics and English Language Arts teachers from six districts across six states logged information about digital strategies they incorporated into…

  12. Vocabulary learning in Head Start: Nature and extent of classroom instruction and its contributions to children's learning. (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H; Wasik, Barbara A


    In the current study, we employed the 2006 cohort of the large-scale, nationally representative, Head Start Family and Child Experiences (FACES) dataset to construct a snapshot of vocabulary instruction and learning in high-poverty preschools. Specifically, we examined Head Start teachers' reports of the frequency of vocabulary instruction in their classrooms as well as the overall quality of their classroom instruction. We also explored the teacher- and center-level factors that predicted these dual aspects of instruction, and the role of that instruction in children's vocabulary development over the preschool year. Participants included 293 teachers in 116 Head Start centers, as well as 2501 children in their classrooms. Results showed that, whereas there was notable variation, most teachers reported providing a variety of vocabulary-focused instructional activities nearly every day. The quality of their classroom instruction was generally modest. Classroom instructional quality was predictive of children's vocabulary learning, with stronger relations apparent for children with lower initial skills and for classrooms with higher quality instruction. The frequency of instruction in vocabulary was not related to children's word learning. Results provide new descriptive data about the state of vocabulary instruction in Head Start preschools and highlight both areas of success and opportunities for additional support. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Millennial Instructional Preferences in Post-Secondary Business Programs (United States)

    West, Cynthia Elaine


    The purpose of this mixed method study was to examine the instructional preferences of millennial learners and how their instructional preferences affect their choice in post-secondary business programs. The instructional preferences of millennial learners are an important question for post-secondary business programs enrolling learners from…

  14. The Multigrade Classroom: A Resource Handbook for Small, Rural Schools. Book 1: Review of the Research on Multigrade Instruction. (United States)

    Vincent, Susan, Ed.

    In multigrade instruction, children of at least a 2-year grade span and diverse ability levels are grouped in a single classroom and share experiences involving intellectual, academic, and social skills. "The Multigrade Classroom" is a seven-book series that provides an overview of current research on multigrade instruction, identifies…

  15. The Multigrade Classroom: A Resource Handbook for Small, Rural Schools. Book 4: Instructional Organization, Curriculum, and Evaluation. (United States)

    Vincent, Susan, Ed.

    In multigrade instruction, children of at least a 2-year grade span and diverse ability levels are grouped in a single classroom and share experiences involving intellectual, academic, and social skills. "The Multigrade Classroom" is a seven-book series that reviews current research on multigrade instruction, identifies key issues…

  16. Integrating Technology into Classroom: The Learner-Centered Instructional Design (United States)

    Sezer, Baris; Karaoglan Yilmaz, Fatma Gizem; Yilmaz, Ramazan


    In this study, to present an instructional model by considering the existing models of instructional design (ARCS, ADDIE, ASSURE, Dick and Carey, Seels and Glasgow, Smith and Ragan etc.) with the nature of technology-based education and to reveal analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation, and to revise levels with lower levels of…

  17. Instructional Policy and Classroom Performance: The Mathematics Reform in California. (United States)

    Cohen, David K.; Hill, Heather C.

    Educational reformers increasingly seek to manipulate policies regarding assessment, curriculum, and professional development in order to improve instruction. It is assumed that manipulating these elements of instructional policy will change teachers' practice which will then improve student performance. These ideas are formalized into a…

  18. Classroom Seating Arrangements: Instructional Communication Theory versus Student Preferences (United States)

    McCroskey, James C.; McVetta, Rod W.


    Investigates student preferences for style of classroom seating arrangements (traditional straightrow, horseshoe, and modular) and concludes that seating preferences are influenced by both course attractiveness and student communication apprehension level. (MH)

  19. Inattentive Behavior in Boys with ADHD during Classroom Instruction: the Mediating Role of Working Memory Processes. (United States)

    Orban, Sarah A; Rapport, Mark D; Friedman, Lauren M; Eckrich, Samuel J; Kofler, Michael J


    Children with ADHD exhibit clinically impairing inattentive behavior during classroom instruction and in other cognitively demanding contexts. However, there have been surprisingly few attempts to validate anecdotal parent/teacher reports of intact sustained attention during 'preferred' activities such as watching movies. The current investigation addresses this omission, and provides an initial test of how ADHD-related working memory deficits contribute to inattentive behavior during classroom instruction. Boys ages 8-12 (M = 9.62, SD = 1.22) with ADHD (n = 32) and typically developing boys (TD; n = 30) completed a counterbalanced series of working memory tests and watched two videos on separate assessment days: an analogue math instructional video, and a non-instructional video selected to match the content and cognitive demands of parent/teacher-described 'preferred' activities. Objective, reliable observations of attentive behavior revealed no between-group differences during the non-instructional video (d = -0.02), and attentive behavior during the non-instructional video was unrelated to all working memory variables (r = -0.11 to 0.19, ns). In contrast, the ADHD group showed disproportionate attentive behavior decrements during analogue classroom instruction (d = -0.71). Bias-corrected, bootstrapped, serial mediation revealed that 59% of this between-group difference was attributable to ADHD-related impairments in central executive working memory, both directly (ER = 41%) and indirectly via its role in coordinating phonological short-term memory (ER = 15%). Between-group attentive behavior differences were no longer detectable after accounting for ADHD-related working memory impairments (d = -0.29, ns). Results confirm anecdotal reports of intact sustained attention during activities that place minimal demands on working memory, and indicate that ADHD children's inattention during analogue classroom instruction is related, in large part


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tеtiana M. Derkach


    Full Text Available Advantages and scope for application of NetLogo programming environment in chemical discipline instruction have been considered for university curricula. Computer models designed by means of NetLogo language have been used for students’ self-administering tests to study gas laws within the frames of university course of inorganic chemistry. Model features, brief manuals as well as teachers’ guides and some examples of students’ tasks have been described. The use of computer modelling significantly improves both students’ understanding of a considered theme and work with graphics tasks. The effect is independent of the level of students’ basic training in chemistry.

  1. Flipped Classroom versus Traditional Textbook Instruction: Assessing Accuracy and Mental Effort at Different Levels of Mathematical Complexity (United States)

    Mattis, Kristina V.


    Flipped classrooms are an instructional technology trend mostly incorporated in higher education settings, with growing prominence in high school and middle school (Tucker in Leveraging the power of technology to create student-centered classrooms. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, 2012). Flipped classrooms are meant to effectively combine traditional and…

  2. Instructional TV & Audio Resources, 1989-90. ITV Brings the World into Our Classroom. (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Instructional Technology.

    This catalog of instructional television and audio resources includes: (1) an alphabetical listing of available television programs; (2) instructional television schedules for both open circuit and closed circuit networks; (3) an instructional television curriculum overview; (4) lists of district-operated distribution centers; (5) information on…

  3. Using the DSAP Framework to Guide Instructional Design and Technology Integration in BYOD Classrooms (United States)

    Wasko, Christopher W.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of the DSAP Framework to guide instructional design and technology integration for teachers piloting a BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) initiative and to measure the impact the initiative had on the amount and type of technology used in pilot classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative data were…

  4. The Effects of a Flipped Classroom Model of Instruction on Students' Performance and Attitudes towards Chemistry (United States)

    Olakanmi, Eunice Eyitayo


    This study establishes the effects of a flipped classroom model of instruction on academic performance and attitudes of 66 first-year secondary school students towards chemistry. A pre-test and post-test experimental design was employed to assign students randomly into either the experimental or control group. In order to assess the suitability of…

  5. Evaluating Instructional Effects of Flipped Classroom in University: A Case Study on Electronic Business Course (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlong; Xie, Wenjing


    Flipped classroom provides the new ideas and ways for the innovation of university pedagogical mode. Nowadays instructors may apply this new approach to liberal arts majors in university class in order to make up for the problems of low instructional effects in traditional teaching method. From the subjective and objective perspectives, this…

  6. Pattern of Classroom Activities during Students' Use of Computers: Relations between Instructional Strategies and Computer Applications (United States)

    Inan, Fethi A.; Lowther, Deborah L.; Ross, Steven M.; Strahl, Dan


    The purpose of this study was to identify instructional strategies used by teachers to support technology integration. In addition, relations between types of computer applications and teachers' classroom practices were examined. Data were direct observation results from 143 integration lessons implemented in schools receiving federal technology…

  7. The Use of Instructional Simulations to Support Classroom Teaching: A Crisis Communication Case Study (United States)

    Shifflet, Mark; Brown, Jane


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how exposure to classroom instruction affected the use of a computer simulation that was designed to provide students an opportunity to apply material presented in class. The study involved an analysis of a computer-based crisis communication case study designed for a college-level public relations…

  8. From Rata to Rimu: Grouping for Instruction in Best Practice New Zealand Classrooms. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ian A. G.; Townsend, Michael A. R.


    Investigates how a select group of New Zealand teachers organize their classrooms for reading instruction to avoid the pitfalls that may be associated with ability grouping and yet meet the needs of students of diverse backgrounds and abilities. Offers 3 fundamental reasons why these groups may provide effective contexts for learning as one part…

  9. Multilingual Education Policy in Practice: Classroom Literacy Instruction in Different Scripts in Eritrea (United States)

    Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Kroon, Sjaak


    This contribution compares literacy instruction in three different scripts in Eritrea. It uses data stemming from classroom observations of beginning readers of Tigrinya (Ge'ez script), Arabic (Arabic script) and Saho (Roman alphabet), the examination of teaching materials, and teacher interviews. Our analysis focuses on literacy events. We…

  10. Impact of Coaching on Preservice Teachers' Use of Embedded Instruction in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms (United States)

    Rakap, Salih


    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of training plus coaching on special education preservice teachers' use of embedded instruction learning trials (EILTs) within ongoing activities of inclusive preschool classrooms. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to investigate the relationships between coaching and…

  11. Rural High School Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Student Engagement, Instructional Strategies, and Classroom Management (United States)

    Shoulders, Tori L.; Krei, Melinda Scott


    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in rural high school teachers' (n = 256) self-efficacy in student engagement, instructional practices, and classroom management using selected teacher characteristics. Analysis of variance showed significant mean differences between different levels of education in self-efficacy for…

  12. Laptops in the K-12 Classrooms: Exploring Factors Impacting Instructional Use (United States)

    Inan, Fethi A.; Lowther, Deborah L.


    The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting teachers' integration of laptops into classroom instruction. A research-based path model was tested based on data gathered from 379 K-12 school teachers to examine direct and indirect contributions of relevant institutional factors (overall support for school technology, technical support,…

  13. Modeling Classroom Discourse: Do Models That Predict Dialogic Instruction Properties Generalize across Populations? (United States)

    Samei, Borhan; Olney, Andrew M.; Kelly, Sean; Nystrand, Martin; D'Mello, Sidney; Blanchard, Nathan; Graesser, Art


    It has previously been shown that the effective use of dialogic instruction has a positive impact on student achievement. In this study, we investigate whether linguistic features used to classify properties of classroom discourse generalize across different subpopulations. Results showed that the machine learned models perform equally well when…

  14. Code-Switching in Vietnamese University EFL Teachers' Classroom Instruction: A Pedagogical Focus (United States)

    Grant, Lynn E.; Nguyen, Thi Hang


    This study examines the under-explored phenomenon in Vietnamese tertiary settings of code-switching practised by EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers in classroom instruction, as well as their awareness of this practice. Among the foreign languages taught and learned in Vietnamese universities, English is the most popular. The research…

  15. Instructional Effectiveness in the SHL Classroom: Comparing Teacher and Student Perceptions (United States)

    Beaudrie, Sara M.


    This article reports on a comparative study of teacher and student perceptions on effective instructional practices in the Spanish heritage language classroom. The data were collected through an online questionnaire administered to 460 students in different Spanish courses and 9 instructors at a large university as well as focus groups. Based on…

  16. Theoretical Beliefs and Instructional Practices Used for Teaching Spelling in Elementary Classrooms (United States)

    McNeill, Brigid; Kirk, Cecilia


    The current study aimed to examine teachers' reported spelling assessment and instruction practices. Analysis of the match between teachers' theoretical beliefs about spelling and their reported pedagogy was conducted to elucidate factors that may support or impede the use of evidence-based teaching strategies in the classroom. An electronic…

  17. Classroom Keyboard Instruction Improves Kindergarten Children's Spatial-Temporal Performance: A Field Experiment. (United States)

    Rauscher, Frances H.; Zupan, Mary Anne


    Determined the effects of classroom music instruction featuring the keyboard on the spatial-temporal reasoning of 62 kindergartners assigned to keyboard or no music conditions. Found that the keyboard group scored significantly higher than the no music group on both spatial-temporal tasks after 4 months of lessons, a difference that was greater in…

  18. Flipping the Classroom in Freshman English Library Instruction: A Comparison Study of a Flipped Class versus a Traditional Lecture Method (United States)

    Rivera, Eduardo


    A problem that Instruction Librarians often grapple with is the lack of time that is necessary to deliver, and assess, proper library instruction to students so the students grasp the Information Literacy concepts that are delivered especially in one or two instruction sessions. This article examines using the flipped classroom model in English…

  19. College Instructors' Experiences Transitioning to Inverted Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Brown, Glenda Maria


    Lecture methods in higher education continue to be the most often used form of lesson delivery, although they seem to be less effective in promoting adult students' learning and engagement. Many higher education instructors have incorporated inverted classroom (IC) methods to increase student engagement and learning. The purpose of this…

  20. Embedding "Clickers" into Classroom Instruction: Benefits and Strategies (United States)

    Blood, Erika; Gulchak, Daniel


    Student response systems, often called clickers, have become more popular and visible in the K-12 classroom in recent years. There are numerous competing systems on the market, but all perform the same function: to allow the student to use a small hand-held device (i.e., a clicker), or even web browsers on laptops or mobile phones, to respond to…

  1. Constructive Classroom: A Cognitive Instructional Strategy in ELT (United States)

    Suneetha, Y.


    The purpose of this paper is to study, the extent of constructivist classroom characteristics that exist in ELT (English Language Teaching) Methodology. It is an attempt to explore the constructivist learning activities and evaluation strategies, whether they are useful to the students and the instructors. This paper elevates the contrast of…

  2. Integrating Pragmatics Instruction in a Content-Based Classroom (United States)

    Krulatz, Anna


    The issue of teaching pragmatics in foreign and second language classrooms has received a lot of attention in the recent years. Its origins can be dated back to the Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Project (CCSRAP) led by Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper (1989) and the research on interlanguage speech acts that followed (for a comprehensive…

  3. Improving Instruction in the Mathematics Methods Classroom through Action Research (United States)

    Mostofo, Jameel; Zambo, Ron


    There is a continuing emphasis in the United States on improving students' mathematical abilities, and one approach is to better prepare teachers. To investigate the potential usefulness of Lesson Study to better prepare teachers, one author set out to conduct action research on his classroom practice. Specifically, he sought to determine whether…

  4. Constructivism: Its Theoretical Underpinnings, Variations, and Implications for Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kaya


    This article provides an overview of constructivism and its implications for classroom practices. To that end, it first describes the basic features of constructivism along with its major forms or variations. It then elucidates the constructivist view of knowledge, learning, teaching, and the relationship among these constructs. More specifically,…

  5. A National Program for Instructional Development in Veterinary Pathology. (United States)

    Ward, Billy, C.


    Results of a study by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists to investigate mechanisms to facilitate sharing of audiovisual programs include a content analysis in veterinary pathology, a guidebook for the preparation of instruction, 20 instructional programs, a lesson evaluation mechanism, and a proposal for sharing programs. (JMD)

  6. Generating and executing programs for a floating point single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K


    Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.

  7. Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice (United States)

    Hvidsten, Connie J.

    Connie J. Hvidsten September 2016 Education Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice This dissertation consists of three papers analyzing writings and interviews of experienced secondary science teachers during and after a two-year professional development (PD) program focused on model-based reasoning (MBR). MBR is an approach to science instruction that provides opportunities for students to use conceptual models to make sense of natural phenomena in ways that are similar to the use of models within the scientific community. The aim of this research is to better understand the learning and learning pathways teachers identified as valuable in supporting changes in their teaching practice. To accomplish this aim, the papers analyze the ways teachers 1) ascribe their learning to various aspects of the program, 2) describe what they learned, and 3) reflect on the impact the PD had on their teaching practice. Twenty-one secondary science teachers completed the Innovations in Science Instruction through Modeling (ISIM) program from 2007 through 2009. Commonalities in the written reflections and interview responses led to a set of generalizable findings related to the impacts and outcomes of the PD. The first of the three papers describes elements of the ISIM program that teachers associated with their own learning. One of the most frequently mentioned PD feature was being in the position of an adult learner. Embedding learning in instructional practice by collaboratively developing and revising lessons, and observing the lessons in one-another's classrooms provided a sense of professional community, accountability, and support teachers reported were necessary to overcome the challenges of implementing new pedagogical practices. Additionally, teachers described that opportunities to reflect on their learning and connect their

  8. Understanding the Reading Process: One Path to Strengthening Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Tracey, Diane H.


    Knowing how to provide effective literacy instruction is important for all educators, but it is critically important for urban educators. This article is built on the assumption that deepening urban educators' understanding of the reading process will better equip them to facilitate students' reading development, and to diagnose and intervene if…

  9. "The Course Fit Us": Differentiated Instruction in the College Classroom (United States)

    Dosch, Mary; Zidon, Margaret


    As diversity in higher education increases, the one-size-fits-all, teacher-centered, traditional model of lecture-style teaching sets students up for failure. In addition, the strategic rhetoric of blaming students for academic failures keeps the systemic power in place, justifying the current system. In contrast, differentiated instruction, a…

  10. College Learning with and without Formal Classroom Instruction - A Comparison. (United States)

    Himmel, Clark E.

    This report examines the relationship between student learning and teacher pedagogy by focusing on two discrete instructional methods: traditional teacher-directed versus student self-directed study. An experiment was administered to two groups of college students enrolled in a psychology course, and the control group having class meetings and…

  11. How Static Is the Statics Classroom? An Investigation into How Innovations, Specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies, Are Adopted into the Statics Classroom (United States)

    Cutler, Stephanie Leigh


    The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how educational research, specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS), is adopted by education practice, specifically within the engineering Statics classroom. Using a systematic approach, changes in classroom teaching practices were investigated from the instructors' perspective.…

  12. Flipped Classroom: A Comparison Of Student Performance Using Instructional Videos And Podcasts Versus The Lecture-Based Model Of Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retta Guy


    Full Text Available The authors present the results of a study conducted at a comprehensive, urban, coeducational, land-grant university. A quasi-experimental design was chosen for this study to compare student performance in two different classroom environments, traditional versus flipped. The study spanned 3 years, beginning fall 2012 through spring 2015. The participants included 433 declared business majors who self-enrolled in several sections of the Management Information Systems course during the study. The results of the current study mirrored those of previous works as the instructional method impacted students’ final grade. Thus, reporting that the flipped classroom approach offers flexibility with no loss of performance when compared to traditional lecture-based environments.

  13. The Impact of Classroom Performance System-Based Instruction with Peer Instruction upon Student Achievement and Motivation in Eighth Grade Math Students (United States)

    Allison, Tracy Michelle Hunter


    The researcher employed two designs to address the research question for this particular study. This quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group study compared the math achievement of 92 eighth grade students who received Classroom Performance System (CPS)-based instruction using Peer Instruction (PI) to 76 eighth grade students who received…

  14. Teachers’ Beliefs about Differentiated Instructions in Mixed Ability Classrooms: A Case of Time Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaweria Aftab


    Full Text Available Students in today’s mixed ability classrooms come from diverse backgrounds with needs. In such a scenario, differentiated instructions are of prime importance for teachers to deal with in mixed ability classrooms. The teaching experiences and academic life mould perceptions of teachers which effects their teaching style; therefore, it is important to know teachers’ beliefs and perceptions regarding teaching in a mixed ability classroom at middle school level so as to guide educators and heads inside and outside the institution. For this study, quantitative research method was used to explore and understand the beliefs and perceptions of the teachers of middle schools regarding implementing differentiated instructions. The sample size included 120 teachers who were sent a survey questionnaire through online Google form and was constructed by customizing the questionnaire from Ballone and Czerniak (2001. The analysis of quantitative inquiry revealed that there is a positive association between teachers’ beliefs about their intentions and stakeholders’ expectations to implement differentiated instruction. It was highlighted that all stakeholders wanted teachers to implement differentiated strategies; however, the teachers were found to be short of planning and instructional time for differentiation.

  15. The Effects of a Flipped Classroom Model of Instruction on Students' Performance and Attitudes Towards Chemistry (United States)

    Olakanmi, Eunice Eyitayo


    This study establishes the effects of a flipped classroom model of instruction on academic performance and attitudes of 66 first-year secondary school students towards chemistry. A pre-test and post-test experimental design was employed to assign students randomly into either the experimental or control group. In order to assess the suitability of using flipped model of instruction, students were divided in two groups. For the first group called the experimental group, a "flipped classroom" was used in which the students were given video lessons and reading materials, before the class to be revised at home. On the other hand, the second group followed traditional methodology, and it was used as control. The rate of reaction knowledge test and the chemistry attitude scale were administered. In addition, the researcher documented classroom observations, experiences, thoughts and insights regarding the intervention in a journal on a daily basis in order to enrich the data. Students were interviewed at the end of the research in order to enrich the qualitative data also. Findings from this study reveal that the flipped instruction model facilitates a shift in students' conceptual understanding of the rate of chemical reaction significantly more than the control condition. Positive significant differences were found on all assessments with the flipped class students performing higher on average. Students in the flipped classroom model condition benefited by preparing for the lesson before the classes and had the opportunity to interact with peers and the teacher during the learning processes in the classroom. The findings support the notion that teachers should be trained or retrained on how to incorporate the flipped classroom model into their teaching and learning processes because it encourages students to be directly involved and active in the learning.

  16. Beyond strategies: teacher beliefs and writing instruction in two primary inclusion classrooms. (United States)

    Berry, Ruth A Wiebe


    Links between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and teaching practices were investigated with respect to process writing instruction. Participants included 5 teachers, 44 general education students, and 23 special education students in 2 elementary multi-age inclusion classrooms. Findings suggested that, although the teachers shared similar views on inclusion and were convinced of the uniqueness of their respective instructional approaches, they nuanced their writing instruction to conform to their implicit theories about teaching, learning, and disability. One set of teachers believed that the writing "breakdowns" of students with disabilities required a structural approach-sequenced, individualized, phonics-based instruction targeting individual performance levels. Another set of teachers advocated a relational approach, wherein students with disabilities are "protected" and "empowered" in learning communities characterized by shared activities, student choice, and interpersonal communication.

  17. The Effects of the Flipped Model of Instruction on Student Engagement and Performance in the Secondary Mathematics Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Clark


    Full Text Available In many of the secondary classrooms across the country, students are passively engaged in the mathematics content, and academic performance can be described, at best, as mediocre. This research study sought to bring about improvements in student engagement and performance in the secondary mathematics classroom through the implementation of the flipped model of instruction and compared student interaction in the flipped classroom with a traditional format. The flipped model of instruction is a relatively new teaching strategy attempting to improve student engagement and performance by moving the lecture outside the classroom via technology and moving homework and exercises with concepts inside the classroom via learning activities. Changes in the student participants’ perceptions and attitudes were evidenced and evaluated through the completion of a pre- and post-survey, a teacher-created unit test, random interviews, and a focus group session. In addition, the researcher documented observations, experiences, thoughts, and insights regarding the intervention in a journal on a daily basis. Quantitative results and qualitative findings revealed the student participants responded favorably to the flipped model of instruction and experienced an increase in their engagement and communication when compared to the traditional classroom experience. The student participants also recognized improvements in the quality of instruction and use of class of time with the flipped model of instruction. In terms of academic performance, no significant changes were demonstrated between the flipped model of instruction students and those taught in a traditional classroom environment.

  18. The Use of Molecular Modeling Programs in Medicinal Chemistry Instruction. (United States)

    Harrold, Marc W.


    This paper describes and evaluates the use of a molecular modeling computer program (Alchemy II) in a pharmaceutical education program. Provided are the hardware requirements and basic program features as well as several examples of how this program and its features have been applied in the classroom. (GLR)

  19. The Flipped Classroom Teaching Model and Its Use for Information Literacy Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arnold-Garza


    Full Text Available The “flipped classroom” teaching model has emerged in a variety of educational settings. It provides many advantages for students and exploits the affordances of modern technology. This article describes some of the pedagogical and logistical characteristics of the flipped teaching model. It situates the flipped classroom in higher education and library instruction, and make the case that there are characteristics of information literacy instruction that fit well with the flipped teaching model, in addition to providing some unique challenges.

  20. The effect of a science work experience program for teachers on the classroom environment: A qualitative program evaluation (United States)

    Frazier, Wendy Michelle

    Science Work Experience Programs for Teachers (SWEPTs) provide an opportunity for science and math teachers to work in research laboratories during the summer to experience science as it is practiced in the laboratory-setting. Through the use of interviews with teachers and students, classroom observations, and an analysis of printed student sheets and student work, the lived experience of a cohort of program participants in Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Secondary School Science Teachers was recorded in an effort to describe the effect of experience in a SWEPT on the classroom environment of teacher participants and student outcomes. Relying on Social Learning Theory and science education reform documentation as a theoretical framework the following dimensions of the classroom were examined: (1) emergent themes that include the participants' perceptions of the importance of technology in the classroom, (2) interpersonal relationships with the teachers at the participants' schools, fellow program participants, research scientists, and students, and (3) changes in epistemological structure, curriculum, instructional strategies, and classroom practices. Methodological and theoretical implications are addressed with respect to future studies, and suggestions for refinement of SWEPTs are provided.

  1. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    group that was not yet exposed to this learning environment. Although the ... environment [15]. The Green Classroom. The 'Green classroom' is an environmental education program that wants to address knowledge, skills and attitude at the same time. ..... programme on children´s perception of biodiversity, The Journal.

  2. At-risk elementary school children with one year of classroom music instruction are better at keeping a beat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slater, Jessica; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina


    .... Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing...

  3. The Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT): the dimensionality of student perceptions of the instructional environment. (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M; Demers, Joseph A; Christ, Theodore J


    This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale items. Participants included 1,465 middle school students across 48 classrooms in the Midwest. Item analysis, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, was used to refine a 27-item scale with a second-order factor structure. Results support the interpretation of a single general dimension of the Classroom Teaching Environment with 6 subscale dimensions: Positive Reinforcement, Instructional Presentation, Goal Setting, Differentiated Instruction, Formative Feedback, and Instructional Enjoyment. Applications of REACT in research and practice are discussed along with implications for future research and the development of classroom environment measures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Application of Higher Diploma Program training skills in classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the application Higher Diploma training skills in classroom instruction as well as pinning to the possible bottlenecks that hamper the successful application of the training skills. To this end, graduates of the first two batches, heads of the ten departments operating under the Faculty of Education and ...

  5. Broadening Boundaries: Opportunities for Information Literacy Instruction inside and outside the Classroom (United States)

    Rutledge, Lorelei; LeMire, Sarah


    This article proposes that libraries reimagine their information literacy instructional programs using a broader conceptualization and implementation of information literacy that promotes collaborative and personalized learning experiences for students, faculty, and staff, while embracing scalable instruction and reference strategies to maximize…

  6. Elementary English Language Instruction: Colombian Teachers’ Classroom Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadavid Múnera Isabel Cristina


    Full Text Available An in-progress ethnographic research project about teachers who are facing the complex task of teaching English to children in 7 public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Medellin is presented in this article. First, the need for this research is outlined by researchers; second, the methodology of the project is described; third, up-to-date findings which include a profile of the 12 teachers who are participating in this study, and an analysis of their class methodology in terms of activities, materials, teacher and student roles are reported. Lastly, implications of this research project related to early foreign language instruction are highlighted. Key words: Public Elementary-English-Language Instruction, English-Foreign Language, Ethnography-Research-Method, Teaching-Methodology Este artículo presenta los resultados preliminares de una investigación etnográfica acerca de las estrategias metodológicas utilizadas por profesores de básica primaria que enseñan inglés como lengua extranjera en 7 escuelas públicas del área metropolitana del municipio de Medellín. En la primera parte se resalta la importancia de esta investigación en nuestro medio y en la segunda, de los 12 profesores participantes y un análisis de la metodología empleada por ellos con respecto a las actividades de clase, los materiales y el rol del estudiante y del profesor. Finalmente, se discuten algunas de las implicaciones de este proyecto de investigación en la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras a niños. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza-Básica Primaria, Lengua Extranjera-Inglés, Estudio Etnográfico-Investigación, Enseñanza-Metodología

  7. Classroom tandem – Outlining a Model for Language Learning and Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the native language. We aim to give an overview description of the interaction in classroom tandem practice. The empirical data consists of longitudinal video recordings of meetings of one tandem dyad within a co-located Swedish-medium and Finnish-medium school. Focus in the analysis is on the language aspects the informants orient to and topicalize in their interaction. The language aspects vary depending on what classroom activities they are engaged in, text-based or oral activities.

  8. The Effect of the Flipped Classroom Approach to OpenCourseWare Instruction on Students' Self-Regulation (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Wu, Yu-Ting; Lee, Wei-I


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the flipped classroom approach to OpenCourseWare instruction on students' self-regulation. OpenCourseWare was integrated into the flipped classroom model (experimental group) and distance learning (control group). Overall, 181 freshmen taking a physics course were allowed to choose their…

  9. A Study on the Usefulness of Audio-Visual Aids in EFL Classroom: Implications for Effective Instruction (United States)

    Mathew, Nalliveettil George; Alidmat, Ali Odeh Hammoud


    A resourceful English language teacher equipped with eclecticism is desirable in English as a foreign language classroom. The challenges of classroom instruction increases when prescribed English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course books (textbooks) are constituted with too many interactive language proficiency activities. Most importantly, it has…

  10. The Role of Relational and Instructional Classroom Supports in the Language Development of At-Risk Preschoolers (United States)

    Gosse, Carolyn S.; McGinty, Anita S.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Hoffman, LaVae M.; Pianta, Robert C.


    The present study examined the extent to which preschool classroom supports--relational support (RS) and instructional support (IS)--are associated with children's language development and whether these associations vary as a function of children's language ability. The language skills of 360 children within 95 classrooms were assessed using an…

  11. Training Pre-Service Chinese Language Teachers to Create Instructional Video to Enhance Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Wang, Lih-Ching Chen; Wang, Ming-Chian Ken


    Foreign language instruction is a complex and challenging task made even more so by situations in which the learner's native language is radically different from the foreign language being mastered. Nowhere is this more evident than in the case of native English speakers seeking to learn Mandarin Chinese. The rapid increase in the availability and…

  12. The Convergence of Two Methodologies: Implementing Programmed Instruction. (United States)

    Blankmeyer, Harrison C.; Williams, Jerome

    The applicability of a programmed methodology to a non-programmed text can result in a new approach to and definition of programmed learning. In seeking to resolve the present conflict between grammar and foreign language instruction by making the grammatical elements implicit to both student and teacher through a logically ordered program of…

  13. Using NASA's Aura Satellite Data for Inquiry Based Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Carter, B. L.; Stockman, S.; Bojkov, B.


    NASA's Earth Observing Satellite Aura was launched in 2004, and since that time has been collecting a wealth of data that contributes to scientists' understanding of the complexity of air quality issues. The Aura spacecraft monitors five of the six EPA criteria pollutants (NO2, SO2, O3, aerosols, and CO). Data from one of the criteria pollutants, NO2, are now available in a format useful to educators and students. The data by itself is not enough for students to engage in the scientific reasoning process. Thus, inquiry-driven supporting material in the form of lessons, project based learning scenarios, and curricular support for online data have all been adapted as part of the scaffolding necessary to help students gain an understanding of issues pertaining to air quality. These materials are delivered online which makes them readily accessible to the education community. Currently, NO2 data are available for manipulation using tools such as GoogleEarth and MY NASA DATA ( These tools are used to investigate common relationships between spatial distribution and variability of NO2 concentrations. Through guided investigations in the Earth Exploration Toolbook ( or MY NASA DATA, students gain an understanding of NO2 variability. Students are then asked to extrapolate their knowledge and understanding to investigate other air quality issues relating to NO2. Within the coming year, the lessons built around Aura data will be introduced in professional development workshops. Feedback from those attending the professional development workshops about how the data and lessons are used in the classroom will be used to help shape future lesson development on new data. Subsequent data on criteria pollutants of SO2, aerosols, and O3 will soon be made available in a similar format to the education community, helping to further student understanding of the complex nature of air quality issues.

  14. Thematic Analysis of Teacher Instructional Practices and Student Responses in Middle School Classrooms with Problem-Based Learning Environment (United States)

    Yukhymenko, Mariya A.; Brown, Scott W.; Lawless, Kimberly A.; Brodowinska, Kamila; Mullin, Gregory


    Problem-based learning (PBL) environment is a student-centered instructional method based on the use of ill-structured problems as a stimulus for collaborative learning. This study tried to gain an understanding of teachers' instructional practices and students' responses to such practices in middle school classrooms with PBL environment through…

  15. Teacher Progress Monitoring of Instructional and Behavioral Management Practices: An Evidence-Based Approach to Improving Classroom Practices (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.


    In the era of teacher evaluation and effectiveness, assessment tools that identify and monitor educators' instruction and behavioral management practices are in high demand. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) Observer Form is a multidimensional teacher progress monitoring tool designed to assess teachers' usage of instructional and behavioral…

  16. Students' Attitudes and Perceptions toward Technology-Based Applications and Guided Notes Instruction in High School World History Classrooms (United States)

    Boon, Richard T.; Fore, Cecil, III; Rasheed, Saleem


    The purpose of this study was to examine students' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of technology-based instruction (i.e., Inspiration 6.0 software) and a guided notes format as an instructional strategy in inclusive world history classrooms. Students' completed a six item 3 choice student satisfaction survey (agree, undecided, disagree)…

  17. Universal Design in Elementary and Middle School: Designing Classrooms and Instructional Practices to Ensure Access to Learning for All Students (United States)

    Flores, Margaret M.


    Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) is a set of principles helpful in guiding the process of designing classroom environments and instruction that are conducive to the learning of all students. UDI, designed by the Center for Applied Special Technology, is a framework that has been successful for all students, including those with disabilities…

  18. A comparison of two methods of teaching. Computer managed instruction and keypad questions versus traditional classroom lecture. (United States)

    Halloran, L


    Computers increasingly are being integrated into nursing education. One method of integration is through computer managed instruction (CMI). Recently, technology has become available that allows the integration of keypad questions into CMI. This brings a new type of interactivity between students and teachers into the classroom. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in achievement between a control group taught by traditional classroom lecture (TCL) and an experimental group taught using CMI and keypad questions. Both control and experimental groups consisted of convenience samples of junior nursing students in a baccalaureate program taking a medical/surgical nursing course. Achievement was measured by three instructor-developed multiple choice examinations. Findings demonstrated that although the experimental group demonstrated increasingly higher test scores as the semester progressed, no statistical difference was found in achievement between the two groups. One reason for this may be phenomenon of vampire video. Initially, the method of presentation overshadowed the content. As students became desensitized to the method, they were able to focus and absorb more content. This study suggests that CMI and keypads are a viable teaching option for nursing education. It is equal to TCL in student achievement and provides a new level of interaction in the classroom setting.

  19. Opportunities and Challenges for Online Instruction in School Psychology Programs (United States)

    Moy, Gregory; Chaffin, Jamie; Fischer, Aaron; Robbins, Stacey


    How do faculty take stock of their opportunities and challenges regarding online instruction? Furthermore, how do programs synthesize the opportunities and challenges they face to make decisions about whether or how to adopt online instructional practices? The primary aim of this article is to take stock of the opportunities and challenges…

  20. A CAD (Classroom Assessment Design) of a Computer Programming Course (United States)

    Hawi, Nazir S.


    This paper presents a CAD (classroom assessment design) of an entry-level undergraduate computer programming course "Computer Programming I". CAD has been the product of a long experience in teaching computer programming courses including teaching "Computer Programming I" 22 times. Each semester, CAD is evaluated and modified…

  1. Learning Kriging by an instructive program. (United States)

    Cuador, José


    There are three types of problem classification: the deterministic, the approximated and the stochastic problems. First, in the deterministic problems the law of the phenomenon and the data are known in the entire domain and for each instant of time. In the approximated problems, the law of the phenomenon behavior is unknown but the data can be known in the entire domain and for each instant of time. In the stochastic problems much of the law and the data are unknown in the domain, so in this case the spatial behavior of the data can only be explained with probabilistic laws. This is the most important reason why the students of geo-sciences careers and others related careers need to take courses in advance estimation methods. A good example of this situation is the estimation grades in ore mineral deposit for which the Geostatistics was formalized by G. Matheron in 1962 [6]. Geostatistics is defined as the application of the theory of Random Function to the recognition and estimation of natural phenomenon [4]. Nowadays, Geostatistics is widely used in several fields of earth sciences, for example: Mining, Oil exploration, Environment, Agricultural, Forest and others [3]. It provides a wide variety of tools for spatial data analysis and allows analysing models which are subjected to degrees of uncertainty with the rigor of mathematics and formal statistical analysis [9]. Adequate models for the Kriging interpolator has been developed according to the data behavior; however there are two key steps in applying this interpolator properly: the semivariogram determination and the Kriging neighborhood selection. The main objective of this paper is to present these two elements using an instructive program.

  2. Relationships between Instructional Quality and Classroom Management for Beginning Urban Teachers (United States)

    Kwok, Andrew


    This mixed-methods study explores the differences in 1st-year urban teachers' classroom management beliefs and actions. The teachers in this study were in their first year of teaching in an urban context concurrent with their participation in a teacher education program offered at a large public university. Using program-wide surveys of 89…

  3. APL programs for the mathematics classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Thomson, Norman D


    The idea for this book grew out of proposals at the APL86 con­ ference in Manchester which led to the initiation of the I-APL (International APL) project, and through it to the availability of an interpreter which would bring the advantages of APL within the means of vast numbers of school children and their teachers. The motivation is that once school teachers have glimpsed the possibilities, there will be a place for an "ideas" book of short programs which will enable useful algorithms to be brought rapidly into classroom use, and perhaps even to be written and developed in front of the class. A scan of the contents will show how the conciseness of APL makes it possible to address a huge range of topics in a small number of pages. There is naturally a degree of idiosyncrasy in the choice of topics - the selection I have made reflects algo­ rithms which have either proved useful in real work, or which have caught my imagination as candidates for demonstrating the value of APL as a mathematical notation. Wh...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find out the teacher’s instructional language, kinds of nonverbal communication and effects in EFL Classroom. The objects of the research were the teacher and students of one primary school in Merauke. The approach employed was qualitative approach. The type of this research applied discourse analysis (DA. Data collection was conducted through observation by recording and interview. Data from observa tion was used to know the teacher’s instructional Language and kinds of nonverbal communication. Interview was used to know the effects of using the teacher’s instructional Language and nonverbal communication to the students. The research findings showed that (1 the teacher’s instructional language in the classroom activities covered explanations, asking questions, giving feedback, and giving corrections. In term of explanation, the teacher used English, switched and mixed the Indonesian language. The teacher used display question to know the students understanding related to the material. She used referential question to start the classroom and when she checked the progress of the students’ activity. In giving feedback, mostly same with explanation, the teacher also used English even she switched and mixed her language with Indonesian. The teacher used direct correction and indirect correction in giving correction. Repetition was also found in explanation, asking question, giving feedback and giving correction. (2 that the kind The findings revealed s of nonverbal communication used by the teacher in the classroom included gesture, body movement and posture, eye contact and facial expression. These nonverbal were applied to explain some unclear verbal communication. (3 The last, the findings showed that there were positive and negative effects of the teacher’s instructional language The positive effects included motivating the students in studying, increasing the students’ vocabulary mastery

  5. English language teaching methodology in a call classroom: Testing and evaluating traditional grammar instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Jasmina P.


    Full Text Available Pursuant to the revised Research Policy issued by the Executive Committee of the European Association for Computer Assisted Language Learning, research in the area of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL, should guide language pedagogies rather than the availability of new technologies and functionalities. Accordingly, the aim of this research was to test a combination of methods and techniques rooted in traditional grammar instruction by alternating them in a conventional classroom setting (based on paper and a whiteboard and an experimental CALL setting. The hypothesis was that if the classroom activities were anchored in traditional grammar teaching methodology, the CALL environment would prove as comprehensive as the conventional classroom, thus stimulating and yielding positive results. By means of grammar-based teaching and communicative learning the grammar item 'meaning of modal verbs' was taught. Based on a quasi-experiment and the principles of a repeated measures research design, the performance of 50 students at two English language departments was alternatively measured in both the conventional and the experimental classroom settings in several subsequent instances. The analysis of the data resulted in the conclusion that the overall performance of the participants in the experimental setting exceeded the performance in the conventional setting.

  6. Systematic Instruction for Retarded Children: The Illinois Program - Experimental Edition. Part IV: Motor Performance and Recreation Instruction. (United States)

    Linford, Anthony G.; Jeanrenaud, Claudine Y.

    The manual of programed instruction for motor skills and recreational activities for trainable mentally handicapped children includes guidelines on basic recreation movements, rhythm in music, handicrafts, and miscellaneous activities. The guidelines employ principles of behavior change and direct instruction. Detailed programed instruction lists…

  7. Swimming & Diving: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program. (United States)

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    One of five parts of the Special Olympics' Sports Skills Instructional Program, the booklet addresses ways to teach swimming and diving to mentally retarded students. Short term objectives of the program encompass warmup, basic swimming and diving skills, safety, and good sportsmanship. The long term goal focuses on acquisition of basic skills,…

  8. Improving English Instruction through Neuro-Linguistic Programming (United States)

    Helm, David Jay


    This study examines the background information and numerous applications of neuro-linguistic programming as it applies to improving English instruction. In addition, the N.L.P. modalities of eye movement, the use of predicates, and posturing are discussed. Neuro-linguistic programming presents all students of English an opportunity to reach their…

  9. Instructional Program Review Guidelines, Spring 2001. (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. System, Oakland, CA. Office of Educational Services.

    This document presents guidelines for program review at Peralta Community College District's (PCCD) (California) institutions. The primary objective of the program review process is to assure that PCCD's educational programs reflect student needs and encourage student success. The review process consists of five stages: (1) a discipline self-study…

  10. Responsive Classroom?: A Critique of a Social Emotional Learning Program (United States)

    Stearns, Clio


    This paper looks critically at the Responsive Classroom (RC) program, a social/emotional learning program used ubiquitously in elementary schools for teacher and student training, in the US as well as in Australia, the UK, and other parts of Western Europe. The paper examines empirical studies on RC's efficacy and outcomes, many of which were…

  11. An Evaluation of CHAMPS: A Classroom Management Program (United States)

    Minnear, Holly J.


    This dissertation was designed to examine the impact of Conversation, Help, Activity, Movement, Participation, Success (CHAMPS), a classroom management program in elementary schools in a district in North Carolina. The participants included principals and teachers who attended a 2-day training course and implemented the CHAMPS program at their…

  12. Science discourse in a middle-grade classroom attempting learning community-centered science instruction (United States)

    Templin, Mark Arnold

    This dissertation focuses on the development of students' scientific literacy discourse in a middle grade science classroom as the teacher attempted to establish a learning community. Instructional design features included a change in teacher and students' roles such that authority over many classroom decisions was shared and students were encouraged to design their own investigations within the context of extended learning projects. The study followed the progress of two groups of four students, representing diversity in academic performance, gender, and ethnicity, over the course of four months. Target group discourse was recorded once every other school day and then transcribed. Accompanying field notes were written. Classroom artifacts, including a complete set of daily lesson plans, instructional materials, and student products, were collected. The interpretive framework, which highlighted different discourse practices and the instructional moves that supported them, evolved during data analysis as it was repeatedly tried out against the empirical materials through stages of data reduction, display, conclusion drawing, and verification. Analysis of the teacher's practice indicated that he initiated and maintained a classroom learning community by encouraging students to (a) think about their thinking by responding to questions that promoted such reflection; (b) share their reflections and other written products with each other and revise them through peer review; (c) decide for themselves which science content was relevant to their investigations; (d) share problem solving strategies; and (e) debate the meaning of terms so that a common understanding of science concepts could be developed. The teacher modeled and asked questions to promote these reflective and collaborative practices, successively withdrawing his active involvement in group dialogue as the term progressed. Analysis of students' discourse indicated that students increasingly developed

  13. Evaluation of resources for an interactive infection control instructional program. (United States)

    Garland, Kandis V


    To evaluate educational resources used in developing and implementing an interactive infection control instructional program for first year (n=26) and second year (n=26) dental hygiene students in a baccalaureate program. An educator's toolkit was used to develop online and interactive learning modalities for teaching infection control content. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate responses on a post instruction opinion survey on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Following the instructional program, most students reported on an opinion survey that they understood infection control principles (92% first year, 100% second year), felt prepared to work safely in clinic (96% first year, 100% second year) and liked working at their own pace (88% first year, 100% second year). First year students valued the online learning components and were less favorable toward supplemental textbook readings and the limited time to complete all 10 modules. Most second year students valued the interactive workshop but did not take the time to complete the online videos and did not watch all of them. Seventy-nine percent of second year students (n=20) preferred the interactive workshop method over traditional lecture instruction completed during their first year. This paper describes 1 institution's process of developing and implementing an infection control instructional program utilizing an educator's toolkit.

  14. Blended learning on medication administration for new nurses: integration of e-learning and face-to-face instruction in the classroom. (United States)

    Sung, Young Hee; Kwon, In Gak; Ryu, Eunjung


    This study analyzed the effects of a blended learning program on medication administration by new nurses using a non-equivalent groups design. A medication education program using blended learning (including e-learning) was administered to 26 new nurses, while face-to-face instruction in the classroom was given to 24 new nurses. The following dependent variables were compared: degree of knowledge of medication, self-efficacy of medication administration, medication-administration ability, and satisfaction with the learning program. The experimental, blended learning group showed a significantly higher level of knowledge of medication and satisfaction with the comprehensiveness of their medication learning, but the self-efficacy of medication administration, medication-administration ability, and other items related to their learning satisfaction did not differ significantly from that in the control group. These results suggest that blended learning integrating e-learning and face-to-face instruction in the classroom is useful for enhancing medication knowledge. An e-learning program can reduce the lecturing time and cost of repeated topics such as medication, suggesting that it can be an effective component in nurse education programs.

  15. Observing the interactive qualities of L2 instructional practices in ESL and FSL classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zuniga


    Full Text Available Discourse features that promote the generation of interactionally modified input and output, such as negotiation for meaning, have been shown to significantly enhance second language acquisition. Research has also identified several characteristics of instructional practices that render them more or less propitious to the generation of these discourse features. While various classroom observation studies have successfully measured the communicative orientation of classroom environments, most of the indicators of interactivity analyzed in those studies were obtained through micro-level discourse analyses and not through macro-level analyses of task-related factors shown to directly influence the interactivity of instructional practices. Such a macro-level scale has potential practical implications for teachers and administrators seeking an efficient tool for assessing and improving the interactivity afforded by a given curriculum. The objective of the present study was therefore to develop macro-level scale to determine the extent to which teachers of French and English as a second language use interaction-friendly instructional practices. Using an observation scheme designed to code data on factors shown to influence interactivity, 63 hours of FSL and ESL classes from secondary schools in the Montreal area were observed and analyzed. Results indicate clear differences between the two groups. While both ESL and FSL classes were less teacher-centered than those observed in previous studies, they were still rated as not-very-interactive. Target language differences showed that the FSL classes were more teacher-centered and characterized by fewer interaction-friendly tasks and activities than the ESL classes. Task characteristics, reasons for ESL and FSL differences and recommendations for improvement are discussed.

  16. Mapping of Primary Instructional Methods and Teaching Techniques for Regularly Scheduled, Formal Teaching Sessions in an Anesthesia Residency Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested Madsen, Matias; Macario, Alex; Yamamoto, Satoshi


    -question written survey rating the session. The most common primary instructional methods were computer slides-based classroom lectures (66%), workshops (15%), simulations (5%), and journal club (5%). The number of teaching techniques used per formal teaching session averaged 5.31 (SD, 1.92; median, 5...... formal teaching session. The overall education scores of the sessions as rated by the residents were high.......In this study, we examined the regularly scheduled, formal teaching sessions in a single anesthesiology residency program to (1) map the most common primary instructional methods, (2) map the use of 10 known teaching techniques, and (3) assess if residents scored sessions that incorporated active...

  17. Using Instructional and Motivational Techniques in the Art Classroom To Increase Memory Retention. (United States)

    Calverley, Ann; Grafer, Bonnie; Hauser, Michelle

    This report describes a program for improving memory retention through instructional and motivational techniques in elementary art. Targeted population consisted of third grade students at three sites in a middle class suburb of a large midwestern city. The problems of memory retention were documented through teacher pre-surveys and art memory…

  18. Instructional Uses of the Computer: Program Force (United States)

    Ostrander, P.


    Describes a program which simulates motion in two dimensions of a point mass subject to a force which is a function of position, velocity, or time. Sample applications are noted and a source of a complete list of applications and programs is given. (GH)

  19. Uses of Laptops in English as Second Language Classrooms as Part of a One-to-One Laptop Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guliz Turgut


    Full Text Available One-to-one laptop programs, where each student has their own laptop to use in classroom, are becoming popular in schools especially in Australia and the Unites States. The purpose of the study was to contribute to the limited knowledgebase explaining the implementation of laptop programs specifically with English language learners. Four ESL classroom teachers, six ESL students, and three school administrators participated in individually conducted, semi-structured interviews. Additionally, a total of twelve observations were completed in four ESL classrooms. Data was interpreted through Grounded Theory and open-, axial-, and selective-coding was used for coding. Three themes emerged from data analysis. The first theme focused on explaining how teacherlaptops were used. Results indicated that use of teacher-laptops ranged from making instruction visual to playing music to create a soothing classroom environment. The second theme explained use of student-laptops and indicated that they were mainly used to develop English language skills and complete projects. The third and last theme portrayed some concerns teachers and students had about technical issues and overreliance on laptops impacting instruction and classroom culture unfavorably. Implications are discussed while reporting findings of the study. The study concludes with limitations of the study and suggestions for future research

  20. Instructional Design of a Programming Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Bennedsen, Jens


    object-oriented programming course is designed according to results of cognitive science and educational psychology in general and cognitive load theory and cognitive skill acquisition in particular; the principal techniques applied are: worked examples, scaffolding, faded guidance, cognitive...

  1. The Implementation of Virtual Instruction in Relation to X-ray Anatomy and Positioning in a Chiropractic Degree Program: A Descriptive Paper. (United States)

    Rush, Perry O; Boone, William R


    This article provides information regarding the introduction of virtual education into classroom instruction, wherein a method of classroom instruction was developed with the use of a computer, digital camera, and various software programs. This approach simplified testing procedures, thus reducing institutional costs substantially by easing the demand for manpower, and seemed to improve average grade performance. Organized files with hundreds of digital pictures have created a range of instructor resources. Much of the new course materials were organized onto compact disks to complement course notes. Customizing presentations with digital technology holds potential benefits for students, instructors and the institution.

  2. Prospect for Cell Phones as Instructional Tools in the EFL Classroom: A Case Study of Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh (United States)

    Begum, Roksana


    The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiality of cell phone use in the EFL classroom of Bangladesh as an instructional tool. The researcher conducted a case study on Jahangirnagar University of Bangladesh. For the study, some SMS based class tests were conducted in the English Department of the university where one hundred…

  3. Practices and Challenges of Writing Instruction in K-2 Classrooms: A Case Study of Five Primary Grade Teachers (United States)

    Korth, Byran B.; Wimmer, Jennifer J.; Wilcox, Brad; Morrison, Timothy G.; Harward, Stan; Peterson, Nancy; Simmerman, Sue; Pierce, Linda


    Given the interrelated role of writing and the development of early literacy skills, recommendations have been made to increase instructional writing experiences in K-2 classrooms. In an effort to increase the amount of writing in the primary grades that leads to later literacy success, it is important that teachers engage in instructional…

  4. "Flipping" Lessons in a Multi-Section Spanish Course: Implications for Assigning Explicit Grammar Instruction Outside of the Classroom (United States)

    Moranski, Kara; Kim, Frederic


    Flipped or inverted classroom (IC) models are promising for foreign language instruction in that they appear to promote well-regarded practices that bridge both sociocultural and cognitive theoretical frameworks, such as allowing for higher degrees of learner agency and facilitating deeper levels of processing. To date, the majority of work on IC…

  5. Intensification of the Learning Process: Automated Instructional Resources Retrieval System. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use. (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    The problem of finding relevant material to answer a classroom need is the focus of this report. The Automated Instructional Resources Retrieval System (AIRR) is designed to assist teachers by storing information in a number of categories, including the following: media type, maturity level, length, producer or publisher, main curriculum area,…

  6. Associations of Newly Qualified Teachers' Beliefs with Classroom Management Practices and Approaches to Instruction over One School Year (United States)

    Aus, Kati; Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Poom-Valickis, Katrin; Eisenschmidt, Eve; Kikas, Eve


    We focus on assessing whether newly qualified teachers' professional outcome expectations and their beliefs about students' intellectual potential are associated with teachers' self-reported classroom management and instructional practices. One hundred and eighteen novice teachers participating in the induction year programme were studied during…

  7. Beyond Measurement-Driven Instruction: Achieving Deep Learning Based on Constructivist Learning Theory, Integrated Assessment, and a Flipped Classroom Approach (United States)

    Bernauer, James A.; Fuller, Richard G.


    The authors focus on the critical role of assessment within a flipped classroom environment where instruction is based on constructivist learning theory and where desired student outcomes are at the higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. While assessment is typically thought of in terms of providing summative measures of performance or achievement, it…

  8. Enhancing Teacher Read Alouds with Small-Group Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Low Vocabulary in First-Grade Classrooms (United States)

    Fien, Hank; Santoro, Lana; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Chard, David J.; Williams, Susanna; Haria, Priti


    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of small-group instruction on the vocabulary and comprehension of first-grade students identified with low language and low vocabulary skills. Overall, 102 first-grade students scoring below the 50th percentile on relational vocabulary were blocked by classroom, matched according to…

  9. The Effect of Virtual vs. Traditional Classroom Instruction on Creative Thinking of Iranian High School EFL Learners (United States)

    Varzaneh, Soheila Shafiee; Baharlooie, Roya


    This study investigated the effect of virtual vs. traditional classroom instruction on creative thinking among Iranian High school EFL Learners. One-hundred and forty three female of high and low level of proficiency, who were selected randomly, were assigned to two VLI (N = 60) and TCI group (N = 60) based on their scores in OPT. Then, each group…

  10. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate


    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  11. A Study Comparing Virtual Manipulatives with Other Instructional Treatments in Third-and Fourth-Grade Classrooms (United States)

    Moyer-Packenham, Patricia; Baker, Joseph; Westenskow, Arla; Anderson, Katie; Shumway, Jessica; Rodzon, Kati; Jordan, Kerry


    The study reported here examined virtual manipulatives as an instructional treatment in 17 third- and fourth-grade classrooms. Students were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: texts and physical manipulatives, and virtual manipulatives. Results revealed no significant differences in achievement between the treatments. Additional results…

  12. A Survey of Exemplar Teachers' Perceptions, Use, and Access of Computer-Based Games and Technology for Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Proctor, Michael D.; Marks, Yaela


    This research reports and analyzes for archival purposes surveyed perceptions, use, and access by 259 United States based exemplar Primary and Secondary educators of computer-based games and technology for classroom instruction. Participating respondents were considered exemplary as they each won the Milken Educator Award during the 1996-2009…

  13. Book Review: RTI with Differentiated Instruction, Grades 6 - 8: A Classroom Teacher's Guide, by J. O'Meara (2011)


    Wilson, Hope E.


    As school districts across the country move toward Response to Intervention (RTI) as a standardized way to meet the diverse needs of students in the classroom, Jodi O’Meara’s book provides practical and relevant information for middle level (grades 6 through 8) teachers on best practices for incorporating RTI and differentiation into their instruction, assessment, and pedagogy.

  14. English-Medium Instruction in Hong Kong: Illuminating a Grey Area in School Policies and Classroom Practices (United States)

    Evans, Stephen; Morrison, Bruce


    Research into the medium of instruction (MOI) in Hong Kong has traditionally focused on years 7-9; thus, little is known about school policies and classroom practices in the crucial senior-secondary years which fall beyond the ambit of government diktats. This lacuna is particularly conspicuous in the case of Chinese-medium schools, whose students…

  15. Instructional Media

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments on using Instructional Television. Most experiments compare instruction using TV, with the conventional classroom instruction by the teacher. The findings are clear. ... scientific reliability, and all of these showed no significant difference.

  16. Instructions for using SOW Pk program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnoli, D.E.


    PKSOW is a Fortran program developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to calculate the probability of kill (P{sub k}) of a submarine-launched ASW nuclear standoff weapon. The calculation can be done for a broad spectrum of conditions: the user specifies weapon characteristics (yield, depth of burst), target localization and course and speed errors, target evasion tactics, target damage specifications, and safe standoff parameters. Output from the program includes a table of Pk at various standoff ranges for each of several yields. This version of PKSOW has been adapted to run on the IBM PC using MS/DOS. The output from the program may be used with MS CHART to produce plots of Pk vs standoff range.




  18. Alpine Skiing: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program. (United States)

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The first of five guides in the Sports Skills Instructional Program focuses on teaching alpine skiing to mentally retarded students. Each unit contains the following elements: overview, long-term goal, short-term objectives, modifications and adaptations, sports skill assessment, teaching skill, skill sequence, task analysis, teaching suggestions,…

  19. Track & Field: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program. (United States)

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    One of five guidelines in the Sports Skills Instructional Program, the booklet addresses ways to teach track and field to mentally retarded persons. The approach is designed to use volunteers as instructors. An overview considers such topics as clothing, equipment, and field preparation. The long term goal of acquiring basic fundamental skills,…

  20. Sequenced Instructional Programs in Physical Education for the Handicapped. (United States)

    Carr, Dorothy B.; And Others

    The curriculum guidelines for a comprehensive physical education program consist of developmentally sequenced skills and instructional activities appropriate for handicapped children from early preschool age (18 months) through high school. Suggested activities and materials are arranged in color-coded sections on motor and movement skills,…

  1. The Universal Decimal Classification; A Programmed Instruction Course. (United States)

    Wellisch, Hans

    The text provides an application of programmed learning to the teaching and study of classification and indexing. It is aimed at students in library schools to familiarize them with the principles and techniques of the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC). The book can also be used as a manual for self-instruction in UDC for those unable to…

  2. Ethics Instruction in Community College Leadership Programs: Southern Perspectives (United States)

    Ware, Nikisha Green


    The purpose of this study was to discover which southern universities have graduate preparatory programs in community college leadership and how, if at all, ethics is addressed in their curricula and in instruction. Surveys were mailed to 38 southern universities located in the Southern Regional Education Board member states. Of the 21 responses…

  3. Exploring the Instructional Strategies of Elementary School Teachers When Developing Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge via a Collaborative Professional Development Program (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Hsiung


    The technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) framework has been regarded as potentially effective in helping teachers integrate technology into the classroom. This study explores the instructional strategies of teachers when developing TPACK. A teacher professional development (TPD) program, in which teaching activities and deep…

  4. Integrating a Supplemental Vocabulary Instruction Program into an EFL Curriculum


    ヒューバート, ラッセル ポール; ゴーベル, ピーター


    This article describes a supplemental vocabulary instruction program piloted in the KSU Faculty of Cultural Studies during the 2011 academic year. The program was created to enhance the depth of vocabulary knowledge and active usage of English vocabulary of first-year students (N=230). Initial student vocabulary knowledge levels were evaluated by a Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) examination at the beginning of the academic year. A vocabulary textbook series was selected for the required reading...

  5. Understanding Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment within Eighth Grade Science Classrooms for Special Needs Students (United States)

    Riedell, Kate Elizabeth

    also provided an in-depth interview as part of the data collection. This comprehensive set of over 200 pieces of data, which includes observations and interviews, as well as artifacts and annotations from the ePortfolios, was analyzed using a grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). Six central themes emerged from the data. The findings indicated that teachers incorporated some elements of differentiation, personalization and a limited number of components under UDL to support all learners, including students with special needs. There was no indication that the teachers implemented individualization. In other words, there was limited evidence that teachers planned specifically for meeting the needs of students with a specific disability; rather, they focused on collectively meeting the needs of all learners. They recognized the importance of accounting for student motivation and sought to provide hands-on, authentic learning opportunities to motivate and engage students. Yet, they did not survey and/or ask students for their perception of their classroom experiences. While teachers did utilize the electronic portfolio and found it valuable to varying degrees, they indicated that collaboration and visiting other classrooms were essential to their professional development. Implications from this study include (1) ensuring that teachers understand the differences among differentiation, personalization, individualization and universal design for learning; (2) training for teachers on how to properly differentiate, personalize and individualize instruction, as well as how to implement universal design for learning; (3) providing teachers with follow-up support within the classroom to properly implement the approaches mentioned above; (4) training for teachers on the importance of eliciting students' perceptions and how to gauge those perceptions; (5) properly disseminating information to policymakers on the realities of the classrooms and the challenges in

  6. Exploring Faculty Decision-Making Processes for Using Instructional Technology in the Classroom: Implications for Policy and Practice. WISCAPE Policy Brief (United States)

    Hora, Matthew Tadashi; Holden, Jeremiah Isaac


    Given the primacy of instructional technology in today's college classroom, it is important to understand how faculty use these tools, especially how they adapt specific tools to meet the unique needs of particular faculty or instructional situations. Instructional designers and policymakers face the challenge of introducing innovations into…

  7. Engagement and Skill Development through an Innovative Classroom Music Program (United States)

    Richmond, James; McLachlan, Neil M.; Ainley, Mary; Osborne, Margaret


    Rates of music participation are low in developed nations. This may be attributed in part to the failure of school music to engage children sufficiently to motivate them to continue learning and participating in music. We tested the "Harmonix" program of classroom music education, which is currently being designed to maximize engagement…

  8. Neuro-Linguistics Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom. (United States)

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.


    Students and teachers experience the world primarily through visual, kinesthetic, or auditory representational systems. If teachers are aware of their own favored system and those of their students, classroom communication will improve. Neurolinguistic programing can help teachers become more effective communicators. (PP)

  9. Instructional characteristics in mathematics classrooms: relationships to achievement goal orientation and student engagement (United States)

    Lazarides, Rebecca; Rubach, Charlott


    This longitudinal study examined relationships between student-perceived teaching for meaning, support for autonomy, and competence in mathematic classrooms (Time 1), and students' achievement goal orientations and engagement in mathematics 6 months later (Time 2). We tested whether student-perceived instructional characteristics at Time 1 indirectly related to student engagement at Time 2, via their achievement goal orientations (Time 2), and, whether student gender moderated these relationships. Participants were ninth and tenth graders (55.2% girls) from 46 classrooms in ten secondary schools in Berlin, Germany. Only data from students who participated at both timepoints were included (N = 746 out of total at Time 1 1118; dropout 33.27%). Longitudinal structural equation modeling showed that student-perceived teaching for meaning and support for competence indirectly predicted intrinsic motivation and effort, via students' mastery goal orientation. These paths were equivalent for girls and boys. The findings are significant for mathematics education, in identifying motivational processes that partly explain the relationships between student-perceived teaching for meaning and competence support and intrinsic motivation and effort in mathematics.

  10. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction? (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia


    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders’ vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.


    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students’ literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students’ comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement. PMID:25400293

  12. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes. (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J


    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students' literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students' comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement.

  13. Teaching science in culturally diverse classrooms: The relevance of multicultural coursework on novice teachers' instructional choice (United States)

    Cunha, Thais B. P. da

    Science education reform in the United States has been slow to reduce the troubling science achievement gap between students from mainstream and non-mainstream backgrounds. Recent data suggest the gap persists in spite of improved attention to the multicultural education of teachers, and in spite of recent, more culturally inclusive and responsive curricular materials and instructional recommendations. In this study, I examine the cases of two European American male novice science teachers in middle schools with highly diverse populations, exploring their perceptions of the necessity of adapting their instructional approaches and the science curricula in order to meet the needs of their predominantly Native American, Mexican American, and African American students. Two theoretical frameworks inform this study, Rodriguez's (2005) sociotransformative constructivism, and Freire's critical pedagogy. I apply a qualitative case study method, to better understand and analyze the classroom setting and power relations of the context. Data consist of semi-structured interviews with each teacher, classroom observation and other field notes, the science curricular and instructional materials, and teachers' lesson plans. Each teacher acknowledged the ethnicities of students positively and noticed distinctive ethnocultural features (e.g., quinceaneras, Mexican Americans). Yet, their teaching approaches were primarily teacher-centric and monocultural. Each followed the book, usually lecturing, and striving dutifully to "cover" the topics. They did not solicit students' knowledge or engage them in dialog to explore their thinking. Even when the curriculum guide detailed relevant science knowledge students of some cultural groups might have, both teachers declined to use it. These well-meaning teachers did not fully perceive that students whose culture was different from their own might have different and relevant knowledge, experiences, or histories which were resources for

  14. Enhancing literacy practices in science classrooms through a professional development program for Canadian minority-language teachers (United States)

    Rivard, Léonard P.; Gueye, Ndeye R.


    Literacy in the Science Classroom Project was a three-year professional development (PD) program supporting minority-language secondary teachers' use of effective language-based instructional strategies for teaching science. Our primary objective was to determine how teacher beliefs and practices changed over time and how these were enacted in different classrooms. We also wanted to identify the challenges and enablers to implementing these literacy strategies and practices at the classroom, school, and district levels. Data collection involved both qualitative and quantitative methodologies: student questionnaires; interviews with teachers, principals, and mentor; and focus groups with students. The findings suggest that the program had an impact on beliefs and practices commensurate with the workshop participation of individual teachers. These language-enhanced teacher practices also had a positive impact on the use of talking, reading and writing by students in the science classroom. Finally, continuing PD support may be needed in certain jurisdictions for strengthening minority-language programs given the high teacher mobility in content-area classrooms evident in this study.

  15. Connecting scientific research and classroom instruction: Developing authentic problem sets for the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.

    Reform efforts in science education have called for instructional methods and resources that mirror the practice of science. Little research and design methods have been documented in the literature for designing such materials. The purpose of this study was to develop problems sets for sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. This research adapted an instructional design methodology from the science education literature for the creation of new curricular problem sets. The first phase of this study was to establish an understanding of current curricular problems in sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. A sample of 792 problems was collected from four organic chemistry courses. These problems were assessed using three literature reported problem typologies. Two of these problem typologies have previously been used to understand general chemistry problems; comparisons between general and organic chemistry problems were thus made. Data from this phase was used to develop a set of five problems for practicing organic chemists. The second phase of this study was to explore practicing organic chemists' experiences solving problems in the context of organic synthesis research. Eight practicing organic chemists were interviewed and asked to solve two to three of the problems developed in phase one of this research. These participants spoke of three problem types: project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day. Three knowledge types (internal knowledge, knowledgeable others, and literature) were used in solving these problems in research practice and in the developed problems. A set of guiding factors and implications were derived from this data and the chemistry education literature for the conversion of the problems for practicing chemists to problems for undergraduate students. A subsequent conversion process for the five problems occurred. The third, and last phase, of this study was to explore undergraduate students' experiences solving problems in

  16. At-risk elementary school children with one year of classroom music instruction are better at keeping a beat. (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina


    Temporal processing underlies both music and language skills. There is increasing evidence that rhythm abilities track with reading performance and that language disorders such as dyslexia are associated with poor rhythm abilities. However, little is known about how basic time-keeping skills can be shaped by musical training, particularly during critical literacy development years. This study was carried out in collaboration with Harmony Project, a non-profit organization providing free music education to children in the gang reduction zones of Los Angeles. Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing important evidence that fundamental time-keeping skills may be strengthened by short-term music training. This sets the stage for further examination of how music programs may be used to support the development of basic skills underlying learning and literacy, particularly in at-risk populations which may benefit the most.

  17. At-risk elementary school children with one year of classroom music instruction are better at keeping a beat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Slater

    Full Text Available Temporal processing underlies both music and language skills. There is increasing evidence that rhythm abilities track with reading performance and that language disorders such as dyslexia are associated with poor rhythm abilities. However, little is known about how basic time-keeping skills can be shaped by musical training, particularly during critical literacy development years. This study was carried out in collaboration with Harmony Project, a non-profit organization providing free music education to children in the gang reduction zones of Los Angeles. Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing important evidence that fundamental time-keeping skills may be strengthened by short-term music training. This sets the stage for further examination of how music programs may be used to support the development of basic skills underlying learning and literacy, particularly in at-risk populations which may benefit the most.

  18. Use of a personal computer for dynamical engineering illustrations in a classroom and over an instructional TV network (United States)

    Watson, V. R.


    A personal computer has been used to illustrate physical phenomena and problem solution techniques in engineering classes. According to student evaluations, instruction of concepts was greatly improved through the use of these illustrations. This paper describes the class of phenomena that can be effectively illustrated, the techniques used to create these illustrations, and the techniques used to display the illustrations in regular classrooms and over an instructional TV network. The features of a personal computer required to apply these techniques are listed. The capabilities of some present personal computers are discussed and a forecast of the capabilities of future personal computers is presented.

  19. Comparison of student perceptions of classroom instruction: Traditional, hybrid, and distance education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jo Garcia BIGGS


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article reports the results of a project that examined student perceptions of the psychosocial learning environment in a distance education classroom. The study utilized a survey instrument, Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES that was distributed as a pre-test/post-test to three sections of the same course taught in three distinct formats: traditional classroom instruction, distance learning, and hybrid (partially on-line/partially face-to-face. The DELES survey is a web-based tool specifically designed to assess the learning environment using a standardized, validated instrument. At the beginning of the project, the DELES-Preferred was administered to the three pilot groups. It measures the perception of the “actual” environment, perceptions of the preferred environment, or the “ideal” learning environment of the students. In addition, a brief overview of the DELES instrument is described as well as the implications of the research project findings. Project results, based on the DELES administration, indicate that Instructor Support was rated highest by the students enrolled in the course taught in the traditional manner (4.68 mean closely followed by the Hybrid course (4.66 mean while the course taught totally at a distance averaged a 3.62 mean. However, Student Interaction and Collaboration averaged higher scores in the course taught in the Hybrid manner (4.23 followed by the traditional course (3.97 and then the distance course (3.12. Specific scales of Personal Relevance, Authentic Learning, Active Learning, Student Autonomy and Satisfaction (scale of affect are further addressed in the article.

  20. At-Risk Elementary School Children with One Year of Classroom Music Instruction Are Better at Keeping a Beat: e77250

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jessica Slater; Adam Tierney; Nina Kraus


    .... Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing...

  1. Teaching and Learning in the Multigrade Classroom: Student Performance and Instructional Routines. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Miller, Bruce

    This ERIC digest reviews the history of the multigrade classroom, and summarizes research findings on multigrading effects on achievement and attitude. It also states requirements of teaching and learning in multigrade classrooms. Multigrade classrooms have ranged from the one-room schools of the early 1900s to the ungraded classroom of the 1960s…

  2. Scientist in the Classroom: Highlights of a Plasma Outreach Program (United States)

    Nagy, A.; Lee, R. L.


    The General Atomics education program ``Scientist in the Classroom'' now in its third year, uses scientists and engineers to present ``Plasma the fourth state of matter,'' to students in the classroom. A program goal is to make science an enjoyable experience while showing students how plasma plays an important role in their world. A fusion overview is presented, including topics on energy and environment. Using hands-on equipment, students manipulate a plasma discharge using magnets, observe its spectral properties and observe the plasma in a fluorescent tube. In addition, they observe physical properties of liquid nitrogen, and use an infrared camera to observe radiant heat energy. Several program benefits are; it costs less than facility tours, is more flexible in scheduling, and is adaptable for grades 2--adult. The program has doubled in coverage since last year, with over 2200 students at 20 schools visited by 8 scientists. Increased participation by the DIII-D staff in this program has been achieved by enlisting them to bring the program to their children's school.

  3. A Comparison of Live Classroom Instruction and Internet-Based Lessons for a Preparatory Training Course Delivered to 4th Year Pharmacy Students (United States)

    Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi


    To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students prepared by receiving only live classroom instruction. All students in the four cohorts were given a survey to evaluate the training sessions, and results were analyzed using the analysis of variance statistical test (ANOVA). Preceptors at the sites who interacted with students in all four cohorts were surveyed to evaluate which students appeared more prepared; these data were compared using paired t tests. Final assessment data for students in all four cohorts were analyzed using ANOVA. There were statistical differences between the two live training groups, with the second group finding the training to be more beneficial for preparing them, feeling the training length was appropriate and preferring the live modality for delivery. The two internet training cohorts were similar except for perceptions regarding the length of the online training. Comparing responses from those students who received live training with those receiving internet instruction demonstrated a statistical difference with the live groups rating the trainings as more helpful in preparing them for the clinics, rating the training as necessary, and rating their confidence higher in seeing patients. Preceptors rated the live training statistically higher than online training in preparing students. There was no difference between groups on their final site assessments. Live classroom training appears to be superior to the recorded internet training in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings.

  4. A comparison of the classroom dynamics of a problem-solving and traditional laboratory model of instruction using path analysis (United States)

    Pizzini, Edward L.; Shepardson, Daniel P.

    The classroom dynamics (class setting, lesson structure, student interactions, and student behaviors) of a traditional laboratory and a problem-solving Search, Solve, Create, and Share (SSCS) model of instruction were compared using path analysis. Class setting was based on small-group/large-group settings. Lesson structure variables were problem finding/refining, research designing, data collecting, data analyzing, and evaluating. The student-student interactions variable was determined by student-student responding, student-student initiating, and student (self-) interaction; while the teacher-student interaction variable was based on teacher-student initiating and teacher-student responding. The dependent variables of student behavior consisted of attending, responding, following, soliciting, and giving. A causal model was hypothesized for both instructional models based on the independent and dependent variables. The hypothesized causal model was tested using path-analysis procedures described by Pedhazur (1982). The hypothesized causal models were adjusted based on path coefficients with levels of significance greater than p = 0.05. While the descriptive data indicated a similarity in the classroom dynamics of the two instructional models, path analysis indicated a difference in the classroom dynamics. In the traditional laboratory model, student behaviors did not correlate to lesson structure, class setting, or student interactions, whereas in the SSCS problem-solving model student behaviors correlated to aspects of the lesson structure, class setting, and student interactions.

  5. Classroom interactions and science inquiry: A comparative study examining differential implementation of a science program in two middle school classrooms (United States)

    Goldberg, Jennifer Sarah

    This dissertation explores two classroom communities during the implementation of a new environmental science curriculum. The classrooms are similar in that both are located in the same middle school and led by experienced classroom teachers. Despite these similarities, differences among learning outcomes are found in analyses of student pre- and post-science tests in the two rooms. Through videotape analysis of classroom interaction within parallel curricular activities, learning opportunities are contrasted in terms of the social and cognitive organization of science activities and the roles played by teachers, students, and scientists as manifested in their discourse. In one classroom, tasks flow between whole class discussions and small group work. Curricular activities are interwoven with transitions eased as goals are shared with students. Scientific concepts are connected through various activities and related to ideas outside of the classroom. Furthermore, the classroom community is united, established largely through the teacher's discourse patterns, such as deictics (specifically, inclusive personal pronouns). Moreover, the teacher emphasizes that she is learning alongside the students. In the other classroom, the focus of their science period is typically centered around whole class instruction or small group work depending on the particular lesson. This organization accompanied by a heavy use of directives leads to an implicit goal of completing the assigned task. Curricular activities are isolated, with an emphasis on following protocol instructions. Through discursive patterns, such as endearing address terms and exclusive pronouns, a dichotomy is created between the teacher and student. As the designated expert, this teacher imparts her knowledge of science to the students. Several implications emerge from this study. Although pre-packaged, curricular lessons appear identical on paper, the enacted curriculum differs, even in similar settings. Without

  6. Predicting Student Achievement in University-Level Business and Economics Classes: Peer Observation of Classroom Instruction and Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.


    We examine the validity of peer observation of classroom instruction for purposes of faculty evaluation. Using both a multi-section course sample and a sample of different courses across a university's School of Business and Economics we find that the results of annual classroom observations of faculty teaching are significantly and positively…

  7. Teachers' Literal and Inferential Questions and Children's Responses: A Study of Teacher-Child Linguistic Interactions during Whole-Group Instruction in Hong Kong Kindergarten Classrooms (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer J.; Liang, Xiaoting


    This study investigated the extent to which preschool teachers and children (ages 4-6) used literal and inferential language within the context of whole-group instruction in four kindergarten classrooms in Hong Kong. A total of 20 sessions of videotaped classroom observations of linguistic interactions between teachers and children were…

  8. The effect of classroom instruction, attitudes towards science and motivation on students' views of uncertainty in science (United States)

    Schroeder, Meadow

    This study examined developmental and gender differences in Grade 5 and 9 students' views of uncertainty in science and the effect of classroom instruction on attitudes towards science, and motivation. Study 1 examined views of uncertainty in science when students were taught science using constructivist pedagogy. A total of 33 Grade 5 (n = 17, 12 boys, 5 girls) and Grade 9 (n = 16, 8 boys, 8 girls) students were interviewed about the ideas they had about uncertainty in their own experiments (i.e., practical science) and in professional science activities (i.e., formal science). Analysis found an interaction between grade and gender in the number of categories of uncertainty identified for both practical and formal science. Additionally, in formal science, there was a developmental shift from dualism (i.e., science is a collection of basic facts that are the result of straightforward procedures) to multiplism (i.e., there is more than one answer or perspective on scientific knowledge) from Grade 5 to Grade 9. Finally, there was a positive correlation between the understanding uncertainty in practical and formal science. Study 2 compared the attitudes and motivation towards science and motivation of students in constructivist and traditional classrooms. Scores on the measures were also compared to students' views of uncertainty for constructivist-taught students. A total of 28 students in Grade 5 (n = 13, 11 boys, 2 girls) and Grade 9 (n = 15, 6 boys, 9 girls), from traditional science classrooms and the 33 constructivist students from Study 1 participated. Regardless of classroom instruction, fifth graders reported more positive attitudes towards science than ninth graders. Students from the constructivist classrooms reported more intrinsic motivation than students from the traditional classrooms. Constructivist students' views of uncertainty in formal and practical science did not correlate with their attitudes towards science and motivation.

  9. Development of an Online Orientation for an Instructional Technology Masters Program (United States)

    Dixon, Michael; Beveridge, Pamela; Farrior, Charlotte; Williams, Beth Ann; Sugar, William; Brown, Abbie


    Four graduate students were tasked with creating a real-world solution to a problem faced by the instructional technology masters program in which they were participating. While taking an online course in multimedia instructional product development, part of East Carolina University's Masters of Science in Instructional Technology degree program,…

  10. A program evaluation of classroom data collection with bar codes. (United States)

    Saunders, M D; Saunders, J L; Saunders, R R


    A technology incorporating bar code symbols and hand-held optical scanners was evaluated for its utility for routine data collection in a special education classroom. A different bar code symbol was created for each Individualized Educational Plan objective, each type of response occurrence, and each student in the first author's classroom. These symbols were organized by activity and printed as data sheets. The teacher and paraprofessionals scanned relevant codes with scanners when the students emitted targeted behaviors. The codes, dates, and approximate times of the scans were retained in the scanner's electronic memory until they could be transferred by communication software to a computer file. The data from the computer file were organized weekly into a printed report of student performance using a program written with commercially available database software. Advantages, disadvantages, and costs of using the system are discussed.

  11. Evolution in the Caribbean Classroom: A Critical Analysis of the Role of Biology Teachers and Science Standards in Shaping Evolution Instruction in Belize (United States)

    Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler


    A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean,…

  12. University Instructors' Responses on Implementation of Differentiated Instruction in Teacher Education Programs (United States)

    Lockley, Jeannie; Jackson, Nykela; Downing, Allison; Roberts, Jalynn


    General education teachers are encouraged in many teacher education programs to differentiate instruction. The question was if instructors in teacher education programs modeled differentiated instruction (DI) in their teacher education programs. University instructors in teacher education programs were surveyed about their use of DI. DI included…




  14. THE CLASSROOM AIDE. (United States)



  15. Laptop Computers in the Elementary Classroom: Authentic Instruction with At-Risk Students (United States)

    Kemker, Kate; Barron, Ann E.; Harmes, J. Christine


    This case study investigated the integration of laptop computers into an elementary classroom in a low socioeconomic status (SES) school. Specifically, the research examined classroom management techniques and aspects of authentic learning relative to the student projects and activities. A mixed methods approach included classroom observations,…

  16. A Reconsideration of the Instructional Affordances of Classroom Monitoring in English Language Learning (United States)

    Towndrow, Phillip A.


    This article explores teachers' classroom monitoring in English language learning and asks if it has a role to play beyond what we know and recognize as mainstream classroom management. As part of a larger study of pedagogical practices in classrooms in Singapore, researchers collected and analyzed videographic data on the types and…

  17. Development and Exchange of Instructional Resources in Water Quality Control Programs, IV: Selecting Instructional Media and Instructional Systems. (United States)

    Durham, W. Harry; And Others

    This document is one of a series of reports which reviews instructional materials and equipment for water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. A system is presented to assist in standardizing the production of lesson plans and instructional materials in the water quality control field. A procedure for selecting appropriate instructional media…

  18. The STEAM-Powered Classroom (United States)

    Harper, Charlie


    An instructional coach argues that STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) programming combined with problem-based learning can offer rich academic experiences--and not just in science classrooms. He outlines relevant problem-based lesson ideas, and discusses ways school leaders can better support instructional practices…

  19. Training Teachers in Complex Classroom Organizations (Mixed-Age Classes) To Improve Instruction and Classroom Management Behaviour. Effects of a Staff Development Programme. (United States)

    Roelofs, Erik; And Others

    A quasi-experimental, treatment-control group investigation was designed to test the effects on Dutch primary school teachers of the staff development program "Dealing with Mixed-Age Classes." Research findings from mixed-age classes, effective teaching, and classroom management and organization were translated into teaching behaviors.…

  20. Literacy events during science instruction in a fifth-grade classroom: Listening to teacher and student voices (United States)

    Deal, Debby

    Concern with science literacy and how to achieve it has a long history in our education system. The goals and definitions established by the National Science Education Standards (1996) suggest that if we are to successfully prepare students for the information age, science education must blend the natural and social sciences. However, research indicates that connections between hands-on science and literacy, as a tool for processing information, do not regularly occur during school science instruction. This case study explored the use of literacy by a second year teacher in a fifth grade class during consecutive science units on chemistry and liquids. The research questions focused on how and why the teacher and students used literacy during science and how and why the teacher and selected focus students believed literacy influenced their learning in science. Data was collected through classroom observations and multiple interviews with the teacher and selected focus students. Interview data was analyzed and coded using an iterative process. Field notes and student artifacts were used to triangulate the data. The study found that the teacher and students used reading and writing to record and acquire content knowledge, learn to be organized, and to facilitate assessment. Although the teacher had learned content literacy strategies in her pre-service program, she did not implement them in the classroom and her practice seemed to reflect her limited science content knowledge and understanding of the nature of science. The focus students believed that recording and studying notes, reading books, drawing, and reading study guides helped them learn science. The findings suggest the following implications: (1) More data is needed on the relationship between teaching approach, science content knowledge, and beliefs about science. (2) Elementary student voices make a valuable contribution to our understanding of science learning. (3) Pre-service candidates should have

  1. Learning Designs using Flipped Classroom Instruction | Conception d’apprentissage à l’aide de l’instruction en classe inversée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Danielle Mazur


    Full Text Available The flipped classroom is an instructional model that leverages technology-enhanced instruction outside of class time in order to maximize student engagement and learning during class time. As part of an action research study, the authors synthesize reflections about three learning designs and how the flipped classroom model can support teaching, learning and assessment through: (1 guided collaborative discussion, (2 tabletop white boarding and (3 the development of augmented reality auras. Principles for teaching effectiveness are used as a lens to guide the reflection on the benefits and challenges with each of the learning designs. Findings suggest that flipped classroom models that emphasize collaborative learning, group work and accessibility can enable and support inquiry-based learning. Recommendations are provided for educators interested in designing learning using a flipped classroom instructional model, as well as suggestions for future action research agendas. La classe inversée est un modèle pédagogique qui met à profit l’apprentissage hors des heures en classe et qui est rehaussé par la technologie pour maximiser l’engagement et l’apprentissage des apprenants en classe. Dans le cadre de cette étude de recherche-action, les auteurs résument les réflexions sur la façon dont le modèle de la classe inversée peut appuyer l’enseignement, l’apprentissage et l’évaluation par la mise en œuvre de trois conceptions d’apprentissage par investigation : 1 discussion collaborative guidée, 2 tableau blanc de table et 3 développement d’auras en réalité augmentée. Les principes d’enseignement de l’efficacité sont utilisés comme optique guidant la réflexion sur les avantages et les défis de chacune des conceptions d’apprentissage. Les conclusions suggèrent que les modèles de classes inversées qui mettent l’accent sur l’apprentissage collaboratif, le travail en groupe et l’accessibilité peuvent

  2. From Teacher-Centred Instruction to Peer Tutoring in the Heterogeneous International Classroom: A Danish Case of Instructional Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klarissa Lueg


    Our study contributes on several levels: firstly, we provide course responsibles with a detailed insight into how a seminar redesign to RPT can be achieved. Secondly, we provide a basis for introducing such change by documenting the positive assessment as an outcome of the monitoring. We thereby address diversity and in-classroom heterogeneity on a didactical level.

  3. Developing scientific literacy through classroom instruction: Investigating learning opportunities across three modes of inquiry-based science instruction (United States)

    Khasnabis, Debi

    Despite wide research-based support for the implementation of inquiry-based science instruction, very few studies have closely examined its enactment across varied modes of instruction. Such studies can contribute to a finer understanding of the knowledge teachers must have in order to implement high-quality inquiry-based science instruction. This dissertation study investigated the enactment of three modes of inquiry-based science instruction by three guest teachers who were university-based researchers. The 50 fourth grade student participants were matched on achievement and prior content knowledge and randomly assigned to one of six small groups across three conditions employing different modes of inquiry-based science instruction: first-hand investigation, second-hand investigation, and an interplay of first- and second-hand investigation (Palincsar and Magnusson, 2001). Children in the first-hand investigation condition directly manipulated scientific phenomena, collected and reported data, and used these data to make knowledge claims. Children in the second-hand investigation condition studied the phenomena by following the investigations of a fictitious scientist who documents her study in an innovative notebook text. Children in the interplay condition experienced an interplay of the first- and second-hand investigations. Guided by sociocognitive theories of learning, the first phase of data analysis identified the differential opportunities for students to engage with scientific practices and conceptual claims across the modes of instruction. The findings from this analytical phase showed that in the context of this study, instruction featuring second-hand investigations provided students with richer opportunities for engaging with scientific practices and conceptual claims as compared to instruction featuring first-hand investigation. Following this, three sets of contrastive case studies were analyzed that demonstrated how opportunities for learning were

  4. Ice, Ice, Baby: A Program for Sustained, Classroom-Based K-8 Teacher Professional Development (United States)

    Hamilton, C.


    Ice, Ice, Baby is a K-8 science program created by the education team at the Center for the Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), an NSF-funded science and technology center headquartered at the University of Kansas. The twenty-four hands-on activities, which constitute the Ice, Ice, Baby curriculum, were developed to help students understand the role of polar ice sheets in sea level rise. These activities, presented in classrooms by CReSIS' Educational Outreach Coordinator, demonstrate many of the scientific properties of ice, including displacement and density. Student journals are utilized with each lesson as a strategy for improving students' science process skills. Journals also help the instructor identify misconceptions, assess comprehension, and provide students with a year-long science reference log. Pre- and post- assessments are given to both teachers and students before and after the program, providing data for evaluation and improvement of the Ice, Ice, Baby program. While students are actively engaged in hands-on learning about the unusual topics of ice sheets, glaciers, icebergs and sea ice, the CReSIS' Educational Coordinator is able to model best practices in science education, such as questioning and inquiry-based methods of instruction. In this way, the Ice, Ice, Baby program also serves as ongoing, in-class, professional development for teachers. Teachers are also provided supplemental activities to do with their classes between CReSIS' visits to encourage additional science lessons, reinforce concepts taught in the Ice, Ice, Baby program, and to foster teachers' progression toward more reform-based science instruction.

  5. Pacific CRYSTAL Project: Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science Classrooms (United States)

    Anthony, Robert J.; Tippett, Christine D.; Yore, Larry D.


    Science literacy leading to fuller and informed participation in the public debate about science, technology, society, and environmental (STSE) issues that produce justified decisions and sustainable actions is the shared and central goal of the Pacific CRYSTAL Project. There is broad agreement by science education researchers that learners need to be able to construct and interpret specific scientific discourses and texts to be literate in science. We view these capabilities as components in the fundamental sense of science literacy and as interactive and synergetic to the derived sense of science literacy, which refers to having general knowledge about concepts, principles, and methods of science. This article reports on preliminary findings from Years 1, 2, and 3 of the 5-year Pacific CRYSTAL project that aims to identify, develop, and embed explicit literacy instruction in science programs to achieve both senses of science literacy. A community-based, opportunistic, engineering research and development approach has been utilized to identify problems and concerns and to design instructional solutions for teaching middle school (Grades 6, 7, and 8) science. Initial data indicate (a) opportunities in programs for embedding literacy instruction and tasks; (b) difficulties generalist teachers have with new science curricula; (c) difficulties specialist science teachers have with literacy activities, strategies, genre, and writing-to-learn science tasks; and (d) potential literacy activities (vocabulary, reading comprehension, visual literacy, genre, and writing tasks) for middle school science. Preinstruction student assessments indicate a range of challenges in achieving effective learning in science and the need for extensive teacher support to achieve the project’s goals. Postinstructional assessments indicate positive changes in students’ ability to perform target reading and writing tasks. Qualitative data indicate teachers’ desire for external direction

  6. A Competency Based Instructional Program for Teachers of Deaf-Blind Children. (United States)

    Caldwell, Erin Kent; And Others

    Described is a 9-week, summer, competency-based, instructional program for teachers of deaf blind children. Information provided includes the background and rationale for the program, a list of administrative and instructional staff members, program goals, and a sample scheduling sequence. Goals, session topics, texts and materials, session…

  7. From Teacher-Centered Instruction to Peer Tutoring in the Heterogeneous International Classroom: A Danish Case of Instructional Change (United States)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Lueg, Rainer


    This case study documents a seminar redesign from a teacher-centered instruction format to collaborative "reciprocal peer tutoring" (RPT) at Aarhus University, Denmark. Departing from concepts by Bourdieu and Vertovec, we argue that teaching concepts should meet the needs of students within Higher Education (HE). Our student sample is…

  8. Instruction via an Intelligent Videodisc System versus Classroom Instruction for Beginning College French Students. A Comparative Experiment. (United States)


    McLuhan (1964) who believed that the wheel had "amputated" our feet and pondered what the computer as "an extension of our brain" might be doing to...Computerized instruction in second-language aquisition. Studies in Language Learning, 1975, 1(1), 145-150. McLuhan , M. Understanding media: The extension of man

  9. Chemistry Teachers' Perceived Benefits and Challenges of Inquiry-Based Instruction in Inclusive Chemistry Classrooms (United States)

    Mumba, F.; Banda, A.; Chabalengula, V. M.


    Studies on inquiry-based instruction in inclusive science teaching have mainly focused on elementary and middle school levels. Little is known about inquiry-based instruction in high school inclusive science classes. Yet, such classes have become the norm in high schools, fulfilling the instructional needs of students with mild disabilities. This…

  10. Comparing inductive and deductive grammatical instruction in teaching German as a foreign language in Dutch classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammenga-Helmantel, Marjon; Bazhutkina, Iryna; Steringa, Sharon; Hummel, Ingrid; Suhre, Cor


    Recent review studies show that explicit instruction is the most effective way when presenting grammar in a foreign language teaching setting. However, they do not distinguish between types of explicit instruction. This study explores what type of explicit instruction (i.e. deductive or inductive

  11. Differentiating Writing Instruction: Meeting the Diverse Needs of Authors in a Classroom (United States)

    Shea, Mary


    This article outlines a rational for responsive, differentiated writing instruction that targets students' identified needs with respect to various dimensions of the writing process. Discussed is a cycle that requires ongoing assessment, instructional decision-making, responsive, differentiated instruction, guided practice, and assessment.…

  12. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CLASSROOM. 378. RESONANCE │ April 2012. Classroom. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom ... or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal ..... In the present investigation, a question may arise as to what will be ...

  13. Dual Language Development of Latino Children: Effect of Instructional Program Type and the Home and School Language Environment. (United States)

    Collins, Brian A


    Latino dual language children typically enter school with a wide range of proficiencies in Spanish and English, many with low proficiency in both languages, yet do make gains in one or both languages during their first school years. Dual language development is associated with how language is used at home and school, as well as the type of instructional program children receive at school. The present study investigates how changes in both Spanish and English proficiencies of Latino, second-generation immigrant children (n =163) from kindergarten to second grade relate to instructional program type as well as language use at home and school. A series of MANCOVAs demonstrated significant dual language gains in children who were in bilingual classrooms and schools where Spanish was used among the teachers, students, and staff. Furthermore, only in classrooms where both Spanish and English were used did children reach age-appropriate levels of academic proficiency in both languages. Home language use was also significantly associated with dual language gains as was maternal Spanish vocabulary knowledge before controlling for maternal education. Educational implications and potential benefits associated with bilingualism are discussed.

  14. Are All Program Elements Created Equal? Relations Between Specific Social and Emotional Learning Components and Teacher-Student Classroom Interaction Quality. (United States)

    Abry, Tashia; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Curby, Timothy W


    School-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are presented to educators with little understanding of the program components that have the greatest leverage for improving targeted outcomes. Conducted in the context of a randomized controlled trial, the present study used variation in treatment teachers' (N = 143) implementation of four core components of the Responsive Classroom approach to examine relations between each component and the quality of teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions in third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms (controlling for pre-intervention interaction quality and other covariates). We also examined the extent to which these relations varied as a function of teachers' baseline levels of interaction quality. Indices of teachers' implementation of Morning Meeting, Rule Creation, Interactive Modeling, and Academic Choice were derived from a combination of teacher-reported surveys and classroom observations. Ratings of teacher-student classroom interactions were aggregated across five observations conducted throughout the school year. Structural path models indicated that teachers' use of Morning Meeting and Academic Choice related to higher levels of emotionally supportive interactions; Academic Choice also related to higher levels of instructional interactions. In addition, teachers' baseline interaction quality moderated several associations such that the strongest relations between RC component use and interaction quality emerged for teachers with the lowest baseline interaction quality. Results highlight the value of examining individual program components toward the identification of program active ingredients that can inform intervention optimization and teacher professional development.

  15. An Application of Flipped Classroom Method in the Instructional Technologies and Material Development Course (United States)

    Özpinar, Ilknur; Yenmez, Arzu Aydogan; Gökçe, Semirhan


    A natural outcome of change in technology, new approaches towards teaching and learning have emerged and the applicability of the flipped classroom method, a new educational strategy, in the field of education has started to be discussed. It was aimed with the study to examine the effect of using flipped classroom method in academic achievements…

  16. Influence of University Level Direct Instruction on Educators' Use of Technology in the Classroom (United States)

    Garner, Angie M.; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.


    Previous research regarding technology integration in education has indicated that when technology is integrated into the classroom with fidelity it can enhance educational experiences. Research has also indicated, however that despite the growing presence of technology in classrooms, it is not being effectively utilized. The present study…

  17. Instructional Accommodations for Students with Asperger Syndrome in the General High School Classroom (United States)

    Baylis, Myrna


    General education teachers in the secondary sector are held responsible for adapting their lessons and classroom environment for students with Asperger Syndrome. With the growing number of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder being placed in general education classrooms, teachers are faced with yet another challenge in making their curriculum…

  18. Factors Predicting Nurse Educators' Acceptance and Use of Educational Technology in Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Cleveland, Sandra D.


    Nurse educators may express a willingness to use educational technology, but they may not have the belief or ability to carry out the technology use in the classroom. The following non-experimental, quantitative study examined factors that predict nurse educators' willingness to accept and use educational technology in the classroom. The sample…

  19. Evaluation of the Preschool Life Skills Program in Head Start Classrooms: A Systematic Replication (United States)

    Hanley, Gregory P.; Fahmie, Tara A.; Heal, Nicole A.


    In an attempt to address risk factors associated with extensive nonfamilial child care, we implemented the preschool life skills (PLS) program (Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007) in two community-based Head Start classrooms. A multiple baseline design across classrooms, repeated across skills, showed that the program resulted in a 5-fold…

  20. The Viability of English Television Programs inside of South Korean Classrooms (United States)

    Kines, Scott Wayne


    English television programs have been incorporated within public-school classrooms in western countries for a long time to capture student interest in various subjects. Many researchers favor English programs as a partner inside of classrooms while others hold negative perceptions of the concept. However, there is little research to provide a…

  1. Heart Rates of Elementary Physical Education Students during the Dancing Classrooms Program (United States)

    Nelson, Larry; Evans, Melissa; Guess, Wendy; Morris, Mary; Olson, Terry; Buckwalter, John


    We examined how different types of dance activities, along with their duration, influenced heart rate responses among fifth-grade physical education students (N = 96) who participated in the Dancing Classrooms program. Results indicated that the overall Dancing Classrooms program elicits a moderate cardiovascular heart rate response (M = 124.4…

  2. Distance education pedagogy and instructional design and development for occupational therapy educational programs. (United States)

    Trujillo, Leonard G


    Distance education in occupational therapy programs is increasingly becoming an instructional norm. Technological advances and the common expected use of the Internet and its multiple options to communicate and share information have made its use also commonplace for occupational therapy educators. As with any instructional modality, Web-based instruction can offer a vibrant learning environment created through different teaching strategies, activities, and technologies. This article briefly outlines educational models and instructional designs that can be part of every occupational therapy program as they incorporate distance education and Web-based learning into their programs. The primary focus is on the incorporation of the constructivist approach.

  3. An On-Line Classroom for the Unix Environment. (United States)

    Scigliano, John A.; And Others

    This paper describes an electronic classroom (ECR) program that has been developed at Nova University to facilitate online real-time group instruction in graduate degree programs in information and computer science. The first section describes the educational uses of the program, including the simulation of a classroom-type educational setting…

  4. ESP in-service teacher training programs: Do they change Iranian teachers’ beliefs, classroom practices and students’ achievements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Rajabi


    Full Text Available Dudley-Evans and St John (1998 coined the term “practitioner” for ESP teachers since, they claimed, many pivotal roles such as course designers, materials developers, researchers, evaluators, and classroom teachers should be taken on by an ESP instructor. That is why teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP requires a special approach to the training of the teachers who are supposed to teach English through content. The present study aimed at investigating the underlying effects of an ESP in-service teacher training program on the beliefs and instructional practices of Iranian ESP teachers as well as students’ achievements. A population of 423 Iranian ESP teachers responded to a survey questionnaire on teachers’ beliefs and classroom practices. This was followed by selecting 120 teachers and assigning them into two experimental and two control groups. The experimental groups participated in a ten week ESP in-service teacher training program. The outcomes of Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests clearly revealed the influential and constructive role of the training program on the beliefs and classroom practices of ESP teachers. The study also found significant difference between the achievements of students who enjoyed trained ESP instructors in comparison to those who received untrained ESP instructors.

  5. Characterization of mathematics instructional practises for prospective elementary teachers with varying levels of self-efficacy in classroom management and mathematics teaching (United States)

    Lee, Carrie W.; Walkowiak, Temple A.; Nietfeld, John L.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between prospective teachers' (PTs) instructional practises and their efficacy beliefs in classroom management and mathematics teaching. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods design was employed. Results from efficacy surveys, implemented with 54 PTs were linked to a sample of teachers' instructional practises during the qualitative phase. In this phase, video-recorded lessons were analysed based on tasks, representations, discourse, and classroom management. Findings indicate that PTs with higher levels of mathematics teaching efficacy taught lessons characterised by tasks of higher cognitive demand, extended student explanations, student-to-student discourse, and explicit connections between representations. Classroom management efficacy seems to bear influence on the utilised grouping structures. These findings support explicit attention to PTs' mathematics teaching and classroom management efficacy throughout teacher preparation and a need for formative feedback to inform development of beliefs about teaching practises.

  6. How fifth grade Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction (United States)

    Stevenson, Alma R.


    This qualitative, sociolinguistic research study examines how bilingual Latino/a students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States serving an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a fifth grade science class entirely comprised of language minority students transitioning out of bilingual education. Therefore, English was the means of instruction in science, supported by informal peer-to-peer Spanish-language communication. This study is grounded in a social constructivist paradigm. From this standpoint, learning science is a social process where social, cultural, and linguistic factors are all considered crucial to the process of acquiring scientific knowledge. The study was descriptive in nature, examining specific linguistic behaviors with the purpose of identifying and analyzing the linguistic functions of students' utterances while participating in science learning. The results suggest that students purposefully adapt their use of linguistic resources in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. What is underscored in this study is the importance of explicitly acknowledging, supporting, and incorporating bilingual students' linguistic resources both in Spanish and English into the science classroom in order to optimize students' participation and facilitate their understanding.

  7. The Programed Math Tutorial--Paraprofessionals Provide One-to-one Instruction in Primary School Mathematics. (United States)

    Ronshausen, Nina L.

    The "Programed Math Tutorial" is an approach to individualizing instruction through the use of tutoring by paraprofessionals and peer teaching. Designed for use in the primary grades, the program incorporates training tutors in the determination of acceptable or unacceptable answers. Tutors are given detailed instruction on the use of materials…

  8. Evaluating a Library Instruction Program: A Case Study of Effective Intracampus Cooperation. (United States)

    Adams, Mignon S.; And Others

    A variety of resources is needed to effectively carry out a comprehensive evaluation of any reasonably complex program of library instruction. At the State University College at Oswego, New York, the means and motivation for carrying out formal evaluation of a college library's instruction program were greatly enhanced when librarians cooperated…

  9. Teaching neuroscience to science teachers: facilitating the translation of inquiry-based teaching instruction to the classroom. (United States)

    Roehrig, G H; Michlin, M; Schmitt, L; MacNabb, C; Dubinsky, J M


    In science education, inquiry-based approaches to teaching and learning provide a framework for students to building critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Teacher professional development has been an ongoing focus for promoting such educational reforms. However, despite a strong consensus regarding best practices for professional development, relatively little systematic research has documented classroom changes consequent to these experiences. This paper reports on the impact of sustained, multiyear professional development in a program that combined neuroscience content and knowledge of the neurobiology of learning with inquiry-based pedagogy on teachers' inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations demonstrated the value of multiyear professional development in solidifying adoption of inquiry-based practices and cultivating progressive yearly growth in the cognitive environment of impacted classrooms.

  10. Development and Exchange of Instructional Resources in Water Quality Control Programs, II: Instructional Materials Available. (United States)

    Austin, John H.

    This document is one in a series of reports which reviews instructional materials and equipment for water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Approximately 900 items are listed in this document along with guidelines for the production of instructional materials. Information is provided regarding the source, type of material, intended…

  11. Adding Rigor to Classroom Assessment Techniques for Non-Traditional Adult Programs: A Lifecycle Improvement Approach (United States)

    Thomas, Jason E.; Hornsey, Philip E.


    Formative Classroom Assessment Techniques (CAT) have been well-established instructional tools in higher education since their exposition in the late 1980s (Angelo & Cross, 1993). A large body of literature exists surrounding the strengths and weaknesses of formative CATs. Simpson-Beck (2011) suggested insufficient quantitative evidence exists…

  12. Instructional Methods Within the Elementary-School Science Classroom Related to Improved Academic Performance (United States)

    Baum, Lisa

    There is gap in passing rates on the standardized science assessment between European American and Hispanic American students. The purpose of this study was to examine student performance in science and the closing of the achievement gap between European American and Hispanic American students based upon receipt of an inquiry or noninquiry instruction method. Guided by the theoretical framework of constructive learning, this quantitative ex post facto research design gathered data from 8 teachers who had already implemented 1 of the 2 methods of instruction. The teachers were chosen through purposive sampling based on previous observations of instructional method and were placed into 2 groups depending upon the type of instruction: inquiry or noninquiry. Descriptive statistics were used to determine mean differences and a 2-way analysis of variance was used to determine mean differences in science test scores between European American and Hispanic American students and between the instructional methods to which they had been exposed. Results found that the inquiry instructional method was related to a significant increase in mean scores for both ethnic groups, but the achievement gap between the two groups was not closed by the inquiry instruction method. This study can promote positive social change for students by informing the efforts of educational leaders and teachers to create professional development using inquiry instruction. Students may perform higher on standardized tests when they are allowed to explore science by asking questions and answering their own questions through the collection and analysis of data.

  13. Higher Education Science Student Perspectives on Classroom Instructional Methods: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Bohlscheid, Jeffri C.; Davis, John C.


    Constructivist-based inquiry instruction has been popularized for several decades in primary- and secondary-science education, with overwhelmingly positive results across all sciences. Importantly, higher education faculties have begun to embrace inquiry instruction in many subject areas. In fact, a growing body of literature illustrates the…

  14. Making Room for the Transformation of Literacy Instruction in the Digital Classroom (United States)

    Sofkova Hashemi, Sylvana; Cederlund, Katarina


    Education is in the process of transforming traditional print-based instruction into digital formats. This multi-case study sheds light on the challenge of coping with the old and new in literacy teaching in the context of technology-mediated instruction in the early years of schooling (7-8 years old children). By investigating the relation…

  15. Initiating Differentiated Instruction in General Education Classrooms with Inclusion Learning Support Students: A Multiple Case Study (United States)

    Berbaum, K. A.


    The purpose of this multiple case study was to describe and evaluate the experience of 5 general education teachers from a northeastern urban middle school as they integrated differentiated instruction with students who have specific learning disabilities. Educators are challenged to implement instruction that engages students with specific…

  16. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Converting a Classroom Course to a Network Based Instruction Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    green, Samantha


    ...) classes into NBL modules. This thesis performs a cost effectiveness analysis on converting the two modules and discusses the intangible costs and benefits associated with converting traditional classroom courses...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bisquerra Alzina


    Full Text Available Positive psychology has multiple applications. This article is focused on formal education, from the ages of 3 to 18 years. The development of well-being should be one of the aims of education, which would affect teachers, students, families and by extension society at large. This has been a clear aim for emotional education (Bisquerra, 2000, 2009, from the outset. With the emergence of positive psychology, there was a renewed effort in this direction, as a means of providing a better foundation. GROP (Grup de Recerca en Orientación Psicopedagógica [Research in Psychopedagogical Education Group] at the University of Barcelona is conducting research on this subject. The Happy Classrooms (“Aulas felices” program developed by the SATI team is the first program in Spanish aimed at working on positive education. It is designed for children and youths in pre-school, primary and secondary education. The program focuses its applications on character strengths and mindfulness. It is freely available for access and distribution. This article argues for the importance of enhancing well-being in education. Practical activities and intervention strategies are presented, with special reference to the importance of teacher training.

  18. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of its...

  19. Teachers' implementation of gender-inclusive instructional strategies in single-sex and mixed-sex science classrooms (United States)

    Parker, Lesley H.; Rennie, Léonie J.


    Debate continues over the benefits, or otherwise, of single-sex classes in science and mathematics, particularly for the performance of girls. Previous research and analyses of the circumstances surrounding the implementation of single-sex classes warn that the success of the strategy requires due consideration of the nature of the instructional environment for both boys and girls, together with appropriate support for the teachers involved. This article reports the circumstances under which teachers were able to implement gender-inclusive strategies in single-sex science classes in coeducational high schools and documents some of the difficulties faced. The study was part of the Single-Sex Education Pilot Project (SSEPP) in ten high schools in rural and urban Western Australia. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered during the project from teachers, students and classroom observations. Overall, it was apparent that single-sex grouping created environments in which teachers could implement gender-inclusive science instructional strategies more readily and effectively than in mixed-sex settings. Teachers were able to address some of the apparent shortcomings of the students' previous education (specifically, the poor written and oral communication of boys and the limited experience of girls with 'hands-on' activities and open-ended problem solving). Further, in same-sex classrooms, sexual harassment which inhibited girls' learning was eliminated. The extent to which teachers were successful in implementing gender-inclusive instructional strategies, however, depended upon their prior commitment to the SSEPP as a whole, and upon the support or obstacles encountered from a variety of sources, including parents, the community, students, and non-SSEPP teachers.

  20. Towards the Automatic Generation of Programmed Foreign-Language Instructional Materials. (United States)

    Van Campen, Joseph A.

    The purpose of this report is to describe a set of programs which either perform certain tasks useful in the generation of programed foreign-language instructional material or facilitate the writing of such task-oriented programs by other researchers. The programs described are these: (1) a PDP-10 assembly language program for the selection from a…

  1. Instruction to Help Young Children Develop Language and Literacy Skills: The Roles of Program Design and Instructional Guidance (United States)

    Gunn, Barbara; Vadasy, Patricia; Smolkowski, Keith


    This article discusses the kinds of instructional activities that young children need to develop basic language and literacy skills based on recent research and program evaluations. This includes approaches to develop alphabetic understanding, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and oral language. Activities and materials from the Pre-kindergarten…

  2. Examining Interactivity in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms (United States)

    Martin, Florence; Parker, Michele A.; Deale, Deborah F.


    Interaction is crucial to student satisfaction in online courses. Adding synchronous components (virtual classroom technologies) to online courses can facilitate interaction. In this study, interaction within a synchronous virtual classroom was investigated by surveying 21 graduate students in an instructional technology program in the…

  3. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invitt responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching ...

  4. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...

  5. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with th,em, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally ti forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...

  6. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classroom. In this section of Resonance, we in'Vite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or in'Vite .... boron-10 which demonstrated that some very beautiful work done by a. Caltech group headed by T Lauritsen and W A Fowler was wrong.

  7. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or botlt. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...

  8. Learning to Explain Astronomy Across Moving Frames of Reference: Exploring the role of classroom and planetarium-based instructional contexts (United States)

    Plummer, Julia Diane; Kocareli, Alicia; Slagle, Cynthia


    Learning astronomy involves significant spatial reasoning, such as learning to describe Earth-based phenomena and understanding space-based explanations for those phenomena as well as using the relevant size and scale information to interpret these frames of reference. This study examines daily celestial motion (DCM) as one case of how children learn to move between frames of reference in astronomy wherein one explains Earth-based descriptions of the Sun's, Moon's, and stars' apparent motion using the Earth's daily rotation. We analysed interviews with 8-9-year-old students (N = 99) who participated in one of four instructional conditions emphasizing: the space-based perspective; the Earth-based perspective in the planetarium; constructing explanations for the Earth-based observations; and a combination of the planetarium plus constructing explanations in the classroom. We used an embodied cognition framework to analyse outcomes while also considering challenges learners face due to the high cognitive demands of spatial reasoning. Results support the hypothesis that instruction should engage students in learning both the Earth-based observations and space-based explanations, as focusing on a single frame of reference resulted in less sophisticated explanations; however, few students were able to construct a fully scientific explanation after instruction.

  9. Preschool Enrollment, Classroom Instruction, Elementary School Context, and the Reading Achievement of Children from Low-Income Families (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Benner, Aprile D.; Davis-Kean, Pamela


    Purpose The goal of this study was test expectations derived from sociological and developmental perspectives that the association between phonics instruction in kindergarten classrooms and reading achievement during the first year of school in the low-income population would depend on whether children had previously attended preschool as well as the socioeconomic composition of their elementary schools. Methodological approach Autoregressive modeling was applied to nationally representative data from 7,710 children from low-income families in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, with a series of sensitivity tests to improve causal inference and explore the robustness of results. Findings The association between phonics instruction and achievement was strongest among children from low-income families who had not attended preschool and then enrolled in socioeconomically disadvantaged elementary schools and among children from low-income families who had attended preschool and then enrolled in socioeconomically advantaged elementary schools. Research and practical implications Insight into educational inequality can be gained by situating developing children within their proximate ecologies and institutional settings, especially looking to the match between children and their contexts. These findings are relevant to policy discussions of early education, instructional practices, and desegregation. PMID:28824338

  10. Is Project Based Learning More Effective than Direct Instruction in School Science Classrooms? An Analysis of the Empirical Research Evidence (United States)

    Dann, Clifford

    An increasingly loud call by parents, school administrators, teachers, and even business leaders for "authentic learning", emphasizing both group-work and problem solving, has led to growing enthusiasm for inquiry-based learning over the past decade. Although "inquiry" can be defined in many ways, a curriculum called "project-based learning" has recently emerged as the inquiry practice-of-choice with roots in the educational constructivism that emerged in the mid-twentieth century. Often, project-based learning is framed as an alternative instructional strategy to direct instruction for maximizing student content knowledge. This study investigates the empirical evidence for such a comparison while also evaluating the overall quality of the available studies in the light of accepted standards for educational research. Specifically, this thesis investigates what the body of quantitative research says about the efficacy of project-based learning vs. direct instruction when considering student acquisition of content knowledge in science classrooms. Further, existing limitations of the research pertaining to project based learning and secondary school education are explored. The thesis concludes with a discussion of where and how we should focus our empirical efforts in the future. The research revealed that the available empirical research contains flaws in both design and instrumentation. In particular, randomization is poor amongst all the studies considered. The empirical evidence indicates that project-based learning curricula improved student content knowledge but that, while the results were statistically significant, increases in raw test scores were marginal.

  11. A comparative analysis of on-line and classroom-based instructional formats for teaching social work research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Westhuis


    Full Text Available Research comparing courses taught exclusively in traditional face-to-face settings versus courses taught entirely online have shown similar levels of student satisfaction. This article reports findings from a comparative study of student achievement in research skills from classes using two different instructional formats. One group used a classroom-based instructional format and the other group used an online web-based instructional format. Findings indicate that there were no statistically significant differences between the two class formats for eight out of eleven outcome student performance activities and ten out of 13 pedagogical strategies. There were large effect size differences based on class format on four of the student performance activities and for student satisfaction with six of the pedagogical methods. When statistically significant differences were found, it was determined that student performance on learning activities and satisfaction with pedagogical methods were higher for the students in the traditional class. The findings support the conclusions of several studies concerning the effectiveness of online teaching. Limitations and implications for further studies are also suggested.

  12. Paraeducator Professional Development Curriculum. Module II: Building an Effective Instructional Team. Part Two: Assisting and Supporting the Teacher Through the Use of Effective Classroom Management and Effective Instructional Strategies. Trainer's Manual (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory NWREL, 2005


    This two-day institute examines the basic concepts of effective classroom management techniques as well as the use of effective instructional strategies for all students that will help paraeducators to support effective learning and teaching environment. This module addresses two goals: (1) to provide participants with an awareness of basic…

  13. A ballroom dance classroom program promotes moderate to vigorous physical activity in elementary school children. (United States)

    Huang, Shirley Y; Hogg, Jeannette; Zandieh, Stephanie; Bostwick, Susan B


    To determine if an existing ballroom dance classroom program meets national recommendations to engage children in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for ≥50% of class time and to determine class effects on body mass index (BMI). Prospective descriptive study. Setting . Two New York City public schools. Seventy-nine fourth and fifth grade students. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and direct heart rate monitoring were used to determine participants' MVPA levels during class time. Weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Means were calculated for continuous variables; frequency counts and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. Change in BMI percentiles was assessed by using Bhapkar's χ(2) test of overall marginal homogeneity. Data from SOFIT observations showed that a mean of 50.0% and 67.0% of class time in the first and second halves of the program, respectively, were spent in MVPA. Data from the heart rate monitoring revealed that 71.1% of students were at ≥25% heart rate reserve, which indicated MVPA for ≥50% of class time. Improvement was seen in BMI percentile (p= .051). Ballroom dance provides MVPA in elementary school children for ≥50% of class time and has a positive impact on BMI percentiles.

  14. STEM Beyond The Classroom: Creating Authentic Outreach Programs That Build Bridges Between The Classroom And Real World Challenges (United States)

    Ibarra, D. L.; Forder, S. E.; Pritchard, M.


    The ISF Academy was founded by Charles Kao, a Nobel Prize laureate. In 2011, the Shuyuan programs were established at The ISF Academy to operate both as a "school within a school" and as a "school outside the classroom." The Shuyuan programs work together with the IBO Science and Technology subject areas to develop comprehensive and challenging opportunities that address the 14 Grand Engineering Challenges. The goal is to establish co-curricular programs that go beyond the taught curriculum and support STEM curricula. Several programs outside of the classroom include an onsite robotics researcher, underwater and land based robotics programs, field trips, whole school food waste composting and the implementation of an energy tracking system. Relationships with several local universities allow students to work closely with professors in research settings and, annually, a leading researcher gives a keynote speech to our students. Other signature Shuyuan programs have developed international strategic relationships with the NRI at Cambridge University, where students spend several weeks studying science and civilization in China using primary source materials. Additionally, Shuyuan has supported extension opportunities for classroom teachers with institutional partnerships that include the British Council, governmental organizations, local universities, corporations, and NGOs. In conclusion, the overall goal of the Shuyuan Programs is to provide experiential learning opportunities that challenge conventional curriculum design in a manner that is supportive and innovative!

  15. Healthcare students' experiences when integrating e-learning and flipped classroom instructional approaches. (United States)

    Telford, Mark; Senior, Emma


    This article describes the experiences of undergraduate healthcare students taking a module adopting a 'flipped classroom' approach. Evidence suggests that flipped classroom as a pedagogical tool has the potential to enhance student learning and to improve healthcare practice. This innovative approach was implemented within a healthcare curriculum and in a module looking at public health delivered at the beginning of year two of a 3-year programme. The focus of the evaluation study was on the e-learning resources used in the module and the student experiences of these; with a specific aim to evaluate this element of the flipped classroom approach. A mixed-methods approach was adopted and data collected using questionnaires, which were distributed across a whole cohort, and a focus group involving ten participants. Statistical analysis of the data showed the positive student experience of engaging with e-learning. The thematic analysis identified two key themes; factors influencing a positive learning experience and the challenges when developing e-learning within a flipped classroom approach. The study provides guidance for further developments and improvements when developing e-learning as part of the flipped classroom approach.

  16. The Power of “Can Do” statements: Teachers’ Perceptions of CEFR-informed Instruction in French as a Second Language Classrooms in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Faez


    Full Text Available Abstract This article reports on French as a second language (FSL teachers’ perceptions of using the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR-informed instruction (action-oriented instruction focusing on language use in FSL classrooms in Ontario. In particular, this paper focuses on teachers’ perspectives of the strengths and challenges of providing CEFR-informed practice in FSL classrooms. FSL teachers (n=93 as well as elementary and secondary school students (n=943 participated in this province-wide study. Participating teachers were introduced to the CEFR and CEFR-informed activities and resources. Teachers then used the resources in their classrooms for approximately three months. At the end of this period, teachers participated in interviews and focus group sessions which focused on their perceptions’ of CEFR’s action-oriented approach. Teachers reported that CEFR-informed instruction increased student motivation, built self-confidence in their learners, promoted authentic language use in the classroom and encouraged learner autonomy. These findings have implications for FSL programs in Canada and possibly other second language education programs worldwide. Résumé Cet article présente les résultats d’une recherche sur les perceptions des enseignant(es de FLS (Français Langue Seconde en Ontario quant à l’utilisation du CECR (Cadre Européen Commun de Référence dans leurs salles de classe (une approche actionnelle de l’enseignement des langues qui met l’emphase sur l’utilisation même de la langue. Cet article vise principalement à décrire les perspectives des enseignant(es quant à la promotion de l’autonomie d’apprentissage tout en utilisant des pratiques proposées par le CECR. Cette étude a été menée dans la province de l’Ontario avec 93 enseignant(es de FLS et 943 élèves d’écoles élémentaires et secondaires. Les professeur(es ont été tout d’abord introduit(es au Cadre et à des activit

  17. A multimedia adult literacy program: Combining NASA technology, instructional design theory, and authentic literacy concepts (United States)

    Willis, Jerry W.


    be the most effective or most desirable way to use computer technology in literacy programs. This project is developing a series of instructional packages that are based on a different instructional model - authentic instruction. The instructional development model used to create these packages is also different. Instead of using the traditional five stage linear, sequential model based on behavioral learning theory, the project uses the recursive, reflective design and development model (R2D2) that is based on cognitive learning theory, particularly the social constructivism of Vygotsky, and an epistemology based on critical theory. Using alternative instructional and instructional development theories, the result of the summer faculty fellowship is LiteraCity, a multimedia adult literacy instructional package that is a simulation of finding and applying for a job. The program, which is about 120 megabytes, is distributed on CD-ROM.

  18. uSIMPK. An Excel for Windows-based simulation program for instruction of basic pharmacokinetics principles to pharmacy students. (United States)

    Brocks, Dion R


    Pharmacokinetics can be a challenging topic to teach due to the complex relationships inherent between physiological parameters, mathematical descriptors and equations, and their combined impact on shaping the blood fluid concentration vs. time curves of drugs. A computer program was developed within Microsoft Excel for Windows, designed to assist in the instruction of basic pharmacokinetics within an entry-to-practice pharmacy class environment. The program is composed of a series of spreadsheets (modules) linked by Visual Basic for Applications, intended to illustrate the relationships between pharmacokinetic and in some cases physiological parameters, doses and dose rates and the drug blood fluid concentration vs. time curves. Each module is accompanied by a simulation user's guide, prompting the user to change specific independent parameters and then observe the impact of the change(s) on the drug concentration vs. time curve and on other dependent parameters. "Slider" (or "scroll") bars can be selected to readily see the effects of repeated changes on the dependencies. Topics covered include one compartment single dose administration (iv bolus, oral, short infusion), intravenous infusion, repeated doses, renal and hepatic clearance, nonlinear elimination, two compartment model, plasma protein binding and the relationship between pharmacokinetics and drug effect. The program has been used in various forms in the classroom over a number of years, with positive ratings generally being received from students for its use in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Opinions of Prospective Classroom Teachers about Their Competence for Individualized Education Program (IEP) (United States)

    Debbag, Murat


    This research aims to determine the opinions of prospective classroom teachers about preparation and implementation of Individualized Education Program (IEP). In this study, a qualitative research method was used. The participants were 20 classroom-teaching students that had been selected through the purposive sampling method. In the study, the…

  20. A novel integration of online and flipped classroom instructional models in public health higher education. (United States)

    Galway, Lindsay P; Corbett, Kitty K; Takaro, Timothy K; Tairyan, Kate; Frank, Erica


    In 2013, a cohort of public health students participated in a 'flipped' Environmental and Occupational Health course. Content for the course was delivered through and active learning activities were carried out during in-class time. This paper reports on the design, implementation, and evaluation of this novel approach. Using mixed-methods, we examined learning experiences and perceptions of the flipped classroom model and assessed changes in students' self-perceived knowledge after participation in the course. We used pre- and post-course surveys to measure changes in self-perceived knowledge. The post-course survey also included items regarding learning experiences and perceptions of the flipped classroom model. We also compared standard course review and examination scores for the 2013 NextGenU/Flipped Classroom students to previous years when the course was taught with a lecture-based model. We conducted a focus group session to gain more in-depth understanding of student learning experiences and perceptions. Students reported an increase in knowledge and survey and focus group data revealed positive learning experiences and perceptions of the flipped classroom model. Mean examination scores for the 2013 NextGenU/Flipped classroom students were 88.8% compared to 86.4% for traditional students (2011). On a scale of 1-5 (1 = lowest rank, 5 = highest rank), the mean overall rating for the 2013 NextGenU/Flipped classroom students was 4.7/5 compared to prior years' overall ratings of 3.7 (2012), 4.3 (2011), 4.1 (2010), and 3.9 (2009). Two key themes emerged from the focus group data: 1) factors influencing positive learning experience (e.g., interactions with students and instructor); and 2) changes in attitudes towards environmental and occupation health (e.g., deepened interest in the field). Our results show that integration of the flipped classroom model with online NextGenU courses can be an effective innovation in public health higher education

  1. Comparing eLearning and Classroom Instruction on HIV/AIDS Knowledge Uptake and Internalizing among South African and Irish Pupils (United States)

    van Zyl, Hendra; Visser, Pieter; van Wyk, Elmarie; Laubscher, Ria


    Objective: Innovative public health approaches are required to improve human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and prevention among adolescents, one of the most vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS. Consequently, elearning and classroom instruction was assessed for HIV/AIDS knowledge uptake and internalizing…

  2. Characterization of Mathematics Instructional Practises for Prospective Elementary Teachers with Varying Levels of Self-Efficacy in Classroom Management and Mathematics Teaching (United States)

    Lee, Carrie W.; Walkowiak, Temple A.; Nietfeld, John L.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between prospective teachers' (PTs) instructional practises and their efficacy beliefs in classroom management and mathematics teaching. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods design was employed. Results from efficacy surveys, implemented with 54 PTs were linked to a sample of…

  3. Implications for Language Diversity in Instruction in the Context of Target Language Classrooms: Development of a Preliminary Model of the Effectiveness of Teacher Code-Switching (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho


    This paper concerns the conceptual and pedagogical issues that revolve around target language (TL) only instruction and teacher code-switching in the context of TL classrooms. To this end, I first examine four intertwined ideas (that is, monolingualism, naturalism, native-speakerism, and absolutism) that run through the monolingual approach to TL…

  4. Investigating the Efficacy of a Professional Development Program in Formative Classroom Assessment in Middle School English Language Arts and Mathematics (United States)

    Schneider, M. Christina; Meyer, J. Patrick


    Background: Teachers who engage in formative classroom assessment using practices that accurately measure student learning should be better positioned to diagnose the instructional needs of their students and to act on that information. For this reason, there has been increased interest in formative classroom assessment in recent years. Although…

  5. TICS: A System For The Authoring and Delivery Of Interactive Instructional Programs. (United States)

    Kaplow, Roy; And Others

    The Teacher-Interactive Computer System (TICS) is an on-line and interactive programing system for authoring interactive programs, particularly instructional programs. The system provides a fairly natural language, in which the author's statements for creating items in a program, for examining the structure and flow, for simulating its use by…

  6. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal ... published this paper as a short communication in the Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal, in February 1854. Ray Optics and Mathematical Preliminaries.

  7. Social Studies Instruction: Changing Teacher Confidence in Classrooms Enhanced by Technology (United States)

    Shriner, Michael; Clark, Daniel A.; Nail, Melissa; Schlee, Bethanne M.; Libler, Rebecca


    This study sought to determine to what extent seasoned educators' perceived confidence, competence, and resultant content-specific self-efficacy could be altered as a result of three different workshops geared toward the use of technology in social studies classrooms. Through analyses of pre- and post-test surveys, results indicated that…

  8. Displaying Orientation in the Classroom: Students' Multimodal Responses to Teacher Instructions (United States)

    Bezemer, Jeff


    This paper is about the displays of orientation that students use to participate in the classroom. It is argued that students use their direction of gaze, body posture, gesture and other modes of communication to realize such displays and respond to what goes on when they are not nominated speakers. The focus of the paper is on the silent but…

  9. Learner-Responsive Instructional Strategies for Adults in Accelerated Classroom Formats: Creating Inclusive Learning Environments (United States)

    Gupta, Kalpana


    This study was focused on investigating inclusive learning environments in accelerated classroom formats. Three 8-week sections of an undergraduate course at Regis University were examined. Results from observations and surveys were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and consistency of 13 inclusive strategies derived from Wlodkowski and…

  10. Beyond the Flipped Classroom: Redesigning a Research Methods Course for e[superscript3] Instruction (United States)

    Hoffman, Ellen S.


    The "flipped classroom" has gained in popularity as a new way to structure teaching in which lectures shift from in-class events to digitally-based homework, freeing up class time for practice exercises and discussion. However, critics note such a teaching strategy continues emphasis on the less effective techniques of the lecture as…

  11. Instructional Snapshots (IS) in Mexico: Preservice Bilingual Teachers Take Pictures of Classroom Practices. (United States)

    Clark, Ellen Riojas; Flores, Belinda Bustos


    Ten preservice bilingual teachers went to Mexican elementary and junior high schools to gain a better understanding of immigrant students' needs. They gathered data on school structure, classroom interactions and management, and educational strategies. They found that Mexican children achieve despite disadvantaged conditions, immigrant students…

  12. Inclusion as an Instructional Approach: Fostering Inclusive Writing Communities in Preschool Classrooms (United States)

    McCloskey, Erin


    Preschool students with disabilities engage in social interaction with peers less often than children developing typically in inclusive classrooms. This research explores how divergent theories of literacy learning, those inherent in the structure of special education and those promoted by scholars interested in emergent literacy learning, impact…

  13. Classroom versus Computer-Based CPR Training: A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Instructional Methods (United States)

    Rehberg, Robb S.; Gazzillo Diaz, Linda; Middlemas, David A.


    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether computer-based CPR training is comparable to traditional classroom training. Design and Setting: This study was quantitative in design. Data was gathered from a standardized examination and skill performance evaluation which yielded numerical scores. Subjects: The subjects were 64…

  14. Using "I Am Moving, I Am Learning" to Increase Quality Instruction in Head Start Classrooms (United States)

    Allar, Ishonté; Jones, Emily; Bulger, Sean


    Quality teacher-child interactions are characteristic of effective classrooms resulting in benefits for all children, but may be particularly important for children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to explore the perception of Illinois Head Start teachers related to how "I am Moving, I am Learning" (IMIL) could…

  15. Innovation in Higher Education: The Influence of Classroom Design and Instructional Technology (United States)

    Siegel, Christine; Claydon, Jennifer


    The current work seeks to explore University professors' perspectives on teaching and learning in an innovative classroom characterized by flexible design of space, furniture and technology. The study took place during the 2015-2016 academic year at Fairfield University, a Masters comprehensive university in the Northeastern United States.…

  16. Store and Forward: A Collaborative Approach for Developing Interactive Digital Media (IDM) for Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Henke, Mitchell E.; Latendresse, Frank


    The availability of digital media technology for consumer use has increased students' exposure to technology that was once limited primarily to educational and business environments. As students become more adept consumers and developers of digital media, their expectations in the classroom increasingly involve digital media as an instructional…

  17. Applying the Brakes: How Practical Classroom Decisions Affect the Adoption of Inquiry Instruction (United States)

    Yarnall, Louise; Fusco, Judi


    If college science instructors are to use inquiry practices more in the classroom, they need both professional support to foster comfort with the pedagogy and practical ways to engage students in inquiry. Over a semester, we studied 13 community college biology instructors as they adopted bioinformatics problem-based learning (PBL) modules in…

  18. Teachers' Code-Switching in Classroom Instructions for Low English Proficient Learners (United States)

    Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman


    Due to the alarming signals of declining proficiency level among English Language learners in Malaysia, this study set out to learn more about the learners' perceptions of the teachers' code-switching in English Language classrooms. The objectives of this study were to investigate: a) learners' perceptions of teachers' code-switching, b) the…

  19. Students' Satisfaction with a Blended Instructional Design: The Potential of "Flipped Classroom" in Higher Education (United States)

    Nanclares, Núria Hernández; Rodríguez, Mónica Pérez


    This paper aims to discuss the impact on promoting student satisfaction and improving their involvement in their own learning when applying a "Flipped classroom" design in a first-year bilingual, English-taught module in a non-English-speaking country. "World Economy" is taught in the Faculty of Business and Economics at a…

  20. Video Production and Classroom Instruction: Bridging the Academies and the Realities of Practice in Teacher Education (United States)

    Hathaway, Dawn; Norton, Priscilla


    In these times of high-stakes testing, pressure to meet annual yearly progress goals, and standards-driven classroom curriculums, today's teachers face many obstacles that interfere with their ability to teach with and about television and video. If graduate study for teacher educators was designed in ways that reflect the realities of their…

  1. Clouds and Climate Change. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program. (United States)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module introduces the basic features and classifications of clouds and cloud cover, and explains how clouds form, what they are made of, what roles they play in…

  2. A Formative Evaluation of an Instructional Program Designed to Teach Visually Impaired Students to Use Microcomputers. (United States)

    Sanford, LaRhea


    Ten visually impaired students (12-18 years old) were instructed via a two-module instructional kit to use microcomputers and to learn the programing language, BASIC. Results indicated that the visually impaired students learned the major components of the microcomputer and were able to use the cassette braille access device. (CL)

  3. Instructional strategies and tactics for the design of introductory computer programming courses in high school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J.G.; Krammer, H.P.M.


    This article offers an examination of instructional strategies and tactics for the design of introductory computer programming courses in high school. We distinguish the Expert, Spiral and Reading approach as groups of instructional strategies that mainly differ in their general design plan to

  4. Supporting medical teachers' learning : redesigning a program using characteristics of effective instructional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min-Leliveld, Mariska Jetske


    In this research project characteristics of effective instructional development were identified that are appealing to medical teachers and relevant for medical education. Furthermore, we wanted to know if medical teachers’ learning improved if an instructional development program was adapted in such

  5. Positive School and Classroom Environment: Precursors of Successful Implementation of Positive Youth Development Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. F. Sun


    Full Text Available This case study was based on a school where the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. was integrated into the formal curriculum. In this case study, an interview with the school principal, vice-principal, and social worker was conducted in order to understand their perceptions of administrative arrangements and issues in the school, implementation characteristics, program effectiveness, program success, and overall impression. Results showed that several positive school and classroom attributes were conducive to program success, including positive school culture and belief in students' potentials, an inviting school environment, an encouraging classroom environment, high involvement of school administrative personnel, and systematic program arrangement.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr. Hasti Robiasih


    Full Text Available The practice of bilingual program in educational system in Indonesia is to improve the quality of education in secondary school. The achievement of such objective could be observed from teacher-student classroom interaction. The present paper addresses the math teachers’ strategies and interaction types in structuring classroom activities and type of interaction using English in teaching Math at bilingual class on a private and public junior high school in Yogyakarta. Research findings show that due to mediocre level of English they employed several strategies such as maximizing the use of textbooks or students’ worksheet, maximizing individual work, using demonstration in presenting the topics, and performing translation. The interaction types are mostly in the form of telling and instructing.   Pelaksanaan program bilingual dalam system pendidikan di Indonesia adalah untuk meningkatakan kualitas pendidikan di tingkat sekolah menengah. Pencapaian tujuan tersebut dapat diamati dari interaksi guru dan siswa di kelas. Paper ini mengungkap strategi yang digunakan guru matematika dalam mengembangkan aktivitas pembelajaran dengan bahasa Inggris sebagai pengantar pada program bilingual di salah satu sekolah menengah pertama swasta dan negeri di Yogyakarta. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa para guru matematika menggunakan beberapa strategi dalam berinteraksi dengan siswa, seperti memaksimalkan penggunaan buku teks atau lembar kerja siswa, memaksimalkan tugas individu, mendemonstrasikan materi yang diajarkan, dan menterjemahkan. Sebagai kompensasi atas keterbatasan penguasaan bahasa Inggris mereka, jenis interaksi yang digunakan adalah memberi instruksi dan informasi

  7. A Case for Explicit Grammar Instruction in English as Second/Foreign Language Classrooms (United States)

    Williams, Kent


    This paper will provide a review of research--regarding explicit grammar instruction--that groups recent studies into three main categories and then sub-categorizes these studies under key terms in second language acquisition (SLA) research. The overall purpose of this paper is to argue that in light of these issues, recent studies have shown that…

  8. "She Puts Clues in Our Head:" Interactive and Independent Writing Instruction in a First Grade Classroom (United States)

    Sherry, Tammie L.


    The purpose of this study was to examine a first grade teacher's instruction during interactive and independent writing times as she taught and prompted her students how to go about spelling unfamiliar words and employ various writing strategies while they were composing. I used a qualitative approach to data collection and analysis. Results of…

  9. Development of Design Guidelines for Tools to Promote Differentiated Instruction in Classroom Teaching (United States)

    Cha, H. J.; Ahn, M. L.


    The purpose of this study was to elicit design guidelines for a teacher tool to support students' diverse needs by facilitating differentiated instructions (DIs). The study used a framework based on activity theory and principles from universal design for learning. As for the research methods, design-based research methods were adopted, and as the…

  10. Vocabulary Instruction in K-3 Low-Income Classrooms during a Reading Reform Project (United States)

    Nelson, Kristin L.; Dole, Janice A.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the vocabulary teaching of primary-grade teachers (K-3) in low-income schools. A total of 337 observations were conducted during language arts blocks over a three-year period. A coding scheme was developed to analyze teachers' vocabulary instruction. Results indicated that teachers spent less than 5%…

  11. Writing Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Why Teachers Engage or Do Not Engage Students in Writing (United States)

    Harward, Stan; Peterson, Nancy; Korth, Byran; Wimmer, Jennifer; Wilcox, Brad; Morrison, Timothy G.; Black, Sharon; Simmerman, Sue; Pierce, Linda


    This qualitative study explored reasons K-6 teachers did or did not engage students regularly in writing. Interviews with 14 teachers, classified as high, transitional, and low implementers of writing instruction, revealed three themes: hindrances and helps, beliefs concerning practice, and preparation and professional development. Both high and…

  12. The Effects of Music Instruction on Learning in the Montessori Classroom (United States)

    Harris, Maureen


    The value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized, particularly in the area of mathematics. Despite the amount of literature available regarding the effects of music instruction on academic achievement, little has been written on different Montessori music pedagogies and their effects on students' math scores. This article…

  13. Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence Relevant to Classroom Instruction with Manipulatives (United States)

    Marley, Scott C.; Carbonneau, Kira J.


    The papers in this special issue focus on instructional strategies with manipulatives. Often described as "hands-on learning", these strategies emphasize the use of physical and, more recently, virtual objects to represent target information and concepts. These strategies are frequently suggested as effective techniques for teaching…

  14. Advancing Scientific Reasoning in Upper Elementary Classrooms: Direct Instruction Versus Task Structuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, Adrianus W.; Wiskerke-Drost, Sjanou


    Several studies found that direct instruction and task structuring can effectively promote children’s ability to design unconfounded experiments. The present study examined whether the impact of these interventions extends to other scientific reasoning skills by comparing the inquiry activities of

  15. Arguing for Democracy: A Multimodal Approach to Argumentative Writing Instruction in the Social Studies Classroom (United States)

    Dingler, Matt


    Democratic societies require a citizenry skilled in argumentation. At present, the written argument maintains primacy among communicative modes. Because of its cognitive demands, written argumentation is often difficult to teach. A multimodal approach to writing instruction carries the potential to assist struggling learners. This article outlines…

  16. An Instructional Model for Guiding Reflection and Research in the Classroom: The Educational Situation Quality Model (United States)

    Domenech-Betoret, Fernando


    The purpose of this work is to present an instructional model entitled the "Modelo de Calidad de Situacion Educativa" (MCSE) and how teachers can use it to reflect and investigate in a formal educational setting. It is a theoretical framework which treat to explain the functioning of an educational setting by organizing and relating the…

  17. Brain-Based Learning and Classroom Practice: A Study Investigating Instructional Methodologies of Urban School Teachers (United States)

    Morris, Lajuana Trezette


    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…

  18. An Instructional Model for Teaching Proof Writing in the Number Theory Classroom (United States)

    Schabel, Carmen


    I discuss an instructional model that I have used in my number theory classes. Facets of the model include using small group work and whole class discussion, having students generate examples and counterexamples, and giving students the opportunity to write proofs and make conjectures in class. The model is designed to actively engage students in…

  19. Exploring the Role of Instructional Technology in Course Planning and Classroom Teaching: Implications for Pedagogical Reform (United States)

    Hora, Matthew T.; Holden, Jeremiah


    Instructional technology plays a key role in many teaching reform efforts at the postsecondary level, yet evidence suggests that faculty adopt these technology-based innovations in a slow and inconsistent fashion. A key to improving these efforts is to understand local practice and use these insights to design more locally attuned interventions.…

  20. Instructional Change in Preschool Classrooms: A Study of Empirically-Based Teacher Support (United States)

    Boat, Mary B.; Carr, Victoria; Barnett, David; Macmann, Gregg; Moomaw, Sally; Pan, Wei; Nichols, Angela


    This study examined the effects of staff development and support on Head Start teachers' use of instructional and managerial strategies. Specific research questions were (a) What variables were selected by teachers? and (b) What changes were indicated by the method of support? Observations were conducted for teachers randomly assigned to…

  1. The McLuhan Global Classroom: A Singapore-U.S. One-Year Instructional Interaction. (United States)

    Aune, Adonica Schultz; Lim, Dan

    WebCT was integrated and modeled in a global Instructional Technology (IT) Certification Summer Institute offered through the University of Minnesota. Courses were first introduced with an on-site certification where technology integration was modeled in each course through the use of highly interactive web-based learning applications and games…

  2. What Expert Teachers Think: A Look at Principal Leadership Behaviors That Facilitate Exemplary Classroom Instructional Practice (United States)

    Goodwin, Janet; Babo, Gerard


    The purpose of this study was to rank order 21 leadership behaviors originally identified by the work of Waters, Marzano & McNulty (2003) and the impact they have on teacher instructional practice using questionnaire responses provided by past recipients of the National Teacher of the Year award at the state level (n=178) in order to expand…

  3. The effectiveness of deductive, inductive, implicit and incidental grammatical instruction in second language classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammenga-Helmantel, Marjon; Arends, Enti; Canrinus, Esther

    This quasi-experimental study compares the effectiveness of deductive, inductive, implicit and incidental grammar instruction and investigates to what extent complexity influences these results. A total of 981 Dutch students in lower secondary education learning German, English or Spanish as a

  4. The Relationship between Teachers' Beliefs of Grammar Instruction and Classroom Practices in the Saudi Context (United States)

    Alghanmi, Bayan; Shukri, Nadia


    Teacher cognition (Borg, 2015) of grammar instruction is a relatively new phenomenon that has yet to be explored in the Saudi context. While many studies have focused on the teaching of grammar in general (Ellis, 2006; Corzo, 2013; Braine, 2014), further research needs to be done - particularly when it comes to understanding teachers' beliefs of…

  5. Evaluating a Computer-Assisted Pronunciation Training (CAPT) Technique for Efficient Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Luo, Beate


    This study investigates a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) technique that combines oral reading with peer review to improve pronunciation of Taiwanese English major students. In addition to traditional in-class instruction, students were given a short passage every week along with a recording of the respective text, read by a native…

  6. Literature Review of Faculty-Perceived Usefulness of Instructional Technology in Classroom Dynamics (United States)

    Salas, Alexandra


    This article provides a literature review of the research concerning the role of faculty perspectives about instructional technology. Learning management systems, massive open online courses (MOOCs), cloud-based multimedia applications, and mobile apps represent the tools and the language of academia in the 21st century. Research examined…

  7. Are We Ready To Abandon the Classroom? The Dark Side of Web Instruction. (United States)

    Cohen, LeoNora M.

    This paper discusses four assumptions and four concerns regarding instruction using the World Wide Web. The assumptions address: the novice status of the Web course developer; the developer's appreciation for various aspects of the Web; her high expectations for doing it right; and her commitment to not incurring more costs for distance learners.…

  8. Lessons Learnt from Employing van Hiele Theory Based Instruction in Senior Secondary School Geometry Classrooms (United States)

    Alex, Jogymol Kalariparambil; Mammen, Kuttickattu John


    This paper reports on a part of a study which was conducted to determine the effect of van Hiele theory based instruction in the teaching of geometry to Grade 10 learners. The sample consisted of 359 participants from five conveniently selected schools from Mthatha District in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. There were 195 learners in…

  9. The Role of Teacher Leadership in How Principals Influence Classroom Instruction and Student Learning (United States)

    Sebastian, James; Allensworth, Elaine; Huang, Haigen


    School principals can play an important role in promoting teacher leadership by delegating authority and empowering teachers in ways that allow them influence in key organizational decisions and processes. However, it is unclear whether instruction and student learning are enhanced by promoting teacher influence in all aspects of school…

  10. Project NANO (nanoscience and nanotechnology outreach): a STEM training program that brings SEM's and stereoscopes into high-school and middle-school classrooms (United States)

    Cady, Sherry L.; Blok, Mikel; Grosse, Keith; Wells, Jennifer


    The program Project NANO (Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Outreach) enables middle and high school students to discover and research submicroscopic phenomena in a new and exciting way with the use of optical and scanning electron microscopes in the familiar surroundings of their middle or high school classrooms. Project NANO provides secondary level professional development workshops, support for classroom instruction and teacher curriculum development, and the means to deliver Project NANO toolkits (SEM, stereoscope, computer, supplies) to classrooms with Project NANO trained teachers. Evaluation surveys document the impact of the program on student's attitudes toward science and technology and on the learning outcomes for secondary level teachers. Project NANO workshops (offered for professional development credit) enable teachers to gain familiarity using and teaching with the SEM. Teachers also learn to integrate new content knowledge and skills into topic-driven, standards-based units of instruction specifically designed to support the development of students' higher order thinking skills that include problem solving and evidence-based thinking. The Project NANO management team includes a former university science faculty, two high school science teachers, and an educational researcher. To date, over 7500 students have experienced the impact of the Project NANO program, which provides an exciting and effective model for engaging students in the discovery of nanoscale phenomena and concepts in a fun and engaging way.

  11. Multicultural/multilingual instruction in educational programs: a survey of perceived faculty practices and outcomes. (United States)

    Stockman, Ida J; Boult, Johanna; Robinson, Gregory C


    To describe the instructional strategies reported for multicultural/multilingual issues (MMI) education at programs in speech-language pathology and audiology and the perceived ease and effectiveness of doing so. A 49-item questionnaire elicited anonymous responses from administrators, faculty, and teaching clinical supervisors at educational programs accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association in the United States. The data were provided by 731 respondents from 79.6% of 231 accredited U.S. programs. They included instructors who taught courses dedicated to MMI and those who did not. Respondents were generally committed to multicultural instruction, but they varied in their reported instructional practices and perceived levels of preparedness, effectiveness, and needs. General curricular infusion without an MMI-dedicated course was the most common instructional model used. Students were judged to be at least modestly prepared to deal with diversity issues as a result of their multicultural instruction, although current instructional approaches were not viewed as optimal. More positive outcomes were reported by instructors of MMI-dedicated than MMI-nondedicated courses. The instructional models and strategies used for MMI education vary, and programs are challenged by multiple issues in complying with the mandate for MMI curricular infusion.

  12. Understanding Factors Leading to Participation in Supplemental Instruction Programs in Introductory Accounting Courses (United States)

    Goldstein, James; Sauer, Paul; O'Donnell, Joseph


    Although studies have shown that supplemental instruction (SI) programs can have positive effects in introductory accounting courses, these programs experience low participation rates. Thus, our study is the first to examine the factors leading to student participation in SI programs. We do this through a survey instrument based on the Theory of…

  13. Program Evaluation of the Direct Instruction Reading Interventions: Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading (United States)

    Jarvis, Nita M.


    The purpose of this program evaluation was to evaluate the Direct Instruction programs, Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading, from SRA McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, which were being used as a school-wide reading intervention. These programs were implemented at a small elementary school in the Piedmont area of North Carolina beginning in the…

  14. Format of Basic Instruction Program Resistance Training Classes: Effect on Fitness Change in College Students (United States)

    Barfield, J. P.; Channell, Brian; Pugh, Chip; Tuck, Matt; Pendel, Dustin


    New resistance training programs such as CrossFit are gaining favor among college-aged students. CrossFit and related commercial resistance training programs may provide a valuable elective option within basic instruction program (BIP) curricula, but the fitness benefits of this course have not been compared with those of existing BIP resistance…

  15. Evaluation of a Self-Instructional Program in Stress Management for College Students. (United States)

    Ramsey, Sheila A.; And Others


    Results of an investigation to evaluate the effectiveness of a portable self-instructional stress management program for college students are reported. Program components (five self-contained learning stations) are described. Program effectiveness was measured, using several instruments, by changes in subjects'(n=150) knowledge, attitudes, and…

  16. Phase 1 user instruction manual. A geological formation - drill string dynamic interaction finite element program (GEODYN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinianow, M.A.; Rotelli, R.L. Jr.; Baird, J.A.


    User instructions for the GEODYN Interactive Finite Element Computer Program are presented. The program is capable of performing the analysis of the three-dimensional transient dynamic response of a Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bit - Bit Sub arising from the intermittent contact of the bit with the downhole rock formations. The program accommodates non-linear, time dependent, loading and boundary conditions.

  17. Supplemental Literacy Instruction for Students with Down Syndrome: A Program Evaluation (United States)

    Regan, Lisa Michelle


    The study utilizes an inductive, qualitative approach to program evaluation to understand the nature of an afterschool literacy tutoring program for students with Down syndrome. Two research questions guide this study: (a) What are the curricular and instructional elements of the Let's Read Now (LRN) literacy tutoring program for students…

  18. The Influence of Activity-Based Elementary Science Programs on Classroom Practices: A Quantitative Synthesis. (United States)

    Bredderman, Ted


    Results of 11 studies of classroom practices used with activity-based elementary science programs were combined quantitatively using a composite category system. One finding reported is that teachers trained in program use spent less time talking and more on activities than untrained teachers using the programs. (Author/JM)

  19. A Comparison of Student Academic Performance with Traditional, Online, And Flipped Instructional Approaches in a C# Programming Course


    Jason H. Sharp; Laurie A. Sharp


    Aim/Purpose: Compared student academic performance on specific course requirements in a C# programming course across three instructional approaches: traditional, online, and flipped. Background: Addressed the following research question: When compared to the online and traditional instructional approaches, does the flipped instructional approach have a greater impact on student academic performance with specific course requirements in a C# programming course? Methodology: Quantitative...

  20. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    tum associated with such an apparently simple purely oscillatory 1D harmonic lattice system. The classroom exercise will conclude with a sug- gestion for the possibility that the 'Concrete' case may well correspond to that of hard nanopar- ticulate crystallites embedded in a 1D elastic con- tinuum, e.g., a spider dragline silk, ...

  1. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CLASSROOM relate, for comparison, a school experience. There is an experi- ment in textbooks about measuring the percentage of oxygen in air. What the textbook prescribes is this: take a bowl with a little water, light a candle at the centre and then place an inverted glass over it. Soon the flame gets extinguished and ...

  2. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. A W Joshil,. Umapati Pattar2 and F I Surve3. lDepartment of Physics ... Introduction. Diffraction from a plane grating is a familiar topic in undergraduate optics. Students study the theory in the classroom where they derive the ...

  3. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related ... sented the statement of the experimental problem of the. InternationalPhysics Olympiad'98 (IPhO). ... The justification of this model comes from electromagnetic theory. In conducting materials, the ...

  4. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    CLASSROOM. 655. RESONANCE | July 2016. References. [1]. C Alsina, R B Nelsen, Icons of Mathematics, The Mathematical Asso- ciation of America, Washington, DC, 2011. [2]. W Dunham, Journey through Genius, Penguin Books, 1991. which contradicts (2). So t = 0, i.e., 4r2. = a2. + b2 . Hence AB. 2. + AC. 2. = a2. + b2.

  5. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, ... weekends at the Bangalore. Association for Science Educa- tion, Jawaharlal Nehru Plan- etarium, Bangalore. Keywords. Planetary motion,.

  6. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...

  7. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is, as evident from the normal meaning of the English word, a correspondence which associates to each mem ..... write it as a product of 3-cycles and go through the above analysis to actually arrive at a sequence of sliding moves which reaches the starting position. CLASSROOM. Look at the cycles. 0"1 = (1,2,. ,n,2n,. 2. 2. 1.

  8. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues ... then the business is subject to a stiff penalty of d per kg of shortage by the government if the business gets caught. (with probability p) in random checking; a meaningful value of d will be ...

  9. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ite image of the Mercury. Transit, taken by Domin- ique Derrick, Belgium, on the 7th of May 2003. (repro- duced with permission). CLASSROOM scale in our understanding of the Universe - the Astronomical. Unit, or the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Historically, the transits of Venus were the first opportunity.

  10. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CLASSROOM. Figure 3. An antibubble undergoing breakup, note the expanding circular hole at the bottom. Figure 4. An antibubble trapped in a vortex flow, just prior to breakup. of the antibubble into two smaller antibubbles (see Figure 4), an observation which is worthy of theoretical investigation. In the following video ...

  11. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    61. RESONANCE │ January 2011. CLASSROOM. Investigation of Structures Similarity of. Organic Substances. Keywords. Structures similarity, Tanimoto coefficient, Euclidean distance, fingerprints (bit-string represen- tations). Ajay Kumar. Guru Tegh Bahadur Institute of. Technology. G–8 Area, Rajouri Garden. New Delhi ...

  12. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Sheep Distribution Problem Through Egyptian Fractions.

  13. The Pedagogical Mediation of a Developmental Learner Corpus for Classroom-Based Language Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Belz


    Full Text Available Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners’ responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal da-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by native speakers during interactions with the very learners for whom the units are designed. Thus, we address the issue of authentication in corpus-driven language pedagogy. Finally, we illustrate how an ethnographically supplemented developmental learner corpus may contribute to second language acquisition research via dense documentation of micro-changes in learners’ language use over time.

  14. A portable, self-instructional stress management program for college students. (United States)

    Greenberg, J S; Ramsey, S A; Hale, J F


    This article describes the process used to develop a stress management program for college students and the program that resulted. Based on a needs assessment and piloting of the program, a portable, modular self-instructional program was developed. The program consists of five instructional stations: Assessment; The Nature of Stress and the Skill of Cognitive Restructuring; The Effects and Consequences of Stress and Time Management Skills; Relaxation Skills; and Planning For Stress Control. Feasibility in administering the program was of particular importance, so the program was portable. It can be transported to residence halls, student unions, or other gathering places, and it does not require a trained professional to be present. Included are two videotapes and two slide/audiotapes produced by the program's developers, one relaxation tape (guided imagery), and handout materials.

  15. Fuel cell technology for classroom instruction. Basic principles, experiments, work sheets. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Cornelia; Hoeller, Stefan; Kueter, Uwe


    This book provides a clear introduction and overview to fuel cell technology and its associated subject areas. Examples of experiments using solar cells, electrolysis and fuel cells convey the knowledge for forthcoming tests in an understandable manner. The preparation of classroom experiments is made considerably easier for the teacher thanks to the experiment work sheets. These contain the necessary information concerning the material, set-up and execution of the experiment, and questions for evaluation purposes. Online-Shop The training documents and student work sheets combine the basic knowledge, questions and answers, and are ideal for copying. A comprehensive glossary at the end of the book explains all the important technical terms. (orig.)

  16. Universal Documentation System Handbook. Volume 2. Requirement Formats and Instructions; Program Introduction, Program Requirements Document/Operations Requirements (United States)


    or the Air Force precedence rating. Program Status: State whether the program is proposed or approved and whether the PI is being subitted to obtain...instructions for Format 2CF,,. JT ( TATUOMATION ( ): indicate ’ tetbar each item number sukmitted is a requirement fc: - mort frcm the Support A.-ccy or

  17. 30 CFR 77.1704 - First aid training program; availability of instruction to all miners. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid training program; availability of... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1704 First aid training program; availability... shall make available to all miners employed in the mine a course of instruction in first aid conducted...

  18. Individualization of Instruction: A Programmed Approach. Description of Teacher Inservice Education Materials. (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Project on Utilization of Inservice Education R & D Outcomes.

    An inservice teacher education program is described in which participants experience one method of individualizing instruction through use of programmed learning workbooks and in the presence of a group leader. Inservice topics covered include self-appraisal, analysis tools, and Kurt Lewin's theory of force field analysis. Objectives are to deal…

  19. Fellowship Program in the Design and Development of Instructional Materials. Final Report. (United States)

    Fleming, Malcolm; Pett, Dennis

    A two-year graduate program leading to a specialists's degree was administered to train individuals in the design of instructional materials for elementary, secondary, vocational and special education curricula. The program sought to achieve a multiplier effect by placing its graduates in positions in which they could help other educators to…

  20. Goals, data use, and instruction : the effect of a teacher professional development program on reading achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.

    In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a

  1. Instructional Technology in an Innovative Program of Preservice and In-Service Laboratory Experiences. (United States)


    Northeast Missouri State College developed a Teaching Skills Center providing a program of early professional laboratory experiences for all elementary and secondary education majors. The program includes four components: audiovisual utilization, instructional materials preparation, microteaching, and actual school experience. Each training…

  2. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) Programs in the Classroom: Teacher Use, Equity, and Learning Tools (United States)

    Fincher, Derrel


    This study explores teacher perceptions of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) programs in the classroom, with a focus on teacher use, student equity of access, and student ability to use their devices as learning tools. While one-to-one laptop programs (students assigned identical school-owned laptop or tablet) has an extensive body of literature behind…

  3. School-wide implementation of the elements of effective classroom instruction: Lessons from a high-performing, high-poverty urban school (United States)

    Dyson, Hilarie


    The purpose of the study was to identify structures and systems implemented in a high-performing high-poverty urban school to promote high academic achievement among students of color. The researcher used a sociocultural theoretical framework to examine the influence of culture on the structures and systems that increased performance by African American and Hispanic students. Four research questions guided the study: (1) What are the trends and patterns of student performance among students of color? (2) What are the organizational structures and systems that are perceived to contribute to high student performance in high-poverty urban schools with high concentrations of students of color? (3) How are the organizational structures and systems implemented to support school-wide effective classroom instruction that promotes student learning? (4) How is the construct of race reflected in the school's structures and systems? Qualitative data were collected through interviews, observations, and artifact collection. A single case study method was employed and collected data were triangulated to capture and explore the rich details of the study. The study focused on a high-performing high-poverty urban elementary school located in southern California. The school population consisted of 99% students of color and 93% were economically disadvantaged. The school was selected for making significant and consistent growth in Academic Performance Index and Adequate Yearly Progress over a 3-year period. The school-wide structures and systems studied were (a) leadership, (b) school climate and culture, (c) standards-based instruction, (d) data-driven decision making, and (e) professional development. Four common themes emerged from the findings: (a) instructional leadership that focused on teaching and learning; (b) high expectations for all students; (c) school-wide focus on student achievement using standards, data, and culturally responsive teaching; and (d) positive

  4. Changes in Teachers' Beliefs about Reformed Science Teaching and Learning, and Their Inquiry-Based Instructional Practices Following a Year-Long RET-PLC Professional Development Program (United States)

    Miranda, R.


    This study investigates the extent to which teachers' beliefs and classroom practices concerning inquiry-based instruction change following participation in a large mid-Atlantic university's year-long Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) - Professional Learning Community (PLC) professional development program. Mixed methods were used to explore this study's research questions. Supported with NASA funding, twelve secondary science teachers participated in the study. Study findings suggest that RET programs that incorporate a PLC component can help to shift teachers' beliefs and classroom practices concerning inquiry-based instruction, and help them to increase the level of inquiry in their science lessons. An implication of this research is that teacher professional development models need to be developed to help teachers effectively plan more time for students to conduct inquiry-based activities, to communicate findings based on evidence, and to develop questions to investigate themselves. Moreover, the findings of this study can help to inform science teacher education and professional development programs in creating more fruitful experiences for these professionals, and help them to align their beliefs and practice more toward the constructivist visions of current reform efforts.

  5. Comparison of Effects of Teaching English to Thai Undergraduate Teacher-Students through Cross-Curricular Thematic Instruction Program Based on Multiple Intelligence Theory and Conventional Instruction (United States)

    Rattanavich, Saowalak


    This study is aimed at comparing the effects of teaching English to Thai undergraduate teacher-students through cross-curricular thematic instruction program based on multiple intelligence theory and through conventional instruction. Two experimental groups, which utilized Randomized True Control Group-Pretest-posttest Time Series Design and…

  6. Debugging the Program. Computer Equity Strategies for the Classroom Teacher. (United States)

    Wolfe, Leslie R.; And Others

    Designed to provide classroom teachers with activities to enhance computer equity for female students, this kit is divided into four sections which present excerpts from four other publications: (1) "The Neuter Computer: Computers for Boys and Girls" (Jo Schuchat Sanders and Antonia Stone for the Computer Equity Training Project, Women's…

  7. Can instructional and emotional support in the first-grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure? (United States)

    Hamre, Bridget K; Pianta, Robert C


    This study examined ways in which children's risk of school failure may be moderated by support from teachers. Participants were 910 children in a national prospective study. Children were identified as at risk at ages 5-6 years on the basis of demographic characteristics and the display of multiple functional (behavioral, attention, academic, social) problems reported by their kindergarten teachers. By the end of first grade, at-risk students placed in first-grade classrooms offering strong instructional and emotional support had achievement scores and student-teacher relationships commensurate with their low-risk peers; at-risk students placed in less supportive classrooms had lower achievement and more conflict with teachers. These findings have implications for understanding the role that classroom experience may play in pathways to positive adaptation.

  8. Historical short stories as nature of science instruction in secondary science classrooms: Science teachers' implementation and students' reactions (United States)

    Reid-Smith, Jennifer Ann

    a science-related career. If NOS instructional materials are to be used effectively, designers must take into account the needs of classroom teachers by limiting the length of the materials and providing additional teacher support resources. Many teachers will likely require professional development opportunities to build their NOS understanding, develop a compelling rationale for teaching NOS and using the stories, observe modeling of effective implementation, and collaborate with other teachers regarding how to mitigate constraints.

  9. Determining the effects of a professional development program on teachers' inquiry knowledge and classroom action: A case study of a professional development strategy (United States)

    Bell, Cheryl A.

    Science teaching and learning has been the focus of reform efforts for many years. The most recent efforts call for change in the way science is taught and the way students learn science in our nation's classrooms, with an effort to move toward an inquiry-based approach. These efforts present challenges for today's teachers. Many teachers want to do an effective job of teaching science, yet are not sure of what inquiry teaching should look like in the classroom or what they need to change to move toward inquiry-based instruction. The problem posed for the educational community is to identify means to provide teachers with the experiences they need to develop the knowledge and techniques necessary to teach using an inquiry approach in their classrooms. This research addressed this problem by developing a case study of a professional development program designed to enhance the inquiry knowledge and inquiry-based teaching of middle level teachers through the development of leadership teams and peer training. Teachers participated at one of two levels: Level I received intense training at a major university; and Level II received their training from their Level I teammates. Two teams of teachers participated in this research, involving five teachers. The program's effectiveness varied in the changes evident in the teachers' knowledge and use of inquiry in their classrooms. The Level I teachers' knowledge and use of inquiry was influenced by their interpretations of their experiences and how these related to what occurred in their classrooms prior to the institute. Similarly, their interpretation influenced the emphasis placed on including information about inquiry and involving their Level II teammates in inquiry-based instructional experiences during the peer-training sessions. The peer-training session for Team 1 provided a stimulus for the Level II teacher to reflect on her teaching and her students' questions and, consequently, change the level of inquiry in her

  10. The influence of science teacher preparation programs on instructional practices of beginning primary school teachers in Malawi (United States)

    Kalande, Wotchiwe Mtonga

    The purpose of this study was to observe the science teaching practices of six primary school teachers in Standards 5 through 7, to learn about their perceptions of teaching science and to examine whether or not their teaching practices were in keeping with what they were taught during teacher preparation as well as Malawi's educational expectations for primary school science based upon MIITEP (Malawi Integrated In-service Teacher Education Program) handbooks. Three research questions were posited: (a) What is the teacher preparation program for primary teachers in Malawi? (b) What were the instructional practices of the six beginning primary school science teachers who were prepared in the teacher training college programs? (c) What connections were evident between what beginning primary school science teachers were expected to learn and what they demonstrated in the classroom? All of the six participants (5 males and 1 female) had completed MIITEP in the past three to five years. The data sources for these science teachers included a self-assessment form, pre-observation interviews, post-observation interviews, and lesson observations. Data were also gathered from MIITEP handbooks and three science teacher educators who were interviewed. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis. The study revealed that there were matches, partial matches, and mismatches between what the six primary school teachers demonstrated in their classroom as compared with the Malawi Ministry of Education science teacher preparation expectations. Of particular interest were that science teachers did not fully engage pupils in most of the process skills for science teaching, nor did they utilize a variety of appropriate teaching and learning strategies and materials for teaching science. In addition, allotted time for teaching science lessons was not fully utilized due to, among other factors, time conflicts with other official and community welfare duties, and mixing English with

  11. Cognitive and Academic Instructional Intervention for Learning-Disabled Adolescents. (United States)

    Seidenberg, Pearl L.


    Research on learning-disabled secondary school students' academic deficits, response to classroom environment, and response to instructional interventions is integrated with research on metacognition in text learning. A metacognitive orientation is recommended for instructional intervention programs, which should address general comprehension…

  12. Mathematics and Science Learning Opportunities in Preschool Classrooms (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Miller, Heather Lynnine


    Research Findings: The present study observed and coded instruction in 65 preschool classrooms to examine (a) overall amounts and (b) types of mathematics and science learning opportunities experienced by preschool children as well as (c) the extent to which these opportunities were associated with classroom and program characteristics. Results…

  13. A meta-analysis of the effects of classroom management strategies and classroom management programs on students’ academic, behavioral, emotional, and motivational outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpershoek, Hanke; Harms, Truus; de Boer, Hester; van Kuijk, Mechteld; Doolaard, Simone

    This meta-analysis examined which classroom management strategies and programs enhanced students’ academic, behavioral, social-emotional, and motivational outcomes in primary education. The analysis included 54 random and nonrandom controlled intervention studies published in the past decade

  14. Effects of four supplemental instruction programs on students' learning of gross anatomy. (United States)

    Forester, Joseph P; Thomas, Pamela P; McWhorter, David L


    Many researchers have reported that supplemental instruction programs improve medical students' performance in various basic sciences. This study was conducted to evaluate the summative effects of four supplemental instruction programs (i.e., second-year medical student teaching assistant program; directed study program; weekly instructor laboratory reviews; and a web-based anatomy program) on medical students' gross anatomy laboratory practical performance. First-year medical students from the graduating class of 2006 (n = 223) received the four supplemental instruction programs (Experimental Group). The Control Group consisted of first-year medical students from the graduating class of 2005 (n = 254) who did not receive the four supplemental learning methods. Mann-Whitney rank sum tests were used to compare the two groups' median percentages for the back-upper limb (B-UL) and the lower limb (LL) parts of a gross anatomy laboratory practical. The Experimental Group's median percentages for both the B-UL (77.78%) and LL (83.33%) were significantly greater than that of the Control Group (B-UL = 69.00%; LL = 81.00%; P supplemental instruction programs improved students' learning of gross anatomy as measured by laboratory practical performance. In addition, students most valued the additional time in the gross anatomy laboratory with the instructors. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Perceived Influence of an Instructional Coaching Program on Teacher Self-Efficacy: Voluntary Participation in Comparison to Mandated Participation (United States)

    Wiedlich, David Matthew


    This research study explored perceived influence of an instructional coaching program on teacher self-efficacy based on voluntary participation in comparison to mandated participation. At the time of this study, the literature on instructional coaching incorporated studies that tie instructional coaching to increases in teacher self-efficacy;…

  16. Brownfield Action III - Modular use of hydrogeology instruction in the virtual classroom (United States)

    Bower, P.; Liddicoat, J.


    Brownfield Action III (BA III) is a network-based, interactive, digital space and simulation developed by Barnard College and the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning in which students explore and solve problems in environmental forensics. BA III is a proven inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning that, since its inception in 1999, has been recognized as an exemplary curriculum. Indeed, in 2002 it was selected as a national model curriculum by SENCER (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities). BA III provides instruction in environmental site assessments and in the remediation of former industrial sites (brownfields) for secondary and higher education students. The initial full-semester, three hours of weekly laboratory instruction that complements lectures in BA II has been revised for modular use in Hydrology, Environmental Science, and Environmental Ethics undergraduate and graduate courses in the United States. The remediation of brownfields is important because they have potential as recreational, residential, and commercial real estate sites. As part of determining the value of such a site, an environmental site assessment (ESA) is required to determine the nature and extent of any contamination. To reach that objective, BA III contains a narrative that is embedded and to be discovered in simulation; it is a story of groundwater contamination complete with underground contaminant plumes in a fictitious town with buildings, roads, wells, water tower, homes, and businesses as well as a municipal government with relevant historical documents. Student companies work collaboratively in teams of two, sign a contract with a development corporation to conduct a Phase One ESA, receive a realistic budget, and compete with other teams to fulfill the contract while maximizing profit. To reach a valid conclusion in the form of a professional-level ESA and 3-D maps of the physical site, teams construct a detailed narrative


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Güner


    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Preventive Classroom Management Training Program (PCMTP on approval and disapproval behaviors of teachers working in inclusive classrooms was investigated. The study group consisted of 45 teachers who were working in public schools and had students with special needs in their classrooms. Data were gathered using Teacher Behaviors Observation Form, which was developed by the researcher, and during one lesson which was videotaped in the classrooms of teachers in the experimental group (n=21 who had a training using PCMTP and the control group (n=24. The analysis of the research data revealed that PCMTP did not make significant differences in the approval/disapproval behaviors of the teachers in terms of the post-test results but the maintenance results showed that disapproval behaviors of the teachers were significantly lower.

  18. A Classroom Program Teaching Disadvantaged Youths to Write Biographic Information (United States)

    Clark, Hewitt; And Others


    Individualized instruction and token reinforcement were used to teach six institutionalized delinquent or mildly retarded adolescents attending a special community living, prevocational class to complete job application forms with the date, their name, signature, address, telephone number, date of birth, and a reference's name, address, and…

  19. An observational evaluation of move-to-improve, a classroom-based physical activity program, New York City schools, 2010. (United States)

    Dunn, Lillian L; Venturanza, Jazmine A; Walsh, Rhonda J; Nonas, Cathy A


    Few children in the United States achieve the recommended 60 minutes of physical activity per day. Identifying successful interventions that increase physical activity for children is critical. This observational study evaluated the effects of Move-To-Improve (MTI), a classroom-based physical education program designed for kindergarten to third-grade teachers in New York City public schools. MTI organizes 3-hour trainings for teachers that demonstrate strategies for integrating activity into daily classroom schedules. Randomly sampled elementary schools (N = 39) with classrooms trained in MTI in spring 2010 participated in the evaluation. In each school, we observed 2 classrooms trained in MTI and 2 untrained classrooms in the same school matched by grade level for 1 full school day. We analyzed data from 72 trained and 72 untrained classrooms. Ninety-nine percent of MTI-trained classroom teachers led their students in physical activity. MTI-trained classrooms spent an average of 9.5 minutes in physical activity per day, compared with 2.4 minutes in untrained classrooms (P trained versus untrained classrooms regardless of grade level or class size. Teachers trained in MTI led their classrooms in significantly more physical activity compared with teachers who were not trained. The MTI program is an effective strategy for increasing physical activity during the school day. A curriculum that empowers classroom teachers to incorporate activity into their regular day is a practical approach to promoting healthier living for children.

  20. Assessment of pathology instruction in U.S. Dental hygiene educational programs. (United States)

    Jacobs, Barbara B; Lazar, Ann A; Rowe, Dorothy J


    To assess the instruction of pathology content in entry-level and advanced practitioner dental hygiene educational programs and the program directors' perceptions whether their graduates are adequately prepared to meet the increasingly complex medical and oral health needs of the public. A 28-question survey of instructional content and perceptions was developed and distributed using Qualtrics® software to the 340 directors of entry-level and advanced practitioner dental hygiene programs in the US. Respondents rated their level of agreement to a series of statements regarding their perceptions of graduates' preparation to perform particular dental hygiene services associated with pathology. Descriptive statistics for all 28 categorical survey questions were calculated and presented as the frequency (percentage). Of the 340 directors surveyed, 130 (38%) responded. Most entry-level respondents (53%) agreed or strongly agreed (29%) that their graduates were adequately prepared to meet the complex medical and oral health needs of the public, while all respondents of advanced practitioner programs strongly agreed. More respondents strongly agreed to statements related to clinical instruction than to didactic courses. While 64% of respondents agreed that their graduates were prepared to practice unsupervised, if it were legally allowed, 21% were ambivalent. The extent of pathology instruction in entry-level programs varied, but most used traditional formats of instruction, educational resources and assessments of educational outcomes. Advanced practitioner programs emphasized histological and clinical examination of oral lesions and patient case studies. Strengthening pathology instruction would ensure that future generations of dental hygienists would be adequately prepared to treat medically compromised patients. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  1. Is Spanish Pragmatic Instruction Necessary in the L2 Classroom If Latin American Speakers of Spanish Take on American English Pragmatic Norms Once Prolonged Exposure in the United States Occurs? A Study on Refusal Strategies (United States)

    Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Hernandez, Lydia; Shively, Rachel L.


    As educators of foreign and second languages debate the most efficient methods of implementing pragmatic instruction in the L2 classroom, is it possible that Spanish pragmatic instruction is not necessary if American Spanish pragmatic norms are no different than American English norms? The present investigation studies the pragmatic norms in…

  2. Wholistic Literacy Instruction for At-Risk Students (Research into Practice). (United States)

    Baber, Ceola Ross; Stoodt, Barbara D.


    Shares classroom practices that are the result of implementing a communication literacy instructional module developed for Project ACHIEVE (Academic Coaching Helps Individuals Experience a Vital Education), a federally funded at-risk prevention program. (RS)




  4. Instructional format and segment length in interactive video programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Breman, Jeroen; Breman, Jeroen; Simonson, Michael R.; Anderson, Mary Lagomarcino


    The purpose of this study was to gather further insight into a previous investigation of the relationship between self-chosen and program-controlled segment length of an interactive videodisk program, and performance on post- and retention tests. The initial study by Verhagen, which questioned what

  5. From the Couch to the Classroom: A Fresh Curricular Approach for Television in EFL Instruction (United States)

    Mora, Raul Alberto


    American (and English language) television has gradually become a more influential factor in the way people are learning English overseas, as access to cable programming has widely spread across cities, regardless of socio-cultural backgrounds. What students watch on TV affects not only how they are learning the language, but also their cultural…

  6. The ABC's of teaching social skills to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in the classroom: the UCLA PEERS (®) Program. (United States)

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Ellingsen, Ruth; Sanderson, Jennifer; Tucci, Lara; Bates, Shannon


    Social skills training is a common treatment method for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet very few evidence-based interventions exist to improve social skills for high-functioning adolescents on the spectrum, and even fewer studies have examined the effectiveness of teaching social skills in the classroom. This study examines change in social functioning for adolescents with high-functioning ASD following the implementation of a school-based, teacher-facilitated social skills intervention known as Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS (®) ). Seventy-three middle school students with ASD along with their parents and teachers participated in the study. Participants were assigned to the PEERS (®) treatment condition or an alternative social skills curriculum. Instruction was provided daily by classroom teachers and teacher aides for 14-weeks. Results reveal that in comparison to an active treatment control group, participants in the PEERS (®) treatment group significantly improved in social functioning in the areas of teacher-reported social responsiveness, social communication, social motivation, social awareness, and decreased autistic mannerisms, with a trend toward improved social cognition on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Adolescent self-reports indicate significant improvement in social skills knowledge and frequency of hosted and invited get-togethers with friends, and parent-reports suggest a decrease in teen social anxiety on the Social Anxiety Scale at a trend level. This research represents one of the few teacher-facilitated treatment intervention studies demonstrating effectiveness in improving the social skills of adolescents with ASD in the classroom: arguably the most natural social setting of all.

  7. Using "First Principles of Instruction" to Design Secondary School Mathematics Flipped Classroom: The Findings of Two Exploratory Studies (United States)

    Lo, Chung Kwan; Hew, Khe Foon


    Flipping the classroom is a current pedagogical innovation in many schools and universities. Although interest in flipped classroom (or Inverted Classroom) continues to grow, its implementation so far has been driven more by teachers' intuitive beliefs, rather than empirically-based principles. Many studies merely replace in-class instructions…

  8. Experimental Impacts of a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile on Preschool Classroom Quality and Child Outcomes (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine


    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…

  9. Creating cooperative classrooms: effects of a two-year staff development program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, K.; Sleegers, P.; Veenman, S.; Voeten, M.


    In this study, the implementation effects of a staff development program on cooperative learning (CL) for Dutch elementary school teachers were studied. A pre-test-post-test non-equivalent control group design was used to investigate program effects on the instructional behaviours of teachers. Based

  10. Ultrasonic Instrumentation Instruction in Dental Hygiene Programs in the United States. (United States)

    Hinchman, Sharon Stemple; Funk, Amy; DeBiase, Christina; Frere, Cathryn


    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of ultrasonic scaling instrumentation instruction in dental hygiene programs in the U.S. Currently, there is no publication available defining a consensus of instruction for ultrasonic instrumentation. Exempt status was received from the West Virginia University Institutional Review Board. A survey was developed with dental hygiene administrators and faculty, based on assumptions and a list of questions to be answered. The survey was tested for validity and revised after feedback from additional faculty. The instrument was 64 questions divided into demographics, curriculum and equipment. Most questions included a text box for additional comments. An email survey was sent to all directors of accredited dental hygiene programs in the U.S. (n=323). The final possible number of respondents was n=301. Results were collected in aggregate through the Secure Online Environment (SOLE). Results were transferred to an Excel spreadsheet for statistical analysis. After 3 emails, the response rate was 45% (n=136). No significant differences in methods of instruction were found between associate and baccalaureate degree granting programs. Eighty-nine percent of programs introduce hand scaling prior to ultrasonic scaling instruction. Students in 96% of the programs were required to administer pre-procedural mouth rinse intended to reduce the amount of bacteria. The magnetostrictive ultrasonic scaler is widely used in dental hygiene instruction. A variety of inserts/ tips were available although a universal or straight insert/tip was most common. Calculus, not inflammation, was the primary criterion for ultrasonic scaler use. The results of this study demonstrate that ultrasonic instrumentation is an integral component of the clinical curriculum and the majority of the dental hygiene programs prescribe to similar teaching methods. Programs could benefit from incorporating current scientific research findings of using site

  11. Classroom Management and the Librarian (United States)

    Blackburn, Heidi; Hays, Lauren


    As librarians take on more instructional responsibilities, the need for classroom management skills becomes vital. Unfortunately, classroom management skills are not taught in library school and therefore, many librarians are forced to learn how to manage a classroom on the job. Different classroom settings such as one-shot instruction sessions…

  12. The Impact of an Instructional Program on Students' Proficiency of English Vocational Terms (United States)

    A-Momani, Mufadi; Ababneh, Sana'


    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of an instructional program on vocational educational students' proficiency of vocational educational terms in English. The study sample consisted of 60 male and female students from Al-Balqa'a Applied University, Jordan. Moreover, the study investigated the effect the students' gender and…







  15. The Application of Programmed Instruction in Fulfilling the Physiology Course Requirements (United States)

    Stanisavljevic, Jelena; Djuric, Dragan


    The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of models of programmed instruction and conventional (informative-illustrative) expository teaching in terms of fulfilling the aims of the course "Human anatomy and physiology" which is included in the physiology programme and designed for undergraduate students majoring in biology…

  16. Programmed Instruction versus Meaningful Learning Theory in Teaching Basic Structured Query Language (SQL) in Computer Lesson (United States)

    Efendioglu, Akin; Yelken, Tugba Yanpar


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different methods on primary school teacher candidates' academic achievements and attitudes toward computer-based education, and to define their views on these methods. Both the first experimental group, programmed instruction (PI), and the second experimental group, meaningful…

  17. Dynamics of Population and Economic Growth: A Computer-Based Instruction Program. (United States)

    Roh, Chaisung; Handler, Paul

    A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program at the University of Illinois is used to teach the dynamics of population growth. Socio-economic models are also developed to show the consequences of population growth upon variables such as income, productivity, and the demand for food. A one-sex population projection model allows students to…

  18. How to Write Educational Programs for Telidon. A Self Instructional Manual. (United States)

    Hlynka, D.; And Others

    Intended for use by teachers, instructional designers, and educational administrators, this manual provides guidelines for producing education programs for Telidon, a Canadian videotex system. An introductory chapter describes the manual's goals and intended audience, outlines cautions to be considered when writing for Telidon, and lists the names…

  19. Effects of Translation Methods in Imported Instructional Video Programs on Taiwan Fourth Graders' Memory. (United States)

    Tyan, Nay-ching Nancy; Hu, Yi-chain

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various translation methods used in imported instructional video programs on Taiwan elementary school students' visual and verbal memory. Following pretesting, 128 fourth grade students from an urban public elementary school in northern Taiwan participated. The students in 4 experimental…

  20. What about Writing? A National Exploratory Study of Writing Instruction in Teacher Preparation Programs (United States)

    Myers, Joy; Scales, Roya Q.; Grisham, Dana L.; Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Dismuke, Sherry; Smetana, Linda; Yoder, Karen Kreider; Ikpeze, Chinwe; Ganske, Kathy; Martin, Susan


    This small scale, exploratory study reveals how writing instruction is taught to preservice teachers across the United States in university-based preservice teacher education programs based on online survey results from 63 teacher educators in literacy from 50 institutions. Despite the growing writing demands and high stakes writing sample testing…

  1. The Effectiveness of the Creative Writing Instruction Program Based on Speaking Activities (CWIPSA) (United States)

    Bayat, Seher


    This study aims to develop a creative writing instruction program based on speaking activities and to investigate its effect on fourth-grade primary school students' creative writing achievements and writing attitudes. The experimental method based on the pre-test/post-test model was used in this research. The research was conducted with 42…

  2. Integrating Instructional Technology into a Teacher Education Program: A Three-Tiered Approach (United States)

    Truesdell, Elizabeth; Birch, Rebecca


    This project description examines how a teacher education program integrated new instructional technology through the creation of a Technology Facilitator position in the department. The project proceeded through a three-tiered system of learning "literacy" to establish a knowledge base amongst faculty members, "augmenting"…

  3. A Professional Learning Program Designed to Increase K-12 Teachers' Instructional Technology Use (United States)

    Spencer, Lisa A.


    Despite the ready availability of many instructional-technology resources, many teachers in the researched Maryland school district are uncomfortable using technology to deliver content. This concurrent mixed methods case study examined the impact of Sharing Technology with Educators Program (STEP) on 269 K-12 teachers' technology use. The study…







  6. Behavior and Classroom Management: Are Teacher Preparation Programs Really Preparing Our Teachers? (United States)

    Flower, Andrea; McKenna, John William; Haring, Christa D.


    Research suggests that many teachers are underprepared for the behaviors that their students may bring to the classroom, resulting in challenges to teaching and learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the behavior management content included in preservice teacher preparation programs for general education and special education teachers.…

  7. The Outcomes of a Social Skills Teaching Program for Inclusive Classroom Teachers (United States)

    Sazak Pinar, Elif; Sucuoglu, Bülbin


    In this study, the effectiveness of a Social Skills Teaching Program (SSTP) prepared for inclusive classroom teachers was investigated. The SSTP gauged (1) teachers' expectations related to social skills of students with special needs, (2) their knowledge levels related to teaching social skills, and (3) their use of social skills teaching…

  8. Standardized classroom management program: Social validation and replication studies in Utah and Oregon. (United States)

    Greenwood, C R; Hops, H; Walker, H M; Guild, J J; Stokes, J; Young, K R; Keleman, K S; Willardson, M


    A comprehensive validation study was conducted of the Program for Academic Survival Skills (PASS), a consultant-based, teacher-mediated program for student classroom behavior. The study addressed questions related to: (a) brief consultant training, (b) subsequent teacher training by consultants using PASS manuals, (c) contrasts between PASS experimental teachers and students and equivalent controls on measures of teacher management skills, student classroom behavior, teacher ratings of student problem behaviors, and academic achievement, (d) reported satisfaction of participants, and (e) replication of effects across two separate school sites. Results indicated that in both sites significant effects were noted in favor of the PASS experimental group for (a) teacher approval, (b) student appropriate classroom behavior, and (c) four categories of student inappropriate behavior. Program satisfaction ratings of students, teachers, and consultants were uniformly positive, and continued use of the program was reported a year later. Discussion focused upon issues of cost-effectiveness, differential site effects, and the relationship between appropriate classroom behavior and academic achievement.

  9. An Investigation of Classroom Practices in Teaching Listening Comprehension at English Education Program (United States)

    Siregar, Nurhafni


    The objective of this study is to investigate how the classroom practice in teaching listening comprehension at English Education Program of STKIP Tapanuli Selatan in 2016/2017 Academic Year is. The informants of this research were all of second semester students of STKIP Tapanuli Selatan in 2016/2017 academic year and a lecturer of listening…

  10. Building a Synchronous Virtual Classroom in a Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program in Turkey (United States)

    Aydin, Belgin; Yuzer, T. Volkan


    This paper reports a synchronous project, "the virtual classroom" prepared for the Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program. The process of developing the synchronous project and the interface with its specific components were reported with examples and supported by theoretical background from the related literature.…

  11. 30 CFR 75.1713-4 - First-aid training program; availability of instruction to all miners. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid training program; availability of... Miscellaneous § 75.1713-4 First-aid training program; availability of instruction to all miners. On or before... the mine a course of instruction in first-aid conducted by the operator or under the auspices of the...

  12. Theater Warfare Programs at AFIT: An Instructional Aid. (United States)


    procedure files APEGO , MIGO, or LIGO (these are discussed in Chapter IV). Thus, converting the programs to operate on a different computer will only involve...routine XX -94- TABLE IIX TWXRUN Files File Description AGGO, AGGOB AG execution proc APEGO APE execution proc APESEG APE segmentation proc ARGO AR batch

  13. Object-Oriented Programming in the Primary Classroom. (United States)

    Borne, Isabelle; Girardot, Colette


    Describes the use of Smalltalk-80, a French programing language, to teach young children to program effectively using object-oriented concepts. Learning processes involving problem solving and programing are examined, the object-oriented environment is discussed, teacher training is described, and future work is suggested. (21 references) (LRW)

  14. The Effect of Interactive Instruction in the Astro 101 Classroom: Report on a National Study (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Consiglio, D.; Schlingman, W. M.; Gonzaga, V.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS


    We have conducted a national research study designed to determine the effect of interactive learning strategies on students' conceptual learning in general education astronomy courses (Astro 101). Nearly 4000 students at 31 institutions, (4-year and 2-year) around the country participated in the study. Our results show dramatic improvement in student learning with increased use of interactive learning strategies independent of institution type or class size, and after controlling for individual student characteristics. In addition, we find that the positive effects of interactive learning strategies apply equally to men and women, across ethnicities, for students with all levels of prior mathematical preparation and physical science course experience, independent of GPA, and regardless of primary language. These results powerfully illustrate that all categories of students can benefit from the effective implementation of interactive learning strategies. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program, and Award No. 0847170, a PAARE grant funding the California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  15. Espoused Theory and Theory-in-Use of Instructional Designers in the Use of Constructivism in Online Writing Instruction Programs (United States)

    Merrell, Cheryl


    Online Writing Instruction (OWI) has become a viable educational alternative in online instruction in the K-12 educational community. To continue to effectively compete in a global society, educators have identified a necessity for instruction that replicates real-world situations and problem-solving tasks which is consistent with constructivism.…

  16. Teachers' Awareness and Perceived Effectiveness of Instructional Activities in Relation to the Allocation of Time in the Classroom (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Kablan, Z.; Akaydin, B. B.; Demir, D.


    The current study examined the time spent in various types of science instruction with regard to teachers' awareness of instructional activities. The perceived effectiveness of instructional activities in relation to the allocation of time was also examined. A total of 30 4th grade teachers (17 female, 13 male), from seven different primary…

  17. High Quality Differentiated Instruction--A Checklist for Teacher Professional Development on Handling Differences in the General Education Classroom (United States)

    Smets, Wouter


    This paper presents a checklist that scaffolds teachers' professional decision-making with regard to differentiated instruction. It discusses the way the concept of differentiated instruction may be applied in an evidence-informed way by presenting a checklist for high-quality differentiated instruction (DI). We tried to tackle the question of how…

  18. The Lions Quest Program in Turkey: Teachers’ Views and Classroom Practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Gol-Guven


    Full Text Available This is a pilot study to explore the classroom implementation of the Lions Quest Program in Turkey. Teachers of first through eighth grades at two elementary schools who applied the program were interviewed about the program and their classroom practices while they were also observed and their classrooms were also observed. Considerable program implementation differences were found within and between the schools. Three main issues were raised in the interviews, namely that the teachers were not clear about whether social emotional learning (SEL skills should be taught to students as a separate lesson or not; they seemed to doubt whether school personnel should be responsible for SEL implementation; and although they had positive views of the implementation, they underlined that students’ social and emotional wellbeing is dependent on family background and the developing maturity of the child. In conclusion, the teachers expressed positive views about the Lions Quest Program, yet lacked strong opinions about when, where, and by whom the program needed to be included in the curriculum. Limitations, implementation challenges, and implications for SEL in the Turkish context were also identified.

  19. The flipped classroom: a modality for mixed asynchronous and synchronous learning in a residency program. (United States)

    Young, Timothy P; Bailey, Caleb J; Guptill, Mindi; Thorp, Andrea W; Thomas, Tamara L


    A "flipped classroom" educational model exchanges the traditional format of a classroom lecture and homework problem set. We piloted two flipped classroom sessions in our emergency medicine (EM) residency didactic schedule. We aimed to learn about resident and faculty impressions of the sessions, in order to develop them as a regular component of our residency curriculum. We evaluated residents' impression of the asynchronous video component and synchronous classroom component using four Likert items. We used open-ended questions to inquire about resident and faculty impressions of the advantages and disadvantages of the format. For the Likert items evaluating the video lectures, 33/35 residents (94%, 95% CI 80%-99%) responded that the video lecture added to their knowledge about the topic, and 33/35 residents felt that watching the video was a valuable use of their time. For items evaluating the flipped classroom format, 36/38 residents (95%, 95% CI 82%-99%) preferred the format to a traditional lecture on the topic, and 38/38 residents (100%, 95% CI 89%-100%) felt that the small group session was effective in helping them learn about the topic. Most residents preferred to see the format monthly in our curriculum and chose an ideal group size of 5.5 (first session) and 7 (second session). Residents cited the interactivity of the sessions and access to experts as advantages of the format. Faculty felt the ability to assess residents' understanding of concepts and provide feedback were advantages. Our flipped classroom model was positively received by EM residents. Residents preferred a small group size and favored frequent use of the format in our curriculum. The flipped classroom represents one modality that programs may use to incorporate a mixture of asynchronous and interactive synchronous learning and provide additional opportunities to evaluate residents.

  20. The impact of instructional context on classroom on-task behavior: a matched comparison of children with ADHD and non-ADHD classmates. (United States)

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Deboutte, Dirk; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Roeyers, Herbert


    Classroom inattentiveness is an important reason for clinical referral of children with ADHD and a strong predictor of their educational achievement. This study investigates classroom on-task behavior of Flemish children with ADHD withdrawn from medication as a function of instructional context. Thirty-one pairs of children (one with ADHD and one age- and sex-matched control; 25 boys and 6 girls 6 to 12years of age) were observed in their classroom environment during two consecutive school days. On-task behavior (time on-task and on-task span) of ADHD and non-ADHD individuals was compared in different class contexts (i.e., different class structures and academic content types). Individualized teacher supervision was simultaneously assessed. Generalized estimation equation analyses showed that children with ADHD were significantly less on-task than controls during individual work and whole class group teaching, but not during small group work, and had significantly shorter on-task span during academic tasks (mathematics, language, and sciences) and instructional transitions between tasks, but not during music and arts. These effects persisted even after controlling for the higher levels of teacher supervision observed for ADHD pupils (7%) across all contexts (vs. 4% in controls). Findings suggest that despite receiving more overall teacher supervision, children with ADHD displayed lower levels of on-task behavior in settings that place high self-regulatory, information processing, and motivational demands on them. This finding may have initial implications for classroom interventions in this population. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors Associated with Teacher Delivery of a Classroom-Based Tier 2 Prevention Program. (United States)

    Sutherland, Kevin S; Conroy, Maureen A; McLeod, Bryce D; Algina, James; Kunemund, Rachel L


    Teachers sometimes struggle to deliver evidence-based programs designed to prevent and ameliorate chronic problem behaviors of young children with integrity. Identifying factors associated with variations in the quantity and quality of delivery is thus an important goal for the field. This study investigated factors associated with teacher treatment integrity of BEST in CLASS, a tier-2 prevention program designed for young children at risk for developing emotional/behavioral disorders. Ninety-two early childhood teachers and 231 young children at-risk for emotional/behavioral disorders participated in the study. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that both adherence and competence of delivery increased across six observed time points. Results suggest that teacher education and initial levels of classroom quality may be important factors to consider when teachers deliver tier-2 (i.e., targeted to children who are not responsive to universal or tier-1 programming) prevention programs in early childhood settings. Teachers with higher levels of education delivered the program with more adherence and competence initially. Teachers with higher initial scores on the Emotional Support subscale of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) delivered the program with more competence initially and exhibited higher growth in both adherence and competence of delivery across time. Teachers with higher initial scores on the Classroom Organization subscale of the CLASS exhibited lower growth in adherence across time. Contrary to hypotheses, teacher self-efficacy did not predict adherence, and teachers who reported higher initial levels of Student Engagement self-efficacy exhibited lower growth in competence of delivery. Results are discussed in relation to teacher delivery of evidence-based programs in early childhood classrooms.

  2. Programming with the KIBO Robotics Kit in Preschool Classrooms (United States)

    Elkin, Mollie; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi


    KIBO is a developmentally appropriate robotics kit for young children that is programmed using interlocking wooden blocks; no screens or keyboards are required. This study describes a pilot KIBO robotics curriculum at an urban public preschool in Rhode Island and presents data collected on children's knowledge of foundational programming concepts…

  3. A Classroom Program To Improve Self-Concept (United States)

    Schulman, Jerome L.; And Others


    Describes a mental health program that makes use of teacher-taught materials that do not require extensive preparation by the teachers involved. The program attempts to alter personality through the use of techniques that promote education in mental health and experimentation with group and individual behavior. (Author)

  4. Teachers' implementation of reform-oriented instructional strategies in science: Lessons from two professional development programs (United States)

    Cook, Nicole D.

    This dissertation reports findings from two studies that investigated the relationship between professional development and teachers' instructional practices in Science,Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The first program, the Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) focused on K-8 teachers and their use of inquiry-based science instruction in conjunction with curricular modules provided by the ISI program. The second program, Research Goes to School (RGS), focused on high school STEM teachers and their use of problem-based learning (PBL) as they implemented curricular units that they developed themselves at the RGS summer workshop. In-service teachers were recruited from both programs. They were observed teaching their respective curricular materials and interviewed about their experiences in order to investigate the following research questions: 1. How do teachers implement the reform-oriented instructional strategies promoted by their professional development experiences with the ISI or RGS? 2. What are the challenges and supports that influence teachers' use of the reform-oriented instructional strategies promoted by their professional development experiences with the ISI or RGS? To investigate these questions the fidelity of implementation was it was conceptualized by Century, Rudnick, and Freeman (2010) was used as a theoretical framework. The study of the ISI program was conducted during the program's pilot year (2010-11). Five teachers of grades 3 through 6 were recruited from three different schools. Participants were observed as they taught lessons related to the modules and they were interviewed about their experiences. Based on analysis of the data from the observations, using a modified version of the Science Teacher Inquiry Rubric (STIR) (Bodzin & Beerer, 2003), the participants were found to exhibit partial fidelity of implementation to the model of inquiry-based instruction promoted by the ISI. Based on data from the interviews, the

  5. Heart rates of elementary physical education students during the dancing classrooms program. (United States)

    Nelson, Larry; Evans, Melissa; Guess, Wendy; Morris, Mary; Olson, Terry; Buckwalter, John


    We examined how different types of dance activities, along with their duration, influenced heart rate responses among fifth-grade physical education students (N = 96) who participated in the Dancing Classrooms program. Results indicated that the overall Dancing Classrooms program elicits a moderate cardiovascular heart rate response (M = 124.4 bpm), in which 47% of class time was spent above a 60% maximal heart rate threshold. The swing dance in particular (M = 143.4 bpm) stimulated a much higher heart rate level than all other dances in the program, with a mean heart rate change of 52.6 bpm. Girls (127.3 bpm) achieved marginally higher heart rates (p = .059) than boys (121.1 bpm).

  6. The effects of the science writing heuristic (SWH) approach versus traditional instruction on yearly critical thinking gain scores in grade 5-8 classrooms (United States)

    Tseng, Ching-mei

    Critical Thinking has been identified in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as skills needed to prepare students for advanced education and the future workforce. In science education, argument-based inquiry (ABI) has been proposed as one way to improve critical thinking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, an immersion argument-based inquiry approach to learning science, on students' critical thinking skills. Guided by a question-claims-evidence structure, students who participated in SWH approach were required to negotiate meaning and construct arguments using writing as a tool throughout the scientific investigation process. Students in the control groups learned science in traditional classroom settings. Data from five data sets that included 4417 students were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Yearly critical thinking gain scores, as measured by Form X of Cornell Critical Thinking Test, were compared for students who experienced the SWH approach versus students who experienced traditional instruction in both elementary (5th grade) and secondary schools (6th-8th grades). Analyses of yearly gain scores for data sets that represented a single year of implementation yielded statistically significant differences favoring SWH over traditional instruction in all instances and statistically significant interactions between gender and grade level in most instances. The interactions revealed that females had higher gain scores than males at lower grade levels but the reverse was true at higher grade levels. Analyses from data sets that included two years of implementation revealed higher overall gains for SWH instruction than for traditional instruction but most of those gains were achieved during the first year of implementation. Implications of these results for teaching critical thinking skills in science classrooms are

  7. Instructional Methods for Neuroscience in Nurse Anesthesia Graduate Programs: A Survey of Educational Programs (United States)


    36 Table 13. Alzheimer s/Dementia . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Table 14. Autonomic Hyperreflexia...practice of his father in general medicine. He wrote a little known medical monograph on "Observations on the Nature and Cure of Gout" in 1805...2.0 13.53 Instructional Methods 41 Alzheimer s and Dementia was instructed be textbooks (33%)(SD)=28, lectures (42%)(SD)=31, computers (1%)(SD)=3

  8. The Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT): The Dimensionality of Student Perceptions of the Instructional Environment (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M.; Demers, Joseph A.; Christ, Theodore J.


    This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale…

  9. A Comparison of Live Classroom Instruction and Internet-Based Lessons for a Preparatory Training Course Delivered to 4th Year Pharmacy Students (United States)

    Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi


    To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students…

  10. It Worked in My Classroom: A Social and Academic Behavior Change Program. (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle Marie; Schoen, Sharon F.

    A social and academic change program was designed for an 11-year-old educable mentally retarded female with Downs Syndrome. Noncompliant behavior was modified through systematic and consecutive manipulations of two reinforcement systems. Responding to teacher requests within 5 seconds was reinforced within the context of math instruction in order…

  11. Social Networking in an Intensive English Program Classroom: A Language Socialization Perspective (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jonathon; Zander, Victoria


    This ongoing project seeks to investigate the impact, inside and outside of class, of instruction focused on developing learner awareness of social-networking site (SNS) use in an American Intensive English Program (IEP). With language socialization as an interpretative framework (Duff, in press; Ochs, 1988; Watson-Gegeo, 2004), the project uses a…

  12. Teaching desertification: An investigation of teacher and classroom attributes, instructional strategies, locus of control, attitudes, and self-efficacy of Namibian junior secondary school teachers (United States)

    Shimwooshili Shaimemanya, Cornelia Ndahambelela

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of teacher attributes (teaching experience, age, and science content preparation), classroom attributes (grade level, class size, and teaching resources), and instructional strategies on Namibian junior secondary school teachers' locus of control, attitudes toward desertification, and self-efficacy. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis strategy were used to test a hypothesized causal model that expressed the relationships among these factors. Sample data were collected from 221 teachers from 218 schools representing 4 northern education regions of Namibia. Overall MANOVA results were not significant and hence no follow-up analyses were conducted. However, when the causal model was retested in the absence of 13 variables, which were incorrectly specified, MANOVA results, although still not significant, improved considerably: The p-value decreased from 28.5% to 15%. As a result., follow-up analyses were conducted at an inflated alpha level relative to this alternative model. The results indicated that science content preparation, syllabus use, and Internet use had significant influences on teachers' self-efficacy, but none of the IVs had a significant relationship with either of the other two dependent measures. A follow-up exploratory analysis was also conducted using structural equation modeling (SEM) via LISREL. The resulting LISREL model indicated that (1) age and textbook use are positive measures that determine a teacher's ability to teach desertification, (2) Internet use is a negative measure of teachers' desertification teaching ability, and (3) self-efficacy and attitudes toward desertification are measures of teachers' motivation to teach desertification, with self-efficacy as the stronger measure. Findings suggest that: (1) teachers' desertification teaching can be improved by a stronger science content background as part of teacher training programs; (2

  13. The Impacts of Theme-Based Language Instruction: A Case Study of an Advanced Chinese Intensive Program


    Song Jiang


    Theme-based language teaching under Content-Based Instruction (CBI) is a pedagogical approach that emphasizes learning professional content along with language skills. This paper reports a case study on the impacts of a theme-based advanced Chinese intensive program in a university setting. It begins with a review of CBI and its theme-based approach and then discusses the program design, curriculum development, and instructional practice of the program. The impacts of the theme-based approach...

  14. The Effect of Problem-Solving Instruction on the Programming Self-efficacy and Achievement of Introductory Computer Science Students (United States)

    Maddrey, Elizabeth

    Research in academia and industry continues to identify a decline in enrollment in computer science. One major component of this decline in enrollment is a shortage of female students. The primary reasons for the gender gap presented in the research include lack of computer experience prior to their first year in college, misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, lack of female mentors and role models, subtle discriminations in the classroom, and lack of self-confidence (Pollock, McCoy, Carberry, Hundigopal, & You, 2004). Male students are also leaving the field due to misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, and a lack of self-confidence. Analysis of first year attrition revealed that one of the major challenges faced by students of both genders is a lack of problem-solving skills (Beaubouef, Lucas & Howatt, 2001; Olsen, 2005; Paxton & Mumey, 2001). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific, non-mathematical problem-solving instruction as part of introductory programming courses significantly increased computer programming self-efficacy and achievement of students. The results of this study showed that students in the experimental group had significantly higher achievement than students in the control group. While this shows statistical significance, due to the effect size and disordinal nature of the data between groups, care has to be taken in its interpretation. The study did not show significantly higher programming self-efficacy among the experimental students. There was not enough data collected to statistically analyze the effect of the treatment on self-efficacy and achievement by gender. However, differences in means were observed between the gender groups, with females in the experimental group demonstrating a higher than average degree of self-efficacy when compared with males in the experimental group and both genders in the control group. These results suggest that the treatment from this

  15. An Evaluation of the Instruction of Generalization in Elementary School Social Studies Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mükerrem AKBULUT TAŞ


    Full Text Available Generalizations are important content materials that should be instructed in the Social Studies program. The instruction of generalizations and the causal relationships emphasized in generalizations are important for students to have meaningful learning experiences and to gain causal reasoning and critical thinking skills. Social Studies program emphasizes the acquisition of creating scientific generalization skill as a fundamental skill to be instructed directly, and the importance of generalization instruction is highlighted. Therefore, this study is important in that it draws attention to the importance of teaching generalization and creates basis for the future research in the field. In this regard, it aims at evaluating the instruction of the generalizations in the “Our Country and the World” unit in Social Studies program for 6th grades in Primary School. In line with this general purpose, the instruction of the generalizations in the unit was analyzed qualitatively. The study was conducted with three social studies teachers working in three different schools located in Seyhan, Adana. The data were collected through the observation technique with a view to obtaining in depth data about the instruction of generalization in social studies lesson. Semi-structured observation form, prepared in the light of the generalization content elements, was used as the data collection tool. These content elements consisted of four aspects: generalization statement, concepts related to generalization, cause-effect relationships between concepts, and facts about generalization. In addition to observation, document analysis was conducted with a view to supporting results and strengthening the implications. The documentary analysis was performed based on the generalizations and previously identified elements about the generalizations in the scope of the six topics in the “Our Country and the World” unit. The data collected from the observations were

  16. The Flipped Classroom: A Modality for Mixed Asynchronous and Synchronous Learning in a Residency Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Young


    Full Text Available Introduction: A “flipped classroom” educational model exchanges the traditional format of a classroom lecture and homework problem set. We piloted two flipped classroom sessions in our emergency medicine (EM residency didactic schedule. We aimed to learn about resident and faculty impressions of the sessions, in order to develop them as a regular component of our residency curriculum. Methods: We evaluated residents’ impression of the asynchronous video component and synchronous classroom component using four Likert items. We used open-ended questions to inquire about resident and faculty impressions of the advantages and disadvantages of the format. Results: For the Likert items evaluating the video lectures, 33/35 residents (94%, 95% CI 80%-99% responded that the video lecture added to their knowledge about the topic, and 33/35 residents felt that watching the video was a valuable use of their time. For items evaluating the flipped classroom format, 36/38 residents (95%, 95% CI 82%-99% preferred the format to a traditional lecture on the topic, and 38/38 residents (100%, 95% CI 89%-100% felt that the small group session was effective in helping them learn about the topic. Most residents preferred to see the format monthly in our curriculum and chose an ideal group size of 5.5 (first session and 7 (second session. Residents cited the interactivity of the sessions and access to experts as advantages of the format. Faculty felt the ability to assess residents’ understanding of concepts and provide feedback were advantages. Conclusion: Our flipped classroom model was positively received by EM residents. Residents preferred a small group size and favored frequent use of the format in our curriculum. The flipped classroom represents one modality that programs may use to incorporate a mixture of asynchronous and interactive synchronous learning and provide additional opportunities to evaluate residents. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.

  17. Teacher Conceptions and Approaches Associated with an Immersive Instructional Implementation of Computer-Based Models and Assessment in a Secondary Chemistry Classroom (United States)

    Waight, Noemi; Liu, Xiufeng; Gregorius, Roberto Ma.; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa


    This paper reports on a case study of an immersive and integrated multi-instructional approach (namely computer-based model introduction and connection with content; facilitation of individual student exploration guided by exploratory worksheet; use of associated differentiated labs and use of model-based assessments) in the implementation of coupled computer-based models and assessment in a high-school chemistry classroom. Data collection included in-depth teacher interviews, classroom observations, student interviews and researcher notes. Teacher conceptions highlighted the role of models as tools; the benefits of abstract portrayal via visualizations; appropriate enactment of model implementation; concerns with student learning and issues with time. The case study revealed numerous challenges reconciling macro, submicro and symbolic phenomena with the NetLogo model. Nonetheless, the effort exhibited by the teacher provided a platform to support the evolution of practice over time. Students' reactions reflected a continuum of confusion and benefits which were directly related to their background knowledge and experiences with instructional modes. The findings have implications for the role of teacher knowledge of models, the modeling process and pedagogical content knowledge; the continuum of student knowledge as novice users and the role of visual literacy in model decoding, comprehension and translation.

  18. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom. (United States)

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a method that teachers can use to increase their communication effectiveness by matching their communication patterns with those of their students. The basic premise of NLP is that people operate and make sense of their experience through information received from the world around them. This information is…

  19. Investigating Views of Teachers on Classroom Guidance Programs (United States)

    Siyez, Digdem M.; Kaya, Alim; Uz Bas, Asli


    Problem Statement: Comprehensive, developmental guidance and counseling programs are vital to the achievement of excellence in education for all students. The purpose of the guidance curriculum is to help all students develop basic life skills in the areas of personal/social, career planning, and academic development. Although the counselors'…

  20. Navajo Language Teaching in Immersion Classrooms. (United States)

    Holm, Wayne; And Others


    Provides a conceptual framework and concrete guidance for Navajo language teaching that follows an immersion approach. Explains key theoretical starting points for immersion instruction and program development; then describes in step-by-step fashion how to go about implementing immersion language teaching in various classroom contexts. (Author/TD)

  1. The effect of the Nature's Classroom environmental education program on middle school student performance (United States)

    Nava-Whitehead, Susan M.

    This study examine the educative aspects of environmental education and the dynamics of innovation initiation in schools. Environmental education is an approach to learning that includes teaching methods which education reformers are currently advocating: interdisciplinary, relevant context; child-centered constructivist approach; inquiry, problem-solving based; cooperative learning and team teaching. The program under study is the comprehensive environmental education program, Nature's Classroom. Nature's Classroom is a veteran in the field of environmental education and covers a broad geographic base and diverse community. An earlier qualitative examination of the program (Whitehead, 1999) indicated that the affective aspects of the environmental education approach are a pivotal element of the program. This study attempts to define and quantify this phenomenon. It is hypothesized that a student's disposition to learn, and inter alia academic success, is enriched through the affective-cognitive synergy enhanced by the environmental education approach. Using quantitative methodology, the School Attitude Measurement (SAM) was used to capture the concept of Disposition to learn. SAM is a self-report instrument and provides scores on five sub-scales as well as a total score. The sample understudy is composed of 110 participants in of two groups of intact sixth grade public school classrooms. The treatment imposed was participation in a five-day residential Nature's Classroom program. Results from SAM were examined for statistical difference pre- and post-treatment. Findings indicate that the environmental education program, Nature's Classroom positively affects a student's disposition to learn. In particular, a student's sense of control is strongly impacted by the program. This study also examined the social-psychological underpinnings of school culture and structure with respect to innovation initiation. Specifically, it considers the dynamics and difficulties of

  2. Using Student Self-Ratings to Assess the Alignment of Instructional Design Competencies and Courses in a Graduate Program (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nada; English, Mary


    This research examined students' self-reported proficiency in Instructional Design (ID) competencies using IBSTPI and AECT standards in order to assess the extent to which these standards are integrated in a university's graduate ID program. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 34 students who completed Advanced Instructional Design…

  3. Considerations for The Instruction Of Research Methodologies In Graduate-Level Distance Education Degree Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cleveland-INNERS


    Full Text Available Considerations for The Instruction Of Research Methodologies In Graduate-Level Distance Education Degree Programs Tom JONES, Ph.D. Associate Professor Centre for Distance Education Athabasca University, CANADA M. Cleveland-INNERS, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Centre for Distance Education Athabasca University, CANADA ABSTRACT The growth of basic and applied research activity in distance education requires redirection on several fronts, including the instruction of research methods in the education of graduate students. The majority of graduate students in distance education are practitioners whose goals range from carrying out original research to acquiring the concepts and skills necessary to become a practitioner. We argue that the best foundation for achieving both of those goals in distance education is developed by means of an understanding and internalization of sound research design methodologies, primarily acquired by formal instruction, and that an emphasis on research in graduate programs in distance education will encourage theory development. This paper presents the rationale for a general curricular model that attempts to address the sets of research competencies for graduate students in graduate-level distance education programs while at the same time moving students toward an appreciation and understanding of the epistemological foundations for social science research.

  4. Building a Synchronous Virtual Classroom in a Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program in Turkey


    T. Volkan YUZER; Aydin, Belgin


    This paper reports a synchronous project, “the virtual classroom” prepared for the Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program. The process of developing the synchronous project and the interface with its specific components were reported with examples and supported by theoretical background from the related literature. The evaluation of the project concludes that the virtual classroom facilitated increased authentic interaction and encouraged learners to become more autonomous...

  5. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program — Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries (United States)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.


    NASA’s Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program has Lucite disks containing Apollo lunar samples and meteorite samples that are available for trained educators to borrow for use in classrooms, museums, science center, and libraries.

  6. How Latino/a bilingual students use their language in a fifth grade classroom and in the science laboratory during science instruction (United States)

    Stevenson, Alma R.

    This qualitative research study examines how Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in their homeroom classroom and in the science laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school district located in the southwestern part of the United States. The school was chosen based on the criterion that the school is located in an area considered economically depressed, with a predominantly Latino student, school, and neighborhood population. The object of study was a fifth grade bilingual (Spanish/English) classroom where English was the means of instruction. Classroom interaction was examined from a sociolinguistics perspective. The study was descriptive in nature with the objective of analyzing the students' use of their linguistic resources while participating in science learning. The results of this study suggest that the students used their linguistic resources purposefully in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. In the same manner, it was observed the students' reliance on Spanish as a foundation to enhance their comprehension of the scientific concepts and the dynamics involved in the science lessons, with the purpose of making sense, and thus, to express their understanding (orally and in writing) using their linguistic resources, especially their English language, as it was expected from them. Further, the findings disclose the students' awareness of their own bilingualism, preference for speaking Spanish, and their conceptualization of English as the language to achieve academic success. It has also been observed how the pressure put upon the teacher and the students by the accountability system brings about an implicit bias against Spanish, causing the teacher to assume a paradoxical stance regarding the students' use of Spanish, and thereby, placing the students in an ambivalent position, that might affect, to a certain extent, how students use their Spanish language as a resource to

  7. Designing evidence-based medicine training to optimize the transfer of skills from the classroom to clinical practice: applying the four component instructional design model. (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; Cate, Olle Ten; Irby, David M; O'Brien, Bridget C


    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills, although taught in medical schools around the world, are not optimally practiced in clinical environments because of multiple barriers, including learners' difficulty transferring EBM skills learned in the classroom to clinical practice. This lack of skill transfer may be partially due to the design of EBM training. To facilitate the transfer of EBM skills from the classroom to clinical practice, the authors explore one instructional approach, called the Four Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) model, to guide the design of EBM training. On the basis of current cognitive psychology, including cognitive load theory, the premise of the 4C/ID model is that complex skills training, such as EBM training, should include four components: learning tasks, supportive information, procedural information, and part-task practice. The combination of these four components can inform the creation of complex skills training that is designed to avoid overloading learners' cognitive abilities; to facilitate the integration of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to execute a complex task; and to increase the transfer of knowledge to new situations. The authors begin by introducing the 4C/ID model and describing the benefits of its four components to guide the design of EBM training. They include illustrative examples of educational practices that are consistent with each component and that can be applied to teaching EBM. They conclude by suggesting that medical educators consider adopting the 4C/ID model to design, modify, and/or implement EBM training in classroom and clinical settings.

  8. Instructor and Student Classroom Interactions during Technology Skills Instruction for Facilitating Preservice Teachers' Computer Self-Efficacy (United States)

    Koh, Joyce H. L.; Frick, Theodore W.


    Technology skills instruction is an important component of educational technology courses, which has been shown to raise pre-service teachers' computer self-efficacy. Computer self-efficacy, in turn, is positively related to their self-efficacy for technology integration. Studies of undergraduate technology skills instruction found that classroom…

  9. The Effect of Differentiated Instruction on Standardized Assessment Performance of Students in the Middle School Mathematics Classroom (United States)

    Williams, Kimberly Gail


    Changing demographics, student diversity, and increased accountability have compelled educators to challenge the uniform constraints of traditional instruction and create an environment focused on individual achievement. Differentiated instruction empowers teachers to target multiple learning styles through varied themes, adapted content delivery,…

  10. A randomized controlled trial of the impact of a teacher classroom management program on the classroom behavior of children with and without behavior problems. (United States)

    Hutchings, Judy; Martin-Forbes, Pam; Daley, David; Williams, Margiad Elen


    This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management (TCM; Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2002) program to assess whether training teachers in IY-TCM principles improve teacher behavior, whether any observed improvements impact pupil behavior classroom-wide, and whether these effects can be demonstrated with children at risk of developing conduct problems. Six intervention and six control classrooms comprising 12 teachers and 107 children (aged 3 to 7years) were recruited. Children were screened for high or low behavior problems using the cut-off points of the teacher-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). The primary outcome measure was independent classroom observations using the Teacher-Pupil Observation Tool (Martin et al., 2010). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the intervention on teacher, classroom, and child behavior. Results showed a significant reduction in classroom off-task behavior (d=0.53), teacher negatives to target children (d=0.36), target child negatives towards the teacher (d=0.42), and target child off-task behavior (d=0.48). These preliminary results demonstrate the potential impact of IY-TCM on both teacher and child behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Uses of Laptops in English as Second Language Classrooms as Part of a One-to-One Laptop Program


    Guliz Turgut


    One-to-one laptop programs, where each student has their own laptop to use in classroom, are becoming popular in schools especially in Australia and the Unites States. The purpose of the study was to contribute to the limited knowledgebase explaining the implementation of laptop programs specifically with English language learners. Four ESL classroom teachers, six ESL students, and three school administrators participated in individually conducted, semi-structured interviews. Additionally, a ...

  12. Meaningful Practice: Generalizing Foundation Teaching Skills From TLE TeachLivE™ to the Classroom (United States)

    Dawson, Melanie Rees; Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin


    Novice teachers need to develop foundation teaching skills to effectively address student behavior and academics in the classroom. The TLE TeachLivE™ simulation laboratory (TLE) is a virtual classroom used to supplement traditional didactic instruction and field experiences in teacher preparation programs. In this study, repeated practice and…

  13. The Efficacy of Interactive Video for Teaching Basic Classroom Management Skills to Pre-Service Teachers. (United States)

    Overbaugh, Richard C.


    Describes a study that examined the effects of an interactive video computer-aided simulation program on instructing preservice education majors in classroom management issues. Topics include student achievement, class rank, stages of concern, computer anxiety, learning modality, the Classroom Management Achievement Test, and student reactions.…

  14. Classroom Materials for Job-Related BSEP 2 Program (United States)


    repeat his social security number. 65. One of the vehicles are broken. 66. The rifle team beat its closest competition in the final. 67. The deuce -and-a...could of, could have) arrived a little earlier. 22. My commander said I (done good, did well) on the task. 23. The deuce -and-a-half failed to see the...this idea of promotions by a leads to. link (a dotted line with an "l" in Figure 2). Another feature of the ID is its many educational programs. The ID

  15. Integrating Real-time, Real-world Geoscience Experiences into Classroom Instruction with EarthLabs and the JOIDES Resolution (United States)

    Mote, A. S.; Lockwood, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Cooper, S. K.; Ledley, T. S.


    Inspiring the next generation of geoscientists and preparing students for the 21st century workforce requires lifting science outside of the classroom and giving learners the opportunity to think critically about real-world geoscience problems. The EarthLabs suite of climate science modules challenges students with a variety of learning experiences including current scientific data analysis, computer visualizations, satellite imagery, and engaging videos. Each module includes a series of hands-on activities to allow students to explore Earth's complex and dynamic climate history, leading to a deeper understanding of present and future changes to our planet. A new EarthLabs module in development 'Climate Detectives: An Expedition on board the JOIDES Resolution," focuses on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341 to Southern Alaska. The module is structured to allow students to work collaboratively, mimicking scientific research groups on the JOIDES Resolution. As students assume the role of a scientist, learn about data collection methods, and analyze authentic data, they learn about the climate history and tectonic processes of the Southern Alaska continental margin, as well as explore the relationship between climate, sedimentation, and tectonics. The Project Based Learning (PBL) approach used in the module teaches students how to analyze data and solve problems like scientists, strengthening the development of higher order thinking skills and preparing them for college coursework. The 'Climate Detectives' Module also provides students with opportunities to interact with scientists through live video conferencing and pre-recorded video presentations by scientists. In this presentation, Expedition 341 Education Officer, Alison Mote, describes the new module, which takes students on an educational journey as they learn about the scientific objectives, methods, and data collection tools scientists use to conduct research on sediment cores retrieved

  16. Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: a post-intervention comparison. (United States)

    Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire V; Chiodo, Debbie; Hughes, Raymond; Ellis, Wendy


    This study examines peer resistance skills following a 21-lesson classroom-based intervention to build healthy relationships and decrease abusive and health-risk behaviors among adolescents. The Fourth R instructs students in positive relationship skills, such as negotiation and delay, for navigating challenging peer and dating scenarios. Observational data from 196 grade 9 students participating in a larger cluster randomized controlled trial were used to evaluate post-intervention acquisition of peer resistance skills. Pairs of students engaged in a role play paradigm with older student actors, where they were subjected to increasing pressure to comply with peer requests related to drugs and alcohol, bullying, and sexual behavior. Specific and global measures of change in peer resistance responses were obtained from two independent sets of observers, blinded to condition. Specific peer resistance responses (negotiation, delay, yielding to pressure, refusal, and compliance) were coded by research assistants; global peer resistance responses were rated by teachers from other schools (thinking / inquiry, application, communication, and perceived efficacy). Students who received the intervention were more likely to demonstrate negotiation skills and less likely to yield to negative pressure relative to controls. Intervention students were also more likely to use delay than controls; control girls were more likely to use refusal responses; the number of times students complied with peer requests did not differ. Teacher ratings demonstrated significant main effects favoring intervention youth on all measures. Program and research implications are highlighted.

  17. Relationships of Teachers' Language and Explicit Vocabulary Instruction to Students' Vocabulary Growth in Kindergarten (United States)

    Bowne, Jocelyn Bonnes; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Snow, Catherine E.


    This study evaluates the relationships between aspects of Chilean teachers' explicit vocabulary instruction and students' vocabulary development in kindergarten. Classroom videotapes of whole-class instruction gathered during a randomized experimental evaluation of a coaching-based professional development program were analyzed. The amount of…

  18. Television in the Schools: Instructional Television and Educational Media Resources at the National Public Broadcasting Archives (United States)

    King, Karen


    In 1964, in "A Guide to Instructional Television," editor Robert M. Diamond defined "educational television" as a "broad term usually applied to cultural and community broadcasting which may include some programs for in-school use" (p. 278). His definition for instructional television was "television used within the formal classroom context on any…

  19. Bridging the Virtual Gap in Internet Based Music Instruction: A Feasibility Study in Trombone Performance Education (United States)

    Wilson, Aaron James


    Since being introduced into classrooms in the late 1990s, online instruction has grown substantially both in student enrollment and the number of programs offered at state, district, and multi-district levels. Although having been applied liberally to all core subjects and many supplemental subjects, online instruction has yet to be utilized…

  20. Key Experiences, Changes in Mental Models, and Teachers' Development of Proficiency in Differentiated Instruction (United States)

    Bequary, Carol Barlow


    Despite well-intentioned professional development programs designed to improve teachers' effectiveness in the use of instructional practices that have the potential to enhance student achievement (e.g., differentiated instruction), a discrepancy exists between the promise these practices hold and their actual use by teachers in classrooms. To…