Sample records for program cesium-137 sewage

  1. Environmental application of cesium-137 irradiation technology: Sludges and foods (United States)

    Sivinski, Jacek S.

    Several activities have been undertaken to investigate and implement the use of the military byproduct cesium-137 in ways which benefit mankind. Gamma radiation from cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for protection of public health. Food irradiation at doses of 10 kGy or less have been found by international expert committees to be wholesome and safe for human consumption. Cesium-137 can be used as a means of enhancing particular properties of various food commodities by means of sterilization, insect disinfestation, delayed senescence and ripening, and sprout inhibition. This paper discusses the U.S. Department of Energy Beneficial Uses Program research and engineering history, as well as current activities and future plans, relating to both sewage sludge and food irradiation.

  2. Decorporation of cesium-137; Decorporation du cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fleche, Ph.; Destombe, C.; Grasseau, A.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.; Mestries, J.C. [GMR, Direction des Recherches, Etudes et Techniques, 94 - Arcueil (France)


    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, {sup 137}Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe {beta}, {gamma}irradiations and contaminations. {sup 137}Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the {sup 137}Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  3. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stek, M. Jr.; Minard, P.; Cruess, D.F.


    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad.

  4. Pilot unit for cesium-137 separation; Unite pilote de separation du cesium-137

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    Raggenbass, A.; Quesney, M.; Fradin, J.; Dufrene, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Users of radiation are becoming increasingly interested in cesium-137. At the same time the starting up of the industrial plant at Marcoule will make available in the near future large stocks of fission products which should be made use of as quickly as possible. The installation described is a pilot plant for cesium-137 production which should make it possible: - to verify the chemical method on actual solutions of fission products, by treating about 100 curies of {sup 137}Cs by operation, - to obtain technical information on the chemical equipment (tele-commands, corrosion, maintenance, etc...), - to obtain {sup 137}Cs in sufficient quantity to perfect the technique of the manufacture of sealed sources. (author)Fren. [French] L'interet des utilisateurs de rayonnement se porte de plus en plus vers le caesium-137. Parallelement, la mise en oeuvre de l'ensemble industriel de Marcoule nous permettra de disposer dans un avenir proche de stocks importants de produits de fission qu'il sera interessant de valoriser au plus vite. L'installation que nous decrivons est un pilote de production de caesium-137 qui doit nous permettre: - de verifier la methode chimique sur des solutions de produits de fission reelles en traitant environ 100 curies de {sup 137}Cs par operation; - d'obtenir des renseignements techniques sur l'appareillage chimique (telecommandes, corrosion, entretien, etc...); - d'obtenir du {sup 137}Cs en quantite suffisante pour mettre au point la technique de fabrication des sources scellees. (auteur)

  5. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others


    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  6. Cesium-137, a drama recounted; Cesio-137, um drama recontado

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    Vieira, Suzane de Alencar


    The radiological accident with Cesium-137, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. Cesium-137, a drama recounted is a textual experimentation based on real events and characters picked out from statements reported in various narratives about the radiological accident. (author)

  7. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  8. Characterization and immobilization of cesium-137 in soil at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ningping; Mason, C.F.V.; Turney, W.R.J.R.


    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a major contaminant in soils of Technical Area 21 (TA-21) and is mainly associated with soil particles {<=}2.00 mm. Cesium-137 was not leached by synthetic groundwater or acid rainwater. Soil erosion is a primary mechanism of {sup 137}Cs transport in TA-21. The methodology that controls soil particle runoff can prevent the transport of {sup 137}Cs.

  9. Concentrating cesium-137 from seawater using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin for radioecological monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorin, Andrei; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Avramenko, Valentin [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Palamarchuk, Marina; Marinin, Dmitry [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)


    A method of preconcentrating cesium-137 from seawater using a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin, which enables one to optimize the ecological monitoring procedure, has been suggested. Studies of sorption of cesium-137 from seawater by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin have been performed, and it has been demonstrated that the cation exchanger is characterized by high selectivity with respect to cesium-137. It was found that the selectivity depended on the temperature of resin solidification and the seawater pH value. The maximal value of the cesium-137 distribution coefficient is equal to 4.1-4.5 x 10{sup 3} cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}. Under dynamic conditions, the ion-exchange resin capacity is 310-910 bed volumes depending on the seawater pH, whereas the efficiency of cesium removal exceeds 95%. The removal of more than 95% of cesium-137 has been attained using 1-3 M solutions of nitric acid: here, the eluate volume was 8-8.4 bed volumes. Application of 3 M solution of nitric acid results in resin degradation with the release of gaseous products.

  10. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise `RESUME 95` in August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I.; Arntsing, R. [National Defence Research Establisment, Nuclear Detection Group, Stockholm (Sweden)


    In the exercise called `RESUME 95` the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au).

  11. Deciphering the measured ratios of Iodine-131 to Cesium-137 at the Fukushima reactors


    Matsui, T.


    We calculate the relative abundance of the radioactive isotopes Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 produced by nuclear fission in reactors and compare it with data taken at the troubled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The ratio of radioactivities of these two isotopes can be used to obtain information about when the nuclear reactions terminated.

  12. Evaluating water erosion prediction project model using Cesium-137-derived spatial soil redistribution data (United States)

    The lack of spatial soil erosion data has been a major constraint on the refinement and application of physically based erosion models. Spatially distributed models can only be thoroughly validated with distributed erosion data. The fallout cesium-137 has been widely used to generate spatial soil re...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trofimets


    Full Text Available Analysis of the authors's experimental data made it possible to discover that the Cesium-137 variability on the arable slope caused by geting sampling points in the area of block or interblock depressions that compose paleocryogenic polygonal-block microrelief. The surveys accomplished on experimental area were intended to clarify the Cesium-137 indicative potential for study of topsoil loss due to flushing. Estimation of the flushed topsoil thickness has been performed basing on comparison between the thickness of plow horizon in 1986 and current depth of Cesium-137 distribution. Two main problems were solved during research. First is the identification of erosion processes features within the elementary catchment areas with varying ruggedness degree. And the second is the detection of flush and accumulation features on the slopes of northern and southern exposure. Calculation of the Cesium-137 reserve in the modern plow horizon (0 - 20 cm with the catchment area and profile curvature modeling made it possible to derive the preliminary relationship formula between soil loss in the elementary catchment area thalwegs and profile curvature.

  14. Cesium-137 as a tracer of soil turbation: example of the taiga landscapes of the Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usacheva, Anna A.; Semenkov, Ivan N. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Cesium-137 is artificial radionuclide with 30.17 years half-life. However, this element can be found anywhere due to global atmospheric fallout. Its background storage is detected in landscapes: water, bottom sediments, plants and soils. Almost no one has studied the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the landscapes of the North, because of its negligible storage. Cesium-137 is slightly mobile in the soils of the North. The cryogenic and other material movement is a typical feature of soils of the North. However, the dating of the soil turbations less than 100 years of age, using existing methods, is possible via long-term stationary observations. To determine the age of soil turbations quicker, one can use slightly mobile artificial radionuclides with medium or long half-life. Cesium-137 satisfies all the criteria. The aim of the work is to estimate suitable of cesium-137 as geo-tracer of soil turbation. According to our evaluation, the activity of the buried layers is less than 10 Bq*kg{sup -1} at the current {sup 137}Cs contamination of surface organic horizons (60-90 Bq*kg{sup -1}). A research has been conducted to study distribution of cesium-137 in the north and middle taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (Russia). Field research was carried out in 2012 in two study areas. The first study area 'Purpe' is located in the middle part of the Pur river basin, near Gubkinsky town (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The second study area 'Noyabrsk' is located in the Ob and the Pur river watersheds, near Noyabrsk-city (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). Moss-grass-underwood layer (n=13) contains 22±20% of {sup 137}Cs total storage in the landscapes of oligo-trophic bogs with cryohistosols and pine forests on cryopodzols. The main reservoir of cesium-137 is soils (n=24) that accumulate 78±20% of its total landscape storage. The upper 10-cm soil layer contains 90% of {sup 137}Cs soil storage. Cesium-137 activity declines from shrubs and polytric layers

  15. Experimental contamination of pink shrimps by caesium 137; Contamination experimentale de crevettes roses par le cesium 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancellin, J.; Michon, G.; Vilquin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The authors describe first of all the technique used for the determination of cesium 137 concentration factors in the pink shrimp (Leander Serratus Pennant). Experiments over three months have shown that the specific activity of the shrimps becomes stable between the thirtieth and the fortieth day. The concentration factors then have values between 30 and 40. These results are similar to those obtained by other authors. (authors) [French] Les auteurs decrivent tout d'abord la technique utilisee pour la determination des facteurs de concentration du Cesium 137 chez la crevette rose (Leander Serratus Pennant). Le resultat des experimentations menees pendant trois mois montre que l'activite specifique des crevettes se stabilise entre le trentieme et le quarantieme jour. Les facteurs de concentration se situent alors entre 30 et 40, Ces donnees sont comparables a celles obtenues par d'autres auteurs. (auteur)

  16. CETESB`s actions in Goiania in what concerns cesium-137 accident; Atuacao da CETESB em Goiania com relacao ao acidente do cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penteado Filho, Azor Camargo; Derisio, Jose Carlos; Albuquerque, Antonio Martins de [CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    This work presents several actions performed by CETESB, the sanitary engineering agency of Sao Paulo State - Southeast Brazil, in what concerns the accident involving cesium-137 in Goiania, Goias State - Center Brazil. The adopted procedures are described in details

  17. Dosimetry of a Cesium 137 source; Dosimetria de una fuente de Cesio 137

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    Torres R, J.G.; Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad de Zacatecas (Mexico)


    It was carried out a dosimetric study of a source of Cesium 137 used in investigations of Radiobiology. This radionuclide has a half life of 30.07 years and it emits photons of 661.657 keV with a probability of 85.2%. The source has been used in a series of experiments trending to observe the cellular response before the gamma rays, as well as for the calibration of equipment of radiological protection. For such reason it is important to determine the dosimetric properties. In this work it was determined the absorbed dose that this source takes when being placed in the center from a methylmethacrylate badge to three distances, 5, 10 and 15 cm. The dose was measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters and it was calculated by means of Monte Carlo method, also was derived an expression that allows to determine the dose starting from the information of the activity of the source and of the distance regarding the same one. (Author)

  18. Cesium-137 in ash from combustion of biofuels. Application of regulations from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority; Cesium-137 i aska fraan foerbraenning av biobraenslen. Tillaempning av Straalsaekerhetsmyndighetens regler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf (Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (SE))


    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM, has issued an ordinance on ash contaminated with Cesium-137. It implies amongst other things that ash containing 0,5 - 10 kBq/kg Cesium-137 (so-called contaminated ash) can be used for geotechnical purposes provided that the content in a near-by well does not exceed 1 Bq/litre and that the increase in a near-by fish producing recipient does not exceed 0,1 Bq/litre. The initial plan with the presently reported work was to provide a compilation of how the ordinance for Cesium-137 can be applied in practical work. It became evident, however, in the course of the work that issues related to the co-variation between potassium and Cesium needed further investigation. As a result, the present report comprises also a compilation of this extended information search. Cesium-137 is present in ash as a result of the accident in a nuclear power reactor in Chernobyl in 1986 during which material having a very small grain size was spread to a high altitude. A few days later, Cesium-137 was deposited during rains over large parts of Sweden. This activity penetrated to a depth of one or a few decimetres during the course of the subsequent few days and weeks, after which it was partially taken up by plants and spread in the ecosystem. Section 2 has the character of a handbook. It provides basic information on radiation, and also about the ordinance and other material from the SSI. Section 3 comprises compilations of relevant international status of knowledge. This regards how potassium and Cesium behave in soil and ash, and also how spreading of Cesium can be modelled. Cesium behaves similarly to Potassium but with the difference that Cesium is bonded much more strongly to mineral soil and ash. Potassium and Cesium appears in soil in four different forms: dissolved in the pore water, exchangeable, non-exchangeable and as bonded to minerals. The amount dissolved in the pore water is the smallest and that bonded to minerals is the largest

  19. Non cancerous diseases following a chronic intern contamination by caesium 137: cataracts and cardiac arrhythmias; Pathologies non cancereuses potentiellement consecutives a une contamination interne chronique par le cesium 137: cataractes et arythmies cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, G


    This work of thesis joins within the framework of an analysis of the sanitary consequences of the nuclear accident of Chernobylsk. Since 2005, the I.R.S.N. is interested in the not cancerous pathologies (cataracts, and cardiac arrhythmias) observed among the children living on the contaminated territories after the fallout of Chernobylsk and has in this aim implemented a research programme called E.P.I.C.E. (Evaluation of the pathologies induced by a chronicle contamination by cesium) whom objective is to show an eventual link between the chronicle ingestion of contaminated food and these pathologies emergence. An exploitation of the results of the pilot study,first phase of the E.P.I.C.E. program was realized. The analysis was completed by two bibliographical reviews relative to the knowledge available on these diseases. The results of this pilot study suggest: on one hand, an absence of link between the activity in cesium 137 at the level of the heart, of the whole body and the emergence of disorder of the heart rhythm; on the other hand, for the cases of cataract, a link between the load in cesium 137 at the neck level and the emergence of the disease in 40 % of the cases. However, these results must be considered with caution because several limits and, in particular, a way of selection affect this study. concerning the scientific literature, this one stays rather poor because only thee articles make reference to a relationship between cesium 137 and the emergence of these non cancerous pathologies. After having exposed the context, this thesis draws up the situation of knowledge relative to cataracts and to cardiac arrhythmias and their possible relationship with ionizing radiations, collect the results stemming from the analysis of the pilot study and envisages future epidemiological studies. (N.C.)

  20. Elevated congenital anomaly rates and incorporated cesium-137 in the Polissia region of Ukraine. (United States)

    Wertelecki, Wladimir; Koerblein, Alfred; Ievtushok, Bogdana; Zymak-Zakutnia, Nataliya; Komov, Oleksandr; Kuznietsov, Illia; Lapchenko, Serhiy; Sosyniuk, Zoriana


    Investigations soon after the 1986 Chornobyl (Chernobyl in Russian) accident of exposed populations residing elsewhere in Europe led government and international agencies to conclude that exposures to cesium-137 (Cs-137) were not teratogenic. Our observations of elevated population rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) and microcephaly and microphthalmia (M/M) in the Rivne Province in Ukraine, which were among the highest in Europe, prompted this follow-up investigation inclusive of whole-body counts (WBCs) of Cs-137 among ambulatory patients and pregnant women residing in Polissia, the most polluted region in Rivne. Yearly (2000-2012) population rates of NTDs and M/M and WBC patterns of ambulatory patients (2001-2010) and pregnant women (2011-2013) in Polissia and non-Polissia regions of Rivne were analyzed. The NTD and M/M population rates in Rivne remain elevated and are statistically significantly higher in Polissia than in non-Polissia. The WBCs among residents in Polissia are statistically significantly higher than among those from non-Polissia. NTD and M/M rates are highest in the Polissia region of Rivne and are among the highest in Europe. In Polissia, the WBCs of Cs-137 are above officially set permissible upper limits. The results are based on aggregate data of NTDs and M/Ms and average WBC values. Further investigations of causality of the high rates of NTDs and M/Ms are needed and urgent strengthening policies and implementations to reduce exposures to teratogens, in particular radioactive nuclides and alcohol, and consumption of folic acid supplements are indicated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran. (United States)

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil


    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Improvement of gynecologic radium therapy through the afterloading method using cesium 137]. (United States)

    Fournier, D V; Senf, W; Kuttig, H; Kubli, F


    For all centers performing gynecological contact irradiation the use of afterloading techniques is urgently required, since they eliminate any radiation exposure to the personnel. The radio-therapist may position and control the empty applicators still free from radiation withoug haste. This procedure diminishes the occurrence of overdosages and underdosages. The care for the patients is possible without radiation exposure, and the morbidity of contact therapy can be reduced by occasional mobilization of the patient, the applicator without sources remaining at its place. The fully automatic apparatus "Curietron" using cesium-137 sources (0.662 MeV gamma emission, half-life period 26.6 years) with an equivalent source activity (factor 2.6) yields the dose distribution demanded in the gynecologic field which in practice is identical to that of Ra-226 (medium gamma emission 1 MeV, half-life period 1620 years). With similar dose distribution, a biological and therapeutical effect alike to Ra-226 may be expected from Cs-137. In comparison with Ra-226, the following advantages of Cs-137 may be mentioned: Lower half-value thickness of 5.5 mm lead (low expenses for radioprotection), less danger with handling (no emanation of radioactive gases), and lower contamination risks in case of breaking. The measured dose distributions at equivalent source activity and similar geometry of the applicators revealed the possibility with regard of all techniques of gynecologic irradiation utilized in our field of arriving at similar relative and absolute dose distributions by means of the Cs-137 afterloading technique. Whilst short-term afterloading irradiation with highly active sources, their radiobiological effectiveness being not yet ascertained, has to be tested at appropriate scientific centers, it is necessary to demand afterloading techniques with dosages and duration of irradiations approved over decades for all centers of gynecological contact therapy because of radiation

  3. The burden of cesium 137 in forest clerks; Die Belastung mit Caesium 137 bei Beschaeftigten der Forstverwaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechotowski, I.; Jaroni, J. [Landesgesundheitsamt Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany); Link, B. [Arbeits- und Sozialministerium des Landes Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany); Groezinger, O. [Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Verkehr des Landes Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)


    In 47 forest clerks from the regions Ortenau and Oberschwaben in south-west Germany the incorporation of cesium 137 and potassium 40 was measured in autumn 1994. Soil burden as well as burden of nutrition with cesium 137 are different in these regions for geological reasons and as a result of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl. Caused by low content of clay in Oberschwaben, the transfer of cesium to plants is assisted. Heavy rainfall after the nuclear accident led to an additional increase of burden. The median of the concentration of cesium 137 was 1.4 Bq/kg body weight. The median for potassium 40 was 58 Bq/kg body weight. For cesium 137 regional differences were observed. For persons from Oberschwaben the median for cesium 137 was with 2.8 Bq/kg body weight clearly higher than for persons from Ortenau with 0,6 Bq/kg body weight. Concerning nutrition habits, the clearest difference was found comparing persons who had ate a minimum of four portions of deer from the surroundings within the last four weeks with persons who had ate less than four portions of deer from the surroundings within the last four weeks. The difference was greater in Oberschwaben than in Ortenau. The effective dose of cesium 137 calculated on the basis of the incorporation is very low compared to natural radiation. This is also valid for persons from Oberschwaben. (orig.) [German] Im Herbst 1994 wurde bei insgesamt 47 Bediensteten der Forstverwaltung aus den Regionen Ortenaukreis und Oberschwaben die Inkorportation an Caesium 137 und Kalium 40 gemessen. Sowohl die Bodenbelastung als auch die Belastung von Nahrungsmitteln mit Caesium 137 unterscheiden sich in diesen Gebieten bedingt durch geologische Besonderheiten und in Folge des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl. Aufgrund eines geringen Anteils an Tonerden wird in Oberschwaben der Caesiumtransfer in Pflanzen beguenstigt, eine zusaetzliche Erhoehung der Belastung erfolgte durch starke Niederschlaege nach dem Reaktorunfall. Die Konzentration fuer

  4. Juridical-penal aspects of the cesium-137 accident; Implicacoes juridico-penais do acidente com o cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Carolina Chaves [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil)


    The study of the juridical-penal aspects of the Cesium-137 accident, has, as a base, the police inquiry and the penal lawsuit concerning to the episode. Due to the lack of a law which typified activities related with radioisotope material as crime, the responsible were sentenced according to the penalties of body injury crime and homicide. Among the 10 investigated people, only 5 were condemned by the Judiciary and only 4 serve the sentence. (author) 5 refs.; e-mail: mariliag at

  5. Assessing relationships between forest structure and soil erosion in mountainous forest using a Cesium-137 tracer technique (United States)

    Choi, Kwanghun; Reineking, Björn


    The fallout radionuclides (FRNs) particularly Cesium-137 are known as a quantitatively reliable means of estimating sediment redistribution rates within agricultural landscapes and forested area. However, fewer studies have done using FRNs in forested areas even though understanding soil redistribution patterns in mountainous forest areas is one of the important issues for forest management. The objective of this study is to figure out key forest structures affecting soil redistribution rate. In this study, we estimated soil loss and gain rate at 50 points with various forest types and topography in steep mountainous forest area in the Experimental Forest of Kangwon National University in Kangwon Province, South Korea by the Cesium-137 tracing technique. The results show the factors related to the topography such as slope and water accumulation have little effect on soil redistribution rate. The shrub and small tree layer affect more on soil redistribution rate. Additionally, the data shows relatively higher erosion rate in Korean Pine tree plantation area (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) than semi-natural deciduous and Quercus forests where shrubs and small trees are more prevalent.

  6. Derivation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, University of California, Davis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.


    Residual radioactive material guidelines for strontium-90 and cesium-137 were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; this code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site will be utilized without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded within 1,000 years for either strontium-90 or cesium-137, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the following levels: 71,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 91 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario A (researcher: the expected scenario); 160,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 220 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario); and 37 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 32 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the contaminated area: a plausible scenario). The derived guidelines are single-radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual strontium-90 and cesium-137 guidelines for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate.

  7. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Cesium-137 (United States)


    recovery is both time and budget sensitive, it is imperative that the community address these values, and have agreement, before a disaster strikes. A key...agreement, before a disaster strikes. Pre-event clearance level concurrence is key to a community’s resiliency and speedy recovery. As such, technical and...Goiania) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides ( Chernobyl ). Another group contains documents relevant to site survey 3 procedures

  8. Contamination by the cesium 137 in France and on some areas of Europe in 1999-2000: measures: A. Paris (independent geologist) and CRIIRAD; Contamination par le cesium 137 en France et sur une partie de l'Europe en 1999-2000: mesures: A. Paris (geologue independant) et CRIIRAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareyron, B. [Commission de Recherche et d' Information Independantes sur la Radioactivite, CRIIRAD, 26 - Valence (France)


    In April 2001, the CRIIRAD published results of residual contamination by cesium 137 in France and some areas in Europe. These measures were realized by an independent geologist A. Paris. This document recalls the main results and brings precise details on the monitoring. A map of the residual contamination in France in july and august 1999 and 2000 is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  9. The Transfer and diffusion of Cesium 137 within forest ecosystem in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Murakami, Masashi [Community Ecology Lab., Biology Course, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)


    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Among the variety of radionuclides released from FDNPP, cesium 137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the most worrying radionuclide in the environment, with a half-life of 30 years. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest, the distribution and transportation of radioactive materials within forest ecosystems should be conscientiously monitored. In Europe, many studies reported that the {sup 137}Cs deposition caused by the Chernobyl accident has still been distributed in the litter and soil layers and has become a source for the soil-to-plant transfer. Most of these studies emphasize the 'stability' of {sup 137}Cs within forest ecosystems, because {sup 137}Cs are considered to be strongly and immediately fixed in clay minerals. Even though there are many studies of the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs in forest after several years of Chernobyl accident, very initial distribution and transfer of {sup 137}Cs in food web within one to two years after the deposition in forest ecosystems have never been examined. The evaluation of the initial dynamics of {sup 137}Cs in forest ecosystems should be quite important because of the increasing stability of {sup 137}Cs after the deposition. The accumulation and transfer of {sup 137}Cs through food web within forest ecosystems were examined by collecting various organisms at forests in Fukushima. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations, natural Cs and K concentrations, and delta {sup 15}N of the specimens were measured to evaluate the occurrence of bioaccumulation or bio-diffusion of {sup 137}Cs through tropic interaction within forest ecosystem. {sup 137}Cs was highly concentrated on leaf litters which had been deposited in autumn 2010, before the accident. This accumulated {sup 137}Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through

  10. Cesium-137 Decorporation Model (United States)


    data, in vitro experiments simulating Cs transport through potassium channels , and in vitro tissue selectivity experiments (Leggett 1995, 2003). The...Lung and its Influence on Particle Deposition, Inhalation Toxicology 18:795-801. Boecker BB. 1969 Comparison of 137Cs metabolism in the beagle dog...biokinetic model for 137Cs. Health Phys 73(2):320-332. Melo DR, et al. 1998. Prussian blue decorporation of 137Cs in humans and beagle dogs. Radiat Prot

  11. Systemic Arterial Hypertension in Patients Exposed to Cesium-137 in Goiânia-GO: Prevalence Study. (United States)

    Rodrigues, José Victor Rabelo; Pinto, Murillo Macêdo; Figueredo, Roberto Miller Pires; Lima, Helen de; Souto, Rafael; Sacchetim, Sylvana de Castro


    Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) in the Brazilian population, in populations not exposed to Césio-137, presents a prevalence of 28% nationwide. However, in the group of radioactivity victims, these values are unknown. To analyze the prevalence of hypertension in patients exposed to Cesium-137 in Goiânia, enrolled in the Sistema de Monitoramento dos Radioacidentados (SISRAD) (Radioactivtity Victims Monitoring System) of the Centro de Assistência aos Radioacidentados (C.A.R.A) (Assistence Center for Radioactivity Victims). This is a descriptive, observational cross-sectional epidemiological study carried out in Goiânia-Goiás, from August 2013 to October 2014, with a group of patients enrolled in the Sistema de Monitoramento dos Radioacidentados (SISRAD) of the Centro de Assistência a Radioacidentados (C.A.R.A.). A total of 102 radioactive patients were divided into two groups: group 1 with 40 and group 2 with 62 participants. A field survey was conducted with a closed and semi-structured questionnaire in which the following contexts were addressed: sociodemographic profile, life habits and personal background. A database was created using the Google Forms application from the Google Web technologies company. The duly collected and stored data were imported and analyzed in the statistical software SPSS, version 21. The prevalence of SAH reached a total of 25% (12 individuals) of the 48 interviewees, 50% of women (24) and 50% of men (24), of which 22.9% (11) of the radioactivity victims revealed to be smokers. The prevalence of SAH in the radioactivity victims population is similar to that of the population in general. A Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica (HAS) na população brasileira, em populações não expostas ao Césio-137, apresenta prevalência de 28% em âmbito nacional. Porém, no grupo de radioacidentados, esses valores são desconhecidos. Analisar a prevalência da HAS em pacientes expostos ao Césio-137 ocorrido em Goiânia, cadastrados no

  12. Whole-body cesium 137 activity up to 4 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident in premature newborns, newborns, infants, and children. (United States)

    Koch, H C; Burmeister, W; Knopp, R; Niesen, M; Georgakopoulou, A; Krämer, A; Halfmann, K; Hartmann, C; Lentze, M J


    Cesium 137 activity was measured after the Chernobyl incident in a whole-body radiation counter (4-pi-scintillation counter) in 85 premature and mature newborns (group 1), 174 infants and young children up to 2 11/12 years (group 2), and 48 children between 3 and 8 years (group 3) from Bonn (Germany) and surroundings. In 1987 the mean level of radioactivity in group 2, at 3.7 Bq/kg body weight corresponding to a mean radiation exposure of 11 muSv/y, was lower than that of group 1 (5.8 Bq/kg, 17 muSv/y) and 3 (9.4 Bq/kg, 28 muSv/y). Up to 1990 the values of all groups revealed a continuous decrease. The latest measurements showed mean values of 0.5 Bq/kg (1.5 muSv/y) in group 1, 0.6 Bq/kg (1.8 muSv/y) in group 2, and 0.8 Bq/kg (2.4 muSv/y) in group 3. A comparison with present cesium 137 values and determinations of the end of the 1950s and beginning of 1960s, both in adults, showed good agreement. The effective dose-equivalent rates amounted to less than 1% of that from natural radiation exposure. These levels should present no teratogenic risks to the population studied and, while there are theoretical mutagenic risks, the dose is so low that no increase in measurable mutagenic effects should be observed.

  13. Germline mutations in people descendants occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137; Mutacoes germinativas na prole de pessoas expostas ocupacionalmente a radiacao ionizante de Cesio 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Juliana Ferreira da


    The radiological accident in Goiania in 1987, resulted in a serious episode of human contamination, animal, plant and environmental were exposed to Cesium 137 chloride ({sup 137}CsCl) that caused contamination and accidental and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is one of the environmental components that causes most cellular stress in complex organisms. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces breaks in nucleic acids, especially, DNA double and single strand breaks. Chromosomal microarray analysis is an important tool for the detection and microdeletion and microduplications in the genomes. In this study we proposed to analyze the effect of exposure to RI on the formation of CNVs in an exposed human population occupationally to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137 during the accident in Goiania. The exposed group consisted of 07 families, of which at least one parent was occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137, including a total of 25 individuals, do not know the absorbed dose of the military who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. 11 families with a group of individuals not exposed to IR was used as control were used including a total of 33 individuals with no history of exposure to RI. The genotyping microarray was conducted in CytoScan HD system (Affymetrix®) without then analyzes was performed in ChAS® software. The statistical tests used were: Shapiro-Wilk, Mann- Whitney U, Spearman correlation, discriminant function analysis, binomial test, χ{sup 2} test. All analyzes were performed using the statistical package SPSS 21.0, with a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). The frequency of CNVs were estimated loss / generation, gain / generation and burden / generation, representing 3,9 x 10{sup -5}, 6,8 x 10{sup -6} and 4,6 x 10{sup -5} respectively for the exposed group. For the control group, the frequencies were 2,1 x 10{sup -5}, 5,9 x 10{sup -6} and 3,1 x 10{sup -5} respectively. Thus, the

  14. Estimation of Radiation Doses in the Marshall Islands Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Urinalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J; Hickman, D; Kehl, S; Hamilton, T


    Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have recently implemented a series of initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former nuclear test sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The aim of this radiological surveillance monitoring program (RSMP) is to provide timely radiation protection for individuals in the Marshall Islands with respect to two of the most important internally deposited fallout radionuclides-cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and long-lived isotopes 239 and 240 of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) (Robison et al., 1997 and references therein). Therefore, whole-body counting for {sup 137}Cs and a sensitive bioassay for the presence of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine were adopted as the two most applicable in vivo analytical methods to assess radiation doses for individuals in the RMI from internally deposited fallout radionuclides (see Hamilton et al., 2006a-c; Bell et al., 2002). Through 2005, the USDOE has established three permanent whole-body counting facilities in the Marshall Islands: the Enewetak Radiological Laboratory on Enewetak Atoll, the Utrok Whole-Body Counting Facility on Majuro Atoll, and the Rongelap Whole-Body Counting Facility on Rongelap Atoll. These whole-body counting facilities are operated and maintained by trained Marshallese technicians. Scientists from LLNL provide the technical support and training necessary for maintaining quality assurance for data acquisition and dose reporting. This technical basis document summarizes the methodologies used to calculate the annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE; or dose for the calendar year of measurement) based on whole-body counting of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and the measurement of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine. Whole-body counting provides a direct measure of the total amount (or burden) of {sup 137}Cs present in the human body at the time of

  15. Uso do césio-137 para avaliar taxas de erosão em cultura de soja, café e pastagem Use of cesium-137 to assess soil erosion rates under soybean, coffee and pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Andrello


    Full Text Available Utilizou-se o césio-137 para avaliar as taxas de perda ou ganho de solo numa microbacia com diferentes culturas, situada no município de Cambe (PR, a 23º16' Sul e 51º17' Oeste. Foi utilizada uma equação teórica que considera a perda ou ganho de solo num ponto diretamente proporcional à redistribuição de césio-137. Uma amostragem em transectos foi efetuada com o objetivo de avaliar a redistribuição de solo dentro da microbacia. Um ponto em mata nativa na microbacia foi amostrado para estimar a quantidade de césio-137 depositado na região pela precipitação radioativa. Os pontos amostrados em área de pastagem apresentaram, em sua maioria, perda de solo. Os pontos amostrados em área de cafeeiro não apresentaram perda nem ganho de solo. Os pontos amostrados em área de soja, em sistema convencional de preparo de solo, apresentaram perda de solo.The methodology cesium-137 was used to assess soil erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed with varied crops, at 23º16' S and 51º17' W, in a district of Cambé, Paraná State, Brazil. A theoretical equation which considers soil loss or gain directly proportional to the cesium-137 redistribution was utilized in this study. In the watershed, soil redistribution was assessed by transect sampling, and the regional input of cesium-137 by radioactive rainfall determined based on samples from a point in the native forest. Most sampled pasture points presented soil loss, as well as the points in the soybean area under conventional tillage, while in the coffee crop there was neither soil loss nor gain.

  16. Individual Radiological Protection Monitoring of Utrok Atoll Residents Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Kehl, S; Brown, T; Martinelli, R; Hickman, D; Jue, T; Tumey, S; Langston, R


    This report contains individual radiological protection surveillance data developed during 2006 for adult members of a select group of families living on Utrok Atoll. These Group I volunteers all underwent a whole-body count to determine levels of internally deposited cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and supplied a bioassay sample for analysis of plutonium isotopes. Measurement data were obtained and the results compared with an equivalent set of measurement data for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes from a second group of adult volunteers (Group II) who were long-term residents of Utrok Atoll. For the purposes of this comparison, Group II volunteers were considered representative of the general population on Utrok Atoll. The general aim of the study was to determine residual systemic burdens of fallout radionuclides in each volunteer group, develop data in response to addressing some specific concerns about the preferential uptake and potential health consequences of residual fallout radionuclides in Group I volunteers, and generally provide some perspective on the significance of radiation doses delivered to volunteers (and the general Utrok Atoll resident population) in terms of radiological protection standards and health risks. Based on dose estimates from measurements of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes, the data and information developed in this report clearly show that neither volunteer group has acquired levels of internally deposited fallout radionuclides specific to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands that are likely to have any consequence on human health. Moreover, the dose estimates are well below radiological protection standards as prescribed by U.S. regulators and international agencies, and are very small when compared to doses from natural sources of radiation in the Marshall Islands and the threshold where radiation health effects could be either medically diagnosed in an individual or epidemiologically discerned in a

  17. Phenomenological and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the reconstitution of the cesium 137 deposit in France consecutive to the accident of Chernobylsk; Interpretation phenomenologique et analytique de la relation pluie-depot utilisee pour la reconstitution des depots de {sup 137}Cs en France consecutifs a l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, D.; Renaud, Ph.; Metivier, J.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, L.; Pourcelot, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dir. de l' environnement et de l' intervention 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    The works presented in this report allow to give two conclusions: the first one bears on the reconstitution of the cesium 137 deposits induced by the Chernobylsk accident; the second one bears on the methods improvement of post accident consequences evaluation induced by the radioactive atmosphere fallout. (N.C.)

  18. Cesium-137 global fallout into the Ob river basin and its influence on the Kara sea contamination - Weapons fallout cesium-137 in the Ob' catchment landscapes and its influence on radioactive contamination of the Kara sea: Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenkov, Ivan N.; Miroshnikov, Alexey Yu. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)


    or acid soils with considerable among of dissolve organic matter. And {sup 137}Cs accumulates in slightly alkaline soils with mull in topsoil. The data obtained show that global fallout cesium-137 runoff from undisturbing humid first-order river basins (n=1) is less than 0.5 Ci*km{sup -1}. Runoff from arable semi-humid first-order river basins (n=2) varies from 3 to 35 Ci*km{sup -1}. According to GIS, internal flow areas occur 23% of the Ob' river basin total area and accumulate whole {sup 137}Cs. Humid and semi-humid river basins cover 40% and 8% of study area, respectively. We assume these basins yield as the main contribution in {sup 137}Cs runoff from the Ob' river basin. Thus global fallout caesium-137 runoff is 0.9-6.1 kCi including radioactive decay (0.5-3.4% of total storage) from the Ob' river basin to the Kara sea. Comparable among of caesium-137 could enter to the Kara sea due to liquid radioactive wastes by the nuclear plants located in the Ob' and the Enisey river basins. As a result, global fallout caesium-137 runoff from the background landscapes of the Ob' and the Enisey river basins plays an important role in radioactive contamination of the Kara sea. Conducted research results proved to estimate yield of radiochemical plants to radioactive contamination of the Arctic Ocean. (authors)

  19. The blue drama: narratives of the victim's suffering of Cesium-137 radiological event; O drama azul: narrativas sobre o sofrimento das vitimas do evento radiologico do Cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Suzane de Alencar


    This research presents a dramatic approach to the Cesium-137 Radiological Event. The event, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The ethnography’s output follows a theoretical experiment with the notions of drama and event. In order to better understand the pattern of this event, I analyzed narratives such as romances, arts, photographs, news, documentaries, films, academic bibliography and stories that emerged from the research field. I argue that the narratives politicize the discourses of victimization and the suffering experience. The dramatic form of narratives and symbols concentrates on emotions and promotes the emotional commitment of the subjects on the trial. The drama articulates the relationship between the narratives and the event and creates a tactful space that arouses the recognition of victims through the narrative form and the suffering language. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. (author)

  20. Study of Deposit Cesium-137 (137Cs Activity as a Result of Fission Product from The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant at Japan after Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahpita Windriani


    Full Text Available Study of deposit Cesium-137 (137Cs activity as a result of the fission product of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after earthquake and tsunami in 2011 has been done. The purpose of the present research is to study the deposit 137Cs activity on the land and the Sea of Japan and then to estimate a model of 137Cs distribution on the earth's surface of Japan. The stability of nuclei decay equation is used to obtain a deposit 137Cs activity depending on time, theoretically. The Pasquill-Gifford equation is used to estimate a distribution of 137Cs activity on the earth surface from the original source. The results suggested that Hatachinaka city, the largest measurement point, for about 60 years forward, 137Cs activity levels reach about 54 Bq. In the Sea of Japan at the point of sensor C47, which it has the largest value, the accumulation of deposit 137Cs activity gives about 0.69 Bq at the time of the next 60 years. For the distribution of 137Cs activity, the concentration values at a distance of 200 m from the original source obtained maximum for all case.

  1. Radiometric evaluation of graves of victims of the accident with Cesium 137 in Goiania, GO, Brazil: 25 years after; Avaliacao radiometrica das sepulturas das vitimas do acidente com o Cesio 137 em Goiania: 25 anos apos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Leonardo B.; Correa, Rosangela da S.; Santos, Eliane E. dos, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil); Freitas-Junior, Ruffo, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Mastologia


    Twenty-five years after the radiation accident in Goiania, this study aims to evaluate the radiological situation in the area demarcated by the graves of the victims of the accident with cesium-137. Radiometric survey was carried out on the surface that encompasses the four graves and vicinity, from a pre-established mesh. Dose rate measurements were carried out, using the IdentFINDER equipment, positioned at 1 m height from the ground. The values of dose rates at the points measured ranged from 0.03 to 0.07 μSv/h. This variation of dose rate is less than those obtained in the local graveyard and are in the range of background radiation observed in Goiania. Considering the results obtained 25 years after the accident, it was concluded that engineering barriers adopted at that time are effective, stating the place absolutely safe from a radiological point of view, both for the individual from the public as to the environment.

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation Volume 3. Records relating to RaLa, iodine-131, and cesium-137 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Operations Office: A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this guide is to describe each of the documents and record series pertaining to the production, release, and disposal of radioactive barium-lanthanum (RaLa), iodine-131, and cesium-137 at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, which seeks to verify and conduct inventories of epidemiologic and health-related records at various DOE and DOE contractor sites. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role. It provides information on the history of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), particularly ORNL. Specific attention is given to the production of RaLa and the fission products iodine-131 and cesium-137. This introduction also describes the methodologies HAI used in the selection and inventorying of documents and record series pertaining to RaLa, iodine-131, and cesium-137, and in the production of this guide. Concluding paragraphs describe the arrangement of the record series, explain the information contained in the record series descriptions, and indicate restrictions on access to the records.

  3. Distribution of cesium-137 in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Rissanen


    Full Text Available The influence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 on the Finnish reindeer herding area was much smaller than the effects of the nuclear bomb tests in the 1960s. Only in one small area somewhat more Cs-137 was deposited than in the rest of the reindeer herding area. From that area 20 reindeer were chosen for investigation of the distribution of Cs-137. All tissues, organs, the skeleton, digestive tract, hide, head and hooves were sampled quantitatively. Three reindeer were pregnant and also the foetuses were studied. The Cs-137 amounts were determined by gammaspectrometric measurements. The results showed that the differences in the Cs-137 concentrations between muscle tissue from different parts of an individual reindeer were not more than 10 percent. Thus it is not essential from which part of the reindeer meat samples for surveillance purposes are taken. The concentration of Cs-137 in edible tissues other than muscle was lower except in the kidneys and scapula cartilage.

  4. Literature study of the radiobiological parameters of Caesium-137 required for evaluating internal irradiation doses as a function of age; Etude bibliographique des parametres radiobiologiques du cesium-137 necessaires a l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne en fonction de l'age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This document reassembles information published in scientific literature on radiobiological parameters of Cs-137, necessary for the estimate of the internal irradiation dose of man according to his age (during growth). The data are completed by a commented review of the mathematical models, proposed in order to value the irradiation doses from ingested cesium and the biological parameters. (author) [French] Ce document rassemble les informations publiees dans la litterature scientifique, concernant les parametres radiobiologiqueo du cesium-137, necessaires a l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne de l'homme en fonction de l'age. Ces donnees sont completees par une revue commentee des modeles mathematiques proposes en vue de l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation a partir des quantites de cesium ingerees et des parametres biologiques. (auteur)

  5. Sewage Treatment (United States)


    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  6. Characterization program in the framework of the national sewage sludge plan in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lopez, M. J.


    Sewage Sludge is the waste originated from the process of treatment of waste water. Due to the physical-chemical processes involved in the treatment, the sludge tends to concentrate heavy metals and poorly biodegradable trace organic compounds as well as potentially pathogenic organisms (viruses, bacteria, etc.). However, sludge is rich in nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous and contains valuable organic matter that is useful when soils are depleted or subject to erosion. (Author)

  7. Byproducts Utilization Program: Sewage Sludge Irradiation Project. Progress report, July-December 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Engineering support for a demonstration-scale irradiator design included assisting the City of Albuquerque in preparing a comprehensive site plan for their proposed sludge handling and treatment facilities. The solar sludge dryer has been delivered to SNLA. A preliminary sludge drying experiment indicated the importance of optimizing stirring and air flow. Installation of instrumentation and mechanical equipment continued. The Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS) was used to irradiate 23 tons of dried, digested sewage sludge for the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) operations included irradiation of ground pork for Toxoplasma gondii inactivation experiments, irradiation of surgical supplies and soil samples. Beneficial Uses Shipping Systems (BUSS) cask activities included near completion of the two full-scale cask bodies. Work continued on the Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR) including additional analyses to reconfigure the six strontium fluoride capsules and/or reduce the number of capsules accommodated. NMSU has indicated no regrowth of salmonellae occurred in the irradiated sludge stockpile, while salmonellae did regrow in the unirradiated stockpile. Analyses of raw and digested sewage sludge from the Albuquerque Waste Water Treatment Plant showed levels of Yersinia enterocolitica (a human pathogen of emerging significance) to be below detection limits.

  8. Estimates of soil erosion using cesium-137 tracer models. (United States)

    Saç, M M; Uğur, A; Yener, G; Ozden, B


    The soil erosion was studied by 137Cs technique in Yatagan basin in Western Turkey, where there exist intensive agricultural activities. This region is subject to serious soil loss problems and yet there is not any erosion data towards soil management and control guidelines. During the soil survey studies, the soil profiles were examined carefully to select the reference points. The soil samples were collected from the slope facets in three different study areas (Kirtas, Peynirli and Kayisalan Hills). Three different models were applied for erosion rate calculations in undisturbed and cultivated sites. The profile distribution model (PDM) was used for undisturbed soils, while proportional model (PM) and simplified mass balance model (SMBM) were used for cultivated soils. The mean annual erosion rates found using PDM in undisturbed soils were 15 t ha(-1) year(-1) at the Peynirli Hill and 27 t ha(-1) year(-1) at the Kirtas Hill. With the PM and SMBM in cultivated soils at Kayişalan, the mean annual erosion rates were obtained to be 65 and 116 t ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. The results of 137Cs technique were compared with the results of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE).

  9. a Biokinetic Model for CESIUM-137 in the Fetus (United States)

    Jones, Karen Lynn


    Previously, there was no method to determine the dose to the embryo, fetus, fetal organs or placenta from radionuclides within the embryo, fetus, or placenta. In the past, the dose to the fetus was assumed to be equivalent to the dose to the uterus. Watson estimated specific absorbed fractions from various maternal organs to the uterine contents which included the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid and Sikov estimated the absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus after assuming 1 uCi of radioactivity was made available to the maternal blood.^{1,2} However, this method did not allow for the calculation of a dose to individual fetal organs or the placenta. The radiation dose to the embryo or fetus from Cs-137 in the fetus and placenta due to a chronic ingestion by the mother was determined. The fraction of Cs-137 in the maternal plasma crossing the placenta to the fetal plasma was estimated. The absorbed dose from Cs-137 in each modelled fetal organ was estimated. Since there has been more research regarding potassium in the human body, and particularly in the pregnant woman, a biokinetic model for potassium was developed first and used as a basis and confirmation of the cesium model. Available pertinent information in physiology, embryology, biokinetics, and radiation dosimetry was utilized. Due to the rapid growth of the fetus and placenta, the pregnancy was divided into four gestational periods. The numerous physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy were considered and an appropriate biokinetic model was developed for each of the gestational periods. The amount of cesium in the placenta, embryo, and fetus was estimated for each period. The dose to the fetus from cesium deposited in the embryo or fetus and in the placenta was determined for each period using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodology. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to account for the variability of the parameters in the biokinetic model based on the experimental data. The uncertainty in the dose estimate was calculated by propagation of errors after determining the uncertainty in the fetal and placenta mass estimates and the effective half-life.

  10. Cesium-137 body burdens in Norwegian Lapps, 1965-1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerlund, E.A.; Berthelsen, T.; Berteig, L.


    Results of measurements of the whole-body contents of /sup 137/Cs during the period 1965-1983 in Lapps from the Kautokeino area in Norway are reported with measurements of /sup 137/Cs in reindeer meat during the period 1966-1983. By using available data on /sup 137/Cs in precipitation for the period 1950-1980, transfer coefficients from /sup 137/Cs in precipitation to reindeer meat have been assessed. A correlation between the /sup 137/Cs content in reindeer meat and the /sup 137/Cs content in Lapp reindeer breeders has been established. The average whole-body committed dose equivalent, H50, to the reindeer breeders from internally deposited /sup 137/Cs from intakes up to year 2000 was assessed to 13 mSv with a peak value of 30 mSv. In comparison, the corresponding committed dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from internally deposited /sup 137/Cs has been estimated to be about 1 mSv. The higher intake of /sup 137/Cs by reindeer breeders is due to the lichen-reindeer-man exposure pathway.

  11. Uptake of cesium-137 by crops from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, H.; Oezer, I.; Celenk, I.; Halitligil, M.B.; Oezmen, A. [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey)


    The Turkish tea crop was contaminated following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Finding ways to dispose of the contaminated tea (Camellia sinensis L.) without damaging the environment was the goal of this research conducted at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA). In this study, an investigation was made of {sup 137}Cs activities of the plants and the ratios of transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants when the contaminated tea was applied to the soil. Experiments were conducted in the field and in pots under greenhouse conditions. The activities of the tea applied in the field ranged from 12 500 to 72 800 Bq/m{sup 2}, whereas this activity was constant at 8000 Bq/pot in the greenhouse experiment. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the plants was between 0.037 and 1.057% for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays indentata Sturt), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and grass (Lolium perenne L.). The ratio of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants increased as the activity {sup 137}Cs in tea applied to soil was increased. The activity in the plants increased due to increased uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Recent developments in the Sandia Laboratories' sewage sludge irradiation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivinski, H.D.; Brandon, J.R.; Morris, M.E.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Ward, R.L.; McCaslin, B.; Smith, G.S.


    Pathogen reduction studies have shown that a 1 Mrad treatment (or less at elevated temperatures) is very effective in eliminating pathogenic bacteria and viable parasite ova in liquid sludges. Heat is effective in reducing levels not only of pathogenic bacteria and Ascaris ova, but viruses as well. Ammonia has been shown to be virucidal to poliovirus and several other enteric viruses. Sludge processing costs are seen to be marginally competitive with heat treatment for liquid sludges and relatively economical for composted or dried sludges. Physical/chemical effects studies have shown that the effects of irradiation of sludges on dewatering properties are not significant when compared to polymers, nor is the combined effect synergistic. Dried, irradiated undigested sludge has been shown to be of significant nutritional value when used as a feed supplement for sheep and cattle, as well as in agronomic uses. No significant harmful effects have been demonstrated in the feeding program thus far. Product enhancement studies are currently under way, including schemes for removing nitrogen from effluent streams for addition as ammonium salts to sludges.

  13. Toxicity of a secondary-treated sewage effluent to marine biota in Bass Strait, Australia: development of action trigger values for a toxicity monitoring program. (United States)

    Adams, Merrin S; Stauber, Jennifer L; Binet, Monique T; Molloy, Robert; Gregory, David


    Melbourne Water's Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) produces a secondary-treated sewage effluent which is chlorinated and discharged into Bass Strait at Boags Rocks, Victoria, Australia. Disappearance of the sensitive brown seaweed Hormosira banksii from rock platforms immediately adjacent to the shore-line discharge was identified in the early 1990s. Subsequently, Melbourne Water and CSIRO undertook an environmental impact assessment and review of land and marine effluent disposal options, which included ambient water quality monitoring, biological monitoring, bioaccumulation studies and toxicity testing of existing effluent to assess the nature and magnitude of the environmental effects. This paper presents data from the toxicity monitoring programs since 2001. Chronic toxicity testing using macroalgal germination and cell division (H. banksii), microalgal growth rate (Nitzschia closterium) and scallop larval development (Chlamys asperrima), confirmed that ammonia was the major cause of effluent toxicity. Results from this toxicity monitoring program were used to develop action trigger values for toxicity for each species, which were then used in a refined monitoring program in 2005-2007. An upgrade of the ETP is in progress to improve nitrification/denitrification in order to reduce ammonia concentrations and the toxicity of the effluent. Toxicity testing with a simulated upgraded effluent confirmed that ammonia concentrations and toxicity were reduced. Estimated "safe" dilutions of effluent, calculated using species sensitivity distributions, decreased from 1:140-300 for existing ETP effluent to 1:20 for nitrified effluent, further confirming that treatment improvements should reduce the impact on marine biota in the vicinity of the discharge.

  14. The quality assurance program at K & S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowey, T.W. [AAPM Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, Nashville, TN (United States)


    K & S operates the largest and one of the most comprehensive Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratories (ADCLs) in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) secondary laboratory system. It offers calibrations covering energies from Grenz-Ray (0.03-mm Al) to cesium-137 and cobalt-60, brachytherapy source and well chamber calibrations for low-activity sources, and, recently, high-dose-rate iridium-192. The present Quality Assurance (QA) program at K & S began with the AAPM Guidelines for Accreditation (Task Group No. 22 and No. 3, 1989) and grew over the past 10 years to include all aspects of providing a private, self-supporting calibration service from a free-standing independent facility. Some aspects of the QA program were prompted by the requirements of the nuclear power industry while other parts were from national consensus standards or the experiences of staff. Redundancy and teamwork are the most important characteristics of this QA program. K & S has participated in a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) measurement quality assurance (MQA) program since 1982, and, in recent years, an ADCL intralaboratory intercomparison was conducted by Task Group 3 of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the AAPM. One measure of the credibility of a QA program is consistent performance on the MQA program and the ADCL intercomparisons over the past 10 years. An equally important measure of the ability of a program to assure quality results is the frequency of reported errors.



    Podobeková, Veronika; Peráčková, Jana


    The article discusses utilization of heat from waste water in sewage. During the year, temperature of water in sewage ranges between 10 °C and 20 °C and the heat from sewage could be used for heating, cooling and hot water preparation in building. The heat is extracted through a transfer surface area of the heat exchanger into the heat pump, which is able to utilize the low–potential energy. Different design and types of the heat exchangers in sewage are dealt with: heat exchangers embedded i...

  16. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).

  17. Revised Methodology for Determining Cesium-137 Content of HN-200 Grout Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHELOR, J.L.


    The purpose of this technical paper is to examine the accuracy of the existing method of determining the Cs-137 content of HN-200 grout containers and compare that accuracy to the accuracy attainable by other methods of measurement. The methods of measurement to be compared include: Contact measurements on a grouted container (existing method); Measurements at 5 feet from the surface of a grouted container; Measurements at 10 feet from a grouted container; Measurements on contact with the surface of an ungrouted container; Measurements at 5 feet from the surface of an ungrouted container; and Measurements at 10 feet from the surface of an ungrouted container. Once the most accurate and useable method is determined, the precepts for an operating procedure will be provided for determining the Cs-137 content of newly generated and future HN-200 grout containers as well as the grouted legacy containers currently stored in B Cell.

  18. Reconstruction of Long-Lived Radionuclide Intakes for Techa Riverside Residents: Cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Peremyslova, L. M.; Shagina, N. B.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.


    Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949–1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were 90Sr and 137Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The 90Sri ntake function was recently improved taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on 90Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of 137Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The 137Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the 90Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio 137Cs/90Sr in river water. Intake via 137Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows’ milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal 137Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000–9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River the 137Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows’ milk was the main source of 137Cs in diet in the upper-Techa.

  19. Concentration of fallout Cesium-137 in soils of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, F.C.A.; Lauria, D.C.; Silva, J.I.R., E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, E.S.A.; Amaral Sobrinho, N.M.B. do [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Perez, D.V. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (CNPS/EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos


    The distribution of fallout {sup 137}Cs in soil samples of the Rio de Janeiro State was investigated. Two-hundred sixty-two samples of soil were analyzed for {sup 137}Cs by gamma spectrometry. A reference data set was built containing thirty-six detected values (14%) and two hundred twenty-six (86%) multiple detection limits of non-detected observations. Distribution pattern of the radionuclide, as well their controlling factors were evaluated based on statistical methods for censored data set (with non-detected observations). The mean of concentration values of thirty-six detected observations was 1.25{sup -1}, while for the censored data sets the mean value was 0.51{sup -1}. The references values for the Rio de Janeiro State were estimated as 1.44{sup -1} (75{sup th}) and 1.78{sup -1} (90{sup th}) (considering the year of 2015). {sup 137}Cs concentrations tend to be higher in soils with high levels of organic matter and clay and locations with high levels of these parameters would provide higher Cs fixation. No influence of the rainfall index and soil pH on the Cs content in soil was observed. The data and information gathered in this study provide valuable information for decision making purposes in case of soil contamination. (author)

  20. Simulation software of radioactive decay, {beta} and {gamma} disintegration of cesium 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, J. M. [Laboratoire Chimie Provence UMR 6264, Aix-Marseille Universite-CNRS (France)


    We present a software dedicated to radioactivity studies, in particular to radioactive decays. The software has been developed to model the C.R.A.B. (Alpha Beta radioactivity counter), a device constructed in the seventies for use as an educational support for radioactive studies in french schools. The evolution of safety rules prevents nowadays the use of such educational devices in schools. At the origin, the software was developed to train students before a tutorial session using a real radioactive source of Cesium 237 and now the software substitutes entirely the experiments. Indeed, the simulation reassures parents and students who are always afraid of radioactivity. Various studies are proposed: study of the exponential nuclear radioactive decay on a network of radioactive nuclei and roll of dices, Poisson and Gauss distributions, influence of the source-detector distance, radiation absorption by aluminum or by lead. This software is currently used either in the last year of high school or at the University for students in their first year. (author)

  1. Contribution of Asian dust to atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs). (United States)

    Fukuyama, Taijiro; Fujiwara, Hideshi


    Both Asian dust (kosa) transported from the East Asian continent and locally suspended dust near monitoring sites contribute to the observed atmospheric deposition of (137)Cs in Japan. To estimate the relative contribution of these dust phenomena to the total (137)Cs deposition, we monitored weekly deposition of mineral particles and (137)Cs in spring. Deposition of (137)Cs from a single Asian dust event was 62.3 mBq m(-2) and accounted for 67% of the total (137)Cs deposition during the entire monitoring period. Furthermore, we found high (137)Cs specific activity in the Asian dust deposition sample. Although local dust events contributed to (137)Cs deposition, their contribution was considerably smaller than that of Asian dust. We conclude that the primary source of atmospheric (137)Cs in Japan is dust transported from the East Asian continent.

  2. The metabolomic approach identifies a biological signature of low-dose chronic exposure to cesium 137. (United States)

    Grison, Stéphane; Martin, Jean-Charles; Grandcolas, Line; Banzet, Nathalie; Blanchardon, Eric; Tourlonias, Elie; Defoort, Catherine; Favé, Gaëlle; Bott, Romain; Dublineau, Isabelle; Gourmelon, Patrick; Souidi, Maâmar


    Reports have described apparent biological effects of (137)Cs (the most persistent dispersed radionuclide) irradiation in people living in Chernobyl-contaminated territory. The sensitive analytical technology described here should now help assess the relation of this contamination to the observed effects. A rat model chronically exposed to (137)Cs through drinking water was developed to identify biomarkers of radiation-induced metabolic disorders, and the biological impact was evaluated by a metabolomic approach that allowed us to detect several hundred metabolites in biofluids and assess their association with disease states. After collection of plasma and urine from contaminated and non-contaminated rats at the end of the 9-months contamination period, analysis with a LC-MS system detected 742 features in urine and 1309 in plasma. Biostatistical discriminant analysis extracted a subset of 26 metabolite signals (2 urinary, 4 plasma non-polar, and 19 plasma polar metabolites) that in combination were able to predict from 68 up to 94% of the contaminated rats, depending on the prediction method used, with a misclassification rate as low as 5.3%. The difference in this metabolic score between the contaminated and non-contaminated rats was highly significant (P = 0.019 after ANOVA cross-validation). In conclusion, our proof-of-principle study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of a metabolomic approach for addressing biological effects of chronic low-dose contamination. We can conclude that a metabolomic signature discriminated (137)Cs-contaminated from control animals in our model. Further validation is nevertheless required together with full annotation of the metabolic indicators.

  3. Adaptation and security validation of an irradiator suitable for use of cesium-137 sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Rogério M.V.


    Full Text Available With the aim of offering a new application for 137Cs sources that were previously used in brachytherapy, we developed an irradiator for TL and OSL dosimeters by adapting a shielded storage container; this irradiator was named SOPHIA. It was assembled from a cubic iron casing, filled with lead, with external dimensions of 25 × 25 × 25 cm3. It has three different drawers with two sample holders suitable for samples or dosimeters with dimensions of up to 2 cm. Dose distribution of the surface of sample holder was obtained with EBT-3 radiochromic film and detectors thermoluminescent CaSO4: Dy. Regarding the security conditions of irradiation, the whole routine procedure for placement and removal of samples was simulated using Monte Carlo code. The equipment presented proper security conditions and the doses received by users during procedures for placement and extraction of the samples are in accordance with international standards.

  4. Characterizing land surface erosion from cesium-137 profiles in lake and reservoir sediments. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinbao; Walling, Desmond E


    Recognition of the threat to the sustainable use of the earth's resources posed by soil erosion and associated off-site sedimentation has generated an increasing need for reliable information on global rates of soil loss. Existing methods of assessing rates of soil loss across large areas possess many limitations and there is a need to explore alternative approaches to characterizing land surface erosion at the regional and global scale. The downcore profiles of 137Cs activity available for numerous lakes and reservoirs located in different areas of the world can be used to provide information on land surface erosion within the upstream catchments. The rate of decline of 137Cs activity toward the surface of the sediment deposited in a lake or reservoir can be used to estimate the rate of surface lowering associated with eroding areas within the upstream catchment, and the concentration of 137Cs in recently deposited sediment provides a basis for estimating the relative importance of surface and channel, gully, and/or subsurface erosion as a source of the deposited sediment. The approach has been tested using 137Cs data from several lakes and reservoirs in southern England and China, spanning a wide range of specific suspended sediment yield. The results obtained are consistent with other independent evidence of erosion rates and sediment sources within the lake and reservoir catchments and confirm the validity of the overall approach. The approach appears to offer valuable potential for characterizing land surface erosion, particularly in terms of its ability to provide information on the rate of surface lowering associated with the eroding areas, rather than an average rate of lowering for the entire catchment surface.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T; Michael Paller, M


    In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T; Michael Paller, M


    In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Butarewicz


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the toxicity of crude and purified sewage from three municipal sewage treatment plants located in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. The bioindicative analysis, based on the use of the Microtox M500 analyzer and Vibrio fischeri bacteria, has shown high or significant toxicity in all the raw wastewater samples, according to Persoone classification. Classification by Sawicki differentiates more the results of acute toxicity tests of crude sewage, because only 66% of samples were toxic. All treated wastewater samples showed no toxicity. The obtained results of the study indicate the efficacy of removing toxic compounds in waste water treatment plants based on the classic activated sludge technology and sequential reactors (SBR and no risk at discharging the treated sewage into the water of receivers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grobelak


    Full Text Available In Poland, sludge management especially in medium and small sewage treatment plants is still a significant problem. According to data from the Central Statistical Office and the report on the implementation of the National Urban Wastewater Treatment Program (in polish KPOŚK land application of sewage sludge remains one of the main methods, although there has been considerable interest known: 'application for other purposes ", where the preparation of composts and fertilizers is included. The use of fertilizer produced from sewage sludge (compost, granules, organic and mineral fertilizers, is regulated by the Act on fertilizers and fertilization, and the relevant implementing rules. For example, they define the test procedure (concerning the quality of fertilizers to enable appropriate permissions to market this type of fertilizers. There is still only several technologies existing on the Polish market dedicated to production of fertilizers in advanced technologies of sewage sludge treatment. Usually the treatment plants are trying to obtain the necessary certificates for generated fertilizers (including composts, or soils substitutes. The advantages of these technologies should be no doubt: the loss of waste status, ability to store the fertilizer and unlimited transportation between areas, sanitization of the product (as a result of the use of calcium or sulfur compounds or temperature should be an alternative for drying technology. While the disadvantages are primarily the investment costs and time consuming certification procedures. However, these solutions enable to maintain the organic matter and phosphorus as well as greater control over possible pollution introduced into the soil.

  9. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.


    Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.

  10. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  11. Nuclear toxicology file: effects of cesium-137 on major physiological functions among the rodent; Dossier toxicologie nucleaire: effets du cesium-137 sur des fonctions physiologiques majeures chez le rongeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueguen, Y.; Lestaevel, Ph.; Jourdain, J.R.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Souidi, M.; Dublineau, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)


    The present study shows to the rat an absence of significant changes of the small intestine by a chronic ingestion of {sup 137}Cs to post-accidental dose during several months. The arsenal of the immunological and not immunological defence developed by the digestive system against toxins seems effective against the internal contagion by {sup 137}Cs. Other experiments have to confirm the absence of effects in the case of contamination by the {sup 137}Cs on the totality of the life expectancy. (N.C.)

  12. Regression model analysis of the decreasing trend of cesium-137 concentration in the atmosphere since the Fukushima accident. (United States)

    Kitayama, Kyo; Ohse, Kenji; Shima, Nagayoshi; Kawatsu, Kencho; Tsukada, Hirofumi


    The decreasing trend of the atmospheric 137Cs concentration in two cities in Fukushima prefecture was analyzed by a regression model to clarify the relation between the parameter of the decrease in the model and the trend and to compare the trend with that after the Chernobyl accident. The 137Cs particle concentration measurements were conducted in urban Fukushima and rural Date sites from September 2012 to June 2015. The 137Cs particle concentrations were separated in two groups: particles of more than 1.1 μm aerodynamic diameters (coarse particles) and particles with aerodynamic diameter lower than 1.1 μm (fine particles). The averages of the measured concentrations were 0.1 mBq m-3 in Fukushima and Date sites. The measured concentrations were applied in the regression model which decomposed them into two components: trend and seasonal variation. The trend concentration included the parameters for the constant and the exponential decrease. The parameter for the constant was slightly different between the Fukushima and Date sites. The parameter for the exponential decrease was similar for all the cases, and much higher than the value of the physical radioactive decay except for the concentration in the fine particles at the Date site. The annual decreasing rates of the 137Cs concentration evaluated by the trend concentration ranged from 44 to 53% y-1 with average and standard deviation of 49 ± 8% y-1 for all the cases in 2013. In the other years, the decreasing rates also varied slightly for all cases. These indicated that the decreasing trend of the 137Cs concentration was nearly unchanged for the location and ground contamination level in the three years after the accident. The 137Cs activity per aerosol particle mass also decreased with the same trend as the 137Cs concentration in the atmosphere. The results indicated that the decreasing trend of the atmospheric 137Cs concentration was related with the reduction of the 137Cs concentration in resuspended particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biosorption behavior and mechanism of cesium-137 on Rhodosporidium fluviale strain UA2 isolated from cesium solution. (United States)

    Lan, Tu; Feng, Yue; Liao, Jiali; Li, Xiaolong; Ding, Congcong; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Jijun; Zeng, Junhui; Yang, Yuanyou; Tang, Jun; Liu, Ning


    In order to identify a more efficient biosorbent for (137)Cs, we have investigated the biosorption behavior and mechanism of (137)Cs on Rhodosporidium fluviale (R. fluviale) strain UA2, one of the dominant species of a fungal group isolated from a stable cesium solution. We observed that the biosorption of (137)Cs on R. fluviale strain UA2 was a fast and pH-dependent process in the solution composed of R. fluviale strain UA2 (5 g/L) and cesium (1 mg/L). While a Langmuir isotherm equation indicated that the biosorption of (137)Cs was a monolayer adsorption, the biosorption behavior implied that R. fluviale strain UA2 adsorbed cesium ions by electrostatic attraction. The TEM analysis revealed that cesium ions were absorbed into the cytoplasm of R. fluviale strain UA2 across the cell membrane, not merely fixed on the cell surface, which implied that a mechanism of metal uptake contributed largely to the cesium biosorption process. Moreover, PIXE and EPBS analyses showed that ion-exchange was another biosorption mechanism for the cell biosorption of (137)Cs, in which the decreased potassium ions were replaced by cesium ions. All the above results implied that the biosorption of (137)Cs on R. fluviale strain UA2 involved a two-step process. The first step is passive biosorption that cesium ions are adsorbed to cells surface by electrostatic attraction; after that, the second step is active biosorption that cesium ions penetrate the cell membrane and accumulate in the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [The intensity of cesium-137 elimination in victims of the Chernobyl catastrophe at the balneology health resort of Truskavets]. (United States)

    Stetsenko, H I; Beĭda, P A; Sov'iak, S Ia; Mits, L S; Pikush, V M; Koval's'kyĭ, S V; Snaĭchuk, B O


    A clinical study was made of rate of elimination of radiocaesium in 137 adult subjects and 4700 children residing in the territory affected by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl accident, undergoing rehabilitative treatment at the Truskavets health resort. A complex of therapeutic measures involving the use of the mineral water "Naftusia" containing few mineral substances, and, in addition, enterosorbents (Silard-P, Enterosgel, Ferrocin), the concentrated product "Vin-Vita" were associated with moderate stimulation of elimination of 137Cs from the organism. Supplementary ferrocin over six days had the best effect in the above series, with the activity of radiocaesium having been decreased by 40% whereas a complex of therapeutic measures over 20 days with no such supplement led to 17% reduction in 137Cs. It is suggested that ferrocin be included into the complex of therapeutic measures designed to eliminate 137Cs from the organism.

  15. 75 FR 37483 - Request for Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on the Protection of Cesium-137 Chloride... (United States)


    ... invited the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the White House Office of Science and... Agreement States. These requirements are based on vulnerability assessments of the various sources and... radioactive sources, including CsCl sources. These measures have reduced the vulnerability of CsCl sources. In...

  16. 76 FR 44378 - Policy Statement of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the Protection of Cesium-137... (United States)


    ... Security of Radioactive Sources (Code of Conduct) (see ) as sources that may pose a significant risk to individuals, society, and the environment... issuance of the Radiation Source Protection and Security Task Force's (Task Force) quadrennial report (Task...

  17. Characterization of sewage sludge generated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and perspectives for agricultural recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Henrique Marques de Abreu


    largest cultivated area in the state, sludge can be used as fertilizer or soil amendment in eight of them. The implementation of a State Sewage Sludge Recycling Program could dispose of this material in a more sustainable way, as well as improve the quality of agricultural soils and reduce costs with chemical fertilizers, bringing positive results for sanitation companies and producers.

  18. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems. (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang


    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  19. VT Data - Onsite Sewage Disposal Soil Ratings (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The NRCS Top20 table was...

  20. {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, Kathleen E. [Canadian Musem of Nature, P.O. Box 3443 Station D, Ottawa, Ont., K1P 6P4 (Canada)]. E-mail; Rau, Greg H. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kvitek, Rikk G. [Earth Systems Science and Policy, California State University Monterey Bay, 100 Campus Center, Seaside, CA 93955 (United States)


    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic.

  1. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini


    Full Text Available Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a secondary role in terms of their degree of diffusion. The agronomical value of domestic sewage sludge is a proved question, which may be hidden by the presence of several pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and pathogens. In this way, the sustainability of sewage sludge agricultural disposal requires a value judgment based on knowledge and evaluation of the level of pollution of both sewage sludge and soil. The article analyzed a typical Italian case study, a water management system of small communities, applying the criteria of evaluation of the last official document of European Union about sewage sludge land application, the “Working Document on Sludge (3rd draft, 2000”. The report brought out good sewage sludge from small wastewater treatment plants and soils quality suggesting a sustainable application.

  2. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge using reactor waste fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M. C.; Hagengruber, R. L.; Zuppero, A. C.


    The hazards to public health associated with the application of municipal sewage sludge to land usage are reviewed to establish the need for disinfection of sludge prior to its distribution as a fertilizer, especially in the production of food and fodder. The use of ionizing radiation in conjunction with mild heating is shown to be an effective disinfection treatment and an economical one when reactor waste fission products are utilized. A program for researching and experimental demonstration of the process on sludges is also outlined.

  3. Research on the sewage treatment in high altitude region based on Lhasa Sewage Treatment Plant (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Li, Shuwen


    Sewage treatment is of great significance to enhance environmental quality, consolidate pollution prevention and ecological protection, and ensure sustainable economic and social development in high altitude region. However, there are numerous difficulties in sewage treatment due to the alpine climate, the relatively low economic development level, and the backward operation and management styles, etc. In this study, the characteristics of influent quality in the sewage treatment plant in Lhasa are investigated by analysing the influent BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN, comparing key indexes recorded from 2014 to 2016 with the hinterland. Results show that the concentration of influent COD, BOD5, NH3-N and SS in the Lhasa sewage treatment plant, in which the sewage belongs to low-concentration urban sewage, is smaller than that in the domestic sewage treatment plants in the mainland. The concentration ratio of BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN is below 0.4 and 4, which indicates that the biodegradation is poor and the carbon sources are in bad demand. The consequences obtained play a vital role in the design, operation and management of sewage treatment plants in high altitude region.

  4. Sewage Sludge Gasification for CHP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCahey, S.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.


    Many routes previously available for sewage sludge disposal within the European Union are now prohibited or constrained by environmental legislation. Meanwhile, sewage sludge production increases annually as more rigorous treatment processes are used. This paper introduces an ongoing project, supported by the European Commission FP5 Programme, which seeks to examine the key technical environmental and economic issues relating to the gasification of sewage sludge for utilisation in CHP applications and ultimately to establish the commercial viability of the process. Sewage sludge treatment data has been collected by country and region and a database compiled. Laboratory and pilot plant scale gasification trials are underway and two small engines and a generator have been installed and commissioned. This paper discusses the concurrent development of ECLIPSE process simulation models for the three selected gasification processes, namely fluidised bed, spouted bed and fixed bed. These models have been validated and are being used to predict the behaviour of appropriately sized commercial scale plant, enabling informed decisions regarding technical suitability. The next step in this project is to determine capital costs and economic performance. Process routes will be identified that offer the most cost effective routes to reducing environmental burdens by using sewage sludge in CHP applications. (author)

  5. Recycling of phosphorus in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Tore; Sogn, Trine A.; Asdal, Aasmund; Saeboe, Arne


    In order to examine the fertilizing effect of P in different sewage sludge a pot experiment with rye grass growing in a moraine and a clay soil with application of different kinds of sewage sludge was carried out. Data on pH, water extractable P and ammonium acetate lactate extractable P in soil, and yield P content showed that Sewage sludge application significantly influenced the soil pH and may thereby indirectly influence the plants' general access to essential nutrients in the soil. Beside of the purification history of the sewage sludge, both the soil content of available P and the P adsorption capability of the soil must be considered when advising sludge application to crop production. Biological purification without chemical additives and Ca treatment of the sludge gave the highest amount of plant available P and also the best utilization of the P applied as sludge. Although low concentrations of water extractable P after addition of sewage sludge the considerable accumulation of total P in the surface soil (50-95% increase) must be considered a potential environmental risk due to possible surface P runoff by erosion. (author)

  6. Effect of treated sewage on growth of marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    verrucosa respectively, showed good growth as compared to the control in 5% sewage-seawater medium. Phaeophyta members did not show satisfactory growth. However, in 5 and 10% sewage-seawater media growth was observed in Padina tetrastromatica, stoechospermum...

  7. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage (United States)


    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  8. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Dhall


    Full Text Available The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand, BOD (biochemical oxygen demand MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids, and TSS (total suspended solids was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

  9. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The use of electron beam to disinfect sewage water is gaining importance. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general, sewage water comprises of heterogeneous organic based chemicals as well as pathogens. EB. (electron beam) ...

  10. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of electron beam to disinfect sewage water is gaining importance. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general, sewage water comprises of heterogeneous organic based chemicals as well as pathogens. EB (electron beam) ...

  11. Enantioselective degradation of Bromocyclene in sewage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bester, K. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). FG Siedlungswasser- und Abfallwirtschaft/Inst. fuer Umweltanalytik


    Bromocyclene has been utilised as insecticide against ectoparasites, however the production in Germany was stopped around 1995. Until that time it was used in pet care as well as in sheep farming. Due to its high bioaccumulation it was detected not only in sewage systems and sewage treatment plants, but also in fresh water fish. Enatioselective determination at that time was used to obtain results on the biodegradation of Bromocyclene in fish. Considering the long time period since the phase out of Bromocyclene it was surprising it was easily identified in sludge samples from 2002.

  12. Mid-Award Progress Report for Department of Energy Office of Science Graduate Student Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The purpose of the work proposed for this study is to investigate the behavior and transport mechanisms for cesium-137 in soils collected from contaminated sites with distinct source release scenarios. More specifically, this study aims to determine with which elements and minerals cesium-137 associates in these various environments to more reliably predict its migration in the subsurface. This will be achieved using a state-of-the-art analysis technique available at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) known as NanoSIMS. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry, or NanoSIMS, is a destructive surface analysis technique in which positive secondary ions are generated from the surface of a sample and then quantified based on their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) using mass spectrometry. The data collected about the secondary ions can then be used to create isotope-specific spatial maps with a resolution of a few hundred nanometers and depth profiles that show the variation of the secondary ion intensity with sputtering time. This should be an ideal technique for locating cesium-137 in a sample, as cesium is an easily ionized element, meaning the yield of secondary cesium (Cs) ions produced should be high and making the identification of cesium-137 straight forward.

  13. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.


    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  14. Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water. (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei


    Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Ife Journal of Science. (2017) vol. 19, no. 1. PHYTOEXTRACTION ... of heavy metals absorbed by the vegetable were insignificant when compared to the amount remaining in the soil. Key Words: Sewage sludge, Green amaranth, ..... International Journal of Geology5(1): 14-20. Bada, B. S., Arowolo, T. A. and Ozoike, P. N., ...

  16. Phosphorous source sewage sludge; Phosphorquelle Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidig, Klaus [DWA, Kaulsdorf (Germany); Mallon, Joachim; Schaaf, Michael [ingitec, Leipzig (Germany)


    Modern forms of the utilization of sewage sludge should consider an energetic and material use. This requirement is realized with the Mephrec procedure. For this, a German large city arranged a feasibility study. The contribution under consideration presents the procedure before being implemented in the practice.

  17. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.


    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching

  18. Burning sewage sludge in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrist, A.


    Full-scale industrial trial burning of sewage sludge in cement kilns in Switzerland is reported. Tests with dried sludge, kiln operation, chimney emissions, clinker and cement are discussed, and possibilities open to Swiss cement industry, and significance within the overall scope of waste disposal are outlined.

  19. Combustion characteristics of biodried sewage sludge. (United States)

    Hao, Zongdi; Yang, Benqin; Jahng, Deokjin


    In this study, effects of biodrying on the characteristics of sewage sludge and the subsequent combustion behavior were investigated. 7-Day of biodrying removed 49.78% of water and 23.17% of VS initially contained in the sewage sludge and increased lower heating value (LHV) by 37.87%. Meanwhile, mass contents of C and N decreased from 36.25% and 6.12% to 32.06% and 4.82%, respectively. Surface of the biodried sewage sludge (BDSS) appeared granulated and multi-porous, which was thought to facilitate air transfer during combustion. According to thermogravimetric (TG) analysis coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) with a heating rate of 10 °C/min from 35 °C to 1000 °C, thermally-dried sewage sludge (TDSS) and BDSS lost 74.39% and 67.04% of the initial mass, respectively. In addition, combustibility index (S) of BDSS (8.67 × 10 -8  min -2  K -3 ) was higher than TDSS. TG-MS analyses also showed that less nitrogenous gases were generated from BDSS than TDSS. It was again showed that the average CO and NO concentrations in exit gas from isothermal combustion of BDSS were lower than those from TDSS, especially at low temperatures (≤800 °C). Based on these results, it was concluded that biodrying of sewage sludge was an energy-efficient water-removal method with less emission of air pollutants when BDSS was combusted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Screw pyrolysis technology for sewage sludge treatment. (United States)

    Tomasi Morgano, Marco; Leibold, Hans; Richter, Frank; Stapf, Dieter; Seifert, Helmut


    Sewage sludge quantities have grown continuously since the introduction of the European Directive (UWWTD 91/271/EEC) relating to the treatment of urban wastewater. In the present, most of the sewage sludge is combusted in single fuels incineration plants or is co-fired in waste incineration or coal power plants. The combustion of sewage sludge is a proven technology. Other treatments, such as fluidized bed gasification, were successfully adopted to produce suitable syngas for power production. Besides, the number of large wastewater treatment plants is relatively small compared to the local rural ones. Moreover, alternative technologies are arising with the main target of nutrients recovery, with a special focus on phosphorus. The aforementioned issues, i.e. the small scale (below 1MW) and the nutrients recovery, suggest that pyrolysis in screw reactors may become an attractive alternative technology for sewage sludge conversion, recovery and recycling. In this work, about 100kg of dried sewage sludge from a plant in Germany were processed at the newly developed STYX Reactor, at KIT. The reactor combines the advantages of screw reactors with the high temperature filtration, in order to produce particle and ash free vapors and condensates, respectively. Experiments were carried out at temperatures between 350°C and 500°C. The yield of the char decreased from 66.7wt.% to 53.0wt.%. The same trend was obtained for the energy yield, while the maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 13.4wt.% was obtained at 500°C. Besides mercury, the metals and the other minerals were completely retained in the char. Nitrogen and sulfur migrated from the solid to the condensate and to the gas, respectively. Based on the energy balance, a new concept for the decentral production of char as well as heat and power in an externally fired micro gas turbine showed a cogeneration efficiency up to about 40%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevention of sewage pollution by stabilization ponds. (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, J S


    Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It is needless to stress that if an economic balance of the many varied services which a stream or a body of water is called upon to render is balanced and taken into consideration one could think of ending up in a wise management programme. In order to eliminate the existing water pollutional levels of the natural water one has to think of preventive and treatment methods. Of the various conventional and non-conventional methods of sewage treatment known today, in India, where the economic problems are complex, the waste stabilization ponds have become popular over the last two decades to let Public Health Engineers use them with confidence as a simple and reliable means of treatment of sewage and certain industrial wastes, at a fraction of the cost of conventional waste treatment plants used hitherto. A waste stabilization pond makes use of natural purification processes involved in an ecosystem through the regulating of such processes. The term "waste stabilization pond" in its simplest form is applied to a body of water, artificial or natural, employed with the intention of retaining sewage or organic waste waters until the wastes are rendered stable and inoffensive for discharge into receiving waters or on land, through physical, chemical and biological processes commonly referred to as "self-purification" and involving the symbiotic action of algae and bacteria under the influence of sunlight and air. Organic matter contained in the waste is stabilized and converted in the pond into more stable matter in the form of algal cells which find their way into the effluent and hence the term


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Chmielowski


    Full Text Available The paper presents the compositional analysis of sewage supplied to and discharged from the wastewater treatment plant in Kolbuszowa Dolna in the Subcarpathian region. The analysis was based on three basic indicators of sewage pollution (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids and two biogenic indicators (total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The composition of sewage was studied in the years 2010–2015. Basic descriptive statistics for the values of the analyzed indicators of sewage pollution were summarized and the obtained results were interpreted. The study showed that the sewage was susceptible to biological treatment. Descriptive statistics for the relationship between the following indicators were presented: CODCr/BOD5, BOD5/Ntot, BOD5/Ptot. The collected results indicate high variability of the composition of sewage entering the studied facility. The coefficients of variation for the values of basic indicators (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids in the raw sewage were similar and amounted to Wn = 0.45 while for total nitrogen it was Wn = 0.33 and for total phosphorus Wn = 0.40. The analysis of the collected material showed that sewage entering the treatment plant was readily biodegradable. On the other hand, the treated sewage was characterized by low values of the analyzed indicators, much below the permissible values provided by the water permit. The raw sewage was divided into five groups depending on the concentration of each pollution indicator. The number of raw sewage samples was determined for each group of the analyzed pollution indicator concentrations.

  3. Cumulative and residual effects of repeated sewage sludge applications: forage productivity and soil quality implications in South Florida, USA. (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Adjei, Martin B; Rechcigl, Jack E


    The cow-calf (Bos taurus) industry in subtropical United States and other parts of the world depends almost totally on grazed pastures. Establishment of complete, uniform stand of bahiagrass (BG) in a short time period is important economically. Failure to obtain a good BG stand early means increased encroachment of weeds and the loss of not only the initial investment costs, but production and its cash value. Forage production often requires significant inputs of lime, N fertilizer, and less frequently of P and K fertilizers. Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids, composted urban plant debris, waste lime, phosphogypsum, and dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used for fertilizing and liming pastures. Perennial grass can be a good choice for repeated applications of sewage sludge. Although sewage sludge supply some essential plant nutrients and provide soil property-enhancing organic matter, land-application programs still generate some concerns because of possible health and environmental risks involved. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the cumulative and residual effects of repeated applications of sewage sludge on (i) bahiagrass (BG, Paspalum notaturn Flügge) production over years with (1997-2000) and without (2001-2002) sewage sludge applications during a 5-yr period, and (ii) on nutrients status of soil that received annual application of sewage sludge from 1997 to 2000 compared with test values of soils in 2002 (with no sewage sludge application) in South Florida. The field experiment was conducted at the University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center, Ona, FL (27 degrees 26'N, 82 degrees 55'W) on a Pomona fine sandy soil. With the exception of the control, BG plots received annual sewage sludge and chemical fertilizers applications to supply 90 or 180 kg total N ha(-1) yr(-1) from 1997 to 2000. Land application of sewage sludge and fertilizer ceased in 2001 season. In early April 1998, 1999, and 2000, plots

  4. Electroremediation of heavy metals in sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Elicker


    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of electrokinetic remediation in the treatment of sludge in a sewage treatment station. The study consisted of, in a first step, the characterization of physicochemical parameters of sludge and, in a second step, the implementation of the electrokinetic remediation technique. The concentrations of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn in sludge samples, before and after the experiment, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. After 40 hours of experiment, considering an electrolyte flow-rate of 1.34 L.h-1 at a voltage of 20 V, the removal rate of all the metals accompanied was over 50%; the highest removal efficiency was for Pb, with 72.49%. The results show the feasibility of using the electrochemical technique of electrokinetic remediation for metal removal from a sludge sewage treatment station.

  5. Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Christensen, Nina; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye


    compounds (XOCs) present in the sludge. Application on land used for agriculture is, therefore, not socially acceptable in some countries, e.g., Sweden. In this study, literature reviews showed that 541 XOCs potentially could be present in sewage sludge due to their presence in e.g. construction materials......, pharmaceuticals, personal care products etc. 192 compounds have been quantified in sewage sludge, which indicate that, although many XOCs have been measured in sludge, there are potentially a vast number of compounds present that have not been analyzed for yet. In a hazard identification of the quantified...... assessing sludge quality. They were compared with European legislations and discussed in regard for pointing out the need for mitigation such as substitution. Furthermore, the potential need for implementation of sludge treatment trains in order to meet the society's needs was addressed....

  6. Phosphorus Recovery from Ashes of Sewage Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornel, Peter; Schaum, Peter


    About 90% of the incoming phosphorus load of waste water is eliminated by waste water treatment and transferred into the sewage sludge. Considerable amounts of sewage sludge can not be used agriculturally but are incinerated. Thus the ash from mono sludge incineration plants contains significant amounts of phosphorus (up to 25% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and could be used as raw material in fertilizer industry. The ash is hygienically harmless and free of organic substances. The ratio of phosphorus to heavy metals is basically the same as in the sewage sludge. The first step in separating phosphorus from heavy metals is to dissolve phosphorus by extraction. The most promising way seems to be the release of phosphorus with acids or bases. With 1 m sulphuric acid it is possible to release phosphorus completely. By use of acid most of the heavy metals dissolve, too. With caustic soda as solvent, only 30-40% of the phosphorus can be dissolved but the eluate is almost free of heavy metals. The amount of phosphorus which can be released with caustic soda, depends on the applied precipitant (Al or Fe salts) for phosphorus elimination at the waste water treatment. (author)

  7. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat


    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  8. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek


    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  9. Sewage pollution: mitigation is key for coral reef stewardship. (United States)

    Wear, Stephanie L; Thurber, Rebecca Vega


    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 reef geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair coral growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewage-based stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on coral reefs. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive coral reefs is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for coral reef-focused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution. © 2015 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Electricity power generation with sewage biogas: a reality; Geracao de eletricidade com biogas de esgoto: uma realidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avellar, Luis Henrique Nobre; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [CENBIO - Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails:;; Alves, Joao Wagner [CETESB- Companhia de Tecnologia e Saneamento Ambiental, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    This paper presents some characteristics and data of technical survey on the sewage material assessment and treatment in Brazil, and also environmental considerations on the anaerobic bio digestion process and energetic aspects related to the electric power generation from the biogas produced in the SABESP sewage treatment stations. This article also reports the goals of the university infra-structure project which is part of the PEREFA - Program for the Energy Rational Using of the university of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. One of the project goals is the elaboration of a demonstrative system allowing electric power generation from the biogas resulting from the municipal wastes treatment produced in university campus.

  11. Performance and Process Analysis of Duckweed-Covered Sewage Lagoons for High Strength Sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Nozaily, F.A.


    Duckweed (L g/fofoaj-covered sewage lagoons (DSLs) are low cost treatment systems, especially In warm climates (or seasons). This study attempts to assess DSL system as a new technology, contributing to the understanding of the different mechanisms in the system. DSLs could either replace complete

  12. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage...

  13. [Assessing environmental and economical benefits of integrated sewage treatment systems]. (United States)

    Li, Jin-rong; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Hang-bin; Pan, Heng-yu; Liu, Qiang


    Sewage treatment, treated water treatment and sludge treatment are three basic units of an integrated sewage treatment system. This work assessed the influence of reusing or discharge of treated water and sludge landfill or compost on the sustainability of an integrated sewage treatment system using emergy analysis and newly proposed emergy indicators. This system's value included its environmental benefits and the products. Environmental benefits were the differences of the environmental service values before and after sewage treatment. Due to unavailability of data of the exchanged substance and energy in the internal system, products' values were attained by newly proposed substitution values. The results showed that the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and sludge landfill had the strongest competitiveness, while the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and earthworm compost was the most sustainable. Moreover, treated water reuse and earthworm compost were helpful for improving the sustainability of the integrated sewage treatment system. The quality of treated water and local conditions should be also considered when implementing the treated water reuse or discharge. The resources efficiency of earthworm compost unit needed to be further improved. Improved emergy indices were more suitable for integrated sewage treatment systems.

  14. Dosimetry report for the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.T.; McFarland, E.W.; Dickson, H.W.


    Gamma dose measurements were made at the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids. Passive plastic, chemical, and thermoluminescent dosimeters were exposed in the facility under conditions designed to simulate typical plant operation. Absolute dose and dose distribution information were obtained in air, water, compost, fruit, and sewage sludge.

  15. Modeling of Evaporation Losses in Sewage Sludge Drying Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling of Evaporation Losses in Sewage Sludge Drying Bed. JI Obianyo, JC Agunwamba. Abstract. A model for evaporation losses in sewage sludge drying bed was derived from first principles. This model was developed based on the reasoning that the rate at which evaporation is taking place is directly proportional to ...

  16. Assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality of the intertidal pool water was evaluated in sewage impacted (Mtoni Kijichi) and non-sewage impacted (Rasi Dege) mangrove forest sites along the coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The Most Probable Number method was used for estimating the total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC) and fecal ...

  17. Fast increases in urban sewage inputs to rivers of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwarno, D.; Löhr, A.; Kroeze, C.; Widianarko, B.


    We present estimates for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sewage inputs to 19 Indonesian rivers for 1970–2050. Future trends are based on the four scenarios of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Our results indicate a rapid increase in N and P pollution from sewage over time. In 1970, N and P

  18. Adapting UASB technology for sewage treatment in Palestine and Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.


    High rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for "sewage" treatment in the temperate climate of Palestine and Jordan. However, local sewage characteristics demand amendments to the conventional UASB reactor design. A solution is found in a parallel operating digester unit that

  19. Anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwalli, T.A.


    The main objective of this thesis was to asses the anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature and the possibilities to optimize the performance of high-rate anaerobic systems treating domestic sewage at low temperature.

    The anaerobic biodegradability of

  20. Knowledge and practice of sewage disposal in Abattoir community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate knowledge regarding sewage disposal was found among 94% of respondents. The flush/pour-flush toilet connected to septic tank, simple pit latrine and open defaecation were the methods found in use among them. The choice of sewage disposal type was statistically significantly related to level of education.

  1. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit


    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...

  2. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge. (United States)

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta


    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  3. Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances in sewage sludge. (United States)

    Milinovic, Jelena; Lacorte, Silvia; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel


    The sorption behaviour of three perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS)) was studied in sewage sludge samples. Sorption isotherms were obtained by varying initial concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS. The maximum values of the sorption solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd,max) varied by almost two orders of magnitude among the target PFASs: 140-281 mL g(-1) for PFOS, 30-54 mL g(-1) for PFOA and 9-18 mL g(-1) for PFBS. Freundlich and linear fittings were appropriate for describing the sorption behaviour of PFASs in the sludge samples, and the derived KF and Kd,linear parameters correlated well. The hydrophobicity of the PFASs was the key parameter that influenced their sorption in sewage sludge. Sorption parameters and log(KOW) were correlated, and for PFOS (the most hydrophobic compound), pH and Ca + Mg status of the sludge controlled the variation in the sorption parameter values. Sorption reversibility was also tested from desorption isotherms, which were also linear. Desorption parameters were systematically higher than the corresponding sorption parameters (up to sixfold higher), thus indicating a significant degree of irreversible sorption, which decreased in the sequence PFOS > PFOA > PFBS.

  4. Microplastics in Sewage Sludge: Effects of Treatment. (United States)

    Mahon, A M; O'Connell, B; Healy, M G; O'Connor, I; Officer, R; Nash, R; Morrison, L


    Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) are receptors for the cumulative loading of microplastics (MPs) derived from industry, landfill, domestic wastewater and stormwater. The partitioning of MPs through the settlement processes of wastewater treatment results in the majority becoming entrained in the sewage sludge. This study characterized MPs in sludge samples from seven WWTPs in Ireland which use anaerobic digestion (AD), thermal drying (TD), or lime stabilization (LS) treatment processes. Abundances ranged from 4196 to 15 385 particles kg-1 (dry weight). Results of a general linear mixed model (GLMM) showed significantly higher abundances of MPs in smaller size classes in the LS samples, suggesting that the treatment process of LS shears MP particles. In contrast, lower abundances of MPs found in the AD samples suggests that this process may reduce MP abundances. Surface morphologies examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed characteristics of melting and blistering of TD MPs and shredding and flaking of LS MPs. This study highlights the potential for sewage sludge treatment processes to affect the risk of MP pollution prior to land spreading and may have implications for legislation governing the application of biosolids to agricultural land.

  5. Sewage sludge as substrate for Tectona grandis L. seedlings production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rodrigues Gomes


    Full Text Available The sewage sludge is a waste from sewage treatment plants, which can be used in formulations of substrates for seedling production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different proportions of sewage sludge, soil and commercial substrate on the growth characteristics of Tectona grandis seedlings in tubes of 120 cm³ volume capacity. The sewage sludge used came from the STP's Cachoeiro de Itapemirim / ES. The seedlings were grown in the forest nursery / CCA / UFES. The statistical design used in the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD with six treatments and five replications. The treatments constituted of sewage sludge : commercial substrate: soil (v: v: v, which corresponded to 20:70:10 (T1, 40:50:10 (T2, 60:30:10 (T3, 80 : 10:10 (T4, 90:0:10 (T5 and the control treatment with 0:90:10 (T6. All variables assessed were significant at the 5% level of probability. The control (T6 showed results statistically equal to or lower than the treatments T3 with 60% of sewage sludge concentration (T3. It follows then that the use of sewage sludge in seedling production is feasible and promising, however, used in a proper proportion.

  6. Bioanalytical characterization of dioxin-like activity in sewage sludge from Beijing, China. (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Yu, Gang; Wang, Bin; Fiedler, Heidelore; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo


    In this preliminary study, the bioanalytical characterization of dioxin-like activity in the sludge of all the nine municipal sewage treatment plants from Beijing city was studied using chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay. The influence of heating period in winter, sewage and sludge treatment processes on the occurrence of dioxin-like activity was also discussed. For the use of clean coal and natural gas, heating did not have significant influence on the occurrence level of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like-PCBs in this study. Anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sewage treatment process did not show a good performance in the reduction of dioxin-like activity which is useful in the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen. Anaerobic digestion of sludge increased the concentration of PCDD/Fs from 30.1 to 68.3pgCALUX-TEQg(-1)d.w., and total dioxin-like activity from 32.2 to 69.3pgCALUX-TEQg(-1)d.w. This cost-effective and quick test is useful for large developing countries like China in monitoring programs to obtain baseline data about the scale of contamination caused by dioxin-like activity. It is also a useful component in the monitoring capacity building of dioxins.

  7. Virus isolations from sewage and from a stream receiving effluents of sewage treatment plants* (United States)

    Grinstein, Saul; Melnick, Joseph L.; Wallis, Craig


    In order to detect viruses in sewage or streams, it is first necessary to concentrate the virus present in the fluid sample. Available methods are not readily manageable for concentrating virus from large volumes of fluid, and have not always yielded high recovery rates. In the study described in this paper, a method for concentration of viruses by adsorption on insoluble cross-linked maleic anhydride polyelectrolytes has been utilized to survey the viral flora of sewage and of a stream receiving sewage effluents, in a residential area of Houston, Texas. On a single day the virus flow at different points along the stream varied from 304 000 to 6 014 000 PFU/min. From 84 samples each of 1 US gal, 14 520 isolates were obtained, chiefly echovirus type 7 and polioviruses of all 3 types, some of them with characteristics of virulent wild strains. With virus isolation rates as high as those achieved, it is now possible to monitor virus in natural waters more effectively. PMID:4315865

  8. Distributed architecture and distributed processing mode in urban sewage treatment (United States)

    Zhou, Ruipeng; Yang, Yuanming


    Decentralized rural sewage treatment facility over the broad area, a larger operation and management difficult, based on the analysis of rural sewage treatment model based on the response to these challenges, we describe the principle, structure and function in networking technology and network communications technology as the core of distributed remote monitoring system, through the application of case analysis to explore remote monitoring system features in a decentralized rural sewage treatment facilities in the daily operation and management. Practice shows that the remote monitoring system to provide technical support for the long-term operation and effective supervision of the facilities, and reduced operating, maintenance and supervision costs for development.

  9. Radiation Fusion Technology for Sewage Sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. J.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, S. H.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, O. M.; Kim, T. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)


    Environmental regulation for effluent of sewage and wastewater treatment plant is going to be reinforced in terms of ecology toxicity and number of E.coli from 2011. Besides, it has been known that UV technology is not enough to be a sterilization tool due to regrowth of E.coli even after treatment with UV. Therefore it needs a novel technology for both restriction of E.coli regrowth and treatment of toxic materials in order to meet the environmental regulation being enforced. Electron beam has unique capabilities on destruction of chemicals and sterilization of microbial. In this study, field study on destruction of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors, reduction ecological toxicity and E.Coli regrowth was carried out using by mobile electron beam accelerator. Experimental results showed that irradiation on effluent could effectively reduce not only ecology toxicity but regrowth of E.coli by destruction of chemicals and complete sterilization

  10. Supercritical water pyrolysis of sewage sludge. (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Du, Guiyue; Li, Jian; Fang, Yuanhao; Hou, Li'an; Chen, Guanyi; Ma, Degang


    Municipal sewage sludge (SS) from wastewater treatment plant containing high water content (>85wt.%), lead to the difficulty of co-combustion with MSW or coal due to the high cost of drying. This study explores an alternative method by supercritical water (SCW) pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) in a high pressure reaction vessel. The effects of temperature and moisture content of SS on yield and composition of the products (bio-oil, bio char and non-condensable gas) were studied. A temperature of 385°C and moisture content of 85wt.% were found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum bio-oil production of 37.23wt.%, with a higher heating value of 31.08MJ/kg. In the optimum condition, the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbon and phenols were about 29.23wt.% and 12.51wt.%, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of bio-char were analyzed by using XRF and BET. Results of GC analyses of NCG showed that it has the maximum HHV of 13.39MJ/m(3) at 445°C and moisture content of 85wt.%. The reaction path from SS to bio-oil through SCW pyrolysis was given. Moreover, carbon balance was calculated for the optimal condition, and finding out that 64.27wt.% of the carbon content was transferred from SS to bio-oil. Finally, this work demonstrates that the SCW pyrolysis is a promising disposal method for SS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł; Boruszko, Dariusz


    The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  12. phytoremediation of sewage sludge in soils contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    plant-associated microbes and plants-induced changes in the contaminated environment, transport of contaminants into the plant system is highly dominated by ... plant carbon compounds. (exudates, mucilage, dead cells). Activation, Detoxification,. Mineralization. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE IN SOILS ...

  13. Mechanistic interpretation of the varying selectivity of Cesium-137 and potassium uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under field conditions near Chernobyl. (United States)

    Prorok, V V; Dacenko, O I; Bulavin, L A; Poperenko, L V; White, P J


    The selectivity of cation uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) growing in the field near Chernobyl varies during the growth season. It is hypothesised that this is a consequence of variation in (137)Cs (Csss) and potassium (Kss) concentrations in the soil solution or the amount of dissolved potassium available to the plants. In the experiments reported here, it was observed that (1) Csss and Kss were positively correlated, (2) the selectivity for uptake of (137)Cs versus potassium (r) increased exponentially with decreasing Csss and Kss, and (3) the (137)Cs concentration, but not the potassium concentration, in plant material, increased abruptly upon the simultaneous reduction of Kss and Csss below about 10 μg ml(-1) and 6.7 Bq l(-1), respectively. It is thought that potassium enters root cells from the soil solution through constitutively-expressed, inward rectifying K(+) channels (KIRC) and K(+)/H(+)-symporters, whose abundance increases when plants become potassium-deficient. Cesium is thought to enter root cells through non-specific cation channels (NSCC) and, in plants lacking sufficient potassium, through K(+)/H(+)-symporters. It is argued that the increase in r, together with the abrupt increase (137)Cs concentration in plant tissues, when Kss and Csss decrease simultaneously cannot be attributed to competition between Cs(+) and K(+) for transport though KIRC, NSCC or K(+)/H(+)-symporters and that the most plausible explanation of these phenomena is an increase in the abundance of K(+)/H(+)-symporters in plants exhibiting incipient potassium deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Depth distributions of uranium-236 and cesium-137 in the Japan/East Sea; toward the potential use as a new oceanic circulation tracer (United States)

    Sakaguchi, A.; Kadokura, A.; Steier, P.; Takahashi, Y.; Shizuma, K.; Yamamoto, M.


    137Cs (T1/2=30.2 y) has been spread all over the world as a fission product of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s. This nuclide has been used as a powerful tool for oceanography due to the well-defined origin and conservative behaviour in water . However, the number of atoms has decayed already to one thirds compared with its initial levels, and it will become more difficult to measure. In this situation, we focus on 236U (T1/2=2.342-107 y) as a candidate for a new isotopic tracer for oceanography. The detection of 236U in the environment has become possible only recently, by the development of measuring techniques with high sensitivity based on AMS. Our group showed that global fallout from bomb tests contains 236U, which might be produced as nuclear reactions of 235U(n,γ) and/or 238U(n,3n). So 236U has been therefore globally distributed in the surface environment. Thus, 236U has a similar potential as a tracer for environmental dynamics as 137Cs, especially for oceanography. In this study, a comprehensive attempt was made to measure the concentration of 236U in marine samples such as water, suspended solid and bottom sediments to clarify the environmental behaviour of this isotope. Furthermore, the discussion of the circulation of deep and bottom water in "Miniature Ocean", the Japan Sea, has been attempted. Bottom sediments (4 sites) and seawater samples (7 sites) were collected from the Japan Sea. The sediment core was cut into 1 cm segments from the surface to 5 cm in depth within a few hours after the sampling. About 20 L of seawater samples were collected from some depths in each site, and immediately after the sampling, the water was filtered with 0.45 μm pore-size membrane-filters. After the appropriate pre-treatment for each sample, uranium isotope and 137Cs were measured with AMS and Ge-detector, respectively. 236U was successfully detected for all seawater samples, and 236U/238U atom ratios in seawater were in the range of (0.19-1.75)-10-9. The dissolved 236U concentration showed a subsurface maximum and decreased steeply with depth. The minimum value was found at a depth of 2500 m and bottom (about 3000 m in depth) in the northern and the southern areas, respectively. These profiles are markedly different from that of natural 238U which is nearly constant over the depth, suggesting that 236U has not yet reached steady state. For the SS sample, 236U could not be detected in significant levels. The total 236U inventory of the water column was estimated at 1012-1013 atom/m2. This value is nearly the same as the global fallout level (17.8-1012 atom/m2). 236U was also found in the bottom sediments, and the inventory was about 1/40 compared with that in water column. All above characters are comparable with 137Cs which is anthropogenic conservative nuclide in ocean. Actually, the diffusion coefficients for both nuclides show the nearly same value. The detail discussion including the circulation of deep-water in the Japan Sea will be given in our presentation.

  15. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination;Cesium 137: proprietes et effets biologiques apres contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of {sup 137}Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, {sup 137}Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of {sup 137}Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, {sup 137}Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested {sup 137}Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested {sup 137}Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that {sup 137}Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  16. Standard test method for determining the content of cesium-137 in irradiated nuclear fuels by high-resolution gamma-ray spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the number of atoms of 137Cs in aqueous solutions of irradiated uranium and plutonium nuclear fuel. When combined with a method for determining the initial number of fissile atoms in the fuel, the results of this analysis allows atom percent fission (burn-up) to be calculated (1). The determination of atom percent fission, uranium and plutonium concentrations, and isotopic abundances are covered in Test Methods E 267 and E 321. 1.2 137Cs is not suitable as a fission monitor for samples that may have lost cesium during reactor operation. For example, a large temperature gradient enhances 137Cs migration from the fuel region to cooler regions such as the radial fuel-clad gap, or, to a lesser extent, towards the axial fuel end. 1.3 A nonuniform 137Cs distribution should alert the analyst to the potential loss of the fission product nuclide. The 137Cs distribution may be ascertained by an axial gamma-ray scan of the fuel element to be assayed. In a mixed-oxide fu...

  17. The history of Cesium-137 liquid emissions by Mühleberg Nuclear Power Plant (Switzerland) is recorded in Lake Biel sediments (United States)

    Girardclos, Stéphanie; Faessler, Jérôme; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Zehringer, Markus


    Lake sediments record changes happening in their upstream river catchment and regional environment which includes traces of artificial radionuclides emissions deriving from human activities. 137Cs emissions started worldwide in the early 1950's and peaked in 1963-64 due to nuclear bomb tests in the high atmosphere. A second 137Cs activity peak, due to the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe is recorded in sediment archives from central Europe. These two events (1963/64 and 1986) serve routinely as time markers for recent lake records. Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are often constructed along river course for cooling purposes. Since 1972, Mühleberg NPP (central Switzerland) lies 18 km upstream Lake Biel and releases radioactive liquid emissions into the Aare river which adds to the diffuse - above mentioned - radioactive pollution, as revealed by Albrecht et al. (1995; 1998) and recently confirmed by Thevenon et al. (2013) from Lake Biel sediments. The water of Lake Biel is used as drinking water for ca. 60'000 inhabitants and its outflowing water is further used by downstream cities lying on the Aare-Rhine course such as Basel (200'000 inhab.) In this study, the 137Cs activity curve of a 90-cm-long sediment core (BIE10-8), retrieved in April 2010 from the central Lake Biel basin at ca. 50 m depth, and measured by gamma ray spectrometry using high resolution germanium detectors, confirms previous work and reveals a new peak for the year 1998-2000, as observed by Thevenon et al. (2013). This peak is most certainly due to Mühleberg NPP as shown by the good correlation with declared 137Cs liquid emissions indicating a significant increase in 1998-99. Decay corrected activity data, converted into 137Cs fluxes, point to water pollution by Mühleberg NPP in 1975-1985 as being similar to those linked to the catastrophic events in 1963-64 and 1986 (about 75%). As former study showed that Lake Biel sediments scavenge only a portion of the total radionuclide in water, i.e. 30-55% for 60Co (Albrecht et al. 1999), our results indicate that the estimated quantities of 137Cs input infered from the sediment record correspond well to historic declared liquid emissions. Overall, this study shows how lake or reservoir sediments can be used to trace back and verify the history of past liquid emissions from nuclear power plants. In the context of the Aare and Rhine course, were radionuclide liquid emissions from four NPP add-up in the same river system until the city of Basel and also further add-up downstream in Germany, it is necessary to bring new knowledge on this subject to quantify the 35-years-long exposure through river water for drinking water and irrigation to low but repeated radioactivity. This work was financed by SNF projects on Lake Biel nr. 121666 and 146889 and gamma ray analysis by the State Laboratory of Basel-City. REFERENCES Albrecht, A., Groudsmit, G. & Zeh M. 1999: Importance of lacustrine physical factors for the distribution of anthropogenic 60Co in Lake Biel. Limnol. Oceanogr., 44, 196-206. Albrecht ,A., Reichert, P., Beer, J. & Lück A. 1995: Evaluation of the importance of reservoir sediments as sinks for reactor-derived radionuclides in riverine systems. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 28, 239-269. Albrecht, A., Reiser, R., Lück, A., Stoll, J.-M.A. & Giger W. 1998. Radiocesium dating of sediments from lakes and reservoirs of different hydrological regimes. Environmental Science & Technology, 1882-1887. Thevenon, F., Wirth, S.B., Fujak, M., Poté, J. & Girardclos S. 2013. Human impact on the transport of terrigenous and anthropogenic elements to peri-alpine lakes (Switzerland) over the last decades. Aquatic Sciences, 75, 413-424.

  18. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celary, Piotr, E-mail:; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta, E-mail:


    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  19. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viader, Raimon Parés; Erland Jensen, Pernille; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al preci...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end...

  20. [National survey of urban sewage reuse in China]. (United States)

    Guo, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xue-Chao; Zhou, Zhen-Min


    On the basis of the national survey of the urban sewage treatment, the survey of 2007 national urban sewage reuse was conducted under the charge of the Ministry of Water Resources. The survey results indicated that the amount of urban sewage reuse was 17.9 x 10(8) m3 x a(-1), mainly used for industry, landscape, agriculture forestry, animal husbandry, urban non-potable water, and groundwater recharge. The urban sewage reuse rate was 5.23%. There were 127 sewage reclaiming plants in China, of which the production capacity of reclaimed water reached 347.75 x 10(4) m3 x d(-1), which produced 5.74 x 10(8) m3 reclaimed water in 2007. The total investment of sewage reclaiming plants was 56.44 x 10(8) Yuan, in which the central government investment, local fiscal investment and other investments accounted for 16%, 26% and 58%, respectively. The reclaimed water price varied greatly with the purposes or areas.

  1. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Hazardous Chemicals (United States)


    imperative that the community address the range of values, and have agreement, before a disaster strikes. Pre-event clearance level concurrence is...on the cleanup of specific sites: those containing only cesium-137 (Goiania) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides ( Chernobyl ...targets and consider initiatives to enhance the quality of life of the residents of the contaminated areas. Recovery experience from the Chernobyl

  2. The effect of purified sewage discharge from a sewage treatment plant on the physicochemical state of water in the receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanownik Włodzimierz


    Full Text Available The paper presents changes in the contents of physicochemical indices of the Sudół stream water caused by a discharge of purified municipal sewage from a small mechanical-biological treatment plant with throughput of 300 m3·d−1 and a population equivalent (p.e. – 1,250 people. The discharge of purified sewage caused a worsening of the stream water quality. Most of the studied indices values increased in water below the treatment plant. Almost a 100-fold increase in ammonium nitrogen, 17-fold increase in phosphate concentrations and 12-fold raise in BOD5 concentrations were registered. Due to high values of these indices, the water physicochemical state was below good. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable effect of the purified sewage discharge on the stream water physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in 10 indices values (BOD5, COD-Mn, EC, TDS, Cl−, Na+, K+, PO43−, N-NH4+ and N-NO2 as well as significant decline in the degree of water saturation with oxygen were noted below the sewage treatment plant. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences between the water indices values were registered between the measurement points localised 150 and 1,000 m below the purified sewage discharge. It evidences a slow process of the stream water self-purification caused by an excessive loading with pollutants originating from the purified sewage discharge.

  3. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Mark R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  4. On the rheological characteristics of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz


    Full Text Available The work is focused on characterization of rheological behavior of sewage sludges sampled at different stages of waste water treatment. The main attention was focused on dynamic viscosity dependence on temperature, and shear rate. The sludge samples were examined under temperature ranging from 1 °C to 25 °C and under shear rate ranging from 0.34 s−1 to 68 s−1. Rotary digital viscometer (concentric cylinders geometry was used to perform the reological measurements. The solids content of the sludge samples ranged from 0.43 % to 21.45 % (A and C samples, respectively and ash free dry mass from 56.21 % to 67.80 % (A and B samples, respectively. The tested materials were found to be of non–Newtoninan nature and temperature dependent. Measured data were successfully cha­ra­cte­ri­zed by several mathematical models (Arrhenius, Bingham Plastic, Casson Law, Exponential, Gaussian, and IPC Paste in MATLAB® software with satisfying correlations between experimental and computed results. The best match (R2 = 0.999 was received with use of Gaussian model, in both cases, shear rate and temperature dependence. The results are quite useful e.g. for the purpose of technological equipment design.

  5. Enhanced compositing of radiation disinfected sewage sludge (United States)

    Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.

    Studies on isothermal composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge and liquid chromatography of water extracts of the products were carried out. The optimum temperature and pH were around 50 °C and 7-8, respectively. The repeated use of products as seeds increased the rate of CO 2 evolution. The rate reached a maximum within 10 hours and decreased rapidly, and the CO 2 evolution ceased after about 3 days. The conversion of organic carbon to carbon dioxide attained to about 40% for the repeated use of products as seeds at the optimum conditions. As long as seeds in available were used, no remarkable difference was found in the composting of unirradiated and irradiated sludges. The composting process using radiation, however, can be carried out at the optimum conditions and is expected to shorten the composting period, because it is not necessary to keep fermentation temperature higher to reduce pathogen in sludge. Liquid chromatographic studies of the products showed that low molecular components decreased and higher molecular ones increased with fermentation. An index expressing the degree of reduction of easily decomposable organics was presented. The index also showed that the optimum temperature for fermentation was 50 °C, and that the easily decomposable organics disappeared above 30% of the conversion of organic carbon.

  6. Co-digestion of pig slaughterhouse waste with sewage sludge. (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kubacki, Przemysław


    Slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) are potentially very attractive substrates for biogas production. However, mono-digestion of these wastes creates great technological problems associated with the inhibitory effects of ammonia and fatty acids on methanogens as well as with the foaming in the digesters. In the following study, the co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes with sewage sludge (SS) was undertaken. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were performed at 35°C with municipal sewage sludge and pig SHW composed of meat tissue, intestines, bristles and post-flotation sludge. In batch assays, meat tissue and intestinal wastes gave the highest methane productions of 976 and 826 dm(3)/kg VS, respectively, whereas the methane yield from the sludge was only 370 dm(3)/kg VS. The co-digestion of sewage sludge with 50% SHW (weight basis) provided the methane yield exceeding 600 dm(3)/kg VS, which was more than twice as high as the methane production from sewage sludge alone. However, when the loading rate exceeded 4 kg VS/m(3) d, a slight inhibition of methanogenesis was observed, without affecting the digester stability. The experiments showed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge with large amount of slaughterhouse wastes is feasible, and the enhanced methane production does not affect the digester stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors impacting on pharmaceutical leaching following sewage application to land. (United States)

    Gielen, Gerty J H P; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Clinton, Peter W; Greenfield, Laurie G


    Sewage effluent application to land is a treatment technology that requires appropriate consideration of various design factors. Soil type, level of sewage pre-treatment and irrigation rate were assessed for their influence on the success of soil treatment in removing pharmaceuticals remaining after conventional sewage treatment. A large scale experimental site was built to assess treatment performance in a realistic environment. Of the factors investigated, soil type had the biggest impact on treatment performance. In particular, carbamazepine was very efficiently removed (>99%) when irrigated onto a volcanic sandy loam soil. This was in contrast to irrigation onto a sandy soil where no carbamazepine removal occurred after irrigation. Differences were likely caused by the presence of allophane in the volcanic soil which is able to accumulate a high level of organic matter. Carbamazepine apparent adsorption distribution coefficients (K(d)) for both soils when irrigated with treated sewage effluent were determined as 25 L kg(-1) for the volcanic soil and 0.08 L kg(-1) for the sandy soil. Overall, a volcanic soil was reasonably efficient in removing carbamazepine while soil type was not a major factor for caffeine removal. Removal of caffeine, however, was more efficient when a partially treated rather than fully treated effluent was applied. Based on the investigated pharmaceuticals and given an appropriate design, effluent irrigation onto land, in conjunction with conventional sewage treatment may be considered a beneficial treatment for pharmaceutical removal.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Latosińska


    Full Text Available The study shows the results of zeolitization of municipal sewage sludge ash with the indirect fusion method followed by a hydrothermal method. The zeolitization of sewage sludge ash was conducted at the melting temperature of 550°C and the melting time of 60 minutes, crystallization temperatures of 60°C and 90°C, crystallization time of 6 hours and the SSA:NaOH ratio of 1:1.8; 1:1.4. The research of modified sewage sludge ashes included the observation of changes of ash particles surface and the identification of crystalized phases. The zeolitization of sewage sludge ash at the ratio of SSA:NaOH 1.0:1.4 did not cause the formation of zeolite phases. On the other hand, the zeolitization at the ratio of SSA:NaOH 1.0:1.8 resulted in the formation of desired zeolite phases such as zeolite Y (faujasite and hydroxysodalite. The presented method of sewage sludge ash zeolitization allows to obtain highly usable material. Synthesized zeolites may be used as adsorbents and ion exchangers. They can be potentially used to remove heavy metals as well as ammonia from water and wastewater.

  9. The Device Design of a Rural Domestic Sewage Treatment Performance (United States)

    Liu, Zuhan; Wang, Lili; Deng, Chengzhi


    A kind of device for removing pollutant from rural domestic sewage isstudied in this paper, which belongs to the field of sewage treatment technology. The device include anaerobic pool, aerobiotic pool and aerating apparatus. Specifically, the aerobiotic pool is a sealed rectangular body with a rectangular groove on its top cover. The fixed wall is established on one side of the rectangular groove, and the wall is located in the middle of the top cover. The anaerobic pool is opposite to the fixed wall. And there is a aerating apparatusbetween the anaerobic pool and fixed wall, and the apparatus is situated right above the rectangular groove. The design is simple in structure and low in manufacturing cost. The biochemical ratio to the sewage could be improved through the anaerobic pool, and then the sewage is sufficiently aerated by means of natural ventilation and height of water. Theaerated sewage enter into aerobiotic pool, and then the organic matter is degraded into Carbon Dioxide and water under the action of aerobic bacteria, of which function is that the ammonia nitrogen is oxidized into nitrate and nitrite. The water that is far from the aerating apparatus inside of the aerobiotic pool enters into oxygen-deficient environment, and the nitrate is converted into nitrogen. After the effluent is checked qualified, the water is discharged into the drainage ditch or utilized for irrigation.

  10. Effect of Antarctic solar radiation on sewage bacteria viability. (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A


    The majority of coastal Antarctic research stations discard untreated sewage waste into the near-shore marine environment. However, Antarctic solar conditions are unique, with ozone depletion increasing the proportion of potentially damaging ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the marine environment. This study assessed the influence of Antarctic solar radiation on the viability of Escherichia coli and sewage microorganisms at Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Cell viability decreased with increased exposure time and with exposure to shorter wavelengths of solar radiation. Cell survival also declined with decreasing cloud cover, solar zenith angle and ozone column depth. However, particulates in sewage increased the persistence of viable bacteria. Ultraviolet radiation doses over Rothera Point were highest during the austral summer. During this time, solar radiation may act to partially reduce the number of viable sewage-derived microorganisms in the surface seawater around Antarctic outfalls. Nevertheless, this effect is not reliable and every effort should be made to fully treat sewage before release into the Antarctic marine environment.

  11. Effects of discharges from the Starkville Sewage Treatment Plant on the Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted this study in response to concerns that releases of raw sewage from the Starkville sewage treatment plant were adversely...

  12. Recycling of sewage in Swedish municipalities - Policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, H.


    The construction of sewage treatment plants, which increased dramatically during the sixties in Sweden, was based on the idea that sewage is a waste, despite the fact that it contains considerable amounts of nourishment. Environmental research today, focuses more and more on recycling and on the potential resource inherent in sewage. This chapter deals with how to manage a change from problem elimination to recycling of resources, and discuss such from an institutional perspective. A shift towards recycling implies a shift of techniques, decision-makers and process strategies. Implementation of recycling will need strategic principles, and thereby results from research focusing common property resource management can be used in the policy process 32 refs, 5 figs

  13. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scheutz, Charlotte


    In this article, 35 published studies on life cycle assessment (LCA) of sewage sludge were reviewed for their methodological and technological assumptions. Overall, LCA has been providing a flexible framework to quantify environmental impacts of wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and disposal...... by the methodological development of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and the advancement of research in quantifying environmental emissions associated with wastewater and sewage sludge treatment processes. Thus, large discrepancies were found in the selection of the environmental emissions to be included...... processes for multiple scales, ranging from process selection to policy evaluation. The results of LCA are, in principle, unique to the goal and scope of each study, reflecting its local conditions and comparison between different LCAs is not intended. Furthermore, the assessments are limited...

  14. Solubilization and Elimination of Coliforms from Sewage Sludge by Sonication. (United States)

    Pathki, Snehal; Kumar, M Suresh; Vaidya, A N


    Disposal of sewage secondary excess sludge is a great problem globally, and stabilization of this excess sludge by anaerobic digestion is hampered due to its constituents resistant to biodegradation. Sludge pre-treatment enhances the performance of anaerobic digestion. In this study, sewage sludge was collected from a full-scale sewage treatment plant and characterized. Ultrasonic method was used for the excess sludge disintegration of microbial flocks and cells, so as to breakdown the intracellular or extracellular polymeric materials to enhance the anaerobic digestion. The studies related to the effect of sonication on release of nutrients, increase in soluble COD and reduction in pathogenic coliforms as well as heterotrophic microorganisms and the optimization of sonication time were carried out. The results showed that the twenty minutes sonication (25 kHz) increased the soluble COD content, nutrient release and complete disappearance of fecal as well as total coliforms in the treated sludge. The results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  15. Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction (United States)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro


    Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  16. Modified sewage sludge as temporary landfill cover material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He


    Full Text Available In order to study the feasibility of modified sewage sludge as landfill cover material and its performance in a complex landfill environment, strength and hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted. The permeability requirements for daily and interim covers were analyzed first. Based on saturated-unsaturated seepage calculations, it is suggested that approximately 1.0 × 10−4 cm/s and 1.0 × 10−5 cm/s are the appropriate values for the hydraulic conductivities of daily and interim covers, respectively. The strength and permeability requirements of the mixtures, when used as an interim cover, can be met at a sludge:lime:cement:silt:tire-derived aggregate (TDA weight ratio of 100:15:5:70:15. Results also demonstrate that the solid content ratio of modified sewage sludge, which should be greater than 60% when modified sewage sludge is used as a temporary cover material, is crucial to both strength and hydraulic performance. In addition, as the duration of soaking of modified sewage sludge in synthetic leachate increases, the unconfined compressive strength increases, and the hydraulic conductivity decreases slightly or fluctuates between 1.0 × 10−5 cm/s and 1.0 × 10−6 cm/s, still meeting the requirements for an interim cover. The reduction in hydraulic conductivity of modified sewage sludge under the effect of synthetic leachate, as well as the long-term and environmental performance of the modified sewage sludge, should be examined in future studies.

  17. Land application of sewage sludge: A soil columns study | Gascó ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land application of sewage sludge: A soil columns study. G Gascó, MC Lobo, F Guerrero. Abstract. A column study was conducted to assess the potential Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb movement through a reconstructed soil profile to which surface composted sewage sludge was applied. Sewage sludge was mixed into the top ...

  18. 33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Pollution and Sewage § 151.79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel...

  19. Vivianite as an important iron phosphate precipitate in sewage treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.; Mandalidis, A.; Dugulan, A.I.; Goubitz, K.; Korving, L; Temmink, H; Witkamp, G.J.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.


    Iron is an important element for modern sewage treatment, inter alia to remove phosphorus from sewage. However, phosphorus recovery from iron phosphorus containing sewage sludge, without incineration, is not yet economical. We believe, increasing the knowledge about iron-phosphorus speciation in

  20. Efficient sewage pre-concentration with combined coagulation microfiltration for organic matter recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Zhengyu; Gong, Hui; Temmink, Hardy; Nie, Haifeng; Wu, Jing; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun


    This study proposed an efficient way of direct sewage pre-concentration by a combined coagulation microfiltration (CCM) system and an optimal operational strategy of aeration. Compared to two typical technologies for sewage pre-concentration, i.e. direct sewage microfiltration (DSM) and




  2. Study of heavy metal in sewage sludge and in Chinese cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was performed to investigate the heavy metal content and availability for crops in sewage sludge and its accumulation in Chinese cabbage grown in sewage sludge amended soil. We determined the total and chemical fraction of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Mn in sewage sludge and the total content of ...

  3. Biological Composition of Sewage Sludge in the Aspect of Threats to the Natural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bień January


    Full Text Available One of the prerequisites for sustainable development is integrated waste management, including sewage sludge. Besides its good fertilization properties, sewage sludge, which is an inevitable by-product of sewage treatment, accumulates toxic chemical substances and dangerous pathogenic and toxicogenic organisms. Uncontrolled introduction of sewage sludge into soil might pose a serious threat to food chain and natural soil microflora. This in effect might disturb the ecological balance in a particular ecosystem. This study presents author’s own investigations of the sanitary conditions of sewage sludge and the conditions after the processes of aerobic and anaerobic stabilization. The investigated sewage sludge originated from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The sewage sludge samples were transferred onto proliferation and diagnostic media. The results of the analysis obtained in this study confirmed that sewage sludge is a material which is rich in microorganisms, including pathogenic bacterial species such as: Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Mycological tests demonstrated that sewage sludge is a material which is conducive to proliferation of yeast-like and mould-like fungi, among which both pathogenic and toxinogenic species can be present. Quantitative analysis of the investigated sewage sludge demonstrated that the processes of stabilization reduce the content of microorganisms but they do not guarantee product safety in sanitary terms. A huge variability and variety of biological composition points to the need for further research in the field of sanitary characteristics of sewage sludge and survival rate in microorganisms from different types of sewage sludge.

  4. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on fate of nitrates in soil, streambed sediment, and water quality (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Lull, Kenneth J.; Gaggiani, Neville G.


    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of sewage-sludge disposal at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area, near Denver, Colorado, on ground- and surface-water quality, to determine the fate of nitrates from sludge leachate, and to determine the source areas of leachate and the potential for additional leaching from the disposal area.Sewage-sludge disposal began in 1969. Two methods were used to apply the sludge: burial and plowing. Also, the sludge was applied both in liquid and cake forms. Data in this report represent the chemical composition of soil and streambed sediment from seven soil- and four streambed-sampling sites in 1986, chemical and bacterial composition of ground water from 28 wells from 1981 to 1987, and surface-water runoff from seven water-sampling sites from 1984 to 1987. Ground water samples were obtained from alluvial and bedrock aquifers. Samples of soil, streambed sediment, ground water and surface water were obtained for onsite measurement and chemical analysis. Measurements included determination of nitrogen compounds and major cations and anions, fecal-coliform and -streptococcus bacteria, specific conductance, and pH.Thirteen wells in the alluvial aquifer in Region 3 of the study area contain water that was probably affected by sewage-sludge leachate. The plots of concentration of nitrate with time show seasonal trends and trends caused by precipitation. In addition to yearly fluctuation, there were noticeable increases in ground-water concentrations of nitrate that coincided with increased precipitation. After 3 years of annual ground-water-quality monitoring and 4 years of a quarterly sampling program, it has been determined that leachate from the sewage-sludge-disposal area caused increased nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration in the alluvial ground water at the site. Soil analyses from the disposal area indicate that organic nitrogen was the dominant form of nitrogen in the soil.As a result of investigations at

  5. Communal sewage sludge treatement against the background of the new European Sewage Sludge Treatment Regulations; Kommunale Klaerschlammbehandlung vor dem Hintergrund der neuen Europaeischen Klaerschlammrichtlinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The following issues were discussed at the Darmstadt conference: The European Sewage Sludge Treatment Regulation, hygienisation of sewage sludge, waste water purification without excess sludge production, stabilisation of sewage sludge, dewatering and disposal by combustion or utilisation as an agricultural fertilizer. [German] Themen des Darmstaedter Seminars Abwassertechnik waren: Europaeische Klaerschlammrichtlinie, Klaerschlammhygienisierung, Abwasserreinigung ohne Anfall von Ueberschussschlamm, Klaerschlammstabilisierung, Entwaesserung und Entsorgung durch Verbrennung oder in der Landwirtschaft. (UKE)

  6. Removal of nutrient and heavy metal loads from sewage effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A deliberate lowering of effluent pH may increase root uptake thereby possibly reducing the clean-up time and improving effluent quality. There is potential for application of this technology in cities struggling with the cost of conventional sewage treatment. Keywords: bio-accumulation, bio-sorption, heavy metals, hydroponic, ...

  7. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants. (United States)

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V


    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates.

  8. modeling of evaporation modeling of evaporation losses in sewage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    A model for evaporation losses in sewage sludge drying bed was derived from first principles. This model was developed based on the reasoning that the rate at which evaporation is taking place is directly proportional to the instantaneous quantity of water in the sludge. The aim of this work was to develop a model to.

  9. Modelling total sewage water discharge to a regional treatment plant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, J.V.; Stricker, H.


    In the Netherlands, sewage water is often treated on a regional basis. In case of combined systems that are spread within a large region of several hundreds of square kilometers, reduction of the hydraulic capacity of the regional treatment plant seems possible, because of space-time variations in

  10. The impact of sewage sludge and compost on winter triticale. (United States)

    Kchaou, Rajia; Baccar, Rim; Bouzid, Jalel; Rejeb, Saloua


    There is an increasing interest in the agricultural application of organic waste such as soil amendment, due to the possibility of recycling valuable components, organic matter, and nutrient elements necessary for plant growth. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge, and green waste compost application, on a forage crop, triticale "X Triticosecale Wittmack" compared to unfertilized control. The experimental design was installed in the glasshouse conditions at the Regional Field Crop Research Center in Beja, Tunisia. Sewage sludge and green waste compost were added by four rates (0, 5, 10, and 20 t/ha) in soil, 15 days before triticale sowing. The main results showed that plant response differs depending on the type of adding fertilizer. Indeed, compost inputs decreased shoot length and production of triticale, among all sewage sludge rates, by average values of 26 and 60% respectively at final harvest, as compared to unamended soil. However, amendment with different rates of sewage sludge significantly (p < 0.05) increased different plant growth and yield attributes.

  11. Socioeconomic constraints on the technological choices in rural sewage treatment. (United States)

    Gu, Baojing; Fan, Liangcong; Ying, Zechun; Xu, Qingshan; Luo, Weidong; Ge, Ying; Scott, Steffanie; Chang, Jie


    Technological innovation is one of the potential engines to mitigate environmental pollution. However, the implementation of new technologies sometimes fails owing to socioeconomic constraints from different stakeholders. Thus, it is essential to analyze constraints of environmental technologies in order to build a pathway for their implementation. In this study, taking three technologies on rural sewage treatment in Hangzhou, China as a case study, i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WTP), constructed wetland (CW), and biogas system, we analyzed how socioeconomic constraints affect the technological choices. Results showed that socioeconomic constraints play a key role through changing the relative opportunity cost of inputs from government as compared to that of residents to deliver the public good-sewage treatment-under different economic levels. Economic level determines the technological choice, and the preferred sewage treatment technologies change from biogas system to CW and further to WTP along with the increase of economic level. Mismatch of technological choice and economic level results in failures of rural sewage treatment, e.g., the CW only work well in moderately developed regions in Hangzhou. This finding expands the environmental Kuznets law by introducing the coproduction theory into analysis (i.e., inputs from both government and residents are essential for the delivery of public goods and services such as good environmental quality). A match between technology and socioeconomic conditions is essential to the environmental governance.

  12. System control fuzzy neural sewage pumping stations using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владлен Николаевич Кузнецов


    Full Text Available It is considered the system of management of sewage pumping station with regulators based on a neuron network with fuzzy logic. Linguistic rules for the controller based on fuzzy logic, maintaining the level of effluent in the receiving tank within the prescribed limits are developed. The use of genetic algorithms for neuron network training is shown.

  13. Chironomidae From a Sewage Treatment Station of Southern Brazil (United States)

    Signoretti, R. P.; Sonoda, K. C.; Ferraz, E.


    As the great number of insects living and reproducing at a municipal sewage treatment station located in Piracicaba City and the fear about how dangerous it could be for human healthy, a study was conduct to identify the taxa presented there and to analyze their community structure using stable isotopes. The Chironomidae identification was performed on specific level. The sewage treatment station is a man-made wetland system, situated 30m nearby the Piracicaba River. It treats the sewage from an urban area with 3000 inhabitants. The sewage discharge varies from 133 to 186L/s/ha. The samples were taken on the ending of the rainy season with a D-frame net. The material was washed (210mm mesh size), sorted and preserved in 70% alcohol. Chironomidae had a low participation in the community, with 14.9% of the specimens. Goeldichironomus serratus (47.8% from total Chironomidae), G. holoprasinus (43.5%) and Chironomus decorus (8.7%) were identified. Those species are worldwide recognized as pollution-resistant, used as indicators of environmental water quality. The wetland studied showed low dissolved oxygen (1.5mg/L) on the sampling period and the presence of those Chironomidae species should be expected. The low diversity and high dominance are common features for those impacted environments.

  14. Effect of sewage oxidation pond effluent on macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chironomid, ephemeropteran and odonate larvae were more abundant in downstream than upstream station. The preponderance of chironomids was attributed to environmental stress. It was suggested that predictions on impacts of sewage effluents should take cognizance of the natural changes in stream environment ...

  15. Modeling of Seepage Losses in Sewage Sludge Drying Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the experiment conducted this study, 125kg of sewage sludge, 90.7% moisture content was thoroughly mixed and intermittently into a sand drying bed of dimensions 1.0m length, 0.3m width, 0.8m depth including overboard and having a 50mm diameter drain pipe. Seepage were measured at 24 hours intervals for 15 ...

  16. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    2Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai-400085, India. Accepted 30 May, 2011. The use of electron beam to disinfect sewage water is gaining importance. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of ...

  17. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al preci...

  18. Arthropod fauna of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Sewage pond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The arthropods found were of the class insecta and class arachnida. The sewage pond had a high accumulation of organic waste with mean dissolved oxygen calculated to be 6.48. As a result of this high content of organic waste, most aerobic organisms cannot survive in the pond, and this resulted to low abundance of ...

  19. A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is developed that comprises three sequential parts – a kinetic part from which the % COD removal and methane production are determined for a given retention time; a stoichiometry part from which the gas composition (or partial pressure of CO,sub>2), ammonia released ...

  20. Birds of the sewage stabilization ponds at Obafemi Awolowo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative study of aquatic macroinvertebrates and birds associated with sewage stabilization ponds was carried out on the campus of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Thirteen macroinvertebrate species were recorded out of which Ephemeroptera, Chironomus larvae, mosquito larvae and pupae and ...

  1. The Absorption of Nitrate and Phosphate from Urban Sewage by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The applications of blue green algae for the treatment of urban and industrial sewage have received more attention during the recent years because they have the capacity to use nitrogenous compounds, ammonia and phosphates. In this study aimed to evaluate the ability of Spirolina platensis for absorption of nitrate and ...

  2. Inactivation of bacteria in sewage sludge by gamma radiation. (United States)

    Pandya, G A; Kapila, S; Kelkar, V B; Negi, S; Modi, V V


    The survival of certain bacterial cultures suspended in sewage sludge and exposed to gamma-radiation was studied. The inactivation patterns of most of the organisms were significantly different when irradiation was performed using sewage samples collected in the summer and monsoon seasons. The summer sample collected from the anaerobic digestor afforded significant protection to both Gram negative and Gram positive organisms. This was evident by the increase in dose required to bring about a 6 log cycle reduction in viable count of the bacterial cultures, when suspended in sewage samples instead of phosphate buffer. The observations made using monsoon digestor samples were quite different. This sewage sludge greatly enhanced inactivation by gamma-radiation in most cases. The effects of certain chemicals on the inactivation patterns of two organisms-Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri-were examined. Arsenate, mercury and lead salts sensitised S. typhi, while barium acetate and sodium sulphide protected this culture against gamma-radiation. In the case of Sh. flexneri, barium acetate and iodacetamide proved to be radioprotectors. The effects of some chemicals on the inactivation pattern of Sh. flexneri cells irradiated in sludge are also discussed.

  3. Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification. (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz


    Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Investigation of sewage sludge treatment using air plasma assisted gasification. (United States)

    Striūgas, Nerijus; Valinčius, Vitas; Pedišius, Nerijus; Poškas, Robertas; Zakarauskas, Kęstutis


    This study presents an experimental investigation of downdraft gasification process coupled with a secondary thermal plasma reactor in order to perform experimental investigations of sewage sludge gasification, and compare process parameters running the system with and without the secondary thermal plasma reactor. The experimental investigation were performed with non-pelletized mixture of dried sewage sludge and wood pellets. To estimate the process performance, the composition of the producer gas, tars, particle matter, producer gas and char yield were measured at the exit of the gasification and plasma reactor. The research revealed the distribution of selected metals and chlorine in the process products and examined a possible formation of hexachlorobenzene. It determined that the plasma assisted processing of gaseous products changes the composition of the tars and the producer gas, mostly by destruction of hydrocarbon species, such as methane, acetylene, ethane or propane. Plasma processing of the producer gas reduces their calorific value but increases the gas yield and the total produced energy amount. The presented technology demonstrated capability both for applying to reduce the accumulation of the sewage sludge and production of substitute gas for drying of sewage sludge and electrical power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilisation of Electrodialytically Treated Sewage Sludge Ash in Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Annemette; Pares Viader, Raimon; Kowalski, Krzysztof Piotr


    Phosphorous is a scarce resource and there is a need to develop methods for recovery of this irreplaceable nutrient from secondary resources, e.g. from sewage sludge ash (SSA). Today SSA is most often disposed of and the resource is lost. In the present study, about 90% phosphorous was recovered ...

  6. Co-composting of sewage sludge and Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yaoundé-Cameroon) in order to assess the effect of three sewage sludge: Macrophyte ratios on the co-composting process and compost quality. The ratios were T1: 25 kg of plant material (Echinochloa pyramidalis) and 75 kg sludge; T2: 50 kg ...

  7. Effects of sewage sludge application on selected soil properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil organic carbon (OC), microbial respiration, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), total N, exchangeable Na and Ca, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and maize performance were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced in the sewage treated soil compared to the ...

  8. Leachability of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri


    Sewage sludge is sewerage from wastewater treatment plants that generates millions tons of sludge ever year. Regarding this activity, it causes lack management of waste which is harmful to the surrounding conditions. Therefore, this study is focuses on the incorporation of sewage sludge waste into fired clay brick to provide an option of disposal method, producing adequate quality of brick as well as limiting the heavy metal leachability to the environment. Sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of sewage sludge waste (SSW). Heavy metals of crushed SSB were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) according to Method 1311 of United State Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) standard. From the results obtained, up to 20% of SSW could be incorporated into fired clay brick and comply with the USEPA standard. Therefore, this study revealed that by incorporating SSW into fired clay brick it could be an alternative method to dispose the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  9. CFD simulation of anaerobic digester with variable sewage sludge rheology. (United States)

    Craig, K J; Nieuwoudt, M N; Niemand, L J


    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that evaluates mechanical mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester was developed to investigate the influence of sewage sludge rheology on the steady-state digester performance. Mechanical mixing is provided through an impeller located in a draft tube. Use is made of the Multiple Reference Frame model to incorporate the rotating impeller. The non-Newtonian sludge is modeled using the Hershel-Bulkley law because of the yield stress present in the fluid. Water is also used as modeling fluid to illustrate the significant non-Newtonian effects of sewage sludge on mixing patterns. The variation of the sewage sludge rheology as a result of the digestion process is considered to determine its influence on both the required impeller torque and digester mixing patterns. It was found that when modeling the fluid with the Hershel-Bulkley law, the high slope of the sewage stress-strain curve at high shear rates causes significant viscous torque on the impeller surface. Although the overall fluid shear stress property is reduced during digestion, this slope is increased with sludge age, causing an increase in impeller torque for digested sludge due to the high strain rates caused by the pumping impeller. Consideration should be given to using the Bingham law to deal with high strain rates. The overall mixing flow patterns of the digested sludge do however improve slightly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Urban Sewage Sludge, Sustainability, and Transition for Eco-City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Chan, Felix T. S.


    criteria. Three MCDM methods including the sum weighted method, digraph model, and TOPSIS were used to determine sustainability sequence of the alternative technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge. Three technologies including landfilling, composting, and drying incineration have been studied...

  11. Phytoremediation of sewage sludge in soils contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main source of heavy metals in most soils is sewage sludge. Naturally, the heavy metals in soils are transported to vegetations and cultivated crops. These pollutants need to be either reduced or eliminated in the soil to remediate the effects to man, animals, plants, soils, and groundwater. Hence, Jatropha curcas ...

  12. Assessment of the Concentration of Metals in a Sewage Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metal concentration of the water in the sewage treatment pond of the Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria, was studied between April and September 2007 using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) Analysis. The mean concentrations of ten (10) heavy metals observed during the study were as follows: ...

  13. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Email: ABSTRACT. Microbiological quality of the intertidal pool water was evaluated in sewage impacted (Mtoni ... Fecal bacteria contamination was significantly higher at Mtoni. Kijichi than at Rasi Dege mangroves .... Mbweni, Kunduchi, Salander Bridge, Mtoni. Kijichi, Mji mwema and Rasi Dege.

  14. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery. (United States)

    Adam, C; Peplinski, B; Michaelis, M; Kley, G; Simon, F-G


    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms and cannot be replaced. Municipal sewage sludge is a carrier of phosphorus, but also contains organic pollutants and heavy metals. A two-step thermal treatment is suggested, including mono-incineration of sewage sludge and subsequent thermochemical treatment of the ashes. Organic pollutants are completely destroyed by mono-incineration. The resulting sewage sludge ashes contain P, but also heavy metals. P in the ashes exhibits low bioavailability, a disadvantage in farming. Therefore, in a second thermochemical step, P is transferred into mineral phases available for plants, and heavy metals are removed as well. The thermochemical treatment was investigated in a laboratory-scale rotary furnace by treating seven different sewage sludge ashes under systematic variation of operational parameters. Heavy metal removal and the increase of the P-bioavailability were the focus of the investigation. The present experimental study shows that these objectives have been achieved with the proposed process. The P-bioavailability was significantly increased due to the formation of new mineral phases such as chlorapatite, farringtonite and stanfieldite during thermochemical treatment.

  15. Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.


    Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

  16. Focus on 14 sewage treatment plants in the Mpumalanga Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify the treatment methods used in different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the Mpumalanga Province and to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment by these plants, municipal STPs were surveyed, and raw and treated wastewater samples collected. A total of 14 STPs were visited and the ...

  17. Domestic Sewage Disposal and Quality of Water from Hand Dug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 84% of household use septic tanks, 8.9% use pit or pail latrine, 5.1% dispose of their sewage indiscriminately and 2% by dig and bury system. 20 well water samples were collected during the months of January, February, June, July and September 2011 with the aid of sterilized buckets and sent to the laboratory for ...

  18. Sewage, Septage and Faecal Sludge Management in Tamale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sewage, septage and faecal sludge management profile in Tamale Municipality have been studied in relation to the different handling facilities used and the technologies adopted for their treatment and disposal. The human excreta facilities available include pan latrines, public latrines, and water closet systems.

  19. Sewage, Septage and faecal sludge management profile in Ho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents the sewage, septage and faecal sludge management profile in the Ho District of Ghana. The excreta handling facilities available in Ho District are water closet systems, KVIP, pan/bucket latrines and public latrines. About 71 per cent of the population, especially people in the densely populated and low ...

  20. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazare; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB...

  1. Extraction of certain heavy metals from sewage sludge using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical extraction using inorganic acids (nitric, hydrochloric) and organic acids (citric, oxalic) were tested for extraction of chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc from contaminated sewage sludge at different pH and reaction time. Results revealed that solubilization of metals using inorganic acids achieved its maximum ...



    Rocío VACA


    The use of organic wastes in agriculture can improve the soil's productive capacity, and physical and chemical characteristics. This study evaluated the effects of sewage sludge, sewage sludge compost and inorganic fertilizer applications on nickel, copper and zinc contents in soil and corn grains (Zea mays L); maize productivity, and grain nutritional quality. Sewage sludge and sewage sludge compost at 18 Mg ha¿1 and a mineral fertilizer (N-P-K) with a formulation of 150-75-30 were applied. ...

  3. Effects of precipitation on the amount and quality of raw sewage entering a sewage treatment plant in Wodzisław Śląski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielowski Krzysztof


    Full Text Available The study presents the effects of precipitation on the amount and quality of raw sewage entering a sewage treatment plant in Wodzisław Śląski. It covers a six-year period between January 2010 and December 2015. The research period was divided into seven classes of precipitation intensity. The classes were characterized for their basic descriptive statistics of the raw sewage entering the investigated sewage treatment plant (STP. Data obtained from the collected material and derived from an analysis indicated a considerable influence of precipitation on the amount of sewage entering the investigated facility. Mean amount of sewage entering the STP was by 10.5% (884.9 m3·d-1 greater in B class and by 69.6% (6,153.9 m3·d-1 greater in G class than during dry weather. Individual classes of precipitation intensity were compared for their mean values of raw sewage contamination. Precipitation intensity was found to significantly affect concentrations of the investigated parameters of raw sewage contamination. Basic parameters of sewage contamination (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids were determined and their basic descriptive statistics, such as median, mean, minimum and maximum value, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were calculated.

  4. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh, N.T.


    Non-conventional biomass feedstock may also be applicable for fast pyrolysis processes. Among the forms of non-conventional biomasses, macroalgae, lignin (industrial residue) and sewage sludge may be attractive materials due to their low price, non-competitiveness with food crops and the possible utilization of solid wastes. Besides, a fast pyrolysis process can be used as a process to densify the biomass and produce bioslurry, a mixture of bio-oil and pyrolytic char. The bioslurry is found to be a possible feedstock for pressurized gasification plants. Thus, the aims of this project are to investigate fast pyrolysis properties of lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae on a lab scale PCR and characterize their bio-oil properties. Bioslurry properties with respect to use as a feedstock for pressurized gasification is also investigated. Lignin and sewage sludge PCR pyrolysis provided bio-oil yields of 47 and 54 wt% daf, and oil energy recovery of 45 and 50 %, respectively. While the macroalgae PCR pyrolysis showed promising results with an organic oil yield of 65 wt% daf and an oil energy recovery of 76 %. The HHV of the lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae oils were 29.7, 25.7 and 25.5 MJ/kg db respectively, and that are higher than that of typical bioiv oil from conventional biomasses (23-24 MJ/kg db). Almost all metals feedstock contents were contained in the chars at temperatures of 550 - 575 deg. C for lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae PCR pyrolysis. Due to high feedstock nitrogen and sulfur contents, also a high level of nitrogen and sulfur of macroalgae and sewage sludge oils were observed compared to conventional bio-oil and this may limit their further industrial applications. The lignin char had a high proportion of small size particles, a HHV of 21 MJ/kg db and were almost free of chloride and sulfur, thus it is considered as a promising fuel for gasification or combustion; whereas macroalgae and sewage sludge chars containing high amounts of

  5. In vivo effects of a chronic contamination by uranium or cesium 137 on the pharmaceutical metabolism, of the vitamin D and cholesterol; Effets in vivo d'une contamination chronique par l'uranium ou le cesium 137 sur le metabolisme du medicament, de la vitamine D et du cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souidi, M


    In conclusion, an animal model, miming the chronic contamination of the populations exposed to the uranium, was used for the first time to show that the chronic ingestion of a weak dose of depleted uranium can affect the level of active vitamin D without modifying the mineral homeostasis. This study shows that this radionuclide can lead molecular modifications of the CYPs and the nuclear receivers involved in the metabolism of the vitamin D not only at the level of the liver and kidney but also at the level of the independent metabolism in the brain. The deficiency in vitamin D can provoke osseous diseases such as the rickets at the child and the osteomalacia at the adult. The three categories of population the most exposed to this deficiency are the infants, the pregnant women and the old persons. Strong prevalence of the vitamin D deficiency associated with a chronic exposure to uranium could lead to osseous disorders. To verify this hypothesis, it will be necessary secondly to realize this study on individuals animal models predisposed to the rickets or to the osteomalacia. (N.C.)

  6. Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel (United States)

    Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo


    Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

  7. Co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and manure. (United States)

    Ruiz-Gómez, Nadia; Quispe, Violeta; Ábrego, Javier; Atienza-Martínez, María; Murillo, María Benita; Gea, Gloria


    The management and valorization of residual organic matter, such as sewage sludge and manure, is gaining interest because of the increasing volume of these residues, their localized generation and the related problems. The anaerobic digestion of mixtures of sewage sludge and manure could be performed due to the similarities between both residues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and digested manure (DM) as a potential management technology for these residues. Pyrolysis of a sewage sludge/manure blend (50:50%) was performed at 525°C in a stirred batch reactor under N2 atmosphere. The product yields and some characteristics of the product were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in the pyrolysis of pure residues. Potential synergetic and antagonist effects during the co-pyrolysis process were evaluated. Although sewage sludge and manure seem similar in nature, there are differences in their pyrolysis product properties and distribution due to their distinct ash and organic matter composition. For the co-pyrolysis of SS and DM, the product yields did not show noticeable synergistic effects with the exception of the yields of organic compounds, being slightly higher than the predicted average, and the H2 yield, being lower than expected. Co-pyrolysis of SS and DM could be a feasible management alternative for these residues in locations where both residues are generated, since the benefits and the drawbacks of the co-pyrolysis are similar to those of the pyrolysis of each residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sewage sludge - arisings, composition, disposal capacities; Klaerschlamm - Mengen, Zusammensetzung, Entsorgungskapazitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Rabus, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft; Urban, A.I.; Friedel, M. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik


    One of the main disposal paths for sewage sludge in the past was landfilling. This option was severely restricted by the issue of the Technical Code on Household Waste in 1993. In its agricultural applications sewage sludge serves as a fertiliser and a soil improvement agent. Estimates on potential thermal treatment capacities have shown that there are enough public power plants to accommodate and provide thermal treatment for the total of sewage sludge arisings in Germany. As can be seen from the estimates presented in this paper, it would not even be necessary to restrict oneself to public power plant capacities. The paper points out possibilities of using plant capacities already existing in industrial firing plants and certain production sectors. It uses a comparison to show that sewage sludge would have to be dried in order to permit its thermal treatment in these private facilities. Aside from this, there are a number of new techniques entering the market which from the technical viewpoint also appear to be well suited for thermal sewage sludge treatment. [Deutsch] Ein wesentlicher Entsorgungsweg von Klaerschlamm war in der Vergangenheit die Verbringung auf eine Deponie. Diese Moeglichkeit ist durch die TA Siedlungsabfall von 1993 stark eingeschraenkt. Bei der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung wird durch den Klaerschlamm eine Duengewirkung sowie eine Bodenverbesserung erreicht. Eine Abschaetzung der potentiellen thermischen Behandlungskapazitaeten zeigt, dass die gesamte bundesdeutsche Klaerschlammenge in oeffentlichen Kraftwerken unterzubringen und thermisch zu behandeln waere. Wie die hier dargestellten Abschaetzungen gezeigt haben, ist man durchaus nicht allein auf die Nutzung oeffentlicher Kraftwerkskapazitaeten angewiesen. Es wurden Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung vorhandener Anlagenkapazitaeten in industriellen Feuerungsanlagen und in Produktionsbereichen aufgezeigt. Wie aus einem Vergleich erkennbar wird, ist allerdings eine Trocknung der Klaerschlaemme

  9. Effect of KOH activation in the desulfurization process of activated carbon prepared by sewage sludge & corn straw. (United States)

    Zeng, Fan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Hui; Liao, Li


    Series sludge-straw based activated carbons were prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw with potassium hydroxide activation, and the desulfurization performance of activated carbons were studied. To obtain the best desulfurization performance, the optimum ratio between the raw materials and the activator was investigated. The results showed that as the mass ratio of sewage sludge, corn straw and potassium hydroxide was 3:7:2, the activated carbon obtained the best breakthrough and saturation sulfur sorption capacity, which were 12.38 and 5.74 times of sample prepared by the non-activated raw materials, respectively. The appropriate KOH could improve the microporosity and alkaline groups, meanwhile reduce the lactone groups, which were all beneficial to their desulfurization performance. The chemical adsorption process of desulfurization can be simplified to four main steps, and the main desulfurization products are elemental sulfur and sulfate. Implication Sewage sludge (SS) and corn straw (CS) both were great production, wide distribution, readily available in China. Much attention has been paid on how to deal with them effectively. Based on the environment protection idea of waste treatment with waste and resource recycling, low-cost adsorbents were prepared by them. The proposed method can be expanded to the municipal solid waste recycling programs and renewable energy plan. Thus, proceed with the study of prepared AC by SS and straw as a carbon-based dry desulfurization agent could obtain huge social, economical and environmental benefits.

  10. Effects of sewage sludge fertilizer on heavy metal accumulation and consequent responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). (United States)

    Belhaj, Dalel; Elloumi, Nada; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Zouari, Mohamed; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Ayadi, Habib; Kallel, Monem


    Use of sewage sludge, a biological residue produced from sewage treatment processes in agriculture, is an alternative disposal technique of waste. To study the usefulness of sewage sludge amendment for Helianthus annuus, a pot experiment was conducted by mixing sewage sludge at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 % (w/w) amendment ratios to the agricultural soil. Soil pH decreased whereas electrical conductivity, organic matter, total N, available P, and exchangeable Na, K, and Ca increased in soil amended with sewage sludge in comparison to unamended soil. Sewage sludge amendment led to significant increase in Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations of soil. The increased concentration of heavy metals in soil due to sewage sludge amendment led to increases in shoot and root concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in plant as compared to those grown on unamended soil. Accumulation was more in roots than shoots for most of the heavy metals. Moreover, high metal removal for the harvestable parts of the crops was recorded. Sewage sludge amendment increased root and shoot length, leaves number, biomass, and antioxidant activities of sunflower. Significant increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the glutathione, proline, and soluble sugar content in response to amendment with sewage sludge may be defense mechanisms induced in response to heavy metal stress. Graphical abstract Origin, fate and behavior of sewage sludge fertilizer.

  11. Responses of the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni (crustacea) to saline sewage (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Johnson, I.

    Soon after the openiing of the Looe sewage treatment works (Cornwall, southwest England) in 1973, it became colonized by the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni Liljeborg. The works is unusual as it operates with saline sewage and has a tidally-based pattern of salinity fluctuation (S=13 to 34). Various responses of this unique amphipod population (sewage amphipods) have been compared with G. duebeni from the adjacent Looe River estuary (estuarine amphipods) in an attempt to identify long-term responses to sewage. Sewage amphipods were significantly smaller than their estuarine equivalents; the sewage population was biased significantly to males, whereas the sex ratio of the estuarine population significantly favours females. Compared with the estuary, the consistently lower oxygen levels in the works were reflected in significant differences in metabolism. Sewage amphipods maintained high levels of activity under hypoxia ( e.g. swimming), and the higher survival and lower rates of lactic acid accumulation under anoxia than estuarine individuals. In addition, sewage amphipods recovered more rapidly from anoxia and had a lower critical oxygen tension (p c) than estuarine amphipods. Sewage amphipods are exposed to higher levels of heavy metals associated with the domestic sewage and zinc concentrations are particularly elevated in the works. Exposure to elevated zinc concentrations resulted in similar patterns of body zinc uptake for sewage and estuarine Gammarus at high (30) and low (10) salinity, with zinc regulation apparently occuring to an external threshold of 200 γmgZn·dm -3. No consistent interpopulational differences in the effect ofzinc on zinc uptake or on osmoregulation have been identified. However, sewage amphipods had higher survival at all zinc/salinity combinations compared with estuarine individuals. These indicate that sewage amphipods are adapted to the unusual combination of conditions prevailing in the treatment works and, if reproductive

  12. Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe (United States)

    Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

    The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 ± 32), BOD (297 ± 83) TKN (19.0 ± 2.0), TP (18 ± 3), NH3 (24.0 ± 12.9), TSS (219 ± 57), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 266 ± 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 ± 15), BOD (324 ± 102), TKN (21.0 ± 3.0), TP (19.0 ± 2.0), NH3 (25.6 ± 11.2), TSS (250 ± 66), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 271 ± 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 3.1 and 0.04 ± 0

  13. Environmental surveillance of human parechoviruses in sewage in The Netherlands. (United States)

    Lodder, W J; Wuite, M; de Roda Husman, A M; Rutjes, S A


    The circulation of human parechoviruses (HPeVs) in the population was studied by environmental surveillance comprising of molecular analyses of sewage samples (n = 89) that were collected from 15 different locations in The Netherlands. Samples were taken from sewage originating from schools (n = 9) or from parts of municipalities (n = 6) during the Dutch school year 2010-2011. At 13/15 locations HPeV1, HPeV3, or HPeV6 RNA was detected at least once; however, sequence diversity did not reflect associations in time or place. A higher percentage of positives was observed in the samples originating from the municipalities. It was demonstrated that HPeV circulated in the studied population to a higher extent than would be expected from the current knowledge on infections predominating in young children.

  14. The drying of sewage sludge by immersion frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Silva


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to dry sewage sludge using a fry-drying process. The frying experiments were carried out in commercial fryers modified by adding thermocouples to the setup. During frying, typical drying curves were obtained and it was verified that, in relation to the parameters: oil temperature, oil type and shape of the sample, the shape factor the most effect on the drying rate, at least within the range chosen for the variables studied. Oil uptake and calorific value were also analyzed. The calorific value of the samples increased with frying time, reaching values around 24MJ/kg after 600s of frying (comparable to biocombustibles such as wood and sugarcane bagasse. The process of immersion frying showed great potential for drying materials, especially sewage sludge, obtaining a product with a high energy content, thereby increasing its value as a combustible.

  15. Research on Sewage Treatment System by Configuration Software and PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guoqing


    Full Text Available The automation products have been applied in various industries, especially in the water disposing industry. This paper describes the design of the hardware and the software of the monitoring system of sewage treatment which is based on S7-300 PLC (Programmable Logic Controller and the Profibus bus technology. The hardware of PLC includes the power supply, CPU (Central Processing Unit, analog- digital conversion module. Through the management of the configuration software MCGS (Monitor and Control Generated System, the system realizes the main functions, such as the multi analog signals’ testing, the control of the driving output, the display of the digital information collection, the parameters enactment, the manual debugging control, etc. Then, the monitoring and management of the disposing of sewage plant is completed.

  16. [Effects of sewage sludge vermicompost on the growth of marigold]. (United States)

    Ma, Li; Yin, Xiu-qin


    The 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1, and 1:0 mixtures of sewage sludge and cattle dung were treated with earthworm Eisenia foetida, and then, mixed with black soil in the proportions of 10%, 20%, and 30% (dry mass) to investigate the effects of the vermicompost on the marigold plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, branch number, aboveground biomass, underground biomass, ratio of root to shoot, flower bud number, flower yield, flower diameter, and flower biomass. An obvious promotion effect of the vermicompost was observed on the growth of marigold. The smaller the ratio of sewage sludge to cattle dung, the better the growth of marigold; while a higher proportion of the vermicompost to soil would inhibit the marigold growth. In this study, a proportion of 20% vermicompost to soil was the best for the growth of marigold.

  17. Aichi virus in sewage and surface water, the Netherlands. (United States)

    Lodder, Willemijn J; Rutjes, Saskia A; Takumi, Katsuhisa; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria


    Detection of Aichi virus in humans was initially reported in Japan in 1989. To establish a timeline for the prevalence of Aichi virus infection among humans in the Netherlands, we conducted molecular analysis of archival water samples from 1987-2000 and 2009-2012. Aichi virus RNA was detected in 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 100% (7/7) of surface water samples collected during 1987-2000 and 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 71% (5/7) of surface water samples collected during 2009-2012. Several genotype A and B Aichi virus lineages were observed over the 25-year period studied, but the time course of viral genetic diversity showed recent expansion of the genotype B population over genotype A. Our results show that Aichi virus has been circulating among the human population in the Netherlands since before its initial detection in humans was reported and that genotype B now predominates in this country.

  18. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge by an electrokinetic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, A.B.; Couto, N.; Mateus, E.P.

    As population keeps growing, it becomes important to guarantee the supply of staple foods, being necessary to assure good level of nutrients in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient indispensable for plants growth and a non-renewable resource, as phosphorites are estimated to be able...... to supply P for the next ca. 80 years. Additionaly, the quality of this raw material has deteriorated due to contamination, which has increased processing costs of mineral P fertilizers. The recovery of nutrients, like P, from secondary resources urges. Sewage sludge (SS) and sewage sludge ash (SSA) from...... be an effective technique for removing contaminants and recover P from SS and/or SSA. The application of a low-level direct current onto the sludge segment results in both electro-osmotic and electro-migration flows, which are able to induce the migration of ions. For this reason it is expected that phosphate...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Jaromsky


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on process of aerobic waste water treatment with combined bio-oxidizers at milk processing enterprises. It has been shown that attached biocenosis, free-floating biocenosis and also bio-module rotation frequency  have exerted a significant influence on the process of an aerobic sewage treatment. It has been established that combined bio-oxidizers can be used for cleaning high concentrated waste water at the enterprises of food industry.

  20. Quantitative Recovery of Aeromonas hydrophila from Nsukka Sewage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sewage samples were analyzed for the recovery of Aeromonas hydrophila. The pH of the samples ranged from 8.2 - 9.6 and the temperature from 20.0 – 28.7. Samples were enriched in alkaline peptone water medium (pH 8.4) before plating on different selective media. Media tested for the recovery of Aeromonas ...

  1. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge (United States)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki


    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  2. Solid State Culture Conditions for Composting Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Kabbashi


    Full Text Available Composting is applied to treat sewage sludge from treatment plants to enhance its quality and suitability for agricultural use. In this work the optimal conditions for composting sewage sludge from domestic wastewater treatment plants in a horizontal drum bioreactor (HDB were investigated. This study investigated the physico-chemical conditions affecting the use of filamentous fungi in composting. The average number of faecal coliforms was 2.3  107 bacteria/g waste dry weight at the beginning of the composting process, and decreased considerably to 8.2  103, 8.1  103, 8.5  103, 8.0  103,and 8.4  103 bacteria/g, respectively for experiments T1 to T5. This decrease was presumably the result of raising temperature. The phase of hygienisation was marked by a very significant decrease in the number of E. coli cells (1.8  107, to 3.7  103, 3.8  103, 3.3  103, 3.2  103, and 3.6  103 bacteria/g for T1 to T5 experiments, respectively: A second aspect was the investigation of a possible reduction of hazardous pollutants.  The highest concentration was for Fe and the lowest for Pb, showing that Fe is the most loosely bound to the sewage sludge organic matrix and Pb the most strongly bound, the Cd reduction by composting was more than 50%.Keywords: Sewage sludge, compost, horizontal drum bioreactor, hazardous.

  3. Recovery of indigenous enteroviruses from raw and digested sewage sludges.


    Goddard, M R; Bates, J; Butler, M


    We examined different types of raw sewage sludge treatment, including consolidation, anaerobic mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, and aerobic-thermophilic digestion. Of these, the most efficient reduction in infectious virus titer was achieved by mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, although a pilot-scale aerobic-thermophilic digester was extremely time effective, producing sludges with similarly low virus titers in a small fraction of the time. Although none o...

  4. Domestic source of phosphorus to sewage treatment works. (United States)

    Comber, Sean; Gardner, Michael; Georges, Karyn; Blackwood, David; Gilmour, Daniel


    Phosphorus is an element essential for life. Concerns regarding long-term security of supply and issues related to eutrophication of surface waters once released into the aquatic environment have led governments to consider and apply measures for reducing the use and discharge of phosphorus. Examples of source control include legislation to reduce phosphorus use in domestic detergents. This research shows that other domestic sources of phosphorus also contribute significantly to the domestic load to sewer and that overall, domestic sources dominate loads to sewage treatment works. Estimates provided here show that although the natural diet contributes 40% of the domestic phosphorus load, other potentially preventable sources contribute significantly to the estimated 44,000 tonnes of phosphorus entering UK sewage treatment works each year. In the UK, food additives are estimated to contribute 29% of the domestic load; automatic dishwashing detergents contribute 9% and potentially increasing; domestic laundry 14%, including contributions from phosphonates, but decreasing; phosphorus dosing to reduce lead levels in tap water 6%; food waste disposed of down the drain 1%; and personal care products 1%. Although UK data is presented here, it is anticipated that similar impacts would be expected for other developed economies. Consideration of alternatives to all preventable sources of phosphorus from these sources would therefore offer potentially significant reductions in phosphorus loads to sewage treatment works and hence to the aquatic environment. Combining all source control measures and applying them to their maximum extent could potentially lead to the prevention of over 22,000 tonnes-P/year entering sewage treatment works.

  5. Astaxanthin production from sewage of traditional Thai rice vermicelli (United States)

    Sujarit, Chutinut; Rittirut, Waigoon; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn; Siripatana, Chairat


    This research aimed to investigate an optimal condition for astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma TISTR 5730 in two different media: synthetic YM medium and the medium added with coconut water and diluted with sewage from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant (coconut water: sewage of 1:0, 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5 ration respectively). The basic medium formulation was composed of 10 g/L glucose, 3 g/L yeast extract, 0.1 g/L K2HPO4, 0.01 g/L NaCl, 0.01 g/L MgSO4 and 0.01 g/L CaCl2 with initial pH 5.5. The cultures were cultivated on 200 rpm shaking bath at 50 °C for 120 hr. It was found that P. rhodozyma TISTR 5370 grew optimally when cultivated in a mixture of coconut water and Thai rice vermicelli sewage (ratio of 1:3), with growth of 3.23 g dry biomass/L and specific astaxanthin production of 680 μg/g dry cell respectively. When fan palm sugar was added to increase reducing sugar from 10 to 15, 20 and 25 g/L, it was demonstrated that the 15 g/L formulation produced highest both dry cell weight (9.66 g/L) and astaxanthin (810 μg/g dry cell weight). Furthermore, when 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/L citric acid was added as supplement, it was found that 1.0-g/L citric acid formulation gave the best result: 10.30 g/L dried cell weight and 930 μg/g dry cell weight astaxanthin. This study provides a promising alternative method of sewage reduction and valorization of wastewater from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant.

  6. Environmental assessment of supercritical water oxidation of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanstrom, Magdalena; Froling, Morgan [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg (Sweden); Modell, Michael; Peters, William A.; Tester, Jefferson [Laboratory For Energy and the Environment (LFEE), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Building E40, 1 Amherst Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Environmental aspects of using supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to treat sewage sludge were studied using a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The system studied is the first commercial scale SCWO plant for sewage sludge in the world, treating sludge from the municipal wastewater treatment facility in Harlingen, TX, USA. The environmental impacts were evaluated using three specific environmental attributes: global warming potential (GWP), photo-oxidant creation potential (POCP) and resource depletion; as well as two single point indicators: EPS2000 and EcoIndicator99. The LCA results show that for the described process, gas-fired preheating of the sludge is the major contributor to environmental impacts, and emissions from generating electricity for pumping and for oxygen production are also important. Overall, SCWO processing of undigested sewage sludge is an environmentally attractive technology, particularly when heat is recovered from the process. Energy-conserving measures and recovery of excess oxygen from the SCWO process should be considered for improving the sustainability potential.

  7. Isolation of Ether-Resistant Enteroviruses from Sewage: Methodology (United States)

    Duff, Michael F.


    Experiments were conducted to determine whether polio type 1 (Mahoney and coxsackie A8 viruses adsorb onto cotton fibers of sewer swabs. Negative results were obtained. It has been shown that viruses may exist in sewage as free virus particles or as bound (adsorbed) virus particles. The sewer-swab method of sampling is superior because it filters out the bound virus over several days; when collected, it represents a catch (grab) sample at that particular time which may or may not contain free virus. A simple method for the preparation of sewage inocula for virus isolations is described which samples the bound virus fraction. Only ether-resistant viruses can be isolated, and an ultracentrifuge is not required. By this method, an isolation rate between 60 and 80% of positive sewer swabs can be achieved. Corresponding figures of 84 and 96% were achieved by concentration of sewer-swab eluates with an ultracentrifuge. Quantitative studies showed that the virus concentration in raw sewage can be as high as one infectious particle per 0.5 ml. PMID:4313310

  8. Investigation into Total Carbon in Sewage Sludge and Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Zuokaitė


    Full Text Available The relation between soil and climate change is highly important. The soil is a part of the climate change problem; however, it could also be a part of the solution to the encountered problem. For a better understanding and estimation of climate gas emissions and for slowing down these processes, more investigation in this field is required. Sustainable soil usage could help with saving or even increasing the amount of carbon in the soil. Such process will sustain the balance of climate gas emissions. Soil carbon is an essential element that determines soil fertility. Recently, the importance of organic materials for soil quality and the applicability of sewage sludge to enrich the soil using such materials have been discussed. Sewage sludge as an organic carbon source can improve soil quality. The best way to stabilise and immobilise carbon is mineralisation that occurs in the composting process. The article analyses and evaluates the loss of organic carbon content during the composting process of sewage sludge and explores loss rates by adding various natural supplements (wood shavings and chips, milled bark, grained branches, peat and zeolite.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Thermal hydrolysis for sewage treatment: A critical review. (United States)

    Barber, W P F


    A review concerning the development and applicability of sewage sludge thermal hydrolysis especially prior to anaerobic digestion is presented. Thermal hydrolysis has proven to be a successful approach to making sewage sludge more amenable to anaerobic digestion. Currently there are 75 facilities either in operation or planning, spanning several continents with the first installation in 1995. The reported benefits of thermal hydrolysis relate to: increased digestion loading rate due to altered rheological properties, improved biodegradation of (especially activated) sludge and enhanced dewaterability. In spite of its relative maturity, there has been no attempt to perform a critical review of the pertinent literature relating to the technology. Closer look at the literature reveals complications with comparing both experimental- and full-scale results due to differences in experimental set-up and capability, and also site-specific conditions at full-scale. Furthermore, it appears that understanding of thermodynamic and rheological properties of sludge is key to optimizing the process, however these parameters are largely overlooked by the literature. This paper aims to bridge these complexities in order to elucidate the benefits of thermal hydrolysis for sewage treatment, and makes recommendations for further development and research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sewage sludge does not induce genotoxicity and carcinogenesis (United States)

    Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento


    Through a series of experiments, the genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of sewage sludge was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - liver carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 200 mg/kg i.p.); Group 3 and G4-liver carcinogenesis initiated by DEN and fed 10,000 ppm or 50,000 ppm of sewage sludge. The animals were submitted to a 70% partial hepatectomy at the 3rd week. Livers were processed for routine histological analysis and immunohistochemistry, in order to detect glutathione S-transferase positive altered hepatocyte foci (GST-P+ AHF). Peripheral blood samples for the comet assay were obtained from the periorbital plexus immediately prior to sacrificing. Polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) were analyzed in femoral bone-marrow smears, and the frequencies of those micronucleated (MNPCEs) registered. There was no sewage-sludge-induced increase in frequency of either DNA damage in peripheral blood leucocytes, or MNPCEs in the femoral bone marrow. Also, there was no increase in the levels of DNA damage, in the frequency of MNPCEs, and in the development of GST-P AHF when compared with the respective control group. PMID:23055806

  11. Leaching of Heavy Metals Using SPLP Method from Fired Clay Brick Incorporating with Sewage Sludge (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Amira Sarani, Noor; Aqma Izurin Rahmat, Nur


    Sewage sludge is a by-product generate from wastewater treatment process. The sewage sludge contains significant trace metal such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb which are toxic to the environment. Sewage sludge is disposed of by landfilling method. However, this option not suitable because of land restriction and environmental control regulations imposed. Therefore, sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant was incorporated into fired clay brick to produce good quality of brick as well as reducing heavy metals from sludge itself. Sewage sludge with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10% and 20% of were incorporated into fired clay bricks and fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. The brick sample then crushed and sieved through 9.5 mm sieve for Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). From the results, incorporation up to 20% of sewage sludge has leached less heavy metals and compliance with USEPA standard.

  12. System simulation for an untreated sewage source heat pump (USSHP) in winter (United States)

    Qin, Na; Hao, Peng Z.


    The paper discusses the system characteristics of an untreated sewage source heat pump in winter. In this system, the sewage enters into the evaporator directly. The variable parameters to control the system contain the sewage temperature at evaporator inlet and the water temperature at condenser inlet. It is found that most parameters, except the condensation heat transfer coefficient, change in the form of sine wave the same as the sewage temperature at inlet. The heating load and consumed power are 12.9kW and 3.45kW when the sewage temperature at inlet is 13°C. COP is about 3.75 in the range of the sewage temperature at inlet of 12-13°C.

  13. The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues (United States)

    Hendricks, Rahzia; Pool, Edmund John


    Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant 1 and 2 use older technologies, while sewage treatment plant 3 has been upgraded and membrane technologies were incorporated in the treatment processes. Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used as bioindicators for faecal bacteria. A chromogenic test was used to screen for coliforms and E. coli. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used antibiotics and were selected to monitor the efficiency of sewage treatment processes for antibiotic removal. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate antibiotic residues in raw and treated sewage. Raw intake water at all treatment plants contained total coliforms and E. coli. High removal of E. coli by treatment processes was evident for treatment plant 2 and 3 only. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole were detected in raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the fluoroquinolone concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced the fluoroquinolone concentration by 21% and 31%, respectively. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the sulfamethoxazole concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced sulfamethoxazole by 34% and 56%, respectively. This study showed that bacteria and antibiotic residues are still discharged into the environment. Further research needs to be undertaken to improve sewage treatment technologies, thereby producing a better quality treated sewage effluent. PMID:22242882

  14. Experimental research of sewage sludge with coal and biomass co-combustion, in pellet form. (United States)

    Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; Środa, Katarzyna; Kosowska-Golachowska, Monika; Musiał, Tomasz; Wolski, Krzysztof


    Increased sewage sludge production and disposal, as well as the properties of sewage sludge, are currently affecting the environment, which has resulted in legislation changes in Poland. Based on the Economy Minister Regulation of 16 July 2015 (Regulation of the Economy Minister, 2015) regarding the criteria and procedures for releasing wastes for landfilling, the thermal disposal of sewage sludge is important due to its gross calorific value, which is greater than 6MJ/kg, and the problems that result from its use and application. Consequently, increasingly restrictive legislation that began on 1 January 2016 was introduced for sewage sludge storage in Poland. Sewage sludge thermal utilisation is an attractive option because it minimizes odours, significantly reduces the volume of starting material and thermally destroys the organic and toxic components of the off pads. Additionally, it is possible that the ash produced could be used in different ways. Currently, as many as 11 plants use sewage sludge as fuel in Poland; thus, this technology must be further developed in Poland while considering the benefits of co-combustion with other fuels. This paper presents the results of experimental studies of the mechanisms and kinetics of sewage sludge, coal and biomass combustion and their co-combustion in spherical-pellet form. Compared with biomass, a higher temperature is required to ignite sewage sludge by flame. The properties of biomass and sewage sludge result in the intensification of the combustion process (by fast ignition of volatile matter). In contrast to coal, a combustion of sewage sludge is determined not only burning the char, but also the combustion of volatiles. The addition of sewage sludge to hard coal and lignite shortens combustion times compared with coal, and the addition of sewage sludge to willow Salix viminalis produces an increase in combustion time compared with willow alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Two-step chlorination: a new approach to disinfection of a primary sewage effluent


    Li, Y.; Yang, M; Zhang, X; Jiang, J.; Liu, J.; Yau, CF; Graham, NJ; Li, X.


    Sewage disinfection aims at inactivating pathogenic microorganisms and preventing the transmission of waterborne diseases. Chlorination is extensively applied for disinfecting sewage effluents. The objective of achieving a disinfection goal and reducing disinfectant consumption and operational costs remains a challenge in sewage treatment. In this study, we have demonstrated that, for the same chlorine dosage, a two-step addition of chlorine (two-step chlorination) was significantly more effi...

  16. Carbon dioxide adsorption in chemically activated carbon from sewage sludge. (United States)

    de Andrés, Juan Manuel; Orjales, Luis; Narros, Adolfo; de la Fuente, María del Mar; Encarnación Rodríguez, María


    In this work, sewage sludge was used as precursor in the production of activated carbon by means of chemical activation with KOH and NaOH. The sludge-based activated carbons were investigated for their gaseous adsorption characteristics using CO2 as adsorbate. Although both chemicals were effective in the development of the adsorption capacity, the best results were obtained with solid NaOH (SBA(T16)). Adsorption results were modeled according to the Langmuir and Freundlich models, with resulting CO2 adsorption capacities about 56 mg/g. The SBA(T16) was characterized for its surface and pore characteristics using continuous volumetric nitrogen gas adsorption and mercury porosimetry. The results informed about the mesoporous character of the SBA(T16) (average pore diameter of 56.5 angstroms). The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the SBA(T16) was low (179 m2/g) in comparison with a commercial activated carbon (Airpel 10; 1020 m2/g) and was mainly composed of mesopores and macropores. On the other hand, the SBA(T16) adsorption capacity was higher than that of Airpel 10, which can be explained by the formation of basic surface sites in the SBA(T16) where CO2 experienced chemisorption. According to these results, it can be concluded that the use of sewage-sludge-based activated carbons is a promising option for the capture of CO2. Adsorption methods are one of the current ways to reduce CO2 emissions. Taking this into account, sewage-sludge-based activated carbons were produced to study their CO2 adsorption capacity. Specifically, chemical activation with KOH and NaOH of previously pyrolyzed sewage sludge was carried out. The results obtained show that even with a low BET surface area, the adsorption capacity of these materials was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon. As a consequence, the use of sewage-sludge-based activated carbons is a promising option for the capture of CO2 and an interesting application for this waste.

  17. Concentration of Reovirus and Adenovirus from Sewage and Effluents by Protamine Sulfate (Salmine) Treatment 1 (United States)

    England, Beatrice


    Protamine sulfate was employed to recover reoviruses, adenoviruses, and certain enteroviruses from sewage and treated effluents; 50- to 400-fold concentration of viral content was achieved. PMID:4342842

  18. Characterization study on secondary sewage sludge for replacement in building materials (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Aziz, Nurul Sazwana A.; Hamdan, Rafidah; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri


    Recently, environmental issues continually increased since expanded in industrial development and grown in population. Regarding to this activity, it will cause lack management of waste such as solid waste from wastewater treatment plant called sewage sludge. This research presents the characteristic study of sewage sludge, regardless of whether it is appropriate or not to be applied as building materials. The sewage sludge samples were collected from secondary treatment at Senggarang and Perwira under Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) treatment plant. Raw materials were tested with X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in order to determine the composition of sewage sludge and heavy metal concentration contains in sewage sludge. From the study, it was found that sewage sludge contained high amount of Silica Oxide (SiO2) with 13.6%, Sulphur Trioxide (SO3) with 12.64% and Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) with 8.7% which is similar in clay. In addition, sewage sludge also high in Iron (Fe) with 276.2 mg/L followed by Zinc (Zn) with concentration 45.41 mg/L which sewage sludge cannot be directly disposed to landfill. Results from this study demonstrated that sewage sludge has high possibility to be reused as alternative building materials such as bricks and have compatible chemical composition with clay.

  19. Application of biochar to sewage sludge reduces toxicity and improve organisms growth in sewage sludge-amended soil in long term field experiment. (United States)

    Kończak, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk


    The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the physicochemical properties and toxicity of soil amended with sewage sludge (10tdw/ha) or sewage sludge (10tdw/ha) with biochar addition (2.5, 5 or 10% of sewage sludge). The study was carried out as a field experiment over a period of 18months. Samples for analysis were taken at the beginning of the experiment as well as after 6, 12 and 18months. The study investigated toxicity of the unamended soil, sewage sludge-amended soil and sewage sludge-amended soil with biochar addition towards Folsomia candida (collembolan test) and Lepidium sativum (Phytotoxkit F). Moreover, toxicity of aqueous extracts obtained from the tested soils towards Vibrio fischeri (Microtox®) and Lepidium sativum (elongation test) was determined. The study showed that addition of biochar to the sewage sludge and soil reduced leaching of nutrients (mainly phosphorus and potassium) from the amended soil. Biochar significantly reduced sewage sludge toxicity, exhibiting a stimulating effect on the tested organisms. The stimulating effect of biochar addition to the sewage sludge persisted throughout the entire experiment. Apart from the remediatory character of biochar, this is also evidence of its fertilizing character. In the tests with L. sativum (leachates and solid phase) and V. fischeri (leachates), increasing the rate of biochar in the sewage sludge increased root growth stimulation (L. sativum) and bacteria luminescence (V. fischeri). However, increasing biochar rate decreased F. candida reproduction stimulation, which could have been an effect of reduced nutrient bioavailability due to the biochar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Organics Characteristics of Sludge from a Full-Scale Anaerobic Digester Treating Domestic Mixed Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seswoya Roslinda


    Full Text Available Sewage sludge, normally in form of mixed sewage sludge is treated using anaerobic digester worldwide. In Malaysia, sewage sludge was categorized as domestic sewage sludge since sewage treatment plant treats only domestic sewage. The complex organic compounds in form of carbohydrates and proteins are transformed to methane during anaerobic digestion. The characteristics of complex organic compounds in domestic mixed sewage sludge are needed to assess the energy recovery form digesting domestic mixed sewage sludge. Besides that, it is common to use anaerobic biomass from existing anaerobic digester for the new setup of the anaerobic reactor. Therefore, this study was outlined to study the characteristics of domestic mixed sewage sludge and anaerobic biomass, particularly on the complex organic compounds. The complex organic compounds measured were carbohydrates and proteins. The higher complex organic solubilisation as a result of thermal pre-treatment was proven to improve the methane production. Therefore, in this study, the impact of low thermal pre-treatment in improving the organics solubilisation was assessed too. Low thermal pre-treatment at 70°C and 90°C at various treatment time were applied to the domestic mixed sewage sludge. The results indicated that the domestic sewage sludge and anaerobic biomass from a full-scale anaerobic digester contained complex organic compounds; existed mostly in form of particulate as shown by the low value of soluble to total ratio. Besides that, the low thermal treatment at 70°C and 90°C increased the organics solubilisation. Protein solubilisation was observed exceeded 8% after being treated for 20 min at both thermal treatments. However, the impact of low thermal treatment was better at 90°C, in which higher solubilisation was observed at longer treatment time.

  1. Effects of vegetation and sewage load on mangrove crab condition using experimental mesocosms (United States)

    Amaral, Valter; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Paula, José


    Constructed wetlands, especially mangroves, have been studied for their usefulness in sewage treatment but the effects of mangrove vegetation and a sewage load on mangrove macrofauna have been given little attention. Ocypodid crabs are important components of mangrove forests and constitute good bioindicators of the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. In constructed mangrove mesocosms, three vegetation treatments (bare substratum, and Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata seedlings) were subjected to 0, 20, 60 and 100% sewage loads from a nearby hotel. The physiological condition of introduced Uca annulipes and Uca inversa was evaluated in terms of their RNA/DNA ratio after one, five and twelve months, and used as an indicator of ecological function in the system. Crab condition in 0% sewage load was similar to that of wild crabs throughout, suggesting no significant effects of the mesocosms on their RNA/DNA ratio. Overall, both species coped well with the administered sewage loads, suggesting good ecological function in the system. Both species manifested similar patterns in RNA/DNA ratio, being more affected by seasonal fluctuations than by sewage load and vegetation presence and type. Higher RNA/DNA ratios were recorded in the long compared to the short rainy season. Sewage enhanced crab condition in the bare substratum and R. mucronata treatments, especially after one year, probably as a result of enhanced food availability. Uca inversa may be more sensitive to sewage pollution than U. annulipes. In A. marina, no difference in crab condition was observed between sewage loads, and this mangrove yielded the best reduction in sewage impacts. Our results support the usefulness of constructed mangrove areas in sewage treatment, especially if planted with A. marina and inhabited by physiologically healthy ocypodid crabs to enhance the system's performance.

  2. Response of benthic foraminifers to sewage discharge and remediation in Santa Monica Bay, California (United States)

    McGann, M.; Alexander, C.R.; Bay, S.M.


    Examination of a time series of foraminiferal assemblage distributions on the continental shelf and slope of Santa Monica Bay from 1955 to 1997-1998 suggests that the benthic microfauna have been greatly affected by the quality and character of the municipal sludge and wastewater discharged into the bay over the last half-century by the Hyperion Treatment Plant serving the greater Los Angeles area. Five species dominate both the living and dead foraminiferal assemblages of the 1997-1998 surface samples, including Eggerella advena, Trochammina pacifica, Bulimina denudata, Buliminella elegantissima, and Epistominella bradyana. Temporal patterns of relative species abundances for both living and dead assemblages, as well as toxicity tests measuring amphipod survival and sea urchin fertilization success, show improvement since the sewage treatment program was enhanced in 1986. None of these trends are evident 10 years earlier, coincident with the onset of a Pacific Decadal Oscillation warming trend. This fact suggests that remediation, and not climate change, is responsible for the faunal changes observed. Even with remediation, however, all foraminiferal faunal trends have not returned to early-outfall levels. The organic-waste indicating species T. pacifica shows a slow decline in abundance as sewage treatment and sludge disposal activities have improved, whereas a dramatic increase in the abundance of the pioneer colonizer of impacted regions, E. advena, has occurred, often with a reciprocal response by B. denudata. Also evident is a dramatic shift in the abundance of the once-dominant species Nonionella basispinata and Nonionella stella, which were unable to recolonize Santa Monica Bay since the two major outfalls (5- and 7-mile) began discharging. Temporal variations in species abundances, as well as range expansions, contractions, and the inability to recolonize areas previously, or presently, impacted, suggests that foraminifers are a useful tool in defining

  3. Health hazards related to Soba sewage treatment plant, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Osman Abdelwahab Abdelmoneim


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the health hazards acquired by the residents nearby Soba sewage treatment plant. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Soba locality, Khartoum, Sudan. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was assigned to 462 residents of the area living in four geographically distributed squares around the sewage plant. The data was analyzed in SPSS; Cronbach’s alpha reliability scale of measurement was used to check the internal validity of six variables related to the quality of life. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the health hazards and the quality of life. Among the 462 residents, difficulty in breathing (37.9% and nausea (37.2 were the principal health hazards. Moreover, the residents had a satisfactory level of awareness (88.7% about the health hazards. The utmost impact on the quality of life was psychological (97.2%. It was statistically correlated with the reported factors, which impacted the quality of life in the district as revealed by the Cronbach’s alpha reliability test with absenteeism (P=0.026, disability (P=0.014, socialization (P=0.032 and death (P=0.016. A logistic regression analysis revealed chemical hazards had a statistically significant association (P<0.05 with quality of life of the residents of Soba district. The study strongly entails the fact that sewage treatment plants crave exceptional consideration from the concerned responsible authorities, together with the fact that the evolved health threats should be confronted with immense responsibility as soon as possible.

  4. A reliable sewage quality abnormal event monitoring system. (United States)

    Li, Tianling; Winnel, Melissa; Lin, Hao; Panther, Jared; Liu, Chang; O'Halloran, Roger; Wang, Kewen; An, Taicheng; Wong, Po Keung; Zhang, Shanqing; Zhao, Huijun


    With closing water loop through purified recycled water, wastewater becomes a part of source water, requiring reliable wastewater quality monitoring system (WQMS) to manage wastewater source and mitigate potential health risks. However, the development of reliable WQMS is fatally constrained by severe contamination and biofouling of sensors due to the hostile analytical environment of wastewaters, especially raw sewages, that challenges the limit of existing sensing technologies. In this work, we report a technological solution to enable the development of WQMS for real-time abnormal event detection with high reliability and practicality. A vectored high flow hydrodynamic self-cleaning approach and a dual-sensor self-diagnostic concept are adopted for WQMS to effectively encounter vital sensor failing issues caused by contamination and biofouling and ensure the integrity of sensing data. The performance of the WQMS has been evaluated over a 3-year trial period at different sewage catchment sites across three Australian states. It has demonstrated that the developed WQMS is capable of continuously operating in raw sewage for a prolonged period up to 24 months without maintenance and failure, signifying the high reliability and practicality. The demonstrated WQMS capability to reliably acquire real-time wastewater quality information leaps forward the development of effective wastewater source management system. The reported self-cleaning and self-diagnostic concepts should be applicable to other online water quality monitoring systems, opening a new way to encounter the common reliability and stability issues caused by sensor contamination and biofouling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recovery of indigenous enteroviruses from raw and digested sewage sludges. (United States)

    Goddard, M R; Bates, J; Butler, M


    We examined different types of raw sewage sludge treatment, including consolidation, anaerobic mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, and aerobic-thermophilic digestion. Of these, the most efficient reduction in infectious virus titer was achieved by mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, although a pilot-scale aerobic-thermophilic digester was extremely time effective, producing sludges with similarly low virus titers in a small fraction of the time. Although none of the treatments examined consistently produced a sludge with undetectable virus levels, mesophilic digestion alone was found to be particularly unreliable in reducing the levels of infectious virus present in the raw sludge.

  6. Molecular detection of Aichi virus in raw sewage in Italy. (United States)

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Profio, Federica; Ceci, Chiara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Marsilio, Fulvio


    Aichi virus (AiV) is suspected to play a role in viral gastroenteritis in humans. In this study, we assessed the presence of AiV in untreated influent sewage samples collected at four wastewater treatment plants in central Italy. AiV was detected in 6 (12.5 %) of the 48 specimens and in all plants. All of the Italian strains showed the highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity to genotype B AiV detected recently in Asia, especially in China.

  7. Phytoextraction of heavy metal from sewage sludge by plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Bartlová


    Full Text Available In 2008 and 2009, studies made contents of cadmium and lead in the soil and their uptake by non-traditional plants were studied in a small-plot trial. At the same time also the effect of bio-algeen preparations on phytoextraction of heavy metals by these plants was investigated. Experimental plots were established on the reclaimed land after closing down mining operations in the town of Žacléř (North-East Bohemia where a layer of sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant 0.6–0.8 m thick was subsequently applied. The locality is situated in the altitude of 612 m, its average annual temperature is about 6.8 °C and the mean annual precipitations are 857 mm. Analyses revealed higher concentrations of heavy metals in the applied sewage sludge. The average concentrations of lead and cadmium were 180 mg . kg−1 and 6.89 mg . kg−1, respectively. The experiment had two variants: Variant 1 – sewage sludge without any other substances, and Variant 2 – sewage sludge + bio-algeen preparations (B. A. S-90 or B. A. Root Concentrate. To find the most suitable plant species for the phytoextraction of cadmium and lead, the following non-traditional plants were cultivated in both variants: fodder mallow (Malva verticillata L., rye (Secale cereale L. var. multicaule METZG. ex ALEF. and white sweet clover (Melilotus alba MEDIC.. The highest accumulation of cadmium and lead in the aboveground biomass was found out in rye, viz 14.89 mg . kg−1 DM and 14.89 mg . kg−1 DM of Cd and Pb, respectively., As compared with other plants under study, white sweet clover exhibited the significantly lowest capability to extract both heavy metals from soil (viz 0.22 and 3.20 mg . kg−1 DM of Cd and Pb, respectively. A positive effect of bio-algeen on phytoextraction of cadmium and lead was evident in all plants. The highest yield of aboveground biomass was recorded on the plot with white sweet clover with added


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.


    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  9. Campus Sewage Treatment in Multilayer Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Shaoyuan; Lyu, Tao; Ding, Yanli


    Horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) are widely use for wastewater treatment. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of substrate-size selection and layout optimization on pollutant removal and microbial-community-distribution responses in HSCWs. Three pilot......-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) are established at Guilin University of Technology, China, to treat campus sewage. The three CWs include monolayer (CW1), three-layer (CW2), and six-layer (CW3) substrate structures with the hydraulic conductivity of the substrate increasing from the surface to the bottom...

  10. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley


    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Młyńska


    Full Text Available Both too large and too small volume of sewage inflowing to wastewater treatment plant in relation to its volume determined during designing process, can contribute to the reduction of sewage treatment effectiveness. Taking into consideration, in this article, the analysis of the sewage quantity discharging from the Sanok agglomeration and treated in domestic wastewater treatment plant in 2013-2015 was performed. The analysis indicated that in each year of the analyzed period, to the Wastewater Treatment Plant in Trepcza, a similar volumes of sewage was inflowing and the maximum hydraulic capacity of the object was not exceeded, what is evidenced by the average daily sewage flow values. It is noted that in rainless periods, the quantities of inflowing sewage were smaller than during days with wet weather. Despite of periodically situations of the hydraulic overload and hydraulic underload, it can be stated that the effectiveness of the sewage treatment processes is not endangered by the excessive or insufficient quantities of inflowing sewage.

  12. Sewage reuse for aquaculture after treatment in oxidation and duckweed pond. (United States)

    Ghangrekar, M M; Kishor, N; Mitra, A


    The benefits of treating sewage by pond systems offer, through a simple and low-cost technology, social and commercial benefits, from the waste raw materials. The objective of this work was to demonstrate an effective treatment of the sewage by using natural treatment systems, and use of treated wastewater for aquaculture. The study was conducted for the sewage generated from the IIT Kharagpur campus. After characterization of the sewage, laboratory scale experiments were conducted for treatment using oxidation pond and duckweed pond. Survival and growth of fishes were observed in the experimental ponds using treated sewage. Based on the experimental results, full-scale treatment plant was designed to meet the aquaculture water quality. From the economics of the proposed full-scale plant, and utilization of the treated sewage for aquaculture, it is estimated that, the amount of Rs. 20,0000 can be generated every year. This amount recovered from the aquaculture will be more than the operating cost of the treatment plant, hence, making the operation of sewage treatment plant self sufficient. Use of a UASB reactor as the first stage treatment before sewage passes to the oxidation pond, can be a more attractive alternative because of less land requirement as compared to the oxidation pond alone, and additional land can be made available for aquaculture to increase revenue.

  13. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ash (SSA), a material which is rich in ph...

  14. Increasing the Environmental Sustainability of Sewage Treatment by Mitigating Pollutant Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.


    The current centralized systems for sewage treatment are highly efficient with respect to the removal of COD and nutrients and the production of an effluent that can be discharged on surface water. However, from an environmental point of view the sewage treatment process is still far from being

  15. Sewage characterisation as a tool for the application of anaerobic treatment in Palestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.; Naser Amarneh, M.; Al-Sa'ed, R.; Zeeman, G.


    Adequate knowledge on sewage characteristics is a prerequisite for selection and sizing of anaerobic treatment technologies, i.e. Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems. Composite sewage samples were collected from three locations in Ramallah/Al-Bireh district and analysed for several

  16. Treatment of sewage sludges reduction of pollutants; Tratamiento de lodos residuales reduccion de contaminantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno A, J


    Considering the experiences of the Nuclear Research National Institute (ININ) in the treatment of sewage sludge, using gamma radiation it pretends to develop on a laboratory level and to propose the treatment: irradiation-composting of sewage sludge in order to degrade chemical toxic and destruction or inactivation of pathogenic organisms. (Author)

  17. Climate change impact on infection risks during bathing downstream of sewage emissions from CSOs or WWTPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, Ankie; de Man, Heleen; Schijven, Jack F; de Nijs, Ton; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria


    Climate change is expected to influence infection risks while bathing downstream of sewage emissions from combined sewage overflows (CSOs) or waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) due to changes in pathogen influx, rising temperatures and changing flow rates of the receiving waters. In this study,

  18. Anaerobic sewage treatment in a one-stage UASB reactor and a combined UASB Digester system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Gijzen, H.J.; Lettinga, G.


    The treatment of sewage at 15°C was investigated in a one-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a UASB-Digester system. The latter consists of a UASB reactor complemented with a digester for mutual sewage treatment and sludge stabilisation. The UASB reactor was operated at a

  19. Effects of municipal sewage sludge doses on the yield, some yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant grain yield increase to applied municipal sewage sludge was obtained. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of the different doses municipal sewage sludge application on the heavy metal concentrations, yield and quality of dry bean in the 2006 and 2007 years. The trial was conducted in ...


    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tran...

  1. Sewage disposal methods in a sub-urban community in Edo state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost half 49.7% (149/300) used the pit latrine, 33.3% (100/300) used water closet, 14.3% (43/300) used VIP latrine while 2.7% (8/300) respondents practiced open defaecation as sewage disposal methods. There was a statistically significant association between the method of sewage disposal and the level of education ...

  2. Analysis of Combustion Process of Sewage Sludge in Reference to Coals and Biomass (United States)

    Środa, Katarzyna; Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka


    Production of sewage sludge is an inseparable part of the treatment process. The chemical and sanitary composition of sewage sludge flowing into the treatment plant is a very important factor determining the further use of the final product obtained in these plants. The sewage sludge is characterized by heterogeneity and multi-components properties, because they have characteristics of the classical and fertilizer wastes and energetic fuels. The thermal utilization of sewage sludge is necessary due to the unfavorable sanitary characteristics and the addition of the industrial sewage. This method ensures use of sewage sludge energy and return of expenditure incurred for the treatment of these wastes and their disposal. Sewage sludge should be analyzed in relation to conventional fuels (coals and biomass). They must comply with the applicable requirements, for example by an appropriate degree of dehydration, which guarantee the stable and efficient combustion. This paper takes the issue of the combustion process of the different sewage sludge and their comparison of the coal and biomass fuels.

  3. Incinerated sewage sludge ash as alternative binder in cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Goltermann, Per; Hodicky, Kamil


    Sewage sludge ash is characterized by its pozzolanic properties, as cement is. This predetermines its use in a substitution of cement and cementitious materials. Utilization of sewage sludge ash does not only decrease the consumption of cement, one of the largest cause of CO2 emissions, but also ...

  4. Monometal and competitive adsorption of heavy metals by sewage sludge-amended soils (United States)

    Sewage sludge-amended soils may alter their ability to adsorb heavy metals over time, due to the decomposition of sludge-borne organic matter. Thus, we studied Cd, Ni, and Zn adsorption by a sewage sludge-amended soil (Typic Xerofluvent) before and after one-year incubation in both monometal and com...

  5. Assessment of trace metals in sewage water and sludge from River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of trace metals in sewage water and sludge samples from River Kubanni drainage basin in Zaria City, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The drainage basin is utilized as a source for irrigation water, during dry seasons. The sewage water quality characteristics in three month sampling periods, that ...

  6. Effect of sewage sludge and synthetic fertilizer on pH, available N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated sewage sludge from the aerobically-digested treatment and synthetic fertilizer were used to determine total N, available P and pH in different soil depth of pasture in semi arid ecological condition, in Van, Turkey. The study was carried out in a completely randomized block. Four treatment of sewage sludge, one ...

  7. Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB–digester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei Zhang,; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Kampman, C.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.


    The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB–digester system. A pilot scale UASB–digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Smyk


    Full Text Available The article presents a comparison of the share fraction of COD in raw wastewater in treatment plants which flow in a small amount of wastewater and the sewage treatment with high flow. Compared the constructed wetlands with an average capacity of 4 dm3/m,, the treatment plant with biological deposits with an average capacity of 8 dm3/m, and a sewage treatment plant with activated sludge in Bialystok with a capacity of about 70 000 dm3/m. The lowest percentages of dissolved fraction of soluble organic non-biodegradable substances SI was reported in raw sewage in small sewage treatment plants. Based on the available data wasn’t found significant correlation between the factions XI, SS, XS in raw sewage and the amount of wastewater.

  9. Emission reduction in thermal processes for sewage sludge disposal; Emissionsreduzierung bei thermischen Verfahren zur Klaerschlammentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nethe, L.P. [Maerker Umwelttechnik GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)


    Owing to the intensification of treatment processes and the construction of new sewage plants sewage arisings are due to rise considerably. The thermal treatment of sewage sludge which it has not been possible to avoid or utilise is an important and indispensable part of any sewage sludge disposal concept. If equipped with a state-of-the-art flue gas purification process that uses carbonaceous adsorbents (Sorbalit trademark), thermal treatment of sewage sludge can be regarded as an environmentally safe process technique. [Deutsch] Die anfallenden Klaerschlammengen werden durch die Intensivierung der Klaerprozesse und der Bau neuer Klaeranlagen deutlich zunehmen. Die thermische Behandlung nicht vermiedener oder verwerteter Klaerschlaemme stellt einen bedeutenden und unverzichtbaren Teil der Klaerschlamm-Entsorgungskonzepte dar. Bei Installation einer - dem Stand der Technik - entsprechenden Rauchgasreinigung mit dem Einsatz kohlenstoffhaltiger Adsorbentien (Sorbalit {sup trademark}) ist die thermische Behandlung von Klaerschlamm eine umweltsichere Verfahrenstechnik. (orig.)

  10. Management of sewage sludge and mineral nitrogen in soil fertility over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Figueiredo Lobo


    Full Text Available The use of sewage sludge is a practice highly promising for the development of sustainable agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to assess the improvement in soil fertility management strategies on different sewage sludge and mineral nitrogen after seven application of this residue. The experiment was carried at the São Manuel Experimental Farm belonging to the faculty of Agronomic Sciences of UNESP, Botucatu, located in the county of São Manuel. It was adopted the experimental design in a randomized blocks consisting of six treatments and five repetitions defined as follows: T0 – without nitrogen fertilizer, T1 – mineral fertilizer nitrogen according to the crop needs, T2 – 50% nitrogen from sewage sludge and 50% in the form of chemical fertilizer, T3 – 100% of nitrogen recommended by the culture, from sewage sludge, T4 - 150% of nitrogen recommended by the culture, from sewage sludge and T5 – 200% of the nitrogen from the sewage sludge. It has done seven application of sewage sludge in crop (year 1 – sunflower, year 2 sunflower, year 3 – oats and bean, year 4 – triticale and sunflower, year 5 – wheat and the first three applications were treated with sewage sludge and the other applications were composted sludge. In the depth 0-20 cm, the sewage sludge promoted an increase in levels of organic matter, P, S, H+Al, CEC and decreased in soil pH. In the depth of 20 to 40 cm the sewage sludge promoted a decrease in pH and increase in soil organic matter, P, H+Al, K, Ca, SB, CEC and S. Mineral N influence the increase in the depth S of 20-40 cm.

  11. Nitrogen compounds in drain sewage after constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Paweska, K; Malczewska, B


    Constructed wetlands, commonly known as ground filters, are well suited mostly for wastewater treatment in areas with no central sewage system. The basic difficulty with exploitation of constructed wetlands is connected with irregular hydraulic overload of its surface. However, irregular wastewater inflow can be reduced by cyclical irrigation which increases efficiency. The unquestionable advantage of the constructed wetlands is inexpensive construction and exploitation as well as low energy consumption. The constructed wetlands also fit very well in surrounding area. The investigation concerned the analysis of two constructed wetlands which are composed of mechanical separation (septic tank) and a filter bed with subsurface flow. The research has been undertaken in a period from July to December 2008, with regard to concentration distribution of nitrogen compounds in municipal sewage after constructed wetlands. The preliminary investigation on constructed wetland which has been exploited for 10 years showed variable removal efficiency of nitrogen compounds. The continuation of the research can indicate the efficiency of wastewater treatment in summer and winter season.

  12. Performance of a Novel Decentralised Sewage Treatment Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sheng Shen


    Full Text Available A novel decentralised sewage treatment reactor (DSTR for treating domestic sewage in rural areas was designed and investigated. The reactor was started aerobically after inoculation with biomass; the amount of initial mixed liquid suspended solids was 1.5 g/L. Oxygen was supplied to the reactor and the dissolved oxygen concentration was maintained at 1.3 ± 0.2 mg/L. The pollutant removal performance was investigated, and the average removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD, NH4+-N, suspended solids, and turbidity were 76%, 77.15%, 84.17%, and 83.93%, respectively. The DSTR exhibited good performance compared with the traditional activated sludge (AS reactor. The resistance to impact load of the DSTR was superior to that of the AS reactor during surface load experiments. During the 120 days of operation, no sludge bulking was observed. The DSTR effluent NH4+-N and TCOD levels were a little higher than those for the AS reactor, but the disparity was not major.

  13. Supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge in continuous reactor. (United States)

    Amrullah, Apip; Matsumura, Yukihiko


    In this study, a process for the continuous recovery of phosphorus and generation of gas from sewage sludge is investigated for the first time using supercritical water gasification (SCWG). A continuous reactor was employed and experiments were conducted by varying the temperature (500-600 °C) and residence time (5-60 s) while fixing the pressure at 25 MPa. The behavior of phosphorus during the SCWG process was studied. The effect of the temperature and time on the composition of the product gas was also investigated. A model of the reaction kinetics for the SCWG of sewage sludge was developed. The organic phosphorus (OP) was rapidly converted into inorganic phosphorus (IP) within a short residence time of 10 s. The gaseous products were mainly composed of H2, CO2, and CH4. The reaction followed first order kinetics, and the model was found to fit the experimental data well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbowski


    Full Text Available Due fast biomass production, high affinity for N and P and possibilities to CO2 sequestration microalgae are currently in the spotlight, especially in renewable energy technologies sector. The majority of studies focus their attention on microalgae cultivation with respect to biomass production. Fuel produced from algal biomass can contribute to reducing consumption of conventional fossil fuels and be a remedy for a rising energy crisis and global warming induced by air pollution. Some authors opt for possibilities of using sewage as a nutrient medium in algae cultivation. Other scientists go one step further and present concepts to introduce microalgal systems as an integral part of wastewater treatment plants. High costs of different microalgal harvesting methods caused introduction of the idea of algae immobilization in a form of periphyton on artificial substrates. In the present study the attention has focused on possibilities of using waste materials as substrates to proliferation of periphyton in biologically treated sewage that contained certain amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus.

  15. Extraction and precipitation of phosphorus from sewage sludge. (United States)

    Shiba, Nothando Cynthia; Ntuli, Freeman


    Raw sewage sludge from East Rand Water Care Association (ERWAT) had high phosphorus (P) content, approximately 15.2% (w/w) P 2 O 5 , which indicates a potential resource for the limiting nutrient. Leaching sewage sludge with 1M sulphuric acid at 5% solid loading for 2h resulted in an 82% phosphorus extraction. However, the phosphorus was recovered as iron phosphates, thus a further purification step using ion exchange to remove iron was required to increase the degree of P release. Magnesium oxide and ammonium hydroxide were used as magnesium and nitrogen sources, respectively, as well as pH regulators to precipitate P as struvite. 57% struvite was precipitated and the total phosphorus content of the precipitate was 25.9%. Kinetic studies showed that the leaching of phosphorus follows the Dickinson model for the first 100min with a rate of reaction of about 2×10 -5 s -1 . The rate limiting step is controlled by diffusion. Phosphorus solubility in 2% critic acid was almost 96%, which is the amount of phosphorus available to plants if the precipitate is applied as a fertiliser. Environmental, gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were found in the precipitate, which are harmless to the environment since they already exist in the soil where the precipitate can be applied as a fertiliser. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mineralogy and leachability of gasified sewage sludge solid residues. (United States)

    Hernandez, Ana Belén; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry; Chaurand, Perrine; Saveyn, Hans; Borschneck, Daniel; Roche, Nicolas


    Gasification of sewage sludge produces combustible gases as well as tar and a solid residue as by-products. This must be taken into account when determining the optimal thermal conditions for the gasification process. In this study, the influence of temperature, heating atmosphere and residence time on the characteristics of the gasified sewage sludge residues is investigated. ICP-AES analyses reveal that the major chemical elements in the char residues are phosphorus, calcium, iron and silicon. Heavy metals such as copper, zinc, chromium, nickel and lead are also present at relatively high levels - from 50 to more than 1000 mg/kg of dry matter. The major mineral phases' identification - before and after heating - as well as their morphology and approximate chemistry (XRD and SEM-EDX) demonstrate that a number of transformations take place during gasification. These are influenced by the reactor's temperature and the oxidative degree of its internal atmosphere. The copper-, zinc- and chromium-bearing phases are studied using chemometric tools, showing that the distribution of those metals among the mineral phases is considerably different. Finally, batch-leaching tests reveal that metals retained in the residue are significantly stabilized after thermal treatment to a higher or lower extent, depending on the thermal conditions applied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Selected heavy metals speciation in chemically stabilised sewage sludge (United States)

    Wiśniowska, Ewa; Włodarczyk-Makuła, Marła


    Selected heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd) were analysed in soil, digested sewage sludge as well as in the sludge stabilised with CaO or Fenton's reagent. The dose of Fenton's reagent was as follows: Fe2+ = 1g.L-1, Fe2+/H2O2=1:100; stabilisation lasted for 2 h. Dose of CaO was equal to 1 g CaO.g d.m.-1 Total concentration of all metals in the digested sewage sludge was higher than in the soil. Chemical stabilisation of sludge with Fenton's reagent increased total metal content in the sludge as a result of total solids removal. Opposite effect was stated when the sludge was mixed with CaO. Also chemical fractions of heavy metals were identified (exchangeable, carbonate bound, iron oxides bound, organic and residual). The results indicate that stabilisation of the sludge with Fenton's reagent increased mobility of heavy metals compared to the digested sludge. Amendment of CaO increased percent share of examined metals in residual fraction, thus immobilised them and decreased their bioavailability.

  18. Properties of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri


    The production of sludge in wastewater treatment plant is about to increase every year and most of the sludge was directly disposed to landfill. In addition, the constraint to treat sludge is very high in cost and time- consuming could be disadvantages to the responsible parties. Therefore, this research was conducted to utilize sludge produced from the wastewater treatment plant into fired clay brick as one of the alternatives of disposal method. In this study, the research attempt to incorporate sewage sludge waste (SSW) into fired clay brick. The sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of SSW. The manufactured bricks were fired at 1050°C with heating rate of 1°C/min. Physical and mechanical properties test were conducted such as shrinkage, density, water absorption and compressive strength. As the conclusion, brick with utilization 5% of SSW is acceptable to produce good quality of brick. This study shows by using SSW in fired clay brick could be an alternative method to dispose of the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  19. Mercury pollution from irrigation with treated sewage water (TSW). (United States)

    Pillay, A E; Yaghi, B; Williams, J R; Al-Kindy, S


    The lack of potable water in arid countries leads to the use of treated sewage water (TSW) for crop growth. Mercury accumulation (up to 500 ng/g) in agricultural soil originating from daily irrigation with TSW was found at two sites fed separately from a hospital sewage plant and an industrial plant. A control site irrigated with potable water ([Hg] irrigation with comparatively higher Hg levels. Remedial measures could be approached from the perspective of curbing this inconsistency to produce more consistent Hg concentrations below 0.5 ng/ml. It was found that the electrical conductivity of TSW is a useful indicator to rapidly monitor fluctuations in treatment. A novel development in the study was the potential capacity of the plastic TSW discharge-pipes to behave as crude 'chromatographic' columns for possible Hg adsorption. If this property of the pipes is developed further it could have a considerable mitigating effect on the Hg levels. Possible recommendations for remediation to limit the Hg levels and promote sustainable development are discussed.

  20. Co-combustion of sewage sludge; Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, K.J. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfallwirtschaft


    Thermal sewage disposal pursues the following aims: destruction of organic pollutants contained in the sludge; concentration and removal or almost complete fixation of inorganic pollutants in the residue matrix; minimisation of the mass solid residue; production of useful products; utilisation of the caloric content. The thermal treatment chain should be as short as possible; intermediate stages in separate reactors such as digestion, drying, degasification or gasification should be avoided if the material is ultimately to be combusted. The present paper examines and assesses the co-combustion of sewage sludge. [Deutsch] Mit der thermischen Klaerschlammentsorgung werden folgende Ziele verfolgt: - Zerstoerung der im Schlamm enthaltenen organischen Schadstoffe, - Konzentration und Ausschleusung oder weitestgehende Fixierung der anorganischen Schadstoffe in die Reststoffmatrix, - Minimierung der Masse an festen Restabfaellen, - Herstellung verwertbarer Produkte, - Nutzung des Waermeeinhalts. Die thermische Behandlungskette sollte moeglichst kurz sein; Zwischenschritte wie Faulung, Trocknung, Ent- oder Vergasung in getrennten Reaktoren sollten vermieden werden, wenn letztendlich doch verbrannt wird. Das Verfahren der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm wird hier untersucht und bewertet. (orig./SR)

  1. The Production of Sewage Biogas and its Use for Energy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Silva, Orlando Cristiano; Pecora, Vanessa; Abreu, Fernando Castro [Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil). IEE/CENBIO - Brazilian National Biomass Reference Center


    The project proposal of sewage use to produce biogas as fuel to generate electric energy is a commitment of CENBIO (Brazilian National Biomass Reference Center). It is one between others projects developed by Sao Paulo University Program named PUREFA (Program of Rational Energy Use and Alternative Sources), which aims to increase the renewable energy participation in University's energetic matrix, as well as it allows new perspectives to renewable energy employment in Brazil. In this context, this abstract presents a pilot project for biogas conversion in Brazil. The project aims to increase the biogas conversion efficiency, by using it as fuel to produce electricity. The biogas is generated in the University campus, in a Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket biodigestor, fed in this project, with liquid effluents provided by residential buildings, located in the University, presenting a mass flow rate equivalent to 3 m{sup 3}/h.This project is under development and the results will provide information about biodigestor's operational conditions, defining appropriate areas where it could be applicable. The most important environmental contribution associated to this project is the mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions, especially verified trough methane conversion in carbon dioxide, which presents a dangerous level around twenty times lower than methane.

  2. Condition assessment survey of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) in Hawaii. (United States)

    Babcock, Roger W; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Cummings, Michael J; Cheong, Gloria H


    Onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) are the third leading cause of groundwater contamination in the USA. The existing condition of OSDSs in the State of Hawaii was investigated to determine whether a mandatory management program should be implemented. Based on observed conditions, OSDSs were differentiated into four categories: 'pass', 'sludge scum', 'potential failure' and 'fail'. Of all OSDSs inspected, approximately 68% appear to be in good working condition while the remaining 32% are failing or are in danger of failing. Homeowner interviews found that 80% of OSDSs were not being serviced in any way. About 70% of effluent samples had values of total-N and total-P greater than typical values and 40% had total suspended solids (TSS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) greater than typical values. The performance of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) was no better than septic tanks and cesspools indicating that the State's approach of requiring but not enforcing maintenance contracts for ATUs is not working. In addition, effluent samples from OSDSs located in drinking water wells estimated 2-year capture zones had higher average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and total-P than units outside of these zones, indicating the potential for contamination. These findings suggest the need to introduce a proactive, life-cycle OSDS management program in the State of Hawaii.

  3. Sewage contamination in the upper Mississippi River as measured by the fecal sterol, coprostanol (United States)

    Writer, J.H.; Leenheer, J.A.; Barber, L.B.; Amy, G.L.; Chapra, S.C.


    The molecular sewage indicator, coprostanol, was measured in bed sediments of the Mississippi River for the purpose of determining sewage contamination. Coprostanol is a non-ionic, non-polar, organic molecule that associates with sediments in surface waters, and concentrations of coprostanol in bed sediments provide an indication of long-term sewage loads. Because coprostanol concentrations are dependent on particle size and percent organic carbon, a ratio between coprostanol (sewage sources) and cholestanol + cholesterol (sewage and non-sewage sources) was used to remove the biases related to particle size and percent organic carbon. The dynamics of contaminant transport in the Upper Mississippi River are influenced by both hydrologic and geochemical parameters. A mass balance model incorporating environmental parameters such as river and tributary discharge, suspended sediment concentration, fraction of organic carbon, sedimentation rates, municipal discharges and coprostanol decay rates was developed that describes coprostanol concentrations and therefore, expected patterns of municipal sewage effects on the Upper Mississippi River. Comparison of the computed and the measured coprostanol concentrations provides insight into the complex hydrologic and geochemical processes of contaminant transport and the ability to link measured chemical concentrations with hydrologic characteristics of the Mississippi River.

  4. Application of Hydrothermal Treatment to High Concentrated Sewage Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Orikawa


    Full Text Available Tomato and seaweed were produced by utilizing CO2 and heat discharged from power generation using biogas in Toyogawa biomass park, Japan. The biogas was obtained by anaerobic digestion with hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal treatment was applied to the high concentrated sewage sludge (22 % total solids (TS dewatered sludge. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the qualities of high concentrated sewage sludge, by analyzing particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. The hydrothermal treatment was investigated under 10-60 min of treatment time, 180-200 °C of temperature, 10-22 %-TS of sewage sludge concentration. The results showed that the DOC in each conditions increased through hydrothermal treatment. The highest DOC obtained was 67 % of total carbon concentration, when the temperature was 180 °C, treatment time was 60 min and sewage sludge concentration was 10 %-TS. Furthermore, the viscosity of treated sewage sludge was decreased by hydrothermal treatment. In batch anaerobic digestion test, methane gas production was confirmed. In addition, this study evaluated the energy balance of this system. Thus, the results of this study indicated that the possibility of application of hydrothermal treatment to high concentrated sewage sludge for anaerobic digestion process. Keywords: anaerobic reaction, hydrothermal treatment, sewage sludge, solubilization

  5. Analysis of material and energy flow in sewage treatment facilities in Japan. (United States)

    Goto, N; Hu, H Y; Lim, B R; Fujie, K


    Energy consumption in sewage treatment facilities in Japan has increased due to increasing tap water consumption. To reduce the resource/energy consumption in sewage treatment facilities, measures such as the selection of optimum treatment processes and operating conditions should be considered. The objective of this study is to gather information necessary for the determination of optimum sewage treatment processes and optimum operating conditions. The energy consumption and material flow in sewage treatment facilities in Japan are analyzed using statistical data. In 1994, reuse rate of treated sewage outside the treatment facilities in Japan was 18% of the amount of domestic treated water. In this regard, reuse of water outside facilities should be encouraged. Average electric power consumption per unit volume of wastewater in sewage treatment facilities varies widely from facility to facility and closely correlates with the facility scale. For example, the smaller the facility scale, the larger the electric power consumption. Treatment volume of sewage in smaller facilities is much less than their capacity. 3.7 million t year-1 of dehydration cake is incinerated and 0.1 million t year-1 of it is converted by composting. The recycle rate of the cake was low. Developing a new sludge treatment process other than incineration is necessary.

  6. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions during storage of dewatered digested sewage sludge. (United States)

    Willén, Agnes; Rodhe, Lena; Pell, Mikael; Jönsson, Håkan


    This study investigated the effect on greenhouse gas emissions during storage of digested sewage sludge by using a cover during storage or applying sanitisation measures such as thermophilic digestion or ammonia addition. In a pilot-scale storage facility, nitrous oxide and methane emissions were measured on average twice monthly for a year, using a closed chamber technique. The thermophilically digested sewage sludge (TC) had the highest cumulative emissions of nitrous oxide (1.30% of initial total N) followed by mesophilically digested sewage sludge stored without a cover (M) (0.34%) and mesophilically digested sewage sludge stored with a cover (MC) (0.19%). The mesophilically digested sewage sludge sanitised with ammonia and stored with a cover (MAC) showed negligible cumulative emissions of nitrous oxide. Emissions of methane were much lower from TC and MAC than from M and MC. These results indicate that sanitisation by ammonia treatment eliminates the production of nitrous oxide and reduces methane emissions from stored sewage sludge, and that thermophilic digestion has the potential to reduce the production of methane during storage compared with mesophilic digestion. The results also indicate a tendency for lower emissions of nitrous oxide and higher emissions of methane from covered sewage sludge compared with non-covered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Acid buffer capacity of sewage sludge barrier for immobilization of heavy metals]. (United States)

    Zhang, Hu-Yuan; Ju, Yuan-Yuan; Fan, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Bao


    Employing the anaerobic activities of microorganisms, sewage sludge can be used as a barrier to immobilize the heavy metals leached from tailings. Due to the interactions between sewage sludge barrier and acid mine drainage (AMD), it is possible that the heavy metals that have been immobilized previously might be released out. The acid buffering capacity (ABC) of sewage sludge suspensions with various anaerobic incubation time and the effect of ABC on the mobility of heavy metals were investigated by acid titration tests. Test results showed that ABC of sewage sludge suspensions was increased with the solid-liquid ratio of the suspensions and the anaerobic incubation time, and that carbonate and organics play an important role in acid buffer of sewage sludge suspensions. During the acid titration test, Zn, Pb and Cu were released out obviously following the order of Zn > Cu > Pb as pH was decreased less than 6.2. A mathematical model was established to predict the ABC consumption of the sewage sludge barrier under AMD penetration condition. The simulation results showed that a sewage sludge barrier with 2.0 m thickness, even undergoing 666-years acidification by AMD under 10.0 m water head, can maintain a condition of pH > or = 6.2 and, therefore, keep immobilize the heavy metals of AMD in the barrier.

  8. Comparative performance of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion for high-solid sewage sludge. (United States)

    Hidaka, Taira; Wang, Feng; Togari, Taketo; Uchida, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Yutaka


    In local cities, many small sewage and waste treatment facilities are operated independently. To encourage processing by anaerobic digestion at a centralized sewage treatment plant (STP), high-solid sewage sludge is helpful because it reduces the energy and cost required for transporting the sludge from other STPs. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at total solids concentrations (TS) of 7.5% and 10% were evaluated using laboratory-scale continuous reactors. Under the mesophilic condition, sewage sludge of 10% TS was successfully treated. Under the thermophilic condition, sewage sludge of 7.5% TS was not successfully treated when the total ammonia concentration was over 2000 mg N/L. Batch experiments showed that it takes a few weeks for the methane fermentation activity to recover after being inhibited. The effectiveness of adding easily biodegradable organic matter was confirmed. These results show that high-solid sewage sludge is suitable for small facilities by controlling the operating conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant. (United States)

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C


    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada (United States)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn


    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  11. Disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water by electron beam radiation (United States)

    Maruthi, Y. Avasn; Das, N. Lakshmana; Hossain, Kaizar; Sarma, K. S. S.; Rawat, K. P.; Sabharwal, S.


    The efficacy of electron beam radiation for the disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water was assessed with ILU-6 Accelerator at Radiation Technology Development Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai India. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general, sewage water comprises heterogeneous organic based chemicals as well as pathogens. EB treatment of the wastewater has found to be very effective in reducing the pathogens as well as organic load. EB dose of 1.5 kGy was sufficient for complete elimination of total coli forms. The experimental results elucidated the reduction of biological oxygen demand—BOD (35 and 51.7%) in both inlet and outlet sewage samples. Similarly reduction of chemical oxygen demand—COD was observed (37.54 and 52.32%) in both sewage samples with respect to increase in irradiation doses (0.45-6 kGy). The present study demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation for disinfection of sewage and to increase the water quality of the wastewater by decreasing BOD and COD. So, the irradiation sewage water can find its application either in agriculture for irrigation, in industry for cooling purpose and some selected domestic purposes.

  12. Modelling the Steady State of Sewage Networks as a Support Tool for Their Planning and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Petriczek


    Full Text Available Fundamental questions connected with the modelling of communal sewage networks have been considered and formulas used to model the functioning of the basic network have been analyzed. The problem described concerns gravitational sewage networks divided by nodes into branches and sectors. Simulation of the steady state functioning of sewage networks is commonly carried out on the basis of nomograms in the form of charts, in which the relations between network parameters like channel diameters, flow rates, hydraulic slopes and flow velocities are described. In traditional design, the values of such parameters are simply read from such nomogram chart tables. Another way of simulating the functioning of a network is the use of professional software, like SWMM, that models sewage flows along the channels by means of differential equations de-scribing the movement of fluids. In both approaches, the user is a mechanical operator of a "black box" procedure. In this paper, another way of simulating the functioning of sewage net-works has been presented. Numerical solutions of nonlinear equations describing the physical phenomena of sewage flows are applied and explained. The presented algorithms were developed to model the steady state of a sewage network enabling a quick analysis of the network parameters and the possibility of fast, simple and comprehensible network modeling and design. (original abstract

  13. Biomass and Yield of Peanut Grown on Tropical Soil Amended with Sewage Sludge Contaminated with Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camilotti


    Full Text Available Application of sewage sludge with high lead (Pb contents may pollute soils and contaminate crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate peanut responses to application of sewage sludge with varying Pb contents in order to supply phosphorus (P to the plant. A greenhouse experiment was carried out with peanut grown on soil sample from a medium-textured Haplustox. Treatments were arranged in 3 × 2 + 2 factorial scheme, replicated three times, distributed in randomized block design, and consisted of: three Pb rates applied to soil with sewage sludge (3, 21, and 42 mg kg−1 × two times of sewage sludge application (30 days before peanut sowing and at the day of the sowing + mineral fertilization + control (without sewage sludge and mineral fertilization. Sewage sludge was efficient to supply P to peanut. Sewage sludge containing high rates of Pb, when applied, did not harm biomass and yield of the plant, but increased HCl-extractable Pb in soil and Pb content in shoot, roots, and pod husks. Increase of Pb content in pod husks may represent contamination risk of kernels and their products with fragments from husks detached during manipulation or industrial processing of peanuts.

  14. Exposure to bioaerosols in a municipal sewage treatment plant. (United States)

    Prazmo, Zofia; Krysinska-Traczyk, Ewa; Skorska, Czeslawa; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek


    Microbiological air sampling was performed in a medium-size sewage treatment plant processing municipal wastewater from a city located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the concentrations of viable mesophilic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, thermophilic actinomycetes, fungi and endotoxin were collected at 12 sites associated with various phases of sewage treatment process. The concentrations of total mesophilic bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative) were within a range of 2.4-70.7 x 10(2) cfu/m(3). Gram-positive coryneform bacteria and cocci were dominant, forming respectively 56.6 % and 24.0 % of the total count. The concentrations of Gram-negative bacteria, thermophilic actinomycetes, and fungi were respectively within ranges of 0.2-5.7 x 10(2) cfu/m(3), 0-0.5 x 10(2) cfu/m(3), and 0.24-1.4 x 10(2) cfu/m(3). Among Gram-negative bacteria, commonly occurred Enterobacter cloacae (17.3 % of the total count), followed by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (16.2 %), Pseudomonas spp. (14.0 %) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (11.1 %). Among thermophilic actinomycetes prevailed Thermoactinomyces thalpophilus (47.2 %) and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris (22.2 %), while among fungi, Geotrichum candidum (32.2 %), Penicillium spp. (20 %), Cladosporium lignicola (12.2 %), and Alternaria alternata (10.4 %). Altogether, 20 potentially pathogenic species or genera of bacteria and fungi were identified in the air samples taken in the examined plant. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora varied within a fairly wide range and were between 24.1-100 %. The concentrations of airborne endotoxin were in the range of 0.104-5.2 ng/m(3). In conclusion, the concentrations of microorganisms and endotoxin in the examined municipal sewage treatment plant were low and did not exceed proposed occupational exposure limit values. A moderate risk for the workers may be associated with the presence of potentially pathogenic microbial species having allergenic

  15. Greenhouse gases emission from the sewage draining rivers. (United States)

    Hu, Beibei; Wang, Dongqi; Zhou, Jun; Meng, Weiqing; Li, Chongwei; Sun, Zongbin; Guo, Xin; Wang, Zhongliang


    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration, saturation and fluxes in rivers (Beitang drainage river, Dagu drainage rive, Duliujianhe river, Yongdingxinhe river and Nanyunhe river) of Tianjin city (Haihe watershed) were investigated during July and October in 2014, and January and April in 2015 by static headspace gas chromatography method and the two-layer model of diffusive gas exchange. The influence of environmental variables on greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration under the disturbance of anthropogenic activities was discussed by Spearman correlative analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that the concentration and fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were seasonally variable with >winter>fall>summer, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>winter>fall for concentrations and spring>summer>fall>winter, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>fall>winter for fluxes respectively. The GHGs concentration and saturation were higher in comprehensively polluted river sites and lower in lightly polluted river sites. The three GHGs emission fluxes in two sewage draining rivers of Tianjin were clearly higher than those of other rivers (natural rivers) and the spatial variation of CH4 was more obvious than the others. CO2 and N2O air-water interface emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers in four seasons were about 1.20-2.41 times and 1.13-3.12 times of those in the natural rivers. The CH4 emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers were 3.09 times in fall to 10.87 times in spring of those in the natural rivers in different season. The wind speed, water temperature and air temperature were related to GHGs concentrations. Nitrate and nitrite (NO3-+NO2--N) and ammonia (NH4+-N) were positively correlated with CO2 concentration and CH4 concentration; and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was negatively correlated with CH4 concentration and N2O concentration. The effect of human activities on carbon and

  16. Sustainable sewage management and the inertia to change (United States)

    Öberg, G.


    Increasing economic costs and environmental concerns have led to that planners around the world are progressively questioning the prevailing sewage management paradigm, calling for a shift in the hydrosocial contract to embrace more sustainable solutions, to be based on closed-loops rather than linear end-of-pipe solutions. Despite considerable attention to the technical possibilities for delivering sewage services in a more integrated and sustainable fashion, shifts in planning and management have been slow. Based on an extensive study of Australian cities, Brown et al (2009) have developed a model with six transitional stages and argue that "while there may be cognitive changes (best practice thinking such as water sustainable urban design), there has not been sufficient normative and regulative change to support new practice." They contrast three historic transition stages with three successive sustainable stages. Unfortunately, the study ends in a rather vague outline of "the Water Sensitive City", with little sign-posts indicating how one might transition to this seemingly utopian last stage. In the present paper, we discuss the normative tensions created between the different actors in this increasingly complex playing field, who represent different and often competing values. We suggest that cities have difficulties transitioning from the old contract to one of the newer ones because the hydro-social contract promised by these new stages create normative tensions not only between the new and the old, but also between what one might call different types of environmentalists: naturalists and pragmatists. The naturalists, who for example are very voiced in several cities along the North American west coast, tend to embrace the perception of Nature described by environmental historians as Untouched Wilderness, where technology is pinpointed as the root of the problems. In contrast, the other side lean more on the idea of modernity, with a more pragmatic approach

  17. Occurrence of high-tonnage anionic surfactants into Spanish sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarero, S.; Prieto, C. A.; Lopez, I.; Berna, J. L.


    The sewage Sludge directive 86/278/EEc seeks to encourage the disposal of sewage sludge in agriculture applications and regulate its use to prevent harmful effects on the soil environment. currently, the sewage sludge Directive is under revision and a possible cut-off limit for some organic chemicals (including linear alkylbenzene sulphonates. LAS, the main synthetic anionic surfactant) is to be implemented. This legal limit is based on monitoring studies carried out in Scandinavian countries, being strongly rejected by most EU countries since the Nordic situations was regarded as not representative. (Author)

  18. Feasibility analysis of a sewage sludge treatment by an irradiation plant in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.; Balcazar, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, C.P. 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Colin, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico); Tavera, L. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    Technical and economic analyses of an irradiation plant for sewage sludge treatment determined that an appropriate place for the first sludge electron irradiator in Mexico would be the sewage water treatment plant located north of Toluca in the State of Mexico. This treatment plant is mainly used for domestic wastewater and produces an approximate volume of 70 ton d-] liquid sewage sludge. Considering a 50 k W power of a 10 MeV electron linear accelerator, an irradiation dose of S KGy and a treatment capacity of 346 tons per day, it is estimated that the treatment cost would be of $9.00 US dollars per ton. (Author)

  19. Feasibility analysis of a sewage sludge treatment by an irradiation plant in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, J; Colin, A; Tavera, L


    Technical and economic analyses of an irradiation plant for sewage sludge treatment determined that an appropriate place for the first sludge electron irradiator in Mexico would be the sewage water treatment plant located north of Toluca in the State of Mexico. This treatment plant is mainly used for domestic wastewater and produces an approximate volume of 70 ton d-] liquid sewage sludge. Considering a 50 k W power of a 10 MeV electron linear accelerator, an irradiation dose of S KGy and a treatment capacity of 346 tons per day, it is estimated that the treatment cost would be of $9.00 US dollars per ton. (Author)

  20. Design and Research of the Sewage Treatment Control System (United States)

    Chu, J.; Hu, W. W.

    Due to the rapid development of China's economy, the water pollution has become a problem that we have to face. In particular, how to deal with industrial wastewater has become a top priority. In wastewater treatment, the control system based on PLC has met the design requirement in real-time, reliability, precision and so on. The integration of sequence control and process control in PLC, has the characteristics of high reliability, simple network, convenient and flexible use. PLC is a powerful tool for small and medium-sized industrial automation. Therefore, the sewage treatment control system take PLC as the core of control system, can nicely solve the problem of industrial wastewater in a certain extent.

  1. Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization. (United States)

    Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Schlacher, Thomas A; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai


    Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity levels, and this degradation in water quality resulted in substantial ecological shifts in the form of (i) increased macroalgal density and species richness, (ii) lower cover of hard corals, and (iii) significant declines in fish abundance. Thus, the effects of nutrient pollution and turbidity can cascade across several levels of ecological organization to change key properties of the benthos and fish on coral reefs. Maintenance or restoration of ecological reef health requires improved wastewater management and run-off control for reefs to deliver their valuable ecosystems services.

  2. Experience and lessons learned from sewage sludge pyrolysis in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridle, Trevor R.; Skrypski-Mantele, Stefan


    Management of sewage sludge via ''publicly acceptable'' methods is becoming increasingly difficult primarily due to health and environmental concerns with respect to reuse of the product in agriculture. Consequently thermal processes are gaining popularity with significantly increased interest being shown in pyrolysis and gasification processes, due to their ''non-incineration status''. One such process is the ENERSLUDGE(TM) technology which has been developed and commercialised by Environmental Solutions International Ltd (ESI). The world's first commercial ENERSLUDGE(TM) plant is located at the Subiaco Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) that was handed over to the client, the Water Corporation of Western Australia in June 2001. Extensive design knowledge and operational experience has now been accumulated from this commercial pyrolysis facility and future applications of the technology will benefit immensely from the lessons learned and experience gained from this facility.

  3. Radiation treatment of secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jinho E-mail:; Yoon, J.-H.; Chung, H.-H.; Lee, M.-J


    Radiation treatment using gamma-rays was investigated in order to reclaim the secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant. The radiation treatment reduced BOD by 85% irrespective of absorbed dose, and the removals of COD, TOC and color were up to 64%, 34% and 88%, respectively, at a dose of 15 kGy. Gamma-rays effectively disinfected microorganisms and completely removed them at a dose of 0.3 kGy. The combination of gamma-rays and titanium dioxide significantly improved the treatment process. The increases of COD, TOC and color removals were 40%, 10% and 20%, respectively. As confirmed by EPR and the spin-trapping method, this increase was partly caused by the increase of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of titanium dioxide.

  4. Pretreatment of sewage sludge by using the radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. G.; Yu, D. H.; Lee, B. J.; Lee, M. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    A study on enhancement of sludge dewaterability and disinfection of the microorganisms in sewage sludge by using radiation technology was accomplished. Moisture content in sludge was reduced by using irradiation and adding the starfish as a dewatering aid. Moisture content was reduced by 20%(w/w) after irradiation and adding the dewatering aid while decreased by {approx}7%(w/w) after only irradiation. The amount of coagulant to form sludge flocs was dramatically increased in accordance with the irradiation dose because of the degradation of sludge particles but it was reduced when adding the dewatering aid. The colony forming unit of bacteria and E.coli were reduced over 99% after irradiation at the dose of >1kGy and SCOD, S-protein and S-carbohydrate were largely increased after irradiation.

  5. Persistence of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectious agent in sewage. (United States)

    Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos; Esteban, Ana; Calvo, Miquel; Girones, Rosina; Torres, Juan María


    Horizontal transmission of prion diseases through the environment represents a considerable concern. Prions are extremely resistant to inactivation and are thought to enter the environment after burial of animal mortalities or through biosolids from wastewater treatment plants. In addition, deposition of prions in the environment through biological fluids and/or faeces has been proved in the last years. Little is known about the behaviour of prion infectivity in the environment. In this study, the persistence of BSE infectious agent in sewage has been assessed by both PrP(Res) immunoblotting and mouse bioassay in a long-term incubation study. Results indicated that no PrP(Res) was detected after 150 day of incubation and consistent with this, a statistical regression model estimated 2-logs decay in 151 day. In contrast, no reduction in infectivity was observed during this period. Similarly, BSE infectivity remained unaltered after incubation in PBS for 265 day, whereas PrP(Res) levels dropped progressively over the length of the study. These results indicate that in sewage and PBS, prion infectivity persists longer and with different dynamics than its commonly used marker PrP(Res). Thus, mathematical models computed on the basis of PrP(Res) detection were unable to predict inactivation of prion infectivity. It is also reasonable to assume that conventional wastewater treatments with low retention times could have a very limited impact on prion infectivity. This data is essential for the development of accurate risk assessment analysis for BSE and other prion diseases in the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water (United States)

    Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.


    Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was

  7. Functional diversity of macrobenthic assemblages decreases in response to sewage discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusmao, Joao B.; Brauko, Kalina M.; Eriksson, Britas K.; Lana, Paulo C.

    We analyzed the effects of sewage discharge on a subtropical estuary by comparing the functional diversity of intertidal macroinvertebrate assemblages in contaminated with non-contaminated reference areas. Functional structure was assessed using biological traits analysis (BTA) and four multivariate

  8. National Enforcement Initiative: Keeping Raw Sewage and Contaminated Stormwater Out of Our Nation's Waters (United States)

    This page describes EPA's enforcement activities on water pollution from raw sewage and contaminated stormwater. This is one of EPA's National Enforcement Initiatives. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  9. Land application of sewage sludge: perceptions of New Jersey vegetable farmers. (United States)

    Krogmann, U; Gibson, V; Chess, C


    Understanding farmers' perceptions and choices regarding land application of sewage sludge is key to developing locally accepted strategies for managing its sewage sludge. Semi-structured interviews, with mostly open-ended questions were conducted with 50 fruit and vegetable farmers at the New Jersey Annual Vegetable Meeting in 1999. The in-depth interviews indicated that the application of sewage sludge to land is currently not a common agricultural practice for these growers. Perceived risks, including heavy metals in sewage sludge (soil-build up, crop-uptake), negative public perception, odour complaints, and increase of contaminants in the water supply outweigh economic incentives and soil improvement benefits. When naming benefits and drawbacks, farmers tend to think first of their crop and their land, and do not mention the environment. It is only when they are questioned directly about environmental benefits and risks that they discuss these aspects. Communication efforts should focus on practical information to which farmers can relate.

  10. Addition of large amount of municipal sewage sludge as raw material in cement clinker production. (United States)

    Huang, Minrui; Feng, Huajun; Li, Na; Shen, Dongsheng; Zhou, Yuyang; Jia, Yufeng


    Two addition modes were used to explore the maximum addition of municipal sewage sludge as a raw material in cement clinker production. The clinker and cement product quality were determined by chemical analysis, cement quality testing, characterization of the clinker crystalline phases, and leaching tests. Municipal sewage sludge addition in the raw mix could be up to 30% based on the cement clinker moduli, and the cement quality met the P.O 42.5 cement standard (GB 175-2007). The amount of municipal sewage sludge added based on the direct addition mode should be less than 15% because of an insufficient early-term cement strength (third day). The leaching concentrations of heavy metals in all cements were below the threshold (GB 30760-2014) using the latest leaching procedure (GB 30810-2014). The municipal sewage sludge could be used with a high addition (30%) in the raw mix as a raw material in cement clinker production.

  11. Potential utilisation of sewage sludge and paper mill waste for biosorption of metals from polluted waterways. (United States)

    Lister, S K; Line, M A


    The adsorption of cadmium, copper(II), lead and zinc ions from aqueous solution by sewage sludge, paper mill waste (PMW) and composted PMW was investigated along with the influence of pre-treatment on composted PMW. Langmuir adsorption isotherms were fitted where appropriate. Sewage sludge was the most effective biosorbent of the waste products for all metal ions examined, adsorbing, for example, up to 39.3 mg/g of Pb at an initial concentration of 77.8 mg/l. PMW was a less effective biosorbent than sewage sludge. However, it was found that composting the PMW resulted in an increase in metal uptake capacity and both sewage sludge and composted PMW have potential for low-cost remediation of high leachate wastewaters. The desorption of metal ions from PMW compost was most effective using 0.1 N H2SO4 and 1 mM nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA).

  12. Impact of Sewage Sludge on Water Movement in Calcareous Sandy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. AI-Omran


    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in soil physical properties and their effect on water movement under ponded irrigation. Sewage sludge was applied to 10 cm soil depth at rates of 0.25. 75  and 100 Mg-ha-1 to two disturbed soils differing in CaCO3 content. The results showed that cumulative infiltration (1 decreased with an increase in sewage sludge rates. Basic infiltration for slightly calcareous sandy soil was higher than that of moderately calcareous sandy soil, laboratory measurements showed an exponential decrease in saturated hydraulic conductivity and an increase in available water capacity with an increase in sewage sludge rates. For both soils, water diffusivity (D(Q decreased with an increase in sewage sludge rates. The (oral values of slightly calcareous sandy soils were higher than those of moderately calcareous sandy soils.

  13. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge treatment and its use on land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko

    - ) into the environment were major contributors to almost all of the non-toxic impact categories. Hence, a depiction of the N balance through the target systems, beyond energy and C balance, often included in environmental assessments is vital for accurately evaluating the environmental performance of sewage sludge......Sewage sludge is generated as an end-product of wastewater treatment processes, and its management holds importance in the operation of wastewater treatment plants from both an economic and an environmental point of view. At the same time, the management of sewage sludge is becoming increasingly...... multi-focused, as renewable energy and nutrient recovery have been added to the list beyond sanitation and stabilisation of sewage sludge. In order to organise and quantify environmental benefits and associated burdens, in order to facilitate an informed decision making process, life cycle assessments...

  14. Impact of sewage disposal on a nematode community of a tropical sandy beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    the sewage discharge point, which decreased gradually away from the discharge site. The salinity and dissolved oxygen of the estuarine water increased from the discharge point whereas reverse trend was observed for the sedimentary organic carbon. The total...

  15. Rational energy use at sewage treatment plants; Rationelle Energieverwendung in Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, J.; Maurer, P. [ISET - Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik e.V., Hanau (Germany). Abt. Prozess- und Verfahrenstechnik


    As pollutant concentration limits for effluent from sewage treatment plant have become more stringent in recent years, great efforts in the form of construction measures have been made in order to enhance sewage cleaning performance. However, enhanced cleaning efficiency as a rule involves higher energy consumption. The present paper describes a standardized procedure for effective implementation of the energetic optimization of sewage treatment plant. Furthermore, an MS-Excel-based software tool for rough and detailed analyses of municipal sewage treatment plants is described. (orig.) [German] Die Verschaerfung der Einleitungsgrenzwerte fuer Klaeranlagen hat in den letzten Jahren zu intensiven Baumassnahmen mit dem Ziel der Erhoehung der Reinigungsleistung gefuehrt. Bedauerlicherweise ist eine Steigerung der Reinigungsleistung meist auch mit einem erhoehten Energieverbrauch verbunden. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt eine standardisierte Vorgehensweise zur effektiven Durchfuehrung der energetischen Optimierung von Klaeranlagen vor. Ferner wird ein auf MS-Excel basierendes Software-Tool zur energetischen Grob- und Feinanalyse von kommunalen Klaeranlagen vorgestellt. (orig.)

  16. Drying of municipal sewage sludge: from a laboratory scale batch indirect dryer to the paddle dryer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Arlabosse; S. Chavez; C. Prevot


    Among available technologies, disk and paddle dryers are often encountered in France to process municipal sewage sludge but their thermal design is still a question of know how rather than scientific knowledge...

  17. Problems of sewage sludge combustion; Problemas sobre la incineracion de lodos de depuradora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, O.


    From the 55 million Mg sewage sludge (5% solids (Ds) 2,7 Mg DS/a), produced per year in the FRG out of 10.273 sewage plants 13% are dumped, 68% agricultural used or composted the remaining 19% treated (data 1997). Municipal sludge which has been pre-treated in different way is currently being incinerated on its town (mono) in third teen fluidized bed incinerators and one multi stage furnace as well as one combination of these two types. Another fluidized bed incinerator is planned for the near future. Domestic refuse and sewage sludge are co-incinerated (mixed) in twelve grate fired incineration plants in Germany. The combined incineration of sewage sludge and brown or hard cola as an acceptable solution for a high throughput is practised in 3 power plants and planned in another 11 plants. (Author)

  18. The effect of chicken blood and its components on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, R. A; Nieman, C. M; Haylock, R. A; Rosentrater, K. A; Piazza, G. J


    .... Quantification of the impact of blood on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges is hindered by lack of information on specific characteristics of chicken blood, and by the highly variable...

  19. Sewage Treatment Plant Points, Tutuila AS, 2009, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Across the United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants receive and treat sewage and other wastewater collected from homes, businesses, and industries. These...

  20. Behavior of Ag nanoparticles in soil: effects of particle surface coating, aging and sewage sludge amendment. (United States)

    Whitley, Annie R; Levard, Clément; Oostveen, Emily; Bertsch, Paul M; Matocha, Chris J; von der Kammer, Frank; Unrine, Jason M


    This study addressed the relative importance of particle coating, sewage sludge amendment, and aging on aggregation and dissolution of manufactured Ag nanoparticles (Ag MNPs) in soil pore water. Ag MNPs with citrate (CIT) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coatings were incubated with soil or municipal sewage sludge which was then amended to soil (1% or 3% sludge (w/w)). Pore waters were extracted after 1 week and 2 and 6 months and analyzed for chemical speciation, aggregation state and dissolution. Ag MNP coating had profound effects on aggregation state and partitioning to pore water in the absence of sewage sludge, but pre-incubation with sewage sludge negated these effects. This suggests that Ag MNP coating does not need to be taken into account to understand fate of AgMNPs applied to soil through biosolids amendment. Aging of soil also had profound effects that depended on Ag MNP coating and sludge amendment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrodialytic treatment for metal removal from sewage sludge ash from fluidized bed combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazos, Marta; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    to treat sewage sludge. By its use, the high amount of sludge is reduced to a small quantity of ash and thermal destruction of toxic organic constituents is obtained. Conversely, heavy metals are retained in the ash. In this work the possibility for electrodialytic metal removal for sewage sludge ash from...... FBSC was studied. A detailed characterization of the sewage sludge ash was done initially, determining that, with the exception of Cd, the other heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) were under the limiting levels of Danish legislation for the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. After 14 days...... of electrodialytic treatment, the Cd concentration was reduced to values below the limiting concentration. In all experiments the concentrations of other metals were under limiting values of the Danish legislation. It can be concluded that the electrodialytic treatment is an adequate alternative to reduce the Cd...

  2. Sewage sludge as an initial fertility driver for rapid improvement of mudflat salt-soils. (United States)

    Bai, Yanchao; Zang, Caiyun; Gu, Minjing; Gu, Chuanhui; Shao, Hongbo; Guan, Yongxiang; Wang, Xukui; Zhou, Xiaojian; Shan, Yuhua; Feng, Ke


    Sewage sludge is by-product in the process of centralized wastewater treatment. Land application of sewage sludge is one of the important disposal alternatives. Mudflats in the interaction zone between land and sea can be important alternative sources for arable lands if amended by large amount of organic fertilizers. Rich in organic matter and other nutrients, sewage sludge has been considered as the economic choice for an initial fertility driver. However, sewage sludge amendment has been greatly hampered due to availability of potential toxic metals. Using sewage sludge in compliance with the national standards for agricultural usage could avoid the accumulation of heavy metals. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether massive input of sewage sludge would increase heavy metals concentration in crops. The objective of this study was to investigate impact of sewage sludge amendment (SSA) as an initial fertility driver by one-time input, with the rates of 0, 30, 75, 150, and 300tha -1 , on biomass of green manures, soil chemical properties, and growth and heavy metals uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in mudflat soil. Results showed that one-time sewage sludge amendment promoted an initial fertility for infertile mudflat soil, supported growth of ryegrass as the first season green manure. By tilled ryegrass, it modified the chemical properties of mudflat soil by increasing soil organic carbon, total and available N and P, and decreasing soil salinity and pH, which promoted subsequent growth of two green manures for sesbania and ryegrass. The sewage sludge as an initial fertility driver combined with planting and tilling green manures, increased dry matter of the aerial part and grain yield of maize grown in mudflat soil. Cd and Ni concentrations in grain of maize were positively correlated with sewage sludge amendment rates. Importantly, heavy metal concentrations in grain of maize at all SSA rates did not exceed the safety standard for food in China (GB 2762

  3. Growth, yield and fruit quality of pepper plants amended with two sanitized sewage sludges


    Pascual Elizalde, Inmaculada; Azcona, Iñaki; Aguirreolea, Jone; Morales Iribas, Fermín; Corpas, Francisco Javier; Palma, José Manuel; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel


    Organic wastes such as sewage sludge have been successfully used to increase crop productivity of horticultural soils. Nevertheless, considerations of the impact of sludges on vegetable and fruit quality have received little attention. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to investigate the impact of two sanitized sewage sludges, autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) and compost sludge, on the growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Pi...

  4. Microbial quantities and enzyme activity in soil irrigated with sewage for different lengths of time. (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoming; Ma, Teng; Chen, Liuzhu; Cui, Yahui; Du, Peng; Liao, Yuan


    Sewage is widely used on agricultural soils in peri-urban areas of developing countries to meet shortages of water resource. Although sewage is a good source of plant nutrients, it also increases the heavy metals loads to soils. Microbial responses to these contaminants may serve as early warning indicators of adverse effects of sewage irrigation on soil quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of time of sewage irrigation on soil microbial indicators. Soil samples were collected from seven soil sites (S1-S7) irrigated with 0 years, 16 years, 23 years, 25 years, 27 years, 32 years and 52 years, respectively in Shijiazhuang of China and analyzed. For each soil sample, we determined the quantities of bacteria, fungi and actinomycete, and enzyme activities of urease, sucrase, phosphatase, dehydrogenase and catalase. Our results showed that the soils of S2-S7 irrigated with sewage effluents for different times (ranged between 16 and 52 years) exhibited higher densities of bacteria, actinomycete, urease, sucrase and phosphatase but lower densities of fungi when compared with S1 irrigated with sewage effluents for 0 years. The soil S7 irrigated with sewage effluents for longest times (52 years) contained lowest activities of catalase when compared with the soils of S1-S6. The densities of bacteria (R = 0.877, p Soil fungi quantities and urease, dehydrogenase and catalase activities did not change significantly with irrigation time. This study confirms that sewage irrigation had negative effects on microbial properties including fungi, catalase and dehydrogenase in the long term, so there is a need for continuous monitoring for sustainable soil health.

  5. Reliability of a commercial photometric system for analysis of heavy metals in sewage sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwedt, G.; Hoeckendorf, A.


    Comparisons of methods for the analysis of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc in sewage sludges are presented. The results of photometric determinations by means of a complete commercial system are compared to those of instrumental analysis by AAS and OES-ICP. In three sewage sludge samples and one sludge sample certificated by EG, similar values were obtained for metal contents between 8 ppm (cadmium) and 3300 ppm (zinc).

  6. Agronomic value of sewage sludge and corn cob biochar in an infertile Oxisol (United States)

    Deenik, J. L.; Cooney, M. J.; Antal, M. J., Jr.


    Disposal of sewage sludge and other agricultural waste materials has become increasingly difficult in urban environments with limited land space. Carbonization of the hazardous waste produces biochar as a soil amendment with potential to improve soil quality and productivity. A series of greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to assess the agrnomic value of two biochars made from domestic wastewater sludge and corn cob waste. The ash component of the sewage sludge biochar was very high (65.5%) and high for the corn cob (11.4%) biochars. Both biochars contained low concentrations of heavy metals and met EPA land application criteria. The sewage sludge biochar was a better liming material and source of mineral nutrients than the corn cob biochar, but the corn cob biochar showed the greatest increase in soil carbon and total nitrogen. Both biochar materials increased soil pH compared with soils not receiving biochar, but the sewage sludge biochar was a more effective liming material maintaining elevated soil pH throughout the 3 planting cycles. The sewage sludge biochar also showed the greatest increase in extractable soil P and base cations. In the first planting cycle, both biochars in combination with conventional fertilizers produced significantly higher corn seedling growth than the fertilized control. However, the sewage sludge biochar maintained beneficial effects corn seedling growth through the third planting cycle showing 3-fold increases in biomass production compared with the control in the third planting. The high ash content and associated liming properties and mineral nutrient contributions in the sewage sludge biochar explain benefits to plant growth. Conversion of sewage sludge waste into biochar has the potential to effectively address several environmental issues: 1) convert a hazardous waste into a valuable soil amendment, 2) reduce land and water contamination, and 3) improve soil quality and productivity.

  7. Enzyme treatment to decrease solids and improve digestion of primary sewage sludge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roman, HJ


    Full Text Available management, sewage sludge, sludge production, dewatering, disintegration. INTRODUCTION Wastewater treatment has developed slowly from the use of simple sewage farms to more sophisticated processes, such as activated sludge. However, this change has... wastewater treatment works (WWTW) effluents. For example, the European Union *Corresponding author. E-mail: (EU) currently operates over 40 300 WWTW, producing approx. 6.5 million tonnes of dry solids (DS) per annum...

  8. The effect of municipal sewage sludge on the chemical composition of spring barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kępka Wojciech


    Full Text Available Due to the fact that soils in Poland are mostly light soils, there is a need to improve their physical, chemical and biological properties. In addition, as a result of the decrease in the number of farm animals, a decrease in production of natural fertilizers can be observed. Low production of natural fertilizers speaks in favor of agricultural use of municipal sewage sludge in Poland. Municipal sewage sludge is composed of large quantities of macronutrients necessary for plants. This waste also contains significant amounts of organic substance. Chemical properties, including a high content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and often calcium, speak in favor of environmental use of municipal sewage sludge. Increasing requirements with respect to environmental protection cause the necessity to assess the effects of using organic waste for fertilization. In a farm located in the commune of Iwanowice (Małopolska province, municipal sewage sludge was applied under spring barley cultivation. The soil on which municipal sewage sludge was applied was classified into the category of heavy soils with neutral reaction. When assessing the content of available nutrients (P, K, Mg in the soil, their low content was determined. After application of municipal sewage sludge in a dose of 24 Mg fresh matter per hectare, which corresponded to 5.34 Mg DM·ha−1, under spring barley, beneficial changes in chemical properties of the soil were observed. An increase in soil abundance in organic carbon and total nitrogen was observed, as well as an increase in the content of available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Based on the results of the conducted chemical analyses, it was established that biomass of spring barley fertilized with sewage sludge contained more macronutrients (N, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg, which improved its feed value. The field experiment showed that application of municipal sewage sludge increased uptake of macronutrients by spring barley.

  9. [Exposure assessment to harmful agents in workplaces in sewage plant workers]. (United States)

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Szarapińska-Kwaszewska, Jadwiga; Dudkiewicz, Bozena; Krajewski, Jan A; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena


    The purpose of the study was to evaluate exposure to biological and chemical agents in a sewage treatment plant. Sampling was carried out in the summer and wintertime at the morning workshift. Ninety-nine sewage workers taking part in the study were divided into four occupational subgroups: mechanical treatment, biological treatment, sewage sludge treatment, and operation control workers. Exposure to: H2S, SO2, Pb, Cd, Cr3+, Cr6+, endotoxins, (1 --> 3)-beta-D glucans, and microorganisms was evaluated with special identification of Gram-negative rods. The concentrations of dust containing heavy metals and concentrations of gases from all stations did not exceed MAC values. Concentrations of endotoxins ranged from 0.08 to 223 ng/m3, and glucans from 0.00 to 163 ng/m3. The highest concentrations were found among sewage sludge treatment workers, in the summertime (geometric mean value = 37 ng/m3). In the winter, concentrations were almost ten times lower. Over sixty percent of all results exceeded the proposed reference value for airborne endotoxins (10 ng/m3). Concentrations of airborne bacteria in the sewage plant were at low level (10(2)( cfu/m3), except the sludge lagoon and sludge concentration building, where the results exceeded the proposed reference value for mesophilic bacteria (10(5) cfu/m3) "Environmental" bacteria (Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Shewanella) predominated in the samples. There were also found enterobacteria genus (Enterococcus, family Enterobacteriaceae)--good indicators of hygienic cleanliness of the air. The study proved that the exposure varied and depended on the stage of sewage treatment. The sewage sludge treatment process was characterized by the highest emission of bioaerosols. All microorganisms found in the sewage plant belong to the second occupational risk group, under the ordinance of the Ministry of Health.

  10. Molecular detection and characterization of Aichi viruses in sewage-polluted waters of Venezuela. (United States)

    Alcalá, Ana; Vizzi, Esmeralda; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Zambrano, José L; Betancourt, Walter; Liprandi, Ferdinando


    The circulation of Aichi virus in a major urban area was demonstrated using molecular detection with samples recovered from a major river polluted with sewage discharges in Caracas, Venezuela. Five out of 11 water samples studied were positive, being classified by phylogenetic analysis as genotype B. Analysis of sewage waters appears to be a useful methodology to uncover the presence of a hitherto undetected fecal pathogen in a given geographical area.

  11. Signals transmission via RF systems in a sewage treatment plant; Signaluebertragung via Funk im Klaerwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasas, Joerg [Phoenix Contact Electronics GmbH, Bad Pyrmont (Germany)


    The Niersverband is a municipal utility located at Viersen, Germany. It covers an area that is more or less identical with the catchment area of the Niers river and the Niers canal. There are 23 sewage treatment plants, rainwater retention basins and pumping stations transporting the collected water to the sewage treatment plants. For signal transmission between the stations, a Trusted Wireless system via Profibus-DP is used. (orig.)

  12. Decomposition and nitrogen transformations in digested sewage sludge applied to mine tailings


    Wennman, Pär


    Applying sewage sludge to mine tailings to encourage growth of vegetation in order to prevent environmental problems such as erosion and leaching of metals began around 1970. Use of sewage sludge for mine land reclamation is today an acceptable area of application and is in many cases preferable to spreading sludge as an organic fertilizer on agricultural land, since many sludges contain metals and pathogens. The sludge has been shown to be favourable compared to other additives that do not c...

  13. Effects of sewage sludge and its biochar on soybean yield in fine-textured loess soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Fathi Dokht


    Full Text Available Background: The application of biochar as a soil amendment has achieved popularity and has been found to improve considerably soil nutrient status and plant productivity in low fertile soils. Methods: This study used two different methods to apply sewage sludge and sewage sludge biochar with three replicates in a completely randomized block design. The experiment included (1 control, (2 mulch biochar (20 t/ha, (3 incorporated biochar (20 t/ha, (4 mulch sewage sludge (45 t/ha, and (5 incorporated sewage sludge (45 t/ha. This study aimed to investigate the potential benefits of sewage sludge and its biochar as mulch and incorporated into the top-soil for soil fertility, growth, yield, and shoot nutrient concentration of soybean and the effects of treatments on dry bulk density, water content, and mechanical resistance. Results: The results showed higher values of height, biological yield, grain yield, and number of pods in the biochar mulch treatments (116.5, 10627.01, 4180, and 71.2, respectively. Moreover, it was determined that the addition of biochar and sewage sludge to soil resulted in increased shoot nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, and potassium (K concentrations, soil P, soil K, and total soil N (TN compared with the control plots. Results from this study also showed that biochar and sewage sludge had positive impacts on the physical properties of soil. Bulk density and soil mechanical resistance were decreased, and volumetric water content was increased. Conclusion: Heating sludge removed all pathogens. It is recommended that short- and long-term studies be conducted in the region to investigate further increases in the combined biochar and sewage sludge application rates.

  14. Processes for thermal treatment of sewage sludge; Verfahren zur thermischen Klaerschlammverwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, Rolf; Mocker, Mario; Rundel, Paul Michael; Binder, Samir [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)


    In Germany about two million tons of sewage sludge dry mass arise from wastewater treatment in municipal sewage plants. At present already more than fifty percentage of this quantity is utilized thermally. The thermal treatment takes place in large scale plants predominantly, amongst others about 48 % by co-incineration in coal fired power plants. Furthermore sewage sludge is co-fired in cement plants and waste incineration plants. In case of large scale mono incineration of sewage sludge the stationary fluidized bed firing system is state of the art. In recent years also thermal processes for local treatment of sewage sludge were developed and offered at markets at a progressive rate. In addition to the mainly used incineration processes with grate fired furnaces and fluidized bed system there are several developments in the area of gasification and pyrolysis. At the technical centre for combustion engineering, installed at the ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, detailed analyses regarding the incineration properties and the emission behaviour of sewage sludge were carried out with a new developed vortex firebox and with a modified grate furnace. The results of these combustion tests show, that the specific fuel characteristics of sewage sludge require special technical measures in order to realise a stable incineration. This concern for both firing systems amongst others the pulsing of the fuel feeding, a selective supply and distribution of the combustion air as well as a variable fuel movement. Because the influencing potential regarding the contaminant content of the flue gas by firing measures is limited, in plants for thermal treatment of sewage sludge an aligned flue gas cleaning system is required to meet the emission limits of the 17. BImSchV. (orig.)

  15. Innovative sewage sludge utilization in Switzerland; Innovative Klaerschlammverwertung in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiler, Erwin [oeCompany - Renewable Energy Consulting, Graz (Austria)


    ln the nature in millions of years running of coal origin process is technically copied with the socalled hydrothermal carbonization within less hours. As source substrate any biomass can be used practically. ln the case of sewage sludge as the starting substrate, both fresh and sludge dewatering can be used. The advantage of the HTC procedure compared with to conventional sewage sludge utilisation lies, among other things, in the lower energy consumption during the process. Therefore, overall, it is more environmentally friendly.

  16. Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) Dominate in Australian Sewage Sludge. (United States)

    Brandsma, Sicco H; van Mourik, Louise; O'Brien, Jake W; Eaglesham, Geoff; Leonards, Pim E G; de Boer, Jacob; Gallen, Christie; Mueller, Jochen; Gaus, Caroline; Bogdal, Christian


    To simultaneously quantify and profile the complex mixture of short-, median-, and long-chain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) in Australian sewage sludge, we applied and further validated a recently developed novel instrumental technique, using quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry running in the negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode (APCI-qTOF-HRMS). Without using an analytical column the cleaned extracts were directly injected into the qTOF-HRMS followed by quantification of the CPs by a mathematical algorithm. The recoveries of the four SCCP, MCCP and LCCP-spiked sewage sludge samples ranged from 86 to 123%. This APCI-qTOF-HRMS method is a fast and promising technique for routinely measuring SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in sewage sludge. Australian sewage sludge was dominated by MCCPs with concentrations ranging from 542 to 3645 ng/g dry weight (dw). Lower SCCPs concentrations (<57-1421 ng/g dw) were detected in the Australian sewage sludge, which were comparable with the LCCPs concentrations (116-960 ng/g dw). This is the first time that CPs were reported in Australian sewage sludge. The results of this study gives a first impression on the distribution of the SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in Australia wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

  17. Heavy metals availability and soil fertility after land application of sewage sludge on dystroferric Red Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Moreira


    Full Text Available Sewage sludge is the solid residue obtained from urban sewage treatment plants. It is possible to use the sludge in a sustainable way as fertilizer and as soil conditioner due to its high levels of organic matter and nutrients. Besides pathogens and volatile organic compounds, the residue may also contain heavy metals which may accumulate and contaminate crops and the food chain. The aim of this study was evaluates the changes in the fertility of dystrophic Red Latosol and in the availability of heavy metals following application of sewage sludge. It was assessed whether organic matter supplied to the soil as large amounts of sewage sludge would decrease availability of heavy metals in the soil due to of insoluble compounds formation. From this, an experiment was carried out in polyethylene pots using lettuce plant for test. Sewage sludge were applied to the soil in concentrations equivalent to 60, 120 and 180 t ha-1, and a control without sludge, in four replicates, in a completely randomized design. The results show that sewage sludge led to an increase of organic matter contents, of the cation exchange capacity (CEC and of nutrients found in the soil. It also improved plant growth up to a concentration of 120 t ha-1. Availability of heavy metals, however, was reduced in sludge concentrations starting with 120 t ha-1.

  18. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thâmara F. M. Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K and magnesium (Mg sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1: two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis, applied based on its nitrogen (N content and the N requirement for the crop and an additional treatment with NPK. The castor bean grain yield fertilized with sewage sludge did not differ from conventional fertilization, with the maximum value achieved at a dose of 7.5 t ha-1 of sewage sludge. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased zinc and copper levels in the soil to values close to or higher than those in conventional fertilization, without any influence on the concentrations in the leaf. Fertilization with K and Mg sulphate increased the levels of these cations in the soil without affecting the concentrations in the leaves. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased the contents of organic matter, sulfur, zinc, iron, copper and boron in the soil, and manganese and boron in castor bean leaves.

  19. Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation (United States)

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi


    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ® ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ® ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

  20. Phytoextraction of heavy metals from municipal sewage sludge by Rosa multiflora and Sida hermaphrodita. (United States)

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Kołodziej, Barbara; Bielińska, Elżbieta Jolanta


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the multiflora rose var. "Jatar" (Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murray) and the Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita Rusby) to phytoextract heavy metals from municipal sewage sludge. The 6-year field experiment involved four levels of fertilization with sewage sludge at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 Mg DM (Dry Mass) sludge ha-1. The increasing doses of sewage sludge were found to significantly increase the yield of multiflora rose and Virginia fanpetals biomass. They also significantly increased the content of heavy metals in these plants. The highest uptake of heavy metals by the multiflora rose and Virginia fanpetals crops was recorded at the fertilization dose of 60 Mg DM ⋅ ha-1. Our investigations show that the Virginia fanpetals was more efficient in the phytoextraction of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd from the sewage sludge than the multiflora rose, due to the greater yields and higher heavy metal uptake by the former plant. In turn, the multiflora rose phytoextracted greater amounts of Pb from the sewage sludge. The analyses indicate that the Virginia fanpetals can be used for phytoremediation (phytoextraction) of heavy metals contained in sewage sludge.

  1. Potential impacts of using sewage sludge biochar on the growth of plant forest seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isidoria Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sewage sludge has long been successfully used in the production of nursery plants; however, some restriction may apply due to its high pathogenic characteristics. The process of charring the organic waste significantly reduces that undesired component and may be as effective as the non-charred residue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge biochar on the growth and morphological traits of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus grandis L. seedlings, and compare results with those observed when using uncharred sewage sludge. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. Charred and non-charred sewage sludge were tested with and without NPK addition. A control treatment was also evaluated. Ten weeks old eucalyptus seedlings were transferred to the pots and grew for eight weeks. Chlorophyll content, plant height and stem diameter were measured at 0, 30 and 60 days after transplant. Shoot and root biomass were measured after plant harvest. Dickson Quality Index was calculated to evaluate the overall quality of seedlings. Biochar was effective in improving the seedlings quality, and had similar effects as the non-charred waste. Therefore, sewage sludge biochar has the potential to improve the process of production of forest species seedlings and further reduce the environmental risks associated with the use of non-charred sewage sludge.

  2. Land reclamation recovery with the sewage sludge use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rincon Tamanini


    Full Text Available In this work, investigations were carried out with five treatments [control, three doses of lime stabilized sludge (60, 120, 240 Mg ha-1 dry base and soil corrective plus mineral fertilizer] to evaluate the immediate recuperation of a borrowed area. The application of stabilized alkaline sewage sludge acted as an acidity corrective, allowed the increase in the organic matter contents (21 to 43.5g dm-3 and available P (44 to 156 mg dm-3. Even with the use of the highest dose, no increase in the concentration of 32 analyzed metals was observed, due to the low concentration of metals in the sludge. The experiment showed that short term restoration of degraded area was possible by using high rates of sewage sludge without metal contamination.Obras de infra-estrutura próximas aos grandes centros levam ao surgimento de áreas degradadas por decapamento que podem ser reintegradas a paisagem através dos processos de recuperação com o uso do lodo de esgoto. Estabeleceu-se um experimento com cinco tratamentos [testemunha, três doses de lodo alcalinizado (60, 120, 240Mgha-1 em base seca e corretivo mais adubo mineral], para avaliar a recuperação imediata de uma área de empréstimo. A aplicação de lodo de esgoto alcalinizado atuou como corretivo da acidez, proporcionou aumento no teor de matéria orgânica (21 para 43,5g dm-3 e P disponível (4,4 para 156mg dm-3 e total, se mostrando superior ao mineral mais calagem. Mesmo com uso da maior dose, não foi observado acréscimos nos teores de 32 metais analisados, dado à baixa concentração de metais no lodo. Os resultados obtidos indicam que é possível o uso de doses elevadas de lodo de esgoto na recuperação de áreas degradadas.

  3. Evaluation of methods for the concentration and extraction of viruses from sewage in the context of metagenomic sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Hellmér, Maria; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier


    Viral sewage metagenomics is a novel field of study used for surveillance, epidemiological studies, and evaluation of waste water treatment efficiency. In raw sewage human waste is mixed with household, industrial and drainage water, and virus particles are, therefore, only found in low concentra......Viral sewage metagenomics is a novel field of study used for surveillance, epidemiological studies, and evaluation of waste water treatment efficiency. In raw sewage human waste is mixed with household, industrial and drainage water, and virus particles are, therefore, only found in low...... ways employing a wide range of viral concentration and extraction procedures. However, there is limited knowledge of the efficacy and inherent biases associated with these methods in respect to viral sewage metagenomics, hampering the development of this field. By the use of next generation sequencing...... associated biases, within the field of viral sewage metagenomics, making evaluation of the current literature easier and helping with the design of future studies....

  4. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China


    Baoling Duan; Fenwu Liu; Wuping Zhang; Haixia Zheng; Qiang Zhang; Xiaomei Li; Yushan Bu


    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index Igeo and correlation analyses between HMs were also c...



    Agnieszka Godlewska


    The study aimed at determining changes in the contents of selected metals in the biomass of test plants due to fertilisation with fresh and composted sewage sludge, hard coal ash, and sludge-ash mixture, as well as liming at a background of mineral nutrition. The experimental design was a completely randomised arrangement with three replicates. The following factors were examined: fertilisation with organic and mineral materials (fresh sewage sludge; composted sewage sludge; hard coal ash; ca...

  6. Disinfection of sewage sludge cake by gamma-irradiation (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Takehisa, Masaaki

    Disinfection of municipal sewage sludge cake by gamma-irradiation was reviewed. Total bacterial count in the sludge cake did not vary markedly throughout all four seasons in Japan, and it was in the range of 1.6 × 10 8/g to 4.1 × 10 9/g. Coliform count in aerobically activated sludge was form 1.8 × 10 7/g to 4.8 × 10 8/g, while in anaerobically digested sludge it was less than 8.3 × 10 7/g. The dose to reduce the coliforms to undetectable levels ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 Mrad, depending on the season. In addition, it was observed that no coliforms reappeared in 0.5 Mrad irradiated sludge cake during storage at room temperature (6 - 16°C) and at 30°C. The adequate disinfection dose is therefore considered to be 0.5 Mrad. Pseudomonas cepacia was a predominant bacterium in non-irradiated sludge cake. In a range of 0.5 to 0.7 Mrad, the residual flora consisted of Bacillus species, and radioresistant Deinococcus proteolyticus, Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas radiora were isolated from sludge cake irradiated at dose levels of more than 1 Mrad. Bacterial regrowth and the growth of Escherichia coli K-12 seeded in irradiated sludge cake are discussed.

  7. Treatment of municipal sewage sludge in supercritical water: A review. (United States)

    Qian, Lili; Wang, Shuzhong; Xu, Donghai; Guo, Yang; Tang, Xingying; Wang, Laisheng


    With increasing construction of wastewater treatment plants and stricter policies, municipal sewage sludge (MSS) disposal has become a serious problem. Treatment of MSS in supercritical water (SCW) can avoid the pre-drying procedure and secondary pollution of conventional methods. SCW treatment methods can be divided into supercritical water gasification (SCWG), supercritical water partial oxidation (SCWPO) and supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) technologies with increasing amounts of oxidants. Hydrogen-rich gases can be generated from MSS by SCWG or SCWPO technology using oxidants less than stoichiometric ratio while organic compounds can be completely degraded by SCWO technology with using an oxidant excess. For SCWG and SCWPO technologies, this paper reviews the influences of different process variables (MSS properties, moisture content, temperature, oxidant amount and catalysts) on the production of gases. For SCWO technology, this paper reviews research regarding the removal of organics with or without hydrothermal flames and the changes in heavy metal speciation and risk. Finally, typical systems for handling MSS are summarized and research needs and challenges are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring restoration in intertidal macrophyte assemblages following sewage treatment upgrade. (United States)

    Díez, I; Santolaria, A; Muguerza, N; Gorostiaga, J M


    Understanding the effectiveness of pollution mitigation actions in terms of biological recovery is essential if the environmental protection goals of management policies are to be achieved. Few studies, however, have evaluated the restoration of seaweed assemblages following pollution abatement. This study aimed to investigate the response of macroalgal vegetation to the upgrade of a wastewater treatment plant using a "Beyond BACI" experimental design. Temporal differences in vegetation structure between the outfall and two control locations over a 10-year period were assessed. Improvement in sewage treatment was found to lead to increases in diversity, cover of morphologically complex algae and spatial heterogeneity. The multivariate composition of assemblages at the outfall location became more similar to that at the controls; however, their complete recovery may depend on factors other than pollution removal. Our findings also suggest that the extent of restoration and the time required to detect it are largely predetermined by the response variables we choose to assess recovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acinetobacter defluvii sp. nov., recovered from hospital sewage. (United States)

    Hu, Yiyi; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zong, Zhiyong


    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile Acinetobacter strain, WCHA30T, was isolated from hospital sewage in West China Hospital of Sichuan University in Chengdu, south-western China. Strain WCHA30T was a non-spore-forming, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, strictly aerobic coccobacillus. The DNA G+C content was 38 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, rpoB and gyrB gene sequences revealed that the strain was distinct from any previously described species of the genus Acinetobacter. Strain WCHA30T could be distinguished from all known Acinetobacter species by its ability to assimilate β-alanine but not l-glutamate. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics from this study indicate that strain WCHA30T should be considered to represent a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter defluvii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WCHA30T (=CCTCC AB 2016203T=GDMCC 1.1101T=KCTC 52503T).

  10. Issues related to waste sewage sludge drying under superheated steam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamawand Ihsan


    Full Text Available Sewage sludge was dried in a rotary drum dryer under superheated steam. Particle size and moisture content were shown to have significant influences on sticking and agglomeration of the materials. Pouring partially dried sludge (70–80% moisture content, wet basis directly into the screw feeder of the drum dryer resulted in a significant sticking to the surface of the drum and the final particle size of the product was greater than 100 mm in diameter. The moisture content of this product was slightly less than its initial value. To overcome this issue, the sludge was mixed with lignite at variety ratios and then chopped before being introduced to the feeding screw. It was found that mixing the sludge with lignite and then sieving the chopped materials through a four millimetre mesh sieve was the key to solve this issue. This technique significantly reduced both stickiness and agglomeration of the material. Also, this enabled for a significant reduction in moisture content of the final product.

  11. [Transformation of Nitrogen Nutrients in the Urban Sewage Pipe Network]. (United States)

    Jin, Peng-kang; Jiao, Ding; Ren, Wu-ang


    The paper focuses on the changes of nitrogen compounds in the Pipe network. A 1.2km long urban sewage simulation network with artificial water distribution was selected as the research subject. Then we analyzed and evaluated the change characteristics of nitrogen nutrients along the pipe. The results proved that ammonium chloride as the nitrogen source matrix, which was necessary for microorganisms in the Pipe to survive and proliferate. Free amino acids, combined amino acids and nucleic acid produced by metabolism were the major nitrogenous organic compounds. Among which, amino acids accounted for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in the majority. The characterization results of three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography showed that the characteristic fluorescence peak of organic matter in waste water was increased, and the protein ( tyrosine, tryptophan)--based fluorescence intensity gradually increased along the pipe. It was also found that small molecules of nutrients in the water were converted to complex organic molecules under the assimilation of microorganisms.

  12. Legionella saoudiensis sp. nov., isolated from a sewage water sample. (United States)

    Bajrai, Leena Hussein; Azhar, Esam Ibraheem; Yasir, Muhammad; Jardot, Priscilla; Barrassi, Lina; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard; Pagnier, Isabelle


    A Gram-stain-negative, bacilli-shaped bacterial strain, LS-1T, was isolated from a sewage water sample collected in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The taxonomic position of strain LS-1T was investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and those of four other genes indicated that strain LS-1T belongs to the genus Legionella in the family Legionellaceae. Regarding the 16S rRNA gene, the most closely related species are Legionella rowbothamii LLAP-6T (98.6 %) and Legionella lytica L2T (98.5 %). The mip gene sequence of strain LS-1T showed 94 % sequence similarity with that of L. lytica L2T and 93 % similarity with that of L. rowbothamii LLAP-6T. Strain LS-1T grew optimally at a temperature of 32 °C on a buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) agar plate in a 5 % CO2 atmosphere and had a flagellum. The combined phylogenetic, phenotypic and genomic sequence data suggest that strain LS-1T represents a novel species of the genus Legionella, for which the name Legionella saoudiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LS-1T (=DSM 101682T=CSUR P2101T).

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and molasses (United States)

    Kalemba, Katarzyna; Barbusiński, Krzysztof


    The efficiency of simultaneous digestion of sewage sludge and by-product of refining sugar beets (molasses) was investigated. The study was conducted for 28 days under mesophilic conditions. 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 3% (m/m) of molasses was added to the mixture of sludge. The result of the study showed that addition of molasses had positive effect the biogas production. The biggest biogas yield was achieved in sample with 0.5% of molasses (95.69 mL/g VS). In this sample biogas production increased by 21% in comparison with reference sample (without molasses). The biggest methane content (73%) was also observed in the sample with 0.5% of molasses. For comparison in reference sample was produced biogas with 70% content of methane. The dose over 0.5% of molasses caused inhibition of fermentation process. The minimal degree (38%) of degradation of organic matter was achieved in reference sample (38.53%) and in sample with 0.5% of molasses (39.71%) but in other samples was in the range of 35.61-36.76 % (from 3% to 1%, respectively). Digestion process have adverse effect on dewatering properties of sludge. Before co-digestion capillary suction time was from 31 s to 55 s, and after process increased from 36 s to 556 s (from 0% to 3% of molasses, respectively).

  14. Ecological balance of power generation from sewage gas; Oekobilanz Klaergasverstromung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchetti, C.; Bienz, P.; Pridal, R.


    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the ecological balance made for the production of electrical power from biogas that is produced in waste water treatment plants. The study was needed as the basis for deciding if power thus generated could be certified to the strict 'Naturemade Star' standards. This label is used to designate 'green' power. The report briefly describes the processes usually used in the treatment of sewage sludge, the energy-intensive aerobic and anaerobic digestion, which produces biogas. The ecological factors of the two processes were assessed using the Eco-Indicator 99 tool. The results are discussed, which showed that a typical modern waste water treatment plant is significantly better as far as energy is concerned than older examples of plant (e.g. those built in 1995) as far as ecological impact is concerned. Also, the study addresses other forms of biogas use, like, for example, its use as a fuel for vehicles.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge from Egypt. (United States)

    Barakat, Assem O; Khairy, Mohammed A; Mahmoud, Mahmoud R


    The purpose of this study was to determine the levels, distribution and toxicological potential of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage sludge samples from several WWTPs in the Alexandria area, Egypt. The POPs of interest were 26 PCBs and 16 OCPs. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC-MS-SIM) using deuterated organochlorines as internal standards. Total concentrations of OCPs and Σ7 PCBs (ICES) in sludge ranged from 44.2 to 489 μg/kg dw. and 5,600 to 11,000 μg/kg dw., respectively. The highest concentration levels were found for PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, and HCB, in this order. The PCB homologue profiles in sludge samples were dominated by penta- and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls. Seasonal variations were observed for OCPs with higher levels in summer, which reflects more usage in warmer climates. Composite profiles of OCP metabolites indicated new inputs of lindane and technical endosulfan and earlier usage of DDT and technical chlordane. Contamination levels of OCPs and PCBs for Egyptian sludge can be categorized as moderate to high compared to other countries worldwide. The OCP content in none of the samples exceeded limits set by the European Commission for use of sludge in agriculture; while all the concentrations of PCBs in sludge samples were higher by one order of magnitude than the upper limit for land application.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Hurynovich


    Full Text Available The article is referring to the current problems of the evaluation of the effectiveness of an investment of new plans and of the modernization of existing sewage treatment plants including aspects of the optimization of costs of the sewage treatment. He shows the modernization of the sewage treatment plant the Evaluation of the life cycle as the adequate tool assisting choice of the best variant or the level. He is presenting characteristics of LCС methodology and examples of using to the technology assessment the sewage treatment.

  17. Comparison of some spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments (United States)

    Polak, J.; Bartoszek, M.; Sułkowski, W. W.


    Comparison of the physico-chemical properties was carried out for humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments. The isolated humic acids were investigated by means of EPR, IR, UV/vis spectroscopic methods and elementary analysis AE. On the basis of earlier studies it was stated that humic acids extracted from sewage sludge can be divided into humic acids extracted from raw sewage sludge and from sewage sludge after the digestion process. The digestion process was found to have the most significant effect on the physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sludge during sewage treatment. Humic acids extracted from sewage sludge had higher free radical concentration than humic acid extracted from bottom sediments. Values of the g-factor were similar for all studied samples. However, it is noteworthy that g-factor values for humic acid extracted from raw sewage sludge and from bottom sediments were lower in comparison to the humic acid extracted from sewage sludge after the fermentation processes. The IR spectra of all studied humic acids confirmed the presence of functional groups characteristic for humic substances. It was also observed that humic acids extracted from bottom sediments had a more aromatic character and contained less carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen than those extracted from the sewage sludge.

  18. Chloride/bromide and chloride/fluoride ratios of domestic sewage effluents and associated contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vengosh, A.; Pankratov, I. [Hydrological Service, Jerusalem (Israel)


    To establish geochemical tools for tracing the origin of ground water contamination, the authors examined the variations of Cl/Br and Cl/F (weight) ratios in (1) domestic waste water from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project and from reservoirs in the central coast of Israel; (2) associated contaminated ground water; and (3) pristine ground water from the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel. The data show that supply water, anthropogenic NaCl and fluoridation control the Cl/Br and Cl/F ratios of domestic waste water, and conventional sewage treatment does not affect the anthropogenic inorganic signals. The Cl/Br ratios of ground water contaminated with sewage effluent reflect conservative mixing proportions of sewage and regional ground water components. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that it is possible to detect and distinguish sewage contamination from marine ratios after a sewage contribution of 5 to 15% is mixed with regional ground water. Mixing with Br-enriched fresh water however, would reduce this sensitivity. Since the high Cl/Br signal of sewage effluents is distinguishable from other anthropogenic sources with low Cl/Br ratios and from natural contamination sources, Cl/Br ratios can therefore be a useful inorganic tracer for identification of the origin of contaminated ground water. The Cl/F ratios of sewage-contaminated ground water were higher than those in the original sewage effluent, which suggests retention of fluoride into the aquifer solid phase.

  19. SewageLCI 1.0 - A first generation inventory model for quantification of chemical emissions via sewage systems. Application on chemicals of concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallice, Aurélie; Birkved, Morten; Kech, Sébastien

    Lack of inventory data on chemical emissions often forces life cycle assessors to rely on crude emissions estimates (e.g. 100 % of the applied chemical mass is assumed emitted) or in the worst case to omit chemical emissions due to lack of emission data. The inventory model SewageLCI 1.0, provides...

  20. Study on the combined sewage sludge pyrolysis and gasification process: mass and energy balance. (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghui; Chen, Dezhen; Song, Xueding; Zhao, Lei


    A combined pyrolysis and gasification process for sewage sludge was studied in this paper for the purpose of its safe disposal with energy self-balance. Three sewage sludge samples with different dry basis lower heat values (LHV(db)) were used to evaluate the constraints on this combined process. Those samples were pre-dried and then pyrolysed within the temperature range of 400-550 degrees C. Afterwards, the char obtained from pyrolysis was gasified to produce fuel gas. The experimental results showed that the char yield ranged between 37.28 and 53.75 wt% of the dry sludge and it changed with ash content, pyrolysis temperature and LHV(db) of the sewage sludge. The gas from char gasification had a LHV around 5.31-5.65 MJ/Nm3, suggesting it can be utilized to supply energy in the sewage sludge drying and pyrolysis process. It was also found that energy balance in the combined process was affected by the LHV(db) of sewage sludge, moisture content and pyrolysis temperature. Higher LHV(db), lower moisture content and higher pyrolysis temperature benefit energy self-balance. For sewage sludge with a moisture content of 80 wt%, LHV(db) of sewage sludge should be higher than 18 MJ/kg and the pyrolysis temperature should be higher than 450 degrees C to maintain energy self-sufficiency when volatile from the pyrolysis process is the only energy supplier; when the LHV(db) was in the range of 14.65-18 MJ/kg, energy self-balance could be maintained in this combined process with fuel gas from char gasification as a supplementary fuel; auxiliary fuel was always needed if the LHV(db) was lower than 14.65 MJ/kg.

  1. Two-step chlorination: A new approach to disinfection of a primary sewage effluent. (United States)

    Li, Yu; Yang, Mengting; Zhang, Xiangru; Jiang, Jingyi; Liu, Jiaqi; Yau, Cie Fu; Graham, Nigel J D; Li, Xiaoyan


    Sewage disinfection aims at inactivating pathogenic microorganisms and preventing the transmission of waterborne diseases. Chlorination is extensively applied for disinfecting sewage effluents. The objective of achieving a disinfection goal and reducing disinfectant consumption and operational costs remains a challenge in sewage treatment. In this study, we have demonstrated that, for the same chlorine dosage, a two-step addition of chlorine (two-step chlorination) was significantly more efficient in disinfecting a primary sewage effluent than a one-step addition of chlorine (one-step chlorination), and shown how the two-step chlorination was optimized with respect to time interval and dosage ratio. Two-step chlorination of the sewage effluent attained its highest disinfection efficiency at a time interval of 19 s and a dosage ratio of 5:1. Compared to one-step chlorination, two-step chlorination enhanced the disinfection efficiency by up to 0.81- or even 1.02-log for two different chlorine doses and contact times. An empirical relationship involving disinfection efficiency, time interval and dosage ratio was obtained by best fitting. Mechanisms (including a higher overall Ct value, an intensive synergistic effect, and a shorter recovery time) were proposed for the higher disinfection efficiency of two-step chlorination in the sewage effluent disinfection. Annual chlorine consumption costs in one-step and two-step chlorination of the primary sewage effluent were estimated. Compared to one-step chlorination, two-step chlorination reduced the cost by up to 16.7%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production and utilisation of a new pulverised fuel on bituminous coal/sewage sludge basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probst, H.H.; Wehland, P. [Bruno Fechner GmbH & Co. KG, Bottrop (Germany)


    Several solid fuels such as lignite, hard coal, sewage sludges and petrol coke were characterised by proximate and ultimate analyses, heavy metal content, calorific value etc. Thermogravimetric combustion profiles of five fuels were recorded to evaluate and compare the chemical reaction rates and behaviour. Combustion experiments on single fuels (coal and sewage sludge) and their blends were performed in a semi-technical high temperature drop tube furnace at DMT. The hard coal Middelburg, the Indonesian hard coal Kaltim Prima, the Colombian hard coal El Cerrejon, the sewage sludges Stadtwerke Dusseldorf and Emschergenossenschaft and their blends were tested with regard to their application in rotary kiln PF burners in the asphalt producing industry. The experiments varied reaction time and oxygen partial pressure. A fuel blend consisting of hard coals Kaltim Prima, Spitsbergen and El Cerrejon, respectively and sewage sludge Stadtwerke Dusseldorf (KPC/Dusseldorf 3:1) turned out to be suitable for industrial scale tests in an asphalt production plant competing with the standard fuel lignite fine dust Rheinbraun and pure sewage sludge Stadtwerke Dusseldorf. After a burner adaption phase to the novel fuels burner operation was stable. Heat introduction into the rotary kiln was best for the El Cerrejon/Dusseldorf (3:1) fuel blend. During operation with this blend all legal emission standards were met, whereas emission problems arose with sewage sludge Stadtwerke Dusseldorf. A fuel blend consisting of a high volatile hard coal and sewage sludge is an attractive substitute fuel for the expensive standard fuel lignite fine dust. 1 ref., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. The great fear of 1987: a rereading of the accident with Cesium-137 in Goiania, Brazil; O grande medo de 1987: uma releitura do acidente com o Cesio-137 em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Junior, Euripedes Monteiro de


    The works that take as object of study the radioactive accident in Goiania, and I have found to date, have tried to give special importance to its legal, psychosocial and clinical trials of radiation patients. Here in this text, I will try to understand this event from its historical dimension of fear, emphasizing its historicity from the social and cultural practices of some people, groups and entities involved with the issue. In other words, the focus of this study will be in the memories of those social relations that have been built while unfolding the event, both past and present. In this sense, we find our main concerns contained in a number of issues that are constantly alluded to discussions in which the central concepts refer to the event, memory and narrative in this case will be worked out by building the fear contained in people's memories, in groups involved in the event as well as the narratives constructed by official agencies involved in the event along with the film and the news media. (author)

  4. Spatial variability of caesium-137 activities in soils in the Jura mountains; Variabilite spatiale des activites en cesium-137 dans les sols d'un bassin versant du massif du Jura: etendue et principales sources de variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimou-Heumou, G.; Lucot, E.; Crini, N.; Briot, M.; Badot, P.M. [CNRS - Universite de Franche-Comte, Laboratoire chrono-environnement, UMR 6249, Place Leclerc, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)


    275 soil samples were taken in the catchment area of the upper part of the Doubs river located in the Jura mountains according to a sampling strategy designed to evaluate the extent of the spatial variability of {sup 137}Cs activities and to identify its main sources. {sup 137}Cs activities ranged between about 1000 and 12000 Bq.m{sup -2} with an average of approximately 3600 Bq.m{sup -2}. The spatial variability of the contamination is high: {sup 137}Cs activity shows statistically significant links with altitude, soil organic matter and land cover, whereas the other studied parameters, i.e. soil type and topographic position, do not constitute significant sources of variation. These results are discussed in terms of evaluation of the radioactive contamination on a regional scale. They show that to be satisfactory, a sampling strategy must necessarily take into account the various types of land cover. (authors)

  5. Monitoring of caesium-137 in food plants and muscle from moose, red deer and wild reindeer in 2010.; Overvaaking av cesium-137 i beitevekster og kjoett av elg, hjort og villrein i 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiberg, Vebjoern; Gaare, Eldar; Stokke, Sigbjoern; Solberg, Erling J.; Skuterud, Lavrans


    The monitoring of Cs-137 fall-out from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, started the same year. Several plants and wild reindeer in natural ecosystems in Nord-Rondane have been followed annually ever since. Four more wild reindeer ranges were included in 2001: Setesdal-Ryfylkeheiene, Hardangervidda, Nord-Ottadalen, Snoehetta and Nord-Rondane. From 2007 Forollhogna was also included. On fixed plots in Nord-Rondane and Snoehetta some of the reindeer forage plants, including both higher plants and fruticose lichens, have been sampled and analyzed annually since 1986. This was also done in 2010. In addition plants and lichens were sampled at five locations along an altitudinal gradient at Soendre Knutshoe, and at 7-8 locations along an east-west gradient from Kollaflata to Skarhoe in the Jora valley continuing along the Aursjoe to Torbudalen. All these locations were sampled annually between 1987-1990, but they have not been sampled since. In 2010 samples from red deer and moose was also collected from eight different regions located within the following counties: Oppland, Telemark, Vest-Agder, Rogaland, Sogn and Fjordane, Nord-Troendelag, Nordland and Troms. Red deer were sampled in four regions and moose in six. Both species were sampled in Oppland. In 2010 76, 49 and 61 samples were collected from wild reindeer, red deer and moose respectively. All measures of caesium levels were performed on dried samples. For the 596 samples of plants and lichen the results refer to caesium-levels in dried samples. For the meat samples, results refer to caesium-137 levels in raw meat. Due to large variation in measured levels of caesium within species and sampling area, we give median values instead of mean values.The highest caesium levels in wild reindeer were found in Snoehetta (1010 Bq/kg) and Nord-Rondane (2686 Bq/kg). The levels found in the other areas were considerably lower. The highest caesium levels in both red deer (Sel, 677 Bq/kg) and moose (Vaaga, 365 Bq/kg) were found in Oppland. For all three species we found large variation in the measured levels of caesium within each sampling area. This was particularly evident in the areas with the highest caesium levels. This is most likely caused by a locally heterogeneous distribution of caesium, and reflects that the individual's home range location has a large influence on their exposure. Time of shooting and choice of food plants may also have large influence on the levels of caesium found, since some plants contain higher levels of caesium than others. Several species of fungus are such examples, and variation in availability of fungi can cause significant differences in caesium ingestion in herbivores. The overall picture was still in accordance with the expectations based on information about the geographic distribution of the fall-out. None of the measured meat samples exceeded the advisory limit for venison (3000 Bq/kg) determined by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Most of the autumn food plants like bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), crowberry (Empetrum nigrum), wavy hair-grass (Avenella flexuosa) and dwarf birch (Betula nana) produce litter that is decomposed and taken up by the roots. These species showed large variation in caesium content between locations. As an example bilberry was measured to 3200 Bq/kg at a location in Rondane, whereas an equivalent sample from Torbudalen in Snoehetta measured 1200 Bq/kg. Overall these species now measure between 200 and 600 Bq/kg dry weight in Nord-Rondane and Knutshoe. The half-life of caesium in these plants are now between 27 and 47 years. This is approximately equal to, or considerably longer than the half-life of Cs-137 of 30.1 years. Heather, although in short supply in this environment, is an interesting exception and was measured to 3300 Bq/kg in 2010. It shows little change over time, and may even have increased in Cs-137 level. Six fruticose lichens from the Dovrefjell, Groenbakken sampling station, show from 300 to 2000 Bq/kg today. Compared with higher plants they have a shorter half-life, 4.5 to 6 years. The same species in Nord-Rondane have 500-1000 Bq/kg.The data series for wild reindeer in Nord-Rondane is almost continuous from 1986 to 2010. In the period 1986-1996 the biological half-life of the Cs-137 content was 4 years, whereas the half-life for the whole period is 8 years. The traces from the Chernobyl accident will therefore still be measurable in our terrestrial ecosystems for many years to come. (Author)

  6. Experimental contamination of margaritana margaritifera (L) (a Fresh water bivalve) by caesium 137; Contamination experimentale de margaritana margaritifera (L) (bivalve d'eau douce) par le cesium 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulquier, L.; Bovard, P.; Grauby, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The hydro biological research carried out in the Radio-Ecology Section has led the authors to study some Margaritana sampling stations situated down-stream from the Monts d'Arree nuclear power station. They describe the preservation and contamination methods used for fixing the {sup 137}Cs concentration factors in the case of Margaritana Margaritifera (L). The results of experiments carried out over a period of one hundred days show that the specific activity of the various organs is stabilized after thirty to thirty-five days. The authors have noticed a relatively low adsorption on the shell through the intermediary of micro-organisms, and a strong and rapid absorption in the soft parts. The concentration factors have values, at equilibrium, of around: 9 for the shell, 300 for all the organs, and 38 for the whole animal. A comparison of these results with work published by other authors makes it possible to draw general conclusions concerning the mechanism of {sup 137}Cs fixation by lamellibranch, as well as their capacity of fixation. (author) [French] Les etudes hydrobiologiques effectuees au sein de la Section de Radio-Ecologie ont amene les auteurs a etudier des stations de prelevement de Margaritana en aval de la Centrale Nucleaire des Monts d'Arree. Ils decrivent les methodes de conservation et de contamination utilisees pour l'etablissement des facteurs de concentration du {sup 137}Cs par Margaritana margaritifera (L). Les resultats des experimentations menees pendant cent jours montrent que les activites specifiques de la coquille et des differents organes se stabilisent au bout de trente a trente-cinq jours. Les auteurs constatent une adsorption relativement faible sur la coquille par l'intermediaire des micro-organismes et une absorption forte et rapide dans les parties molles. Les facteurs de concentration se situent, a l'equilibre, autour de: 9 pour la coquille, 300 pour l'ensemble des organes et 38 si l'on considere l'animal total. Cette etude comparee a celles deja effectuees par d'autres auteurs permet de degager des idees generales sur le mode et la capacite de fixation du {sup 137}Cs par les lamellibranches. (auteur)

  7. From agricultural use of sewage sludge to nutrient extraction: A soil science outlook. (United States)

    Kirchmann, Holger; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kätterer, Thomas; Cohen, Yariv


    The composition of municipal wastewater and sewage sludge reflects the use and proliferation of elements and contaminants within society. In Sweden, official statistics show that concentrations of toxic metals in municipal sewage sludge have steadily decreased, by up to 90 %, since the 1970s, due to environmental programmes and statutory limits on metals in sludge and soil. Results from long-term field experiments show that reduced metal pollution during repeated sewage sludge application has reversed negative trends in soil biology. Despite this Swedish success story, organic waste recycling from Swedish towns and cities to arable land is still limited to only about 20 % of the total amount produced. Resistance among industries and consumers to products grown on land treated with sewage sludge may not always be scientifically grounded; however, there are rational obstacles to application of sewage sludge to land based on its inherent properties rather than its content of pollutants. We argue that application of urban organic wastes to soil is an efficient form of recycling for small municipalities, but that organic waste treatment from large cities requires other solutions. The large volumes of sewage sludge collected in towns and cities are not equitably distributed back to arable land because of the following: (i) The high water and low nutrient content in sewage sludge make long-distance transportation too expensive; and (ii) the low plant availability of nutrients in sewage sludge results in small yield increases even after many years of repeated sludge addition. Therefore, nutrient extraction from urban wastes instead of direct organic waste recycling is a possible way forward. The trend for increased combustion of urban wastes will make ash a key waste type in future. Combustion not only concentrates the nutrients in the ash but also leads to metal enrichment; hence, direct application of the ash to land is most often not possible. However, inorganic

  8. Faecal coliform simulation on sewage discharge for an environmentally sustainable township in Medini Iskandar Johor Malaysia (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye; Lee, Elizabeth; Woo, Wing Thye; Tan, Wai Kiat


    The Medini Iskandar Development is a 2300-acre multi-purpose urban development comprising residential, commercial, educational, business and recreational areas. The developer applied to the Department of Environment (DOE) Johor in July 2008 for approval of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) report for the overall Medini development. A conditional approval of the EIA report was granted by the DOE subject to some conditions, one of which stipulated that sewage effluent from the centralized sewage treatment plant (STP) is not permitted to be discharged into Sungai Pendas. A suitable location for the discharge of sewage into the Selat Johor is to be identified, based on a hydraulic and water quality modelling investigation. This modelling investigation aims to assess the impact of the discharge of treated sewage effluent on the marine water quality and on aquatic life in the Selat Johor. The supplementary EIA report was submitted to the DOE. Approval was granted in December 2011 for the construction of the marine sewage outfall and its operations. This paper presents the sampling and simulation results for key hydraulic and environmental parameters suitable for sustaining acceptable faecal coliform criteria in Selat Johor. Simulation models used include WASP7 developed by USEPA and AQUASEA developed by Vatnaskil Consulting Engineers.

  9. An Experimental Study on Solidifying Municipal Sewage Sludge through Skeleton Building Using Cement and Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankang Yang


    Full Text Available The municipal sewage sludge typically has very high water content and low shear strength. Conventional methods of lime and cement solidification of municipal sewage sludge often suffer high cost, significant drying shrinkage, frequent cracking, high hydraulic conductivity, and low strength. To overcome these shortcomings, in this paper a skeleton-building method was used to solidify municipal sewage sludge in which coal gangue, cement and clay, and fiber were used as skeleton materials, cementation materials, and filling materials, respectively. Comprehensive laboratory tests including cracking, nitrogen adsorption, triaxial shearing, and permeability tests were performed to determine cracking, pore structure, shear strength, and hydraulic conductivity of municipal sewage sludge solidified with different proportions of coal gangue, cement, fiber, and clay. Based upon the experimental results, the mechanisms of the skeleton building using cement and coal gangue were discussed and factors controlling the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of the solidified soils were analyzed at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. Based upon the test results and analyses, recommendations were made for solidifying municipal sewage sludge through skeleton building using cement and coal gangue. The solidified soils have high soil strength, high resistance to cracking, and low hydraulic conductivity which are sufficient for being used as landfill liner.

  10. Accumulation of heavy metals in Spinacia oleracea irrigated with paper mill effluent and sewage. (United States)

    Pathak, Chakresh; Chopra, A K; Srivastava, Sachin


    The present study on heavy metal contamination in soil and their accumulation in edible part (leaves) and roots of Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) on irrigation with paper mill effluent (PME)/sewage revealed that there was significant increase in the nickel (Ni, +227.17 %) content of the soil irrigated with PME, whereas in the soil irrigated with sewage chromium (Cr, +274.84 %), iron (Fe, +149.56 %), and cadmium (Cd, +133.39 %), contents were increased appreciably. The value of enrichment factor (EF) for Ni (3.27) indicated moderate enrichment in PME-irrigated soil. The EF of Fe, zinc (Zn), Cd, and Cr were oleracea after irrigation with PME, whereas the maximum concentrations of Fe was found in leaves (400.49 ± 5.97 mg/kg) and root (363.94 ± 11.37 mg/kg) of S. oleracea after irrigation with sewage for 60 days. The bioaccumulation factor value was found maximum for Cd (2.23) in the plants irrigated with PME while that of Fe (0.90) in the plants irrigated with sewage. The undiluted use of PME/sewage for irrigation increased the concentration of Cr, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Fe metals which were accumulated in S. oleracea, posing a potential threat to human health from this practice of irrigation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Smyk


    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the COD fraction thereof in sewage and their changes in the effluent after further treatment processes. The study was conducted in a sewage treatment plant in Bialystok (RLM> 100000. In sewage the highest concentrations occurred in the suspension of the organic fractions slowly biodegradable XS (303.7 mg O2/l and dissolved organic compounds readily biodegradable SS (263 mg O2/l. The lower amounts were irreducible fractions dissolved in sewage and suspended SI (56 mg O2/l and XI (101.2 mg O2/l. Almost 80% of the total COD fractions were biodegradable (SS + XS. In the treated wastewater soluble fraction SI-biodegradable (56 mg O2/l occurred in the highest concentration. The flow of wastewater by components of sewage treatment plant resulted the complete removal of biologically degradable fraction of dissolved SS. More than 94.5% of the total COD in waste water purified fractions were biologically decomposable (SI + XI. Moreover, based on the analysis of studies the following soil removal was found: BOD5 – 99.4%, COD – 92.9%, total nitrogen – 93.4%, total phosphorus – 92%. After waste water treatment, ammonia nitrogen was completely removed while the nitrate concentration increased to 4.6 mg N/dm3.

  12. Research on rural sewage treatment using biological-ecological coupling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang SHI


    Full Text Available Developing low-investment, low-energy consumption and low-maintenance sewage treatment process is important for sewage treatment in rural areas. An upflow anaerobic filter (UAF without energy consumption and a subsurface flow wetland (SFW are utilized as a biological-ecological coupling process to treat rural domestic sewage. The effect of the coupling process on treatment performance of domestic sewage under different hydraulic retention time (HRT is investigated. The removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in the SFW is improved by increasing plant density. The results show that the coupling process of UAF and SFW has no power consumption and is maintenance-free, suitable for rural sewage treatment; the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus mainly happens in the SFW phase; increasing the density of reed plants in the SFW can obviously enhance the capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus, and ensure that the efficient performance of the coupling process of UAF and SFW is stabilized in a high level. When the HRTs of UAF and SFW are 18 h and 3 d, respectively, the concentrations of COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the final effluent treated by UAF and SFW process are 44.07, 4.25, 13.36 and 0.44 mg/L, respectively, meeting the requirement of first grade class A in Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002.

  13. A spatial multicriteria decision making tool to define the best agricultural areas for sewage sludge amendment. (United States)

    Passuello, Ana; Cadiach, Oda; Perez, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta


    Sewage sludge amendment on agricultural soils has recently become a practice of heightened interest, as a consequence of sewage sludge production increase. This practice has benefits to soil and crops, however it may also lead to environmental contamination, depending on the characteristics of the fields. In order to define the suitability of the different agricultural fields to receive sewage sludge, a spatial tool is proposed. This tool, elaborated in GIS platform, aggregates different criteria regarding human exposure and environmental contamination. The spatial tool was applied to a case study in the region of Catalonia (NE of Spain). Within the case study, each step of the tool development is detailed. The results show that the studied region has different suitability degrees, being the appropriate areas sufficient for receiving the total amount of sewage sludge produced. The sensitivity analysis showed that "groundwater contamination", "distance to urban areas", "metals concentration in soil" and "crop type" are the most important criteria of the evaluation. The developed tool successfully tackled the problem, providing a comprehensive procedure to evaluate agricultural land suitability to receive sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer. Also, the tool implementation gives insights to decision makers, guiding them to more confident decisions, based on an extensive group of criteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Residual effect of sewage sludge fertilization on sunflower yield and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann C. de Albuquerque


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the residual effect of sewage sludge fertilization on yield and nutrition of sunflower in its second cycle. The experiment was carried out from April to August 2012. The treatments consisted of four doses of sewage sludge (0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1, dry basis applied in the first cycle of sunflower, distributed in a randomized block design, with six replicates. Sunflower stem diameter, plant height, capitulum diameter and yield increased with the increment in sewage sludge doses, with maximum values observed with the dose of 30 t ha-1. The contents of calcium and magnesium in the soil, pH, sum of bases, effective and potential cation exchange capacity and base saturation increased, while potential acidity and the contents of manganese and iron in the leaves decreased, with the increment in the residual doses of sewage sludge. There was a reduction in yield and growth characteristics of sunflower in the second cycle; thus, additional fertilization with sewage sludge is recommended in each new cycle.

  15. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration. (United States)

    Blöcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas


    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Attributes of the soil fertilized with sewage sludge and calcium and magnesium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo R. Zuba Junio


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the chemical attributes of an Inceptisol cultivated with castor bean (Ricinus communis L., variety ‘BRS Energia’, fertilized with sewage sludge compost and calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg silicate. The experiment was conducted at the ICA/UFMG, in a randomized block design, using a 2 x 4 factorial scheme with three replicates, and the treatments consisted of two doses of Ca-Mg silicate (0 and 1 t ha-1 and four doses of sewage sludge compost (0, 23.81, 47.62 and 71.43 t ha-1, on dry basis. Soil organic matter (OM, pH, sum of bases (SB, effective cation exchange capacity (CEC(t, total cation exchange capacity (CEC(T, base saturation (V% and potential acidity (H + Al were evaluated. There were no significant interactions between doses of sewage sludge compost and doses of Ca-Mg silicate on soil attributes, and no effect of silicate fertilization on these attributes. However, fertilization with sewage sludge compost promoted reduction in pH and increase in H + Al, OM and CEC. The dose of 71.43 t ha-1 of sewage sludge compost promoted the best soil chemical conditions.

  17. Characteristics of the overflow pollution of storm drains with inappropriate sewage entry. (United States)

    Yin, Hailong; Lu, Yi; Xu, Zuxin; Li, Huaizheng; Schwegler, Benedict R


    To probe the overflow pollution of separate storm drains with inappropriate sewage entries, in terms of the relationship between sewage entries and the corresponding dry-weather and wet-weather overflow, the monitoring activities were conducted in a storm drainage system in the Shanghai downtown area (374 ha). In this study site, samples from inappropriately entered dry-weather sewage and the overflow due to storm pumps operation on dry-weather and wet-weather days were collected and then monitored for six water quality constituents. It was found that overflow concentrations of dry-weather period could be higher than those of wet-weather period; under wet-weather period, the overflow concentrations of storm drains were close to or even higher than that of combined sewers. Relatively strong first flush mostly occurred under heavy rain that satisfied critical rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity, and maximum pumping discharge, while almost no first flush effect or only weak first flush effect was found for the other rainfall events. Such phenomenon was attributed to lower in-line pipe storage as compared to that of the combined sewers, and serious sediment accumulation within the storm pipes due to sewage entry. For this kind of system, treating a continuous overflow rate is a better strategy than treating the maximum amount of early part of the overflow. Correcting the key inappropriate sewage entries into storm drains should also be focused.

  18. Effect of acid detergent fiber in hydrothermally pretreated sewage sludge on anaerobic digestion process (United States)

    Takasaki, Rikiya; Yuan, Lee Chang; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Youichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki


    Hydrothermal treatment is one of the pre-treatment method for anaerobic digestion. The application of hydrothermal treatment to sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plant has been succeeded to enhance the biogas production. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on anaerobic digestion process focusing on acid detergent fiber (ADF) in sewage sludge, which is low biodegradability. The hydrothermal treatment experiment was carried out for 15 minutes between 160 °C and 200 °C respectively. The ADF content was decreased after hydrothermal treatment compared with untreated sludge. However, ADF content was increased when raising the treatment temperature from 160 °C to 200 °C. During batch anaerobic digestion experiment, untreated and treated sludge were examined for 10 days under 38 °C, and all samples were fed once based on volatile solids of samples. From batch anaerobic digestion experiment, as ADF content in sewage sludge increased, the total biogas production decreased. It was found that ADF content in sewage sludge influence on anaerobic digestion. Therefore, ADF could be one of the indicator to evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment to sewage sludge on anaerobic digestion.

  19. Physical and chemical properties study of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoge; Jeyaseelan, S; Graham, N


    Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to produce a useful adsorbent for pollutants removal as well as to dispose of sewage sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge so as to give a basic understanding of its structure. The activated carbon was prepared by activating anaerobically digested sewage sludge with 5 M ZnCl2 and thereafter pyrolyzing it at 500 degrees C for 2 h under nitrogen atmosphere. The properties investigated in the present study included its surface area and pore size distribution, its elemental composition and ash content, its surface chemistry structure and its surface physical morphology. Furthermore, its adsorption capacities for aqueous phenol and carbontetrachloride were examined. The results indicated that the activated carbon made from sewage sludge had remarkable micropore and mesopore surface areas and notable adsorption capacities for phenol and carbon-tetrachloride. In comparison with commercial activated carbons, it displayed distinctive physical and chemical properties.

  20. Studies on land application of sewage sludge and its limiting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xin; Chen Tao; Ge Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecosystems Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 417, No. 72, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Jia Yongfeng [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecosystems Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 417, No. 72, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)], E-mail:


    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of sewage sludge application on the heavy metal content in soils and grasses. The sewage sludge was obtained from Northern Shenyang Wastewater Treatment Plant, China, and applied at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 150 t ha{sup -1}. Native grasses Zoysia japonica and Poa annua were chosen as experimental plants. The experimental results showed that nutrient content of the soil, especially organic matter, was increased after sewage sludge application. The grass biomass was increased and the grass growing season was longer. Heavy metal concentrations in the soil also increased; however, the Zn content did not exceed the stringent Chinese environmental quality standard for soil. Pb and Cu did not exceed the standard for B grade soil, but Cd concentration in soil amended by sewage sludge has exceeded the B grade standard. Therefore, it is suggested that the sewage sludge produced from the wastewater treatment plant should not be applied to farmland, for which B grade soil or better is required. The sludge is suitable for application to forestry and grasslands or nurseries where food chain contamination with cadmium is not a concern.

  1. Efficient, high-speed methane fermentation for sewage sludge using subcritical water hydrolysis as pretreatment. (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Tokumoto, Hayato; Ishii, Kyoko; Ishii, Ryo


    A novel biomass-energy process for the production of methane from sewage sludge using a subcritical water (sub-CW) hydrolysis reaction as pretreatment is proposed. The main substances of sewage sludge hydrolyzed by sub-CW at 513 K for 10 min were acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, alanine, and glycine. Fermentation experiments were conducted in an anaerobic-sludge reactor for two different samples: real sewage sludge and a model solution containing components typically produced by the sub-CW pretreatment of sewage sludge. In the experiment for the sub-CW pretreatment of sewage sludge, methane generation was twice that for non-pretreatment after 3 days of incubation. In the model experiment, the methane conversion was about 40% with the application of mixture of organic acids and amino acids after 5 days of incubation. Furthermore, the methane conversion was about 60% for 2 days when only organic acids, such as acetic acid and formic acid, were applied. Because acetic acid is the key intermediate and main precursor of the methanogenesis step, fermentation experiments were conducted in an anaerobic-sludge reactor with high concentrations of acetic acid (0.01-0.1M). Nearly 100% of acetic acid was converted to methane and carbon dioxide in 1-3 days.

  2. Agricultural potential of an industrial sewage sludge in compliance with CONAMA Resolution no. 375/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Rodrigues Dias Machado


    Full Text Available The agricultural use of sewage sludge is one of the best alternatives to disposal because of its potential as a plant fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, to be safe for agricultural use, the sewage sludge must be evaluated according to its physical, chemical, and biological properties and its origin. In Brazil, NBR 10.004/2004 is the standard that determines the classification of solid waste, and CONAMA Resolution 375/2006 defines the criteria for the agricultural use of sewage sludge. This study evaluated the agricultural potential of an aerobically digested industrial sewage sludge from the Serramar Dairy Cooperative in the city of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo. This sludge was classified as Class IIA waste according to NBR 10.004/2004 and displayed potential for agricultural use by falling within the limits in terms for heavy metals and pathogenic organisms established by Resolution 375/2006 as well as containing high levels of nutrients. To establish the sludge doses allowed for application to crops such as maize (annual and Eucalyptus sp. (perennial by the resolution, the amount of nitrogen available in the sludge and the amounts of this nutrient required by these crops were considered. The recommended sewage sludge doses for corn (8 Mg ha- 1 and Eucalyptus sp. forestation (6 Mg ha- 1 can meet the nitrogen and phosphorus needs of these crops but require supplementation with potassium mineral fertilizer.

  3. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups. (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Green, Hyatt C; Shanks, Orin C; Morrison, Hilary G; Vineis, Joseph H; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L


    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Persistence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus in treated sewage in São Paulo state, Brazil. (United States)

    Tonani, K A A; Padula, J A; Julião, F C; Fregonesi, B M; Alves, R I S; Sampaio, C F; Beda, C F; Hachich, E M; Segura-Muñoz, S I


    Abstract :  The persistence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus in samples of raw and treated sewage collected monthly in 2010 at the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, was analyzed. The USEPA Method 1623 was used to detect and quantify Giardia and Cryptosporidium. An enzyme immunoassay was carried out to test Rotavirus and Adenovirus antigen optical density (Rotascreen® and Adenoscreen®). The results show a significant decrease in the concentrations of Giardia, Rotavirus and Adenovirus (P Giardia concentrations ranged from 120 to 2,200 cysts/L in raw sewage and from 0.45 to 3.5 cysts/L in treated sewage. Cryptosporidium concentration ranged from undetectable to 28.9 oocysts/L in raw sewage and undetectable to 1.05 oocysts/L in treated sewage. Rotavirus presented absorbance values that ranged from 1.17 ± 0.81 in raw sewage to 0.46 ± 0.32 in treated sewage. Adenovirus, in turn, presented absorbance values of 0.64 ± 0.20 in raw sewage and of 0.45 ± 0.04 in treated sewage. There was no significant seasonal tendency observed in the distribution of protozoa (oo)cysts and in the viral antigen density in the monthly sewage samples during 2010 (P > 0.05). Even though these pathogenic agents decreased after treatment, the remaining loads observed in treated sewage can reach the watercourses receiving it. Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus are pathogens with very low infectious doses, representing a public health risk especially for vulnerable groups, such as children living near these watercourses and homeless people using this water for various purposes. Studies addressing the environmental persistence of opportunistic pathogens in watercourses are hugely important in the public health sphere, especially in developing countries, where economic, social, cultural, and environmental factors still persist that are favorable to population's exposure to diarrhea-causing agents.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste. (United States)

    Prabhu, Meghanath S; Mutnuri, Srikanth


    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic matter improves digester operating characteristics and its performance. In the present work, food waste was collected from the institute cafeteria. Two types of sludge (before centrifuge and after centrifuge) were collected from the fluidised bed reactor of the institute treating sewage wastewater. Food waste and sludge were studied for their physico-chemical characteristics, such as pH, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, volatile solids, ammoniacal nitrogen, and total nitrogen. A biomethane potential assay was carried out to find out the optimum mixing ratio of food waste and sludge for anaerobic co-digestion. Results indicated that food waste mixed with sludge in the ratio of 1:2 produced the maximum biogas of 823 ml gVS(-1)(21 days) with an average methane content of 60%. Batch studies were conducted in 5 L lab-glass reactors at a mesophilic temperature. The effect of different substrate loading rates on biogas production was investigated. The mixing ratio of food waste and sludge was 1:2. A loading rate of 1 gVS L d(-1)gave the maximum biogas production of 742 ml g(-1)VS L d(-1)with a methane content of 50%, followed by 2 gVS L d(-1)with biogas of 539 ml g(-1)VS L d(-1) Microbial diversity of the reactor during fed batch studies was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. A pilot-scale co-digestion of food waste and sludge (before centrifuge) indicated the process stability of anaerobic digestion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment methods. (United States)

    Singh, Pratima; Kansal, Arun; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia


    The paper presents energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment plants (STPs) operating at different scales and using different technology options based on primary data from 50 STPs operating in India and the UK. The study used a combination of fundamental mass-balance approach for energy consumption and the methodology defined by IPCC for the carbon emissions. Small-scale institutional STPs consume twelve times the energy consumed by large-scale municipal STPs, the corresponding energy intensities being 4.87 kWh/m(3) and 0.40 kWh/m(3) respectively. Embodied energy from construction material and chemicals accounted for 46% and 33% of the total energy intensity of the municipal and institutional STPs respectively. The average carbon footprint of large-scale STPs is 0.78 kgCO2eq/m(3) and for small-scale STPs it is 3.04 kgCO2eq/m(3). However, fugitive emissions from large-scale STPs constituted 74% of the total carbon emissions whereas the figure was only 0.05% for small-scale STPs. Average electrical energy intensity in STPs in India is much lower (0.14 kWh/m(3)) than that in the UK (0.46 kWh/m(3)). This is due to the reason that STPs in India do not have resource recovery processes and use solar heat for sludge drying. The paper offers information and insights for designing low carbon strategies for urban waste infrastructure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicity of ammonia to algae in sewage oxidation ponds. (United States)

    Abeliovich, A; Azov, Y


    Ammonia, at concentrations over 2.0 mM and at pH values over 8.0, inhibits photosynthesis and growth of Scenedesmus obliquus, a dominant species in high-rate sewage oxidation ponds. Photosynthesis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Anacystis nidulans, and Plectonema boryanum is also susceptible to ammonia inhibition. Dark respiration and cell morphology were unaffected by any combination of pH and ammonia concentrations tested, thus limiting the apparent effect to inhibition of the normal function of the chloroplasts. Methylamine had the same effect as ammonia, and its penetration into the cells was found to be pH dependent. Therefore, the dependence of toxicity of amines to algae on pH apparently results from the inability to penetrate the cell membrane in the ionized form. When operated at 120-h detention time of raw wastewater, the high-rate oxidation pond maintained a steady state with respect to algal growth and oxygen concentration, and the concentration of ammonia did not exceed 1.0 mM. Shifting the pond to 48-h detention time caused an increase in ammonia concentration in the pond water to 2.5 mM, and the pond gradually turned anaerobic. Photosynthesis, which usually elevates the pH of the pond water to 9.0 to 10.0, could not proceed beyond pH 7.9 because of the high concentration of ammonia, and the algal population was washed out and reduced to a concentration that could maintain a doubling time of 48 h without photosynthesis bringing the pH to inhibitory levels. Under these conditions, the pH of the bond becomes a factor that limits the operational efficiency of the oxidation pond.

  8. Sulfur Transformation during Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge. (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Tian, Yu; Chen, Lin; Yin, Linlin; Zhang, Jie


    The sulfur distributions and evolution of sulfur-containing compounds in the char, tar and gas fractions were investigated during the microwave and conventional pyrolysis of sewage sludge. Increased accumulation of sulfur in the char and less production of H2S were obtained from microwave pyrolysis at higher temperatures (500-800 °C). Three similar conversion pathways were identified for the formation of H2S during microwave and conventional pyrolysis. The cracking of unstable mercaptan structure in the sludge contributed to the release of H2S below 300 °C. The decomposition of aliphatic-S compounds in the tars led to the formation of H2S (300-500 °C). The thermal decomposition of aromatic-S compounds in the tars generated H2S from 500 to 800 °C. However, the secondary decomposition of thiophene-S compounds took place only in conventional pyrolysis above 700 °C. Comparing the H2S contributions from microwave and conventional pyrolysis, the significant increase of H2S yields in conventional pyrolysis was mainly attributed to the decomposition of aromatic-S (increasing by 10.4%) and thiophene-S compounds (11.3%). Further investigation on the inhibition mechanism of H2S formation during microwave pyrolysis confirmed that, with the special heating characteristics and relative shorter residence time, microwave pyrolysis promoted the retention of H2S on CaO and inhibited the secondary cracking of thiophene-S compounds at higher temperatures.

  9. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ash (SSA), a material which is rich...... in phosphorus (P), but that it is commonly landfilled or used in construction materials. With current uncertainty in phosphate rock (PR) supply, P recovery from SSA has become interesting. In the present work, ashes from incineration and gasification of the same sewage sludge were compared in terms of P...... extractability using electrodialytic (ED) methods. The results show that comparable recovery rates of P were achieved with a single ED step for incineration SSA and a sequential combination of two ED steps for gasification SSA, which was due to a higher influence of Fe and/or Al in P solubility for the latter...

  10. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ash (SSA), a material which is rich...... in phosphorus (P), but that it is commonly landfilled or used in construction materials. With current uncertainty in phosphate rock (PR) supply, P recovery from SSA has become interesting. In the present work, ashes from incineration and gasification of the same sewage sludge were compared in terms of P...... extractability using electrodialytic (ED) methods. The results show that comparable recovery rates of P were achieved with a single ED step for incineration SSA and a sequential combination of two ED steps for gasification SSA, which was due to a higher influence of Fe and/or Al in P solubility for the latter...

  11. Biological and ecophysiological reactions of white wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides L.) grown on sewage sludge compost. (United States)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Bonin, Gilles; Massiani, Catherine


    We studied the effects of sewage sludge compost on white wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides L.) compared with mineral fertilization and control (without any fertilizer) in a greenhouse experiment. The plants grown on the compost-amended soil showed a different growth dynamic: a significant delay in flowering and a bigger root system. Both the compost and the fertilization treatments increased biomass and seed yield. Heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni) distribution within the plant was in the following order: roots > leaves > stems, except for zinc which was homogeneously distributed. The balance of mineral nutrition was not affected by treatments. Zinc was the trace element which was most taken up. Unlike many species of Brassicaceae, white wall rocket is not a hyperaccumulator. Although sewage sludge compost improved plant growth, delay in flowering shows that it is necessary to take precautions when spreading sewage sludge in natural areas.

  12. Effect Of Wood-Based Biochar And Sewage Sludge Amendments For Soil Phosphorus Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frišták Vladimír


    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of two biochars (pyrolysed wood chips and garden clippings on phosphorus (P availability in a heavy-metal contaminated soil poor in phosphorus. Short-term 14-days incubation experiments were conducted to study how applications of biochars at different rates (1 and 5 % in combination with (1:1 and without dried sewage sludge from a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP affected the content of soil extractable P. For P-availability analyses deionized water, calcium acetate lactate (CAL, Mehlich 3 and Olsen extraction protocols were applied. In addition, the content of total and mobile forms of potentially toxic heavy metals (PTHM was studied. Application of both biochars caused a significant decrease of PTHM available forms in sewage sludge amended soil samples. The concentration of total and available P increased with higher biochar and sewage sludge application rates.

  13. Radiological consequences of radionuclide releases to sewage systems from hospitals in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Cruz, Idalmis de la [Facilia AB (Sweden); Bergman, Synnoeve [Vattenfall Power Consultants AB (Sweden); Hasselblad, Serena [Callido AB (Sweden)


    The report addresses radioactive discharges to sewers originating from hospitals, mainly in the form of the excretion of patients treated with radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Assessments of doses to the public, including sewage workers, arising from such discharges are performed. Doses are compared against the exemption level of 10 {mu}Sv/a and the dose constraint of 100 {mu}Sv/a. As a basis for the dose assessments, information on the use of radionuclides in Swedish hospitals during the period 1999-2004 is presented and estimates of discharges to the sewage systems are derived. Current sewage treatment practices in Sweden are summarised focusing particularly on the fate of sewage sludge, both in the sewage plant and outside. Radiological impact assessments are performed in two steps. The assessments in the first stage are performed using a simple screening model, not intending to predict exposures realistically but only to identify exposure pathways and radionuclides that are potentially relevant and require further consideration in the more detailed assessments. Results show that only a few of those radionuclides used in the period 1999-2004 in Swedish hospitals for radiotherapy and radiodiagnostics could lead to potentially significant doses (P-32, Y-90, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, I-131 and Tl-201). Relevant exposure pathways are the external exposure of sewage workers (for Tc- 99m, I-123, I-131, In-111 and Tl-201) and the exposure of the public via ingestion of water (I-131) and fish (P-32, Y-90 and In-111 and I-131). The objective of the second stage is to perform realistic assessments of the doses to sewage workers and to the public through the use of contaminated agricultural sludge and through the contamination of drinking water. For this purpose, the LUCIA model was developed. This model dynamically addresses the behaviour of radionuclides in the different process steps of a sewage plant. The model can address continuous releases as well

  14. Electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from ash of low-temperature gasification of sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    Low-temperature gasification allows the production of energy from biomass with high contents of low melting point compounds, like sewage sludge, and the recycling of the nutrients as P from the resulting ashes as renewable fertiliser. Major drawbacks are, however, the presence of heavy metals...... and the low plant-availability of Al- and Fe- phosphate compounds in the gasification ashes. In the present research, the feasibility of a 2-compartment electrodialytic (ED) setup for P separation from Al, Fe and heavy metals in two different low-temperature gasification ashes was investigated. One ash...... was from gasification of sewage sludge where P was precipitated with Fe and Al salts, from which it was possible to extract up to 26% of the P. The other ash was from co-gasification of a mixture of biologically precipitated sewage sludge and wheat straw pellets. More promising results were obtained...

  15. Threats to aquatic ecosystems caused by antibiotic-resistant isolate of Escherichia coli from sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frąk Magdalena


    Full Text Available The occurrence of Escherichia coli isolate resistant to penicillin and streptomycin in sewage discharged into the environment was tested. Thirty three Escherichia coli isolate were isolated from sewage samples showed different susceptibility to tested antibiotics. All tested isolate show higher resistance to penicillin than streptomycin. Twenty four tested E. coli isolate showed resistance only to low concentrations of penicillin. Five E. coli isolate showed resistance to higher concentrations of penicillin as well (120 μg·dm−3. Five E. coli isolate showed resistance to penicillin and streptomycin. Discharging sewage that contains bacteria isolate resistant to antibiotics into the aquatic environment causes their spreading and increases threats to aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Exploration on the technology for ozone reduction in urban sewage treatment (United States)

    Yang, Min; Sun, Yi; Han, Zhicheng; Liu, Jun


    With the rapid development of China’s economy, urban water consumption is increasing. However, sewage treatment plants will produce large amounts of sludge after treatment of sewage. Generally, and the sludge treatment costs are relatively high. Therefore, the problem about how to deal with the sewage sludge becomes the hot issues. Municipal waste water treatment plant produces a lot of sludge. This paper summarized the abroad study of ozonation minimization technology. Introduction and discussion were made on the principle of ozonated efficiency of sludge minimization, the efficiency of sludge minimization and the relationship between efficiency and ozone dosage, as well the effect of return sludge ozonated on waste water treatment running and the sludge setting and the dewatering characteristic. The economic estimation was also made on this technology. It’s showed that sludge minimization technology exhibits extensive application foreground.

  17. Thermal treatment of sewage sludge from waste water. Tratamiento termico de lodos procedentes de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, G. (Universidad de Trento (Italy)); Canziani, R.; Ragazzi, M. (Politicnico de Milan (Italy))


    Thermal Treatment of sewage sludge can be beneficial as a pre-treatment step of many treatment/disposal options, but above all, it allows the recovery of the energetic content sludge. Energy recovery from sewage sludge can be performed in many ways; direct incineration thermal drying followed by incineration and co-combustion with municipal solid wastes or other non conventional fuels. Another option is the recovery of waste energy (e.g. from an endo thermal engine using biogas as fuel) to dry sludge wich, in turn can be used as a fuel. The paper will evaluate several options of thermal treatment of sewage sludge, with particular emphasis on the energetic yield from different processes. (Author)

  18. The effects of sewage discharge on shallow hard substrate sessile assemblages. (United States)

    Terlizzi, A; Fraschetti, S; Guidetti, P; Boero, F


    On rocky shores, sewage discharges can modify natural distribution patterns of sessile organisms. The impact of sewage on shallow hard substrate assemblages has been assessed along SW Apulian coast (Ionian Sea, Italy), providing a framework to evaluate the benefits of future sewage displacement to deeper waters. Four locations (three controls and one putatively impacted) were selected and three sites were chosen at each location. Each site was sampled by 10 replicate photographic records. Univariate analyses revealed that the outfall did not affect the spatial distribution of number of taxa, total cover and abundance of some dominant taxa (mostly algae, sponges and bryozoans). The outfall negatively influenced the natural distribution pattern of filamentous green algae, whilst some algae (i.e. Gelidiales and Colpomenia sinuosa) were exclusively present at the impacted location. Multivariate analyses revealed that the outfall heavily modified the natural pattern of variability in the structure of the assemblage.

  19. Parametric Effect during Power Generation from Sewage Sludge Using Prototype MFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rehman Memon


    Full Text Available Pakistan like other countries is also faced with energy crisis, for which there is a need to identify indigenous technologies along with renewable energy sources to satisfy the energy footprint of the country. Use of MFC (Microbial Fuel Cell technique is currently a step towards this direction that can play an effective role in solving the dual problems of environmental pollution and energy shortage. In this study, sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant was collected and used as a substrate for electricity generation in association with other biomass sources. Effect of relevant parameters such as oxygen flow rate, pH and concentration on voltage generation was also analyzed. The experimental results yielded in voltage generation of 2500 mv/l for sewage sludge in comparison to that obtained using carbon manure (270 mv/l, wastewater (229 mv/l and cow manure (330 mv/l suggesting towards the potential of sewage sludge for power generation.

  20. Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Luo


    Full Text Available Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge was evaluated in a sewage sludge disposal center in Beijing, China. The results showed most of solid matters could be retained in the dried sludge after drying. Just about 3.1% of solid matters were evaporated with steam mainly by the form of volatile fatty acids. Zn was the dominant heavy metal in the sludge, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cd. The heavy metals in the condensate were all below the detection limit except Hg. Hg in the condensate accounted for less than 0.1% of the total Hg. It can be concluded that most of the heavy metals are also retained in the dried sludge during the drying process, but their bioavailability could be changed significantly. The results are useful for sewage sludge utilization and its condensate treatment.

  1. The migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals during the hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge. (United States)

    Huang, Hua-Jun; Yuan, Xing-Zhong


    Various hydrothermal treatment methods, including hydrothermal carbonization, liquefaction and sub/super-critical water gasification, have been applied to the disposal of sewage sludge for producing bio-materials or bio-fuels. It has become a research hotspot whether the heavy metals contained in sewage sludge can be well treated/stabilized after the hydrothermal treatments. This review firstly summarized the methods of assessing heavy metals' contamination level/risk and then discussed the migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals from the following aspects: the effect of reaction temperature, the effect of additives (catalysts and other biomass), the effect of the type of solvent and the effect of reaction time. This review can provide an important reference for the further study of the migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals during the hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Essential oil production of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus under organic compost containing sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia V. d'Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the main urban polluting agents are the sewers, which even with proper treatment end up generating a polluting waste, the sewage sludge. One of the options for the disposal of this sludge is the use in agriculture, due to its high content of organic matter and nutrients. This study aimed to use urban sewage sludge for lemongrass cultivation and essential oil production. The plants were grown in soil containing different organic compost doses (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 t ha-1, formed from the sewage sludge composting process and waste of urban vegetation pruning. At harvest, plants were analyzed for the concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll content, number of tillers, biomass production, essential oil content and the microbiological quality of the leaves. The results showed that the addition of the compost increased the levels of nutrients in the plants, mainly nitrogen, positively influencing the production of tillers, biomass, chlorophyll contents, yield and essential oil content.

  3. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu


    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5{beta}(H)-cholestan-3{beta}-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5{alpha}-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall.

  4. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Norovirus Genogroup II Distribution in Sewage and Oysters: First Detection of GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 in Oysters. (United States)

    Pu, Jian; Kazama, Shinobu; Miura, Takayuki; Azraini, Nabila Dhyan; Konta, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Hiroaki; Ueki, You; Cahyaningrum, Ermaya Eka; Omura, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Toru


    Norovirus GII.3, GII.4, and GII.17 were detected using pyrosequencing in sewage and oysters in January and February 2015, in Japan. The strains in sewage and oyster samples were genetically identical or similar, predominant strains belonging to GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 lineage. This is the first report of GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 in oysters.

  5. The Impact of Zeolites During Co-Combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge with Alkali and Chlorine Rich Fuels (United States)

    Pettersson, A.; Elledt, A.-L.; Moöler, A.; Steenari, B.-M.; Åmand, L.-E.

    Municipal sewage sludge has proven to eliminate alkali metals and chlorine related problems during combustion of straw and refuse derived fuels (RDF). However, the mechanisms involved have not been clarified. The aim of this work was to gain more knowledge about the behaviour of sewage sludge and detergent zeolites in combustion and about their effects on alkali metal chemistry.

  6. Removal efficiency and methanogenic activity profiles in a pilot-scale UASB reactor treating settled sewage at moderate temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghezzo, L.; Guerra, R.G.; González, S.M.; Trupiano, A.P.; Figueroa, M.E.; Cuevas, C.M.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.


    The performance of a sewage treatment system consisting of a settler followed by an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor is described. Mean ambient and sewage temperature were 16.5 and 21.6 degrees C, respectively. Total Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODt) concentration averaged 224.2 and 152.6

  7. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? (United States)


    ... irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are considered...

  8. Evaluation of the improvement of sonication pre-treatment in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. (United States)

    Martín, María Ángeles; González, Inmaculada; Serrano, Antonio; Siles, José Ángel


    Sewage sludge is a polluting and hazardous waste generated in wastewater treatment plants with severe management problems. The high content in heavy metal, pathogens and micropolluting compounds limit the implementation of the available management methods. Anaerobic digestion could be an interesting treatment method, but must be improved since the biomethanisation of sewage sludge entails low biodegradability and low methane production. A sonication pre-treatment at lab scale is proposed to increase the organic matter solubilisation of sewage sludge and enhance the biomethanisation yield. Sonication time was optimised by analysing the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge (both total and soluble fraction) at different pre-treatment times. The pre-treatment time was fixed at 45 min under the study conditions given that the solubilisation of organic matter did not increase significantly at lower sonication times, whereas the concentration of total nitrogen increased markedly at higher times. The volatile fatty acids generation rate was also evaluated for the pre-treatment conditions. The anaerobic digestion of untreated and pre-treated sewage sludge was subsequently compared and promising results were obtained for loads of 1.0 g VS/L (VS, total volatile solids). The methane yield coefficient increased from 88 to 172 mLSTP/g VS (STP, 0 °C, 1 atm) after the pre-treatment, while biodegradability was found to be around 81% (in VS). Moreover, the allowed organic loading rate and methane production rate observed for the sewage sludge reached values of up to 4.1 kg VS/m(3)·d and 1270 LSTP/m(3)·d, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge through microwave pre-treatment. (United States)

    Serrano, A; Siles, J A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F; Estévez-Pastor, F S; Toro-Baptista, E


    Sewage sludge generated in the activated sludge process is a polluting waste that must be treated adequately to avoid important environmental impacts. Traditional management methods, such as landfill disposal or incineration, are being ruled out due to the high content in heavy metal, pathogens, micropolluting compounds of the sewage sludge and the lack of use of resources. Anaerobic digestion could be an interesting treatment, but must be improved since the biomethanisation of sewage sludge entails low biodegradability and low methane production. A microwave pre-treatment at pilot scale is proposed to increase the organic matter solubilisation of sewage sludge and enhance the biomethanisation yield. The operational variables of microwave pre-treatment (power and specific energy applied) were optimised by analysing the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge (both total and soluble fraction) under different pre-treatment conditions. According to the variation in the sCOD and TN concentration, the optimal operation variables of the pre-treatment were fixed at 20,000 J/g TS and 700 W. A subsequent anaerobic digestion test was carried out with raw and pre-treated sewage sludge under different conditions (20,000 J/g TS and 700 W; 20,000 J/g TS and 400 W; and 30,000 J/g TS and 400 W). Although stability was maintained throughout the process, the enhancement in the total methane yield was not high (up to 17%). Nevertheless, very promising improvements were determined for the kinetics of the process, where the rG and the OLR increased by 43% and 39%, respectively, after carrying out a pre-treatment at 20,000 J/g TS and 700 W. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of nonpolio enteroviruses in the sewage of Guangzhou city, China, from 2009 to 2012. (United States)

    Zheng, Huanying; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Yoshida, Hiromu; Guo, Xue; Liu, Leng; Li, Hui; Zeng, Hanri; Fang, Ling; Mo, Yanling; Yi, Lina; Chosa, Toru; Xu, Wenbo; Ke, Changwen


    The human-pathogenic viruses in urban sewage have been extensively monitored to obtain information on circulating viruses in human communities. Enteroviruses (EVs) excreted by patients who present with diverse clinical syndromes can remain infectious in the environment for several weeks, and limited data on circulating environmental EVs are available. A 4-year (2009 to 2012) surveillance study was conducted to detect nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in the urban sewage of Guangzhou city, China. After the viruses in the sewage samples were concentrated and isolated, molecular identification was used to detect and type the NPEVs. During the 4-year study, 17 different NPEV serotypes were identified in the sewage of Guangzhou city. The most common serotypes were echovirus 11 (ECHO11), ECHO6, ECHO7, and ECHO12 and coxsackie group B viruses 5 (CVB5) and CVB3. The predominant serotypes were influenced by spatial and temporal factors and differed each year. CVB5 was commonly detected in 2009 and 2010 but was rarely isolated in 2011 and 2012. In contrast, CVB3 was not observed in 2009 and 2010 but was increasingly detected in 2011 and 2012. Our study provides an overview of the serotype distribution and circulation patterns of NPEVs in the sewage of Guangzhou, China. In the absence of a systematic EV disease surveillance system, the detection and characterization of sewage-borne NPEVs will help us better understand the changes in EV disease trends and the epidemic background of circulating EVs, which could help interpret the EV trends and warn of future outbreaks in this area.

  11. Modification to degradation of hexazinone in forest soils amended with sewage sludge. (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Wang, Chengjun; Chen, Fan; Ma, Meiping; Lin, Zhenkun; Wang, Wenwei; Xu, Zhengti; Wang, Xuedong


    Influences of one sewage sludge on degradation of hexazinone and formation of its major metabolites were investigated in four forest soils (A, B, C and D), collected in Zhejiang Province, China. In non-amended forest soils, the degradation half-life of hexazinone was 21.4, 30.4, 19.4 and 32.8 days in forest soil A, B, C and D, respectively. Degradation could start in soil A and C without lag period because the two soils had been contaminated by this herbicide for a long time, possibly leading to completion of acclimation period of hexazinone-degrading bacteria. In forest soils amended with sewage sludge, the degradation rate constant increased by 17.3% in soil A, 48.2% in soil B, 8.1% in soil C and 51.6% in soil D, respectively. The higher degradation rates (soil A and C) in non-amended soils accord with the lower rate increase in sewage sludge-amended soils. Under non-sterile conditions, biological mechanism accounted for 51.8-62.4% of hexazinone degradation in four soils. Under sterile conditions, the four soils had the similar chemical degradation capacity for hexazinone. In non-amended soil B, only one metabolite (B) was detected, while two metabolites (B and C) were found in sewage sludge-amended soil B. Similarly situated in agricultural soils, N-demethylation at 6-position of triazine ring, hydroxylation at the 4-positon of cyclohexyl group, and removal of the dimethylamino group with formation of a carbonyl group at 6-position of triazine ring appear to be the principal mechanism involved in hexazinone degradation in sewage sludge-amended forest soils. These data will improve understanding of the actual pollution risk as a result of forest soil fertilization with sewage sludge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliopova, Irina, E-mail:; Makarskienė, Kristina


    Highlights: • SRF production from 10–40 mm fraction of pre-composted sludge and biomass residues. • The material and energy balance of compost and SRF production. • Characteristics of raw materials and classification of produced SRF. • Results of the efficiency of energy recovery, comparison analysis with – sawdust. - Abstract: Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10–40 mm) of pre-composted materials – sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg{sup −1} of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest – evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Koncewicz-Baran


    Full Text Available A great variety of sewage sludge treatment methods, due to the agent (chemical, biological, thermal leads to the formation of varying ‘products’ properties, including the content of heavy metals forms. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of biologically and thermally transformed sewage sludge on the manganese content in plants and form of this element in the soil. The study was based on a two-year pot experiment. In this study was used stabilized sewage sludge collected from Wastewater Treatment Plant Krakow – ”Płaszów” and its mixtures with wheat straw in the gravimetric ratio 1:1 in conversion to material dry matter, transformed biologically (composting by 117 days in a bioreactor and thermally (in the furnace chamber with no air access by the following procedure exposed to temperatures of 130 °C for 40 min → 200 °C for 30 min. In both years of the study biologically and thermally transformed mixtures of sewage sludge with wheat straw demonstrated similar impact on the amount of biomass plants to the pig manure. Bigger amounts of manganese were assessed in oat biomass than in spring rape biomass. The applied sewage sludge and its biologically and thermally converted mixtures did not significantly affect manganese content in plant biomass in comparison with the farmyard manure. The applied fertilization did not modify the values of translocation and bioaccumulation ratios of manganese in the above-ground parts and roots of spring rape and oat. No increase in the content of the available to plants forms of manganese in the soil after applying biologically and thermally transformed sewage sludge mixtures with straw was detected. In the second year, lower contents of these manganese forms were noted in the soil of all objects compared with the first year of the experiment.

  14. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wyrwicka

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot, while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx, catalase (CAT and guaiacol peroxidase (POx, were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  15. CO2 emission from soil after reforestation and application of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Braga Carmo


    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions from an Oxisol under degraded pasture located in Sorocaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. The treatments were: sewage sludge (LE, sewage sludge compost (CLE, mineral fertilizer (AM and no fertilization (T0. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with analysis of the effect of the four treatments (CLE, LE, and AM T0 with four replications. The application of sewage sludge, sewage sludge compost, mineral fertilizer and no fertilizer was statistically significant for the variables of height increase and stem height of Guanandi seedlings (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambessèdes - Calophyllaceae. Treatments showed significant differences in terms of CO2 emissions from soil. The CLE exhibited the highest CO2 fluxes, reaching a peak of 9.33±0.96 g C m- 2 day- 1 (p<0.0001, as well as the LE with a maximum CO2 flux of 6.35±1.17 C m- 2 day- 1 (p<0.005. The AM treatment (4.96±1.61 g C m- 2 day- 1 had the same statistical effect as T0 (5.33±0.49 g C m- 2 day- 1. CO2 fluxes were correlated with soil temperature in all treatments. However, considering the period of 172 days of evaluation, the total loss of C as CO2 was 2.7% for sewage sludge and 0.7% for the sewage sludge compost of the total C added with the application on soil.

  16. Influence of Sitkówka sewage treatment plant on the Bobrza River water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanownik Włodzimierz


    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of 20 physicochemical elements in the Bobrza River water sampled above and below the treated sewage discharge point. Sitkówka mechanical and biological sewage treatment plant with a value of 289 000 People Equivalent discharges on average 51 000 m3 of treated sewage daily, which makes up 29% of mean daily flow in the Bobrza River. On the basis of hydrochemical analyses it was stated that the discharge of treated sewage led to worsening of 18 out of 20 studied water quality indices in the Bobrza River. In the river water below the sewage discharge statistically significantly higher values of electrolytic conductivity, dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were registered. A decrease in dissolved oxygen content in the water and increase in its electrolytic conductivity caused a change of water quality class in the Bobrza River from the maximum potential to potential below good. On the other hand, increase in concentrations of dissolved solids and sulphates caused a change of the water class from the maximum potential to good potential. Statistical factor analysis (FA made possible a reduction of a set of 20 physicochemical elements to four mutually orthogonal factors explaining 95% (above the treatment plant and 96% (below the treatment plant of the internal structure of primary data. The first factor is connected with point source pollution (sewage discharge, the second describes oxygen conditions in water, the third results from seasonality and is responsible for the pollutants from natural sources, whereas the fourth factor has not been unanimously defined yet.

  17. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test. (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz


    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. © The Author(s) 2015.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction. Sludge production from municipal wastewater treatment plants should have quality standards before disposal in to the environment. Environmental specialists classified sewage sludge as a hazardous waste because of high organic compounds and pathogenic microorganisms. They belive that sewage should be stabilized before disposal and so composting of sewage sludge is an effective and economical method to stabilize. Sewage sludge compost could be used to improve soil structure and enrich the soil with nutrients. Methods. To evaluate the optimum conditions of aerobic compost, the mixture of dewatered sewage sludge from Isfahan municipal waste water treatment plant and sawdust as bulking agent were used. Pilot scale study were performed in Isfahan municipal waste water treatment plant. To perform this research project, the dewatered sewage sludge with humidity between 78 to 82 percent were mixed with sawdust. Turning over method of the piles with one week interval were applied to aerate the mixture. Temperature of the piles were monitored at different depths daily. Other parameters such as N, G, organic matters and pH were determined weekly. Total and fecal coli form, and salmonella were determined at the beginning and end of the composting process, also heavy metals were measured at the same time. Results. The results of this study showed that after days, temperature of the mixture reached up to 55 G, and were stabled for 15 days. Humidity, organic matter, organic carbon and GIN ratio of the mixture decreased over the period of the study, due to increasing the temperature. Also organic matter and humidity mainly decreased in thermofilic phase. The number of total and fecal coliform and also salmonella decreased to A class standards of US.EPA at the end of the operation. Discussion. The results of the study also showed that, this type of composting method is reliable, and simple to schedule, with high flexibility and low odor

  19. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues. (United States)

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskienė, Kristina


    Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10-40 mm) of pre-composted materials--sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg(-1) of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest--evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning, comparison analysis with widely used bio-fuel-sawdust and conclusions made are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Problems in Achieving Sustainable Development in the Tannery Industry in Regard to Sewage Sludge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    January Bień


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of tannery sewage sludge management as one of the barriers in reaching sustainable development in the tanning industry. The Authors present the main characteristics, and its origins, of tannery sludge limiting the possibilities of their treatment and review the proposed solutions found in literature. The paper focuses on identifying the strong and weak points of the most commonly used methods used for sewage sludge treatment as well as presents some novel approaches which remain at laboratory stage.

  1. Effects of sewage sludge stabilization on fertilizer value and greenhouse gas emissions after soil application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Nielsen, Martin P.; Scheutz, Charlotte


    , and application. These stabilization techniques include dewatering, drying, anaerobic digestion, composting, and reed bed sludge treatment. However, very few studies have investigated the effect of these techniques after the sludge has been applied to agricultural land. The objective of the current study...... was therefore to investigate the effect of sewage sludge stabilization techniques on the C and N mineralization and gaseous emissions from soil. A soil incubation was conducted to determine the rate of C and N mineralization and N2O and CH4 emissions of sewage sludge stabilized using different techniques...

  2. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Hydrophobized Lightweight Aggregate Concrete with Sewage Sludge. (United States)

    Suchorab, Zbigniew; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Franus, Małgorzata; Łagód, Grzegorz


    This article is focused on lightweight aggregate-concrete modified by municipal sewage sludge and lightweight aggregate-concrete obtained from light aggregates. The article presents laboratory examinations of material physical parameters. Water absorptivity of the examined material was decreased by the admixture of water emulsion of reactive polysiloxanes. Water transport properties were determined using Time Domain Reflectometry, an indirect technique for moisture detection in porous media. Together with basic physical parameters, the heat conductivity coefficient λ was determined for both types of lightweight aggregate-concrete. Analysis of moisture and heat properties of the examined materials confirmed the usefulness of light aggregates supplemented with sewage sludge for prospective production.

  3. Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer (United States)

    Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.


    The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at

  4. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Hydrophobized Lightweight Aggregate Concrete with Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Suchorab


    Full Text Available This article is focused on lightweight aggregate-concrete modified by municipal sewage sludge and lightweight aggregate-concrete obtained from light aggregates. The article presents laboratory examinations of material physical parameters. Water absorptivity of the examined material was decreased by the admixture of water emulsion of reactive polysiloxanes. Water transport properties were determined using Time Domain Reflectometry, an indirect technique for moisture detection in porous media. Together with basic physical parameters, the heat conductivity coefficient λ was determined for both types of lightweight aggregate-concrete. Analysis of moisture and heat properties of the examined materials confirmed the usefulness of light aggregates supplemented with sewage sludge for prospective production.

  5. Dissolution of Barium from Barite in Sewage Sludges and Cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans


    Baldi, F; Pepi, M; Burrini, D.; Kniewald, G.; Scali, D.; Lanciotti, E.


    High concentrations of total barium, ranging from 0.42 to 1.58 mg(middot)g(sup-1) (dry weight) were found in sludges of two sewage treatment plants near Florence, Italy. Barium concentrations in the suspended matter decreased as redox potential values changed from negative to positive. An anoxic sewage sludge sample was aerated, and 30% of the total barium was removed in 24 h. To demonstrate that barium was solubilized from barite by sulfate-reducing bacteria, a strain of Desulfovibrio desulf...

  6. Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.


    Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent (OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) or sewage sludge was investigated. In batch experiments it was shown that OME could be degraded into biogas when codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHW or sewage sludge, OME dilution....... An OME utilization of approx. 55%, and lipid reduction of 73% was reached in codigestion with HHW (50:50 and 75:25 OME to HHW ratios). The results showed that the high buffering capacity contained in manure, together with the content of several essential nutrients, make it possible to degrade OME without...

  7. Effects of thermal drying on phosphorus availability from iron-precipitated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla; Scheutz, Charlotte; Bruun, Sander


    Thermal drying of sewage sludge implies sanitation and improves practical handling options of the sludge prior to land application. However, it may also affect its value as a fertilizer. The objective of this study was to assess whether thermal drying of sewage sludge, as well as drying temperature...... experiments, thermal drying reduced P availability, as shown by 37 and 23% lower DGT and WEP values, respectively, and a 16% lower P uptake by barley in the pot experiment. The specific drying temperature did not appear to have much effect. Overall, our results suggest that thermal drying of iron...

  8. Effects of Biochar-Derived Sewage Sludge on Heavy Metal Adsorption and Immobilization in Soils


    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Dan; Gao, Fengxiang; Li, Mengke; Luo, Xianping


    The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge biochar on adsorption and mobility of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Biochar (BC400) was produced via pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge at 400 ?C. Maximum adsorption capacities (qm ) for Zn, Cr, Mn, and Cu were 5.905, 5.724, 5.681, and 5.342 mg?g?1, respectively, in the mono-metal solution and 2.475, 8.204, 1.01, and 5.415 mg?g?1, respectively, in the multi-metal solution. The adsorption capacities for Mn, Cu, and Zn decreased in th...

  9. Phosphorus bioavailability in straw and sewage sludge ashes from low-temperature biomass gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Jakobsen, Iver; Grønlund, Mette


    Re-use of phosphorus (P) from waste streams used for bioenergy conversion is desirable in order to reduce dependence on non-renewable P resources. Two different ash materials from low-temperature biomass gasification of wheat straw and sewage sludge, respectively, were investigated with regard....... In contrast, low- temperature gasification of Fe-rich sewage sludge reduced its P fertiliser value to practically zero. The results suggest that ashes from low-temperature gasification could be developed into alternative P fertilisers, however since their P bioavailability varies strongly depending...

  10. Management of sewage sludge by composting using fermented water hyacinth. (United States)

    Tello-Andrade, A F; Jiménez-Moleón, M C; Sánchez-Galván, G


    The goal of the present research work was to assess the management of sewage sludge (SS) by composting using fermented water hyacinth (WHferm) as an amendment. The water hyacinth was fermented, and a higher production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (782.67 mg L(-1)) and soluble organic carbon (CSOL) (4788.34 mg L(-1)) was obtained using a particle size of 7 mm compared to 50 mm. For composting, four treatments (10 kg fresh weight each) were evaluated: treatment A (100 % SS + 0 % WHferm), treatment B (75 % SS + 25 % WHferm), treatment C (50 % SS + 50 % WHferm), and treatment D (25 % SS + 75 % WHferm). The WHferm added to SS, especially in treatments C (50 %) and D (75 %), increased the initial contents of organic matter (OM), organic carbon (CORG), CSOL, the C/N ratio, and the germination index (GI). The heavy metal content (HMC) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) at the beginning was below the maximum allowed by USEPA regulations. All of the samples were free of Salmonella sp. from the beginning. The reduction of the CORG, CSOL, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and C/N ratio indicated the degradation of the OM by day 198. The treatments with WHferm (B, C, and D) yielded higher values of electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and GI than SS at day 198. No significant differences were observed in GI among the treatments with WHferm. The fecal coliforms were eliminated (<3 MPN g(-1)) and the helminths were reduced to ≤5 eggs/2 g during the process. The competition for nutrients and the presence of suppressive fungi of the genera Penicillium, Rhizopus, Paecilomyces (penicillin producers), and Fusariella isolated from the compost may have promoted the elimination of pathogens since no thermophile temperatures were obtained. WHferm as an amendment in the composting of SS improved the characteristics of the final product, especially when it was used in proportions of 25 and 50 %. An excellent product was obtained in terms of HMC, and the product was B class

  11. Characterization and environmental implications of nano- and larger TiO(2) particles in sewage sludge, and soils amended with sewage sludge. (United States)

    Kim, Bojeong; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Colman, Benjamin P; Hochella, Michael F


    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is the most extensively used engineered nanoparticle to date, yet its fate in the soil environment has been investigated only rarely and is poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted two field-scale investigations to better describe TiO(2) nano- and larger particles in their most likely route of entry into the environment, i.e., the application of biosolids to soils. We particularly concentrated on the particles in the nano-size regime due to their novel and commercially useful properties. First, we analyzed three sewage sludge products from the US EPA TNSSS sampling inventory for the occurrence, qualitative abundance, and nature of TiO(2) nano- and larger particles by using analytical scanning electron microscopy and analytical (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Nano- and larger particles of TiO(2) were repeatedly identified across the sewage sludge types tested, providing strong evidence of their likely concentration in sewage sludge products. The TiO(2) particles identified were as small as 40 nm, and as large as 300 nm, having faceted shapes with the rutile crystal structure, and they typically formed small, loosely packed aggregates. Second, we examined surface soils in mesocosms that had been amended with Ag nanoparticle-spiked biosolids for the occurrence of TiO(2) particles. An aggregate of TiO(2) nanoparticles with the rutile structure was again identified, but this time TiO(2) nanoparticles were found to contain Ag on their surfaces. This suggests that TiO(2) nanoparticles from biosolids can interact with toxic trace metals that would then enter the environment as a soil amendment. Therefore, the long-term behavior of TiO(2) nano- and larger particles in sewage sludge materials as well as their impacts in the soil environment need to be carefully considered.

  12. Accumulation of heavy metal in scalp hair of people exposed in Beijing sewage discharge channel sewage irrigation area in Tianjin, China. (United States)

    Wang, Zuwei; Yu, Xiaoman; Geng, Mingshuo; Wang, Zilu; Wang, Qianqian; Zeng, Xiangfeng


    Heavy metal concentrations in soil, wheat, and scalp hair exposed to Beijing sewage discharge channel sewage irrigation area (BSIA) in Tianjin were studied to evaluate the influence of sewage irrigation. Results showed that the continuous application of wastewater has led to an accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, with 55.2 and 8.62% of soil samples accumulating Cd and Zn, respectively, at concentrations exceeding the permissible limits in China. Concentrations of heavy metals in wheat grain from BSIA were higher than these from the clean water irrigation area by 63.2% for Cd, 3.8% for Cu, 100% for Pb, 6.6% for Zn, and 326.7% for Cr. The heavy metal bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of wheat/soil in BSIA showed the following order: Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb > Cr. Interestingly, these accumulation of heavy metals in soil after sewage irrigation could increase the migration ability of heavy metals (particularly Zn and Cd) from soil to wheat. Mean concentrations of heavy metals in the hair of residents followed the decreasing trend of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd, which were higher than the control area by 110.0% for Cd, 20.0% for Cu, 55.9% for Zn, 36.6% for Pb, and 64.6% for Cr. Concentrations of heavy metals in male human hair in BSIA were higher than those of females. And the concentrations of heavy metals except for Pb in human hair increased with their increasing ages. The heavy metal BAF values of wheat/soil in BSIA showed the trend of Zn (98.0057) > Pb (7.0162) > Cr (5.5788) > Cu (5.4853) > Cd (3.5584); heavy metals had obvious biological amplification from wheat to human hair. These results indicated that local population health was potentially exposed to the heavy metal risk via wheat consumption.

  13. Assessing earthworm and sewage sludge impacts on microbiological and biochemical soil quality using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanye Jafari Vafa


    Full Text Available Introduction: Land application of organic wastes and biosolids such as municipal sewage sludge has been an important and attractive practice for improving different properties of agricultural soils with low organic matter content in semi-arid regions, due to an increase of soil organic matter level and fertility. However, application of this organic waste may directly or indirectly affect soil bio-indicators such as microbial and enzymatic activities through a change in the activity of other soil organisms such as earthworms. Earthworms are the most important soil saprophagous fauna and much of the faunal biomass is attributed to the presence of these organisms in the soil. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the effect of earthworm activity on soil microbial and biochemical attributes, in particularly when soils are amended with urban sewage sludge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the earthworm effects on biochemical and microbiological properties of a calcareous soil amended with municipal sewage sludge using Factor Analysis (FA. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the experimental treatments were sewage sludge (without and with 1.5% sewage sludge as the first factor and earthworm (no earthworm, Eiseniafoetida from epigeic group, Allolobophracaliginosa from endogeic group and a mixture of the two species as the second factor. The study was setup as 2×4 full factorial experiment arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications for each treatment under greenhouse conditions over 90 days. A calcareous soil from the 0-30 cm layer with clay loam texture was obtained from a farmland field under fallow without cultivation history for ten years. The soil was air-dried and passed through a 2-mm sieve for the experiment. Sewage sludge as the soil organic amendment was collected from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Shahrekord. Sewage sludge was air-dried and grounded to pass through a 1-mm sieve for a uniform mixture

  14. Embryotoxic and genotoxic potential of sewage system biofilm and river sediment in the catchment area of a sewage treatment plant in Switzerland. (United States)

    Häfeli, Nadja; Schwartz, Patrick; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia


    In the present study an embryo toxicity test with zebrafish and the comet assay with primary cells isolated from the embryos were combined to assess the toxicity of native biofilms from the sewage system of the sewage treatment plant (STP) Mittleres Wynental and native sediments from the river Wyna (Switzerland). The aim of the study was to evaluate the applicability of the test system to investigate biofilms and to rank the results of the biofilm and sediment sampling sites with regard to embryotoxic and genotoxic effects. We demonstrated that the zebrafish embryo toxicity test in combination with the comet assay with embryo primary cells is a tool that can basically be applied for investigating the bioavailable toxic potential of native biofilms. By ranking the results for embryo toxicity and genotoxicity, we found clear differences in the toxic potential of the biofilm from different sewage system sections. Significant genotoxicity was determined in all biofilm samples and the sediments revealed a lower genotoxic potential upstream of the STP discharge compared to samples downstream and directly at the discharge. Temporal variability from samplings in autumn and spring were found for two of the five biofilm and for one of the three sediment samples. Based on the results of our study we suggest that ecotoxicological bioassays (such as the embryo toxicity test and comet assay with zebrafish) using biofilm can be a useful tool to assess (waste) water quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does Botanical Diversity in Sewage Treatment Reed-Bed Sites Enhance Invertebrate Biodiversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Feest


    Full Text Available (1 This study examines the effect of increasing botanical diversity, through reed-bed planting and maintenance regimes, on sewage treatment reed-bed invertebrate biodiversity and the possible enrichment of overall catchment biodiversity. (2 Reed-bed invertebrates were identified as a good indicator group of overall site biodiversity quality and were sampled at a range of sewage treatment reed-bed sites in the same geographical area between May and August 2006 (plus one natural reed-bed control site. Standardised water trapping and pitfall trapping techniques were employed throughout this sampling period. (3 Statistical analysis of the sampling results revealed that the number of plant species recorded was inversely related to terrestrial invertebrate species richness, species conservation value index and biomass within the study sites. For example, the natural reed-bed sampled had the highest botanical diversity but the lowest terrestrial invertebrate species richness. (4 This study has demonstrated that sewage treatment reed-beds support a diverse range of invertebrate species, some of them being of national conservation value. This suggests that sewage treatment reed-beds may be at least as biodiverse as naturally occurring reed-beds and will add to the overall biodiversity and ecohydrology of a catchment whilst saving energy.

  16. New quality-control materials for the determination of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge. (United States)

    Fernández-Sanjuan, María; Lacorte, Silvia; Rigol, Anna; Sahuquillo, Angels


    The determination of alkylphenols in sewage sludge is still hindered by the complexity of the matrix and of the analytes, some of which are a mixture of isomers. Most of the methods published in the literature have not been validated, due to the lack of reference materials for the determination of alkylphenols in sludge. Given this situation, the objectives of the present study were to develop a new quality-control material for determining octylphenol, nonylphenol and nonylphenol monoethoxylate in sludge. The material was prepared from an anaerobically digested sewage sludge, which was thermally dried, sieved, homogenized and bottled after checking for the bulk homogeneity of the processed material. Together with the sewage sludge, an extract was also prepared, in order to provide a quality-control material for allowing laboratories to test the measuring step. The homogeneity and 1-year stability of the two materials were evaluated. Statistical analysis proved that the materials were homogeneous and stable for at least 1 year stored at different temperatures. These materials are intended to assist in the quality control of the determination of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge.

  17. The effect of sewage sludge on heavy metal concentrations in wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.). (United States)

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Somayeh; Sodaiezadeh, Hamid; Ayaseh, Kobra; Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool


    The use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils can improve soil physical and chemical properties and soil fertility by increasing organic materials; however, the presence of heavy metals in sewage sludge is a significant problem for the quality of agricultural products and the environment. Most heavy metals, due to their inactive nature, are stable and can affect human health. This study investigates the effect of sewage sludge on the concentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, iron, and manganese in two varieties of wheat, i.e., Sivand (Triticum aestivum cv. Sivand) and Roshan (Triticum aestivum cv. Roshan). Results were obtained from a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications and at three levels (0, 60, and 120 kg soil) and were carried out in a research greenhouse. This research concluded that in the treated seed and stem of Sivand variety, concentrations of Zn, Cd, Fe, and Mn were below the standard toxicity limit, and concentrations of Cu and Pb were above the standard limit. In the Roshan variety, the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, and Mn were below the standard limit, and Cu concentration was above the standard. The results of this study lead to the recommendation that farmers avoid using sewage sludge in farming, as much as possible. Instead, it is far more appropriately employed as a fertilizer for green space, ornamental trees, and parks, where edible products for human consumption are not grown.

  18. Isolating E.Coli Bacteriophage from Raw Sewage and Determining its Selectivity to the Host Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Imeni


    Full Text Available Introduction: Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and destroy prokaryote cells, specifically the bacteria. They act too selective, so as each bacteriophage affects only on specific type of bacteria. Due to their specific features, bacteriophages can be used as an appropriate substitute for antibiotics in infectious diseases treatment. Therefore, this study aimed to isolate E. coli-specific bacteriophage from raw sewage. Methods: Eight samples of raw sewage, each containing approximately 50 ml of raw sewage with 10 minute gap, were prepared from Zargandeh wastewater treatment plant, Tehran, Iran. The sewages were mixed with Brain-heart infusion medium (BHI as a liquid culture medium in order to let the microorganisms grow. Incubation, purification and determination of bacteria were followed repeatedly to isolate the bacteriophage. Then it was tested on E.coli (ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19433, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 2392, and Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 9610 in order to determine the bacteriophage selectivity. Results: The E.coli bacteriophages were successfully isolated from all the eight samples, that were completely able to lyse and destroy E.coli bacterial cells, though no effect was observed on other types of bacteria. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that bacteriophages act selectively. Considering the raise of antibiotic resistance in the world, bacteriophages can serve as a good substitute for antibiotics in treating infectious diseases.

  19. Detection of sewage organic chlorination products that are resistant to dechlorination with sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCrehan, W.A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Analytical Chemistry Div.; Jensen, J.S.; Helz, G.R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry


    Most of the 36 billion gal of treated sewage wastewater discharged daily into the environment in the United States is disinfected via chlorination. To minimize toxicity. dechlorination with sulfite or sulfur dioxide is often performed. Although dechlorination is considered instantaneous and complete, several studies have found residual toxicity of chlorinated/dechlorinated effluent to aquatic life. The authors investigated chlorination/dechlorination of the organic nitrogen components of sewage wastewater using both iodometric titration and a novel LC method. For LC, a postcolumn reaction with iodide rendered submicromolar chloramine concentrations detectable with amperometry. Using a gradient-elution LC separation, the retention and dechlorination behavior of a suite of model amines was determined, representing primary and secondary aliphatic, peptide, and protein-N. Chlorination/dechlorination experiments on freshly collected, tertiary-treated wastewater showed a fraction of the organic N-chloramines are dechlorinated slowly by sulfite with half-lives of >20 min. Chromatographic retention and kinetic behavior of the sewage N-chloramines was consistent with the behavior of the model peptides and proteins. Proteolytic hydrolysis markedly increased the peptide fraction observed upon chlorination of the wastewater. These results suggest that peptides and proteins contribute to slow dechlorination of sewage and may be a factor in the toxicity noted for chlorine-disinfected wastewater.

  20. Sequential electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from low-temperature gasification ashes of chemically precipitated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    availability and the presence of heavy metals. Previously, more than 80% of P was recovered from incineration sewage sludge ashes using a two-compartment electrodialytic cell. In contrast, the recovery was below 30% for ashes from low-temperature gasification using the same setup. The low recovery was due...

  1. Investigation of sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Izabella


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigation of low-temperature sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent. Tests were conducted in a laboratory stand, equipped with a gasification reactor designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. During presented tests, gas mixture with a composition of typical flue gases was used as a gasifying agent. The measuring system ensures online measurements of syngas composition: CO, CO2, H2, CH4. As a result of gasification process a syngas with combustible components has been obtained. The aim of the research was to determine the usability of sewage sludge for indirect cofiring in power boilers with the use of flue gas from the boiler as a gasifying agent and recirculating the syngas to the boiler’s combustion chamber. Results of presented investigation will be used as a knowledge base for industrial-scale sewage sludge gasification process. Furthermore, toxicity of solid products of the process has been determined by the use of Microtox bioassay. Before tests, solid post-gasification residues have been ground to two particle size fractions and extracted into Milli-Q water. The response of test organisms (bioluminescent Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria in reference to a control sample (bacteria exposed to 2% NaCl solution was measured after 5 and 15 minutes of exposure. The obtained toxicity results proved that thermal treatment of sewage sludge by their gasification reduces their toxicity relative to water organisms.

  2. Stability and activity of anaerobic sludge from UASB reactors treating sewage in subtropical regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghezzo, L.; Cuevas, C.M.; Trupiano, A.P.; Guerra, R.G.; Gonzalez, S.M.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.


    The production of small amounts of well-stabilized biological sludge is one of the main advantages of upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors over aerobic wastewater treatment systems. In this work, sludge produced in three pilot-scale UASB reactors used to treat sewage under subtropical

  3. Removal of two polycyclic musks in sewage treatment plants: Freely dissolved and total concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Borkent, I.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.


    In the current study, the removal of slowly degradable hydrophobic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs) has been evaluated with emphasis on the combination of free and total concentration data. Free and total concentrations of two polycyclic musks were determined in each compartment of four

  4. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent using man-made biofilms: effects of some variables. (United States)

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S


    Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent.

  5. Phytoremediation of chlorobenzenes in sewage sludge cultivated with Pennisetum purpureum at different times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anarelly C. Alvarenga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the major limitations of sewage sludge agricultural use is the presence of chlorobenzenes (CBs, which are toxic to the environment. The use of techniques of sewage sludge phytoremediation can be an important alternative for the degradation of these substances in the waste. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Pennisetum purpureum cultivation time on the reduction of the concentrations of 1,4-CB and 1,3,5-CB in sewage sludge. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using a randomized block design. The treatments consisted of five periods of Poaceae cultivation in sewage sludge plots (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days and a control (sludge plots not cultivated. At 150 days, the control, in the layer of 0-20 cm, showed higher concentrations of 1,3,5-CB, compared with the same layer of cultivated sludge. In the cultivated sludge, in the 10-20 cm layer, there was a decrease in the concentrations of 1,4-CB, while in the layer of 20-30 cm, both concentrations decreased. The observed reductions may be the result of mutualistic interactions between decomposer organisms and the roots of P. purpureum, favoring the decomposition process.

  6. Volatile fatty acids production from sewage organic matter by combined bioflocculation and anaerobic fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khiewwijit, R.; Keesman, K.J.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Temmink, B.G.


    This work aims at exploring the feasibility of a combined process bioflocculation to concentrate sewage organic matter and anaerobic fermentation to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA). Bioflocculation, using a high-loaded aerobic membrane bioreactor (HL-MBR), was operated at an HRT of 1 h and an SRT


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Dąbrowski


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research about the possibility of using trickling filter for high ammonia concentration sewage treatment. The study was conducted with the use of reject water generated during anaerobic sewage sludge stabilization in dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. They are usually returned to the beginning of WWTP. The value of BOD in reject water was approximately the same as in domestic and municipal sewage. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was varied from 145,0 to 390,0 mgN-NH4+/l and phosphorus from 16.0 to 38.0 mgP/l. The study used the Gunt test system CE701e, which allows controlling basic parameters of the treatment with trickling filter. Significant reduction of organic matter, total nitrogen and ammonium was observed during treatment. Average removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen ranged from 73.6 to 80.3%. In the case of the Kjeldahl nitrogen removal efficiencies ranged from 74.4 to 79.8%. Because of the aerobic conditions during the treatment of phosphorus removal efficiency was low and varied from 32.0 to 33.7%. The research confirmed the efficiency of trickling filter for treatment sewage with high concentration of ammonia nitrogen.

  8. Higher isolation of NDM-1 producing Acinetobacter baumannii from the sewage of the hospitals in Beijing.

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    Chuanfu Zhang

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant microbes present in the environment are a potential public health risk. In this study, we investigate the presence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 producing bacteria in the 99 water samples in Beijing City, including river water, treated drinking water, raw water samples from the pools and sewage from 4 comprehensive hospitals. For the bla NDM-1 positive isolate, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was further analyzed, and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE was performed to determine the genetic relationship among the NDM-1 producing isolates from sewage and human, as well as the clinical strains without NDM-1. The results indicate that there was a higher isolation of NDM-1 producing Acinetobacter baumannii from the sewage of the hospitals, while no NDM-1 producing isolates were recovered from samples obtained from the river, drinking, or fishpond water. Surprisingly, these isolates were markedly different from the clinical isolates in drug resistance and pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles, suggesting different evolutionary relationships. Our results showed that the hospital sewage may be one of the diffusion reservoirs of NDM-1 producing bacteria.

  9. The Territorial Dimension of Sewage Networks: the Case of Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (United States)

    Mendes, Thiago Monteiro; Barcellos, Christovam


    The urban suburbs of Brazilian cities have grown without an adequate sanitation infrastructure. Different social groups try to overcome these shortcomings seeking local sanitation alternatives at individual or community levels, contrasting with the universal model of sewage networks. This study was developed in the suburban neighborhood of Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to analyze the installation process of the sewage system under a territorial approach. Data facilitated the construction of territorial schemes related to conflicts during the implementation of sewage networks in this neighborhood, where middle class groups and favela residents coexist with environmental preservation areas, beaches and commercial activities. This work revealed the need for contextualized sanitation information made available by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and state sewage collection company, which conceal these conflicts or the representation of residents about their sanitation problems. Overlapping territorial managing functions should be considered as one of the factors responsible for the conflicts identified in the neighborhood. Further studies are suggested as methodological complementation and data update.

  10. The urgent need for risk assessment on the antibiotic resistance spread via sewage sludge land application. (United States)

    Bondarczuk, Kinga; Markowicz, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia


    Sewage sludge is an ever-increasing by-product of the wastewater treatment process frequently used as a soil fertiliser. To control its quality and prevent any possible hazardous impact of fertilisation, some mandatory limits of heavy metal content have been established by the European Commission (Sewage Sludge Directive). However, since the implementation of the limits, new emerging contaminants have been reported worldwide. Regardless of the wastewater treatment process, sewage sludge contains antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes, which can be released into the environment through its land application. Such a practice may even boost the dissemination and further development of antibiotic resistance phenomenon - already a global problem challenging modern medicine. Due to the growing pharmaceutical pollution in the environment, the time is ripe to assess the risk for the human and environmental health of sewage sludge land application in the context of antibiotic resistance spread. In this review we present the current knowledge in the field and we emphasise the necessity for more studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic resistome and its association with bacterial communities during sewage sludge composting. (United States)

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Wei, Bei; Ou-Yang, Wei-Ying; Huang, Fu-Yi; Zhao, Yi; Xu, Hui-Juan; Zhu, Yong-Guan


    Composting is widely used for recycling of urban sewage sludge to improve soil properties, which represents a potential pathway of spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes to soils. However, the dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the underlying mechanisms during sewage sludge composting were not fully explored. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene based illumina sequencing to investigate the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities during a lab-scale in-vessel composting of sewage sludge. A total of 156 unique ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected encoding resistance to almost all major classes of antibiotics. ARGs were detected with significantly increased abundance and diversity, and distinct patterns, and were enriched during composting. Marked shifts in bacterial community structures and compositions were observed during composting, with Actinobacteria being the dominant phylum at the late phase of composting. The large proportion of Actinobacteria may partially explain the increase of ARGs during composting. ARGs patterns were significantly correlated with bacterial community structures, suggesting that the dynamic of ARGs was strongly affected by bacterial phylogenetic compositions during composting. These results imply that direct application of sewage sludge compost on field may lead to the spread of abundant ARGs in soils.

  12. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge]. (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song


    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P resistance rates were significantly increased after anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P sludge had seasonal change characteristics. Except for chlorotetracycline resistant bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05).

  13. Adapting SimpleTreat for simulating behaviour of chemical substances during industrial sewage treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, J.; van de Meent, D.; Schowanek, D.; Buchholz, H.; Patoux, R.; Wolf, T.; Austin, T.; Tolls, J.; van Leeuwen, K.; Galay-Burgos, M.


    The multimedia model SimpleTreat, evaluates the distribution and elimination of chemicals by municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). It is applied in the framework of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals). This article describes an adaptation of this model for

  14. Energy saving system with high effluent quality for municipal sewage treatment by UASB-DHS. (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Takahashi, M; Yoneyama, Y; Syutsubo, K; Kato, K; Nagano, A; Yamaguchi, T; Harada, H


    An up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) - down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) was applied to Japanese municipal sewage treatment, and its treatability, energy consumption, and sludge production were evaluated. The designed sewage load was 50 m(3)/d. The sewage typically had a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 402 mg/L, a suspended solids (SS) content of 167 mg/L, and a temperature of 17-29 °C. The UASB and DHS exhibited theoretical hydraulic retention times of 9.7 and 2.5 h, respectively. The entire system was operated without temperature control. Operation was started with mesophilic anaerobic digested sludge for the UASB and various sponge media for the DHS. Continuous operational data suggest that although the cellulose decomposition and methanogenic process in the UASB are temperature sensitive, stable operation can be obtained by maintaining a satisfactory sludge volume index and sludge concentration. For the DHS, the cube-type medium G3-2 offers superior filling rates, biological preservation and operational execution. The SS derived from the DHS contaminated the effluent but could be removed by optional sand filtration. A comparison with conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment confirmed that this system is adequate for municipal sewage treatment, with an estimated energy requirement and excess sludge production approximately 75 and 85% less than those of CAS, respectively.

  15. Coliforms as a measure of sewage contamination of the River Zambezi. (United States)

    Feresu, S B; Van Sickle, J


    The effect of releasing untreated sewage from Victoria Falls Town into the Zambezi river was determined by bacteriological examination of water samples collected upstream of Victoria Falls and for 22 km downstream. Most probable numbers of faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were estimated. Water upstream of the falls, on the Zimbabwe side of the river, contained between seven and 130 E. coli per 100 ml. This section of the river was free from major sources of faecal pollution. Below the falls, but before the Victoria Falls Town sewage outfall, numbers of E. coli were between 1.8 X 10(2) and 1.4 X 10(4)/100 ml, indicating the existence of a sewage discharge other than that from Victoria Falls Town. The river was also highly polluted from the Victoria Falls Town sewage outfall to a point 18.6 km downstream. The highest E. coli count was 3.3 X 10(4)/100 ml and declined slowly to 1.4 X 10(3)/100 ml 18.6 km downstream of the outfall.

  16. Organic matter and heavy metals content modeling in sewage sludge treated with reed bed system (United States)

    Boruszko, Dariusz; Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Malinowski, Paweł


    The long process of sludge stabilization (7-15 years) remarkably reduces the organic matter content and causes the process of sludge humifaction. This paper presents the results of using low-cost methods of sludge treatment in the wastewater treatment plant located in Zambrow, Podlaskie Province. The results of studies on the organic matter and heavy metals content in sewage sludge after treatment in a reed bed system are presented. The aim of the research was to evaluate and model organic matter and heavy metals concentrations during sewage stabilization in reed bed lagoons. The lowest concentration, below 1.3 mg/kg DM of the examined seven heavy metals was mercury (Hg). The highest concentration, exceeding 1300 mg/kg DM was zinc (Zn). The obtained results for the heavy metals in sewage sludge from the reed bed lagoons in Zambrow show that the average content of the analyzed heavy metals is approximately 1620 mg/kg DM. The results of the study demonstrate a high efficiency of low-cost methods used in Zambrów WWTP in terms of the quality of the processed sludge. Sewage sludge from the lowest layer of the reed lagoon (12-14 years of dewatering and transformation) is characterized by the lowest organic matter and heavy metals content. The higher a sediment layer lies, i.e. the shorter the time of processing, the higher is the heavy metals content. This indicates a great role of reeds in the accumulation of these compounds.

  17. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash. (United States)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Thomsen, Tobias P; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik


    Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ashes, a material that is rich in phosphorus, but which is commonly landfilled or used in construction materials. With current uncertainty in phosphate rock supply, phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ashes has become interesting. In the present work, ashes from incineration and gasification of the same sewage sludge were compared in terms of phosphorus extractability using electrodialytic (ED) methods. The results show that comparable recovery rates of phosphorus were achieved with a single ED step for incineration ashes and a sequential combination of two ED steps for gasification ashes, which was due to a higher influence of iron and/or aluminium in phosphorus solubility for the latter. A product with lower level of metallic impurities and comparable to wet process phosphoric acid was eventually obtained from gasification ashes. Thus, gasification becomes an interesting alternative to incineration also in terms of phosphorus separation.

  18. Extracting phosphorous from incinerated sewage sludge ash rich in iron or aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Jensen, Pernille E.


    Ashes from mono-incineration of sewage sludge (ISSA) generally contain high concentrations of phosphorous (P) and can be regarded as secondary P resources. ISSA has no direct value as fertilizer as P is not plant available. The present paper experimentally compares P extraction in acid from two...

  19. Research on Performance and Microstructure of Sewage Pipe Mortar Strengthened with Different Anti-Corrosion Technologies (United States)

    Mu, Song; Zhou, Huaxin; Shi, Liang; Liu, Jianzhong; Cai, Jingshun; Wang, Feng


    Mostly urban underground sewage is the acidic corrosion environment with a high concentration of aggressive ions and microbe, which resulted in performance deterioration and service-life decrease of sewage concrete pipe. In order to effectively protect durability of the concrete pipe, the present paper briefly analysed the main degradation mechanism of concrete pipe attacked by urban underground sewage, and proposed that using penetrating and strengthening surface sealer based on inorganic chemistry. In addition, using index of compressive strength, weight loss and appearance level to investigate the influence of the sealer on corrosion resistance of mortar samples after different dry-wet cycles. Besides, comparative research on effect of the sealer, aluminate cement and admixture of corrosion resistance was also addressed. At last, the SEM technology was used to reveal the improvement mechanism of different technologies of corrosion resistance. The results indicated that the sealer and aluminate cement can significantly improve corrosion resistance of mortar. Besides, the improvement effect can be described as the descending order: the penetrating and strengthening surface sealer > aluminate cement > admixture of corrosion resistance. The mortar sample treated with the sealer displayed the condensed and sound microstructure which proved that the sealer can improve the corrosion resistance to urban underground sewage.

  20. Event-driven model predictive control of sewage pumping stations for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks. (United States)

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo


    Chemicals such as Mg(OH)2 and iron salts are widely dosed to sewage for mitigating sulfide-induced corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. The chemical dosing rate is usually not automatically controlled but profiled based on experience of operators, often resulting in over- or under-dosing. Even though on-line control algorithms for chemical dosing in single pipes have been developed recently, network-wide control algorithms are currently not available. The key challenge is that a sewer network is typically wide-spread comprising many interconnected sewer pipes and pumping stations, making network-wide sulfide mitigation with a relatively limited number of dosing points challenging. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an Event-driven Model Predictive Control (EMPC) methodology, which controls the flows of sewage streams containing the dosed chemical to ensure desirable distribution of the dosed chemical throughout the pipe sections of interests. First of all, a network-state model is proposed to predict the chemical concentration in a network. An EMPC algorithm is then designed to coordinate sewage pumping station operations to ensure desirable chemical distribution in the network. The performance of the proposed control methodology is demonstrated by applying the designed algorithm to a real sewer network simulated with the well-established SeweX model using real sewage flow and characteristics data. The EMPC strategy significantly improved the sulfide mitigation performance with the same chemical consumption, compared to the current practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing illicit drug use in 19 European cities through sewage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, K.V.; Bijlsma, L.; Castiglioni, S.; Covaci, A.; Emke, E.; Grabic, R.; Hernández, F.; Karolak, S.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Lindberg, R.H.; Meierjohann, A.; Ort, C.; Pico, Y.; Quintana, J.; Reid, M.; Rieckermann, J.; Terzic, S.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; de Voogt, P.


    The analysis of sewage for urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs is a promising and complementary approach for estimating the use of these substances in the general population. For the first time, this approach was simultaneously applied in 19 European cities, making it possible to directly compare

  2. Co-fermentation of sewage sludge and organic waste; CO-Vergaerung von Klaerschlamm und Bioabfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, K.G. [Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband, Essen (Germany)


    The processes taking place in sewage sludge digestion and organic waste fermentation are identical. It therefore seems obvious to treat organic waste and sewage sludge jointly. In contrast to organic waste fermentation plants to be newly erected, co-fermentation permits making use of anaerobic treatment systems that are already installed at sewage treatment plants. At these plants, in principle only the sections responsible for acceptance and conditioning of organic waste need to be retrofitted. Apart from the possibility to treat organic waste very inexpensively, the co-fermentation process offers a number of other advantages. For this reason, the Emschergenossenschaft and Lippeverband carried out extensive semi-technical scale tests in co-fermentation of organic waste and sewage sludge. (orig.) [German] Die ablaufenden biologischen Prozesse sind bei der Klaerschlammfaulung und der Bioabfallvergaerung gleich. Es liegt daher nahe, Bioabfaelle und Klaerschlaemme gemeinsam zu behandeln. Gegenueber neu zu errichtenden Bioabfall-Vergaerungsanlagen kann bei der Co-Vergaerung auf die bereits installierte Anaerobtechnik auf den Klaeranlagen zurueckgegriffen werden. Dort muss im wesentlichen nur der Annahme- und Aufbereitungsbereich fuer die Bioabfaelle nachgeruestet werden. Das Verfahren der Co-Vergaerung bietet ausser einer sehr kostenguenstigen Behandlungsmoeglichkeit fuer Bioabfaelle eine Reihe weiterer Vorteile. Aus diesem Grund wurden bei Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband umfangreiche halbtechnische Versuche zur Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  3. Climate change impact on infection risks during bathing downstream of sewage emissions from CSOs or WWTPs. (United States)

    Sterk, Ankie; de Man, Heleen; Schijven, Jack F; de Nijs, Ton; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria


    Climate change is expected to influence infection risks while bathing downstream of sewage emissions from combined sewage overflows (CSOs) or waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) due to changes in pathogen influx, rising temperatures and changing flow rates of the receiving waters. In this study, climate change impacts on the surface water concentrations of Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and norovirus originating from sewage were modelled. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was used to assess changes in risks of infection. In general, infection risks downstream of WWTPs are higher than downstream CSOs. Even though model outputs show an increase in CSO influxes, in combination with changes in pathogen survival, dilution within the sewage system and bathing behaviour, the effects on the infection risks are limited. However, a decrease in dilution capacity of surface waters could have significant impact on the infection risks of relatively stable pathogens like Cryptosporidium and norovirus. Overall, average risks are found to be higher downstream WWTPs compared to CSOs. Especially with regard to decreased flow rates, adaptation measures on treatment at WWTPs may be more beneficial for human health than decreasing CSO events. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis [Technological Educational Institute of West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)


    The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

  5. Study of heavy metal in sewage sludge and in Chinese cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 2, 2008 ... 2Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, China ... content in China. Our results suggested that application of sewage sludge could enhance the output of vegetable while the risk of heavy metal should be ..... consumption of vegetables.

  6. Biotechnology of intensive aerobic conversion of sewage sludge and food waste into fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.-Y.; Stabnikova, O.; Show, K.-Y.; Ding, H.-B.; Tay, S.T.-L.; Ivanov, V.; Tay, J.-H.


    Biotechnology for intensive aerobic bioconversion of sewage sludge and food waste into fertilizer was developed. The wastes were treated in a closed reactor under controlled aeration, stirring, pH, and temperature at 60{sup o}C, after addition of starter bacterial culture Bacillus thermoamylovorans. The biodegradation of sewage sludge was studied by decrease of volatile solids (VS), content of organic carbon and autofluorescence of coenzyme F{sub 420}. The degradation of anaerobic biomass was faster than biodegradation of total organic matter. The best fertilizer was obtained when sewage sludge was thermally pre-treated, mixed with food waste, chalk, and artificial bulking agent. The content of volatile solid and the content of organic carbon decreased at 24.8% and 13.5% of total solids, respectively, during ten days of bioconversion. The fertilizer was a powder with moisture content of 5%. It was stable, and not toxic for the germination of plant seeds. Addition of 1.0 to 1.5% of this fertilizer to the subsoil increased the growth of different plants tested by 113 to 164 %. The biotechnology can be applied in larger scale for the recycling of sewage sludge and food wastes in Singapore. (author)

  7. Bioremediation of domestic sewage: the case of green septic tank in arid rural communities of Alagoas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Oliveira Netto


    Full Text Available The deficit regarding the coverage of collection and treatment of sewage requires systems that combine proper disposal of wastewater and low construction and operating costs. In this context the bioremediation through the green septic tank, sustainable social and low cost technology, presents itself as a viable alternative especially for rural municipalities. This objective social technology contribute to confronting the domestic sewage problem and its consequences for public health and the environment; It is alternative for allocation of domestic sewage, as well as allowing the cultivation of some fruit species. Through partnership with the project Renas-Ser engaged in the management of surface and underground water bodies, three green septic tanks were constructed and are in the initial phase of operation in arid rural communities of Alagoas, contemplating the proper conditioning of domestic sewage. The first results of reduction in organic matter are very encouraging, with a view to removing approximately 38% of COD on the first support layer. The next phase is to define the others parameters to monitor and verify the approval of users of the technology.

  8. Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria for application after direct low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, C.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Luesken, F.; Alen, T.A.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Camp, op den H.J.M.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Temmink, B.G.


    Despite many advantages of anaerobic sewage treatment over conventional activated sludge treatment, it has not yet been applied in temperate zones. This is especially because effluent from low-temperature anaerobic treatment contains nitrogen and dissolved methane. The presence of nitrogen and

  9. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (United States)


    ... record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating... and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and official number listed on the front...

  10. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification. (United States)

    Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri; Kimmerle, Klaus


    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures--gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation--are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

  11. Salmonella species and serotypes isolated from farm animals, animal feed, sewage, and sludge in Saudi Arabia* (United States)

    Nabbut, N. H.; Barbour, E. K.; Al-Nakhli, H. M.


    A total of 264 salmonellae representing 65 different species and serotypes were isolated for the first time in Saudi Arabia, from various animal species, animal feed, sewage, and sludge. The six most frequently isolated Salmonella species or serotypes were: livingstone, concord, “S. schottmuelleri” (invalid), lille, S. typhimurium, and cerro. PMID:6983931

  12. 76 FR 55668 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Final Affirmative Determination (United States)


    ... vessels. Therefore, EPA's determination of adequacy is justified. EPA recognizes the importance of.... However, it is noted that the sewage discharged from MSDs is treated with chlorine, quaternary ammonia and.... p.m. 37 U.S. Merchant Little Neck Bay, 516-773-5798...... Jan-Dec; Mon-Sun; 6 Free. Marine Academy...

  13. Detection of Rotavirus in Sewage and Creek Water: Efficiency of the Concentration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnert DU


    Full Text Available Simian rotavirus SA-11, experimentally seeded, was recovered from raw domestic sewage by a two-step concentration procedure, using filtration through a positively charged microporous filter (Zeta Plus 60 S followed by ultracentrifugation, effecting an 8,000-fold concentration. By this method, a mean recovery of 81% ± 7.5 of the SA-11 virus, was achieved

  14. Levels Of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn And Cd, In Effluent From A Sewage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the results of preliminary investigation of heavy metal levels-Ni, Cd, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn; pH; temperature and electrical conductivity in effluents from a sewage treatment oxidation pond and its receiving stream. The heavy metal concentrations were determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass ...

  15. Effects of municipal sewage sludge doses on the yield, some yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 3, 2008 ... Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, 65080, Van, Turkey. Accepted 29 July, 2008. Significant grain yield increase to ... The trial was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Four municipal sewage sludge doses (0, 20 000, 40 000 and 60 ...

  16. Effects of Montreal municipal sewage effluents on immune responses of juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Harri M. [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada)], E-mail:; Hebert, Nancy; Dautremepuits, Claire [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada); Cejka, Patrick [Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant, 12 001 Maurice-Duplessis, Montreal, Que. H1C 1V3 (Canada); Cyr, Daniel G.; Fournier, Michel [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada)


    The objective of this study was to examine the immunotoxicity of treated Montreal sewage effluents on juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A comprehensive panel of immunological assays was used to evaluate the effects of exposure for 1 and 4 weeks to 1, 3, 10 and 20% sewage effluent. Phagocytic ingestion of fluorescent latex beads by head kidney macrophages and granulocytes was suppressed following 1-week of exposure, with the highest exposure concentration being the most suppressive. Phagocytic activity returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. The cytotoxic activity of head kidney derived non-specific cytotoxic cells was enhanced after a 1-week exposure, especially at the lowest exposure concentration, and returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to LPS and ConA activation was not affected following sewage effluent exposure, but nonactivated, spontaneous proliferation of lymphocytes was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner after 4 weeks of exposure. Plasma lysozyme activity was elevated at lowest exposure concentration after 4 weeks. No changes were noted in either the blood leukocyte/erythrocyte ratio or in the proportion of circulating lymphocytes and thrombocytes. The proportion of circulating granulocytes increased following exposure for 4 weeks to the low effluent concentration. Plasma cortisol levels were not affected by effluent exposure suggesting that mechanisms other than stress influenced the observed immunomodulation. In summary, this study demonstrates that sewage effluent can alter the immune functions of rainbow trout.

  17. Evaluation of Methods for Nitrogen and Phosporus Control in Sewage Effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Sinkjær, O.; Hansen, J. L.


    The design parameters for the City of Copenhagen sewage-treatment works were established on an experimental basis, and parallel studies of six pilot plants were made over a two-year period. The key parameters are (a) the rate of nitrification and denitrification, (b) temperature, and (c) BOD...

  18. Effect of municipal sewage effluent on soil and crops cultivated on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of sewage effluent from Sebha Municipal Area in the Fezzan region of Libya on certain physicochemical properties of a hyper-arid zone sandy soil and growth of two plants were studied. The soil had been treated daily with 25, 50, 75 and 100% effluent; and barley (Hordeum vulgare) and broad beans (Vicia faba) ...

  19. Impact of partially treated sewage effluent on the water quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Key Words: Malaysian Water Quality Index, Sewage, Wastewater treatment plant, Epie Creek, Fallout point, ... effluent/wastewater treatment facilities. Wastewater from industries includes employees' sanitary waste, process wastes, hydrotest water from pipelines and ..... as pesticides and metals tend to adsorb to them or.

  20. A 25-year record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils amended with sewage sludges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Sappin-Didier, Valérie; Denaix, Laurence


    We studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crop soils amended with 1000 tonnes dry weight of sewage sludges per 10,000 m(2) from 1974 to 1992, then after sludges addition from 1993 to 1999. The absence of variations of total PAHs levels of control soils, averaging at 123 mu g/Kg, shows...

  1. Heavy Metal Content in Sewage Sludge: A Management Strategy for an Ocean Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Hernández Sánchez


    Full Text Available In recent years, the generation of sewage sludge has increased worldwide. Correct processing and management of this waste concerns all countries. This work presents a study of metal contents, i.e. of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, and Ni, in sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant in the northeastern region of the island of Tenerife. The study aimed at examining the sludge for potential suitability as a farmland fertilizer. Detected metal levels for Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, and Ni were extremely low (26.44, 544.01, 24.10, 37.05, and 8.04 mg/kg dw [dry weight], respectively. Cadmium levels were under quanti cation limit. Season-dependent, statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 in metal concentrations in sewage sludge were observed for Cu, Ni, Cr, and Pb. Consequently, the application of sewage sludge to fertilize nutrient-deficient agricultural soils and soils degraded by human activity represents a fast and straightforward solution to the lack of such resources, particularly in an oceanic island.

  2. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils. (United States)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa


    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of Anadenanthera colubrine (Vell. Brenan seedlings using substrates based on composted sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer


    Full Text Available The use of sewage sludge as raw material for forest growing is an alternative for the utilization and disposal of this solid waste. This work aimed at evaluating the use of a substrate based on composted sewage sludge and crushed pruning tree for the production of Anadenanthera colubrina seedlings (monjoleiro using three different fertilization levels. Seedling growth was then compared to growth on a commercial substrate based on composted Pinus bark and vermiculite. Three levels of fertilization (0; 2.7 and 4 and three types of substrates were used: commercial substrate, and 3:1 (v:v or 2:1 (v:v composted substrate based on aerobic sewage sludge and crushed tree pruning. Seedling height, diameter and aerial dry mass (leaves and branches were measured. Considering seedlings growth without fertilization, the greatest values for all morphological characteristics were obtained using composted substrate based on sewage sludge. Growth rates in all treatments using 2.7 of fertilizer, in many cases, can be considered sufficient, showing adequate amounts of nutrients to make up Anadenanthera colubrina seedling nutritional requirements and to promote adequate growth, with economy of the fertilizer.

  4. Improvement of salinity in sewage sludge compost prior to its utilization as nursery substrate. (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Tao; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-Bin; Cai, Hong; Zheng, Guo-Di


    Soluble salts are enriched in sewage sludge compost because of their inherent derivation. Accordingly, the content of soluble salt in sludge compost is usually much higher than most seedlings can tolerate. To determine whether sludge compost is suitable for use as a nursery substrate, some experiments were conducted. Reduction of the electrical conductivity (EC) value could improve seed germination in saturated extract from sludge compost. In addition, water elution and mixing dilution with raw soil were all shown to be able to alleviate saline inhibition on seed germination and seedling growth, including stem diameter, seedling height, and above-ground weight. Overall, salinity is a crucial problem when sewage sludge compost is reused as a nursery substrate, and some effective and convenient approaches to reduce salt should be served prior to its reuse. Sewage sludge after being composted is usually reused as organic fertilizer or plant substrate. However, salt is the main problem during its reclamation. What is the highest salt level the seedling can tolerate? Which types of salts are effective in salinity of sludge-amended substrate? Meanwhile, can the salinity be reduced through water elution or soil mixing dilution? This paper is the first to investigate the salinity and its reduction of sewage sludge compost prior to its use in the development of nursery substrate.

  5. Integrated Application of the UASB Reactor and Ponds for Domestic Sewage Treatment in Tropical Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, P.F.F.


    Waste stabilization ponds are widely applied for domestic sewage treatment in Brazil. The main objective of conventional waste stabilisation ponds (WSP's) is, nomen est omen , to remove the organic material from wastewater. To achieve this objective, a quite long liquid retention time ( R

  6. Heavy metals removal from sewage sludge : Is practical application a feasible option?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.


    The present work evaluates some new developments concerning research into the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge and discusses the significance for practical application. As such, the complete process of sludge treatment as an integral part of a sludge management process is considered. Two


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Filkiewicz


    Full Text Available According to the National Waste Management Plan 2014 (NWMP 2014 recommended method of utilization of sewage sludge is using it for agricultural purposes or for land reclamation. The sludge is characterized by a high content of organic substances, microelements and biogenic compounds, through which sewage sludge possess high soil formation and fertilization properties. It is assumed that in 2020 approximately 30% of the sludge production will be used for agricultural purposes, while 15% will be used for land reclamation. We have to remember that prior to the introduction of sludge into the ground, security, health and chemical requirements should be met. In order to use the sludge for agricultural purposes, the process of their disposal should be previously carried out e.g. Autoheated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD. It allows for hygienisation of sewage sludge and reducing the heavy metal content. As a result, processed sewage sludge is characterized by the presence of heavy metals in amounts which do not exceed the standards. It is also deprived of microorganisms. The stabilized sludge is characterized by high phosphorus and calcium content. Therefore there is possibility to use the examined sludge in agriculture.

  8. Further contribution to the diatom flora of sewage enriched waters in southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoeman, FR


    Full Text Available The systematics and autecology of the diatoms observed in an algal sample from a maturation pond of the Walvis Bay (south west African coast) sewage works are discussed. Fourteen diatoms species are recorded. A new specie, Amphora subacutiuscula...

  9. Dynamics of changes in coplanar and indicator PCB in sewage sludge during mesophilic methane digestion. (United States)

    Rosińska, A; Karwowska, B


    Research was conducted, which aim was to evaluate the influence of mesophilic methane digestion on degradation of coplanar and indicator PCB in sewage sludge, and on dynamics of changes of these congeners during the process. For the research, sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant were used. Mesophilic digestion was conducted at the temperature of 36°C±1°C. The anaerobic stabilization processes of sewage sludge occurred correctly what was confirmed by appropriate values of pH, content of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ratio of VFA to alkalinity. Biodegradation of organic compounds in sewage sludge was confirmed by the decrease in total solids (by 26%) and volatile solids (by 36%). Up to the 3rd day of the digestion process no statistically significant differences in concentration of both coplanar and indicator PCB was observed. During the following days of the process, an increase in lower chlorinated PCB concentration was demonstrated and a decrease in concentration of higher chlorinated congeners (penta-, hexa-, and heptachlorobiphenyls). After the digestion, a decrease in higher chlorinated congener concentration was found. Significant degradation was demonstrated for coplanar PCB 169 (from 77.8 to 80.5%), and indicator PCB 180 (from 57.1 to 90.3%) and PCB 153 (from 60.4 to 79.2%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental destruction of Ascarid ova in sewage sludge by accelerated electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, Petr (Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Parasitology)


    Aerobically-treated sewage sludge containing eggs of the nematode Ascaris suum was processed using accelerated electrons. After 8 weeks of incubation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was determined. Inhibition of development and the destruction of nematode embryos within eggs were observed at doses over 1.1 kGy. (author).


    Newly developed molecular biology methods have been used for the measurement of estrogenic activity in source-biased studies of sewage treatment plants. Studies in Texas and New Mexico have shown the utility of the measurement of changes in vitellogenin gene expression in fathea...

  12. Bio-methanation Of Fine Sieved Fraction Sequestered From Raw Municipal Sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghasimi, D.S.M.


    Fine sieves can be implemented as compact alternatives to primary clarification. Fine sieved fraction (FSF) is a heterogeneous substrate that mainly consists of fibers originating from toilet paper and thus contains a high cellulosic fraction. Resource recovery and energy neutral sewage treatment is


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Antonkiewicz


    Full Text Available Application of sewage sludge for environmental management of fly ashes landfill site affects chemical composition of plants. The aim of the present investigations was learning the effect of growing doses of municipal sewage sludge on the yield and uptake of Fe, Mn, Al, Si and Co by grass mixture used for environmental management of fly ashes landfill. The experimental design comprised of 5 objects differing by a dose of municipal sewage sludge supplied per 1 hectare: I. control, II. 25 t d.m., III. 50 t d.m., IV. 75 t d.m. and V. 100 t d.m. Application of sewage sludge resulted in the increase in yield. The content of analyzed elements in the grass mixture depended significantly on sewage sludge dose. Increasing doses of sewage sludge caused marked increase in Mn and Co contents, while they decreased Fe, Al and Si contents in the grass mixture. It was found that growing doses of sewage sludge caused an improvement of Fe to Mn ratio value in the grass mixture. Assessing the element content in the grass mixture in the view of forage value, it was found that Fe and Mn content did not meet the optimal value. Si content in plants was below the optimal value.

  14. Presence of helminth eggs in sewage sludge from waste water plants; Presencia de huevos de helmintos en lodos procedentes de la depuracion de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Muro, J. L.; Garcia Orenes, F.; Nieto Asensio, N.; Bonora, I. B.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.


    Land application of sewage sludge is a usual practice in wide areas of the Comunidad Valencia, due the low organic contents and nutrients of the soils, and the sewage sludge is a suitable material to use os organic amendment of soils. However the use of sewage sludge involves a very detailed characterization of sewage, to avoid sanitary hazards as the presence of helminth eggs and its high resistant to most of the treatment used to stabilize sewage sludge. The aim of this work was determine the parasitic contamination of helminths found in sewage sludge, stabilized by anaerobic digestion, from two waste water plants of Alicante (Alcoy y Benidorm) destined to agricultural land. Also it was studies the evolution of helminth eggs content of a sewage sludge subjected to composting process. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. Acetylcholinesterase, glutathione and hepatosomatic index as potential biomarkers of sewage pollution and depuration in fish. (United States)

    Al-Ghais, Saif M


    The current study was designed to validate the biomarkers of sewage pollution in Mozambique Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica, Peters) reared in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emerates, before and following depuration/detoxification. Cellular biomarkers, cholinesterase activity using acetylcholine as a substrate (acetylcholinesterase AChE) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were investigated in fresh water fish, Tilapia, raised in a fish farm (Group I/Clean, as Control), treated sewage water/TSW (Group II/Sewage) and thereafter exposed to fresh water in an aquarium for 6 weeks (Group III/Depurated) for depuration. The results showed significantly lower levels of AChE activities in liver (26% pliver after depuration (Group III/Depurated). In contrast, GSH levels were significantly raised in both liver (1.3-fold pliver restored to control values, while remained unchanged in muscle. The average hepatosomatic index (HSI=weight of liver×100/total fish weight), an indicator of hepatomegaly, in the Group II fish reared in TSW was also significantly higher than that in the reference Group I fish, but decreased to control level in Group III fish following depuration. This study suggests the importance of cellular biomarkers, AChE, GSH and hepatosomatic index in monitoring the impact of sewage water pollution on fish caused by a complex mixture of chemico-biological contaminants and its mitigation following depuration, an effective mean of fish detoxification. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Potentiality of Melastoma malabathricum as Phytoremediators of soil contaminated with sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-Nazirah Patek-Mohd

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Heavy metal pollution of the soil environment has become a major source of concern and continues to pose serious health problems to both humans and ecological systems worldwide. Phytoremediation is a biological treatment whereby plants are used to remove pollutant from the environment. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of Melastoma malabathricum as a phytoremediator to absorb heavy metals from soil contaminated with sewage sludge. Melastoma malabathricum seedlings were planted on six different growth media: T0 - Control (100 % soil, T1 (80 % soil + 20 % sewage sludge, T2 (60 % soil + 40 % sewage sludge, T3 (40 % soil + 60 % sewage sludge, T4 (20 % soil + 80 % sewage sludge and T5 (100 % sludge. There were differences found in both growth parameters and plant biomass. The highest growth performance such as plant height and number of leaves was found in T3. Iron was highly accumulated in the roots, Cu in the stems in T3, while Pb was accumulated in leaves in T5. The results showed the lowest Translocation Factor (TF and highest Bioconcentration Factor (BCF values in relation to the following elements: Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. Melastoma malabathricum roots are able to uptake and translocate the elements into the plant's shoots. Therefore, it can be considered a good accumulator plant due to its capability of concentrating contaminants in aerial tissue. Melastoma malabathricum were thus found to be suitable for absorbing heavy metals in contaminated soils, and this species can also be considered an effective phtyoremediator of contaminated soil and mitigator of soil pollution.

  17. Use of sewage sludge and coconut coir mix as a peat substitute for potted chrysanthemum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenani, A.B.; Lim, F.Y.; Thohirah, L.A.; Fauziah, C.I.


    Recent central processing of domestic wastewater in Malaysia has initiated investigations into the disposal/utilization of the sewage sludge produced. We had conducted an experiment to investigate the feasibility of using dewatered sewage sludge and coconut coir as a peat substitute in a potting medium for chrysanthemum. The experiment involved 9 treatments with sewage sludge (SS) and coconut coir (CC) mixed in different ratios (v/v) to replace peat in the standard potting medium of 3:2:1 (soil: peat: sand).The potting medium contained the following treatments, T1: peat + recommended rates of Agroblend (Ag), a slow release fertilizer, and Grofas (Gf), a foliar fertilizer (commonly used medium and fertilization), T2: [1SS:1CC] + Ag, T3: [1SS:1CC] + half recommended rates of Agroblend and Grofas (1/2Ag + 1/2Gf), T4: [2SS:1CC] + Ag, T5: [2SS:1CC] + 1/2Ag + 1/2Gf, T6: [3SS:1CC] + Ag, T7: [3SS:1CC] + 1/2Ag + 1/2Gf, T8: [4SS:1CC] + Ag, and T9: [4SS:1CC] + 1/2Ag + 1/2Gf; laid-out in a randomized complete block design with 5 replications. Results of the study show that in general the media with sludge and coconut coir mixtures produced better plant growth and higher total number of flowers than peat. However, the higher ratio of SS:CC, (4SS:1CC) produced poorer plant growth and less number of flowers. Increase in sewage sludge in the medium resulted in increase in foliar contents of heavy metals. This study demonstrates that sewage sludge and coconut coir mixture in the ratio of 1:1 may best substitute peat in the potting medium for chrysanthemum with only Agroblend fertilizer application. (author)

  18. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on chemical and physical properties of sewage sludge biochar. (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Zahra; Afyuni, Majid; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pyrolysis temperatures (300, 400, 500, 600 and 700°C) on properties of biochar produced from an urban sewage sludge. Biochar yield significantly decreased from 72.5% at 300°C to 52.9% at 700°C, whereas an increase in temperature increased the gas yield. Biochar pH and electrical conductivity increased by 3.8 and 1.4 dS m⁻¹, proportionally to the increment of temperature. Biochar produced at low temperatures had higher total nitrogen and total organic carbon content but a lower C/N ratio, calcium carbonate equivalent, and total P, K and Na contents. Total and diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA)-extractable concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Cr and Pb increased with increment of temperature. Lower DTPA-extractable concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb were found in biochars compared to the sewage sludge. Pyrolysis decreased bulk density, whereas particle density and porosity increment was observed upon pyrolysis with increment of temperature. Sewage sludge saturated water content (θs ) was 130.4 g 100g⁻¹ and significantly greater than biochar, but biochar θs significantly increased with temperature (95.7 versus 105.4 g 100g⁻¹ at 300 and 700°C, respectively). Pyrolysis decreased the biochar's water repellency, assessed by molarity of ethanol droplet (MED), compared to the sewage sludge. The lowest MED of 0.2 and water repellency rating of 3 were found for the biochar produced at 700°C. Based on our results and considering the energy consumption, pyrolysis temperature in the range of 300-400°C may be suggested for sewage sludge pyrolysis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Decrease of dissolved sulfide in sewage by powdered natural magnetite and hematite. (United States)

    Zhang, Lehua; Verstraete, Willy; de Lourdes Mendoza, María; Lu, Zhihao; Liu, Yongdi; Huang, Guangtuan; Cai, Lankun


    Natural magnetite and hematite were explored to decrease sulfide in sewage, compared with iron salts (FeCl3 and FeSO4). A particle size of magnetite and hematite ranging from 45 to 60μm was used. The results showed that 40mgL-1 of powdered magnetite and hematite addition decreased the sulfide in sewage by 79%and 70%, respectively. The achieved decrease of sulfide production capacities were 197.3, 210.6, 317.6 and 283.3mgSg-1Fe for magnetite, hematite, FeCl3 and FeSO4 at the optimal dosage of 40mgL-1, respectively. Magnetite and hematite provided a higher decrease of sulfide production since more iron ions are capable of being released from the solid phase, not because of adsorption capacity of per gram iron. Besides, the impact on pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of hematite addition was negligible; while magnetite addition resulted in slight increase of 0.3-0.5 on pH and 10-40mV on ORP. Powdered magnetite and hematite thus appear to be suitable for sulfide decrease in sewage, for their sparing solubility, sustained-release, long reactive time in sewage as well as cost-effectiveness, compared with iron salts. Further investigation over long time periods under practical conditions are needed to evaluate the possible settlement in sewers and unwanted (toxic) metal elements presenting as impurities. Powdered magnetite and hematite were more cost-effective at only 30% costs of iron salts, such as FeCl3 and FeSO4 for decreasing sulfide production in sewage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Sewage pollution in Negril, Jamaica: effects on nutrition and ecology of coral reef macroalgae (United States)

    Lapointe, B. E.; Thacker, K.; Hanson, C.; Getten, L.


    Coral reefs in the Negril Marine Park (NMP), Jamaica, have been increasingly impacted by nutrient pollution and macroalgal blooms following decades of intensive development as a major tourist destination. A baseline survey of DIN and SRP concentrations, C:N:P and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on shallow and deep reefs of the NMP in 1998 showed strong P-limitation and evidence of increasing sewage pollution. In 1999, a sewage collection and treatment project began diverting wastewater from the resort and urban areas to a pond system that discharged partially-treated effluent into the South Negril River (SNR). These sewage discharges significantly increased concentrations of NH{4/+} and SRP (N:P ˜13) in the SNR, which flows into Long Bay and around Negril's "West End". Concentrations of SRP, the primary limiting nutrient, were higher on shallow reefs of the West End in 2001 compared to 1998. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on both shallow and deep reefs of the West End in 2002 were significantly higher than baseline values in 1998, indicating an escalating impact of sewage nitrogen pollution over this timeframe. The increased nutrient concentrations and δ15N enrichment of reef macroalgae correlated with blooms of the chlorophyte Chaetomorpha linum in shallow waters of Long Bay and Codium isthmocladum and Caulerpa cupressoides on deep reefs of the West End. Sewage treatment systems adjacent to coral reefs must include nutrient removal to ensure that DIN and SRP concentrations, after dilution, are below the low thresholds noted for these oligotrophic ecosystems.