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Sample records for program bulk sample

  1. [Staphylococcus aureus in bulk milk samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, P; Vyletĕlová, M

    1995-07-01

    In the years 1993-1994 the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in bulk milk samples in the area where a Baby Food Factory at Zábreh in Moravia is located, and in Bruntál, Zlín and Policka districts. Evaluation of the results was based on ECC Directive 92/46, while the dynamics of S. aureus presence was followed for the whole period of observation as well as in the particular seasons. A total of 4,485 samples was processed. Out of these, 50.7% contained less than 100 CFU/ml of S. aureus, 41.4% contained 100-500 CFU/ml, 6.73% 500-2,000 CFU/ml and 1.14% contained more than 2,000 CFU/ml (Fig. 1). The samples were divided into three categories: private new-established farms, cooperative and State-owned enterprises in the area of the Zábĕh Factory and others (Zlín, Bruntál and Policka districts). There were highly significant differences in the content of staphylococci (P = 0.01%) between the three categories of samples. Ninety-eight percent of samples from private farms, 96% samples from the Zábreh Factory area and 85% of the other samples comply with the regulation EEC 92/64 (Tab. I) for raw cow's milk for the manufacture of products "made with raw milk" whose manufacturing process does not involve any heat treatment (Fig. 2). The occurrence of S. aureus in the Zábreh Factory area shows an expressive seasonal dynamics (P = 0.005%) with maximum values in winter months (December-March) and minimum values in summer months (July-October)-Fig. 3. The same relationship can be seen on more extensive data files for the particular producers (Fig. 4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Core vs. Bulk Samples in Soil-Moisture Tension Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter M. Broadfoot

    1954-01-01

    The usual laboratory procedure in determining soil-moisture tension values is to use "undisturbed" soil cores for tensions up to 60 cm. of water and bulk soil samples for higher tensions. Low tensions are usually obtained with a tension table and the higher tensions by use of pressure plate apparatus. In tension analysis at the Vicksburg Infiltration Project...

  3. Standard practice for bulk sampling of liquid uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers methods for withdrawing representative samples of liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from bulk quantities of the material. Such samples are used for determining compliance with the applicable commercial specification, for example Specification C787 and Specification C996. 1.2 It is assumed that the bulk liquid UF6 being sampled comprises a single quality and quantity of material. This practice does not address any special additional arrangements that might be required for taking proportional or composite samples, or when the sampled bulk material is being added to UF6 residues already in a container (“heels recycle”). 1.3 The number of samples to be taken, their nominal sample weight, and their disposition shall be agreed upon between the parties. 1.4 The scope of this practice does not include provisions for preventing criticality incidents. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of th...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Interim Method of the Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manner prescribed in Reference 5 and information on design of sampling and analysis programs may be found... • Sample Mill: SPEX, Inc., freezer mill or equivalent. • Bulk Sample Holders • Silver Membrane Filters: 25...., Spex Freezer Mill, or equivalent) for a maximum time of 10 min. is recommended to obtain satisfactory...

  5. High mechanical Q-factor measurements on silicon bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrodt, R; Zimmer, A; Koettig, T; Schwarz, C; Heinert, D; Hudl, M; Neubert, R; Thuerk, M; Nietzsche, S; Vodel, W; Seidel, P [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, A [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)], E-mail: ronny.nawrodt@uni-jena.de

    2008-07-15

    Future gravitational wave detectors will be limited by different kinds of noise. Thermal noise from the coatings and the substrate material will be a serious noise contribution within the detection band of these detectors. Cooling and the use of a high mechanical Q-factor material as a substrate material will reduce the thermal noise contribution from the substrates. Silicon is one of the most interesting materials for a third generation cryogenic detector. Due to the fact that the coefficient of thermal expansion vanishes at 18 and 125 K the thermoelastic contribution to the thermal noise will disappear. We present a systematic analysis of the mechanical Q-factor at low temperatures between 5 and 300 K on bulk silicon (100) samples which are boron doped. The thickness of the cylindrical samples is varied between 6, 12, 24, and 75mm with a constant diameter of 3 inches. For the 75mm substrate a comparison between the (100) and the (111) orientation is presented. In order to obtain the mechanical Q-factor a ring-down measurement is performed. Thus, the substrate is excited to resonant vibrations by means of an electrostatic driving plate and the subsequent ring-down is recorded using a Michelson-like interferometer. The substrate itself is suspended as a pendulum by means of a tungsten wire loop. All measurements are carried out in a special cryostat which provides a temperature stability of better than 0.1K between 5 and 300K during the experiment. The influence of the suspension on the measurements is experimentally investigated and discussed. At 5.8K a highest Q-factor of 4.5 x 10{sup 8} was achieved for the 14.9 kHz mode of a silicon (100) substrate with a diameter of 3 inches and a thickness of 12 mm.

  6. Sample sizes to control error estimates in determining soil bulk density in California forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youzhi Han; Jianwei Zhang; Kim G. Mattson; Weidong Zhang; Thomas A. Weber

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing forest soil properties with high variability is challenging, sometimes requiring large numbers of soil samples. Soil bulk density is a standard variable needed along with element concentrations to calculate nutrient pools. This study aimed to determine the optimal sample size, the number of observation (n), for predicting the soil bulk density with a...

  7. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii in goat bulk milk samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy goat herds in Fars, Ghom, Kerman, Khuzestan and Yazd provinces, Iran. In this study, 296 bulk milk samples from 89 dairy goat ...

  8. Automated Clean Chemistry for Bulk Analysis of Environmental Swipe Samples - FY17 Year End Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Metzger, Shalina C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McBay, Eddy H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hexel, Cole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tevepaugh, Kayron N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bostick, Debra A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry are being automated using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment to shorten lengthy and costly manual chemical purification procedures. This development addresses a serious need in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (IAEA NWAL) to increase efficiency in the Bulk Analysis of Environmental Samples for Safeguards program with a method that allows unattended, overnight operation. In collaboration with Elemental Scientific Inc., the prepFAST-MC2 was designed based on COTS equipment. It was modified for uranium/plutonium separations using renewable columns packed with Eichrom TEVA and UTEVA resins, with a chemical separation method based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) NWAL chemical procedure. The newly designed prepFAST-SR has had several upgrades compared with the original prepFAST-MC2. Both systems are currently installed in the Ultra-Trace Forensics Science Center at ORNL.

  9. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Gondal, M.A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M.A. [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-21

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53–3.68, 4.51, 5.27–5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  10. Molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. isolated from bulk tank milk and cull dairy cow fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murinda, S E; Nguyen, L T; Ivey, S J; Gillespie, B E; Almeida, R A; Draughon, F A; Oliver, S P

    2002-07-01

    The consumption of meat from cull dairy cows and of raw milk has been associated with foodborne salmonellosis. This survey was conducted to establish the prevalence of Salmonella in cull dairy cow fecal samples and bulk tank milk and to determine the proportion of Salmonella-positive dairy farms (n = 30) in east Tennessee. Food and Drug Administration bacteriological analytical protocols were generally used for Salmonella isolation. Primary enrichment was performed with lactose broth, and secondary enrichment was conducted with tetrathionate broth. Eosin methylene blue, hektoen enteric, xylose lysine desoxycholate, bismuth sulfite, and brilliant green (BG) were used as isolation agars. BG agars supplemented with individual antibiotics and/or sulfur compounds were also evaluated. Six of 268 (2.24%) bulk tank milk samples and 9 of 415 (2.17%) fecal samples from 7 of 30 (25.3%) dairy farms were Salmonella-positive. Most isolates (11 of 15) were obtained between September and December. Salmonella isolates were further characterized using polyvalent somatic O Salmonella antiserum, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG), and Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E strips for Enterobacteriaceae. Serological evaluation of presumptive positive Salmonella isolates resulted in substantial numbers of false positives (41.2%). ONPG and API 20E tests enabled further biochemical distinction of the majority of Salmonella spp. from Salmonella Arizonae and closely related members of Enterobacteriaceae like Citrobacter youngae. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SpeI-digested Salmonella DNA was used to subtype isolates. The isolates grouped into four clusters. The baseline information generated in this survey is being used to develop preharvest pathogen reduction programs on selected farms.

  11. Use of thermal neutron reflection method for chemical analysis of bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A., E-mail: papppa@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Csikai, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Institute of Experimental Physics, University Debrecen (IEP), 4010 Debrecen-10, Pf. 105 (Hungary)

    2014-09-11

    Microscopic, σ{sub β}, and macroscopic, Σ{sub β}, reflection cross-sections of thermal neutrons averaged over bulk samples as a function of thickness (z) are given. The σ{sub β} values are additive even for bulk samples in the z=0.5–8 cm interval and so the σ{sub βmol}(z) function could be given for hydrogenous substances, including some illicit drugs, explosives and hiding materials of ∼1000 cm{sup 3} dimensions. The calculated excess counts agree with the measured R(z) values. For the identification of concealed objects and chemical analysis of bulky samples, different neutron methods need to be used simultaneously. - Highlights: • Check the proposed analytical expression for the description of the flux. • Determination of the reflection cross-sections averaged over bulk samples. • Data rendered to estimate the excess counts for various materials.

  12. Neutron moderation in a bulk sample and its effects on PGNAA setup geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Naqvi, A.A.; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Maselehuddin, M.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Raashid, M

    2003-06-01

    In a prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup, the neutron moderation in the bulk sample also plays a key role. This can even dominate the thermalization effects of the external moderator in some cases. In order to study the neutron moderation effect in the bulk sample, moderators with two different sizes of the sample were tested at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) PGNAA facility. In these tests, the thermal neutron relative intensity and prompt gamma ray yield from the two moderators were measured using nuclear track detectors (NTDs) and NaI detector, respectively. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, the measured intensity of thermal neutron inside the large sample cavity due to the external moderator was smaller than that from the smaller sample cavity. Due to its larger size, additional thermalization of neutrons will take place in the larger sample. In spite of smaller thermal neutron yield from the external moderator at the large sample location, higher yield of the prompt gamma ray was observed as compared to that from the smaller sample. This confirms the significance of neutron moderation effects in the bulk sample and can thereby affect the PGNAA geometry size. This allows larger samples in conjunction with smaller moderators in the PGNAA setup.

  13. Determination of the refractive index of single crystal bulk samples and micro-structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Grund, R., E-mail: Schmidt-Grund@physik.uni-leipzig.de; Kuehne, P.; Czekalla, C.; Schumacher, D.; Sturm, C.; Grundmann, M.

    2011-02-28

    We present comparative studies for the exact determination of the refractive index of single crystals using spectroscopic ellipsometry and photonic-mode-structure investigations by means of spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, especially in the near band-gap spectral range. By applying such complementary methods we can overcome the uncertainties in the determination of the bulk refractive index introduced by surface properties. The physical effects used are the electromagnetic field reflection used by spectroscopic ellipsometry at large scale planar single crystals and the whispering-gallery-mode formation by total internal reflection in confined micro-structures. We demonstrate the applicability of such studies using the example of uniaxial ZnO bulk samples and micro-wires. By assuming a surface near region with electronic properties different from the bulk material, the method presented here gives the refractive index dispersion for both types of samples in an energy range from 1 to 3.4 eV.

  14. Direct observation of nucleation in the bulk of an opaque sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chaoling; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew William

    2017-01-01

    length scale affect this nucleation process. We present here the first experimental measurements that relate directly nucleation of recrystallization to the local deformation microstructure in the bulk of a sample of cold rolled aluminum, further deformed locally by a hardness indentation. White beam...

  15. A simplified gamma-ray self-attenuation correction in bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, A.E.M. [National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: khater_ashraf@yahoo.com; Ebaid, Y.Y. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Fayum University, Fayum (Egypt)], E-mail: yebaid@yahoo.com

    2008-03-15

    Gamma-ray spectrometry is a very powerful tool for radioactivity measurements. For accurate gamma-ray spectrometry, certain correction measures should be considered, for instance, systematic uncertainty in the photo-peak efficiency due to the differences between the matrix (density and chemical composition) of the reference and the other bulk samples. Therefore, gamma-ray attenuation correction factors are of major concern for precise gamma-ray spectrometry. Simple practical correction for the photo-peak efficiency, due to discrepancies in both the samples' matrices and densities (self-attenuation), is performed in this study. This study suggests a brief measurement of relative photons transmission through both reference and unknown bulk samples where the variations of photon transmissions are assumed to be linearly correlated to the samples' densities. Specific correction factors would be produced for each analyzed sample to be considered when their activities are calculated. Practically, the suggested method was verified and succeeded in improving the obtained results.

  16. Dairy Herd Mastitis Program in Argentina: Farm Clusters and Effects on Bulk Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Vissio1*, SA Dieser2, CG Raspanti2, JA Giraudo1, CI Bogni2, LM Odierno2 and AJ Larriestra1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted to characterize dairy farm clusters according to mastitis control program practiced among small and medium dairy producer from Argentina, and also to evaluate the effect of such farm cluster patterns on bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC. Two samples of 51 (cross-sectional and 38 (longitudinal herds were selected to identify farm clusters and study the influence of management on monthly BMSCC, respectively. The cross-sectional sample involved the milking routine and facilities assessment of each herd visited. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to find the most discriminating farm attributes in the cross sectional sample. Afterward, the herd cluster typologies were identified in the longitudinal sample. Herd monthly BMSCC average was evaluated during 12 months fitting a linear mixed model. Two clusters were identified, the farms in the Cluster I applied a comprehensive mastitis program in opposite to Cluster II. Post-dipping, dry cow therapy and milking machine test were routinely applied in Cluster I. In the longitudinal study, 14 out of 38 dairy herds were labeled as Cluster I and the rest were assigned to Cluster II. Significant difference in BMSCC was found between cluster I and II (60,000 cells/mL. The present study showed the relevance and potential impact of promoting mastitis control practices among small and medium sized dairy producers in Argentina.

  17. TRU waste-sampling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1985-08-01

    As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of /sup 238/Pu- and /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Composition of bulk samples and a possible pristine clast from Allan Hills A81005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, W. V.; Hill, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Abundances of thirty-five elements were determined in two bulk samples and a white clast in the Allan Hills A81005 meteorite. High siderophile element content indicates that the sample is a regolith breccia. An Fe/Mn ratio of 77 in this meteorite eliminates parent bodies of known differentiated meteorites as the source of ALHA 81005. The incompatible elements are very similar to those found in most lunar highlands rocks, and provide very strong evidence that the sample is lunar in origin. The clast sample has the trace element pattern of a lunar anorthosite and is very low in KREEP and siderophile elements. It may be a fragment of a pristine lunar rock.

  19. Dairy cows with metritis: Coxiella burnetii test results in uterine, blood and bulk milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskens, J; van Maanen, C; Mars, M H

    2011-01-10

    In cattle, Coxiella burnetii infections are generally asymptomatic but can also be associated with reproductive disorders. Metritis is considered as one of the symptoms of C. burnetii infections, but reliable information is lacking. Therefore, information on the presence of C. burnetii in the uterine content of cows with metritis is important to increase our knowledge on this pathogen. In this study, the uterine content of 45 dairy cows with metritis belonging to 12 herds was tested for C. burnetii with a real-time PCR assay. Only one uterine sample tested PCR (highly) positive, all other samples were PCR negative. The PCR positive cow tested also positive for antibodies. Three other cows from other herds tested antibody positive. The bulk milk (BM) samples of these 12 herds were tested by real-time PCR assay and antibody-ELISA. Six BM samples (50%) were positive in PCR and 10 (83%) were positive in ELISA. Culturing the uterus samples by bacteriology, the most frequently cultured bacteria were arcanobacterium (n=24), E. coli (n=16), other streptococci (n=10), Streptococcus uberis (n=8) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=5). This study indicates that C. burnetii is not an important cause for metritis in dairy herds, although apparently C. burnetii was or had been present in most of these herds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of bulk tank milk samples to monitor trends in antimicrobial resistance on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Anna Catharina B; Champagne, Staci C; Finger, Regina M; Sischo, William M

    2007-01-01

    The routine monitoring of bacteria obtained from bulk tank milk (BTM) may be an important tool for detecting farm-level trends in antimicrobial resistance on dairy farms. This study describes and compares antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (Salmonella) and Escherichia coli recovered from dairy BTM. BTM from more than 400 dairies in a dairy-intense region of California were sampled eight times at 2- to 3-month intervals over a 29-month period. From Salmonella positive and Salmonella negative herds any one Salmonella and three E. coli isolates per sample were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials. The prevalence of multiple drug resistant (MDR) E. coli was assessed in relation to Salmonella on the farm, farm size, season, MDR Salmonella, and serovar. At each sampling period, 10-21% and 54-77% of the dairy farms were positive for Salmonella and E. coli, respectively. The most commonly recovered Salmonella serovars were Montevideo (33%), Typhimurium (14%), Dublin (13%), and Give (11%). Two-thirds, respectively, of 478 Salmonella and 1577 E. coli isolates were pan-susceptible. The antimicrobial resistance patterns of MDR Salmonella tended to be serovar dependent and were different from the antimicrobial resistance patterns of MDR E. coli. MDR E. coli were more likely to be recovered from dairies with MDR Salmonella. There were no associations between MDR E. coli and season, Salmonella serovar detected in the BTM, or dairy herd size. Bulk milk E. coli and Salmonella could be valuable to monitor the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in dairy milk production.

  1. Somatic Cells in Bulk Samples and Purchase Prices of Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Kvapilík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There were calculated the somatic cell count (SCC 209 (36 – 468 103ml–1, the total count of microorganisms (TCM 25 103ml–1 (from 5 to 377, fat 3.84 % (from 3.23 to 4.46 and protein content 3.39 % (from 3.04 to 3.75 and milk freezing point (MFP –0.525 °C (from –0.534 to –0.395 of the 522 monthly bulk milk samples from 11 experimental stables during the period from 2012 to 2015. Residues of inhibitory substances were not detected in any sample. Milk sale reached 7,999 liters (l with fluctuating between 6,150 and 10,532 l per cow. This can be deduced from the regression coefficients that due to increase in the SCC by 100 103ml–1 the TCM increased by 2.9 to 4.2 103ml–1, the fat content decreased by 0.09 to 0.13 % and protein about 0.01 to 0.05 %. Influence of SCC, TCM and the fat and protein content calculated from monthly samples for individual stables can be estimated at –0.12 CZC, fluctuations between the stables at +0.46 to –0.84 CZC per l of milk. The increase in milk price by 0.17 CZC in the range of –0.92 to +0.92 CZC per l of milk corresponds to averages of indicators calculated from 522 samples.

  2. Snow density from Bulk and Pit Samples during APLIS07 Ice Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R.; Geiger, C.; Turner, A.; Giles, K.

    2007-12-01

    Snow density is a critical parameter for hydrostatic calculations and remote sensing calibration. A basic set of in situ snow measurements were incorporated into the APLIS07 surveys conducted in the Beaufort Sea from April 1- 15 at the start of IPY. The measurements were taken to ensure that bulk density, stratigraphy, and basic snow characteristics were recorded as part of an instrumental intercalibration study. Results show that the snow cover variability on sea ice ranged from a dusting to 1m drifts on the multiyear floes and an average of 20 cm on level ice surfaces. Depth hoar accounted for up to half of the snow pack depth and was half the density of the wind slab snow. Several of the depth hoar samples include very large cup crystals (1-2 cm) with broken capped bullet crystals in the wind slab and rime deposition on the fresh snow crystals. The largest depth hoar crystals were located over level refrozen leads where the ocean heat flux and moisture could still reach the bottom of the snow pack beneath the wind slab. Error analysis and an overview of these findings will be presented.

  3. Effect of Ca substitution on some physical properties of nano-structured and bulk Ni-ferrite samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assar, S.T., E-mail: soha_talaat@yahoo.com; Abosheiasha, H.F.

    2015-01-15

    Nanoparticles of Ni{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.10) were prepared by citrate precursor method. A part of these samples was sintered at 600 °C for 2 h in order to keep the particles within the nano-size while the other part was sintered at 1000 °C to let the particles to grow to the bulk size. The effect of Ca{sup 2+} ion substitution in nickel ferrite on some structural, magnetic, electrical and thermal properties was investigated. All samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). A two probe method was used to measure the dc electrical conductivity whereas the photoacoustic (PA) technique was used to determine the thermal diffusivity of the samples. To interpret different experimental results for nano and bulk samples some cation distributions were assumed based on the VSM and XRD data. These suggested cation distributions give logical explanations for other experimental results such as the observed values of the absorption bands in FTIR spectra and the dc conductivity results. Finally, in the thermal measurements it was found that increasing the Ca{sup 2+} ion content causes a decrease in the thermal diffusivity of both nano and bulk samples. The explanation of this behavior is ascribed to the phonon-phonon scattering. - Highlights: • The physical properties of both nano and bulk samples of Ni-Ca ferrites were investigated. • Cation distribution plays a vital role in tailoring the physical properties of all the samples. • The dc conductivity of the nanosamples is higher than their bulk counterparts. • Increasing Ca{sup 2+} content enhances M{sub s}, M{sub r}, and σ{sub dc} of the bulk samples over their nanocounterparts. • The behavior of thermal diffusivity of the samples attributed to the phonon-phonon scattering.

  4. A comparative study of the density of defect states in bulk samples ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) has been measured at different temperatures.The density of localized states near Fermi level is calculated by fitting the data to the theory of SCLC for the case of uniform distribution of localized states for bulk as well as for thin films. A comparison has been made between the density ...

  5. A soil sampling program for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschers, R.; Finke, P.A.; Gruijter, de J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Soil data users in The Netherlands were inventoried for current and future data needs. Prioritized data needs were used to design the Netherlands Soil Sampling Program (NSSP) as a framework containing 3 groups of related projects: map upgrading, map updating and upgrading of pedotransfer functions.

  6. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  7. Simultaneous assessment of the macrobiome and microbiome in a bulk sample of tropical arthropods through DNA metasystematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Joel; Shokralla, Shadi; Porter, Teresita M.; King, Ian; van Konynenburg, Steven; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Conventional assessments of ecosystem sample composition are based on morphology-based or DNA barcode identification of individuals. Both approaches are costly and time-consuming, especially when applied to the large number of specimens and taxa commonly included in ecological investigations. Next-generation sequencing approaches can overcome the bottleneck of individual specimen isolation and identification by simultaneously sequencing specimens of all taxa in a bulk mixture. Here we apply multiple parallel amplification primers, multiple DNA barcode markers, 454-pyrosequencing, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing to the same sample to maximize recovery of the arthropod macrobiome and the bacterial and other microbial microbiome of a bulk arthropod sample. We validate this method with a complex sample containing 1,066 morphologically distinguishable arthropods from a tropical terrestrial ecosystem with high taxonomic diversity. Multiamplicon next-generation DNA barcoding was able to recover sequences corresponding to 91% of the distinguishable individuals in a bulk environmental sample, as well as many species present as undistinguishable tissue. 454-pyrosequencing was able to recover 10 more families of arthropods and 30 more species than did conventional Sanger sequencing of each individual specimen. The use of other loci (16S and 18S ribosomal DNA gene regions) also added the detection of species of microbes associated with these terrestrial arthropods. This method greatly decreases the time and money necessary to perform DNA-based comparisons of biodiversity among ecosystem samples. This methodology opens the door to much cheaper and increased capacity for ecological and evolutionary studies applicable to a wide range of socio-economic issues, as well as a basic understanding of how the world works. PMID:24808136

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Mg1-xB2 Bulk Samples and Cu/Nb Sheathed Wires with Low Grade Amorphous Boron Powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Alexiou, Aikaterini; Rubesova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    MgB2 bulk and wire samples were prepared using cheap, low grade amorphous boron powders. Based on chemical analysis performed on the starting reagents, three nominal stoichiometries were studied. It was found that the structural and superconducting properties of the bulk samples were not affected...

  9. Bulk Electrical Cable Non-Destructive Examination Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test methods focusing particularly on bulk electrical test methods that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As nuclear power plants consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it is important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program, however, is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB, however, is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other nondestructive examination (NDE) tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. Assessment of cable integrity is further complicated in many cases by vendor’s use of dissimilar material for jacket and insulation. Frequently the jacket will degrade more rapidly than the underlying insulation. Although this can serve as an early alert to cable damage, direct test of the cable insulation without violating the protective jacket becomes problematic. This report addresses the range of bulk electrical NDE cable tests that are or could be practically implemented in a field-test situation with a particular focus on frequency domain reflectometry (FDR). The FDR test method offers numerous advantages

  10. Occurrence of mycobacteria in bovine milk samples from both individual and collective bulk tanks at farms and informal markets in the southeast region of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; de Figueiredo Pantoja, José Carlos; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Miyata, Marcelo; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Motta, Rodrigo Garcia; Listoni, Fernando José Paganini

    2013-04-24

    Mycobacterium spp. is one of the most important species of zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted from cattle to humans. The presence of these opportunistic, pathogenic bacteria in bovine milk has emerged as a public-health concern, especially among individuals who consume raw milk and related dairy products. To address this concern, the Brazilian control and eradication program focusing on bovine tuberculosis, was established in 2001. However, bovine tuberculosis continues to afflict approximately 1,3 percent of the cattle in Brazil. In the present study, 300 samples of milk from bovine herds, obtained from both individual and collective bulk tanks and informal points of sale, were cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests and restriction-enzyme pattern analysis were then performed on the colonies exhibiting phenotypes suggestive of Mycobacterium spp., which were characterized as acid-fast bacilli. Of the 300 bovine milk samples that were processed, 24 were positively identified as Mycobacterium spp.Molecular identification detected 15 unique mycobacterial species: Mycobacterium bovis, M. gordonae, M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. flavescens, M. duvalii, M. haemophilum, M. immunogenum, M. lentiflavum, M. mucogenicum, M. novocastrense, M. parafortuitum, M. smegmatis, M. terrae and M. vaccae. The isolation of bacteria from the various locations occurred in the following proportions: 9 percent of the individual bulk-tank samples, 7 percent of the collective bulk-tank samples and 8 percent of the informal-trade samples. No statistically significant difference was observed between the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in the three types of samples collected, the milk production profiles, the presence of veterinary assistance and the reported concerns about bovine tuberculosis prevention in the herds. The microbiological cultures associated with PCR-based identification tests are possible tools for the

  11. Occurrence of mycobacteria in bovine milk samples from both individual and collective bulk tanks at farms and informal markets in the southeast region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium spp. is one of the most important species of zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted from cattle to humans. The presence of these opportunistic, pathogenic bacteria in bovine milk has emerged as a public-health concern, especially among individuals who consume raw milk and related dairy products. To address this concern, the Brazilian control and eradication program focusing on bovine tuberculosis, was established in 2001. However, bovine tuberculosis continues to afflict approximately 1,3 percent of the cattle in Brazil. In the present study, 300 samples of milk from bovine herds, obtained from both individual and collective bulk tanks and informal points of sale, were cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests and restriction-enzyme pattern analysis were then performed on the colonies exhibiting phenotypes suggestive of Mycobacterium spp., which were characterized as acid-fast bacilli. Results Of the 300 bovine milk samples that were processed, 24 were positively identified as Mycobacterium spp. Molecular identification detected 15 unique mycobacterial species: Mycobacterium bovis, M. gordonae, M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. flavescens, M. duvalii, M. haemophilum, M. immunogenum, M. lentiflavum, M. mucogenicum, M. novocastrense, M. parafortuitum, M. smegmatis, M. terrae and M. vaccae. The isolation of bacteria from the various locations occurred in the following proportions: 9 percent of the individual bulk-tank samples, 7 percent of the collective bulk-tank samples and 8 percent of the informal-trade samples. No statistically significant difference was observed between the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in the three types of samples collected, the milk production profiles, the presence of veterinary assistance and the reported concerns about bovine tuberculosis prevention in the herds. Conclusion The microbiological cultures associated with PCR-based identification tests are

  12. Ferromagnetism at room temperature in Co-doped KNbO{sub 3} bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astudillo, A., E-mail: jaastudillo@unicauca.edu.co [Low Temperature Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cauca, Calle 5 No. 4-70, Popayán (Colombia); Izquierdo, J.L. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Campus Medellín, Departamento de Física, Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos y Vítreos, A.A. 568, Medellín (Colombia); Gómez, A. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Campus Medellín, Facultad de Minas, Laboratorio de Caracterización de Materiales, A.A. 568, Medellín (Colombia); Bolaños, G. [Low Temperature Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cauca, Calle 5 No. 4-70, Popayán (Colombia); Morán, O. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Campus Medellín, Departamento de Física, Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos y Vítreos, A.A. 568, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, polycrystalline KNb{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0, 0.05 and 0.1) samples were synthesized through standard solid-state reaction, and their structural and magnetic properties were carefully studied. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns show reflections of a pure orthorhombic structure (space group Bmm2) with lattice parameters being very close to those reported in the literature. The most important point here is that all the samples ended up being single-phase with no affectation by impurities or segregates. The XRD peaks of Co-doped samples are broadened and shifted to the right side as compared to those of the pristine compound (x=0) suggesting effective substitution of Nb by Co ions. The Co-doped samples exhibit ferromagnetic properties at room temperature, which contrasts starkly with the paramagnetic behavior exhibited by the undoped sample. Interactions between bound magnetic polarons are considered as a possible scenario to explain the appearance of the ferromagnetic signal in the Co-doped samples. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline KNb{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0, 0.05 and 0.1) is synthesized by physical route. • XRD patterns show reflections of a pure orthorhombic structure. • No affectation by impurities or segregates is verified by XRD analysis. • The Co-doped samples exhibit ferromagnetic properties at room temperature.

  13. Studies on thermal neutron perturbation factor needed for bulk sample activation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Sanami, T; Michikawa, T

    2002-01-01

    The spatial distribution of thermal neutrons produced by an Am-Be source in a graphite pile was measured via the activation foil method. The results obtained agree well with calculated data using the MCNP-4B code. A previous method used for the determination of the average neutron flux within thin absorbing samples has been improved and extended for a graphite moderator. A procedure developed for the determination of the flux perturbation factor renders the thermal neutron activation analysis of bulky samples of unknown composition possible both in hydrogenous and graphite moderators.

  14. DArT, SNP, and SSR analyses of genetic diversity in Lolium perenne L. using bulk sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyang; Feuerstein, Ulf; Luesink, Wilbert; Schulze, Sabine; Asp, Torben; Studer, Bruno; Becker, Heiko C; Dehmer, Klaus J

    2018-01-22

    Lolium perenne L. is the most important forage grass species in temperate regions. It is also considered as a sustainable source of biomass for energy production. However, improvement in biomass yield has been limited by comparison with other major crops. More efficient utilisation of genetic resources and improved breeding schemes are required to advance L. perenne breeding. In an attempt to elucidate the extent of genetic diversity in L. perenne, 1384 DArT, 182 SNP and 48 SSR markers were applied to 297 accessions (Set I) contributed by three German breeding companies and the IPK Genebank. Due to the heterogeneous nature of Lolium accessions, bulk samples were used. Apart from germplasm set I, additional set II and set III was used to determine the reproducibility of marker system and judge the feasibility of bulk strategy in this study. By assessing different bulk sizes, 24 individuals per sample were shown to be a representative number of plants to discriminate different accessions. Among the 297 accessions, all marker types revealed a high polymorphism rate; 1.99, 2.00 and 8.19 alleles, were obtained per locus on average using DArTs, SNPs and SSRs, respectively. The Jaccard distance for DArT markers ranged from 0.00 to 0.73, the Modified Roger's distance (MRD) for SNP markers ranged from 0.03 to 0.52, and for SSR markers from 0.26 to 0.76. Gene diversity for dominant DArT and co-dominant SNP and SSR markers was found to be 0.26, 0.32 and 0.45, respectively. DArT markers showed the highest consistency and reproducibility. The resulting data were evaluated using a number of different classification methods, but none of the methods showed a clear differentiation into distinct genetic pools. With regard to hybrid breeding, this will possibly impede substantial progress towards increased biomass yields of L. perenne by utilising heterosis.

  15. Effect of sample geometry on bulk relative density of hot-mix asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available with different number of cut/cored surfaces. Significant variations in voids were observed in the HMA core and beam samples from the same compacted slabs. The objective of this paper is to present the findings of the effect of specimen geometry and cut surfaces...

  16. Feasibility of surface sampling in automated inspection of concrete aggregates during bulk transport on a conveyor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.C.M.; Di Maio, F.; Lotfi, S.; Bakker, M.; Hu, M.; Vahidi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Automated optic inspection of concrete aggregates for pollutants (e.g. wood, plastics, gypsum and brick) is required to establish the suitability for reuse in new concrete products. Inspection is more efficient when directly sampling the materials on the conveyor belt instead of feeding them in a

  17. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  18. Oak ridge national laboratory automated clean chemistry for bulk analysis of environmental swipe samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Debra A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hexel, Cole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tevepaugh, Kayron N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Metzger, Shalina C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    To shorten the lengthy and costly manual chemical purification procedures, sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry are being automated using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment. This addresses a serious need in the nuclear safeguards community to debottleneck the separation of U and Pu in environmental samples—currently performed by overburdened chemists—with a method that allows unattended, overnight operation. In collaboration with Elemental Scientific Inc., the prepFAST-MC2 was designed based on current COTS equipment that was modified for U/Pu separations utilizing Eichrom™ TEVA and UTEVA resins. Initial verification of individual columns yielded small elution volumes with consistent elution profiles and good recovery. Combined column calibration demonstrated ample separation without crosscontamination of the eluent. Automated packing and unpacking of the built-in columns initially showed >15% deviation in resin loading by weight, which can lead to inconsistent separations. Optimization of the packing and unpacking methods led to a reduction in the variability of the packed resin to less than 5% daily. The reproducibility of the automated system was tested with samples containing 30 ng U and 15 pg Pu, which were separated in a series with alternating reagent blanks. These experiments showed very good washout of both the resin and the sample from the columns as evidenced by low blank values. Analysis of the major and minor isotope ratios for U and Pu provided values well within data quality limits for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Additionally, system process blanks spiked with 233U and 244Pu tracers were separated using the automated system after it was moved outside of a clean room and yielded levels equivalent to clean room blanks, confirming that the system can produce high quality results without the need for expensive clean room infrastructure. Comparison of the amount of personnel time necessary for successful manual vs

  19. Optimization of source-sample-detector geometries for bulk hydrogen analysis using epithermal neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikai, J; Dóczi, R

    2009-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of epithermal neutrons in qualification of hydrocarbons via their H contents and C/H atomic ratios have been investigated systematically. Sensitivity of this method and the dimensions of the interrogated regions were determined for various types of hydrogenous samples. Results clearly demonstrate the advantages of direct neutron detection, e.g. by BF(3) counters as compared to the foil activation method in addition to using the hardness of the spectral shape of Pu-Be neutrons to that from a (252)Cf source.

  20. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  1. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Iran as determined by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Karim, Guity; Doosti, Abbas

    2011-02-01

    Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular micro-organism Coxiella burnetii. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Isfahan province, Iran. In the present study, 567 bulk milk samples from 186 dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds were tested for C. burnetii using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. In total, 8 of 247 (3.2%) bovine milk samples were positive; the positive samples originated from 6 of 90 (6.7%) dairy herds. Eight of 140 (5.7%) ovine bulk milk samples from 42 sheep breeding farms and 5 of 110 (4.5%) caprine bulk milk samples from 32 goat breeding farms were positive for C. burnetii. One of 70 (1.4%) camel bulk milk samples from 22 camel breeding farms was also positive for C. burnetii. Although no extensive prevalence study was undertaken, the results of this study indicate that clinically healthy dairy animals are important sources of C. burnetii infection in Iran. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first report of direct identification of C. burnetii using polymerase chain reaction in bulk milk samples from dairy ovine herds in Iran and the first report of direct identification of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy camel herds. Further intensive prevalence studies on Coxiella infection and on possible risks of dairy products will be needed to elucidate the epidemiology of Q fever in Iran.

  2. Preservation media analysis for ex vivo measurements of endogenous UV fluorescence of liver fibrosis in bulk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Herrera, Enoch; Perez-Garcia, Adolfo; Aleman-García, Nathalie; Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Sánchez-Pérez, Celia; Franco, Walfre; Hernández-Ruiz, Joselín.

    2017-02-01

    Non-subjective, minimally-invasive, and quantifying techniques may support development and evaluation of a fibrosis regression treatment. The build-up of extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis may result on changes of the endogenous fluorescence of tissue. In this work, we evaluate the fluorescence excitation/emission matrix in the UV range for several bulk samples of murine hepatic tissue preserved in different media. Chemical changes on tissue, caused by formaldehyde preservation, alter the endogenous fluorescence spectra. To avoid these drawbacks, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium were used. PBS buffer showed to be the less harmful and cost-effective preservation medium to study the endogenous fluorescence in fibrotic tissue.

  3. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw bulk-tank milk samples of goats and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, D; Corti, S; Muehlherr, J E; Zweifel, C; Stephan, R

    2004-06-21

    Two hundred and ninety-three isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from 127 bulk-tank milk samples of goats and sheep from Switzerland were characterised by pheno- and genotypic traits. Of the 293 S. aureus isolates, 193 (65.9%) were egg yolk-negative and 15 (5.1%) were negative for clumping factor and/or protein A determined by a latex agglutinating test system. For 285 isolates, PCR amplification of the 3' end of the coagulase gene showed a single amplicon. Five differently sized PCR products of 500, 580, 660, 740 and 820 bp were distinguished. In 191 isolates (n = 293) staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes were detected: 123 isolates tested positive for SEC gene, 31 for SEG gene, 28 for SEA gene, 26 for SEJ gene, 24 for SEI gene, 4 for SEB gene and 4 for SED gene. Furthermore, 126 isolates were positive for the gene encoding the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Coagulase gene restriction profile analysis of the 145 isolates harbouring SEA or SEC genes revealed six different patterns using AluI and five different patterns using HaeIII. In summary, within these two groups, high genotypic uniformity within the different sized coagulase gene amplicons was demonstrated. This is the first study providing comprehensive characterisation data of S. aureus strains originating from bulk-tank milk samples of goats and sheep. Remarkable differences in phenotypic traits between S. aureus originating from goats and sheep and bovine milk were found. Moreover, the high prevalence of toxin-producing S. aureus may be important as it is relevant to food hygiene. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Lake and bulk sampling chemistry, NADP, and IMPROVE air quality data analysis on the Bridger-Teton National Forest (USFS Region 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Grenon; Terry Svalberg; Ted Porwoll; Mark Story

    2010-01-01

    Air quality monitoring data from several programs in and around the Bridger-Teton (B-T) National Forest - National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), longterm lake monitoring, long-term bulk precipitation monitoring (both snow and rain), and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) - were analyzed in this report. Trends were analyzed using...

  5. Detection of Antibodies and Confirmation of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Using Nested PCR in Bulk Milk Samples from Nakasongola and Sembabule Districts, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniface Okuni, Julius; Oyo, Tony; Kisekka, Magid; Ochwo, Sylvester; Kalenzi Atuhaire, David; Afayoa, Mathias; Olaho-Mukani, William; Ojok, Lonzy

    2013-12-16

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an emerging pathogen in many livestock and wildlife populations around the world. Concerns range from the serious economic impacts on livestock productivity to its suspected role in the human inflammatory bowel disease syndrome. Milk and faeces of infected animals are the main vehicles through which the organism spreads from infected to susceptible hosts. In this study, a survey was done in Nakasongola and Sembabule districts of Uganda involving a total of seven dairy collection centres to determine the prevalence of antibodies to MAP in bulk milk samples. The milk was tested with a commercial ELISA kit for MAP testing in milk. Positive and suspicious milk samples were further tested using nested PCR. Of the 257 milk samples tested, 11 (4.3%) were positive and five (1.9%) were suspicious. All the ELISA positive and suspicious milk samples were positive using nested PCR. The results show that MAP infection occurs in cattle from the two districts and highlight the need for a paratuberculosis control program in these and other districts where MAP infection has been reported.

  6. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat and dairy sheep farms in The Netherlands in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; van Maanen, K; Vellema, P

    2012-03-24

    In 2007, a human Q fever epidemic started, mainly in the south eastern part of The Netherlands with a suspected indirect relation to dairy goats, and, to a lesser degree, to dairy sheep. This article describes the Q fever prevalences in Dutch dairy goat and dairy sheep bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, using a real-time (RT) PCR and ELISA. Results of BTM PCR and ELISA were compared with the serological status of individual animals, and correlations with a history of Q fever abortion were determined. When compared with ELISA results, the optimal cut-off value for the RT-PCR was 100 bacteria/ml. In 2008, there were 392 farms with more than 200 dairy goats, of which 292 submitted a BTM sample. Of these samples, 96 (32.9 per cent) were PCR positive and 87 (29.8 per cent) were ELISA positive. All farms with a history of Q fever abortion (n=17) were ELISA positive, 16 out of 17 were also PCR positive. BTM PCR or ELISA positive farms had significantly higher within-herd seroprevalences than BTM negative farms. In the south eastern provinces, the area where the human Q fever outbreak started in 2007, a significantly larger proportion of the BTM samples was PCR and ELISA positive compared to the rest of The Netherlands. None of the BTM samples from dairy sheep farms (n=16) were PCR positive but three of these farms were ELISA positive. The higher percentage of BTM positive farms in the area where the human Q fever outbreak started, supports the suspected relation between human cases and infected dairy goat farms.

  7. Irreversibility line and magnetic field dependence of the critical current in superconducting MgB sub 2 bulk samples

    CERN Document Server

    Gioacchino, D D; Tripodi, P; Grimaldi, G

    2003-01-01

    The third harmonic components of the ac susceptibility of MgB sub 2 bulk samples have been measured as a function of applied magnetic fields, together with standard magnetization cycles. The irreversibility line (IL) of the magnetic field has been extracted from the onset of the third harmonic components. Using a (1 - t) supalpha glass/liquid best fit where alpha 1.27 IL shows a coherent length xi divergence with exponent nu = 0.63, which indicates a 3D behaviour. Moreover, using the numerical solution of the non-linear magnetic diffusion equation, considering the creep model in a 3D vortex glass, a good description of the vortex dynamics has been obtained. The behaviour of the magnetization amplitude (approx Hz) and the ac susceptibility signals (kHz), at different applied magnetic fields, 3.5 T < H sub d sub c < 4.5 T, and at the reduced temperature 0.86 < t < 0.93 (T = 22 K), shows that the superconducting dynamic response of vortices in the MgB sub 2 samples is not evidently dependent on the f...

  8. A droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay to detect Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in bulk trap samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Frida A; Tembrock, Luke R; Timm, Alicia E; Farris, Roxanne E; Perera, Omaththage P; Gilligan, Todd M

    2017-01-01

    Moths in the genus Helicoverpa are some of the most important agricultural pests in the world. Two species, H. armigera (Hübner) and H. zea (Boddie), cause the majority of damage to crops and millions of dollars are spent annually on control of these pests. The recent introduction of H. armigera into the New World has prompted extensive survey efforts for this species in the United States. Surveys are conducted using bucket traps baited with H. armigera pheromone, and, because the same pheromone compounds attract both species, these traps often capture large numbers of the native H. zea. Adult H. armigera and H. zea are very similar and can only be separated morphologically by minor differences in the genitalia. Thus, a time consuming genitalic dissection by a trained specialist is necessary to reliably identify either species, and every specimen must be dissected. Several molecular methods are available for differentiating and identifying H. armigera and H. zea, including two recently developed rapid protocols using real-time PCR. However, none of the published methods are capable of screening specimens in large batches. Here we detail a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay that is capable of detecting a single H. armigera in a background of up to 999 H. zea. The assay has been tested using bulk extractions of 1,000 legs from actual trap samples and is effective even when using poor quality samples. This study provides an efficient, rapid, reproducible, and scalable method for processing H. armigera survey trap samples in the U.S. and demonstrates the potential for applying ddPCR technology to screen and diagnose invasive species.

  9. Programming function into mechanical forms by directed assembly of silk bulk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Benedetto; Patel, Nereus; Duggan, Thomas; Perotto, Giovanni; Shirman, Elijah; Li, Chunmei; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2017-01-17

    We report simple, water-based fabrication methods based on protein self-assembly to generate 3D silk fibroin bulk materials that can be easily hybridized with water-soluble molecules to obtain multiple solid formats with predesigned functions. Controlling self-assembly leads to robust, machinable formats that exhibit thermoplastic behavior consenting material reshaping at the nanoscale, microscale, and macroscale. We illustrate the versatility of the approach by realizing demonstrator devices where large silk monoliths can be generated, polished, and reshaped into functional mechanical components that can be nanopatterned, embed optical function, heated on demand in response to infrared light, or can visualize mechanical failure through colorimetric chemistries embedded in the assembled (bulk) protein matrix. Finally, we show an enzyme-loaded solid mechanical part, illustrating the ability to incorporate biological function within the bulk material with possible utility for sustained release in robust, programmably shapeable mechanical formats.

  10. Bulk properties of the medium produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the beam energy scan program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, H.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We present measurements of bulk properties of the matter produced in Au+Au collisions at √{sN N}=7.7 ,11.5 ,19.6 ,27 , and 39 GeV using identified hadrons (π±, K±, p , and p ¯) from the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Midrapidity (|y |RHIC.

  11. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Requirement § 222.404 Observer program sampling. (a) During the program design, NMFS would be guided by the...

  12. Characterization and assessment of novel bulk storage technologies : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Georgianne; Tong, Nellie (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA); Fioravanti, Richard (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA); Gordon, Paul (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Markel, Larry (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Agrawal, Poonum (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Nourai, Ali (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned this assessment of novel concepts in large-scale energy storage to aid in future program planning of its Energy Storage Program. The intent of the study is to determine if any new but still unproven bulk energy storage concepts merit government support to investigate their technical and economic feasibility or to speed their commercialization. The study focuses on compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped storage hydropower (PSH). It identifies relevant applications for bulk storage, defines the associated technical requirements, characterizes and assesses the feasibility of the proposed new concepts to address these requirements, identifies gaps and barriers, and recommends the type of government support and research and development (R&D) needed to accelerate the commercialization of these technologies.

  13. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  14. Comparison of an indirect ELISA with the Brucella milk ring test for detection of antibodies to Brucella abortus in bulk milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzini, V R; Aguirre, N P; Valentini, B S; Torioni de Echaide, S; Lugaresi, C I; Marchesino, M D; Nielsen, K

    2001-09-03

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Brucella abortus antibodies in bovine bulk milk samples was evaluated. About 31 individual milk samples from B. abortus infected cows were diluted into bulk milk from a brucellosis free herd. Individual milk samples obtained from 96 negative or positive herds to ELISA or Brucella ring test (BRT), were tested by ELISA. All positive cows were bled and serum samples were tested by the complement-fixation test (CFT) which was considered the definitive test. A herd was considered infected if at least, one cow was positive in the CFT. Four samples were negative in the BRT at the dilution 1:10 but positive in the ELISA. For samples positive in both tests, BRT titers ranged from 1:10 to 1:480 while ELISA titers ranged from 1:10 to 1:3200. Using bulk milk samples, the sensitivity of the ELISA (98.1%) was higher than the BRT (72.2%) but the specificity of BRT (90.5%) was not statistically different (P=1.0) from the ELISA (88.1%). The implications of the results for brucellosis control are discussed.

  15. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-01-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  16. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis specific IS900 insertion sequences in bulk-tank milk samples obtained from different regions throughout Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Roger

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP was isolated from intestinal tissue of a human patient suffering Crohn's disease, a controversial discussion exists whether MAP have a role in the etiology of Crohn's disease or not. Raw milk may be a potential vehicle for the transmission of MAP to human population. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that MAP are found in raw milk samples obtained from a defined region in Switzerland. The aim of this work is to collect data about the prevalence of MAP specific IS900 insertion sequence in bulk-tank milk samples in different regions of Switzerland. Furthermore, we examined eventual correlation between the presence of MAP and the somatic cell counts, the total colony counts and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae. Results 273 (19.7% of the 1384 examined bulk-tank milk samples tested IS900 PCR-positive. The prevalence, however, in the different regions of Switzerland shows significant differences and ranged from 1.7% to 49.2%. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant (p >> 0.05 differences between the somatic cell counts and the total colony counts of PCR-positive and PCR-negative milk samples. Enterobacteriaceae occur as often in IS900 PCR-positive as in PCR-negative milk samples. Conclusion This is the first study, which investigates the prevalence of MAP in bulk-tank milk samples all over Switzerland and infers the herd-level prevalence of MAP infection in dairy herds. The prevalence of 19.7% IS900 PCR-positive bulk-milk samples shows a wide distribution of subclinical MAP-infections in dairy stock in Switzerland. MAP can therefore often be transmitted to humans by raw milk consumption.

  17. Herd-level prevalence of Map infection in dairy herds of southern Chile determined by culture of environmental fecal samples and bulk-tank milk qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruze, J; Monti, G; Schulze, F; Mella, A; Leiva, S

    2013-09-01

    Paratuberculosis, an infectious disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is an economically important disease in dairy herds worldwide. In Chile the disease has been reported in domestic and wildlife animals. However, accurate and updated estimations of the herd-prevalence in cattle at national or regional level are not available. The objectives of this study were to determine the herd-level prevalence of dairy herds with Map infected animals of Southern Chile, based on two diagnostic tests: culture of environmental fecal samples and bulk-tank milk qPCR. Two composite environmental fecal samples and one bulk-tank milk sample were collected during September 2010 and September 2011 from 150 dairy farms in Southern Chile. Isolation of Map from environmental fecal samples was done by culture of decontaminated samples on a commercial Herrold's Egg Yolk Medium (HEYM) with and without mycobactin J. Suspicious colonies were confirmed to be Map by conventional IS900 PCR. Map detection in bulk-tank milk samples was done by real time IS900 PCR assay. PCR-confirmed Map was isolated from 58 (19.3%) of 300 environmental fecal samples. Holding pens and manure storage lagoons were the two more frequent sites found positive for Map, representing 35% and 33% of total positive samples, respectively. However, parlor exits and cow alleyways were the two sites with the highest proportion of positive samples (40% and 32%, respectively). Herd prevalence based on environmental fecal culture was 27% (true prevalence 44%) compared to 49% (true prevalence 87%) based on bulk-tank milk real time IS900 PC. In both cases herd prevalence was higher in large herds (>200 cows). These results confirm that Map infection is wide spread in dairy herds in Southern Chile with a rough herd-level prevalence of 28-100% depending on the herd size, and that IS900 PCR on bulk-tank milk samples is more sensitive than environmental fecal culture to detect

  18. Characterization of three commercial ELISA kits for detection of BOHV-1 gE specific antibodies in serum and milk samples and applicability of bulk milk for determination of herd status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tignon, Marylène; De Baere, Miet; Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Goolaerts, Annelies; Houtain, Jean-Yves; Delooz, Laurent; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2017-07-01

    Vaccination of animals with gE-deleted vaccine strains (gE- marker vaccines) and differential detection of vaccinated vs infected animals with antibody ELISA targeting the gE or the gB proteins have been proved to be useful tools in programs for control and eradication of the bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) responsible for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), a major pathogen of cattle. The diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp) of three commercial gE ELISA kits from IDEXX, IDVet and CIV-HIPRA were compared for serum and milk matrices. Limiting the analysis to 198 individual with concordant ELISA results in serum (91 naïve, 37 vaccinated and 70 infected) the DSe of gE kits was estimated to 0,97 for IDEXX, 0,93 for CIV-HIPRA and 0,53 for IDVet using milk samples and the DSp to 0,95 for IDEXX, 1,00 for IDVet and CIV-HIPRA. The applicability of gE ELISA for individual or bulk milk testing as an additional tool in control programs dedicated to the certification and control of vaccinated herds was evaluated. Two of the three evaluated gE ELISA kits presented substantial to good agreement individual milk and serum samples. The bulk-tank milk also proved to be suitable for the detection of BoHV-1 in vaccinated herds provided that gE prevalence is superior to 10% as false negative results are often observed at lower gE herd prevalence. This limitation could be reduced to 8% of prevalence when a prior concentration step was applied to bulk milk samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Control measures in officially acknowledged brucellosis-free and leukosis unsuspected dairy herds on the basis of bulk milk samples in combination with ELISA tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forschner, E; Bünger, I; Krause, H P; Küttler, D

    1989-01-01

    1. EC- and National Regulations. Since 1988 the EC-regulations accept in addition to the on Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) based blood serum testing of cattle herds that are filed as "free from Enzootic Bovine Leucosis" the use of ELISA for this purpose. The regular testings in dairy cattle herds can be done alternatively with single or pooled milk samples, in other herds with pooled blood sera using ELISA. General condition is only a minimal sensitivity of the test to detect the European EBL Antibody Standard ("E4") in a dilution of 1:10 in negative serum or 1:250 in negative milk. Adequate national regulations are in preparation. The present limitation of pool sizes, blood maximum 50 animals without preparation steps 20, and milk after concentration treatment 50 cows is neutralized by proceedings in development of higher sensitive ELISA tests. This limitation should be canceled. Herd bulk milk samples without size limitations are accepted to be tested with "Milk Ring Test" by EC for the regular testings in filed "Brucellosis Free Dairy Cattle Herds". The alternative use of more sensitive (and more specific) ELISA tests for this purpose including the technical conditions is in a final discussion. 2. Scientific-Technical Base for Using the Chances of the Proceeding in the EC-Regulations. The realisation of the EC accepted or final discussed ELISA based bulk milk testing to control filed "EBL- and/or Brucellosis Free Herds" depends on some basic conditions like sensitivity, specificity, and variability of the ELISA systems. Field trials of more than 20,000 bulk milk samples in case of Brucellosis and more than 2,000 in case of EBL show the feasibilities and the limits of the ELISA systems in defining the status of the herds. The Brucellosis respectively the EBL situations of the dairy cattle herds tested in this trail were well known by history and by investigation of single animal blood samples using conventional tests. Special test run variations of

  20. A method and fortran program for quantitative sampling in paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipper, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The Unit Sampling Method is a binomial sampling method applicable to the study of fauna preserved in rocks too well cemented to be disaggregated. Preliminary estimates of the probability of detecting each group in a single sampling unit can be converted to estimates of the group's volumetric abundance by means of correction curves obtained by a computer simulation technique. This paper describes the technique and gives the FORTRAN program. ?? 1976.

  1. A pilot study of routine quality control of sampling by the SAD method, applied to packaged and bulk foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Derek; Jervis, Andrew; Shelley, Stephen; Damant, Andrew; Wood, Roger; Thompson, Michael

    2004-04-01

    A recently proposed method of looking at sampling uncertainty has been tested by its application to the sampling and analysis of several types of food and an animal feedstuff. In this 'SAD' method, increments comprising the conventional sample (that is, collected in the fashion prescribed by the standard sampling protocol) are allocated to either of two equal sized 'splits', which are prepared and analysed separately. The absolute difference between the analytical results for the two splits (the split absolute difference, or SAD) is plotted on a one-sided control chart. A non-compliance indicates that the combined uncertainty of sampling or analysis is larger than expected and the result of the measurement (the mean of the two split results) is possibly not fit for purpose. In addition, the SAD results give rise to a rugged estimate the uncertainty associated with the sampling protocol, often a major part of the total measurement uncertainty.

  2. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Analytical solutions to sampling effects in drop size distribution measurements during stationary rainfall: Estimation of bulk rainfall variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlenhoet, R.; Porrà, J.M.; Sempere Torres, D.; Creutin, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    A stochastic model of the microstructure of rainfall is used to derive explicit expressions for the magnitude of the sampling fluctuations in rainfall properties estimated from raindrop size measurements in stationary rainfall. The model is a marked point process, in which the points represent the

  4. A Versatile Software Program for Sampling Sferics and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, M. A.; Lyons, W. A.; Cummer, S. A.; Jaugey, N.

    2008-12-01

    In 2004, a data acquisition program was written to sample and store sferic waveforms for the upgraded Los Alamos Sferic Array (LASA). The program acquired data using the 20MHz PCI-DAS4020/12 Measurement Computing (MC) board on the stable Linux operating system. The capabilities of this original program have been described elsewhere [Stanley et al., 2004; Shao et al., 2006]. Starting in 2006, this program was modified and enhanced to support data acquisition for a new Charge Moment Change Network (CMCN) which detects and quantifies impulsive charge moment changes of potential sprite-producing lightning discharges in near real-time. Some of the more notable modifications included the addition of low-pass filtered continuous data output capabilities as well as support for National Instruments (NI) boards. The continuous data output was particularly well suited for the unambiguous detection of sferics with slow tails which are often found around the time of sprites and especially sprite halos. The program also utilizes a shared memory architecture which gives it even more versatility in real-time processing as well as enables other modes of data acquisition. In 2008, the program was updated to utilize the Linux Comedi drivers in place of the previous MC and NI drivers. With this modification, the program now supports an even wider variety of data acquisition boards and also runs on the latest Linux distributions.

  5. UV-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption studies of model and bulk heterogeneous catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewell, Craig Richmond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) have been used to investigate the surface structure of model heterogeneous catalysts in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). UV-Raman spectroscopy has been used to probe the structure of bulk model catalysts in ambient and reaction conditions. The structural information obtained through UV-Raman spectroscopy has been correlated with both the UHV surface analysis and reaction results. The present day propylene and ethylene polymerization catalysts (Ziegler-Natta catalysts) are prepared by deposition of TiCl4 and a Al(Et)3 co-catalyst on a microporous Mg-ethoxide support that is prepared from MgCl2 and ethanol. A model thin film catalyst is prepared by depositing metallic Mg on a Au foil in a UHV chamber in a background of TiCl4 in the gas phase. XPS results indicate that the Mg is completely oxidized to MgCl2 by TiCl4 resulting in a thin film of MgCl2/TiClx, where x = 2, 3, and 4. To prepare an active catalyst, the thin film of MgCl2/TiClx on Au foil is enclosed in a high pressure cell contained within the UHV chamber and exposed to ~1 Torr of Al(Et)3.

  6. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  7. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  8. Erosion patterns in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) catchment revealed by bulk-sample versus single-mineral provenance budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo; Limonta, Mara; Andò, Sergio; Yang, Shouye

    2016-05-01

    The Changjiang, the fourth longest river on Earth and the largest in Eurasia, has a complex sediment-routing system presently interrupted by the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric engineering project. To study sediment-generation processes in the huge catchment and compare the different erosion patterns obtained by different methodological approaches, high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral analyses were performed on sands from the trunk river and its major tributaries. The frequency distributions of diverse groups of detrital amphiboles were also investigated. Rigorous statistical methods were used to define end-members, evaluate mineralogical variability, assess similarities among samples, and eventually calculate the relative contributions from each major tributary to the trunk river by forward end-member modelling of integrated compositional data. The litho-quartzose sand with few heavy minerals generated in Tibetan headwaters evolves downstream to feldspatho-litho-quartzose with medium-rank metamorphic rock fragments and moderately rich amphibole-epidote suites. Sand across the Sichuan basin and as far as the Three Gorges Dam is enriched in mafic volcanic, clinopyroxene, and carbonate grains eroded from Permian basalts and Paleozoic strata of the South China Block. The final (Yangtze) tract is characterized by litho-feldspatho-quartzose sand with moderately poor, amphibole-dominated suites with epidote, clinopyroxene, and garnet. The orogenic compositional signature acquired in the upper part of the basin is thus carried all the way to the Chinese passive margin, as observed also for the Yellow River in the north. Even after long-distance transport across wide continental areas, detrital modes thus reveal the tectonic character of the source rather than the geodynamic environment of the sink. Quantitative provenance analysis indicates that left-bank tributaries draining the Longmen and Qinlin mountains supply most of the sand reaching

  9. Preparation and certification of two new bulk welding fume reference materials for use in laboratories undertaking analysis of occupational hygiene samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Owen; Musgrove, Darren; Stacey, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Workers can be exposed to fume, arising from welding activities, which contain toxic metals and metalloids. Occupational hygienists need to assess and ultimately minimize such exposure risks. The monitoring of the concentration of particles in workplace air is one assessment approach whereby fume, from representative welding activities, is sampled onto a filter and returned to a laboratory for analysis. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry are generally employed as instrumental techniques of choice for the analysis of such filter samples. An inherent difficulty, however, with inductively coupled plasma-based analytical techniques is that they typically require a sample to be presented for analysis in the form of a solution. The efficiency of the required dissolution step relies heavily upon the skill and experience of the analyst involved. A useful tool in assessing the efficacy of this dissolution step would be the availability and subsequent analysis of welding fume reference materials with stated elemental concentrations and matrices that match as closely as possible the matrix composition of welding fume samples submitted to laboratories for analysis. This article describes work undertaken at the Health and Safety Laboratory to prepare and certify two new bulk welding fume reference materials that can be routinely used by analysts to assess the performance of the digestion procedures they employ in their laboratories.

  10. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 4 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H to qualify them for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 4 processing. All sample results agree with expectations based on prior analyses where available. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 4 strategy are identified. This revision includes additional data points that were not available in the original issue of the document, such as additional plutonium results, the results of the monosodium titanate (MST) sorption test and the extraction, scrub strip (ESS) test. This report covers the revision to the Tank 21H qualification sample results for Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 4 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). A previous document covers initial characterization which includes results for a number of non-radiological analytes. These results were used to perform aluminum solubility modeling to determine the hydroxide needs for Salt Batch 4 to prevent the precipitation of solids. Sodium hydroxide was then added to Tank 21 and additional samples were pulled for the analyses discussed in this report. This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP).

  11. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  12. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume II. Gas generation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume II of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report contains the data generated from evaluating the adequacy of venting/filtering devices for maintaining safe hydrogen levels in plutonium contaminated waste drums. Additional studies reported in this volume include gas generation rates, selected waste form monitoring, and evaluation of hydrogen migration from sealed 90-mil rigid polyethylene drum liners containing /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes. All wastes used in the studies were newly-generated, and the waste drums were under controlled, experimental conditions. Studies using /sup 239/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant. Studies using /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  13. Bulk δ15N measurements of organic-rich rock samples by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry with enhanced oxidation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wennian; Feng, Lianjun; Li, Hongwei; Liu, Wei

    2017-01-15

    Elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) has been widely used for nitrogen isotope ratio determination in various organic and inorganic samples. However, the extent of the redox reaction in the EA reaction tube can greatly affect the accuracy and precision of measurements, especially in the case of complex geological samples. It is therefore necessary to determine the appropriate reaction conditions to reach a high recovery of nitrogen by complete combustion or thermal decomposition and quantitative reduction. The conventional Dumas dual-inlet method was used to determine the bulk nitrogen isotope composition of SGR-1 (an organic-rich standard sample), which then was analyzed by EA/IRMS under different EA reaction conditions to study the influence of the redox environment on the δ 15 N measurements. The measured data together with the results reported by previous researchers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the nitrogen extraction for organic-rich rock samples. Our results demonstrated that with the Dumas dual-inlet method more oxidizing agent (CuO) addition to SGR-1 would yield a higher nitrogen content of 0.91% than the recommended content (0.81%) although a δ 15 N value of 17.39 ± 0.09‰ was consistent with the recommended value by USGS. Using EA/IRMS, when more O 2 was injected in the reaction tube, a high nitrogen content (0.92 ± 0.01%) and a δ 15 N value (17.43 ± 0.17‰) close to that of the Dumas dual-inlet method were obtained. The addition of V 2 O 5 or CuO in a continuous-flow system of EA/IRMS could not effectively enable the complete combustion of SGR-1. When measuring the nitrogen isotope composition of organic-rich rock sample dominated by reduced substances with EA/IRMS, greater O 2 injection will enable more complete combustion to obtain reliable nitrogen yields compared with the addition of V 2 O 5 or CuO. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Antibodies to major pasture borne helminth infections in bulk-tank milk samples from organic and nearby conventional dairy herds in south-central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Johan; Dahlström, Frida; Engström, Annie; Hessle, Anna; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; Schnieder, Thomas; Strube, Christina; Sollenberg, Sofia

    2010-08-04

    The objective of this randomised pairwise survey was to compare the regional distribution of antibody levels against the three most important helminth infections in organic and conventional dairy herds in Sweden. Bulk-tank milk from 105 organic farms and 105 neighbouring conventional dairy farms with access to pasture in south-central Sweden were collected in September 2008. Samples were also collected from 8 organic and 8 conventional herds located in a much more restricted area, on the same as well as 3 additional occasions during the grazing season, to reveal evidence for seasonal patterns against cattle stomach worm (Ostertagia ostertagi). Antibody levels to the stomach worm (O. ostertagi), liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus) were then determined by detection of specific antibodies using three different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). According to the Svanovir Ostertagia ELISA, the mean optical density ratio (ODR) was significantly higher in the milk from organic compared to conventional herds, i.e. 0.82 (95% CL=0.78-0.86) versus 0.66 (0.61-0.71). However, no significant differences were observed in the samples collected at different time points from the same 16 herds (F(3,39)=1.18, P=0.32). Antibodies to D. viviparus infection were diagnosed with an ELISA based on recombinant major sperm protein (MSP), and seropositivity was found in 21 (18%) of the 113 organic herds and 11 (9%) of the 113 conventional herds. The seroprevalence of D. viviparus was somewhat higher in the organic herds (Chi-square=3.65, P=0.056), but with the positive conventional herds were located in the vicinity of infected organic herds. Of the 16 herds that were sampled on repeated occasions, as many as 10 (63%), were seropositive on at least one sampling occasion. Many of these turned positive towards the end of the grazing season. Only one herd was positive in all 4 samples and 3 were positive only at turn-out. Considering F. hepatica there

  15. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  16. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  17. Short communication: comparing real-time PCR and bacteriological cultures for Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus in bulk-tank milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, G; Caminiti, A; Delle Donne, G; Moroni, P; Santi, A; Galletti, G; Tamba, M; Bolzoni, G; Bertocchi, L

    2014-09-01

    For more than 30 yr, a control plan for Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus has been carried out in more than 1,500 dairy herds of the province of Brescia (northern Italy). From 2010 to 2011, the apparent prevalence of Strep. agalactiae has been relatively stable around 10%, but the apparent prevalence of Staph. aureus has been greater than 40% with an increasing trend. The aim of this paper was to estimate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3 assays for the detection of Strep. agalactiae and Staph. aureus in bulk-tank milk samples (BTMS) in field conditions. The assays were a qualitative and a quantitative bacteriological culture (BC) for each pathogen and a homemade multiplex real-time PCR (rt-PCR). Because a gold standard was not available, the sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were evaluated using a Bayesian latent class approach. In 2012 we collected one BTMS from 165 dairy herds that were found positive for Strep. agalactiae in the previous 2-yr campaigns of eradication plan. In most cases, BTMS collected in these herds were positive for Staph. aureus as well, confirming the wide spread of this pathogen. At the same time we also collected composite milk samples from all the 8,624 lactating cows to evaluate the within-herd prevalence of Strep. agalactiae. Streptococcus agalactiae samples were cultured using a selective medium Tallium Kristalviolette Tossin, whereas for Staph. aureus, we used Baird Parker modified medium with added Rabbit Plasma Fibrinogen ISO-Formulation. In parallel, BTMS were tested using the rt-PCR. Regarding Strep. agalactiae, the posterior median of Se and Sp of the 2 BC was similar [qualitative BC: Se=98%, posterior credible interval (95%PCI): 94-100%, and Sp=99%, 95%PCI: 96-100%; quantitative BC: Se=99%, 95%PCI: 96-100%, and Sp=99%, 95%PCI: 95-100%] and higher than those of the rt-PCR (at 40 cycle threshold, Se=92%, 95%PCI: 85-97%; Sp=94%, 95%PCI: 88-98%). Also in case of Staph. aureus, the posterior medians

  18. Sampling program for grape mealybugs improves pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, Chris A.; Daane, Kent M.; Bentley, Walter J.; Yokota, Glenn; Martin, Lee A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a mealybug study in Central Valley vineyards, designed to develop sampling guidelines, reveal that mealybug distribution on vines varies greatly through the season and that mealybugs usually prefer concealed locations, such as under bark. This combination makes sampling difficult. A number of sampling techniques were compared. Three- or 5-minute timed counts were most efficient because samplers could follow the mealybugs' movement over the season. Midseason counts were much bet...

  19. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  20. High-Voltage Poling of a Bulk Sample of Disperse Red 1 Polymethylmethacrylate Guest-Host Polymer for U.S. Army Electro-Optical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    7  Figure 7. Chemical structures of monomers and the catalyst used in this study...and r33 values. In an effort to further improve the EO response of the model bulk DR1 system, the synthesis and thermal characterization of...by two different methods: (1) coprecipitation of the DR1 and PMMA from THF followed by extrusion and (2) by the microcompounder extrusion method

  1. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  2. Assistant Chef Program. Vocational Objectives and Sample Menus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Augustine Coll., Chicago, IL.

    Instructor materials are provided for an assistant chef program intended for English as a second language (ESL) or bilingual (Spanish-speaking) students. Vocational objectives are presented for over 20 cooking projects. Components of each include a task analysis; ESL related objectives, vocabulary, and/or structures; and vocational and/or ESL…

  3. The High Altitude Sampling Program: Radioactivity in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, R.; Juzdan, Z. R.

    1986-12-01

    Radioactivity data are presented from Project Airstream (aircraft) for the year 1983 and for Project Ashcan (balloon) for the years 1982 and 1984. Due to budgetary constraints both Projects Airstream and Ashcan have been terminated. This will be the final report containing radioactivity data collected during projects airstream and ashcan. Included are gross gamma, gamma spectral and radiochemical analyses of filter samples. Quality control samples submitted along with the air filter samples were analyzed and the results are presented. Low activity on many of the filters precludes the estimation of the stratospheric inventories of Pu-239, -240, and Sr-90. Based on data with count errors less than 20%, the mean Northern Hemisphere stratospheric Sr-90, Pu-239, and -240 concentration for November 1983 was 0.2 + or - 0.1 and 0.009 + or - 0.006 Bq/1000 scm, respectively.

  4. Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-10-01

    This Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Samples provides the recipients of those samples with information that will enhance the value of the samples, to permit greater opportunities to compare their work with that of others, and aid in correlations that can improve the value to all users. It is hoped that this document will foster a spirit of cooperation and collaboration such that the field of basic coal chemistry may be a more efficient and rewarding endeavor for all who participate. The different sections are intended to stand alone. For this reason some of the information may be found in several places. The handbook is also intended to be a dynamic document, constantly subject to change through additions and improvements. Please feel free to write to the editor with your comments and suggestions.

  5. A retrospective evaluation of a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibody ELISA on bulk-tank milk samples for classification of the BHV-1 status of Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylin, Britta; Strøger, Ulla; Rønsholt, Leif

    2000-01-01

    performance characteristics of the BHV-1 blocking ELISA in 1039 BHV-1-seropositive and 502 repeatedly BHV-1-negative dairy herds using the results of blood testing of the individual animals as the true infection status. At a cut-off value of 30% blocking reaction, the herd-level relative sensitivity......Bulk-tank milk samples analysed in a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) blocking ELISA are still in use in the Danish BHV-1 programme as a tool to classify dairy herds as BHV-1 infected or BHV-1 free herds. in this retrospective study, we used data from the Danish BHV-1 eradication campaign to evaluate...... samples. The BHV-1 blocking ELISA on bulk-tank milk could detect seropositive herds (few), with prevalence proportions as low as one seropositive cow out of 70 cows....

  6. Using and Evaluating ISEE, a New Computer Program for Teaching Sampling and Statistical Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Ganka; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes the background, development, and testing of a computer software program designed to teach principles of statistical sampling in social science courses. Compares results of a field test of the program, Introduction to Sampling Error Experiments (ISEE), with traditional instruction. (CFR)

  7. Hanford Environmental Monitoring Program schedule for samples, analyses, and measurements for calendar year 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1984-12-01

    This report provides the CY 1985 schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford Surface Environmental Monitoring and Ground-Water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples scheduled to be collected during FY 1985 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results.

  8. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 8 tank 21H qualification MST solids sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-02-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) processing. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction, Scrub, Strip (ESS) tests. This document reports characterization of the monosodium titanate (MST) solids from the ARP test. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  9. 76 FR 41186 - Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and Clarification of Timeline for the Salmonella Initiative... changes in the FSIS Salmonella Verification Program and outlined a new voluntary Salmonella Initiative...

  10. 76 FR 21318 - Notice of Funds Availability; Inviting Applications for the Quality Samples Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... funding assistance should contact the Program Operations Division, Office of Trade Programs, Foreign... preference for that end product; and Samples shall be in quantities less than a typical commercial sale and... resources, and establish realistic export goals. Applicants planning to use the Internet-based system must...

  11. Training Program Efficacy in Developing Health Life Skills among Sample Selected from Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mohtadi, Reham Mohammad; Al Zboon, Habis Sa'ad

    2017-01-01

    This study drove at identifying the training program efficacy in developing the health life skills among sample selected from Kindergarten children. Study sample consisted of 60 children of both genders, ages of which are ranged from 5-6 years old. We have applied herein the pre and post dimension of health life skills scale; consisting of 28…

  12. Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 11 Tank 21H Acceptance Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of verification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 11 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) for processing. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  13. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from the...

  14. Interactive programs with preschool children bring smiles and conversation to older adults: time-sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Minako

    2013-10-18

    Keeping older adults healthy and active is an emerging challenge of an aging society. Despite the importance of personal relationships to their health and well-being, changes in family structure have resulted in a lower frequency of intergenerational interactions. Limited studies have been conducted to compare different interaction style of intergenerational interaction. The present study aimed to compare the changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation in older adults brought about by a performance-based intergenerational (IG) program and a social-oriented IG program to determine a desirable interaction style for older adults. The subjects of this study were 25 older adults who participated in intergenerational programs with preschool children aged 5 to 6 years at an adult day care centre in Tokyo. We used time sampling to perform a structured observation study. The 25 older participants of intergenerational programs were divided into two groups based on their interaction style: performance-based IG program (children sing songs and dance) and social-oriented IG program (older adults and children play games together). Based on the 5-minute video observation, we compared changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation between the performance-based and social-oriented IG programs. Constructive behaviour and intergenerational conversation were significantly higher in the social-oriented IG programming group than the performance-based IG programming group (pprogramming group than the performance-based IG programming (pprogramming group than the social-oriented IG programming group (pIntergenerational programs with preschool children brought smiles and conversation to older adults. The social-oriented IG program allowed older adults to play more roles than the performance-based IG program. The intergenerational programs provide opportunities to fulfil

  15. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  16. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  17. Proposal of an analytical methodology to evaluate asbestos content into bulk samples by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Una proposta di metodica analitica per la determinazione del contenuto di amianto in campioni massivi tramite spettroscopia infrarossa in trasformata di Fourier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioffi, R. [Potenza Universita' della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente; De Stefano, L. [Area Ambiente Ricerca, Segrate, MI (Italy); Lavorgna, M.; Palumbo, M. [Naples Univ. Federico 2., Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali e della Produzione

    2001-04-01

    The Italian act 257/92 imposes the identification and classification of asbestos containing materials in order to opportune programs of control and maintenance or of reclamation and disposal. In this work is presented a proposal of an analytical methodology to evaluate the content of asbestos in bulk samples by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The accuracy and the precision of the method have been verified on test mixtures with a known content of asbestos. [Italian] La legge 257/92 impone di individuare e classificare i materiali contenenti amianto per stabilire opportuni programmi di controllo e manutenzione o di bonifica e smaltimento. In questo lavoro e' presentata in dettaglio una proposta di metodica analitica per la determinazione del contenuto di amianto in campioni massivi tramite spettroscopia infrarossa in trasformata di Fourier (FT-IR). L'accuratezza e la precisione della metodica sono state verificate con miscele di prova a contenuto noto di amianto.

  18. A sample theory-based logic model to improve program development, implementation, and sustainability of Farm to School programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Michelle M

    2012-08-01

    Farm to School programs hold promise to address childhood obesity. These programs may increase students’ access to healthier foods, increase students’ knowledge of and desire to eat these foods, and increase their consumption of them. Implementing Farm to School programs requires the involvement of multiple people, including nutrition services, educators, and food producers. Because these groups have not traditionally worked together and each has different goals, it is important to demonstrate how Farm to School programs that are designed to decrease childhood obesity may also address others’ objectives, such as academic achievement and economic development. A logic model is an effective tool to help articulate a shared vision for how Farm to School programs may work to accomplish multiple goals. Furthermore, there is evidence that programs based on theory are more likely to be effective at changing individuals’ behaviors. Logic models based on theory may help to explain how a program works, aid in efficient and sustained implementation, and support the development of a coherent evaluation plan. This article presents a sample theory-based logic model for Farm to School programs. The presented logic model is informed by the polytheoretical model for food and garden-based education in school settings (PMFGBE). The logic model has been applied to multiple settings, including Farm to School program development and evaluation in urban and rural school districts. This article also includes a brief discussion on the development of the PMFGBE, a detailed explanation of how Farm to School programs may enhance the curricular, physical, and social learning environments of schools, and suggestions for the applicability of the logic model for practitioners, researchers, and policy makers.

  19. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program — Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-03-01

    NASA’s Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program has Lucite disks containing Apollo lunar samples and meteorite samples that are available for trained educators to borrow for use in classrooms, museums, science center, and libraries.

  20. Comparing near-infrared conventional diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for determination of the bulk properties of solid samples by multivariate regression: determination of Mooney viscosity and plasticity indices of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano da Silva, Carlos; Pasquini, Celio

    2015-01-21

    Conventional reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and hyperspectral imaging (HI) in the near-infrared region (1000-2500 nm) are evaluated and compared, using, as the case study, the determination of relevant properties related to the quality of natural rubber. Mooney viscosity (MV) and plasticity indices (PI) (PI0 - original plasticity, PI30 - plasticity after accelerated aging, and PRI - the plasticity retention index after accelerated aging) of rubber were determined using multivariate regression models. Two hundred and eighty six samples of rubber were measured using conventional and hyperspectral near-infrared imaging reflectance instruments in the range of 1000-2500 nm. The sample set was split into regression (n = 191) and external validation (n = 95) sub-sets. Three instruments were employed for data acquisition: a line scanning hyperspectral camera and two conventional FT-NIR spectrometers. Sample heterogeneity was evaluated using hyperspectral images obtained with a resolution of 150 × 150 μm and principal component analysis. The probed sample area (5 cm(2); 24,000 pixels) to achieve representativeness was found to be equivalent to the average of 6 spectra for a 1 cm diameter probing circular window of one FT-NIR instrument. The other spectrophotometer can probe the whole sample in only one measurement. The results show that the rubber properties can be determined with very similar accuracy and precision by Partial Least Square (PLS) regression models regardless of whether HI-NIR or conventional FT-NIR produce the spectral datasets. The best Root Mean Square Errors of Prediction (RMSEPs) of external validation for MV, PI0, PI30, and PRI were 4.3, 1.8, 3.4, and 5.3%, respectively. Though the quantitative results provided by the three instruments can be considered equivalent, the hyperspectral imaging instrument presents a number of advantages, being about 6 times faster than conventional bulk spectrometers, producing robust spectral data by ensuring sample

  1. Development and feasibility of a mobile experience sampling application for tracking program implementation in youth well-being programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, TanChyuan; Rickard, Nikki S; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne A

    Well-being program evaluations mostly focus on identifying effective outcomes rather than measuring the actual extent to which program participants may apply learned skills in subsequent everyday lives. This study examined the feasibility of using a newly developed mobile experience sampling app called Wuzzup to study program implementation in young people participating in well-being programs. Ninety-six participants (60 females; 36 males) between the ages of 13 and 15 years (M = 13.87, SD = 0.71) were recruited to respond to two random prompts each day, for 7 days, at each of the three data collection time-points. Responses from 69 participants (72 % of initial sample) that met study criteria were retained for analysis. The average response rate was 92.89 %, with an average of 85.92 s to complete each ESM survey. Significant associations between first and second halves of the ESM week, and their respective positive affect and negative affect survey responses, demonstrate internal reliability and construct validity of the Wuzzup app to capture momentary affect and activation states of young people. This study also demonstrated the feasibility and practical utility of the Wuzzup app to profile and track an individual's learning over time.

  2. Cosmological Parameter Constraints from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program Three Year Spectroscopic Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brout, Dillon

    2018-01-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints from 251 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia Supernovae (0.02 Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DESSN). The photometric calibration, scene modeling photometric pipeline, additional low-z supernovae samples (z<.1), as well as the final cosmological results and systematics analysis are discussed.

  3. A spruce budworm sampling program for HUSKY HUNTER field data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred H. Schmidt

    1992-01-01

    A program for receiving sampling data for all immature stages of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentals Freeman) is described. Versions were designed to be used on field data recorders with either CP/M or DOS operating systems, such as the HUSKY HUNTER (Models 1, 2, and 16), but they also may be used on personal computers with compatible operating...

  4. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  5. Bulk Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  6. Approximate Optimal Control of Affine Nonlinear Continuous-Time Systems Using Event-Sampled Neurodynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Avimanyu; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an approximate optimal control of nonlinear continuous-time systems in affine form by using the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) with event-sampled state and input vectors. The knowledge of the system dynamics is relaxed by using a neural network (NN) identifier with event-sampled inputs. The value function, which becomes an approximate solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, is generated by using event-sampled NN approximator. Subsequently, the NN identifier and the approximated value function are utilized to obtain the optimal control policy. Both the identifier and value function approximator weights are tuned only at the event-sampled instants leading to an aperiodic update scheme. A novel adaptive event sampling condition is designed to determine the sampling instants, such that the approximation accuracy and the stability are maintained. A positive lower bound on the minimum inter-sample time is guaranteed to avoid accumulation point, and the dependence of inter-sample time upon the NN weight estimates is analyzed. A local ultimate boundedness of the resulting nonlinear impulsive dynamical closed-loop system is shown. Finally, a numerical example is utilized to evaluate the performance of the near-optimal design. The net result is the design of an event-sampled ADP-based controller for nonlinear continuous-time systems.

  7. Efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program in a Sample of Outpatients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Sanz, David; Fernández-Modamio, Mar; Bengochea-Seco, Rosario; Arrieta-Rodríguez, Marta; Pérez-Fuentes, Gabriela

    Social cognition is recognized to be a deficit in individuals suffering from schizophrenia. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between social cognition and social functioning in outpatients with schizophrenia through the use of different social cognition training programs. This study examines the efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program (PECS in Spanish) in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Data were derived from a sample of 44 non-hospitalized adult patients who presented with a DSM-IV-TR Axis I diagnosis of schizophrenia and 39 healthy controls. The 44 patients were divided into an experimental group (n=20) and a control task group (n=24) that received cognitive training. Healthy controls did not receive any treatment. Sociodemographic and clinical variables correlates were computed. The 2-way ANOVA was conducted to examine differences between groups in pre- and post-treatment measures. Intragroup differences were explored using the paired-samples t-test. At the end of the training, patients in the experimental group showed a higher performance compared to patients in the control task group in the Hinting Task Test and in the emotion recognition of sadness, anger, fear, and disgust. The PECS proved to be effective in the improvement of some areas of theory of mind and emotion recognition in outpatients with schizophrenia. The PECS is one of the first programs developed in Spanish to train social cognition, and the data obtained support the importance of expanding the social cognition programs to non-English language samples.

  8. Solving linear programs under uncertainty, using decomposition, importance sampling and parallel processors. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantzig, G.B.; Glynn, P.; Infanger, G.

    1994-03-01

    Planning under uncertainty is a fundamental problem of decision science where solution could advance man`s ability to plan, schedule, design, and control complex situations. Goal is to develop efficient methods for solving an important class of planning problems, namely linear programs whose parameters (coefficients, right hand sides) are not known with certainty. The research concentrated on theoretical tasks of decomposition and importance sampling techniques, implementation, and software development issues and on applications. Research is continuing on use of parallel processors for solving stochastic programs.

  9. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauntner, D. J.; Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board several commercial B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. Atmospheric ozone, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 245 flights of a Qantas Airways of Australia B-747 and two Pan American World Airways B-747s from July 1976 through September 1976. In addition, whole air samples, obtained during three flights, were analyzed for trichlorofluoromethane, and filter samples, obtained during four flights, were analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, fluorides, and chlorides. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and selected analyses are discussed.

  10. Evaluation and Proposed Refinement of the Sampling Design for the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program's Fish Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ickes, Brian

    2002-01-01

    ... if the sampling design adequately addresses program goals and objectives. Periodic evaluations also permit assessment of a program's ability to provide adequate and useful information for changing management and science needs...

  11. A Genotype Resource for Postmortem Brain Samples from the Autism Tissue Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, Richard F.; Lionel, Anath C.; Hu, Pingzhao; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Pinto, Dalila; Thiruvahindrapduram, Bhooma; Wei, John; Marshall, Christian R.; Pickett, Jane; Cook, Edwin H.; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    The Autism Tissue Program (ATP), a science program of Autism Speaks, provides researchers with access to well-characterized postmortem brain tissues. Researchers access these tissues through a peer-reviewed, project-based approval process, and obtain related clinical information from a secure, online informatics portal. However, few of these samples have DNA banked from other sources (such as a blood sample from the same individual), hindering genotype–phenotype correlation and interpretation of gene expression data derived fromthe banked brain tissue. Here, we describe an initiative to extract DNA from Brodmann Area 19, and genotype these samples using both the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 and the Illumina Human1M-Duo DNA Analysis BeadChip genome-wide microarray technologies. We additionally verify reported gender, and infer ethnic background from the single nucleotide polymorphism data. We have also used a rigorous, multiple algorithm approach to identify genomic copy number variation (CNV) from these array data. Following an initial proof of principle study using two samples, 52 experimental samples, consisting of 27 subjects with confirmed or suspected autism and related disorders, 5 subjects with cytogenetically visible duplications of 15q, 2 with epilepsy and 18 age-matched normal controls were processed, yielding high-quality genotype data in all cases. The genotype and CNV data are provided via the ATP informatics portal as a resource for the autism research community. PMID:21254448

  12. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  13. A user-friendly robotic sample preparation program for fully automated biological sample pipetting and dilution to benefit the regulated bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Ouyang, Zheng; Zeng, Jianing; Yuan, Long; Zheng, Naiyu; Jemal, Mohammed; Arnold, Mark E

    2012-06-01

    Biological sample dilution is a rate-limiting step in bioanalytical sample preparation when the concentrations of samples are beyond standard curve ranges, especially when multiple dilution factors are needed in an analytical run. We have developed and validated a Microsoft Excel-based robotic sample preparation program (RSPP) that automatically transforms Watson worklist sample information (identification, sequence and dilution factor) to comma-separated value (CSV) files. The Freedom EVO liquid handler software imports and transforms the CSV files to executable worklists (.gwl files), allowing the robot to perform sample dilutions at variable dilution factors. The dynamic dilution range is 1- to 1000-fold and divided into three dilution steps: 1- to 10-, 11- to 100-, and 101- to 1000-fold. The whole process, including pipetting samples, diluting samples, and adding internal standard(s), is accomplished within 1 h for two racks of samples (96 samples/rack). This platform also supports online sample extraction (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, protein precipitation, etc.) using 96 multichannel arms. This fully automated and validated sample dilution and preparation process has been applied to several drug development programs. The results demonstrate that application of the RSPP for fully automated sample processing is efficient and rugged. The RSPP not only saved more than 50% of the time in sample pipetting and dilution but also reduced human errors. The generated bioanalytical data are accurate and precise; therefore, this application can be used in regulated bioanalysis.

  14. A Sample of Best Practices to Support Veterans in Attending and Completing Engineering Degree Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kasarda, Mary; McCrery, Ennis; DePauw, Karen P.; Byrd, Carson; Mikel-Stites, Max; Ray, Victor; Pierson, Mark; Brown, Eugene; Hall, Simin; Soldan, David L.; Gruenbacher, Don; Schulz, Noel; Vogt, Blythe; Hageman, William B.; Natarajan, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes some sample best practices identified by three institutions, Virginia Tech, Kansas State University, and the University of San Diego to support the recruitment, transition, and retention of veterans in engineering degree programs. These three institutions represent a subset of the initial cadre of institutions receiving planning grants from the National Science Foundation to facilitate and support veterans in their pursuit of undergraduate and graduate engineering degrees...

  15. Racing Sampling Based Microimmune Optimization Approach Solving Constrained Expected Value Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates a bioinspired microimmune optimization algorithm to solve a general kind of single-objective nonlinear constrained expected value programming without any prior distribution. In the study of algorithm, two lower bound sample estimates of random variables are theoretically developed to estimate the empirical values of individuals. Two adaptive racing sampling schemes are designed to identify those competitive individuals in a given population, by which high-quality individuals can obtain large sampling size. An immune evolutionary mechanism, along with a local search approach, is constructed to evolve the current population. The comparative experiments have showed that the proposed algorithm can effectively solve higher-dimensional benchmark problems and is of potential for further applications.

  16. Decomposition and (importance) sampling techniques for multi-stage stochastic linear programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infanger, G.

    1993-11-01

    The difficulty of solving large-scale multi-stage stochastic linear programs arises from the sheer number of scenarios associated with numerous stochastic parameters. The number of scenarios grows exponentially with the number of stages and problems get easily out of hand even for very moderate numbers of stochastic parameters per stage. Our method combines dual (Benders) decomposition with Monte Carlo sampling techniques. We employ importance sampling to efficiently obtain accurate estimates of both expected future costs and gradients and right-hand sides of cuts. The method enables us to solve practical large-scale problems with many stages and numerous stochastic parameters per stage. We discuss the theory of sharing and adjusting cuts between different scenarios in a stage. We derive probabilistic lower and upper bounds, where we use importance path sampling for the upper bound estimation. Initial numerical results turned out to be promising.

  17. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results at Rio Blanco, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Nararro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–21, 2015. This report documents the analytical results of the Rio Blanco annual monitoring event, the trip report, and the data validation package. The groundwater and surface water monitoring samples were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for conventional analysis of tritium and analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. A subset of water samples collected from wells near the Rio Blanco site was also sent to GEL Group Inc. for enriched tritium analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were collected from a total of four onsite wells, including two that are privately owned. Samples were also collected from two additional private wells at nearby locations and from nine surface water locations. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and they were analyzed for tritium using the conventional method with a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Four locations (one well and three surface locations) were analyzed using the enriched tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L. The enriched locations included the well at the Brennan Windmill and surface locations at CER-1, CER-4, and Fawn Creek 500 feet upstream.

  18. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression in Paired Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tumor Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jong Ho; Sorensen, Steffen Filskov; Choi, Yoon-La; Feng, Yu; Kim, Tae-Eun; Choi, Heyjoo; Georgsen, Jeanette Baehr; Dolled-Filhart, Marisa; Emancipator, Kenneth; Meldgaard, Peter; Sun, Jong-Mu; Kim, Hong Kwan; Choi, Yong Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Zhou, Wei; Hager, Henrik; Kim, Jhingook

    2017-11-01

    Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression may predict response to anti-programmed death 1 (anti-PD-1) or anti-PD-L1 treatment. There is limited information on changes in PD-L1 expression over time in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eligible patients with NSCLC who received surgery or underwent biopsy at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea, and Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark, between February 2004 and April 2012 were included. PD-L1 expression in paired tumor tissue samples from the same patients at different dates and lesions was measured using a laboratory-developed prototype immunohistochemistry assay (22C3 antibody). PD-L1 positivity was defined as tumor cell membrane positivity in ≥ 1% of tumor cells (proportion score). Concordance of PD-L1 expression was analyzed by treating proportion score as categoric or continuous variables. Ninety-one patients were included in the analysis. The median interval between the 2 tumor collection dates was 20 months, with 91% of paired samples collected > 3 months apart. The concordance rate for PD-L1 classification between paired samples was 67% (95% confidence interval, 57%-77%). When treating the immunohistochemistry proportional score as a continuous variable, a significant correlation of PD-L1 expression was observed between the paired samples (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.61; P < .001). There are good correlations of PD-L1 expression from paired NSCLC samples. For patients whose PD-L1 status is negative, it may be valuable to obtain additional tissue samples for retesting PD-L1 expression when anti-PD-1 immunotherapy is considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  20. Design of a program in Matlab environment for gamma spectrum analysis of geological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M.; Correa, R.

    2016-05-01

    In this work we present the analysis of gamma ray spectra Ammonites found in different places. One of the fossils was found near the city of Cusco (Perú) and the other in “Cajón del Maipo” in Santiago (Chile). Spectra were taken with a hyperpure germanium detector (HPGe) in an environment cooled with liquid nitrogen, with the technique of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. A program for automatic detection and classifying of the samples was developed in Matlab. It program has the advantage of being able to make direct interventions or generalize it even more, or make it automate for specific spectra and make comparison between them. For example it can calibrate the spectrum automatically, only by giving the calibration spectrum, without the necessity of putting them. Finally, it also erases the external noise.

  1. Note: Heated sample platform for in situ temperature-programmed XPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander; Tatarchuk, Bruce J

    2011-07-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and performance of the multi-specimen heated platform for linear in situ heating during the Temperature-Programmed XPS (TPXPS). The platform is versatile, compatible with high vacuum (HV) and bakeout. The heater platform is tested under in situ linear heating of typical high surface area sorbent∕catalyst support--nanoporous TiO(2). The platform allows the TPXPS of multiple samples located on specimen disk that can be transferred in and out of the TPXPS chamber. Electric characteristics, temperature and pressure curves are provided. Heating power supply, PID temperature controller, data-logging hardware and software are described.

  2. SATISFACTION CLUSTERING ANALYSIS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION COMPUTER PROGRAMMING STUDENTS: A Sample of Karadeniz Technical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer OZYURT

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In line with recently developing technology, distant education systems based on information technologies are started to be commonly used within higher education. Students’ satisfaction is one of the vital aspects in order to maintain distant education efficiently and achieving its goal. As a matter of the fact, previous studies proved that student satisfaction is one of the most important factors in deciding the success of a system in terms of application. Therefore, this paper analyzes satisfaction variables of distant education computer programming students regarding this program as well as their clustering tendencies. 96 students who were having their majors in distant education computer programming at Karadeniz Technical University during 2012-2013 academic term constitute the sample of the study. The study employed Satisfaction Scale for Students of Distant education Based on Information Technologies as data collection tool which comprised of 42 items. Data obtained from the scale was analyzed via Ward method, one of the hierarchical clustering methods, in order to reveal their clustering tendencies. Accordingly, satisfaction variables were divided into three main clusters which were A, B and C. Of these main clusters, it was seen that A and B has two sub-clusters each which were A1, A2 and B1, B2 respectively. These divisions were named after the variables they include; A1: “Interest of the instructors and the implementation of program content”, A2: “Support and rapport of the university”, B1: “Scope of the program”, B2: “Individuality and the opportunity for interaction” and C: “The defects in application by both the program and the university”. From an overall perspective, it is seen that Cluster A covers variables positively affecting the satisfaction which are “the quality of service provided by the university for this program”, “application of program content fitting to the purpose” and

  3. Industrial Hygiene Air Sampling and Bulk Sampling Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    PCBs) 13 - SKC 225-16 37 Gelman Type A/E PTFE (Zefluor) 37 2 Gelman P5PJ037 (For PAH) 37 2 Membrana - PVC 37 5 Gelman 66467 37 5 Nuclepore 361850 filter...665-0651 800-752-8472 800-521-1520 10. Supelco 4. Membrana Inc. Supelco Park 7070 Commerce Circle Bellefonte, PA 16823-0048 Pleasanton, CA 94566-3294

  4. Bulk density of small meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikwaya, J.-B.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamical and physical density values expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamical evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01° per pixel to 0.05° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analysed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P/Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

  5. Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: David.Jou@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-02-04

    We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.

  6. A Novel Approach for Sampling in Approximate Dynamic Programming Based on $F$ -Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellera, Cristiano; Maccio, Danilo

    2017-10-01

    Approximate dynamic programming (ADP) is the standard tool to solve Markovian decision problems under general hypotheses on the system and the cost equations. It is known that one of the key issues of the procedure is how to generate an efficient sampling of the state space, needed for the approximation of the value function, in order to cope with the well-known phenomenon of the curse of dimensionality. The most common approaches in the literature are either aimed at a uniform covering of the state space or driven by the actual evolution of the system trajectories. Concerning the latter approach, F -discrepancy, a quantity closely related to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, that measures how strictly a set of random points represents a probability distribution, has been recently proposed for an efficient ADP framework in the finite-horizon case. In this paper, we extend this framework to infinite-horizon discounted problems, providing a constructive algorithm to generate efficient sampling points driven by the system behavior. Then, the algorithm is refined with the aim of acquiring a more balanced covering of the state space, thus addressing possible drawbacks of a pure system-driven sampling approach to obtain, in fact, an efficient hybrid between the latter and the pure uniform design. A theoretical analysis is provided through the introduction of an original notion of the F -discrepancy and the proof of its properties. Simulation tests are provided to showcase the behavior of the proposed sampling method.

  7. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results Report for Project Rulison, Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–22 and 27, 2015. Several of the land owners were not available to allow access to their respective properties, which created the need for several sample collection trips. This report documents the analytical results of the Rulison monitoring event and includes the trip report and the data validation package (Appendix A). The groundwater and surface water monitoring were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high- resolution gamma spectrometry. Tritium was analyzed using two methods, the conventional tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and the enriched method (for selected samples), which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  8. "Understanding" cosmological bulk viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Zimdahl, Winfried

    1996-01-01

    A universe consisting of two interacting perfect fluids with the same 4-velocity is considered. A heuristic mean free time argument is used to show that the system as a whole cannot be perfect as well but neccessarily implies a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. A new formula for the latter is derived and compared with corresponding results of radiative hydrodynamics.

  9. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  10. MICROHARDNESS OF BULK-FILL COMPOSITE MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fi l (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and x-tra base (XB), and conventional control material X-Flow (XF). Composite samples (n=5) were polymerized for 20 s with Bluephase G2 curing unit. Vickers hardness was used to determine microhardness of each material at the surface, and at 2-mm and 4-mm depth. GSO on average recorded significantly higher microhardness values than bulk-fill materials (pcomposite XF revealed similar microhardness values as SDR, but significantly lower than XB (pmaterials was lower than microhardness of the conventional composite material (GSO). Surface microhardness of low-viscosity materials was generally even lower. The microhardness of all tested materials at 4 mm was not different from their surface values. However, additional capping layer was a necessity for low-viscosity bulk-fill materials due to their low microhardness.

  11. Correlates of maternal depressive symptoms in a national Head Start program sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, R G; Pascoe, J M; Keltner, B; Ramey, S L

    1999-08-01

    To examine correlates of maternal depressive symptoms in a diverse, national sample of mothers whose kindergarten-aged children attended a Head Start program. A cross-sectional study of 5820 mothers was conducted during their child's kindergarten year. Rates of maternal depressive symptoms were assessed by a validated 3-item depression screen. The ethnic makeup of the group of mothers was non-Hispanic white, 46%; African American, 30%; Hispanic, 13%; American Indian, 6%; Asian American, 1%; and other, 4%. The mean (SD) age of the mothers was 30.1 (5.55) years, 57% were unemployed, and 68% had at least a high school diploma or had earned a high school equivalency diploma. More than 40% of the mothers screened positive for depressive symptoms. The strongest associations after controlling for several biological and demographic variables were maternal chronic health problem (adjusted odds ratio, 2.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.98-3.87), homelessness (adjusted odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.77), and lowest income level (adjusted odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-1.88). Depressive symptoms were common among mothers of young children in this national sample. Interventions must be targeted at alleviating maternal depressive symptoms by decreasing poverty, providing support programs for single parents, and establishing accessible and affordable medical care for all parents and their children. Primary care physicians can play a key role in early identification and intervention.

  12. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    symplasmic pathway from mesophyll to sieve elements. Crucial for the driving force is the question where water enters the pre-phloem pathway. Surprisingly, the role of PD in water movement has not been addressed so far appropriately. Modeling of assimilate and water fluxes indicates that in symplasmic...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  13. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... assimilate movement includes an apoplasmic step, this mode is called apoplasmic loading. Well established is also the polymer-trap loading mode, where the phloem-transport sugars are raffinose-family oligomers in herbaceous plants. Also this mode depends on the investment of energy, here for sugar...

  14. Micromegas in a bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Giomataris, Ioanis; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Aune, S; Charpak, Georges; Colas, P; Giganon, Arnaud; Rebourgeard, P C; Salin, P; Rebourgeard, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it extremely attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine

  15. Micromegas in a bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giomataris, I. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: ioa@hep.saclay.cea.fr; De Oliveira, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Andriamonje, S. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Aune, S. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Charpak, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Colas, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Fanourakis, G. [Institute of Nuclear Physcis, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Ferrer, E. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Giganon, A. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Rebourgeard, Ph. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Salin, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)

    2006-05-10

    In this paper, we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such a fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine.

  16. Evaluating Ethanol-based Sample Preservation to Facilitate Use of DNA Barcoding in Routine Freshwater Biomonitoring Programs Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential in enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biom...

  17. Causes and consequences of continental breakup in the South Atlantic: lessons learned from the SAMPLE program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, Robert B.

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009 the SAMPLE program (www.spp-sample.de) provides a platform for research into the causes and effects of continental breakup and the evolution of passive margins. SAMPLE encompasses 28 projects from 13 German institutions and many international partnerships. The 6-year program will run through 2015. At the core of the program are observational studies that are interlinked by modelling projects examining the interplay of deep mantle dynamics, lithospheric stress fields, pre-rift fabric and melt-weaking on localizing rifting. Geophysics teams collect and integrate existing data from wide-angle seismic profiles, reprocessed multichannel seismics, as well as gravity, magnetics and heat-flow studies to construct self-consistent lithospheric-scale 3-D models along the conjugate margins. Key interests are variations in margin architecture, distribution of magmatic features and the evolution of sedimentary basins (subsidence and thermal histories). An exciting new contribution of SAMPLE geophysics is a linked set of seismic, seismologic and magnetotelluric experiments along the Walvis Ridge, including onshore NW Namibia and the Tristan da Cunha hotspot. In the deep mantle, we examine evidence from global seismic tomography for dramatic low seismic-velocity regions near the core-mantle boundary beneath southern Africa and their implications for dynamics in the deep Earth and the thermo-chemical nature of plumes. Petrologic studies focus on near-primary mantle melts represented by Mg-rich mafic dikes. Projects address the origin of magmas and crust-mantle interaction, and the environmental impact of mega-scale volcanism during breakup. Thermobarometry results from the African margin reveal a N-to-S decrease in mantle potential temperatures from 1520°C (N) to 1380° (S), which supports a thermal plume origin for excessive melt production in the north. Thermochronology data from both conjugate margins reveal complex and puzzling patterns in the denudation history

  18. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10).

  19. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ghiglione

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500µm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data. Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species, 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species, 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species, 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species, 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species. This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10.

  20. Analytical Results for Agricultural Soils Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District, MWRD), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream bed sediment. Soils for this study were defined as the plow zone of the dry land agricultural fields - the top twelve inches of the soil column. This report presents analytical results for the soil samples collected at the Metro District farm land near Deer Trail, Colorado, during three separate sampling events during 1999, 2000, and 2002. Soil samples taken in 1999 were to be a representation of the original baseline of the agricultural soils prior to any biosolids application. The soil samples taken in 2000 represent the soils after one application of biosolids to the middle field at each site and those taken in 2002 represent the soils after two applications. There have been no biosolids applied to any of the four control fields. The next soil sampling is scheduled for the spring of 2010. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross

  1. Surface barrier and bulk pinning in MgB$_2$ superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Pissas, M.; Moraitakis, E.; Stamopoulos, D.; Papavassiliou, G.; Psycharis, V.; Koutandos, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a modified method of preparation of the new superconductor MgB$_2$. The polycrystalline samples were characterized using x-ray and magnetic measurements. The surface barriers control the isothermal magnetization loops in powder samples. In bulk as prepared samples we always observed symmetric magnetization loops indicative of the presence of a bulk pinning mechanism. Magnetic relaxation measurements in the bulk sample reveal a crossover of surface barrier to bulk pinning.

  2. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Phase I: field sampling program during mean flow Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, R.M.; Onishi, Y.

    1979-08-01

    A field sampling program was conducted on Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York during November and December 1977 to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Suspended sediment, bed sediment, and water samples were collected during mean flow conditions over a 45 mile reach of stream channel. Radiological analysis of these samples included primarily gamma ray emitters; however, some plutonium, strontium, curium, and tritium analyses were also included. The principal gamma emitter found during the sampling program was /sup 137/Cs where, in some cases, levels associated with the sand and clay size fractions of bed sediment exceeded 100 pCi/g. Elevated levels of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr were found downstream of the Nuclear Fuel Services Center, an inactive plutonium reprocessing plant and low level nuclear waste disposal site. Based on radionuclide levels in upstream control stations, /sup 137/Cs was the only radionuclide whose levels in the creeks downstream of the site could confidently be attributed to the site during this sampling program. This field sampling effort is the first of a three phase program to collect data during low, medium and high flow conditions.

  3. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  4. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  5. Raman characterization of bulk ferromagnetic nanostructured graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Helena, E-mail: hpardo@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Divine Khan, Ngwashi [Mantfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Faccio, Ricardo [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araujo-Moreira, F.M. [Grupo de Materiais e Dispositivos-CMDMC, Departamento de Fisica e Engenharia Fisica, UFSCar, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos SP (Brazil); Fernandez-Werner, Luciana [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-08-15

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize bulk ferromagnetic graphite samples prepared by controlled oxidation of commercial pristine graphite powder. The G:D band intensity ratio, the shape and position of the 2D band and the presence of a band around 2950 cm{sup -1} showed a high degree of disorder in the modified graphite sample, with a significant presence of exposed edges of graphitic planes as well as a high degree of attached hydrogen atoms.

  6. [Monitoring microbiological safety of small systems of water distribution. Comparison of two sampling programs in a town in central Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Paolo; Faustini, Annunziata; Manganello, Rosa; Borzacchi, Giancarlo; Spera, Domenico; Perucci, Carlo A

    2005-01-01

    To determine the frequency of sampling in small water distribution systems (distribution. We carried out two sampling programs to monitor the water distribution system in a town in Central Italy between July and September 1992; the Poisson distribution assumption implied 4 water samples, the assumption of negative binomial distribution implied 21 samples. Coliform organisms were used as indicators of water safety. The network consisted of two pipe rings and two wells fed by the same water source. The number of summer customers varied considerably from 3,000 to 20,000. The mean density was 2.33 coliforms/100 ml (sd= 5.29) for 21 samples and 3 coliforms/100 ml (sd= 6) for four samples. However the hypothesis of homogeneity was rejected (p-value network, determining the samples' size according to heterogeneity hypothesis strengthens the statement that water is drinkable compared with homogeneity assumption.

  7. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  8. Radiopacity of bulk fill flowable resin composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, T; Ayar, M K; Akdag, M S; Yesilyurt, C

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of currently marketed bulk fill flowable dental composite materials (Beautifil Bulk Flowable, SDR Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, and x-tra Base Bulk Fill). Six specimens of each material with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared, and digital radiographs were taken, using a CCD sensor along with an aluminum stepwedge and 1 mm-thick tooth slice. The mean gray level of each aluminum stepwedge and selected materials was measured, using the equal-density area tool of Kodak Dental Imaging software. The equivalent thickness of aluminum for each material was then calculated by using the stepwedge values in the CurveExpert version 1.4 program. The radiopacity of bulk fill flowable composites sorted in descending order as follows: Beautifil Bulk Flowable (2.96 mm Al) = x-tra base bulk fill (2.92 mm Al) = SureFil SDR Flow (2.89 mm Al) > Filtek Bulk Fill Flow (2.51 mm Al) (P materials had a radiopacity greater than dentin and enamel; their adequate radiopacity will help the clinicians during radiographic examination of restorations. Bulk fill composite materials have greater radiopacity, enabling clinicians to distinguish the bulk fill composites from dentin and enamel.

  9. Dialectical behavior therapy in an intensive outpatient program with a mixed-diagnostic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Lorie A; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Nelson, Juliet

    2012-03-01

    Intensive outpatient programs (IOPs) have become increasingly common for treating highly distressed patients, and a burgeoning number of IOPs are based on, or informed by, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of DBT in a community mental health center IOP for patients with heterogeneous diagnoses. Using a within-subjects design, we examined changes in depression, anxiety, mindfulness, and hope during DBT treatment in a community mental health center in the Midwestern United States. The final sample comprised 56 participants (59% female) ranging in age from 18 to 73 years, with a mean age of 36.8 years (standard deviation = 13.7). The majority of participants (80%) met criteria for a mood disorder, just over half met criteria for an anxiety disorder, and 20% met criteria for comorbid substance abuse or dependence. Over half met criteria for more than one diagnosis. Length of treatment varied based on the needs of the individual patient; treatment ranged from 2 to 16 weeks, with an average stay of 6 weeks. Depression and anxiety scores decreased significantly and hope scores increased significantly over the course of treatment (all p's anxiety scores after controlling for baseline symptom levels. Results suggest that this DBT-informed intervention was effective in reducing depression and anxiety and increasing hope. Because of the move away from inpatient hospitalizations over the last few decades, it is incumbent on the field to find alternative ways to treat patients in need of more acute, intensive care. Moreover, these treatments must be cost effective, as many of these patients have limited financial resources. Group therapy formats might provide an appropriate and needed bridge for this coverage gap. The results of this study suggest that a DBT-informed IOP might be an amenable treatment for this population. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Al NMR: a novel NMR data processing program optimized for sparse sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, John M.; Wand, A. Joshua, E-mail: wand@mail.med.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Graduate Group in Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Sparse sampling in biomolecular multidimensional NMR offers increased acquisition speed and resolution and, if appropriate conditions are met, an increase in sensitivity. Sparse sampling of indirectly detected time domains combined with the direct truly multidimensional Fourier transform has elicited particular attention because of the ability to generate a final spectrum amenable to traditional analysis techniques. A number of sparse sampling schemes have been described including radial sampling, random sampling, concentric sampling and variations thereof. A fundamental feature of these sampling schemes is that the resulting time domain data array is not amenable to traditional Fourier transform based processing and phasing correction techniques. In addition, radial sampling approaches offer a number of advantages and capabilities that are also not accessible using standard NMR processing techniques. These include sensitivity enhancement, sub-matrix processing and determination of minimal sets of sampling angles. Here we describe a new software package (Al NMR) that enables these capabilities in the context of a general NMR data processing environment.

  11. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  12. Conic sampling: an efficient method for solving linear and quadratic programming by randomly linking constraints within the interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serang, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Linear programming (LP) problems are commonly used in analysis and resource allocation, frequently surfacing as approximations to more difficult problems. Existing approaches to LP have been dominated by a small group of methods, and randomized algorithms have not enjoyed popularity in practice. This paper introduces a novel randomized method of solving LP problems by moving along the facets and within the interior of the polytope along rays randomly sampled from the polyhedral cones defined by the bounding constraints. This conic sampling method is then applied to randomly sampled LPs, and its runtime performance is shown to compare favorably to the simplex and primal affine-scaling algorithms, especially on polytopes with certain characteristics. The conic sampling method is then adapted and applied to solve a certain quadratic program, which compute a projection onto a polytope; the proposed method is shown to outperform the proprietary software Mathematica on large, sparse QP problems constructed from mass spectometry-based proteomics.

  13. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  14. Chesapeake Bay coordinated split sample program annual report, 1990-1991: Analytical methods and quality assurance workgroup of the Chesapeake Bay program monitoring subcommittee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is a federal-state partnership with a goal of restoring the Chesapeake Bay. Its ambient water quality monitoring programs, started in 1984, sample over 150 monitoring stations once or twice a month a month. Due to the size of the Bay watershed (64,000 square miles) and the cooperative nature of the CBP, these monitoring programs involve 10 different analytical laboratories. The Chesapeake Bay Coordinated Split Sample Program (CSSP), initialed in 1988, assesses the comparability of the water quality results from these laboratories. The report summarizes CSSP results for 1990 and 1991, its second and third full years of operation. The CSSP has two main objectives: identifying parameters with low inter-organization agreement, and estimating measurement system variability. The identification of parmeters with low agreement is used as part of the overall Quality Assurance program. Laboratory and program personnel use the information to investigate possible causes of the differences, and take action to increase agreement if possible. Later CSSP results will document any improvements in inter-organization agreement. The variability estimates are most useful to data analysts and modelers who need confidence estimates for monitoring data.

  15. Reação de imunofluorescência indireta para detecção de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em amostras coletivas de leite Indirect fluorescent antibody test to detection of Neospora caninum antibodies in samples of bulk milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Camillo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a presença de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em amostras coletivas de leite, através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI. Para isso, foram coletadas amostras do leite dos tanques refrigerados de 36 rebanhos, das quais foram selecionadas 14 para coletas de amostras individuais de soro sanguíneo e de leite das vacas. Encontrou-se correlação em 12 dos 14 rebanhos selecionados para a amostragem individual dos animais, em comparação à detecção de anticorpos nas amostras coletivas de leite. Foi observada uma concordância de 76% comparando-se o resultado das amostras coletivas com os resultados individuais de leite. Observaram-se baixos títulos de anticorpos (50 no soro sanguíneo dos animais soropositivos, cujos resultados da RIFI no leite coletivo e no sangue foram discordantes. Assim, a partir dos resultados deste estudo, pode-se concluir que a utilização de testes sorológicos para detecção de anticorpos anti-N. caninum em amostras coletivas de leite através da RIFI pode ser uma opção ao diagnóstico para a triagem de rebanhos positivos bem como para estudos epidemiológicos.The aim of this study was to determine the presence of anti-N. caninum in the bulk milk samples by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT. For this, it was collected samples of milk from refrigerated tanks from 36 herds, of which 14 were selected for sampling of individual blood serum and milk of cows. It was found concordance for 12 of the 14 herds selected for samples of individual animals, compared to the detection of antibodies in the bulk milk samples. Concordance was of 76% when comparing the results of the pooled sample with the results of individual milk. It was observed low antibody titers (50 in the serum of animals positive whose results in IFA of bulk milk and blood were discordant. Thus, with the results of this study, it can be concluded that the use of serological tests for detection of

  16. STX--Fortran-4 program for estimates of tree populations from 3P sample-tree-measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. R. Grosenbaugh

    1967-01-01

    Describes how to use an improved and greatly expanded version of an earlier computer program (1964) that converts dendrometer measurements of 3P-sample trees to population values in terms of whatever units user desires. Many new options are available, including that of obtaining a product-yield and appraisal report based on regression coefficients supplied by user....

  17. THE OPTIMIZATION OF PLUSH YARNS BULKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINEREANU Adam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  18. Milk quality parameters associated with the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in bulk tank milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Cristina Almeida Picinin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Veterinary drug residues in bulk tank milk are important to all sectors of the dairy chain because they are one of the major factors which determine the safety of the final product. This study attempted to identify milk quality parameters that are associated with the occurrence of veterinary drug residues using multivariate principal component analysis (PCA. A total of 132 raw milk samples were collected from 45 dairy farms in the state of Minas Gerais - Brazil and analyzed for 42 analytes, including pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Out of the 132 milk samples, 40 samples tested positive for at least one analyte (above the detection limit. The milk parameters associated with the antimicrobial residues by confirmatory tests were lactose and nonfat concentrations, as revealed by PCA. This analysis showed that fat and total solid concentrations, as well as the somatic cell and total bacteria counts were associated with macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk. A PCA assessing pyrethroid residues in bulk tank milk revealed that the lactose and nonfat solid concentrations and titratable acidity were inversely associated with these residues. Thus, the data analysis indicated that the veterinary drug residues were associated with certain milk quality parameters that can be used to target farms at higher risk of veterinary drug residue contamination for testing programs in combination with incentives, education and training programs to improve mammary health, milk hygiene and safety.

  19. Perbandingan tingkat kebocoran mikro resin komposit bulk-filldengan teknik penumpatan oblique incremental dan bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Puja Permana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Micoleakage comparison of bulk-fillcomposite beetwen oblique incremental and bulk placement techniques. Resin composite bulk-fill was a new type of resin composite that speed up application process of composite. The concept of bulk-fill composite allows composite to fill at a depth of 4 mm and minimizes polymerization shrinkage. This study aims to determine the comparison of placement techniques (oblique incremental/bulk of bulk-fill composite on microleakage in class I preparations. Thirty two human maxillary premolar were stored in distilled water, then Class I preparations were made with the depth of the cavity which was 4 mm (3 x 3 x 4. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups, group 1 uses oblique incremental placement technique and group 2 with bulk placement technique. Samples were stored in an incubator at a temperature of 37 °C for 24 hours, then it was thermocycled manually, 100 cycles at temperature between 5 °C and 55 °C. Microleakage was measured using a digital microscope with a 100 X magnification in millimeters using a microscope micrometer calibration ruler with 0,1 mm level of accuracy after immersion in 0,3% methylene blue and sectioned using separating disc. The result of this study revealed that in group 1 microleakage range was 1.0 mm - 2.7 mm with an average 1.625 mm, and in group 2 microleakage range was 3.6 mm - 4.0 mm with an average of 3.763 mm. The data were analyzed using T-test. The analysis showed a significant difference between two groups (p <0.05. The conclusion of this study was bulk-fill composite in class I cavities with oblique incremental placement technique produces less microleakage than bulk placement technique.   ABSTRAK Resin komposit bulk-fill adalah resin komposit yang dirancang untuk mempercepat proses aplikasi resin komposit. Konsep bulk-fill memungkinkan resin komposit ditumpat sekaligus 4 mm dan mengalami pengerutan polimerisasi minimal. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efek teknik

  20. SAS programs for real-time RT-PCR having multiple independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peyton; Fu, Chunxiao; Hickey, Morgen; Han, Eun-Soo; Miller, Kenton S

    2004-12-01

    Relative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) has become an important tool for quantifying changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) populations following differential development or stimulation of tissues or cells. However, the best methods for conducting such experiments and analyzing the resultant data remain an issue of discussion. In this report we describe an appropriate experimental methodology and the computer programs necessary to generate a meaningful statistical analysis of the combined biological and experimental variability in such experiments. Specifically, logarithmic transformations of raw fluorescence data from the log-linear portion of real-time PCR growth curves for both target and reference genes are analyzed using a SAS/STAT Mixed Procedure program specifically designed to give a point estimate of the relative expression ratio of the target gene with associated 95% confidence interval. The program code is open-source and is printed in the text.

  1. 50th Anniversary of the World's First Extraterrestrial Sample Receiving Laboratory: The Apollo Program's Lunar Receiving Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Apollo program's Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL), building 37 at NASA's Manned Spaceflight Center (MSC), now Johnson Space Center (JSC), in Houston, TX, was the world's first astronaut and extraterrestrial sample quarantine facility (Fig. 1). It was constructed by Warrior Construction Co. and Warrior-Natkin-National at a cost of $8.1M be-tween August 10, 1966 and June 26, 1967. In 1969, the LRL received and curated the first collection of extra-terrestrial samples returned to Earth; the rock and soil samples of the Apollo 11 mission. This year, the JSC Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (here-after JSC curation) celebrates 50 years since the opening of the LRL and its legacy of laying the foundation for modern curation of extraterrestrial samples.

  2. Radiation effects in bulk silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Cor; Vanhellemont, Jan

    1994-01-01

    This paper highlights important aspects related to irradiation effects in bulk silicon. Some basic principles related to the interaction of radiation with material, i.e. ionization and atomic displacement, are briefly reviewed. A physical understanding of radiation effects strongly depends on the availability of appropriate analytical tools. These tools are critically accessed from a silicon bulk viewpoint. More detailed information, related to the properties of the bulk damage and some dedicated application aspects, is given for both electron and proton irradiations. Emphasis is placed on radiation environments encountered during space missions and on their influence on the electrical performance of devices such as memories and image sensors.

  3. Results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-02-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR). Further work will report the results of the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing (Task 5 of the TTR) using the Tank 21H material. Task 4 of the TTR (MST Strike) will not be completed for Salt Batch 10.

  4. The High Altitude Sampling Program: Radioactivity in the stratosphere: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, R; Juzdan, Z R

    1986-12-01

    Radioactivity data are presented from Project Airstream (aircraft) for the year 1983 and for Project Ashcan (balloon) for the years 1982 and 1984. Due to budgetary constraints both Projects Airstream and Ashcan have been terminated. This will be the final report containing radioactivity data collected during projects airstream and ashcan. Included are gross gamma, gamma spectral and radiochemical analyses of filter samples. Quality control samples submitted along with the air filter samples were analyzed and the results are presented. Low activity on many of the filters precludes the estimation of the stratospheric inventories of /sup 239,240/Pu and /sup 90/Sr. Based on data with count errors <20%, the mean Northern Hemisphere stratospheric /sup 90/Sr and /sup 239,240/Pu concentration for November 1983 was 0.2 +- 0.1 and 0.009 +- 0.006 Bq/1000 scm, respectively.

  5. Quality assessment of lymph node sampling in rhabdomyosarcoma: A surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobeck, Inna; Dupree, Phylicia; Karns, Rebekah; Rodeberg, David; von Allmen, Daniel; Dasgupta, Roshni

    2017-04-01

    Lymph node sampling is integral in the management of extremity and paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). The aim of this study was to determine overall surgical compliance with treatment protocols and impact of nodal sampling outcomes in these tumors. A query of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program (SEER) database was performed from 2003 to 2008 for patients sampling. Analysis was performed utilizing chi-squared, Kaplan-Meier and hazard ratio modeling. Of 537 patients with extremity RMS, nodal sampling was performed in 25.7% (n=138). This lack of nodal sampling had a negative outcome on survival (p=0.004). Sixty five patients with paratesticular RMS aged greater than 10 were identified and also displayed low rates of lymph node sampling (47.7%, n=31). For paratesticular patients, a similar increase in survival was seen in patients who underwent nodal evaluation (p=0.024). Lymph node sampling is the standard of care in RMS. However, surgical compliance with treatment protocols is poor. Nodal evaluation correlated significantly with overall survival. These findings suggest a need for improved education among surgeons and oncologists regarding the need lymph node assessment in pediatric oncology patients. Evidence rating/classification: Prognosis study, Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sample size determination for a t test given a t value from a previous study: A FORTRAN 77 program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, R

    2001-11-01

    When uncertain about the magnitude of an effect, researchers commonly substitute in the standard sample-size-determination formula an estimate of effect size derived from a previous experiment. A problem with this approach is that the traditional sample-size-determination formula was not designed to deal with the uncertainty inherent in an effect-size estimate. Consequently, estimate-substitution in the traditional sample-size-determination formula can lead to a substantial loss of power. A method of sample-size determination designed to handle uncertainty in effect-size estimates is described. The procedure uses the t value and sample size from a previous study, which might be a pilot study or a related study in the same area, to establish a distribution of probable effect sizes. The sample size to be employed in the new study is that which supplies an expected power of the desired amount over the distribution of probable effect sizes. A FORTRAN 77 program is presented that permits swift calculation of sample size for a variety of t tests, including independent t tests, related t tests, t tests of correlation coefficients, and t tests of multiple regression b coefficients.

  7. Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

  8. A comparison of two ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to bovine leucosis virus in bulk-milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, S E; Galvin, J W

    2005-07-01

    To estimate the sensitivity, specificity and detection limits for two bulk-milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the Svanovir BLV-gp51-Ab and the Lactelisa BLV Ab Bi indirect tank 250, for the detection of antibody to bovine leucosis virus in milk. Milk samples from 27 cows known to have enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) were serially diluted with milk from a herd known to be free from the disease. The dilution at which antibodies could no longer be detected by each test was determined. A total of 1959 bulk-milk samples submitted to a laboratory for the Victorian (EBL) eradication program were tested with both the Svanovir and the Lactelisa assays. A Bayesian approach was used to calculate maximum-likelihood estimates of test sensitivity and specificity. An additional 660 bulk-milk samples were tested with both the Svanovir and the Lactelisa assays. Herds that had positive results on either or both of the assays were subjected to blood or milk testing of individual cattle. The dilution of milk at which the Svanovir assay failed to detect enzootic bovine leucosis antibody in half of the samples was 1 in 40, whereas the comparable value for the Lactelisa was 1 in 200. Computer modeling of the operating characteristics of the Svanovir assay indicated that the sensitivity of that assay would be considerably lower than that for the Lactelisa, and the specificity was estimated to be higher. Evaluation of the assays using 660 bulk-milk samples showed that the Lactelisa assay detected four infected herds that were not detected by the Svanovir test. No false positive results were recorded for either assay. Use of the Lactelisa assay in the Victorian EBL eradication program will enhance disease detection and eradication, but may also result in an increased frequency of false positive bulk-milk test results.

  9. Proceedings of BulkTrans '89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Papers were presented on bulk commodity demand; steel industry bulk trades; grains and the world food economy; steam coal and cement demand; shipping profitability; bulk carrier design and economics; bulk ports and terminals; ship unloading; computers in bulk terminals; and conveyors and stockyard equipment.

  10. Combatting bulking sludge with ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensch, B.; Heine, W.; Neis, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Bulking and floating sludge cause great problems in many waste water treatment plants with biological nutrient removal. The purification as well as the sludge digestion process can be affected. These problems are due to the interlaced structure of filamentous microorganisms, which have an impact on the sludge's settling behaviour. Foam is able to build up a stable layer, which does not settle in the secondary clarifier. Foam in digestion causes a reduction of the degree of stabilisation and of the biogas production. We use low-frequency ultrasound to combat filamentous organisms in bulking sludge. Low-frequency ultrasound is suitable to create high local shear stresses, which are capable of breaking the filamentous structures of the sludge. After preliminary lab-scale tests now a full-scale new ultrasound equipment is operating at Reinfeld sewage treatment plant, Germany. The objective of this study is to explore the best ultrasound configuration to destroy the filamentous structure of bulking and foaming sludge in a substainable way. Later this study will also look into the effects of ultrasound treated bulking sludge on the anaerobic digestion process. Up to now results show that the settling behaviour of bulking sludge is improved. The minimal ultrasound energy input for destruction of bulking structure was determined. (orig.)

  11. Using a multimethod approach to develop implementation strategies for a cervical self-sampling program in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, Irene; Kisia, Caroline; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Cosby, Jarold

    2017-03-21

    Numerous health policy makers/researchers are concerned about the limitations of research being applied to support informed decision/policy making and the implementation of practical solutions. The aim of the Chaguo Letu project (which means our choice in Swahili) was to determine how local decision makers could apply a multimethod approach to make strategic decisions to effectively implement a Cervical Self-Sampling Program in Kenya. A multimethod approach, involving participatory action research, scenario based planning, and phenomenology, was applied in conjunction with two tools to identify relevant factors (negative or positive) that could impact Cervical Self-Sampling Program implementation. A total of 107 stakeholders participated in interviews, focus groups, workshops, and informal interactions. Content analysis, an affinity exercise, and impact analysis were used to analyze data and develop robust strategic directions and supporting implementation strategies. A total of 57 factors thought to impact the implementation of the Cervical Self-Sampling Program were identified and grouped into 13 thematic categories. These themes were instrumental in developing 10 strategic directions and 22 implementation strategies deemed necessary to implement a technically viable, politically supported, affordable, logistically feasible, socially acceptable, and transformative Program. This study made three conclusions: 1) there is political will and a desire to improve cervical screening across Kenya, but in a period of dynamic change resources are constrained; 2) implementing the Program in urban/rural settings is logistically feasible, but the majority of Kenyan women could not afford screening without some form of a subsidy, and 3) self-sampling is perceived to be much more socially acceptable than the current Pap screening process. The Chaguo Letu study went beyond the traditional strategy development process of determining "what" needs to do done by describing in detail

  12. Financial Reporting of DLA-Owned Bulk Petroleum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-23

    FINANCIAL REPORTING OF DLA-OWNED BULK PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Report No. D-2001-126 May 23, 2001 Office of...34DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Financial Reporting of DLA-Owned Bulk Petroleum Products Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number...the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990, as amended by the Federal Financial Management Act of 1994. This is the fifth in a series of reports on the

  13. [Health agents' perspective on the incorporation of self-collected samples in HPV screening programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curotto, Mariana; Barletta, Paula; Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze health agents' perception of self-collecting of samples for HPV testing among women and the degree of agreement by the agents to incorporate this approach into their daily tasks. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to 127/191 health agents that participated in the EMA Project (Proyecto Evaluación Modalidad Autotoma) in the province of Jujuy, Argentina, in 2012-2013. The health agents with and without the experience of offering self-collected sampling expressed a high degree of agreement towards adoption of the strategy (78.7%), given its potential to prevent cervical cancer and its contribution to health care for the women under their coverage. However, the health agents identified the extra work and problems linking to the formal health system as the main barriers to offering this modality in the future. The study found that self-collecting of samples is a practice that can be adopted by health agents in the province of Jujuy, but that it should be accompanied by support measures from the formal health system.

  14. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet-superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed.

  15. Health and wellness programming in faith-based organizations: a description of a nationwide sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Melissa; Fallon, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Most of the U.S. population is affiliated with faith-based organizations (FBOs) and regularly attends services. Health and wellness activities (HWA) delivered through FBOs have great potential for reach, but the number of FBOs offering health programs and the characteristics of these programs are currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to better understand rates, characteristics, and factors influencing faith-based HWA across the United States. Faith leaders (N = 844) completed an online survey assessing faith leader demographics and health, FBO demographics (e.g., denomination, size, location, diversity), and details of HWA within their FBO. Respondents were primarily White (93%), male (72%), middle-aged (53.2 ± 12.1 years), and affiliated with Methodist (42.5%) or Lutheran (20.2%) denominations. Although most faith leaders report meeting physical activity recommendations (56.5%), most were overweight/obese (77.4%), did not meet fruit and vegetable recommendations (65.9%), and had been diagnosed with 1.25 ± 1.36 chronic diseases. Respondents reported offering 4.8 ± 3 HWA within their FBO over the past 12 months. Most common HWA included clubs/teams related to physical activity (54.8%), individual-level health counseling (54%), and providing health/wellness pamphlets. Leaders cited a lack of lay leadership (48.1%) and financial resources for staff time (47.8%) as the most common barriers to HWA. An increase in interest/awareness in health topics from FBO members was the most common facilitator for HWA (66.5%). Although faith-based HWA are prevalent nationally, types of HWA and the factors influencing HWA are dependent on FBO characteristics. Future faith-based interventions should consider existing capabilities and moderating factors for HWA.

  16. Site preparation effects on soil bulk density and pine seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Stransky

    1981-01-01

    Soil bulk density was sampled the first and third growing seasons after site preparation and pine planting on three clearcut pine-hardwood forest sites in eastern Texas. Bulk density was measured 10 cm below the surface of mineral soil using a surface moisture-density probe. Plots that had been KG-bladed and chopped had significanlty higher bulk density than those that...

  17. MCOCO: a computer program for seismic analysis of the HTGR core. Volume 2. Sample problem output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.W.

    1978-04-01

    Contained in this section is output for the sample problem from t = 1.0 to 1.2 seconds. It consists of one initial run (t = 1.0 to 1.03 seconds) and six restart runs (t = 1.03 to 1.06, 1.06 to 1.09, 1.09 to 1.12, 1.12 to 1.15, 1.15 to 1.18 and 1.18 to 1.2 seconds). Total output is included for only two runs (t = 1.0 to 1.03 initial run and 1.03 to 1.06 restart run). The output for the other five runs consist of only printout as a function of time. The print interval was 0.01 seconds. Also presented are plots of core and boundary motion for the sample problem. Plots are presented at t = 1.0, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06, 1.09, 1.1, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19 and 1.2 seconds.

  18. Designing a monitoring program to estimate estuarine survival of anadromous salmon smolts: simulating the effect of sample design on inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Jeremy D.; Gitelman, Alix I.; Clements, Shaun; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    A number of researchers have attempted to estimate salmonid smolt survival during outmigration through an estuary. However, it is currently unclear how the design of such studies influences the accuracy and precision of survival estimates. In this simulation study we consider four patterns of smolt survival probability in the estuary, and test the performance of several different sampling strategies for estimating estuarine survival assuming perfect detection. The four survival probability patterns each incorporate a systematic component (constant, linearly increasing, increasing and then decreasing, and two pulses) and a random component to reflect daily fluctuations in survival probability. Generally, spreading sampling effort (tagging) across the season resulted in more accurate estimates of survival. All sampling designs in this simulation tended to under-estimate the variation in the survival estimates because seasonal and daily variation in survival probability are not incorporated in the estimation procedure. This under-estimation results in poorer performance of estimates from larger samples. Thus, tagging more fish may not result in better estimates of survival if important components of variation are not accounted for. The results of our simulation incorporate survival probabilities and run distribution data from previous studies to help illustrate the tradeoffs among sampling strategies in terms of the number of tags needed and distribution of tagging effort. This information will assist researchers in developing improved monitoring programs and encourage discussion regarding issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of any telemetry-based monitoring plan. We believe implementation of an effective estuary survival monitoring program will strengthen the robustness of life cycle models used in recovery plans by providing missing data on where and how much mortality occurs in the riverine and estuarine portions of smolt migration. These data

  19. Evaluation of the imputation performance of the program IMPUTE in an admixed sample from Mexico City using several model designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithika S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We explored the imputation performance of the program IMPUTE in an admixed sample from Mexico City. The following issues were evaluated: (a the impact of different reference panels (HapMap vs. 1000 Genomes on imputation; (b potential differences in imputation performance between single-step vs. two-step (phasing and imputation approaches; (c the effect of different INFO score thresholds on imputation performance and (d imputation performance in common vs. rare markers. Methods The sample from Mexico City comprised 1,310 individuals genotyped with the Affymetrix 5.0 array. We randomly masked 5% of the markers directly genotyped on chromosome 12 (n = 1,046 and compared the imputed genotypes with the microarray genotype calls. Imputation was carried out with the program IMPUTE. The concordance rates between the imputed and observed genotypes were used as a measure of imputation accuracy and the proportion of non-missing genotypes as a measure of imputation efficacy. Results The single-step imputation approach produced slightly higher concordance rates than the two-step strategy (99.1% vs. 98.4% when using the HapMap phase II combined panel, but at the expense of a lower proportion of non-missing genotypes (85.5% vs. 90.1%. The 1,000 Genomes reference sample produced similar concordance rates to the HapMap phase II panel (98.4% for both datasets, using the two-step strategy. However, the 1000 Genomes reference sample increased substantially the proportion of non-missing genotypes (94.7% vs. 90.1%. Rare variants ( Conclusions The program IMPUTE had an excellent imputation performance for common alleles in an admixed sample from Mexico City, which has primarily Native American (62% and European (33% contributions. Genotype concordances were higher than 98.4% using all the imputation strategies, in spite of the fact that no Native American samples are present in the HapMap and 1000 Genomes reference panels. The best balance of

  20. Evaluating ethanol-based sample preservation to facilitate use of DNA barcoding in routine freshwater biomonitoring programs using benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Stein

    Full Text Available Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential to enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biomonitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. Using higher volumes or concentrations of ethanol, requirements for shorter holding times, or the need to include additional filtering may increase cost and logistical constraints to existing biomonitoring programs. To address this issue we evaluated the efficacy of various ethanol-based sample preservation methods at maintaining DNA integrity. We evaluated a series of methods that were minimally modified from typical field protocols in order to identify an approach that can be readily incorporated into existing monitoring programs. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from a minimally disturbed stream in southern California, USA and subjected to one of six preservation treatments. Ten individuals from five taxa were selected from each treatment and processed to produce DNA barcodes from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI. On average, we obtained successful COI sequences (i.e. either full or partial barcodes for between 93-99% of all specimens across all six treatments. As long as samples were initially preserved in 95% ethanol, successful sequencing of COI barcodes was not affected by a low dilution ratio of 2∶1, transfer to 70% ethanol, presence of abundant organic matter, or holding times of up to six months. Barcoding success varied by taxa, with Leptohyphidae (Ephemeroptera producing the lowest barcode success rate, most likely due to poor PCR primer efficiency. Differential barcoding success rates have the potential to introduce spurious results. However, routine preservation methods can largely be used without adverse effects on DNA integrity.

  1. 101-SY waste sample speed of sound/rheology testing for sonic probe program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, N.S.

    1994-07-25

    One problem faced in the clean-up operation at Hanford is that a number of radioactive waste storage tanks are experiencing a periodic buildup and release of potentially explosive gases. The best known example is Tank 241-SY-101 (commonly referred to as 101-SY) in which hydrogen gas periodically built up within the waste to the point that increased buoyancy caused a roll-over event, in which the gas was suddenly released in potentially explosive concentrations (if an ignition source were present). The sonic probe concept is to generate acoustic vibrations in the 101-SY tank waste at nominally 100 Hz, with sufficient amplitude to cause the controlled release of hydrogen bubbles trapped in the waste. The sonic probe may provide a potentially cost-effective alternative to large mixer pumps now used for hydrogen mitigation purposes. Two important parameters needed to determine sonic probe effectiveness and design are the speed of sound and yield stress of the tank waste. Tests to determine these parameters in a 240 ml sample of 101-SY waste (obtained near the tank bottom) were performed, and the results are reported.

  2. Sensitive and selective detection of trace copper in standard alloys, food and biological samples using a bulk optode based on N,N'-(4,4'-ethylene biphenyl) bis(3-methoxy salicylidine imine) as neutral carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvand, Majid; Lashkari, Zahra

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, an optical sensing film has been proposed for sensitive determination of copper (ІІ) ion in aqueous solutions. The copper sensing membrane was prepared by incorporating N,N'-(4,4'-ethylene biphenyl) bis(3-methoxy salicylidine imine) as ionophore in the plasticized PVC membrane containing bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS) as plasticizer. This proposed membrane works on the basis of a cation-exchange mechanism and shows a significant absorbance signal change on exposure to acetate buffer solution of pH 4.0 containing copper ion. The proposed sensing film displays a linear range of 0.01-32.0 μg mL(-1) with a limit of detection 0.008 μg mL(-1). Moreover, upon the introduction of a negatively charged lipophilic additive (oleic acid) into the membrane, the optode displayed enhanced sensitivity. In addition, satisfactory analytical sensing characteristics for determining copper (II) ion were obtained in terms of the selectivity, stability and reproducibility. The response time of the optode was less than 3 min, depending on the concentration of Cu(ІІ) ions. The optode membrane has been applied to determine Cu(II) in various real samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  4. Bulk fields with brane terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguila, F. del [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Andaluz de Fisica de Particulas Elementales (CAFPE), Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Perez-Victoria, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Santiago, J. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    In theories with branes, bulk fields get in general divergent corrections localized on these defects. Hence, the corresponding brane terms are renormalized and should be included in the effective theory from the very beginning. We review the phenomenology associated to brane kinetic terms for different spins and backgrounds, and point out that renormalization is required already at the classical level. (orig.)

  5. Bias due to sample selection in propensity score matching for a supportive housing program evaluation in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Little is known about influences of sample selection on estimation in propensity score matching. The purpose of the study was to assess potential selection bias using one-to-one greedy matching versus optimal full matching as part of an evaluation of supportive housing in New York City (NYC. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Data came from administrative data for 2 groups of applicants who were eligible for an NYC supportive housing program in 2007-09, including chronically homeless adults with a substance use disorder and young adults aging out of foster care. We evaluated the 2 matching methods in their ability to balance covariates and represent the original population, and in how those methods affected outcomes related to Medicaid expenditures. RESULTS: In the population with a substance use disorder, only optimal full matching performed well in balancing covariates, whereas both methods created representative populations. In the young adult population, both methods balanced covariates effectively, but only optimal full matching created representative populations. In the young adult population, the impact of the program on Medicaid expenditures was attenuated when one-to-one greedy matching was used, compared with optimal full matching. CONCLUSION: Given covariate balancing with both methods, attenuated program impacts in the young adult population indicated that one-to-one greedy matching introduced selection bias.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans detected in bivalve samples from the NOAA National Status and Trends Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; Sericano, José L; Defreitas, Debra A; Lauenstein, Gunnar G

    2014-04-30

    Bivalve samples from 142 sites were analyzed to determine the concentration and toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins and furans (D/F) as part of the NOAA National Status and Trends Program. The total concentration of 17 D/F ranged from not detected to 203 pg/g wet weight of tissue. Octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, OCDD, had a concentration range from not detected to 189 pg/g and a mean concentration of 8.65 pg/g. OCDD was the dominant D/F compound detected and accounted for, on average, over 70% of the total D/F concentration. The TEQ (compared to 2,3,7,8-TCDD) ranged from 0.12 to 7.32 pg TEQ/g. The TEQ for 39% of the bivalves analyzed were below 0.238 pg TEQ/g. TEQ above human consumption advisory concentration of 1.2 pg TEQ/g were found in 9.3% of the samples analyzed. TEQ for D/F indicate very limited human health concerns from consumption of bivalves at most of the locations sampled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  8. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2009 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2009 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2009 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  9. Classifying the Progression of Ductal Carcinoma from Single-Cell Sampled Data via Integer Linear Programming: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Daniele; Shackney, Stanley E; Schaffer, Alejandro A; Schwartz, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) is a precursor lesion of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. Investigating its temporal progression could provide fundamental new insights for the development of better diagnostic tools to predict which cases of DCIS will progress to IDC. We investigate the problem of reconstructing a plausible progression from single-cell sampled data of an individual with synchronous DCIS and IDC. Specifically, by using a number of assumptions derived from the observation of cellular atypia occurring in IDC, we design a possible predictive model using integer linear programming (ILP). Computational experiments carried out on a preexisting data set of 13 patients with simultaneous DCIS and IDC show that the corresponding predicted progression models are classifiable into categories having specific evolutionary characteristics. The approach provides new insights into mechanisms of clonal progression in breast cancers and helps illustrate the power of the ILP approach for similar problems in reconstructing tumor evolution scenarios under complex sets of constraints.

  10. Calibration exercise for the Community Aquatic Monitoring Program (CAMP) nutrient analyses: establishing variability between filtered and unfiltered water samples and two analytical laboratories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thériault, M.-H; Courtenay, S.C

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Community Aquatic Monitoring Program (CAMP) unfiltered water samples were collected between 2006 and 2008 and analyzed for dissolved inorganic nutrients (i.e., nitrate + nitrite (NO3 + NO2...

  11. Effects of a group-focused cognitive behavioral health education program on cigarette smoking in a sample of Nigerian prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyechi, Kay C N; Eseadi, Chiedu; Umoke, Prince C I; Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, Amaka B; Otu, Mkpoikanke S; Obidoa, Jaachimma C; Agu, Fedinand U; Nwaubani, Okechukwu O; Utoh-Ofong, Anthonia N; Ncheke, Chijioke D; Ugwuozor, Felix O

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is a learned habit that has an impact on the psychological and biochemical health of individuals. It is the leading preventable cause of chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a group-focused cognitive behavioral health education program (GCBHEP) on cigarette smoking in a sample of Nigerian prisoners. The study used a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Twenty inmates were identified through self-reporting, 1-to-1 counseling, and observation. The treatment group took part in a GCBHEP for 10 weeks, while the control group received 10 weeks' conventional counseling. After the intervention program, both the treatment and control groups were evaluated. The repeated measures analysis of variance was used for data analysis and partial η was also used as a measure of effect size. The findings showed that the GCBHEP had a strong effect on cigarette-smoking habits among the inmates in the treatment group compared with those in the control group. The effect of the GCBHEP by age was moderate, and modest by educational qualification. Group-focused cognitive behavioral health education is effective in breaking the habit of cigarette smoking among Nigerian prisoners. Therefore, future researchers are encouraged to adopt this approach in helping individuals with a smoking problem and other drug-abuse behaviors in Nigerian prisons.

  12. South Atlantic Margin Processes and Links with Onshore Evolution: Overview of the German Priority Program SAMPLE (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2009 the SAMPLE program (www.spp-sample.de) provides a platform for research into the causes and effects of continental breakup and the evolution of passive margins. SAMPLE encompasses 28 projects from 13 German institutions and many international partnerships. The 6-year program will run through 2015. At the core of the program are observational studies that are interlinked by modelling projects examining the interplay of deep mantle dynamics, lithospheric stress fields, pre-rift fabric and melt-weaking on localizing rifting. Geophysics teams collect and integrate existing data from wide-angle seismic profiles, reprocessed multichannel seismics, as well as gravity, magnetics and heat-flow studies to construct self-consistent lithospheric-scale 3-D models along the conjugate margins. Key interests are variations in margin architecture, distribution of magmatic features and the evolution of sedimentary basins (subsidence and thermal histories). An exciting new contribution of SAMPLE geophysics is a linked set of seismic, seismologic and magnetotelluric experiments along the Walvis Ridge, including onshore NW Namibia and the Tristan da Cunha hotspot. In the deep mantle, we examine evidence from global seismic tomography for dramatic low seismic-velocity regions near the core-mantle boundary beneath southern Africa and their implications for dynamics in the deep Earth and the thermo-chemical nature of plumes. Petrologic studies focus on near-primary mantle melts represented by Mg-rich mafic dikes. Projects address the origin of magmas and crust-mantle interaction, and the environmental impact of mega-scale volcanism during breakup. Thermobarometry results from the African margin reveal a N-to-S decrease in mantle potential temperatures from 1520°C (N) to 1380° (S), which supports a thermal plume origin for excessive melt production in the north. Thermochronology data from both conjugate margins reveal complex and puzzling patterns in the denudation history

  13. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  14. Extraction, -scrub, -strip test results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 10 characterization results were previously reported.ii,iii An Extraction, -Scrub, -Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a sample of the NGS Blend solvent currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 110. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This is better than the predicted value of 39.8 from a recently created D(Cs) model.

  15. Analytical results for minicipal biosolids samples from a monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.) 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.; Berry, C.J.; Adams, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colo., has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colo., U.S.A. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program was recently extended through the end of 2010 and is now completed. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream-bed sediment. Streams at the site are dry most of the year, so samples of stream-bed sediment deposited after rain were used to indicate surface-water runoff effects. This report summarizes analytical results for the biosolids samples collected at the Metro District wastewater treatment plant in Denver and analyzed for 2010. In general, the objective of each component of the study was to determine whether concentrations of nine trace elements ("priority analytes") (1) were higher than regulatory limits, (2) were increasing with time, or (3) were significantly higher in biosolids-applied areas than in a similar farmed area where biosolids were not applied (background). Previous analytical results indicate that the elemental composition of biosolids from the Denver plant was consistent during 1999-2009, and this consistency continues with the samples for 2010. Total concentrations of regulated trace elements remain consistently lower than the regulatory limits for the entire monitoring period. Concentrations of none of the priority analytes appear to have increased during the 12 years

  16. Analytical results for municipal biosolids samples from a monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.), 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.; Berry, C.J.; Adams, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver, a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colo., has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colo., U.S.A. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the Survey began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through the end of 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream-bed sediment. Streams at the site are dry most of the year, so samples of stream-bed sediment deposited after rain were used to indicate surface-water effects. This report presents analytical results for the biosolids samples collected at the Metro District wastewater treatment plant in Denver and analyzed for 2009. In general, the objective of each component of the study was to determine whether concentrations of nine trace elements ('priority analytes') (1) were higher than regulatory limits, (2) were increasing with time, or (3) were significantly higher in biosolids-applied areas than in a similar farmed area where biosolids were not applied. Previous analytical results indicate that the elemental composition of biosolids from the Denver plant was consistent during 1999-2008, and this consistency continues with the samples for 2009. Total concentrations of regulated trace elements remain consistently lower than the regulatory limits for the entire monitoring period. Concentrations of none of the priority analytes appear to have increased during the 11 years of this study.

  17. The Influence of Religious Awareness Program in Scaling down Death Anxiety among Children Sample in Late Childhood Stage; 9-12 Years Old in Al Shobak Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohtadi, Reham Mohammad; Al-Msubheen, Moonerh Mheel

    2017-01-01

    This study drives at identifying the influence of religious awareness program in scaling down the death anxiety among sample consisted of (50) students; (30) males and (20) females, at the late childhood stage. The sample distributed randomly into (25) students representing main group and (25) students as experimental group. Religious Awareness…

  18. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  19. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    OpenAIRE

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-01-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system...

  20. Bulk Restoration for SDN-Based Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bulk restoration scheme for software defined networking- (SDN- based transport network. To enhance the network survivability and improve the throughput, we allow disrupted flows to be recovered synchronously in dynamic order. In addition backup paths are scheduled globally by applying the principles of load balance. We model the bulk restoration problem using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation. Then, a heuristic algorithm is devised. The proposed algorithm is verified by simulation and the results are analyzed comparing with sequential restoration schemes.

  1. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2010-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2011 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2011 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2011 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  2. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2010 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2010 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2010 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  3. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding

  4. Prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Riekerink, Richard G M; Barkema, Herman W; Veenstra, Stefan; Poole, Doris E; Dingwell, Randy T; Keefe, Gregory P

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) estimate the herd prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in bulk milk from Prince Edward Island (PEI) dairy farms, 2) determine the association between bulk milk culture results and mean bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC), and 3) investigate the agreement of repeated bulk milk cultures. Three consecutive bulk milk samples were obtained at weekly intervals from all 258 PEI dairy herds and were cultured using routine laboratory methods. Cumulative prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Mycoplasma spp. (M. bovis and M. alkalescens) was 74%, 1.6%, and 1.9%, respectively. Bulk milk somatic cell count of Staph. aureus-positive herds was higher than that of negative herds. Agreement for Staph. aureus isolation between 3 consecutive tests was moderate (kappa = 0.46). Mycoplasma bovis and M. alkalescens in bulk milk are being reported for the 1st time in PEI ever and in Canada since 1972.

  5. Estimating forest canopy bulk density using six indirect methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Joe Scott; Kathy Gray; James Reardon

    2005-01-01

    Canopy bulk density (CBD) is an important crown characteristic needed to predict crown fire spread, yet it is difficult to measure in the field. Presented here is a comprehensive research effort to evaluate six indirect sampling techniques for estimating CBD. As reference data, detailed crown fuel biomass measurements were taken on each tree within fixed-area plots...

  6. Estimating Soil Bulk Density and Total Nitrogen from Catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    This is based on the fact that. BD and TN are .... reference the image and as training samples for supervised classification of the Landsat image 30 m x .... 2 change for soil bulk density estimation in the Mai-Negus catchment, northern Ethiopia. Parameter. Coefficient. Standard error. Significance level. R2 change. Constant.

  7. Optimizing bulk milk dioxin monitoring based on costs and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano-Alcoser, V H; Velthuis, A G J; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Hoogenboom, L A P; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2013-07-01

    Dioxins are environmental pollutants, potentially present in milk products, which have negative consequences for human health and for the firms and farms involved in the dairy chain. Dioxin monitoring in feed and food has been implemented to detect their presence and estimate their levels in food chains. However, the costs and effectiveness of such programs have not been evaluated. In this study, the costs and effectiveness of bulk milk dioxin monitoring in milk trucks were estimated to optimize the sampling and pooling monitoring strategies aimed at detecting at least 1 contaminated dairy farm out of 20,000 at a target dioxin concentration level. Incidents of different proportions, in terms of the number of contaminated farms, and concentrations were simulated. A combined testing strategy, consisting of screening and confirmatory methods, was assumed as well as testing of pooled samples. Two optimization models were built using linear programming. The first model aimed to minimize monitoring costs subject to a minimum required effectiveness of finding an incident, whereas the second model aimed to maximize the effectiveness for a given monitoring budget. Our results show that a high level of effectiveness is possible, but at high costs. Given specific assumptions, monitoring with 95% effectiveness to detect an incident of 1 contaminated farm at a dioxin concentration of 2 pg of toxic equivalents/g of fat [European Commission's (EC) action level] costs €2.6 million per month. At the same level of effectiveness, a 73% cost reduction is possible when aiming to detect an incident where 2 farms are contaminated at a dioxin concentration of 3 pg of toxic equivalents/g of fat (EC maximum level). With a fixed budget of €40,000 per month, the probability of detecting an incident with a single contaminated farm at a dioxin concentration equal to the EC action level is 4.4%. This probability almost doubled (8.0%) when aiming to detect the same incident but with a dioxin

  8. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  9. Numerical modelling of iron-pnictide bulk superconductor magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, Mark D.; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki; Weiss, Jeremy D.; Hellstrom, Eric E.

    2017-10-01

    Iron-based superconductors exhibit a number of properties attractive for applications, including low anisotropy, high upper critical magnetic fields (H c2) in excess of 90 T and intrinsic critical current densities above 1 MA cm-2 (0 T, 4.2 K). It was shown recently that bulk iron-pnictide superconducting magnets capable of trapping over 1 T (5 K) and 0.5 T (20 K) can be fabricated with fine-grain polycrystalline Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Ba122). These Ba122 magnets were processed by a scalable, versatile and low-cost method using common industrial ceramic processing techniques. In this paper, a standard numerical modelling technique, based on a 2D axisymmetric finite-element model implementing the H -formulation, is used to investigate the magnetisation properties of such iron-pnictide bulk superconductors. Using the measured J c(B, T) characteristics of a small specimen taken from a bulk Ba122 sample, experimentally measured trapped fields are reproduced well for a single bulk, as well as a stack of bulks. Additionally, the influence of the geometric dimensions (thickness and diameter) on the trapped field is analysed, with a view of fabricating larger samples to increase the magnetic field available from such trapped field magnets. It is shown that, with current state-of-the-art superconducting properties, surface trapped fields >2 T could readily be achieved at 5 K (and >1 T at 20 K) with a sample of diameter 50 mm. Finally, an aspect ratio of between 1 and 1.5 for R/H (radius/thickness) would be an appropriate compromise between the accessible, surface trapped field and volume of superconducting material for bulk Ba122 magnets.

  10. Analytical Results for Municipal Biosolids Samples from a Monitoring Program near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.), 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.; Berry, C.J.; Adams, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Since late 1993, the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.). In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring ground water at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program recently has been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock ground water, and streambed sediment. Streams at the site are dry most of the year, so samples of streambed sediment deposited after rain were used to indicate surface-water effects. This report will present only analytical results for the biosolids samples collected at the Metro District wastewater treatment plant in Denver and analyzed during 2007. We have presented earlier a compilation of analytical results for the biosolids samples collected and analyzed for 1999 through 2006. More information about the other monitoring components is presented elsewhere in the literature. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity. Nitrogen and chromium also were priority parameters for ground water and sediment components. In general, the objective of each component of the study was to determine whether concentrations of priority parameters (1

  11. Effectiveness of the Friends for Life Program in Portuguese Schools: Study with a Sample of Highly Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa; Barros, Luísa; Barrett, P.

    2014-01-01

    The FRIENDS for Life program is a cognitive-behavioral group program that targets anxiety in children. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the Portuguese version of the FRIENDS for Life Program, which was implemented in schools to reduce anxiety problems in a group of highly anxious children. The study used a…

  12. FAA bulk technology overview for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakoff, Alan K.

    1993-04-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the leading federal agency responsible for encouraging and fostering the development of a safe, secure, and efficient national airspace system (NAS). Our goal is to establish an operating environment that ensures a threat-free system to preclude acts of terrorism and fatalities. As part of the process to meet this goal, our research and development activities continually search for technologies to ensure aviation security. Recent acts of terrorism against the aviation community have demonstrated an increasing level of sophistication in the design and deployment of explosive devices. In order to prevent the introduction of explosives onto an aircraft they must be detected prior to passenger and baggage loading. The Bulk Detection program is one method of developing a number of technologies that 'see' into and 'alarm' on suspect baggage. These detection devices must be capable of providing this serve with a confidence commensurate with the state-of-the- art available today. This program utilizes the expertise of government agencies, universities and industries working toward constructing their plans and executing their designs to produce the best available equipment.

  13. Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3-4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points-baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study.

  14. A computer program integrating a multichannel analyzer with gamma analysis for the estimation of {sup 226} Ra concentration in soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J. E.

    1992-08-01

    A new hardware/software system has been implemented using the existing three-regions-of-interest method for determining the concentration of {sup 226}Ra in soil samples for the Pollutant Assessment Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consisting of a personal computer containing a multichannel analyzer, the system utilizes a new program combining the multichannel analyzer with a program analyzing gamma-radiation spectra for {sup 226}Ra concentrations. This program uses a menu interface to minimize and simplify the tasks of system operation.

  15. A computer program integrating a multichannel analyzer with gamma analysis for the estimation of sup 226 Ra concentration in soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J. E.

    1992-08-01

    A new hardware/software system has been implemented using the existing three-regions-of-interest method for determining the concentration of {sup 226}Ra in soil samples for the Pollutant Assessment Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consisting of a personal computer containing a multichannel analyzer, the system utilizes a new program combining the multichannel analyzer with a program analyzing gamma-radiation spectra for {sup 226}Ra concentrations. This program uses a menu interface to minimize and simplify the tasks of system operation.

  16. Simple BASIC program for calculating the cervicovaginal FNP and for estimating the sample size of the number of cervicovaginal smears to be rescreened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, J W; Fung, C H

    1999-01-01

    To guide cytotechnologists and pathologists in calculating the false negative proportion, or rate, and the number of Papanicolaou smears to be reevaluated for a meaningful assessment of screening performance, a computer program written in BASIC was prepared, based on several recent publications in the field of cytopathology. A complete program listing and sample runs to help users be cognizant of the necessary inputs to run the program. The output from the program gives the results of the various calculations. Since the tedious manual calculations are handled by the computer program, it is more likely for those involved in the interpretation of Papanicolaou smears to follow the approaches suggested by experts in these two areas.

  17. Composition and enzymatic activity in bulk milk from dairy farms with conventional or robotic milking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, Monika; Lundh, Åse; Vries, de Ruben; Sjaunja, Kerstin Svennersten

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the studies reported in this research communication was to investigate differences in composition and enzymatic activities in bulk milk samples provided from Swedish dairy farms with different management systems, i.e. automated (AMS) and conventional milking systems (CMS). A bulk

  18. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  19. Tip-enhanced bulk photovoltaic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, B.; Podivilov, E.

    2017-10-01

    Using the conventional macroscopic description of the bulk photovoltaic effect we analyze the light-induced currents and electric fields arising in the optical configuration with a continuous bottom electrode and a small circular top electrode. This scheme is relevant to recent experiments on the tip-enhanced photovoltaic effect in ferroelectrics. It is shown that a light-induced electric field remains nonzero inside the sample even in the short-circuit regime. Moreover, it is enhanced compared to the photovoltaic field in a large area and strongly enhanced near the top electrode. A field-assisted collection of charge carriers from the illuminated area produces a strong local enhancement of the current density near the top electrode. The tip-enhanced electric field is typically parallel to the photovoltaic current. It is sufficient to repolarize the crystal near the top electrode. The effect of the tip enhancement on the light-current transformation efficiency is considered, and predictions for the tip radius and sample thickness dependencies of the total light-induced current are made.

  20. Comparison of different models for predicting soil bulk density. Case study - Slovakian agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovníková, Jarmila; Širáň, Miloš; Houšková, Beata; Pálka, Boris; Jones, Arwyn

    2017-10-01

    Soil bulk density is one of the main direct indicators of soil health, and is an important aspect of models for determining agroecosystem services potential. By way of applying multi-regression methods, we have created a distributed prediction of soil bulk density used subsequently for topsoil carbon stock estimation. The soil data used for this study were from the Slovakian partial monitoring system-soil database. In our work, two models of soil bulk density in an equilibrium state, with different combinations of input parameters (soil particle size distribution and soil organic carbon content in %), have been created, and subsequently validated using a data set from 15 principal sampling sites of Slovakian partial monitoring system-soil, that were different from those used to generate the bulk density equations. We have made a comparison of measured bulk density data and data calculated by the pedotransfer equations against soil bulk density calculated according to equations recommended by Joint Research Centre Sustainable Resources for Europe. The differences between measured soil bulk density and the model values vary from -0.144 to 0.135 g cm-3 in the verification data set. Furthermore, all models based on pedotransfer functions give moderately lower values. The soil bulk density model was then applied to generate a first approximation of soil bulk density map for Slovakia using texture information from 17 523 sampling sites, and was subsequently utilised for topsoil organic carbon estimation.

  1. Effectiveness of a School-Based Yoga Program on Adolescent Mental Health, Stress Coping Strategies, and Attitudes toward Violence: Findings from a High-Risk Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jennifer L.; Bose, Bidyut; Schrobenhauser-Clonan, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a universal yoga-based social-emotional wellness promotion program, Transformative Life Skills, on indicators of adolescent emotional distress, prosocial behavior, and attitudes toward violence in a high-risk sample. Participants included 49 students attending an alternative education school in an…

  2. The Effect of Bulk Depth and Irradiation Time on the Surface Hardness and Degree of Cure of Bulk-Fill Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahat F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: For many years, application of the composite restoration with a thickness less than 2 mm for achieving the minimum polymerization contraction and stress has been accepted as a principle. But through the recent development in dental material a group of resin based composites (RBCs called Bulk Fill is introduced whose producers claim the possibility of achieving a good restoration in bulks with depths of 4 or even 5 mm. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of irradiation times and bulk depths on the degree of cure (DC of a bulk fill composite and compare it with the universal type. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on two groups of dental RBCs including Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill and Tetric N Ceram Universal. The composite samples were prepared in Teflon moulds with a diameter of 5 mm and height of 2, 4 and 6 mm. Then, half of the samples in each depth were cured from the upper side of the mould for 20s by LED light curing unit. The irradiation time for other specimens was 40s. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water, the microhardness of the top and bottom of the samples was measured using a Future Tech (Japan- Model FM 700 Vickers hardness testing machine. Data were analyzed statistically using the one and multi way ANOVAand Tukey’s test (p = 0.050. Results: The DC of Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill in defined irradiation time and bulk depth was significantly more than the universal type (p < 0.001. Also, the DC of both composites studied was significantly (p < 0.001 reduced by increasing the bulk depths. Increasing the curing time from 20 to 40 seconds had a marginally significant effect (p ≤ 0.040 on the DC of both bulk fill and universal studied RBC samples. Conclusions: The DC of the investigated bulk fill composite was better than the universal type in all the irradiation times and bulk depths. The studied universal and bulk fill RBCs had an appropriate DC at the 2 and 4 mm bulk depths respectively and

  3. Mental rotation test performance in four cross-cultural samples (n = 3367): overall sex differences and the role of academic program in performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Takahira, Sayuri; Takeuchi, Yoshiaki; Jordan, Kirsten

    2006-10-01

    Two meta-analyses (Linn and Petersen, 1985; Voyer et al., 1995) discuss variables that affect mental rotation performance but they do not mention a potentially important variable, the Academic Program in which students are enrolled. Sex differences in brain size have been related to sex differences in spatial performance (e.g., Falk et al., 1999) and thus it is important to know whether mental rotation performance shows a significant interaction between Sex and Academic Program. To put our understanding of the Academic Program effect on a firmer empirical footing, we conducted a large scale multicultural study, with samples from Canada, Germany and Japan, using identical test procedures in all studies. Significant main effects for Sex and Academic Program were found in all four studies, with large effect sizes for Sex and medium to large effect sizes for Academic Program (based on Cohen's d). No significant interactions between these variables were found in the four samples. Our demonstration of a reliable Academic Program effect has clear and important pragmatic implications for a broad range of work on spatial ability and its interpretation.

  4. A pilot study of community-based self-sampling for HPV testing among non-attenders of cervical cancer screening programs in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskow, Bari; Figueroa, Ruben; Alfaro, Karla M; Scarinci, Isabel C; Conlisk, Elizabeth; Maza, Mauricio; Chang, Judy C; Cremer, Miriam

    2017-08-01

    To establish the feasibility and acceptability of home-based HPV self-sampling among women who did not attend screening appointments in rural El Salvador. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected from May 2015 to January 2016 among 60 women aged 30-59 years who were not pregnant, provided informed consent, had not been screened in 2 years, had no history of pre-cancer treatment, and did not attend a scheduled HPV screening. Participants completed questionnaires and received educational information before being given an opportunity to self-sample with the Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA Test. Self-sampling was accepted by 41 (68%) participants. Almost all women chose to self-sample because the process was easy (40/41, 98%), could be performed at home (40/41, 98%), and saved time (38/41, 93%), and because they felt less embarrassed (33/41, 80%). The most common reason for declining the test was not wanting to be screened (8/19, 42%). The prevalence of high-risk HPV types among women who accepted self-sampling was 17% (7/41). For most women, community-based self-sampling was an acceptable way to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. In low-resource countries, incorporating community-based self-sampling into screening programs might improve coverage of high-risk women. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  5. Effect of layer thickness on the elution of bulk-fill composite components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmund, Lena; Reichl, Franz-Xaver; Hickel, Reinhard; Styllou, Panorea; Styllou, Marianthi; Kehe, Kai; Yang, Yang; Högg, Christof

    2017-01-01

    An increment layering technique in a thickness of 2mm or less has been the standard to sufficiently convert (co)monomers. Bulk fill resin composites were developed to accelerate the restoration process by enabling up to 4mm thick increments to be cured in a single step. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of layer thickness on the elution of components from bulk fill composites. The composites ELS Bulk fill, SDR Bulk fill and Venus Bulkfill were polymerized according to the instruction of the manufacturers. For each composite three groups with four samples each (n=4) were prepared: (1) samples with a layer thickness of 2mm; (2) samples with a layer thickness of 4mm and (3) samples with a layer thickness of 6mm. The samples were eluted in methanol and water for 24h and 7 d. The eluates were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 11 different elutable substances have been identified from the investigated composites. Following methacrylates showed an increase of elution at a higher layer thickness: TEGDMA (SDR Bulk fill, Venus Bulk fill), EGDMA (Venus Bulk fill). There was no significant difference in the elution of HEMA regarding the layer thickness. The highest concentration of TEGDMA was 146μg/mL for SDR Bulk fill at a layer thickness of 6mm after 7 d in water. The highest HEMA concentration measured at 108μg/mL was detected in the methanol eluate of Venus Bulk fill after 7 d with a layer thickness of 6mm. A layer thickness of 4mm or more can lead to an increased elution of some bulk fill components, compared to the elution at a layer thickness of 2mm. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Latent homeless risk profiles of a national sample of homeless veterans and their relation to program referral and admission patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsai, Jack; Kasprow, Wesley J; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    ...) homeless service programs. We examined data from the VA's new Homeless Operations Management and Evaluation System on 120,852 veterans from 142 sites nationally in 2011 and 2012 using latent class analyses based on 9 homeless risk factors...

  7. Sample application to test site No. 1, Kenedy Co. [Offset well information, drilling fluids program, cost estimates, and data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podio, A.L.; Gray, K.E.; Isokrari, O.F.; Knapp, R.M.; Silberberg, I.H.; Thompson, T.W.

    1976-01-01

    In order to satisfy the objective of outlining the preliminary plan and schedules as well as obtaining representative costs for drilling a geopressured geothermal well the guidelines have been applied to one of the possible test sites identified by the Resource Assessment Phase I of the project. The specific site is the Armstrong lease in the Candelaria Field in Kenedy County, Texas. Offset well information including bit records, drilling fluid programs, formation pressure encountered and casing programs for the Armstrong No. 20 and No. 22 wells are presented. Based on this information a preliminary drilling program has been prepared. Well completion and production considerations were taken into account in the preparation of the drilling program. A brief description of drilling operations is also included to clarify the terminology used.

  8. Elution of monomer from different bulk fill dental composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cebe, Fatma; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Arpag, Osman Fatih; Ozturk, Bora

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the elution of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA, and Bis-EMA monomers from six bulk fill composite resins over four different time periods, using HPLC. Six different composite resin materials were used in the present study: Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), X-tra Fill (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany), Sonic Fill (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE Dental Product, St. Paul, MN), SDR (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), EQUIA (GC America INC, Alsip, IL). The samples (4mm thickness, 5mm diameter) were prepared and polymerized for 20s with a light emitted diode unit. After fabrication, each sample was immediately immersed in 75wt% ethanol/water solution used as extraction fluid and stored in the amber colored bottles at room temperature. Ethanol/water samples were taken (0.5mL) at predefined time intervals:10m (T1), 1h (T2), 24h (T3) and 30 days (T4). These samples were analyzed by HPLC. The obtained data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD at significance level of presins in all time periods and the amount of eluted monomers was increased with time. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  10. Size effects on the fatigue behavior of bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. Y.; Liaw, P. K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Inoue, A.

    2011-12-01

    Size effects on bending fatigue characteristics are investigated on Zr-based bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs). The fatigue lifetimes and endurance limits of the large-size samples are greater than those of the small-size samples. The results suggest that although a BMG exhibits good ductility due to the formation of multiple shear bands when its size decreases, the fatigue resistance of BMGs might degrade when the specimen size becomes smaller. The current study finds that small-size BMG samples under bending fatigue could fail in the flexural or fracture mode.

  11. Xerophilic mycopopulations of teas in bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available d.o.o., Novi Sad AU Krunić Vesna J. AF EKOLd.o.o., Novi Sad KW teas % mould contamination % thermal treatment KR nema Other the water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world today. They are used for ages, in the beginning as refreshing drinks, and later more for their healing properties. Teas have been demonstrated to show antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Considering that the teas, during the production, are not treated with any temperature, there is high risk for contamination with different type of microorganisms, especially with moulds. Moulds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes and under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, moulds grow on many commodities including cereals, oil seeds, nuts, herbs and spices. Most of them are potential producers of mycotoxins which present a real hazard to human health. The aim of this work was to investigate total mould count and to identify moulds isolated from teas in bulk, than from teas treated with hot, sterile, distilled water and from the tea filtrates. Tested teas were peppermint, sage, yarrow, black tea, bearberry, lemon balm, mixture of teas from Zlatibor. In teas in balk was observed high contamination with different kinds of moulds (1.84-4.55 cfu/g, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. lovaniensis, A niger, A. phoenicus, A. repens, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The most frequent were species from Aspergillus and Eurotium genera. Thermal treatment with hot, sterile, distilled water reduced the number of fungal colonies. Aspergillus awamori was the most resistant and appeared in six samples of filtrates of tea, Aspergillus niger in one sample and Penicillium chrysogenum in one sample.

  12. Development of Low Density CaMg-A1-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senkov, O. N; Scott, J. M; Miracle, D. B

    2006-01-01

    Low density Ca-Mg-Al-based bulk metallic glasses containing additionally Cu and Zn, were produced by a copper mold casting method as wedge-shaped samples with thicknesses varying from 0.5 mm to 10 rom...

  13. Mechanical Properties and Deformation Behavior of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Churyumov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Metallic glasses demonstrate unique properties, including large elastic limit and high strength, which make them attractive for practical applications. Unlike crystalline alloys, metallic glasses, in general, do not exhibit a strain hardening effect, while plastic deformation at room temperature is localized in narrow shear bands. Room-temperature mechanical properties and deformation behavior of bulk metallic glassy samples and the crystal-glassy composites are reviewed in the present paper.

  14. Mechanical Properties and Deformation Behavior of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Yu. Churyumov; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Larissa V. Louzguina-Luzgina

    2012-01-01

    Metallic glasses demonstrate unique properties, including large elastic limit and high strength, which make them attractive for practical applications. Unlike crystalline alloys, metallic glasses, in general, do not exhibit a strain hardening effect, while plastic deformation at room temperature is localized in narrow shear bands. Room-temperature mechanical properties and deformation behavior of bulk metallic glassy samples and the crystal-glassy composites are reviewed in the present paper.

  15. Isentropic Bulk Modulus: Development of a Federal Test Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    bulk modulus space from synthetic iso -paraffinic fuels to petroleum-based diesel fuels. The test fuels are identified in Table 1. A testing order and...13000 100 14000 100 15000 100 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 7 3.3 ROUND ROBIN PROCEDURE The following notes were provided to the participating...2 Table A-1. Sample 6065 at 35 °C Density psi 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 Avg g/cm3

  16. TNT Equivalency of Bulk Nitrocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Whien Dato Enlotod) &,1W SUMMARY Nitrocellulose, 13.157 nitrogen MIL-N-244A Grade C (Lot number RAD78F0015027) was detonated in configurations...weight factored out, the calculated TNT equivalencies were tabularized and plotted as functions of sample scaled distance. TEST RESULTS Data sheets for

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in American Samoa from Water Samples collected since 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  18. Stress, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems in a Sample of Diversion Program Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency,…

  19. Principles in sampling design, lessons, and recommendations from a multi-year, multi-port surveillance program in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly-introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay), and designed an ada...

  20. 77 FR 39895 - New Analytic Methods and Sampling Procedures for the United States National Residue Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Residue Program for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA... meat, poultry, and egg products for animal drug residues, pesticides, and environmental contaminants in...- delivered items: Send to U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), FSIS, Docket Clerk, Patriots Plaza 3, 1400...

  1. Parent Education Programs as a Psychiatric Approach to Children with Conduct Disorder: An Evaluation through Two Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Arkan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a category to describe the behaviors which have an adverse affect on the individual, family or society, violate the basic rights of other people and ignore the age-appropriate social norms and rules. Parental behaviors should be shaped as well as those of the children in order for conduct disorder to be treated. The reason for this is that parental attitudes play a key role in emergence of anti-social behaviors among children. Therefore, parent programs have been undertaken for the last thirty years. It has been proved that parent programs are effective in children with conduct disorder who display highly disruptive behaviors. The two best parent programs implemented on the parents of children diagnosed with conduct disorder are Triple P and Incredible Years which cooperate with families and the society, reduce the risk factors, support the protective factors, have a multi-disciplinary approach (psychiatrist, psychologist, nurse, child development and educationalist, social service specialist, psychological consultant, teacher, etc., having high evidence standards, use randomized controlled studies and yield long-term results. For that reason, this literature review was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of these two programs, to determine the differences, what is known about the issue.

  2. Analysis of Tank 38H (HTF-38-14-150, 151) and Tank 43H (HTF- 43-14-152, 53) Surface and Subsurface Supernatant Samples in Support of Enrichment Control, Corrosion Control and Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation Potential Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-14

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 38H and 43H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program and Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation Potential in the Evaporator.

  3. MARCO POLO: A Near Earth Object Sample Return Mission in the ESA program Cosmic Vision 2015-2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, Elisabetta; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawaguchi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.

    2009-09-01

    Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near Earth Object. In October 2007 this mission passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 context. The primary objectives of this mission is to visit a primitive NEO, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the planets. This will allow us to improve our knowledge of the processes which governed the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, and possibly of life on Earth.

  4. Probing bulk physics in the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall effect using the Corbino geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Benjamin; Bennaceur, Keyan; Bilodeau, Simon; Gaucher, Samuel; Lilly, Michael; Reno, John; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Reulet, Bertrand; Gervais, Guillaume

    We present two- and four-point Corbino geometry transport measurements in the second Landau level in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. By avoiding edge transport, we are able to directly probe the physics of the bulk quasiparticles in fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states including 5/2. Our highest-quality sample shows stripe and bubble phases in high Landau levels, and most importantly well-resolved FQH minima in the second Landau level. We report Arrhenius-type fits to the activated conductance, and find that σ0 agrees well with theory and existing Hall geometry data in the first Landau level, but not in the second Landau level. We will discuss the advantages the Corbino geometry could bring to various experiments designed to detect the non-Abelian entropy at 5/2, and our progress towards realizing those schemes. The results of these experiments could complement interferometry and other edge-based measurements by providing direct evidence for non-Abelian behaviour of the bulk quasiparticles. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  5. Middlesex Sampling Plant environmental report for calendar year 1992, 239 Mountain Avenue, Middlesex, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and provides the results for 1992. The site, in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey, is a fenced area and includes four buildings and two storage piles that contain 50,800 m{sup 3} of radioactive and mixed hazardous waste. More than 70 percent of the MSP site is paved with asphalt. The MSP facility was established in 1943 by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) to sample, store, and/or ship uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores. In 1955 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), successor to MED, terminated the operation and later used the site for storage and limited sampling of thorium residues. In 1967 AEC activities ceased, onsite structures were decontaminated, and the site was certified for unrestricted use under criteria applicable at that time. In 1980 the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a multiphase remedial action project to clean up several vicinity properties onto which contamination from the plant had migrated. Material from these properties was consolidated into the storage piles onsite. Environmental surveillance of MSP began in 1980 when Congress added the site to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The environmental surveillance program at MSP includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analyses are performed to detect metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling th DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses.

  6. Latent homeless risk profiles of a national sample of homeless veterans and their relation to program referral and admission patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Kasprow, Wesley J; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    We identified risk and need profiles of homeless veterans and examined the relation between profiles and referrals and admissions to Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) homeless service programs. We examined data from the VA's new Homeless Operations Management and Evaluation System on 120,852 veterans from 142 sites nationally in 2011 and 2012 using latent class analyses based on 9 homeless risk factors. The final 4-class solution compared both referral and admission to VA homeless services. We identified 4 latent classes: relatively few problems, dual diagnosis, poverty-substance abuse-incarceration, and disabling medical problems. Homeless veterans in the first group were more likely to be admitted to the VA's permanent supportive housing program, whereas those in the second group were more likely to be admitted to more restrictive VA residential treatment. Homeless veterans in the third group were more likely to be admitted to the VA's prisoner re-entry program, and those in the fourth group were more likely to be directed to VA medical services. The heterogeneous risk and need profiles of homeless veterans supported the diversity of VA homeless services and encouraged the development of specialized services to meet their diverse needs.

  7. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in marine sediment samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) and direct solid sample analysis has been developed. The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows to eliminate the drying and pretreatment steps, however makes impossible the use of liquid standards for calibration. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study. Calibration technique based on the use of solid certified reference materials (marine sediments) similar to the nature of the analyzed sample and statistics of regression analysis were applied to the real sediment samples. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signals. The ISO-17025 requirements and Eurachem guidelines were followed in the validation of the proposed analytical procedure. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration, linearity, working range, trueness, repeatability reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for all investigated elements were assessed. Two different approaches for the estimation of measurement uncertainty were applied and obtained results compared. The major contributors to the combined uncertainty of the analyte mass fraction were found to be the homogeneity of the samples and the microbalance precision. The influence of sample particle sizes on the total combined uncertainty was also evaluated. Traceability to SI system of units of the obtained by the proposed analytical procedure results was demonstrated. Additionally, validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison of the obtained results with independent method e.g. ICP-MS with external calibration. The use of solid sampling HR CS AAS for the determination of trace elements in marine sediment matrix gives significant advantages

  8. 78 FR 53017 - Changes to the Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Analysis of Raw Beef for Shiga Toxin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... ``Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) Systems,'' which FSIS published... other things, the PR/HACCP rule set Salmonella performance standards for establishments producing... sampling was expensive for the Agency. As stated in the PR/HACCP rule (at 61 FR 38835), FSIS selected...

  9. Testing of bulk tank milk for Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Stroger, U.; Bitsch, V.

    2001-01-01

    of being test-negative in the third test round was 0.926 for a herd with 2 previous test-negative results. It was concluded that the investigated ELISA method was in general accordance with the cases of clinical S. Dublin infection recorded. and that the method has a potential for national screening......The usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was investigated as a simple method to screen for Salmonella Dublin infection in dairy herds, examining bulk tank milk samples for lipopolysaccharide (O:1,9,12) antibodies. The cut-off value for the ELISA on bulk tank milk was established...... based on individual milk samples (n = 2887) and bulk tank milk from 52 herds. Bulk tank milk samples (n = 5108) were collected from 1464 dairy herds located in 19 different areas. About 10% of the dairy herds in Denmark participated in the study. The percentage of herds changing from test...

  10. Status and trends monitoring of the mainstem Columbia River: sample frame development and review of programs relevant to the development of an integrated approach to monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Waste, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Implementing an Integrated Status and Trends Monitoring program (ISTM) for the mainstem Columbia River will help identify trends in important natural resources and help us understand the long-term collective effects of management actions. In this report, we present progress towards the completion of a stepwise process that will facilitate the development of an ISTM for the mainstem Columbia River. We discuss planning and regulatory documents that can be used to identify monitoring goals and objectives and present existing monitoring and research activities that should be considered as the development of a Columbia River ISTM proceeds. We also report progress towards the development of sample frames for the Columbia and Snake Rivers and their floodplains. The sample frames were formulated using Digital Elevation Models (DEM’s) of the river channel and upland areas and a Generalized Random-Tessellation Stratified (GRTS) algorithm for an area based resource to generate “master sample(s).” Working with the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership (PNAMP) we facilitated the transfer of the sample frames to the PNAMP “Monitoring Sample Designer” tool. We then discuss aspects of response and survey designs as they pertain to the formulation of a mainstem Columbia River ISTM. As efforts to formulate an ISTM for the mainstem Columbia River proceed, practitioners should utilize the extensive literature describing the planning and implementation of fish and wildlife mitigation and recovery efforts in the Columbia River Basin. While we make progress towards establishing an ISTM framework, considerable work needs to be done to formulate an ISTM program for the mainstem Columbia River. Long-term monitoring programs have been established for other large rivers systems; scientists that have experience planning, implementing, and maintaining large river monitoring efforts such as those in the Colorado, Illinois, and Mississippi Rivers should be consulted and

  11. A brief overview of bulk metallic glasses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mingwei Chen

    2011-01-01

      The discovery of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) has stimulated widespread research enthusiasm because of their technological promise for practical applications and scientific importance in understanding glass formation and glass phenomena...

  12. THE EFFECTS OF A 6-WEEK BENCH PRESS PROGRAM USING THE FREAK BARTM IN A SAMPLE OF COLLEGIATE CLUB POWERLIFTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigiarelli, Jamie J; Pelton, Luke M; Gonzalez, Adam M; Fulop, Andras M; Gee, Joshua Y; Sell, Katie M

    2018-01-12

    Powerlifters train with specialty bars for unstable load (UL) training. For the bench press, the acute effects of UL are mixed, with few studies that examine training interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week bench press training program that uses the Freak Bar (FB) as compared to a traditional barbell (TB) on maximum bench press, peak force, and peak impulse. Seven males and 3 females (21 ± 2.0 yr, 172.2 ± 2.9 cm, and 95.3 ± 20.3 kg) were required to bench press 2 days per week as part of a structured program. On the second bench press day, the FB and TB groups performed 3-position pause bench presses at 60-70% one-repetition maximum (1RM). 1RM, peak force, and peak impulse were measured pre-test and post-test after the 6-week program. Peak force and peak impulse were tested at three bench positions, including the pre-sticking, sticking, and post-sticking points, defined by the distance of the barbell from the chest. Post-training 1RM for the FB group and TB group increased 6.7% (6.78 ± 1.6 kg, p = 0.006) and 4.3% (4.5 ± 2.7 kg, p = 0.23), respectively, with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.589, ηp= 0.044). There were no significant differences between the groups at each bench position for peak force (p = 0.606) or peak impulse (p = 0.542). FB can be an alternative for improving maximum strength and peak force but is not significantly better than TB training when performing the 3-position pause bench press.

  13. A cluster-randomized trial of a middle school gender violence prevention program: Design, rationale, and sample characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Kaleab Z; Jones, Kelley A; Ciaravino, Samantha; Ripper, Lisa; Paglisotti, Taylor; Morrow, Sarah Elizabeth; Grafals, Melanie; Van Dusen, Courtney; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    High rates of adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) and sexual violence (SV) reported among adolescents point to the need for prevention among middle school-age youth. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test an athletic coach-delivered ARA/SV prevention program in 41 middle schools (38 clusters). Trained coaches talk to their male athletes about 1) what constitutes harmful vs. respectful relationship behaviors, 2) dispelling myths that glorify male sexual aggression and promoting more gender-equitable attitudes, and 3) positive bystander intervention when aggressive male behaviors toward females are witnessed. A total of 973 male athletes (ages 11-14, grades 6-8) are participating. Athletes complete surveys at the beginning and end of sports season (Time 2), and one year later (Time 3). The primary outcome is an increase in positive bystander behaviors (i.e., intervening in peers' disrespectful or harmful behaviors); secondary outcomes are changes in recognition of what constitutes abusive behavior, intentions to intervene, and gender equitable attitudes (Time 2 and 3) as well as reduction in abuse perpetration (Time 3). Participating schools have a greater proportion of non-White students and students on free/reduced lunch compared to schools that declined participation. Participants' self-reported ethnicities are 54.5% White, 29.0% Black, 1.4% Hispanic and the remainder, multi-racial, other, or not reported. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a coach-delivered ARA/SV prevention program for middle school male athletes. Findings will add to the evidence base regarding developmentally appropriate violence prevention programs as well as the role of coaches in adolescent health promotion. Clinical Trials #: NCT02331238. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular conformation of linear alkane molecules: From gas phase to bulk water through the interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murina, Ezequiel L.; Fernández-Prini, Roberto; Pastorino, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    We studied the behavior of long chain alkanes (LCAs) as they were transferred from gas to bulk water, through the liquid-vapor interface. These systems were studied using umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulation and we have calculated properties like free energy profiles, molecular orientation, and radius of gyration of the LCA molecules. The results show changes in conformation of the solutes along the path. LCAs adopt pronounced molecular orientations and the larger ones extend appreciably when partially immersed in the interface. In bulk water, their conformations up to dodecane are mainly extended. However, larger alkanes like eicosane present a more stable collapsed conformation as they approach bulk water. We have characterized the more probable configurations in all interface and bulk regions. The results obtained are of interest for the study of biomatter processes requiring the transfer of hydrophobic matter, especially chain-like molecules like LCAs, from gas to bulk aqueous systems through the interface.

  15. Parent Education Programs as a Psychiatric Approach to Children with Conduct Disorder: An Evaluation through Two Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Arkan

    2009-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a category to describe the behaviors which have an adverse affect on the individual, family or society, violate the basic rights of other people and ignore the age-appropriate social norms and rules. Parental behaviors should be shaped as well as those of the children in order for conduct disorder to be treated. The reason for this is that parental attitudes play a key role in emergence of anti-social behaviors among children. Therefore, parent programs have been undertake...

  16. Boundary-bulk relation in topological orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Liang; Wen, Xiao-Gang; Zheng, Hao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between an anomaly-free n + 1D topological order, which are often called n + 1D topological order in physics literature, and its nD gapped boundary phases. We argue that the n + 1D bulk anomaly-free topological order for a given nD gapped boundary phase is unique. This uniqueness defines the notion of the "bulk" for a given gapped boundary phase. In this paper, we show that the n + 1D "bulk" phase is given by the "center" of the nD boundary phase. In other words, the geometric notion of the "bulk" corresponds precisely to the algebraic notion of the "center". We achieve this by first introducing the notion of a morphism between two (potentially anomalous) topological orders of the same dimension, then proving that the notion of the "bulk" satisfies the same universal property as that of the "center" of an algebra in mathematics, i.e. "bulk" = center". The entire argument does not require us to know the precise mathematical description of a (potentially anomalous) topological order. This result leads to concrete physical predictions.

  17. Uganda's new national laboratory sample transport system: a successful model for improving access to diagnostic services for Early Infant HIV Diagnosis and other programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kiyaga

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Uganda scaled-up Early HIV Infant Diagnosis (EID when simplified methods for testing of infants using dried blood spots (DBS were adopted in 2006 and sample transport and management was therefore made feasible in rural settings. Before this time only 35% of the facilities that were providing EID services were reached through the national postal courier system, Posta Uganda. The transportation of samples during this scale-up, therefore, quickly became a challenge and varied from facility to facility as different methods were used to transport the samples. This study evaluates a novel specimen transport network system for EID testing. METHODS: A retrospective study was done in mid-2012 on 19 pilot hubs serving 616 health facilities in Uganda. The effect on sample-result turnaround time (TAT and the cost of DBS sample transport on 876 sample-results was analyzed. RESULTS: The HUB network system provided increased access to EID services ranging from 36% to 51%, drastically reduced transportation costs by 62%, reduced turn-around times by 46.9% and by a further 46.2% through introduction of SMS printers. CONCLUSIONS: The HUB model provides a functional, reliable and efficient national referral network against which other health system strengthening initiatives can be built to increase access to critical diagnostic and treatment monitoring services, improve the quality of laboratory and diagnostic services, with reduced turn-around times and improved quality of prevention and treatment programs thereby reducing long-term costs.

  18. Uganda's new national laboratory sample transport system: a successful model for improving access to diagnostic services for Early Infant HIV Diagnosis and other programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyaga, Charles; Sendagire, Hakim; Joseph, Eleanor; McConnell, Ian; Grosz, Jeff; Narayan, Vijay; Esiru, Godfrey; Elyanu, Peter; Akol, Zainab; Kirungi, Wilford; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Uganda scaled-up Early HIV Infant Diagnosis (EID) when simplified methods for testing of infants using dried blood spots (DBS) were adopted in 2006 and sample transport and management was therefore made feasible in rural settings. Before this time only 35% of the facilities that were providing EID services were reached through the national postal courier system, Posta Uganda. The transportation of samples during this scale-up, therefore, quickly became a challenge and varied from facility to facility as different methods were used to transport the samples. This study evaluates a novel specimen transport network system for EID testing. A retrospective study was done in mid-2012 on 19 pilot hubs serving 616 health facilities in Uganda. The effect on sample-result turnaround time (TAT) and the cost of DBS sample transport on 876 sample-results was analyzed. The HUB network system provided increased access to EID services ranging from 36% to 51%, drastically reduced transportation costs by 62%, reduced turn-around times by 46.9% and by a further 46.2% through introduction of SMS printers. The HUB model provides a functional, reliable and efficient national referral network against which other health system strengthening initiatives can be built to increase access to critical diagnostic and treatment monitoring services, improve the quality of laboratory and diagnostic services, with reduced turn-around times and improved quality of prevention and treatment programs thereby reducing long-term costs.

  19. A study of cooling process in bulk metallic glasses fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. N.; Shao, Y.; Yao, K. F.; Chen, S. Q.

    2015-11-01

    To study the temperature distribution and evolution during bulk metallic glasses fabrication, finite element method was taken to simulate the cooling process in glassy alloys fabricated by water quenching and copper mold casting. The temperature distribution and evolution in different-sized samples in the two methods were successfully reproduced. The result showed that the temperature distribution in the alloy was strongly affected by fabricating method. Two relations were then proposed to estimate the cooling rate in different-sized samples prepared by these two methods. By comparing the reported data of critical size and critical cooling rate, we showed that the reported critical size and critical cooling rate of metallic glasses didn't follow a heat transfer relation. Those critical-sized glassy alloys actually experienced cooling rates much larger than the critical cooling rates estimated by the classical nucleation theory or experiments on milligram-scaled samples. It results from the increasing degree of heterogeneity with sample size, and therefore a larger sample requires a faster cooling rate to avoid crystallization. This work clearly shows the temperature field evolution in bulk metallic glasses fabrication and reveals that the critical cooling rate of metallic glasses might be size-dependent.

  20. Evaluation of marginal integrity of four bulk-fill dental composite materials: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Mirosław; Tarczydło, Bożena; Chałas, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare under in vitro conditions marginal sealing of 4 different bulk-fill materials composite restorations of class II. Comparative evaluation concerned 4 composites of a bulk-fill type: SonicFill, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Filtek Bulk Fill, and SDR. The study used 30 third molars without caries. In each tooth 4 cavities of class II were prepared. The prepared tooth samples were placed in a 1% methylene blue solution for 24 h, and after that in each restoration the depth of dye penetration along the side walls was evaluated. The highest rating (score 0, no dye penetration) was achieved by 93.33% of the restorations made of the SDR material, 90% of restorations of SonicFill system, 86.66% of restorations of the composite Filtek Bulk Fill, and 73.33% of restorations of the Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill. The performed study showed that bulk-fill flowable or sonic-activated flowable composite restorations have better marginal sealing (lack of discoloration) in comparison with bulk-fill paste-like composite.

  1. Evaluation of the specificity of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies against Salmonella in bovine bulk milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Ann-Kristin J; Ågren, Estelle C C; Bergström, Karin; Wahlström, Helene

    2013-01-30

    The Swedish Salmonella control program has been running for decades and has resulted in a low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish food producing animals. Routine bacteriology is used to detect Salmonella, however, bacteriology is time consuming, costly and has a low sensitivity. Different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been developed for detection of antibodies against Salmonella Dublin and S. Typhimurium in bovine bulk milk, individual milk samples as well as in sera. Screening bulk milk for antibodies against Salmonella spp. could improve the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance in Swedish dairy cattle, but as characteristics of tests may vary in different populations, tests should always be evaluated in the specific population where they will be used. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the specificities of three bovine ELISAs when used to analyse bulk milk samples from Swedish dairy cattle. A second aim was to compare the performance of the two Dublin ELISAs tested. Bulk milk samples for analysis were randomly selected from samples collected within the Swedish bulk milk sampling scheme and analyzed with the three ELISAs; a Danish in-house Dublin ELISA, PrioCHECK(®) Salmonella Ab bovine Dublin ELISA and PrioCHECK(®) Salmonella Ab bovine ELISA (hereafter named mixed ELISA). The specificities of the ELISAs were calculated assuming a disease-free status in Sweden i.e. that all test positive samples were assumed to be false positive results. This assumption can be used when a disease is known to be infrequent. The calculated specificities of the two Dublin ELISAs and the mixed ELISA, when using the producer's recommended cut-off value of the corrected optic-density percent (ODC%) were 99.4% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 98.8% -99.8%), 99.4% (95% CI: 98.8% -99.8%) and 97.9% (95% CI: 96.8% -98.7%), respectively. The correlation between the ODC% values of the two Dublin ELISAs was 0.83. We conclude that the evaluated ELISAs have

  2. Bulk shielding benchmark experiment at Frascati neutron generator (FNG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, P.; Angelone, M.; Martone, M.; Pillon, M.; Rado, V. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Santamarina, A.; Abidi, I.; Gastaldi, B.; Martini, M.; Marquette, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1994-11-01

    In the framework of the European Fusion Technology Program, ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) - Frascati and CEA (Commissariat a` l`Energie Atomique) - Cadarache, in collaboration performed a bulk shielding benchmark experiment, using the 14-MeV Frascati neutron generator (FNG), aimed at obtaining accurate experimental data for improving the nuclear data base and methods used in shielding designs. The experiment consisted of the irradiation of a stainless steel block by 14-MeV neutrons. The experimental results have been compared with numerical results calculated using both Sn and Monte Carlo transport codes and the cross section library EFF.1 (european fusion file).

  3. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with sleep-mode (simulated). Under lg vibration at 155Hz, a 70mF ultra-capacitor is charged from OV to 1.85V in 50 minutes.

  4. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  5. Prevalence and motivations for kratom use in a sample of substance users enrolled in a residential treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirsten Elin; Lawson, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Kratom use in the West has increased recently, yet the prevalence and motives for use among individuals with a history of substance use disorder (SUD) have not been fully examined. Kratom has been documented as a means of treating chronic pain, mitigating drug dependence, and easing withdrawal symptoms, yet it is unclear if substance users are utilizing kratom as a self-medication. Abuse liability, side effects, and overall appeal of kratom remain uncertain. In April 2017, an anonymous survey regarding kratom use and motivations was completed by clients enrolled in a 12-Step-oriented residential program. 500 respondents with a self-reported history of SUD completed the survey. 20.8% of respondents endorsed lifetime kratom use and 10.2% reported past-12-month use. Kratom-users were younger (=32.1 vs. 35.9, pkratom-users reported having used the drug as a means of reducing or abstaining from non-prescription opioids (NPO) and/or heroin, and 64.1% reported using kratom as a substitute for NPO/heroin. 18.4% of kratom-users reported using the drug due to a disability or chronic pain. One-third of kratom-users stated that kratom was a helpful substance and that they would try it again. However, kratom was not preferred and was indicated as having less appeal than NPO, heroin, amphetamines, and Suboxone. Among substance users, kratom use may be initiated for a variety of reasons, including as a novel form of harm-reduction or drug substitution, particularly in the context of dependence and withdrawal from other substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Advantages of the iridium permanent modifier in fast programs applied to trace-element analysis of plant samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassileva, E.; Baeten, H.; Hoenig, M. [Centre for Veterinary and Agrochemical Research (CERVA), Tervuren (Belgium)

    2001-03-01

    The application of a fast program combined with the advantages of the iridium permanent modifier is proposed for trace element analysis of plant samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). For two volatile elements (Cd, Pb) and two mid-refractory elements (Cr, Ni) it was demonstrated that coating of the platform or of the tube atomization area with Ir is an efficient means of improving the accuracy and precision of results. A detailed study of interference from individual main matrix components and from composite plant matrices has confirmed the usefulness of the whole approach. The validity of the method has been confirmed by analysis of eight reference plant materials. (orig.)

  7. Algorithm and program for precise determination of unit-cell parameters of single crystal taking into account the sample eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudka, A. P.; Smirnova, E. S.; Verin, I. A.; Bolotina, N. B.

    2017-07-01

    A technique has been developed to refine the unit-cell parameters of single crystals with minimization of the influence of instrumental errors on the result. The corresponding computational procedure HuberUB is added to the software package of Huber-5042 diffractometer with a point detector and closedcycle helium cryostat Displex DE-202. The parameters of unit cell, its orientation, the goniometer zero angles, the sample eccentricity, the distances in the goniometer, and the radiation wavelength were refined by the nonlinear least-squares method, which allows imposition of constraints on the unit-cell parameters, depending on the crystal symmetry. The technique is approved on a LuB12 single crystal. The unit-cell parameters are determined in a temperature range of 20-295 K, with an absolute error not larger than 0.0004 Å (the relative error is of 5 × 10-5). The estimates of the unit-cell parameters obtained by the proposed method are evidenced to be unbiased. Some specific features of the behavior of parameters in the ranges of 120-140 and 20-50 K are revealed, which correlate with the anomalies of the physical properties of the crystal.

  8. Direct determination of bulk etching rate for LR-115-II solid state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    found that the bulk etching rate is 3.2 µm/h at 60°C in 2.5 N NaOH of water solution. It is also found that the track density in detectors exposed to soil samples increases linearly with the removed layer. Keywords. Bulk etching rate; LR-115-II; sensitivity. PACS Nos 29.40.Rg; 29.90.+r; 29.40.Wk; 29.40.Gx. 1. Introduction.

  9. Holographic bulk reconstruction with α' corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shubho R.; Sarkar, Debajyoti

    2017-10-01

    We outline a holographic recipe to reconstruct α' corrections to anti-de Sitter (AdS) (quantum) gravity from an underlying CFT in the strictly planar limit (N →∞ ). Assuming that the boundary CFT can be solved in principle to all orders of the 't Hooft coupling λ , for scalar primary operators, the λ-1 expansion of the conformal dimensions can be mapped to higher curvature corrections of the dual bulk scalar field action. Furthermore, for the metric perturbations in the bulk, the AdS /CFT operator-field isomorphism forces these corrections to be of the Lovelock type. We demonstrate this by reconstructing the coefficient of the leading Lovelock correction, also known as the Gauss-Bonnet term in a bulk AdS gravity action using the expression of stress-tensor two-point function up to subleading order in λ-1.

  10. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    and a low glass transition temperature. The alloys were prepared by using a relatively simple technique, i.e. rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The essential structural changes that are achieved by going from the amorphous to the crystalline state through the supercooled liquid state...... are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface......The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio...

  11. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS

    2005-01-25

    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  12. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, A. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Lambiase, G. [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Fisciano (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  13. A mechanistic analysis of bulk powder caking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, G.; Curcic, N.; Ghadiri, M.

    2013-06-01

    Bulk powder transformations, such as caking, can lead to numerous problems within industry when storing or processing materials. In this paper a new Environmental Caking Rig (ECR) is introduced and has been used to evaluate the caking propensity of a hygroscopic powder as a function of temperature, Relative Humidity (RH), mechanical stress and also when RH is cycled. A linear relationship exists between cake strength and the extent of bulk deformation, here defined by the engineering strain. An empirical model has been used to predict the caking behaviour based on consolidation stress and environmental conditions.

  14. Rapid Analysis of U isotopic ratios in Food Stuff samples using Fusion and ICP-MS measurement: For radiation monitoring program in the vicinity of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jong Myoung; Park, Ji Young; Jung, Yoon Hee; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Won Young; Chung, Gun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a rapid digestion and separation method for U isotopes was developed in food stuff matrix such as cabbage and rice. As an attempt to reduce social costs and apprehension arising from the radioactivity in food, an accurate and rapid assessment of radioactivity is highly desirable. Hence, it is very important to develop a series of evaluation of rapid procedures for efficient radioactivity management in food. Contrary to the α-spectrometry method, a measurement technique using ICP-MS with an advanced sample introduction and mass counting system allows radioactivity in many samples to be measured with a short time period with a high degree of accuracy and precision. In order to satisfy the method detectable activity (MDA) for the regulation of radioactivity monitoring program the analysis of U isotopes always require the extremely large sample amount. These procedures make usually the food stuff sample to carbonize during dry ashing process. The ashed residues have been especially complicated into a liquid phase because of their carbonization. This process are very time consuming and not fully recovered target isotopes.

  15. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations and litterfall mass in autumn litterfall samples collected at selected National Atmospheric Deposition Program sites in 2007-2009 and 2012-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent environmental contaminant and can accumulate and concentrate in food webs as methylmercury (MeHg), presenting a health risk to humans and wildlife. Multiyear monitoring and modeling studies have shown that atmospheric Hg in litterfall is an important form of Hg deposition to forests. Annual litterfall consists primarily of leaves with some amounts of needles, twigs bark, flowers, seeds, fruits, and nuts. Atmospheric Hg accumulates in leaves and reaches an annual maximum concentration at autumn leaf drop. This data set is derived from autumn litterfall collected at 30 selected National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) sites in deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests from 16 states in the eastern United States during 2007-2009 and 2012-2015. The NADP administered litterfall collection at the MDN sites. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) distributed sets of passive litterfall sample collectors to MDN site operators for systematic retrieval of samples during the 8 to 16 weeks of autumn leaf drop each year at each site. Samples were processed and analyzed at the USGS Mercury Research Laboratory where concentrations of Hg and MeHg and litterfall dry mass and sample moisture were determined. All sites did not have data for all years. Most sites had four Hg concentrations per year and a few sites had less than or more than four Hg concentrations in specific years. MeHg concentrations were determined in one composite sample per site in 2007 and 2012-2015. Litterfall mass was determined from 4 to 8 samples per site per year. Seven annual groups of data were compiled into this dataset. More information is available from the NADP at http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/

  16. High Thermoelectric Performance of Nanostructured Bismuth Antimony Telluride Bulk Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, B.; Hao, Q.; Ma, Y.; Minnich, A.; Muto, A.; Lan, Y. C.; Yu, B.; Yan, X.; Wang, D. Z.; Vashaee, D.; Chen, X. Y.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Chen, G.; Ren, Z. F.

    2008-03-01

    Bismuth Telluride and its alloys are best thermoelectric materials for near room temperature applications like refrigeration and waste heat recovery. We have been pursuing an approach of random nanostructures in bulk to improve ZT of these materials. Here we report that ZT values of these random nanostructured materials were improved significantly over the state-of-the-art values. Experimental data coupled with microstructure studies and modeling shows that the ZT improvement mainly comes from a lower thermal conductivity because of the increased phonon scattering by defects and grain boundaries. Significantly improved power generation and cooling data produced from these samples confirmed the high ZT values.

  17. Spin Splitting and Spin Current in Strained Bulk Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    We present a theory for two recent experiments in bulk strained semiconductors and show that a new, previously overlooked, strain spin-orbit coupling term may play a fundamental role. We propose simple experiments that could clarify the origin of strain-induced spin-orbit coupling terms in inversion asymmetric semiconductors. We predict that a uniform magnetization parallel to the electric field will be induced in the samples studied in for specific directions of the applied electric field. We also propose special geometries to detect spin currents in strained semiconductors.

  18. Structural effects of shot-peening in bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mear, F.O., E-mail: francois.mear@univ-lille1.f [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Doisneau, B.; Yavari, A.R. [SIMaP-CNRS UA29, Domaine Universitaire BP 75, Saint Martin d' Heres 38402 (France); Greer, A.L. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-26

    Shot-peening induces surface compressive stresses in bulk metallic glass components, improving their plasticity. Structural changes in the peened surface of fully glassy and partially crystalline Zr{sub 55}Al{sub 10}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 5} are studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. An earlier study is extended by examining the effect of sample temperature. While fully glassy samples show no phase change under peening, partially crystalline samples show either amorphization or crystallization depending on temperature. Peening can induce very large stored energy in metallic glasses rendering them susceptible to crystallization below room temperature, a result which may be relevant for improving the plasticity of these materials.

  19. The Solar Neighborhood. XXXIX. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI and NOFS Programs: 50 New Members of the 25 parsec White Dwarf Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasavage, John P.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Henry, Todd J.; Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Bergeron, P.; Dufour, P.; Dunlap, Bart H.; Barlow, Brad N.; Ianna, Philip A.; Lépine, Sébastien; Margheim, Steven J.

    2017-07-01

    We present 114 trigonometric parallaxes for 107 nearby white dwarf (WD) systems from both the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation (CTIOPI) and the U. S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS) parallax programs. Of these, 76 parallaxes for 69 systems were measured by the CTIOPI program and 38 parallaxes for as many systems were measured by the NOFS program. A total of 50 systems are confirmed to be within the 25-pc horizon of interest. Coupled with a spectroscopic confirmation of a common proper-motion companion to a Hipparcos star within 25 pc as well as confirmation parallax determinations for two WD systems included in the recently released Tycho Gaia Astrometric Solution catalog, we add 53 new systems to the 25-pc WD sample—a 42% increase. Our sample presented here includes four strong candidate halo systems, a new metal-rich DAZ WD, a confirmation of a recently discovered nearby short-period (P = 2.85 hr) double degenerate, a WD with a new astrometric perturbation (long period, unconstrained with our data), and a new triple system where the WD companion main-sequence star has an astrometric perturbation (P ˜ 1.6 year).

  20. The Solar Neighborhood. XXXIX. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI and NOFS Programs: 50 New Members of the 25 parsec White Dwarf Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subasavage, John P.; Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86005-8521 (United States); Jao, Wei-Chun; Lépine, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Henry, Todd J.; Ianna, Philip A. [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA 17201 (United States); Bergeron, P.; Dufour, P. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Dunlap, Bart H. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Barlow, Brad N. [Department of Physics, High Point University, One University Parkway, High Point, NC 27268 (United States); Margheim, Steven J., E-mail: jsubasavage@nofs.navy.mil [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-07-01

    We present 114 trigonometric parallaxes for 107 nearby white dwarf (WD) systems from both the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation (CTIOPI) and the U. S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS) parallax programs. Of these, 76 parallaxes for 69 systems were measured by the CTIOPI program and 38 parallaxes for as many systems were measured by the NOFS program. A total of 50 systems are confirmed to be within the 25-pc horizon of interest. Coupled with a spectroscopic confirmation of a common proper-motion companion to a Hipparcos star within 25 pc as well as confirmation parallax determinations for two WD systems included in the recently released Tycho Gaia Astrometric Solution catalog, we add 53 new systems to the 25-pc WD sample—a 42% increase. Our sample presented here includes four strong candidate halo systems, a new metal-rich DAZ WD, a confirmation of a recently discovered nearby short-period ( P  = 2.85 hr) double degenerate, a WD with a new astrometric perturbation (long period, unconstrained with our data), and a new triple system where the WD companion main-sequence star has an astrometric perturbation ( P  ∼ 1.6 year).

  1. Sampling-based approaches to improve estimation of mortality among patient dropouts: experience from a large PEPFAR-funded program in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin T Yiannoutsos

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation (M&E of HIV care and treatment programs is impacted by losses to follow-up (LTFU in the patient population. The severity of this effect is undeniable but its extent unknown. Tracing all lost patients addresses this but census methods are not feasible in programs involving rapid scale-up of HIV treatment in the developing world. Sampling-based approaches and statistical adjustment are the only scaleable methods permitting accurate estimation of M&E indices.In a large antiretroviral therapy (ART program in western Kenya, we assessed the impact of LTFU on estimating patient mortality among 8,977 adult clients of whom, 3,624 were LTFU. Overall, dropouts were more likely male (36.8% versus 33.7%; p = 0.003, and younger than non-dropouts (35.3 versus 35.7 years old; p = 0.020, with lower median CD4 count at enrollment (160 versus 189 cells/ml; p<0.001 and WHO stage 3-4 disease (47.5% versus 41.1%; p<0.001. Urban clinic clients were 75.0% of non-dropouts but 70.3% of dropouts (p<0.001. Of the 3,624 dropouts, 1,143 were sought and 621 had their vital status ascertained. Statistical techniques were used to adjust mortality estimates based on information obtained from located LTFU patients. Observed mortality estimates one year after enrollment were 1.7% (95% CI 1.3%-2.0%, revised to 2.8% (2.3%-3.1% when deaths discovered through outreach were added and adjusted to 9.2% (7.8%-10.6% and 9.9% (8.4%-11.5% through statistical modeling depending on the method used. The estimates 12 months after ART initiation were 1.7% (1.3%-2.2%, 3.4% (2.9%-4.0%, 10.5% (8.7%-12.3% and 10.7% (8.9%-12.6% respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE ABSTRACT: Assessment of the impact of LTFU is critical in program M&E as estimated mortality based on passive monitoring may underestimate true mortality by up to 80%. This bias can be ameliorated by tracing a sample of dropouts and statistically adjust the mortality estimates to properly evaluate and guide large

  2. Cellulosic ethanol byproducts as a bulking agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Considine; D. Coffin; J.Y. Zhu; D.H. Mann; X. Tang

    2017-01-01

    Financial enhancement of biomass value prior to pulping requires subsequent use of remaining materials; e.g., high value use of remaining stock material after cellulosic ethanol production would improve the economics for cellulosic ethanol. In this work, use of enzymatic hydrolysis residual solids (EHRS), a cellulosic ethanol byproduct, were investigated as a bulking...

  3. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    157–161. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization behaviors of jet electrodeposition Ni–W–P alloy. J K YU. ∗. , Y H WANG, G Z XING, Q QIAO, B LIU, Z J CHU, C L LI and F YOU. State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University,.

  4. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 1. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization behaviors of jet electrodeposition Ni–W–P alloy. J K Yu Y H Wang G Z Xing Q Qiao B Liu Z J Chu C L Li F You. Volume 38 Issue 1 February 2015 pp 157-161 ...

  5. Failure by fracture in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, C.M.A.; Alves, Luis M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits formability in bulk metal forming in the light of fundamental concepts of plasticity,ductile damage and crack opening modes. It proposes a new test to appraise the accuracy, reliability and validity of fracture loci associated with crack opening by tension and out-of-plane shear...

  6. Thermal bulk polymerization of cholesteryl acrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, A.C.; de Groot, K.; Feijen, Jan; Bantjes, A.

    1971-01-01

    The thermal bulk polymerization of cholesteryl acrylate was carried out in the solid phase, the mesomorphic phase, and the liquid phase to study the effect of monomer ordering on polymerization rate and polymer properties. The rate increased with decreasing ordering (or enhanced mobility) of the

  7. A large-scale biomass bulk terminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the possibility of a large-scale bulk terminal in West Europe dedicated to handle solid and liquid biomass materials. Various issues regarding the conceptual design of such a terminal have been investigated and demonstrated in this research: the potential biomass materials

  8. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...

  9. Polonium bulk and surface vibrational dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigrine, Rachid; Bourahla, Boualem [Laboratoire de Physique PEC UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, Le Mans (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite de Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Khater, Antoine

    2009-07-15

    Calculations are presented for the bulk phonons and for surface Rayleigh phonons and resonances for Polonium, the only element known to form in the simple cubic lattice. The static stability of this lattice has been confirmed recently by ab initio simulations which yield two bulk elastic constants, c{sub 11} and c{sub 12}. Constitutive equations are derived for the isotropic cubic lattice based upon the Fuchs's method. This permits effectively a numerical evaluation of central potential force constants for Polonium from the ab initio results. Numerical calculations are then made for the material vibration dynamics in the force constant model with the use of the matching method. The numerical applications yield for Polonium the bulk phonon branches along[100],[110], and [111], and the Rayleigh phonons and surface resonances along the[010] direction in an unreconstructed (001) surface. The local vibration densities of states are calculated for bulk and surface sites for this element. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Modelling ventilated bulk storage of agromaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, N.L.M.; Keesman, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Storage of season-dependent agro-materials is a key process in providing food, feed and biomass throughout the whole year. We review the state of the art in physical modelling, simulation and control of ventilated bulk storage facilities, and in particular the storage of potatoes, from a

  11. Teaching Advanced SQL Skills: Text Bulk Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, David; Hauser, Karina

    2007-01-01

    Studies show that advanced database skills are important for students to be prepared for today's highly competitive job market. A common task for database administrators is to insert a large amount of data into a database. This paper illustrates how an up-to-date, advanced database topic, namely bulk insert, can be incorporated into a database…

  12. Transformation kinetics for surface and bulk nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Elena, E-mail: elena.villa@unimi.it [University of Milan, Department of Mathematics, via Saldini 50, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rios, Paulo R., E-mail: prrios@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica de Volta Redonda, Av. dos Trabalhadores 420, 27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)] [RWTH Aachen University, Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    A rigorous mathematical approach based on the causal cone and stochastic geometry concepts is used to derive new exact expressions for transformation kinetics theory. General expressions for the mean volume density and the volume fraction are derived for both surface and bulk nucleation in a general Borel subset of R{sup 3}. In practice, probably any specimen shape of engineering interest is going to be a Borel set. An expression is also derived for the important case of polyhedral shape, in which surface nucleation may take place on the faces, edges and vertices of the polyhedron as well as within the bulk. Moreover, explicit expressions are given for surface and bulk nucleation for three specific shapes of engineering relevance: two parallel planes, an infinitely long cylinder and a sphere. Superposition is explained in detail and it permits the treatment of situations in which surface and bulk nucleation take place simultaneously. The new exact expressions presented here result in a significant increase in the number of exactly solvable cases available to formal kinetics.

  13. Scientific computing on bulk synchronous parallel architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, R.H.; McColl, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Bulk synchronous parallel architectures oer the prospect of achieving both scalable parallel performance and architecture independent parallel software. They provide a robust model on which to base the future development of general purpose parallel computing systems. In this paper, we theoretically

  14. Simulation of bulk solids blending in longitudinal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis F. Pavloudakis; Z. Agioutantis

    2003-04-01

    A bulk solid blending simulator for longitudinal stockpiles has been developed using the Visual Basic development platform for Windows{reg_sign}. The program can be applied to optimizing blending in stockyards of mines, coal-fired power plants or cement industries. Input to the simulator consists of the average value, the standard deviation and the autocorrelation of the property for which blending is attempted. The program initially creates a time series of property values for the material delivered to the stockyard. Then, this input sequence is rearranged by simulating the operation of the stacking and reclaiming equipment. The output sequence of property values reflects the quality fluctuation of the material as it is delivered to the customer.

  15. Radiopacity of bulk fill flowable resin composite materials | Yildirim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of currently marketed bulk fill flowable dental composite materials (Beautifil Bulk Flowable, SDR Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, and x‑tra Base Bulk Fill). Materials and Methods: Six specimens of each material with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared, and ...

  16. Direct non-destructive observation of bulk nucleation in 30% deformed aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Stine; Schmidt, Søren; Sørensen, Henning Osholm

    2009-01-01

    A 30% deformed aluminum sample was mapped non-destructively using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) before and after annealing to nucleation of recrystallization. Nuclei appeared in the bulk of the sample. Their positions and volumes were determined, and the crystallographic orientations...

  17. Correlation between E. coli levels and the presence of foodborne pathogens in surface irrigation water: Establishment of a sampling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchado, Pilar; Hernandez, Natalia; Gil, Maria I; Ivanek, Renata; Allende, Ana

    2018-01-01

    To establish the association between microbial indicators and the presence of foodborne pathogens in irrigation water, Escherichia coli was enumerated using two quantification methods (plate counts and PMA-qPCR) and presence/absence of pathogenic microorganisms, including five strains from the Shiga toxigenic E. coli (O157:H7, O26, O103, O111 and O145) and Salmonella spp. were evaluated. The results confirmed that surface water can be considered a microbial hazard when used for irrigation. The levels of viable E. coli were very similar to those of cultivable E. coli, except for irrigation water obtained from water reservoirs. Comparison between the E. coli counts in samples positive and negative for the presence of pathogenic bacteria for the evaluated water sources identified E. coli level of 2.35 log cfu/100 mL as a cut-off able to correctly predict positive and negative samples with 93% sensitivity and 66% specificity, respectively. Thus, for the samples with levels of E. coli under 2.35 log cfu/100 mL (e.g., 2.24 log cfu/100 mL) there was a 90% probability that the samples were not contaminated with pathogenic microorganism in locations with similar prevalence. E. coli levels in irrigation water were affected by the ambient temperature confirming that water source and climate conditions should be taken into account by growers when designing a sampling program and the frequency of the monitoring to make a better and more efficient use of their resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bulk sulfur (S) deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Wuting; Lu, Xuehe

    2016-06-01

    A systematic dataset of an observation network on a national scale has been organized to investigate the spatial distribution of bulk sulfur (S) deposition (Sdep) throughout China during 2000-2013, representing by far the most detailed data set to track the bulk sulfur deposition throughout China since 2000. Such a dataset is needed for ecosystem studies and for developing emission control policies. Bulk Sdep values showed great variations, ranging from 2.17 to 70.55 kg ha-1 y-1, with an average of 22.99 kg ha-1 y-1. The average rate of bulk Sdep located in East Coastal region (35.97 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yangtze region (57.90 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yellow River region (23.42 kg ha-1 y-1), North Coastal region (42.19 kg ha-1 y-1), Northeast region (34.28 kg ha-1 y-1), South Coastal region (36.97 kg S ha-1 y-1), Southwest region (33.85 kg ha-1 y-1) was 4.50, 7.24, 2.93, 5.28, 4.29, 4.63 and 4.24 times than that in Northwest region (7.99 kg ha-1 y-1). Bulk Sdep over China was mainly from fossil fuel combustion (76.96%), biomass burning (7.64%), crust (6.22%), aged sea salt (5.48%) and agriculture (3.68%). A systematic observation network on a national scale should be established to conduct a long-term monitoring atmospheric Sdep (including wet and dry deposition), based on exiting ecological stations administrated by different departments in China.

  19. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  20. Derivatization coupled to headspace programmed-temperature vaporizer gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of amino acids: Application to urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Paredes, Rosa María; García Pinto, Carmelo; Pérez Pavón, José Luis; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    A new method based on headspace programmed-temperature vaporizer gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for the determination of amino acids (alanine, sarcosine, ethylglycine, valine, leucine, and proline) in human urine samples. Derivatization with ethyl chloroformate was employed successfully to determine the amino acids. The derivatization reaction conditions as well as the variables of the headspace sampling were optimized. The existence of a matrix effect was checked and the analytical characteristics of the method were determined. The limits of detection were 0.15-2.89 mg/L, and the limits of quantification were 0.46-8.67 mg/L. The instrumental repeatability was 1.6-11.5%. The quantification of the amino acids in six urine samples from healthy subjects was performed with the method developed with the one-point standard additions protocol, with norleucine as the internal standard. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Implications of PCR and ELISA results on the routes of bulk-tank contamination with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, A; Cazer, C L; Ruegg, P L; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in dairy cattle, may enter the bulk tank via environmental contamination or direct excretion into milk. Traditionally, diagnostics to identify MAP in milk target either MAP antibodies (by ELISA) or the organism itself (by culture or PCR). High ELISA titers may be directly associated with excretion of MAP into milk but only indirectly linked to environmental contamination of the bulk tank. Patterns of bulk-milk ELISA and bulk-milk PCR results could therefore provide insight into the routes of contamination and level of infection or environmental burden. Coupled with questionnaire responses pertaining to management, the results of these diagnostic tests could reveal correlations with herd characteristics or on-farm practices that distinguish herds with high and low environmental bulk-tank MAP contamination. A questionnaire on hygiene, management, and Johne's specific parameters was administered to 292 dairy farms in New York, Oregon, and Wisconsin. Bulk-tank samples were collected from each farm for evaluation by real-time PCR and ELISA. Before DNA extraction and testing of the unknown samples, bulk-milk template preparation was optimized with respect to parameters such as MAP fractionation patterns and lysis. Two regression models were developed to explore the relationships among bulk-tank PCR, ELISA, environmental predictors, and herd characteristics. First, ELISA optical density (OD) was designated as the outcome in a linear regression model. Second, the log odds of being PCR positive in the bulk tank were modeled using binary logistic regression with penalized maximum likelihood. The proportion of PCR-positive bulk tanks was highest for New York and for organic farms, providing a clue as to the geographical patterns of MAP-positive bulk-tank samples and relationship to production type. Bulk-milk PCR positivity was also higher for large relative to small herds. The models

  2. Fabrication of Bi2223 bulks with high critical current properties sintered in Ag tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yasuaki, E-mail: ytakeda@g.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Motoki, Takanori [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nakashima, Takayoshi; Kagiyama, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Shin-ichi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. 1-1-3 Shimaya, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-0024 (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication conditions of Bi2223 bulks was reconsidered in terms of high J{sub c}. • Pressure of uniaxial pressing and heat treatment conditions were investigated. • The best sample showed higher J{sub c} than that of practically used Bi2223 bulks. - Abstract: Randomly grain oriented Bi2223 sintered bulks are one of the representative superconducting materials having weak-link problem due to very short coherence length particularly along the c-axis, resulting in poor intergrain J{sub c} properties. In our previous studies, sintering and/or post-annealing under moderately reducing atmospheres were found to be effective for improving grain coupling in Bi2223 sintered bulks. Further optimizations of the synthesis process for Bi2223 sintered bulks were attempted in the present study to enhance their intergrain J{sub c}. Effects of applied pressure of uniaxial pressing and sintering conditions on microstructure and superconducting properties have been systematically investigated. The best sample showed intergrain J{sub c} of 2.0 kA cm{sup −2} at 77 K and 8.2 kA cm{sup −2} at 20 K, while its relative density was low ∼65%. These values are quite high as for a randomly oriented sintered bulk of cuprate superconductors.

  3. Somatic cell counts in bulk milk and their importance for milk processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, N. R.; Mikulec, D. P.; Radovanović, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Bulk tank milk somatic cell counts are the indicator of the mammary gland health in the dairy herds and may be regarded as an indirect measure of milk quality. Elevated somatic cell counts are correlated with changes in milk composition The aim of this study was to assess the somatic cell counts that significantly affect the quality of milk and dairy products. We examined the somatic cell counts in bulk tank milk samples from 38 farms during the period of 6 months, from December to the May of the next year. The flow cytometry, Fossomatic was used for determination of somatic cell counts. In the same samples content of total proteins and lactose was determined by Milcoscan. Our results showed that average values for bulk tank milk samples were 273,605/ml from morning milking and 292,895/ml from evening milking. The average values for total proteins content from morning and evening milking are 3,31 and 3,34%, respectively. The average values for lactose content from morning and evening milking are 4,56 and 4,63%, respectively. The highest somatic cell count (516,000/ml) was detected in bulk tank milk sample from evening milk in the Winter and the lowest content of lactose was 4,46%. Our results showed that obtained values for bulk tank milk somatic cell counts did not significantly affected the content of total proteins and lactose.

  4. Bulk conductivity measurement of paper by a new in situ pressure cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefowicz, Jack Y.; Anczurowski, Edward; Jones, Arthur Y.; Deslandes, Yves

    1981-06-01

    In this report a new bulk conductivity cell design is described which can be used to characterize both conductivized and nonconductive paper. By the use of optically flat stainless steel electrodes under a pressure of 115 bars during the conductivity measurement, it is shown that the contact resistance between the paper sample and the electrodes is reduced to negligible proportions. The effect of paper surface morphology on the contact resistance during the measurement of bulk conductivity was studied by a comparison between the polished stainless steel electrodes and electrodes composed of liquid Galium Indium, which make intimate contact with the paper surface. Bulk conductivity measurements were determined for paper samples having different basis weights and different degrees of calendering. The results obtained with the pressurized stainless steel electrodes for these paper samples indicate that the contact resistance is essentially eliminated for all the papers studied by using an applied pressure of 115 bars.

  5. Processing of bulk Bi-2223 high-temperature superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Polasek

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3 O10+x (Bi-2223 is one of the main high temperature superconductors for applications. One of these applications is the Superconductor Fault Current Limiter (SCFCL, which is a very promising high temperature superconducting device. SCFCL's can be improved by using bulk superconductors with high critical currents, which requires a sufficiently dense and textured material. In the present work, a process for improving the microstructure of Bi-2223 bulk samples is investigated. Pressed precursor blocks are processed by sintering with a further partial melting step, in order to enhance the Bi-2223 grain texture and to healing cracks induced by pressing. In order to improve the microstructure, the precursor is mixed with silver powder before pressing. Samples with and without silver powder have been studied, with the aim of investigating the influence of silver on the microstructure evolution. The phase contents and the microstructure obtained have been analyzed through XRD and SEM/EDS. The electromagnetic characterization has been performed by Magnetic Susceptibility Analysis. We present and discuss the process and the properties of the superconducting blocks. High fractions of textured Bi-2223 grains have been obtained.

  6. Structural determinants in the bulk heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Angela; Höfinger, Siegfried; Haunschmid, Ernst; Pop, Sergiu C; Narumi, Tetsu; Yasuoka, Kenji; Yasui, Masato; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2018-02-21

    Photovoltaics is one of the key areas in renewable energy research with remarkable progress made every year. Here we consider the case of a photoactive material and study its structural composition and the resulting consequences for the fundamental processes driving solar energy conversion. A multiscale approach is used to characterize essential molecular properties of the light-absorbing layer. A selection of bulk-representative pairs of donor/acceptor molecules is extracted from the molecular dynamics simulation of the bulk heterojunction and analyzed at increasing levels of detail. Significantly increased ground state energies together with an array of additional structural characteristics are identified that all point towards an auxiliary role of the material's structural organization in mediating charge-transfer and -separation. Mechanistic studies of the type presented here can provide important insights into fundamental principles governing solar energy conversion in next-generation photovoltaic devices.

  7. Bulk and shear viscosity in Hagedorn fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses m <2 GeV obeys the first-order theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium of hadron resonances are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the in-medium thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosity and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo- and hydro-dynamics equations of state. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Enhanced bulk polysilicon production using silicon tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Ijaz; Chandra, Mohan; Zhang, Hui; Prasad, Vish; Reddy, Chandra; Amato-Wierda, Carmela; Landry, Marc; Ciszek, Ted

    2001-05-01

    A novel technique using silicon tubes for the production of bulk polysilicon via chemical vapor deposition is presented. Our experimental studies with a model reactor indicate that the polysilicon growth inside the silicon tube (15.3 g) exceeds that of the calculated polysilicon growth on silicon slim rods (4.3 g) over 55 h of deposition time. A computational model is also being developed to simulate the growth rates of the model reactor. Preliminary computational results from this model show a slightly asymmetric temperature distribution at the reactor center line with a 1000 sccm argon flow at 850°C reactor temperature. Both these experimental and computational modeling studies have identified key criteria for the prototype reactor being designed for bulk polysilicon growth.

  9. Internal shear cracking in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an uncoupled ductile damage criterion for modelling the opening and propagation of internal shear cracks in bulk metal forming. The criterion is built upon the original work on the motion of a hole subjected to shear with superimposed tensile stress triaxiality and its overall...... performance is evaluated by means of side-pressing formability tests in Aluminium AA2007-T6 subjected to different levels of pre-strain. Results show that the new proposed criterionis able to combine simplicity with efficiency for predicting the onset of fracture and the crack propagation path for the entire...... cracking to internal cracks formed undert hree-dimensional states of stress that are typical of bulk metal forming....

  10. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  11. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  12. Polder maps: improving OMIT maps by excluding bulk solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Afonine, Pavel V; Moriarty, Nigel W; Poon, Billy K; Sobolev, Oleg V; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Adams, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    The crystallographic maps that are routinely used during the structure-solution workflow are almost always model-biased because model information is used for their calculation. As these maps are also used to validate the atomic models that result from model building and refinement, this constitutes an immediate problem: anything added to the model will manifest itself in the map and thus hinder the validation. OMIT maps are a common tool to verify the presence of atoms in the model. The simplest way to compute an OMIT map is to exclude the atoms in question from the structure, update the corresponding structure factors and compute a residual map. It is then expected that if these atoms are present in the crystal structure, the electron density for the omitted atoms will be seen as positive features in this map. This, however, is complicated by the flat bulk-solvent model which is almost universally used in modern crystallographic refinement programs. This model postulates constant electron density at any voxel of the unit-cell volume that is not occupied by the atomic model. Consequently, if the density arising from the omitted atoms is weak then the bulk-solvent model may obscure it further. A possible solution to this problem is to prevent bulk solvent from entering the selected OMIT regions, which may improve the interpretative power of residual maps. This approach is called a polder (OMIT) map. Polder OMIT maps can be particularly useful for displaying weak densities of ligands, solvent molecules, side chains, alternative conformations and residues both in terminal regions and in loops. The tools described in this manuscript have been implemented and are available in PHENIX.

  13. 3D computation of non-linear eddy currents: Variational method and superconducting cubic bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Enric; Kapolka, Milan

    2017-09-01

    Computing the electric eddy currents in non-linear materials, such as superconductors, is not straightforward. The design of superconducting magnets and power applications needs electromagnetic computer modeling, being in many cases a three-dimensional (3D) problem. Since 3D problems require high computing times, novel time-efficient modeling tools are highly desirable. This article presents a novel computing modeling method based on a variational principle. The self-programmed implementation uses an original minimization method, which divides the sample into sectors. This speeds-up the computations with no loss of accuracy, while enabling efficient parallelization. This method could also be applied to model transients in linear materials or networks of non-linear electrical elements. As example, we analyze the magnetization currents of a cubic superconductor. This 3D situation remains unknown, in spite of the fact that it is often met in material characterization and bulk applications. We found that below the penetration field and in part of the sample, current flux lines are not rectangular and significantly bend in the direction parallel to the applied field. In conclusion, the presented numerical method is able to time-efficiently solve fully 3D situations without loss of accuracy.

  14. Genetic Sample Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected primarily from the U.S. east coast. The collection includes samples from field programs,...

  15. A large-scale biomass bulk terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the possibility of a large-scale bulk terminal in West Europe dedicated to handle solid and liquid biomass materials. Various issues regarding the conceptual design of such a terminal have been investigated and demonstrated in this research: the potential biomass materials that will be the major international trade flows in the future, the characteristics of these potential biomass materials, the interaction between the material properties and terminal equipment, the pe...

  16. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization...... is conducted by depositing a minute mass by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a mass resolution of 0.4 fg in air....

  18. Scaling Bulk Data Analysis with Mapreduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Writing Bulk_Extractor MapReduce 101 List of References 105 viii Initial Distribution List 113 ix THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK x List of Figures...dedicated Experts -Formal definition presented -Large technology growth
 -Everyone has email, cell phones, networks Adolescence
 -Growth in Academics ...period is where we see those requirements come to fruition with an explosive growth into the academic community. This period marks a point where research

  19. An Extended Hardness Limit in Bulk Nanoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    to fabricate bulk, fully dense and high-purity nanocrystalline ceramics with unprecedentedly small nanometer- sized grains. Using magnesium aluminate ...nanocrystalline ceramic sintered at 2 GPa and 795 C. The diffraction peaks correspond to stoichiometric magnesium aluminate [42] and a nickel ring that holds...is found to be 3.6005 ± 0.0079 g cm3, which is equal to that of stoichiometric magnesium aluminate [43] and reveals that the produced ceramics are

  20. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the...

  1. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the Index...

  2. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the...

  3. Shear, Bulk, and Young's Moduli of Clay/Polymer Nanocomposites Containing the Stacks of Intercalated Layers as Pseudoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yasser Zare

    2016-01-01

    .... The properties of pseudoparticles are determined in some samples by the experimental data of Young's modulus and the roles of pseudoparticles in the shear, bulk, and Young's moduli of nanocomposites are discussed...

  4. Investigation into Cloud Computing for More Robust Automated Bulk Image Geoprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard B.; Smoot, James C.; Underwood, Lauren; Armstrong, C. Duane

    2012-01-01

    Geospatial resource assessments frequently require timely geospatial data processing that involves large multivariate remote sensing data sets. In particular, for disasters, response requires rapid access to large data volumes, substantial storage space and high performance processing capability. The processing and distribution of this data into usable information products requires a processing pipeline that can efficiently manage the required storage, computing utilities, and data handling requirements. In recent years, with the availability of cloud computing technology, cloud processing platforms have made available a powerful new computing infrastructure resource that can meet this need. To assess the utility of this resource, this project investigates cloud computing platforms for bulk, automated geoprocessing capabilities with respect to data handling and application development requirements. This presentation is of work being conducted by Applied Sciences Program Office at NASA-Stennis Space Center. A prototypical set of image manipulation and transformation processes that incorporate sample Unmanned Airborne System data were developed to create value-added products and tested for implementation on the "cloud". This project outlines the steps involved in creating and testing of open source software developed process code on a local prototype platform, and then transitioning this code with associated environment requirements into an analogous, but memory and processor enhanced cloud platform. A data processing cloud was used to store both standard digital camera panchromatic and multi-band image data, which were subsequently subjected to standard image processing functions such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDMI (Normalized Difference Moisture Index), band stacking, reprojection, and other similar type data processes. Cloud infrastructure service providers were evaluated by taking these locally tested processing functions, and then

  5. Use of the 22C3 anti-programmed death ligand 1 antibody to determine programmed death ligand 1 expression in cytology samples obtained from non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Marius; Juco, Jonathan; Huang, Lingkang; Hofman, Veronique; Khambata-Ford, Shirin; Hofman, Paul

    2018-02-07

    Pembrolizumab monotherapy is a standard-of-care treatment for the first- and second-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score (TPS) values ≥ 50% and ≥ 1%, respectively. PD-L1 testing with the PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) 22C3 pharmDx companion assay has been validated on tumor tissue with the Dako Autostainer Link 48 (ASL48). 22C3 anti-PD-L1 antibody-based laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) compatible with other autostainers and cytology samples are essential to support pembrolizumab treatment decisions across institutions globally. ASL48 and BenchMark Ultra LDTs were optimized for the evaluation of cytology samples through comparisons with cell lines with known PD-L1 expression levels (strong, moderate, and negative). The PD-L1 TPS was then evaluated for 70 paired biopsy and cytology samples (bronchial washes, n = 40; pleural effusions, n = 30) with these LDTs. Biopsy and cytology LDT TPS values were also compared with a subset of biopsy samples (n = 37) evaluated with the PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx assay on the ASL48. Intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.884 to 0.898 were observed for biopsy samples versus cytology samples with the ASL48 and BenchMark Ultra LDTs. Concordance was high, regardless of the TPS cut point (<1% vs ≥ 1% and <50% vs ≥ 50%), sample type (pleural effusion vs bronchial wash), or tumor histology (adenocarcinoma vs squamous cell carcinoma). Concordance was high for each LDT versus the PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx assay. ALS48 and BenchMark Ultra 22C3 antibody concentrate-based LDTs have been validated for PD-L1 testing in cytology samples, and they will support reliable, high-quality PD-L1 testing across regions globally. Cancer Cytopathol 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  6. DETECTION OF AFLATOXIN M1 IN BULK-TANK MILK AND SHEEP CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cossu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 content in 118 bulk-tank sheep milk samples was evaluated using an ELISA commercial kit. During a lactation, three bulk-tank milk samples were collected from each of 40 semi-extensive farms, selected on the basis of high level of concentrate supplementation as risk factor for exposure to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. The AFM1 content was also determined in 38 sheep cheese samples collected from a dairy plant where the farms enrolled in the survey shipped the milk. In the three sampling the concentrate supplementation recorded in the farms ranged between (mean±sd 492.2±257.7 and 397.7±214.3. AFM1 was detected in 1 bulk-tank sheep milk sample (0.8% at concentrations as little as 5.2 ng/L while in 117 it was not detectable (<5 ng/L. AFM1 was also detected in 5 (13.2% out of 38 samples of ripened sheep cheese at levels (mean±sd of 58.1±7.8 ng/Kg. A very low AFM1 content in bulk mik and cheese was observed, as the result of the implementation of good agricultural and good farming practices.

  7. The Effects of the First Part of the CoRT Program for Teaching Thinking (BREADTH) on the Development of Communication Skills among a Sample of Students from Al al-Bayt University in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshurman, Wael Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the first part of the CoRT program for teaching thinking (BREADTH) on the development of communication skills among a sample of students from Al al-Bayt University in Jordan. The study sample consisted of all the students enrolled in the training session for the first part of the CoRT program held by…

  8. Comprehensive work plan and health and safety plan for the 7500 Area Contamination Site sampling at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Landguth, D.C.; Uziel, M.S.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Tiner, P.F.

    1992-05-01

    As part of the Environmental Restoration Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, this plan has been developed for the environmental sampling efforts at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group (MAD) of the Health and Safety Research Division of ORNL and will be implemented by ORNL/MAD. Major components of the plan include (1) a quality assurance project plan that describes the scope and objectives of ORNL/MAD activities at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, assigns responsibilities, and provides emergency information for contingencies that may arise during field operations; (2) sampling and analysis sections; (3) a site-specific health and safety section that describes general site hazards, hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements, and mandatory safety procedures; (4) procedures and requirements for equipment decontamination and responsibilities for generated wastes, waste management, and contamination control; and (5) a discussion of form completion and reporting required to document activities at the 7500 Area Contamination Site.

  9. Climate conditions associated with the occurrence of antimicrobial and macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.A. Picinin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to identify the climate condition parameters that are associated with the occurrence of antimicrobial and macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk using a multivariate principal components analysis (PCA. A total of 132 raw milk samples were collected at dairy farms in Minas Gerais State in Brazil and analyzed for 35 analytes, comprising macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode spectrometry. Of the 132 samples, 34 (25.76% bulk tank milk samples were positive for at least one analyte. PCA showed that antimicrobial residues in bulk tank milk occurred less frequently on days with a higher average temperature, maximum temperature and temperature-humidity index. In contrast, relative humidity was inversely associated with antimicrobial residues in raw milk. The PCA showed that daily milk production was also related to macrocyclic lactone residues, while rainfall showed an inverse association. Thus, some climate conditions, such as average temperature, maximum temperature and temperature-humidity index, can predict the moments with lower risk of occurrence of antimicrobial residues in bulk tank milk, in contrast to relative humidity. Furthermore, the risk of macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk was higher in months with less rainfall.

  10. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Water Resources Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 2009, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelle R.H.

    2008-09-25

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Water Resources Restoration Program (WRRP) was established by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996 to implement a consistent approach to long-term environmental monitoring across the ORR. The WRRP has four principal objectives: (1) to provide the data and technical analysis necessary to assess the performance of completed Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) actions on the ORR; (2) to perform monitoring to establish a baseline against which the performance of future actions will be gauged and to support watershed management decisions; (3) to perform interim-status and post-closure permit monitoring and reporting to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) requirements; and (4) to support ongoing waste management activities associated with WRRP activities. Water quality projects were established for each of the major facilities on the ORR: East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP); Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), including Bethel Valley and Melton Valley; and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex or Y-12), including Bear Creek Valley (BCV), Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC), and Chestnut Ridge. Off-site (i.e., located beyond the ORR boundary) sampling requirements are also managed as part of the Y-12 Water Quality Project (YWQP). Offsite locations include those at Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC), the Clinch River/Poplar Creek (CR/PC), and Lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR). The Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) South Campus Facility (SCF) is also included as an 'off-site' location, although it is actually situated on property owned by DOE. The administrative watersheds are shown in Fig. A.l (Appendix A). The WRRP provides a central administrative and reporting function that integrates and coordinates the activities of the water quality projects, including preparation and administration of the WRRP Sampling and

  11. Field sampling and analysis plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.; Ashwood, T.L.; Borders, D.M.; Chidambariah, V.; Downing, D.J.; Fontaine, T.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Miller, D.E.; Moore, G.K.; Suter, G.W.; Tardiff, M.F.; Watts, J.A.; Wickliff, D.S.

    1992-02-01

    This field sampling and analysis (S & A) plan has been developed as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The S & A plan has been written in support of the remedial investigation (RI) plan for WAG 2 (ORNL 1990). WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), White Oak Creek embayment (WOCE) on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment (Fig. 1.1). The WOC system is the surface drainage for the major ORNL WAGs and has been exposed to a diversity of contaminants from operations and waste disposal activities in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 acts as a conduit through which hydrologic fluxes carry contaminants from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This document describes the following: an overview of the RI plan, background information for the WAG 2 system, and objectives of the S & A plan; the scope and implementation of the first 2 years of effort of the S & A plan and includes recent information about contaminants of concern, organization of S & A activities, interactions with other programs, and quality assurance specific to the S & A activities; provides details of the field sampling plans for sediment, surface water, groundwater, and biota, respectively; and describes the sample tracking and records management plan.

  12. Leukaemia cell of origin identified by chromatin landscape of bulk tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Joshy; Uyar, Asli; Young, Kira; Kuffler, Lauren; Waldron-Francis, Kaiden; Marquez, Eladio; Ucar, Duygu; Trowbridge, Jennifer J

    2016-07-11

    The precise identity of a tumour's cell of origin can influence disease prognosis and outcome. Methods to reliably define tumour cell of origin from primary, bulk tumour cell samples has been a challenge. Here we use a well-defined model of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) to demonstrate that transforming haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent progenitors results in more aggressive AML than transforming committed progenitor cells. Transcriptome profiling reveals a gene expression signature broadly distinguishing stem cell-derived versus progenitor cell-derived AML, including genes involved in immune escape, extravasation and small GTPase signal transduction. However, whole-genome profiling of open chromatin reveals precise and robust biomarkers reflecting each cell of origin tested, from bulk AML tumour cell sampling. We find that bulk AML tumour cells exhibit distinct open chromatin loci that reflect the transformed cell of origin and suggest that open chromatin patterns may be leveraged as prognostic signatures in human AML.

  13. Effects of decalcification on bulk and compound-specific nitrogen and carbon isotope analyses of dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Emily K; Koch, Paul L; Gier, Elizabeth; Ruiz-Cooley, R I; Zupcic, Jessica; Gilbert, Kwasi N; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2014-12-30

    For bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of dentin, samples are typically decalcified. Since the non-protein carbon in dentin is low, whole sample analysis may produce reliable data. Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of bone and tooth dentin protein is a powerful tool for reconstructing the flow of carbon and nitrogen in modern and past food webs. Decalcification has also been used to prepare bone and dentin samples for CSIA, but the effects of this process on bulk dentin, amino acid composition, and their specific isotope values are not known. The bulk isotope values of raw and decalcified dentin from a sperm whale tooth were measured to determine the effects of decalcification and the accuracy of untreated dentin results. CSIA was also performed on decalcified and raw dentin to examine differences in the amino acid isotope values and molar composition between these two approaches. Analysis of raw dentin yields precise and accurate bulk isotope measurements for this animal. The isotopic values of decalcified samples and raw dentin for individual amino acids were similar, but the average of the isotope value offsets between the two sample types was significant. The presence of inorganic material complicated raw sample processing for individual amino acid isotope values, and may have contributed to the isotopic differences between decalcified and raw samples. Decalcification is not needed to measure bulk isotope values in dentin from this modern odontocete, probably because the lipid and carbonate concentrations are low and the carbon isotope values of dentin protein and carbonate are similar. This method should not be applied in some cases (e.g., with fossil dentin and modern bone). Decalcification should still be used prior to CSIA since significant matrix issues occur with raw dentin processing and decalcification does not alter the amino acid molar composition or isotopic values of dentin. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Fabrication of Bulk Glassy Alloy Foams by High Pressure Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takeshi; Inoue, Akihisa

    Porous Pd42.5Cu30Ni7.5P20 bulk glassy alloy rods with porosities of up to 70% were successfully prepared by high pressure hydrogen of 15 MPa. The melt of Pd42.5Cu30Ni7.5P20 alloy kept under high pressure hydrogen absorbs hydrogen and subsequent water quenching of the melt causes the homogeneous dispersion of hydrogen bubbles, which was resulted from the decrease of hydrogen solubility with decrease of pressure. Annealing the hydrogen bubble containing sample at a supercooled liquid state under vacuum, the bubbles are allowed to expand due to the decrease of viscosity of metallic glass matrix. Pores expansion continues until glassy matrix crystallizes or the equilibration among pressure of the pores, pressure of the atmosphere and surface tension is achieved. By utilizing these phenomena, pores up to 80 m in diameters are homogeneously distributed over the whole cross-sectional area of a fully glassy matrix. Under compressive deformation, the porous alloys with porosities exceeding 40% did not show macroscopic fracture in a wide compressive strain range up to 0.6 whereas the non-porous alloy fractures instantly after elastic limit of about 0.02. Porous bulk glassy alloys exhibit higher plateau stress, lower Young‧s modulus and higher energy absorption capacity compared with the conventional crystalline metal foams.

  15. Bulk Electric Load Cost Calculation Methods: Iraqi Network Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais M. Alias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is vital in any industry to regain the spent capitals plus running costs and a margin of profits for the industry to flourish. The electricity industry is an everyday life touching industry which follows the same finance-economic strategy. Cost allocation is a major issue in all sectors of the electric industry, viz, generation, transmission and distribution. Generation and distribution service costing’s well documented in the literature, while the transmission share is still of need for research. In this work, the cost of supplying a bulk electric load connected to the EHV system is calculated. A sample basic lump-average method is used to provide a rough costing guide. Also, two transmission pricing methods are employed, namely, the postage-stamp and the load-flow based MW-distance methods to calculate transmission share in the total cost of each individual bulk load. The three costing methods results are then analyzed and compared for the 400kV Iraqi power grid considered for a case study.

  16. Layer transfer of bulk gallium nitride by controlled spalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, S. W.; Lauro, P.; Ott, J. A.; Fogel, K.; Sadana, D. K.

    2017-07-01

    Successful wafer-scale layer transfer from high-quality 2-in. diameter bulk gallium nitride substrates was demonstrated using the Controlled Spalling technique. The crystal quality of both the as-fractured bulk substrate and the spalled GaN film was assessed using transmission electron microscopy analysis, and the defect density was below the detection limit (mid 107 cm-2) for both samples. By using the experimentally determined critical conditions for tensile stress and thickness of the Ni stressor layer, an effective fracture toughness KIC of 1.7 MPa √{m } could be calculated for [0001] fracture using the Suo and Hutchinson mechanical model. The resulting in-plane contraction of the GaN film after spalling permitted a novel method for measuring film strain without knowledge of the elastic properties of the material. This was used to measure the Raman E2(high) peak shift coefficient of Δω(cm-1) = 1411ɛ which, when converted to a stress coefficient (2.95 cm-1/GPa), was in agreement with only one other literature value.

  17. Bulk sensitive hard x-ray photoemission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, M., E-mail: m.patt@fz-juelich.de; Wiemann, C. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Weber, N.; Escher, M.; Merkel, M. [Focus GmbH, Neukirchner Str. 2, D-65510 Hünstetten (Germany); Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W. [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, C. M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät f. Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) has now matured into a well-established technique as a bulk sensitive probe of the electronic structure due to the larger escape depth of the highly energetic electrons. In order to enable HAXPES studies with high lateral resolution, we have set up a dedicated energy-filtered hard x-ray photoemission electron microscope (HAXPEEM) working with electron kinetic energies up to 10 keV. It is based on the NanoESCA design and also preserves the performance of the instrument in the low and medium energy range. In this way, spectromicroscopy can be performed from threshold to hard x-ray photoemission. The high potential of the HAXPEEM approach for the investigation of buried layers and structures has been shown already on a layered and structured SrTiO{sub 3} sample. Here, we present results of experiments with test structures to elaborate the imaging and spectroscopic performance of the instrument and show the capabilities of the method to image bulk properties. Additionally, we introduce a method to determine the effective attenuation length of photoelectrons in a direct photoemission experiment.

  18. Materials for Bulk Acoustic Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebl, Hans-Peter

    2003-03-01

    Highly selective solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave (BAW) band pass filters are suited for mobile and wireless systems in the GHz frequency range between 0.8 and 10 GHz. Electro-acoustic thin film BAW resonators are the building blocks these BAW filters. Piezoelectric materials used in these resonators include mainly AlN or ZnO which can be deposited by dedicated thin film sputter deposition techniques. Using these piezo-electric materials and using suited materials for the acoustic Bragg reflector, BAW resonators with high quality factors can be fabricated. The achievable filter bandwidth is approximately 4Alternatively, also ferroelectric thin films might be used to achieve higher coupling coefficient and thus filter bandwidth. BAW resonators and filters have been designed and fabricated on 6" Silicon and glass wafers. Results are presented for resonators and filters operating between 1.95 and 8 GHz. The talk will give an overview of the material aspects which are important for BAW devices. It will be shown that modeling of the resonator and filter response using 1D electro-acoustic simulation (1,2) which includes losses is essential to extract acoustic and electrical material parameters. (1) Solidly Mounted Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters for the Ghz Frequency Range, H.P. Loebl, C. Metzmacher , D.N.Peligrad , R. Mauczok , M. Klee , W. Brand , R.F. Milsom , P.Lok , F.van Straten , A. Tuinhout , J.W.Lobeek, IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002. (2) Combined Acoustic-Electromagnetic Simulation Of Thin-Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters, R.F. Milsom, H-P. Löbl, D.N. Peligrad, J-W. Lobeek, A. Tuinhout, R. H. ten Dolle IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002.

  19. Technical basis for the reduction of the maximum temperature TGA-MS analysis of oxide samples from the 3013 destructive examination program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scogin, J. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-24

    Thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopy of the evolved gas (TGA-MS) is used to quantify the moisture content of materials in the 3013 destructive examination (3013 DE) surveillance program. Salts frequently present in the 3013 DE materials volatilize in the TGA and condense in the gas lines just outside the TGA furnace. The buildup of condensate can restrict the flow of purge gas and affect both the TGA operations and the mass spectrometer calibration. Removal of the condensed salts requires frequent maintenance and subsequent calibration runs to keep the moisture measurements by mass spectroscopy within acceptable limits, creating delays in processing samples. In this report, the feasibility of determining the total moisture from TGA-MS measurements at a lower temperature is investigated. A temperature of the TGA-MS analysis which reduces the complications caused by the condensation of volatile materials is determined. Analysis shows that an excellent prediction of the presently measured total moisture value can be made using only the data generated up to 700 °C and there is a sound physical basis for this estimate. It is recommended that the maximum temperature of the TGA-MS determination of total moisture for the 3013 DE program be reduced from 1000 °C to 700 °C. It is also suggested that cumulative moisture measurements at 550 °C and 700°C be substituted for the measured value of total moisture in the 3013 DE database. Using these raw values, any of predictions of the total moisture discussed in this report can be made.

  20. Extraordinary plasticity of ductile bulk metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingwei; Inoue, Akihisa; Zhang, Wei; Sakurai, Toshio

    2006-06-23

    Shear bands generally initiate strain softening and result in low ductility of metallic glasses. In this Letter, we report high-resolution electron microscope observations of shear bands in a ductile metallic glass. Strain softening caused by localized shearing was found to be effectively prevented by nanocrystallization that is in situ produced by plastic flow within the shear bands, leading to large plasticity and strain hardening. These atomic-scale observations not only well explain the extraordinary plasticity that was recently observed in some bulk metallic glasses, but also reveal a novel deformation mechanism that can effectively improve the ductility of monolithic metallic glasses.

  1. "Work-Hardenable" ductile bulk metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayanta; Tang, Mei Bo; Kim, Ki Buem; Theissmann, Ralf; Baier, Falko; Wang, Wei Hua; Eckert, Jürgen

    2005-05-27

    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (glass, which exhibits high strength of up to 2265 MPa together with extensive "work hardening" and large ductility of 18%. Significant increase in the flow stress was observed during deformation. The "work-hardening" capability and ductility of this class of metallic glass is attributed to a unique structure correlated with atomic-scale inhomogeneity, leading to an inherent capability of extensive shear band formation, interactions, and multiplication of shear bands.

  2. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainabl...... isotropic three-dimensional three-phase composites with cylindrical inclusions of arbitrary cross-sections (plane strain problem) or transversely isotropic thin plates (plane stress or bending of plates problems). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Towards bulk based preconditioning for quantum dotcomputations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, Jack; Langou, Julien; Tomov, Stanimire; Channing,Andrew; Marques, Osni; Vomel, Christof; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-05-25

    This article describes how to accelerate the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) type eigensolvers for the computation of several states around the band gap of colloidal quantum dots. Our new approach uses the Hamiltonian from the bulk materials constituent for the quantum dot to design an efficient preconditioner for the folded spectrum PCG method. The technique described shows promising results when applied to CdSe quantum dot model problems. We show a decrease in the number of iteration steps by at least a factor of 4 compared to the previously used diagonal preconditioner.

  4. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  5. Binary Ni-Nb bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Li, W. H.; Fang, S. S.; Wei, B. C.; Dong, Y. D.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the glass forming ability of Ni-Nb binary alloys and found that some of the alloys can be prepared into bulk metallic glasses by a conventional Cu-mold casting. The best glass former within the compositional range studied is off-eutectic Ni62Nb38 alloy, which is markedly different from those predicted by the multicomponent and deep eutectic rules. The glass formation mechanism for binary Ni-Nb alloys was studied from the thermodynamic point of view and a parameter γ* was proposed to approach the ability of glass formation against crystallization.

  6. Cosmological Brane World Solutions with Bulk Scalar Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Stephen C.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmological brane world solutions are found for five-dimensional bulk spacetimes with a scalar field. A supergravity inspired method for obtaining static solutions is combined with a method for finding brane cosmologies with constant bulk energies. This provides a way to generate full (bulk and brane) cosmological solutions to brane worlds with bulk scalar fields. Examples of these solutions, and their cosmological evolution, are discussed.

  7. Ice-nucleating particles in Canadian Arctic sea-surface microlayer and bulk seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Victoria E.; Elizondo, Pablo; Chen, Jessie; Chou, Cédric; Charette, Joannie; Lizotte, Martine; Ladino, Luis A.; Wilson, Theodore W.; Gosselin, Michel; Murray, Benjamin J.; Polishchuk, Elena; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Miller, Lisa A.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2017-09-01

    The sea-surface microlayer and bulk seawater can contain ice-nucleating particles (INPs) and these INPs can be emitted into the atmosphere. Our current understanding of the properties, concentrations, and spatial and temporal distributions of INPs in the microlayer and bulk seawater is limited. In this study we investigate the concentrations and properties of INPs in microlayer and bulk seawater samples collected in the Canadian Arctic during the summer of 2014. INPs were ubiquitous in the microlayer and bulk seawater with freezing temperatures in the immersion mode as high as -14 °C. A strong negative correlation (R = -0. 7, p = 0. 02) was observed between salinity and freezing temperatures (after correction for freezing depression by the salts). One possible explanation is that INPs were associated with melting sea ice. Heat and filtration treatments of the samples show that the INPs were likely heat-labile biological materials with sizes between 0.02 and 0.2 µm in diameter, consistent with previous measurements off the coast of North America and near Greenland in the Arctic. The concentrations of INPs in the microlayer and bulk seawater were consistent with previous measurements at several other locations off the coast of North America. However, our average microlayer concentration was lower than previous observations made near Greenland in the Arctic. This difference could not be explained by chlorophyll a concentrations derived from satellite measurements. In addition, previous studies found significant INP enrichment in the microlayer, relative to bulk seawater, which we did not observe in this study. While further studies are needed to understand these differences, we confirm that there is a source of INP in the microlayer and bulk seawater in the Canadian Arctic that may be important for atmospheric INP concentrations.

  8. Ice-nucleating particles in Canadian Arctic sea-surface microlayer and bulk seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Irish

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The sea-surface microlayer and bulk seawater can contain ice-nucleating particles (INPs and these INPs can be emitted into the atmosphere. Our current understanding of the properties, concentrations, and spatial and temporal distributions of INPs in the microlayer and bulk seawater is limited. In this study we investigate the concentrations and properties of INPs in microlayer and bulk seawater samples collected in the Canadian Arctic during the summer of 2014. INPs were ubiquitous in the microlayer and bulk seawater with freezing temperatures in the immersion mode as high as −14 °C. A strong negative correlation (R = −0. 7, p = 0. 02 was observed between salinity and freezing temperatures (after correction for freezing depression by the salts. One possible explanation is that INPs were associated with melting sea ice. Heat and filtration treatments of the samples show that the INPs were likely heat-labile biological materials with sizes between 0.02 and 0.2 µm in diameter, consistent with previous measurements off the coast of North America and near Greenland in the Arctic. The concentrations of INPs in the microlayer and bulk seawater were consistent with previous measurements at several other locations off the coast of North America. However, our average microlayer concentration was lower than previous observations made near Greenland in the Arctic. This difference could not be explained by chlorophyll a concentrations derived from satellite measurements. In addition, previous studies found significant INP enrichment in the microlayer, relative to bulk seawater, which we did not observe in this study. While further studies are needed to understand these differences, we confirm that there is a source of INP in the microlayer and bulk seawater in the Canadian Arctic that may be important for atmospheric INP concentrations.

  9. CORE - BULK DENSITY, Snow thickness, Snow temperature, Snow type and other site samples data collected in the South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-07-28 to 2002-09-08 (NODC Accession 0112865)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112865 includes site samples, meteorological and physical data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 in the South...

  10. Effects of Soil Bulk Density on Gas Transport Parameters and Pore-Network Properties across a Sandy Field Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masis Melendez, Federico; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Chamindu, T K K Deepagoda

    2015-01-01

    The gas diffusion coefficient, air permeability, and their interrelations with air-filled porosity are crucial for characterization of diffusive and convective transport of gases in soils. Variations in soil bulk density can affect water retention, air-filled pore space, pore tortuosity...... and connectivity, and hence control gas diffusion and air permeability. Considering 86 undisturbed core samples with variable bulk density that were extracted on a grid from the top layer of a sandy field, the effects of soil bulk density on gas transport parameters and the soil water characteristic were...... to quantify gas transport and water retention processes across the field. Results revealed significant negative correlations between all six parameters and soil bulk density. Areas with higher bulk density exhibited reduced air-filled porosity and lower diffusivity- and air permeability-based connectivity...

  11. The effects of forward speed and depth of conservation tillage on soil bulk density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahmoudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation of tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption, and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with either primary or secondary tillage or planting operations. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Moreover, it helps easier development of root through reducing soil penetration resistance. Tillage is a time-consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save substantial amounts of fuel, time and energy consumption. Conservation tillage loosens the soil without turning, but by remaining the plant left overs, stems and roots. Bulk density reflects the soil’s ability to function for structural support, water and solute movement, and soil aeration. Bulk densities above thresholds indicate impaired function. Bulk density is also used to convert between weight and volume of soil. It is used to express soil physical, chemical and biological measurements on a volumetric basis for soil quality assessment and comparisons between management systems. This increases the validity of comparisons by removing the error associated with differences in soil density at the time of sampling. The aim of conservation tillage is to fix the soil structure. This investigation was carried out considering the advantages of conservation tillage and less scientific research works on imported conservation tillage devices and those which are made inside the country

  12. Use of containers to carry bulk and break bulk commodities and its impact on gulf region ports and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The University of New Orleans Transportation Institute was tasked by the Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) in mid-2012 to assess the use of containers to transport bulk and break bulk commodities and to determine what their impact would...

  13. Bulk magnetic domain stability controls paleointensity fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Greig A.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Pan, Yongxin

    2017-12-01

    Nonideal, nonsingle-domain magnetic grains are ubiquitous in rocks; however, they can have a detrimental impact on the fidelity of paleomagnetic records—in particular the determination of ancient magnetic field strength (paleointensity), a key means of understanding the evolution of the earliest geodynamo and the formation of the solar system. As a consequence, great effort has been expended to link rock magnetic behavior to paleointensity results, but with little quantitative success. Using the most comprehensive rock magnetic and paleointensity data compilations, we quantify a stability trend in hysteresis data that characterizes the bulk domain stability (BDS) of the magnetic carriers in a paleomagnetic specimen. This trend is evident in both geological and archeological materials that are typically used to obtain paleointensity data and is therefore pervasive throughout most paleomagnetic studies. Comparing this trend to paleointensity data from both laboratory and historical experiments reveals a quantitative relationship between BDS and paleointensity behavior. Specimens that have lower BDS values display higher curvature on the paleointensity analysis plot, which leads to more inaccurate results. In-field quantification of BDS therefore reflects low-field bulk remanence stability. Rapid hysteresis measurements can be used to provide a powerful quantitative method for preselecting paleointensity specimens and postanalyzing previous studies, further improving our ability to select high-fidelity recordings of ancient magnetic fields. BDS analyses will enhance our ability to understand the evolution of the geodynamo and can help in understanding many fundamental Earth and planetary science questions that remain shrouded in controversy.

  14. Boundary-bulk relation in topological orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the relation between an anomaly-free n+1D topological order, which are often called n+1D topological order in physics literature, and its nD gapped boundary phases. We argue that the n+1D bulk anomaly-free topological order for a given nD gapped boundary phase is unique. This uniqueness defines the notion of the “bulk” for a given gapped boundary phase. In this paper, we show that the n+1D “bulk” phase is given by the “center” of the nD boundary phase. In other words, the geometric notion of the “bulk” corresponds precisely to the algebraic notion of the “center”. We achieve this by first introducing the notion of a morphism between two (potentially anomalous topological orders of the same dimension, then proving that the notion of the “bulk” satisfies the same universal property as that of the “center” of an algebra in mathematics, i.e. “bulk = center”. The entire argument does not require us to know the precise mathematical description of a (potentially anomalous topological order. This result leads to concrete physical predictions.

  15. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1-x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  16. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  17. Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aernouts, B; Van Beers, R; Watté, R; Huybrechts, T; Lammertyn, J; Saeys, W

    2015-10-01

    The implementation of optical sensor technology to monitor the milk quality on dairy farms and milk processing plants would support the early detection of altering production processes. Basic visible and near-infrared spectroscopy is already widely used to measure the composition of agricultural and food products. However, to obtain maximal performance, the design of such optical sensors should be optimized with regard to the optical properties of the samples to be measured. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the visible and near-infrared bulk absorption coefficient, bulk scattering coefficient, and scattering anisotropy spectra for a diverse set of raw milk samples originating from individual cow milkings, representing the milk variability present on dairy farms. Accordingly, this database of bulk optical properties can be used in future simulation studies to efficiently optimize and validate the design of an optical milk quality sensor. In a next step of the current study, the relation between the obtained bulk optical properties and milk quality properties was analyzed in detail. The bulk absorption coefficient spectra were found to mainly contain information on the water, fat, and casein content, whereas the bulk scattering coefficient spectra were found to be primarily influenced by the quantity and the size of the fat globules. Moreover, a strong positive correlation (r ≥ 0.975) was found between the fat content in raw milk and the measured bulk scattering coefficients in the 1,300 to 1,400 nm wavelength range. Relative to the bulk scattering coefficient, the variability on the scattering anisotropy factor was found to be limited. This is because the milk scattering anisotropy is nearly independent of the fat globule and casein micelle quantity, while it is mainly determined by the size of the fat globules. As this study shows high correlations between the sample's bulk optical properties and the milk composition and fat globule size, a

  18. Analysis of Tank 38H (HTF-38-16-26, 27) and Tank 43H (HTF-43-16-28, 29) Samples for Support of the Enrichment Control and Corrosion Control Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory analyzed samples from Tank 38H and Tank 43H to support Enrichment Control Program and Corrosion Control Program. The total uranium in the Tank 38H samples ranged from 20.5 to 34.0 mg/L while the Tank 43H samples ranged from 47.6 to 50.6 mg/L. The U-235 percentage ranged from 0.62% to 0.64% over the four samples. The total uranium and percent U-235 results appear consistent with previous Tank 38H and Tank 43H uranium measurements. The Tank 38H plutonium results show a large difference between the surface and sub-surface sample concentrations and a somewhat higher concentration than previous sub-surface samples. The two Tank 43H samples show similar plutonium concentrations and are within the range of values measured on previous samples. The plutonium results may be biased high due to the presence of plutonium contamination in the blank samples from the cell sample preparations. The four samples analyzed show silicon concentrations ranging from 47.9 to 105 mg/L.

  19. Characterizing bulk modulus of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available correlation models for the soil sample tested. These models can be used for evaluating the impact of moisture on bulk modulus of fine-grained soils with similar characteristics for their sustainable use in foundation applications under off-road construction...

  20. Association between product quality control and process quality control of bulk milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of dairy-milk quality is based on product quality control (testing bulk-milk samples) and process quality control (auditing dairy farms). It is unknown whether process control improves product quality. To quantify possible association between product control and process control a

  1. A cointegration approach to forecasting freight rates in the dry bulk shipping sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); A.W. Veenstra (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a vector autoregressive model is developed for a sample of ocean dry bulk freight rates. Although the series of freight rates are themselves found to be non-stationary, thus precluding the use of many modelling methodologies, evidence provided by cointegration tests points

  2. Bulk and Surface Structures of Palladium-Modified Copper-Zinc Oxides ex Hydroxycarbonate Precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Granados, M.; Melián-Cabrera, I.; Fierro, J.L.G.

    2002-01-01

    (Pd)-Cu-Zn ex hydroxycarbonate precursors were prepared and characterized by several bulk and surface techniques. A palladium-free Cu-Zn precursor (CZ) was prepared by coprecipitation. Two Pd-Cu-Zn samples were prepared by coprecipitation (PCZ-CP) and sequential precipitation (PCZ-SP). It is shown

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support in a Sample of Early Retirees Enrolled in University Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ramos, Yolanda; Fernández Muñoz, Juan José; Navarro-Pardo, Esperanza; Murphy, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold-first, to use confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to help assess which of the previously identified factor structures (identified through exploratory factor analysis) best fits a Spanish-language version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and second, to validate the MSPSS (and its subscales) for use among early retirees. The psychometric properties of the MPSS were analyzed in a sample of 991 Spanish early retirees enrolled in university programs. Participants had an average age of 62.7 years (SD = 5.89). An exploratory factor analysis and second-order confirmatory factor analysis were developed to identify the factorial solution and the best model fit. The three factors identified were MSPSS significant others, MSPSS friends, and MSPSS family. Regarding reliability and validity, internal consistency indices were above .92 and the correlation between perceived social support subscales and measures of satisfaction with life in retirement were significantly positive. The Spanish language version of the MSPSS demonstrates acceptable psychometric properties in relation to internal structure and reliability, and all but one of the goodness-of-fit indices emerging from the CFA also supported this factor structure. The practical implications of the scale in different populations and the problems in relation to the three-factor solution and the index values obtained are discussed.

  4. In Situ Formation of Carbon Nanomaterials on Bulk Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials were synthesized in situ on bulk 316L stainless steel, pure cobalt, and pure nickel by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT. The microstructures of the treated samples and the resulted carbon nanomaterials were investigated by SEM and TEM characterizations. Different substrates resulted in different morphologies of products. The diameter of carbon nanomaterials is related to the size of the nanograins on the surface layer of substrates. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. Effects of the main parameters of the synthesis, including the carbon source and gas reactant composition, hydrogen, and the reaction temperature, were studied. Using hybrid SMAT is proved to be an effective way to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in situ on surfaces of metallic materials.

  5. Cast bulk glassy alloys: fabrication, alloy development and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsheng Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallic glasses represent an interesting group of materials as they possess outstanding physical, chemical and mechanical properties compared to their crystalline counterparts. Currently, with well designed compositions it is possible to cast liquid alloys into the glassy state at low critical cooling rates from 100 K•s-1 to 1 K•s-1 and in large critical sample sizes up to several centimeters, which significantly enhances the promise for possible applications as advanced engineering materials. This paper reviews the development of (ZrCu-based bulk metallic glasses with large sizes by copper mold casting and their unique properties. Additionally, the ex-situ and in-situ second phases reinforced BMG composites with large plasticity are also presented.

  6. Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

  7. Targets for bulk hydrogen analysis using thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Buczko, C M

    2002-01-01

    The reflection property of substances can be characterized by the reflection cross-section of thermal neutrons, sigma subbeta. A combination of the targets with thin polyethylene foils allowed an estimation of the flux depression of thermal neutrons caused by a bulk sample containing highly absorbing elements or compounds. Some new and more accurate sigma subbeta values were determined by using the combined target arrangement. For the ratio, R of the reflection and the elastic scattering cross-sections of thermal neutrons, R=sigma subbeta/sigma sub E sub L a value of 0.60+-0.02 was found on the basis of the data obtained for a number of elements from H to Pb. Using this correlation factor, and the sigma sub E sub L values, the unknown sigma subbeta data can be deduced. The equivalent thicknesses, to polyethylene or hydrogen, of the different target materials were determined from the sigma subbeta values.

  8. Bulk characterization of pharmaceutical powders by low-pressure compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A.H.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Hovgaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    for characterization purposes. Significant correlation was demonstrated between several of the compression and tapping-derived parameters. The discriminative power of the low-pressure compression test was discussed using the compressed density at 0.2 MPa, correlated with the tapped density, and the relative Walker...... coefficient, correlated with the Compressibility Index, as examples. The compressed density at 0.2 MPa and the relative Walker coefficient demonstrated excellent discriminative power, superior to the discriminative power of the correlated tapping derived parameters. The low-pressure compression test......Low-pressure compression of pharmaceutical powders using small amounts of sample (50 mg) was evaluated as an alternative to traditional bulk powder characterization by tapping volumetry. Material parameters were extrapolated directly from the compression data and by fitting with the Walker...

  9. Testing of Small Graphite Samples for Nuclear Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Chapman

    2010-11-01

    Accurately determining the mechanical properties of small irradiated samples is crucial to predicting the behavior of the overal irradiated graphite components within a Very High Temperature Reactor. The sample size allowed in a material test reactor, however, is limited, and this poses some difficulties with respect to mechanical testing. In the case of graphite with a larger grain size, a small sample may exhibit characteristics not representative of the bulk material, leading to inaccuracies in the data. A study to determine a potential size effect on the tensile strength was pursued under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. It focuses first on optimizing the tensile testing procedure identified in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard C 781-08. Once the testing procedure was verified, a size effect was assessed by gradually reducing the diameter of the specimens. By monitoring the material response, a size effect was successfully identified.

  10. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IMDG Code International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code IMO... authorized for bulk transportation by vessel and include special handling procedures based on the IMSBC Code... Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200...

  11. Bulk tank milk surveillance as a measure to detect Coxiella burnetii shedding dairy goat herds in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brom, R; Santman-Berends, I; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; Van Engelen, E; Vellema, P

    2015-06-01

    In the period from 2005 to 2009, Coxiella burnetii was a cause of abortion waves at 28 dairy goat farms and 2 dairy sheep farms in the Netherlands. Two years after the first abortion waves, a large human Q fever outbreak started mainly in the same region, and aborting small ruminants were regarded as most probable source. To distinguish between infected and noninfected herds, a surveillance program started in October 2009, based on PCR testing of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, which had never been described before. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of this surveillance program and to evaluate both the effect of culling of pregnant dairy goats on positive farms and of vaccination on BTM results. Bulk tank milk samples were tested for C. burnetii DNA using a real-time PCR, and results were analyzed in relation to vaccination, culling, and notifiable (officially reported to government) C. burnetii abortion records. In spring and autumn, BTM samples were also tested for antibodies using an ELISA, and results were evaluated in relation to the compulsory vaccination campaign. Between October 2009 and April 2014, 1,660 (5.6%) out of 29,875 BTM samples from 401 dairy goat farms tested positive for C. burnetii DNA. The percentage of positive samples dropped from 20.5% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2014. In a multivariable model, significantly higher odds of being PCR positive in the BTM surveillance program were found in farms of which all pregnant dairy goats were culled. Additionally, the risk for C. burnetii BTM PCR positivity significantly decreased after multiple vaccinations. Bulk tank milk ELISA results were significantly higher after vaccination than before. The ELISA results were higher after multiple vaccinations compared with a single vaccination, and ELISA results on officially declared infected farms were significantly higher compared with noninfected farms. In conclusion, BTM surveillance is an effective and useful tool to detect C. burnetii shedding

  12. Chapter 11: Sample Design Cross-Cutting Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Khawaja, M. Sami [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States); Rushton, Josh [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States); Keeling, Josh [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Evaluating an energy efficiency program requires assessing the total energy and demand saved through all of the energy efficiency measures provided by the program. For large programs, the direct assessment of savings for each participant would be cost-prohibitive. Even if a program is small enough that a full census could be managed, such an undertaking would almost always be an inefficient use of evaluation resources. The bulk of this chapter describes methods for minimizing and quantifying sampling error. Measurement error and regression error are discussed in various contexts in other chapters.

  13. Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in the Bulk Rashba Semiconductor BiTeI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C.; Bahramy, M.S.; Murakawa, H.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Arita, R.; Kaneko, Y.; Onose, Y.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-07-11

    Bulk magnetoresistance quantum oscillations are observed in high quality single crystal samples of BiTeI. This compound shows an extremely large internal spin-orbit coupling, associated with the polarity of the alternating Bi, Te, and I layers perpendicular to the c-axis. The corresponding areas of the inner and outer Fermi surfaces around the A-point show good agreement with theoretical calculations, demonstrating that the intrinsic bulk Rashba-type splitting is nearly 360 meV, comparable to the largest spin-orbit coupling generated in heterostructures and at surfaces.

  14. Synthesis and characteristics of MgB{sub 2} bulks with different densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, R. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Zhou, S., E-mail: sihai@uow.edu.a [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Lu, L.; Li, W.X.; Dou, S.X. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Pure MgB{sub 2} bulks of different densities were synthesized by direct Mg-diffusion method. It is found that the connectivity was significantly improved since the current-carrying effective area was improved by the diffusion method, hence the self-field critical current density, J{sub c}, was significantly improved comparing with conventional porous MgB{sub 2} bulks made by in situ method. A sample reacted at 850 {sup o}C for 10 h exhibited J{sub c} of 1.2 MA/cm{sup 2} at 20 K in self-field.

  15. 40 CFR 761.348 - Contemporaneous sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contemporaneous sampling. 761.348... PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site Disposal...

  16. Evaluasi Status Bahan Organik Dan Sifat Fisik Tanah (Bulk Density, Tekstur, Suhu Tanah) Pada Lahan Tanaman Kopi (Coffea SP.) Di Beberapa Kecamatan Kabupaten Dairi

    OpenAIRE

    Br.Tarigan, Emalia Sinarta; Guchi, Hardy; Marbun, Posma

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation Status of Organic Matter Content and Soil Physical Properties (Bulk Density, Texture and Soil Temperature) the Coffee Crop Land (Coffeea Sp.) in Some Districts Dairipurpose to makeevaluation status of the organic matter and soil physical properties (bulk density, texture and soil temperature) the coffee crop land (Coffeea Sp.) in some districts Dairi. Sampling using free methods tosurvey the level of review and analysis of data C- organic by Walkey and Black method, bulk densityby ...

  17. The levitation characteristics of the magnetic substances using trapped HTS bulk annuli with various magnetic field distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.B., E-mail: kim@ec.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Ikegami, T.; Matsunaga, J.; Fujii, Y. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Onodera, H. [Japan Science and Technology Agency–Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (JST–CREST), Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The spherical solenoid magnet can make a various magnetic field distributions. •We generated a large magnetic gradient at inner space of HTS bulks. •The levitation height of samples was improved by the reapplied field method. •The levitation height depends on the variation rate of magnetic field gradient. -- Abstract: We have been investigating the levitation system without any mechanical contact which is composed of a field-cooled ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks [1]. In this proposed levitation system, the trapped magnetic field distributions of stacked HTS bulk are very important. In this paper, the spherical solenoid magnet composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters was designed and fabricated as a new magnetic source. The fabricated spherical solenoid magnet can easily make a homogeneous and various magnetic field distributions in inner space of stacked HTS bulk annuli by controlling the emerging currents of each coil. By using this spherical solenoid magnet, we tried to make a large magnetic field gradient in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and it is very important on the levitation of magnetic substances. In order to improve the levitation properties of magnetic substances with various sizes, the external fields were reapplied to the initially trapped HTS bulk magnets. We could generate a large magnetic field gradient along the axial direction in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and obtain the improved levitation height of samples by the proposed reapplied field method.

  18. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    diffusing back requires that the plasmodesmata connecting the bundle sheath with the intermediary cell act as extremely precise filters, which are able to distinguish between molecules that differ by less than 20% in size. In our modeling, we take into account the coupled water and sugar movement across......%-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all...... of molecular sizes. Comparing with the somewhat uncertain experimental values for sugar export rates, we expect the pores to be only 5%-10% larger than the hydraulic radius of the sucrose molecules. We find that the water flow through the plasmodesmata, which has not been quantified before, contributes only 10...

  19. Organoboron polymers for photovoltaic bulk heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Sebastiano; Fabiano, Simone; Ferrante, Francesco; Previti, Francesco; Patanè, Salvatore; Pignataro, Bruno

    2010-07-15

    We report on the application of three-coordinate organoboron polymers, inherently strong electron acceptors, in flexible photovoltaic (PV) cells. Poly[(1,4-divinylenephenylene)(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylborane)] (PDB) has been blended with poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) to form a thin film bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on PET/ITO substrates. Morphology may be modulated to give a high percentage of domains (10-20 nm in size) allowing exciton separation. The photoelectric properties of the BHJs in devices with aluminium back electrodes were imaged by light beam induced current (LBIC) and light beam induced voltage (LBIV) techniques. Open circuit voltages, short circuit currents and overall external quantum efficiencies obtained are among the highest reported for all-polymer PV cells. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A route to transparent bulk metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2012-07-23

    Hypothetical compounds based on a sapphire host are investigated with respect to their structural as well as electronic features. The results are obtained by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation. A quarter of the Al atoms in Al 2O 3 is replaced by a 4d transition metal M ion, with d 0 to d 9 electronic configuration. We perform structure optimizations for all the compounds and analyze the electronic states. Due to the sizeable band gap of the Al 2O 3 host, we can identify promising candidates for transparent bulk metals. We explain the mechanisms leading to this combination of materials properties. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Holographic bulk viscosity: GPR vs EO

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Kiritsis, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Recently Eling and Oz (EO) proposed a formula for the holographic bulk viscosity, in arXiv:1103.1657, derived from the null horizon focusing equation. This formula seems different from that obtained earlier by Gubser, Pufu and Rocha (GPR) in arXiv:0806.0407 calculated from the IR limit of the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor. The two were shown to agree only for some simple scaling cases. We point out that the two formulae agree in two non-trivial holographic theories describing RG flows. The first is the strongly coupled N=2* gauge theory plasma. The second is the semi-phenomenological model of Improved Holographic QCD.

  2. Tuneable film bulk acoustic wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorgian, Spartak Sh; Vorobiev, Andrei K

    2013-01-01

    To handle many standards and ever increasing bandwidth requirements, large number of filters and switches are used in transceivers of modern wireless communications systems. It makes the cost, performance, form factor, and power consumption of these systems, including cellular phones, critical issues. At present, the fixed frequency filter banks based on Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBAR) are regarded as one of the most promising technologies to address performance -form factor-cost issues. Even though the FBARs improve the overall performances the complexity of these systems remains high.  Attempts are being made to exclude some of the filters by bringing the digital signal processing (including channel selection) as close to the antennas as possible. However handling the increased interference levels is unrealistic for low-cost battery operated radios. Replacing fixed frequency filter banks by one tuneable filter is the most desired and widely considered scenario. As an example, development of the softwa...

  3. Interface control of bulk ferroelectric polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, P [University of California, Berkeley; Luo, Weidong [ORNL; Yi, D. [University of California, Berkeley; Zhang, J.-X. [University of California, Berkeley; Rossell, M.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yang, C.-H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology; You, L. [University of California, Berkeley; Singh-Bhalla, G. B. [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL; Yang, S.Y [University of California, Berkeley; He, Q [University of California, Berkeley; Ramasse, Q. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Erni, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Martin, L. W. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Chu, Y. H. [University of California, Berkeley; Pantelides, Sokrates T [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Ramesh, R. [University of California, Berkeley

    2012-01-01

    The control of material interfaces at the atomic level has led to no- vel interfacial properties and functionalities. In particular, the study of polar discontinuities at interfaces between complex oxides lies at the frontier of modern condensed matter research. Here we em- ploy a combination of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations to demonstrate the control of a bulk property, namely ferroelectric polarization, of a heteroepitaxial bilayer by precise atomic-scale interface engineering. More specifically, the control is achieved by exploiting the interfacial valence mismatch to influence the electrostatic potential step across the interface, which manifests itself as the biased-voltage in ferroelectric hysteresis loops and determines the ferroelectric state. A broad study of diverse systems comprising different ferroelectrics and conducting perovskite un- derlayers extends the generality of this phenomenon.

  4. Criticality in Bulk Metallic Glass Constituent Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Rodrigo Miguel Ojeda; Graedel, T. E.; Pekarskaya, Evgenia; Schroers, Jan

    2017-11-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), which readily form amorphous phases during solidification, are increasingly being used in first applications of watch components, electronic casings, and sporting goods. The compositions of BMGs typically include four to six elements. Various political and geological factors have recently led to supply disruptions for several metals, including some present in BMG compositions. In this work, we assess the "criticality" of 22 technologically interesting BMG compositions, compare the results with those for three common engineering alloy groups, and derive recommendations for BMG composition choices from a criticality perspective. The criticality of BMGs is found to be generally much higher compared with those for the established engineering alloys. Therefore, criticality concerns should also be considered in the choice between existing and developing novel BMGs.

  5. Bulk disk resonator based ultrasensitive mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of developing an innovative label-free sensor for multiarrayed biodetection applications, we present a novel bulk resonator based mass sensor. The sensor is a polysilicon disk which shows a Q-factor of 6400 in air at 68.8 MHz, resulting in mass resolutions down in the femtogram...... range. The sensor has been characterized in terms of sensitivity both for distributed mass detection, performing six consecutive depositions of e-beam evaporated Au, and localized mass detection, depositing approximately 7.5 pg of Pt/Ga/C three times consecutively with a Focused Ion Beam system....... The sensor has an extremely high distributed mass to frequency shift sensitivity of 60104 Hzcm2/¿g and shows a localized mass to frequency sensitivity up to 4405 Hz/pg with a localized mass resolution down to 15 fg. The device has been fabricated with a new microfabrication process that uses only two...

  6. How Many Bulk Metallic Glasses Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanglin; Zhao, Shaofan; Liu, Yanhui; Gong, Pan; Schroers, Jan

    2017-11-13

    Quantitative prediction of glass forming ability using a priori known parameters is highly desired in metallic glass development; however proven to be challenging because of the complexity of glass formation. Here, we estimate the number of potential metallic glasses (MGs) and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) forming systems and alloys, from empirically determined alloy design rules based on a priori known parameters. Specifically, we take into account atomic size ratio, heat of mixing, and liquidus temperature, which we quantify on binary glasses and centimeter-sized BMGs. When expanding into higher order systems that can be formed among 32 practical elements, we reduce the composition space for BMG formation using developed criteria by 106 times and estimate ∼3 million binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary BMGs alloys.

  7. Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

  8. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  9. Generation and Stability of Bulk Nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jong-Min

    2017-04-18

    Recently, extremely small bubbles, referred to as nanobubbles, have drawn increased attention due to their novel properties and great potential for various applications. In this study, a novel method for the generation of bulk nanobubbles (BNBs) was introduced, and stability of fabricated BNBs was investigated. BNBs were created from CO2 gas with a mixing method; the chemical identity and phase state of these bubbles can be determined via infrared spectroscopy. The presence of BNBs was observed with a nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). The ATR-FTIR spectra of BNBs indicate that the BNBs were filled with CO2 gas. Furthermore, the BNB concentration and its ζ-potential were about 2.94 × 108 particles/mL and -20 mV, respectively (24 h after BNB generation with a mixing time of 120 min). This indicates the continued existence and stability of BNBs in water for an extended period of time.

  10. Assessment of bioburden encapsulated in bulk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Newlin, Laura; Chung, Shirley Y.; Ellyin, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) imposes bioburden limitations on all spacecraft destined for solar system bodies that might harbor evidence of extant or extinct life. The subset of microorganisms trapped within solid materials during manufacture and assembly is referred to as encapsulated bioburden. In the absence of spacecraft-specific data, NASA relies on specification values to estimate total spacecraft encapsulated bioburden, typically 30 endospores/cm3 or 300 viable cells/cm3 in non-electronic materials. Specification values for endospores have been established conservatively, and represent no less than an order of magnitude greater abundance than that derived from empirical assessments of actual spacecraft materials. The goal of this study was to generate data germane to determining whether revised bulk encapsulated material values (lower than those estimated by historical specifications) tailored specifically to the materials designated in modern-day spacecraft design could be used, on a case-by-case basis, to comply with planetary protection requirements. Organic materials having distinctly different chemical properties and configurations were selected. This required more than one experimental and analytical approach. Filtration was employed for liquid electrolytes, lubricants were suspended in an aqueous solution and solids (wire and epoxy sealant) were cryogenically milled. The final data characteristic for all bioburden estimates was microbial colony formation in rich agar growth medium. To assess survival potential, three non-spore-forming bacterial cell lines were systematically encapsulated in an epoxy matrix, liberated via cryogenic grinding, and cultured. Results suggest that bulk solid materials harbor significantly fewer encapsulated microorganisms than are estimated by specification values. Lithium-ion battery electrolyte reagents housed fewer than 1 CFU/cm3. Results also demonstrated that non-spore-forming microorganisms

  11. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  12. Dissolved organic and inorganic matter in bulk deposition of a coastal urban area: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrícia S M; Santos, Eduarda B H; Duarte, Armando C

    2014-12-01

    Bulk deposition can remove atmospheric organic and inorganic pollutants that may be associated with gaseous, liquid or particulate phases. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have been carried out, which simultaneously analyse the presence of organic and inorganic fractions in rainwater. In the present work, the complementarity of organic and inorganic data was assessed, through crossing data of some organic [DOC (dissolved organic carbon), absorbance at 250 nm (UV250nm), integrated fluorescence] and inorganic [H(+), NH4(+), NO3(-), non sea salt sulphate (NSS-SO4(2-))] parameters measured in bulk deposition in the coastal urban area of Aveiro. The organic and inorganic parameters analysed were positively correlated (pinorganic parameters with the precipitation amount suggest that organic and inorganic fractions were incorporated into the rainwater partially by below-cloud scavenging of airborne particulate matter. This is in accordance with the high values of DOC and NO3(-) found in samples associated with marine air masses, which were linked in part to the contribution of local emissions from vehicular traffic. DOC of bulk deposition was the predominant constituent when compared with the constituents H(+), NH4(+), NO3(-) and NSS-SO4(2-), and consequently bulk deposition flux was also highest for DOC, highlighting the importance of DOC and of anthropogenic ions being simultaneously removed from the atmosphere by bulk deposition. However, it was verified that the contribution of anthropogenic sources to the DOC of bulk deposition may be different for distinct urban areas. Thus, it is recommended that organic and inorganic fractions of bulk deposition are studied together. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Bulk Mechanical Properties Testing of Metallic Marginal Glass Formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Q. Phan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a unique three-point bend testing apparatus to measure bulk mechanical properties of a model metallic glass alloy (SAM2X5 with nominal composition Fe49.7Cr17.1Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 prepared by spark plasma sintering. The relatively large sample sizes in the present work allowed for the preparation of test specimens with a macroscale cross section (in the millimeter range with well-controlled sample dimensions closer to standardized tests. Wire saw cutting allowed for a relatively sharp notch radius (3x smaller than previous studies and minimal sample damage. We determined that Young’s modulus and notch fracture toughness measured by our three-point bending apparatus are 230 GPa and 4.9 MPa·m1/2. Also, Vickers indentation and flexure testing provided consistent results for Young’s modulus. Indentation fracture toughness measured by Vickers indentation produced values at least 50% lower than by flexure. The microscale mechanical properties testing technique presented in this work and subsequent analyses are applicable to specimens of other compositions or ones prepared by other methods.

  14. Use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in bulk milk to estimate the prevalence of Neospora caninum on dairy farms in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan M; Bartels, Chris J M

    2007-05-01

    This study evaluated the use of bulk milk as a diagnostic tool for estimation of herd-level Neospora caninum exposure in Atlantic Canada; it was used to estimate the prevalence of dairy farms with a within-herd N. caninum-seroprevalence > or = 15% in Prince Edward Island (PEI). The variation over time of N. caninum antibodies in bulk milk is also reported. Skimmed bulk milk and individual serum samples were analyzed for N. caninum antibodies by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bulk milk samples were collected in May 2004 (n = 235), May 2005 (n = 189), and June 2005 (n = 235). The prevalence of dairy farms with a within-herd seroprevalence > or = 15% on PEI was 6.4% in May 2004. In May and June 2005, respectively, 10.1% and 10.2% of farms had a > or = 15% within-herd seroprevalence. In 11 farms that were considered positive based on bulk milk samples, blood samples were collected from all adult cows in September 2005, in conjunction with a 4th bulk milk sample on the same day. The correlation coefficient between serology and bulk milk ELISA was 0.87. The results of this study demonstrate that the prevalence of N. caninum in dairy farms can be estimated by using a bulk milk ELISA.

  15. Interferometric method for quantitatively testing the RadOptic effect in bulk semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo-dong; Song, Yan; Hei, Dong-wei; Zhao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    For the quantitative investigation of MeV-photon-induced changes in the refractive indices of bulk semiconductors, a model was established to describe the evolution of the excess carrier density, including the generation and recombination processes. The two key parameters of the evolution model, namely, the summed injection intensity and the gamma intensity curve, were obtained via dose measurements and gamma pulse monitoring, respectively. An interferometric method of measuring instantaneous changes in the refractive index and obtaining real-time measurements of the excess carrier density in bulk materials was successfully implemented. The probe beam was transmitted through a single-mode fiber to form double-beam interference in a slab geometry. Two bulk samples, one consisting of intrinsic GaAs and one of intrinsic ZnO, were tested. The recombination time constant of the intrinsic GaAs sample was found to be approximately 0.6 ns and did not vary distinctly with the photon energy, whereas the ZnO sample's recombination behavior consisted of two components. The short component was evident when short and intense pulses were incident, whereas the long component dominated under long and relatively weak pulses. The method reported in this work can be used to study the excess carrier dynamics induced by pulsed gamma radiation and to investigate the mechanisms of refractive index modulation under pulsed gamma conditions; thus, it is expected to be beneficial for guiding the development of RadOptic systems based on bulk materials.

  16. A large sample of shear-selected clusters from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program S16A Wide field mass maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune; Hamana, Takashi; Shirasaki, Masato; Koike, Michitaro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Umetsu, Keiichi; Utsumi, Yousuke; Okabe, Nobuhiro; More, Surhud; Medezinski, Elinor; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyatake, Hironao; Murayama, Hitoshi; Ota, Naomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki

    2017-12-01

    We present the result of searching for clusters of galaxies based on weak gravitational lensing analysis of the ˜160 deg2 area surveyed by Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) as a Subaru Strategic Program. HSC is a new prime focus optical imager with a 1.5°-diameter field of view on the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. The superb median seeing on the HSC i-band images of 0{^''.}56 allows the reconstruction of high angular resolution mass maps via weak lensing, which is crucial for the weak lensing cluster search. We identify 65 mass map peaks with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio larger than 4.7, and carefully examine their properties by cross-matching the clusters with optical and X-ray cluster catalogs. We find that all the 39 peaks with S/N > 5.1 have counterparts in the optical cluster catalogs, and only 2 out of the 65 peaks are probably false positives. The upper limits of X-ray luminosities from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) imply the existence of an X-ray underluminous cluster population. We show that the X-rays from the shear-selected clusters can be statistically detected by stacking the RASS images. The inferred average X-ray luminosity is about half that of the X-ray-selected clusters of the same mass. The radial profile of the dark matter distribution derived from the stacking analysis is well modeled by the Navarro-Frenk-White profile with a small concentration parameter value of c500 ˜ 2.5, which suggests that the selection bias on the orientation or the internal structure for our shear-selected cluster sample is not strong.

  17. Superior tensile ductility in bulk metallic glass with gradient amorphous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Yang, Y; Jiang, H; Liu, C T; Ruan, H H; Lu, J

    2014-04-23

    Over centuries, structural glasses have been deemed as a strong yet inherently 'brittle' material due to their lack of tensile ductility. However, here we report bulk metallic glasses exhibiting both a high strength of ~2 GPa and an unprecedented tensile elongation of 2-4% at room temperature. Our experiments have demonstrated that intense structural evolution can be triggered in theses glasses by the carefully controlled surface mechanical attrition treatment, leading to the formation of gradient amorphous microstructures across the sample thickness. As a result, the engineered amorphous microstructures effectively promote multiple shear banding while delay cavitation in the bulk metallic glass, thus resulting in superior tensile ductility. The outcome of our research uncovers an unusual work-hardening mechanism in monolithic bulk metallic glasses and demonstrates a promising yet low-cost strategy suitable for producing large-sized, ultra-strong and stretchable structural glasses.

  18. Plume fragmentation by bulk interactions in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosbach, Johannes; Weiss, Stephan; Ahlers, Guenter

    2012-02-03

    Using compressed gases with Prandtl numbers near 0.7, we obtained flow visualizations of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cylindrical sample with an aspect ratio Γ≡D/L≅10 (D is the diameter and L the height) by the shadowgraph method. Focusing on the plumes under the top plate, we found that their length had a log-normal distribution, suggesting a fragmentation process. Fragmentation events could be visually identified in the images and involved plume interactions with bulk fluctuations or upwelling domain walls. We found the mean spacing between plumes to vary with the Rayleigh number in proportion to the volume-averaged Kolmogorov length of the turbulent bulk fluctuations, providing further evidence for plume-bulk interactions.

  19. Phytoestrogens and Their Metabolites in Bulk-Tank Milk: Effects of Farm Management and Season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Steffen A; Purup, Stig; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2015-01-01

    had the highest red clover proportions in the herbage. This study shows that production system, grassland management, and season affect milk concentrations of phytoestrogens. However, compared to soy products, milk concentrations of phytoestrogens are low and future studies are required to investigate...... organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either......, and long-term grassland management (LG) was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding. The proportion of red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) in the herbage was positively correlated with milk concentrations of the mammalian isoflavone equol. Therefore, organically produced bulk-tank milk contained...

  20. Numerical estimation of deformation energy of selected bulk oilseeds in compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, C.; Kabutey, A.; Herak, D.; Gurdil, G. A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aimed at the determination of the deformation energy of some bulk oilseeds or kernels namely oil palm, sunflower, rape and flax in linear pressing applying the trapezoidal rule which is characterized by the area under the force and deformation curve.The bulk samples were measured at the initial pressing height of 60 mm with the vessel diameter of 60 mm where they were compressed under the universal compression machine at a maximum force of 200 kN and speed of 5 mm/min.Based on the compression test, the optimal deformation energy for recovering the oil was observed at a force of 163 kN where there was no seed/kernel cake ejection in comparison to the initial maximum force used particularly for rape and flax bulk oilseeds.This information is needed for analyzing the energy efficiency of the non-linear compression process involving a mechanical screw press or expeller.

  1. Links between matrix bulk density, macropore characteristics and hydraulic behavior of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The relationship of soil bulk density with the hydraulic behavior of soil and the role of macropores in preferential flow and transport has been extensively studied in literatures. Yet, the influence of soil structural heterogeneity as simultaneous variation of bulk density and macropore characte......The relationship of soil bulk density with the hydraulic behavior of soil and the role of macropores in preferential flow and transport has been extensively studied in literatures. Yet, the influence of soil structural heterogeneity as simultaneous variation of bulk density and macropore...... characteristics on soil hydraulic functions has rarely been studied. With the objective of studying the links between these parameters we quantified macropore characteristics of intact soil columns (19 cm diameter x 20 cm high) from two agricultural field sites (Silstrup and Faardrup) in Denmark using coarse....... However, in Faardrup soils macroporosity and matrix bulk density were weakly correlated. Though macroporosity and interconnectivity of macropores could explain some variation in the hydraulic behavior of a few samples from Faardrup, the preferential flow behavior was observed to be primarily influenced...

  2. Estimation of bulk optical properties of turbid media from hyperspectral scatter imaging measurements: metamodeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aernouts, Ben; Erkinbaev, Chyngyz; Watté, Rodrigo; Van Beers, Robbe; Do Trong, Nghia Nguyen; Nicolai, Bart; Saeys, Wouter

    2015-10-05

    In many research areas and application domains, the bulk optical properties of biological materials are of great interest. Unfortunately, these properties cannot be obtained easily for complex turbid media. In this study, a metamodeling approach has been proposed and applied for the fast and accurate estimation of the bulk optical properties from contactless and non-destructive hyperspectral scatter imaging (HSI) measurements. A set of liquid optical phantoms, based on intralipid, methylene blue and water, were prepared and the Vis/NIR bulk optical properties were characterized with a double integrating sphere and unscattered transmittance setup. Accordingly, the phantoms were measured with the HSI technique and metamodels were constructed, relating the Vis/NIR reflectance images to the reference bulk optical properties of the samples. The independent inverse validation showed good prediction performance for the absorption coefficient and the reduced scattering coefficient, with R(2)(p) values of 0.980 and 0.998, and RMSE(P) values of 0.032 cm(-1) and 0.197 cm(-1) respectively. The results clearly support the potential of this approach for fast and accurate estimation of the bulk optical properties of turbid media from contactless HSI measurements.

  3. Identifying the determinants of viable microorganisms in the air and bulk metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji, M A; Woskie, S R; Sama, S R; Kriebel, D; Eberiel, D

    2000-01-01

    Exposure assessment was conducted for an epidemiologic study of the respiratory effects of exposure to metalworking fluids (MWF). As part of the study, airborne microorganisms were collected with a two-stage microbial impactor, and a sample of the bulk soluble MWF was collected from each machine sump, as well as information about the work environment. These data were then used to develop multivariate statistical models of the determinants bulk MWF and airborne microbial levels. Microbial concentrations in the bulk MWF ranged from 5 x 10(4) to 5 x 10(10) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, with a geometric mean of 3.4 x 10(7) CFU/mL. The geometric mean airborne microbial level was 182 CFU/m3 (for particles size tramp oil leaking into the fluid. For the airborne microbial models, process-related factors were the major characteristics associated with microbial levels, followed by factors related to worker activities and environmental factors. The final full multivariate model predicted a significant control of airborne microorganisms by increasing worker distance from the machine, reducing the number of machines within 10 feet of the worker, decreasing the bulk microbial levels, and adding machine enclosures. These models can be used to prioritize nonbiocidal interventions to control microbial contamination of the bulk MWF and the air.

  4. Locality, bulk equations of motion and the conformal bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York,250 Bedford Park Blvd. W, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Haifa,199 Aba Khoushy Ave., Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2016-10-18

    We develop an approach to construct local bulk operators in a CFT to order 1/N{sup 2}. Since 4-point functions are not fixed by conformal invariance we use the OPE to categorize possible forms for a bulk operator. Using previous results on 3-point functions we construct a local bulk operator in each OPE channel. We then impose the condition that the bulk operators constructed in different channels agree, and hence give rise to a well-defined bulk operator. We refer to this condition as the “bulk bootstrap.” We argue and explicitly show in some examples that the bulk bootstrap leads to some of the same results as the regular conformal bootstrap. In fact the bulk bootstrap provides an easier way to determine some CFT data, since it does not require knowing the form of the conformal blocks. This analysis clarifies previous results on the relation between bulk locality and the bootstrap for theories with a 1/N expansion, and it identifies a simple and direct way in which OPE coefficients and anomalous dimensions determine the bulk equations of motion to order 1/N{sup 2}.

  5. Alternative Measurement Configurations for Extracting Bulk Optical Properties Using an Integrating Sphere Setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thennadil, Suresh N; Chen, Yi-Chieh

    2017-02-01

    The usual approach for estimating bulk optical properties using an integrating sphere measurement setup is by acquiring spectra from three measurement modes namely collimated transmittance (Tc), total transmittance (Td), and total diffuse reflectance (Rd), followed by the inversion of these measurements using the adding-doubling method. At high scattering levels, accurate acquisition of Tc becomes problematic due to the presence of significant amounts of forward-scattered light in this measurement which is supposed to contain only unscattered light. In this paper, we propose and investigate the effectiveness of using alternative sets of integrating sphere measurements that avoid the use of Tc and could potentially increase the upper limit of concentrations of suspensions at which bulk optical property measurements can be obtained in the visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR) region of the spectrum. We examine the possibility of replacing Tc with one or more reflectance measurements at different sample thicknesses. We also examine the possibility of replacing both the collimated (Tc) and total transmittance (Td) measurements with reflectance measurements taken from different sample thicknesses. The analysis presented here indicates that replacing Tc with a reflectance measurement can reduce the errors in the bulk scattering properties when scattering levels are high. When only multiple reflectance measurements are used, good estimates of the bulk optical properties can be obtained when the absorption levels are low. In addition, we examine whether there is any advantage in using three measurements instead of two to obtain the reduced bulk scattering coefficient and the bulk absorption coefficient. This investigation is made in the context of chemical and biological suspensions which have a much larger range of optical properties compared to those encountered with tissue.

  6. Improvements in discrimination of bulk and trace elements in long-wavelength double pulse LIBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.R., E-mail: freeman.justinr@gmail.com; Diwakar, P.K., E-mail: pdiwakar@purdue.edu; Harilal, S.S., E-mail: hari@pnnl.gov; Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the effectiveness of long-wavelength heating in double pulse (DP) LIBS, quantitatively comparing figures of merit with those from traditional single pulse (SP) LIBS. The first laser pulse serves as the source of sample ablation, creating an aerosol-like plume that is subsequently reheated by the second laser pulse. At power densities used, the long-wavelength CO{sub 2} laser pulse does not ablate any of the solid sample in the atmospheric conditions investigated, meaning plasma emission and enhanced signal can be entirely attributed to the reheated plume rather than increased sample ablation. The signal discrimination was improved significantly using long-wavelength DP-LIBS. For bulk elemental analysis, DP-LIBS provided maximum enhancements of about 14 and 15 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, compared to SP-LIBS using the same quantity of ablated sample. For trace elemental analysis, maximum enhancements of about 7 and 4 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, were observed. These improvements are attributed to effective coupling between the second heating pulse and expanding plume and more efficient excitation of plume species than from the single pulse alone. Most significant improvements were observed in the case of low prepulse energy and minimal sample ablation. While bulk elemental analysis observed improvements for all prepulse energies studied, trace element discrimination only significantly improved for the lowest prepulse energy studied. - Highlights: • Enhancement by improved coupling and excitation efficiency, not increased ablated mass • S/N enhancements of 14 and 7 times for bulk and trace elements, respectively • S/B enhancements of 15 and 4 times for bulk and trace elements, respectively • Max enhancement observed for smaller quantities of ablated sample • Significant conclusions for delicate, mass-limited samples.

  7. Bulk Modulus Relaxation in Partially Molten Dunite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, I.; Cline, C. J., II

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic solgel-derived Fo90 olivine was mixed with 3.5 wt % basaltic glass and hot-pressed within Ni/Fe foil to produce a dense aggregate expected to contain a small melt fraction at temperatures ≥ 1100°C. This specimen was precision ground and tested in both torsional and flexural forced oscillation to determine the relaxation behavior of both shear (G) and bulk (K) moduli at seismic frequencies. A recent upgrade of our experimental facility allows such measurements to be made without alteration of the driver/detector geometry, and uses an oscillating bending force rather than a bending moment, as previously described. The torsional and flexural tests were conducted in a gas apparatus at 200 MPa confining pressure, with oscillation periods ranging between 1 and 1000 s, during slow staged-cooling from 1300 to 25°C. Shear modulus and associated dissipation data are consistent with those for melt-bearing olivine specimens previously tested in torsion, with a pronounced dissipation peak superimposed on high-temperature background within the 1-1000 s observational window at temperatures of 1100-1200°C. A filament elongation model relates the observed flexural measurements to the variations along the experimental assembly of the complex Young's modulus (E*), bending moment and diametral moment of inertia. With E* given by 1/E*=1/(3G*) + 1/(9K*), and the complex shear modulus (G*) derived from torsional oscillation, any relaxation of K can be identified. Preliminary modeling shows that the viscoelastic properties in flexure are broadly consistent with those expected from the shear-mode viscoelasticity with anharmonic (real) values of K. However, some discrepancies between modeled results and flexure data at super-solidus temperatures require further investigation of possible differences in shear modulus relaxation between the torsional and flexural modes, and of potential relaxation of the bulk modulus through stress-induced changes in melt redistribution and

  8. Determination of the bulk cobalt valence state of co-perovskites containing surface-adsorbed impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, O; Ludwig, Chr; Wokaun, A

    2006-10-15

    We used thermogravimetric hydrogen reduction and iodometric titration to determine the bulk valence state of cobalt in Co-perovskites containing surface carbonate hydroxide or hydroxyl groups. It could be shown that thermogravimetric hydrogen reduction experiments are very sensitive to volatile surface groups, but due to their volatility, they can be specified and the bulk valence state of cobalt can still be deduced from these experiments. The iodometric titration is less sensitive to small volatile surface impurities, but precaution has to be taken that oxygen or iodine does not escape from the solution during dissolution of the sample. Best results were obtained if the sample was titrated during dissolution in a closed argon floated titration apparatus. We tested the two methods using LaCoO3 perovskite as a sample with a known valence state. Both methods delivered satisfactory results, and the valence state could be determined with an accuracy of better than 1%.

  9. Influence of oxygen doping on critical fields in MgB2 bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Li, X.; Wan, F.; Thong, C. J.; Rindfleisch, M. A.; Tomsic, M. J.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we studied the influence of SnO2 doping on the critical fields and temperatures of MgB2 bulk samples. Bulk samples were made by mixing ex-situ MgB2 powder with 5 wt% SnO2 powder and then pressing the mixed powders into pellets using a pressure of 2000 psi. The bulk pellets were sintered at 900°C in a furnace under flowing Ar. The samples were quenched to room temperature after dwelling at 900°C for 5h. XRD, SEM, and magnetic measurements were made on doped and control samples. XRD showed a decomposition of the SnO2 and very slight reductions in the a-axis and c-axis lattice parameters of the MgB2 phase. M-T (Magnetization-Temperature) curves showed a decrease in Bc2 of approximately 1 T in the temperature range of 24 K - 39 K with SnO2 additions as compared to the control samples.

  10. Recycling of multi-grain, melt processed bulk (RE)BCO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S. K.; Babu, N. H.; Dennis, A. R.; Iida, K.; Strasik, M.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2010-06-01

    Recycling is fundamental to the sustainable and economic use of natural resources. Bulk RE-Ba-Cu-O ((RE)BCO, where RE is a rare earth element or Y) can be used for variety of sustainable engineering and power sector applications. However, current costs of production and relatively high process failure rates of up to 30% severely limit the manufacture of these materials for industrial use. It is necessary, therefore, to develop an effective way of recycling failed (RE)BCO bulk samples to reduce both production costs and the consumption of the constituent rare earth elements. Failed, melt processed samples have a different chemical composition to that used initially in the precursor powder and, as a result, are generally scrapped, rather than re-processed. We report a novel method for re-processing failed (RE)BCO samples to restore their chemical composition. Failed bulk samples recycled using this process exhibit superconducting properties that are comparable to those of single-grain samples fabricated by conventional top seeded melt growth.

  11. Bulk density and relationship air/water of horticultural substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes,Carolina; Corá, José Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    Change on substrate bulk density during the growing period may negatively affect other substrate physical properties and, consequently, plant growth. The objectives of this research were 1) to characterize physical properties of two horticultural substrates (S1 and S2), 2) to evaluate the effect of different bulk densities values of those substrates on their air/water relationship, and 3) to develop mathematical functions to estimate the air/water relationship by increasing substrates bulk de...

  12. Isolation and characterization of culturable bacteria from bulk soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olaf _SK

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... pods with large brownish-black oil and protein-rich seeds. (Holse et al., 2010). ... nutrition and increase food availability in arid ecological zones. .... 3. Bulk. Eight. BP6, BP7, BP8, BP9, BP10, BP11, BP12, BP13. 4. Bulk. Three. BP14, BP15, BP16. 5. Bulk. Three. BP17, BP18, BP19. 6. Rhizosphere. Two.

  13. Determination of Bulk Dimensional Variation in Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James F. Cuttino Dr. Edward P. Morse

    2005-04-14

    The purpose of this work is to improve the efficiency of green sand foundries so that they may continue to compete as the most cost-effective method of fabrication while meeting tightening constraints on near-net shape manufacturing. In order to achieve this objective, the study is divided into two major components. The first component concentrated on identifying which processes control surface finish on the castings and which provide potential reductions in variations. The second component identified metrological methods that effectively discern between the geometry of bulk material versus surface finish in order to more accurately determine the quality of a part. The research resulted in the determination of an empirical relationship relating pouring parameters to dimensional variation, with an R2 value of greater than 0.79. A significant difference in variations obtained from vertical vs. horizontal molding machines was also noticed. When analyzed separately, however, the resulting empirical relationships for horizontal and vertical machines had reduced R2 values, probably due to the reduced data sets. Significant parameters when considering vertical and horizontal molding machines together included surface roughness, pattern type, iron type, pouring rate, copper content, amount of Western Bentonite, and permeability.

  14. Recent developments of film bulk acoustic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junning; Liu, Guorong; Li, Jie; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    Film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) experienced skyrocketing development in the past 15 years, owing to the explosive development of mobile communication. It stands out in acoustic filters mainly because of high quality factor, which enables low insertion loss and sharp roll off. Except for the massive application in wireless communication, FBARs are also promising sensors because of the high sensitivity and readily integration ability to miniaturize circuits. On the ground of summarizing FBAR’s application in wireless communication as filters and in sensors including electronic nose, bio field, and pressure sensing, this paper review the main challenges of each application faced. The number of filters installed in the mobile phone has being grown explosively, which leads to overcrowded bands and put harsh requirements on component size and power consumption control for each unit. Data flow and rate are becoming increasingly demanding as well. This paper discusses three promising technical strategies addressing these issues. Among which coupled resonator filter is given intense attention because it is able to vigorously reduce the filter size by stacking two or more resonators together, and it is a great technique to increase data flow and rate. Temperature compensation methods are discussed considering their vital influence on frequency stability. Finally, materials improvement and novel materials exploration for band width modulation, tunable band acquisition, and quality factor improvement are discussed. The authors appeal attention of the academic society to bring AlN epitaxial thin film into the FBAR fabrication and have proposed a configuration to implement this idea.

  15. Photoelectron spectroscopy bulk and surface electronic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Suga, Shigemasa

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is now becoming more and more required to investigate electronic structures of various solid materials in the bulk, on surfaces as well as at buried interfaces. The energy resolution was much improved in the last decade down to 1 meV in the low photon energy region. Now this technique is available from a few eV up to 10 keV by use of lasers, electron cyclotron resonance lamps in addition to synchrotron radiation and X-ray tubes. High resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now widely applied to band mapping of materials. It attracts a wide attention from both fundamental science and material engineering. Studies of the dynamics of excited states are feasible by time of flight spectroscopy with fully utilizing the pulse structures of synchrotron radiation as well as lasers including the free electron lasers (FEL). Spin resolved studies also made dramatic progress by using higher efficiency spin detectors and two dimensional spin detectors. Polarization depend...

  16. Dilepton radiation and bulk viscosity in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujanovic, Gojko; Paquet, Jean-François; Shen, Chun; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles; Heinz, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Starting from IP-Glasma initial conditions, we investigate the effects of bulk pressure on thermal dilepton production at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. Though results of the thermal dilepton v2 under the influence of both bulk and shear viscosity is presented for top RHIC energy, more emphasis is put on LHC energy where such a calculation is computed for the first time. The effects of the bulk pressure on thermal dilepton v2 at the LHC are explored through bulk-induced modifications on the dilepton yield.

  17. Spin relaxation of electrons in bulk CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinzl, Daniel; Nahalkova, Petra; Kunc, Jan; Maly, Petr; Horodysky, Petr; Grill, Roman; Belas, Eduard; Franc, Jan; Nemec, Petr

    2007-03-01

    We report on the measurements of the spin relaxation time T1 of photo-excited electrons in bulk CdTe. The carrier dynamics were investigated by transient absorption experiments using 80 fs circularly polarized laser pulses at sample temperatures from 20 to 300 K. We studied both p and n type doped CdTe samples, which were prepared in the form of thin platelets from the crystals grown by the modified Bridgman method. The obtained results are compared with the spin relaxation times reported for other semiconductors with the same crystal structure (e.g., GaAs [1]). Finally, the relative contributions of the D'yakonov-Perel, Elliott-Yafet, Bir-Aronov-Pikus, and other mechanisms to the measured spin relaxation times in CdTe are discussed. This work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (grant 202/03/H003), by the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic in the framework of the research centre LC510 and the research plan MSM 0021620834. [1] J. M. Kikkawa and D. D. Awschalom, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4313 (1998).

  18. Fabrication and properties of dense ex situ magnesium diboride bulk material synthesized using spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancer, C E J; Todd, R I; Grovenor, C R M [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Prabhakaran, D [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Basoglu, M; Yanmaz, E [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Yan, H; Reece, M, E-mail: claire.dancer@linacre.oxon.or [Department of Materials, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    High density ex situ magnesium diboride bulks were synthesized from commercial MgB{sub 2} powder using spark plasma sintering under a range of applied uniaxial pressures between 16 and 80 MPa. The microstructure was characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, polarized optical microscopy, Vickers hardness measurements, and density measurements using the Archimedes method. By combining these data with those for other bulk samples we have developed a correlation curve for the hardness and density for magnesium diboride for relative densities of 60-100%. The superconducting properties were determined using magnetization measurements. Comparison to samples of significantly higher porosity indicates a positive correlation between magnetization critical current density and bulk density for magnesium diboride bulks up to around 90% density. Above this level other microstructural processes such as grain growth begin to influence the critical current density, suggesting that full elimination of porosity is not necessary to obtain high critical current density. We conclude that the best superconducting properties are likely to be obtained with a combination of small grain size and minimal porosity.

  19. Metagenome-Wide Association Study and Machine Learning Prediction of Bulk Soil Microbiome and Crop Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hao-Xun; Haudenshield, James S; Bowen, Charles R; Hartman, Glen L

    2017-01-01

    Areas within an agricultural field in the same season often differ in crop productivity despite having the same cropping history, crop genotype, and management practices. One hypothesis is that abiotic or biotic factors in the soils differ between areas resulting in these productivity differences. In this study, bulk soil samples collected from a high and a low productivity area from within six agronomic fields in Illinois were quantified for abiotic and biotic characteristics. Extracted DNA from these bulk soil samples were shotgun sequenced. While logistic regression analyses resulted in no significant association between crop productivity and the 26 soil characteristics, principal coordinate analysis and constrained correspondence analysis showed crop productivity explained a major proportion of the taxa variance in the bulk soil microbiome. Metagenome-wide association studies (MWAS) identified more Bradyrhizodium and Gammaproteobacteria in higher productivity areas and more Actinobacteria, Ascomycota, Planctomycetales, and Streptophyta in lower productivity areas. Machine learning using a random forest method successfully predicted productivity based on the microbiome composition with the best accuracy of 0.79 at the order level. Our study showed that crop productivity differences were associated with bulk soil microbiome composition and highlighted several nitrogen utility-related taxa. We demonstrated the merit of MWAS and machine learning for the first time in a plant-microbiome study.

  20. Metagenome-Wide Association Study and Machine Learning Prediction of Bulk Soil Microbiome and Crop Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hao-Xun; Haudenshield, James S.; Bowen, Charles R.; Hartman, Glen L.

    2017-01-01

    Areas within an agricultural field in the same season often differ in crop productivity despite having the same cropping history, crop genotype, and management practices. One hypothesis is that abiotic or biotic factors in the soils differ between areas resulting in these productivity differences. In this study, bulk soil samples collected from a high and a low productivity area from within six agronomic fields in Illinois were quantified for abiotic and biotic characteristics. Extracted DNA from these bulk soil samples were shotgun sequenced. While logistic regression analyses resulted in no significant association between crop productivity and the 26 soil characteristics, principal coordinate analysis and constrained correspondence analysis showed crop productivity explained a major proportion of the taxa variance in the bulk soil microbiome. Metagenome-wide association studies (MWAS) identified more Bradyrhizodium and Gammaproteobacteria in higher productivity areas and more Actinobacteria, Ascomycota, Planctomycetales, and Streptophyta in lower productivity areas. Machine learning using a random forest method successfully predicted productivity based on the microbiome composition with the best accuracy of 0.79 at the order level. Our study showed that crop productivity differences were associated with bulk soil microbiome composition and highlighted several nitrogen utility-related taxa. We demonstrated the merit of MWAS and machine learning for the first time in a plant-microbiome study. PMID:28421041

  1. Utilizing the Zero-One Linear Programming Constraints to Draw Multiple Sets of Matched Samples from a Non-Treatment Population as Control Groups for the Quasi-Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan H.; Yang, Yu N.; Tompkins, Leroy J.; Modarresi, Shahpar

    2005-01-01

    The statistical technique, "Zero-One Linear Programming," that has successfully been used to create multiple tests with similar characteristics (e.g., item difficulties, test information and test specifications) in the area of educational measurement, was deemed to be a suitable method for creating multiple sets of matched samples to be…

  2. The status of marine and coastal EBM among a large sample of U.S. federal programs: a social network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Apa, A.; Fullerton, A.; Schwing, F. B.; Brady, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is an integrated management approach that considers the entire ecosystem, including humans, across multiple sectors, with the goal to collectively manage natural resources, habitat, and species in a sustainable manner while maintaining ecosystem services to humans on the long-term. In the United States, the National Ocean Council (NOC) established a federal interagency subgroup (National Ocean Policy EBM-Subgroup) to provide policy advice on EBM strategies and technical representation from the federal agencies that are part of the NOC. As part of the NOP EBM-Subgroup effort, this study summarizes the status of EBM for several federal programs within the NOC agencies that implement or support marine and coastal EBM activities. Our objective was to provide an overview of the current state of practice among the many and varied U.S. federal programs employing EBM approaches in the ocean, coastal zone, and the Great Lakes. We used social network analysis techniques to explore similarities among programs in different topic areas (e.g., type of audience, partners, training, EBM best management practices and principles). Results highlight substantial differences in perceived and effective performances across programs, with Management programs showing a higher level of integration of EBM approaches than Non-Management programs. The use of EBM best management practices and principles among programs is unbalanced, with some key elements of EBM strategies less commonly employed in the management planning. This analysis identified gaps in the implementation of EBM strategies that can inform natural resource managers and planners

  3. 230Th/U dating of Last Interglacial brain corals from Bonaire (southern Caribbean) using bulk and theca wall material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, J. Christina; Scholz, Denis; Felis, Thomas; Brocas, William M.; Jochum, Klaus P.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-04-01

    We compared the suitability of two skeletal materials of the Atlantic brain coral Diploria strigosa for 230Th/U-dating: the commonly used bulk material comprising all skeletal elements and the denser theca wall material. Eight fossil corals of presumably Last Interglacial age from Bonaire, southern Caribbean Sea, were investigated, and several sub-samples were dated from each coral. For four corals, both the ages and the activity ratios of the bulk material and theca wall agree within uncertainty. Three corals show significantly older ages for their bulk material than for their theca wall material as well as substantially elevated 232Th content and (230Th/238U) ratios. The bulk material samples of another coral show younger ages and lower (230Th/238U) ratios than the corresponding theca wall samples. This coral also contains a considerable amount of 232Th. The application of the available open-system models developed to account for post-depositional diagenetic effects in corals shows that none of the models can successfully be applied to the Bonaire corals. The most likely explanation for this observation is that the assumptions of the models are not fulfilled by our data set. Comparison of the theca wall and bulk material data enables us to obtain information about the open-system processes that affected the corals. The corals showing apparently older ages for their bulk material were probably affected by contamination with a secondary (detrital) phase. The most likely source of the detrital material is carbonate sand. The higher (230Th/232Th) ratio of this material implies that detrital contamination would have a much stronger impact on the ages than a contaminant with a bulk Earth (230Th/232Th) ratio and that the threshold for the commonly applied 232Th reliability criterion would be much lower than the generally used value of 1 ng g-1. The coral showing apparently younger ages for its bulk material was probably influenced by more than one diagenetic process. A

  4. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  5. Teflon, Kapton surface and bulk effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. C.; Mccargo, M.

    1985-01-01

    Two samples of 2 mil aluminized/Kapton thermal blanket and two samples of Teflon were received for evaluation. Their location on the solar maximum is given. The Kapton top layer of the thermal blanket had been exposed to the LEO atomic oxygen environment and shows the surface degradation due to atomic oxygen attack resulting in a diffuse character over most of the surface. The backside Kapton layer which was unexposed appeared to the eye to be in virgin condition. Another sample exhibited similar properties, but was, in large part, covered with Kapton adhesive tape and it was not possible to obtain usable specimens for analysis. One of the Teflon samples which was exposed shows signs of heavy degradation including attack on the Ag/Inconel backside by ultraviolet and atomic oxygen. The other Teflon sample which was unexposed was only slightly fogged on the Teflon side and the Ag/Inconel appeared untouched. These samples were subjected to several chemical and physical analyses, the results of which are discussed.

  6. In-package inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 on bulk Romaine lettuce using cold plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sea C; Roh, Si Hyeon; Niemira, Brendan A; Boyd, Glenn; Sites, Joseph E; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2017-08-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DACP) treatment was evaluated for the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, surface morphology, color, carbon dioxide generation, and weight loss of bulk Romaine lettuce in a commercial plastic clamshell container. The lettuce samples were packed in a model bulk packaging configuration (three rows with either 1, 3, 5, or 7 layers) in the container and treated by DACP (42.6 kV, 10 min). DACP treatment reduced the number of E. coli O157:H7 in the leaf samples in the 1-, 3-, and 5-layer configurations by 0.4-0.8 log CFU/g lettuce, with no significant correlation to the sample location (P > 0.05). In the largest bulk stacking with 7 layers, a greater degree of reduction (1.1 log CFU/g lettuce) was observed at the top layer, but shaking the container increased the uniformity of the inhibition. DACP did not significantly change the surface morphology, color, respiration rate, or weight loss of the samples, nor did these properties differ significantly according to their location in the bulk stack. DACP treatment inhibited E. coli O157:H7 on bulk lettuce in clamshell containers in a uniform manner, without affecting the physical and biological properties and thus holds promise as a post-packaging process for fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Exploring the Utilization of Low-Pressure, Piston-Cylinder Experiments to Determine the Bulk Compositions of Finite, Precious Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, K. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Harrington, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Determining the bulk composition of precious materials with a finite mass (e.g., meteorite samples) is extremely important in the fields of Earth and Planetary Science. From meteorite studies we are able to place constraints on large scale planetary processes like global differentiation and subsequent volcanism, as well as smaller scale processes like crystallization in a magma chamber or sedimentary compaction at the surface. However, with meteorite samples in particular, far too often we are limited by how precious the sample is as well as its limited mass. In this study, we have utilized aliquots of samples previously studied for toxicological hazards, including both the fresh samples (lunar mare basalt NWA 4734, lunar regolith breccia NWA 7611, martian basalt Tissint, martian regolith breccia NWA 7034, a vestian basalt Berthoud, a vestian regolith breccia NWA 2060, and a terrestrial mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)), and those that underwent iron leaching (Tissint, NWA 7034, NWA 4734, MORB). With these small masses of material, we performed low pressure (approx. 0.75 GPa), high temperature (greater than 1600 degrees Celsius) melting experiments. Each sample was analyzed using a JEOL 8530F electron microprobe to determine the bulk composition of the materials that were previously examined. When available, the results of our microprobe data were compared with bulk rock compositions in the literature. The results of this study show that with this technique, only approx. 50 mg of sample is required to accurately determine the bulk composition of the materials of interest.

  8. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  9. Monitoring the bulk milk antibody response to bovine viral diarrhea in dairy herds vaccinated with inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A M; Arnaiz, I; Eiras, C; Camino, F; Sanjuán, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine long-term responses in dairy herds after vaccination with 1 of 3 inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccines with regard to antibodies against p80 protein in bulk tank milk samples, as detected by ELISA. In the present study, 29 dairy herds were vaccinated with Bovilis BVD (MSD Animal Health, Milton Keynes, UK), 11 with Hiprabovis Balance (Laboratorios Hipra, Amer, Spain), and 9 with Pregsure BVD (Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ). In these herds, bulk tank milk samples were collected and examined at the time of the first vaccination and every 6 mo during a 3-yr period. Samples were analyzed with a commercial ELISA test for the p80 protein of BVDV. The results demonstrated that vaccination affected the level of antibodies against p80. Hence, vaccination status should be taken into consideration when interpreting bulk tank milk antibody tests. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  11. 30 CFR 56.6802 - Bulk delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Maintenance § 56.6802 Bulk delivery vehicles. No welding or cutting shall be performed on a bulk delivery vehicle...

  12. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Docket, EPA/DC, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460. The Public Reading... telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the RCRA Docket... defined as PCB bulk product waste in 40 CFR 761.3. The definition of PCB bulk product waste includes ``non...

  13. Bulk metallic glasses: A new class of engineering materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A number of processes is available to synthesise bulk metallic glasses. The crystallisation behaviour and mechanical properties of these alloys pose interesting scientific questions. Upon crystallisation many of these glasses transform to bulk nanocrystals and nanoquasicrystals. A detailed study of the structure and the ...

  14. Simulation-integrated Design of Dry Bulk Terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vianen, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    To meet the expected increase of seaborne trade flows for coal and iron ore dry bulk terminals need to be designed or expanded. A comprehensive design method for dry bulk terminals is missing. Designs are currently based on rules-of-thumb, practical experiences and average values for specific design

  15. Influence of bulk dielectric polarization upon PD transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1995-01-01

    associated with the actual space charge in the void, and one related to changes in the bulk polarization brought about by changes in the field external to the void due to this space charge. The magnitude of the induced charge and its components are discussed in relation to a heterogeneous bulk dielectric...

  16. A new approximate sum rule for bulk alloy properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1992-01-01

    A new, approximate sum rule is introduced for determining bulk properties of multicomponent systems, in terms of the pure components properties. This expression is applied for the study of lattice parameters, cohesive energies, and bulk moduli of binary alloys. The correct experimental trends (i.e., departure from average values) are predicted in all cases.

  17. Bianchi Type-I bulk viscous fluid string dust magnetized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bianchi Type-I magnetized bulk viscous fluid string dust cosmological model is investigated. To get a determinate model, we have assumed the conditions and = constant where is the shear, the expansion in the model and the coefficient of bulk viscosity. The behaviour of the model in the presence and ...

  18. Advanced and new developments in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb

    2000-01-01

    Increasing demands to manufacturing industry of faster, better and cheaper production has intensified the research and development of bulk metal forming. The present paper gives examples on European industrial research on secondary bulk metal forming processes. The R&D follows three lines...

  19. Bulk viscosity of accretion disks around non rotating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeen Moghaddas, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Keplerian, relativistic accretion disks around the non rotating black holes with the bulk viscosity. Many of authors studied the relativistic accretion disks around the black holes, but they ignored the bulk viscosity. We introduce a simple method to calculate the bulk in these disks. We use the simple form for the radial component of the four velocity in the Schwarzschild metric, then the other components of the four velocity and the components of the shear and the bulk tensor are calculated. Also all components of the bulk viscosity, the shear viscosity and stress tensor are calculated. It is seen that some components of the bulk tensor are comparable with the shear tensor. We calculate some of the thermodynamic quantities of the relativistic disks. Comparison of thermodynamic quantities shows that in some states influences of the bulk viscosity are important, especially in the inner radiuses. All calculations are done analytically and we do not use the boundary conditions. Finally, we find that in the relativistic disks around the black holes, the bulk viscosity is non-negligible in all the states.

  20. Role of bulking agents in bladder exstrophyepispadias complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three out of five girls had improved bladder prolapse. There was no Complication, infection or migration of bulking agents. Patients had increased in soft tissue according to MRI. Conclusion: Using bulking agents is a good alternative to sling pelvic floor not only cosmetically but also for ease of patients and operation.

  1. Effect of Bulk and Interfacial Rheological Properties on Bubble Dissolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Meinders, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes theoretical calculations of the combined effect of bulk and interracial rheological properties on dissolution behavior of a bubble in an infinite medium at saturated conditions. Either bulk or interracial elasticity can stop the bubble dissolution process, and stability criteria

  2. Modelling and Forecasting in the Dry Bulk Shipping Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation proposes strategies not only for modelling price behavior in the dry bulk market, but also for modelling relationships between economic and technical variables of dry bulk ships, by using modern time series approaches, Monte Carlo simulation and other economic techniques. The time

  3. Bulk modulus of metals according to structureless pseudopotential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    structureless pseudopotential model was fully developed. The developed method was used to calculate the bulk modulus and kinetic energy contribution to the bulk modulus of 46 elemental metals. The results obtained were compared with experimental values and their variation with electron density parameter was studied ...

  4. Nucleation of bulk superconductivity close to critical magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Kachmar, Ayman

    2011-01-01

    threshold value of the applied magnetic field for which bulk superconductivity contributes to the leading order of the energy. Furthermore, the energy of the bulk is related to that of the Abrikosov problem in a periodic lattice. A key ingredient of the proof is a novel L∞ -bound which is of independent...

  5. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or vinegar...

  6. Study of graphitic microstructure formation in diamond bulk by pulsed Bessel beam laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Sotillo, B.; Chiappini, A.; Ramponi, R.; Di Trapani, P.; Eaton, S. M.; Jedrkiewicz, O.

    2017-11-01

    The advantages of using Bessel beams for the generation of graphitic structures in diamond bulk are presented. We show that by irradiating the sample with a pulsed Bessel beam whose non-diffracting zone is of the same order of the sample thickness, it is possible to produce without any sample translation straight graphitic through-microstructures, whose size depends on the input pulse energy. The microstructure growth is investigated as a function of the number of irradiating pulses, and the femtosecond and picosecond regimes are contrasted.

  7. Amino acid quantification in bulk soybeans by transmission Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmerich, Matthew V; Gelber, Matthew K; Azam, Hossain M; Harrison, Sandra K; McKinney, John; Thompson, Dennis; Owen, Bridget; Kull, Linda S; Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-12-03

    Soybeans are a commodity crop of significant economic and nutritional interest. As an important source of protein, buyers of soybeans are interested in not only the total protein content but also in the specific amino acids that comprise the total protein content. Raman spectroscopy has the chemical specificity to measure the twenty common amino acids as pure substances. An unsolved challenge, however, is to quantify varying levels of amino acids mixed together and bound in soybeans at relatively low concentrations. Here we report the use of transmission Raman spectroscopy as a secondary analytical approach to nondestructively measure specific amino acids in intact soybeans. With the employment of a transmission-based Raman instrument, built specifically for nondestructive measurements from bulk soybeans, spectra were collected from twenty-four samples to develop a calibration model using a partial least-squares approach with a random-subset cross validation. The calibration model was validated on an independent set of twenty-five samples for oil, protein, and amino acid predictions. After Raman measurements, the samples were reduced to a fine powder and conventional wet chemistry methods were used for quantifying reference values of protein, oil, and 18 amino acids. We found that the greater the concentrations (% by weight component of interest), the better the calibration model and prediction capabilities. Of the 18 amino acids analyzed, 13 had R(2) values greater than 0.75 with a standard error of prediction c.a. 3-4% by weight. Serine, histidine, cystine, tryptophan, and methionine showed poor predictions (R(2) soybeans.

  8. Bulk forming of industrial micro components in conventional metals and bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer

    2007-01-01

    For production of micro components in large numbers, forging is an interesting and challenging process. The conventional metals like silver, steel and aluminum often require multi-step processes, but high productivity and increased strength justify the investment. As an alternative, bulk metallic...... glasses will at elevated temperatures behave like a highly viscous liquid, which can easily form even complicated geometries in 1 step. The strengths and limitations of forming the 2 materials are analyzed for a micro 3D component in a silver alloy and an Mg-Cu-Y BMG. ©2007 American Institute of Physics...

  9. Bulk viscosity, interaction and the viability of phantom solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Leyva, Yoelsy

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a bulk viscosity model in the Eckart approach for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. We have included radiation and dark energy, assumed as perfect fluids, and dark matter treated as an imperfect fluid having bulk viscosity. We also introduce an interaction term between the dark matter and dark energy components. Considering that the bulk viscosity is proportional to the dark matter energy density and imposing a complete cosmological dynamics, we find bounds on the bulk viscosity in order to reproduce a matter-dominated era (MDE). This constraint is independent of the interaction term. Some late time phantom solutions are mathematically possible. However, the constraint imposed by a MDE restricts the interaction parameter, in the phantom solutions, to a region consistent with a null value, eliminating the possibility of late time stable solutions with $w<-1$. From the different cases that we study, the only possible scenario, with bulk viscosity and interac...

  10. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [Clinton, TN; Montgomery, Frederick C [Oak Ridge, TN; Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  11. Bulk viscosity of spin-one color superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' d, Basil A.

    2009-08-27

    The bulk viscosity of several quark matter phases is calculated. It is found that the effect of color superconductivity is not trivial, it may suppress, or enhance the bulk viscosity depending on the critical temperature and the temperature at which the bulk viscosity is calculated. Also, is it found that the effect of neutrino-emitting Urca processes cannot be neglected in the consideration of the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter. The results for the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter are used to calculate the r-mode instability window of quark stars with several possible phases. It is shown that each possible phase has a different structure for the r-mode instability window. (orig.)

  12. The electrical properties of bulk GaN crystals grown by HVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hong; Ren, Guoqiang; Zhou, Taofei; Tian, Feifei; Xu, Yu; Zhang, Yumin; Wang, Mingyue; Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Ke

    2016-02-01

    The electrical properties of high-quality bulk GaN crystals grown by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) were investigated. The series of samples were sliced from the same bulk crystal grown by HVPE. The crystal quality of the samples was characterized by the cathode luminescence (CL) and high resolution X-ray diffraction measurements (HRXRD), the evaluated dislocation density ranges from 2.4×106 cm-2 to 2.3×105 cm-2. The temperature-dependent Hall measurements were conducted and the results were analyzed theoretically. The results suggest that with low dislocation density (≤106 cm-2) and low carrier concentration (≤1017 cm-3), the impurity concentration should play an important role in the electrical properties. With the impurity concentration decreasing, the hall mobility increases from 619 to 1160 cm2/(V s), and the carrier concentration decreases from 5.42×1016 cm-3 to 1.31×1016 cm-3.

  13. Synthesis of carbon nanofibers by catalytic CVD of chlorobenzene over bulk nickel alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzhin, Roman M.; Bauman, Yuri I.; Volodin, Alexander M.; Mishakov, Ilya V.; Vedyagin, Aleksey A.

    2018-01-01

    Catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) of chlorobenzene over bulk nickel alloy (nichrome) was studied. The bulk Ni-containing samples being exposed to a contact with aggressive reaction medium undergo self-disintegration followed by growth of carbon nanofibers. This process, also known as a metal dusting, requires the simultaneous presence of chlorine and hydrogen sources in the reaction mixture. Molecule of chlorobenzene complies with these requirements. The experiments on CCVD were performed in a flow-through reactor system. The initial stages of nickel disintegration process were investigated in a closed system under Autogenic Pressure at Elevated Temperature (RAPET) conditions. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies and ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied to examine the samples after their interaction with chlorobenzene. Introduction of additional hydrogen into the flow-through system was shown to affect the morphology of grown carbon nanofibers.

  14. Internal Structure and Mineralogy of Differentiated Asteroids Assuming Chondritic Bulk Composition: The Case of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplis, M. J.; Mizzon, H.; Forni, O.; Monnereau, M.; Prettyman, T. H.; McSween, H. Y.; McCoy, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Bulk composition (including oxygen content) is a primary control on the internal structure and mineralogy of differentiated asteroids. For example, oxidation state will affect core size, as well as Mg# and pyroxene content of the silicate mantle. The Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite class of meteorites (HED) provide an interesting test-case of this idea, in particular in light of results of the Dawn mission which provide information on the size, density and differentiation state of Vesta, the parent body of the HED's. In this work we explore plausible bulk compositions of Vesta and use mass-balance and geochemical modelling to predict possible internal structures and crust/mantle compositions and mineralogies. Models are constrained to be consistent with known HED samples, but the approach has the potential to extend predictions to thermodynamically plausible rock types that are not necessarily present in the HED collection. Nine chondritic bulk compositions are considered (CI, CV, CO, CM, H, L, LL, EH, EL). For each, relative proportions and densities of the core, mantle, and crust are quantified. Considering that the basaltic crust has the composition of the primitive eucrite Juvinas and assuming that this crust is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the residual mantle, it is possible to calculate how much iron is in metallic form (in the core) and how much in oxidized form (in the mantle and crust) for a given bulk composition. Of the nine bulk compositions tested, solutions corresponding to CI and LL groups predicted a negative metal fraction and were not considered further. Solutions for enstatite chondrites imply significant oxidation relative to the starting materials and these solutions too are considered unlikely. For the remaining bulk compositions, the relative proportion of crust to bulk silicate is typically in the range 15 to 20% corresponding to crustal thicknesses of 15 to 20 km for a porosity-free Vesta-sized body. The mantle is predicted to be largely

  15. Stability of bulk metallic glass structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    2003-06-18

    The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub (80-x)}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which

  16. Would German physicians opt for pay-for-performance programs? A willingness-to-accept experiment in a large general practitioners' sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, Christian; Liersch, Sebastian; Jensen, Sören; Amelung, Volker Eric

    2016-02-01

    Implementing pay-for-performance (P4P) programs is a non-trivial task. As evaluation studies showed, P4P programs often failed to improve performance quality. A crucial element for the successful implementation of P4P is to gain acceptance with health care providers. The aim of our study was to determine, if (and at what bonus rate) German general practitioners (GPs) would participate in a P4P program. We further examined differences between respondents who would participate in a P4P program (participants) versus respondents who would not participate (non-participants). A mail survey was conducted among 2493 general practitioners (GPs) in Lower Saxony (with a response rate of 36.2%). The questionnaire addressed attitudes toward P4P and included a willingness to accept experiment concerning P4P implementation. The participation rate increased from 28% (at a bonus of 2.5%) to 50% (at a bonus of 20%). Participants showed better performance in target achievement and expected higher gains from P4P than non-participants. Major attitude differences were found in assessing feasibility of P4P, incentivizing performance and unintended consequences. The crucial factor for (not) accepting P4P might be the sense of (un)fairness of P4P. To convince GPs to participate in P4P, better evidence for the effectiveness of P4P is required. To address the concerns of GPs, future endeavors should be directed to tailoring P4P programs. Finally, program implementation must be well communicated and thoroughly discussed with health care providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A new method for the measurement of meteorite bulk volume via ideal gas pycnometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijie; Wang, Shijie; Li, Xiongyao; Li, Yang; Liu, Shen; Coulson, Ian M.

    2012-10-01

    To date, of the many techniques used to measure the bulk volume of meteorites, only three methods (Archimedean bead method, 3-D laser imaging and X-ray microtomography) can be considered as nondestructive or noncontaminating. The bead method can show large, random errors for sample sizes of smaller than 5 cm3. In contrast, 3-D laser imaging is a high-accuracy method even when measuring the bulk volumes of small meteorites. This method is both costly and time consuming, however, and meteorites of a certain shape may lead to some uncertainties in the analysis. The method of X-ray microtomography suffers from the same problems as 3-D laser imaging. This study outlines a new method of high-accuracy, nondestructive and noncontaminating measurement of the bulk volume of meteorite samples. In order to measure the bulk volume of a meteorite, one must measure the total volume of the balloon vacuum packaged meteorite and the volume of balloon that had been used to enclose the meteorite using ideal gas pycnometry. The difference between the two determined volumes is the bulk volume of the meteorite. Through the measurement of zero porosity metal spheres and tempered glass fragments, our results indicate that for a sample which has a volume of between 0.5 and 2 cm3, the relative error of the measurement is less than ±0.6%. Furthermore, this error will be even smaller (less than ±0.1%) if the determined sample size is larger than 2 cm3. The precision of this method shows some volume dependence. For samples smaller than 1 cm3, the standard deviations are less than ±0.328%, and these values will fall to less than ±0.052% for samples larger than 2 cm3. The porosities of nine fragments of Jilin, GaoGuenie, Zaoyang and Zhaodong meteorites have been measured using our vacuum packaging-pycnometry method, with determined average porosities of Jilin, GaoGuenie, Zaoyang and Zhaodong of 9.0307%, 2.9277%, 17.5437% and 5.9748%, respectively. These values agree well with the porosities

  18. 78 FR 72841 - List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used To Compound Drug Products in... Administration (FDA or Agency) is withdrawing the proposed rule to list bulk drug substances used in pharmacy... Pharmacopoeia chapter on pharmacy compounding; (II) if such a monograph does not exist, are drug substances that...

  19. Application of the penetration theory for gas - Liquid mass transfer without liquid bulk : Differences with system with a bulk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, E. P.; Knaap, M. C.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2007-01-01

    Frequently applied micro models for gas-liquid mass transfer all assume the presence of a liquid bulk. However, some systems are characterized by the absence of a liquid bulk, a very thin layer of liquid flows over a solid surface. An example of such a process is absorption in a column equipped with

  20. Bulk Combinatorial Synthesis and High Throughput Characterization for Rapid Assessment of Magnetic Materials: Application of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Besser, M. F.; Simsek, E.; Ott, R. T.

    2016-07-01

    A bulk combinatorial approach for synthesizing alloy libraries using laser engineered net shaping (LENS™; i.e., 3D printing) was utilized to rapidly assess material systems for magnetic applications. The LENS™ system feeds powders in different ratios into a melt pool created by a laser to synthesize samples with bulk (millimeters) dimensions. By analyzing these libraries with autosampler differential scanning calorimeter/thermal gravimetric analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry, we are able to rapidly characterize the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the libraries. The Fe-Co binary alloy was used as a model system and the results were compared with data in the literature.

  1. Metagenome-Wide Association Study and Machine Learning Prediction of Bulk Soil Microbiome and Crop Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hao-Xun; Haudenshield, James S.; Bowen, Charles R.; Hartman, Glen L.

    2017-01-01

    Areas within an agricultural field in the same season often differ in crop productivity despite having the same cropping history, crop genotype, and management practices. One hypothesis is that abiotic or biotic factors in the soils differ between areas resulting in these productivity differences. In this study, bulk soil samples collected from a high and a low productivity area from within six agronomic fields in Illinois were quantified for abiotic and biotic characteristics. Extracted DNA ...

  2. New features of the low temperature ductile shear failure observed in bulk amorphous alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bengus, VZ; Tabachnikova, ED; Miskuf, J; Csach, K; Johnson, WL; Molokanov, VV; Ocelik, Vaclav

    2000-01-01

    Fractographic studies of ductile shear failure under the uniaxial compression for rod-like samples of the Zr(41.2)Ti(13.8)Ni(10)Cu(12.5)Be(22.5) and Cu(50)Zr(35)Ti(8)Hf(5)Ni(2) bulk amorphous alloys at temperatures 300 and 77 K are presented. The mechanisms of shear deformation and failure appeared

  3. Apollo 17 high-Ti mare basalts - New bulk compositional data, magma types, and petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Conrad, G. H.; Northrop, H. R.; Barker, S.; Keil, K.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R.

    1979-01-01

    Bulk compositional and mineral chemical data for 28 previously unanalyzed samples support the classification of Apollo-17 high-Ti mare basalts into three-types (A, B, and C), defined on the basis of analyses of fine-grained basalts. The most MgO- and TiO2-rich fine-grained basalts of these types appear to be the best choices for representing the compositions of the parent magmas.

  4. Bulk Fuel: Actions Needed to Improve DODs Fuel Consumption Budget Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    according to Army officials, the Army uses three to five years of sample test data from ground vehicles and equipment, fuel efficiency rates in...the department felt strongly that fuel pricing should be developed in a consistent manner for each budget cycle that is based on information...BULK FUEL Actions Needed to Improve DOD’s Fuel Consumption Budget Data Report to Congressional Committees

  5. Measurements of hydrogen content in bulk niobium by Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hakovirta, M

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogen content of bulk niobium has been studied by Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy. The work has been focussed initially on the influence of the vacuum firing and the surface chemical treatment. It is planned to extend the investigation to niobium samples of different quality and origin to ascertain the interest of using the Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy technique to qualify the raw niobium sheets to be used for cavity manufacturing

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in the Pacific Remote Island Areas from Water Samples collected since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in the Hawaiian Archipelago from Water Samples collected since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in the Mariana Archipelago from Water Samples collected in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  9. Safe and bulk utilisation of NALCO pond ash in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, M.; Murali, S.; Asokan, P. (and others) [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Bhopal (India)

    2003-07-01

    With the primary objective of solving the environmental problem of safe and bulk disposal of coal ash, and to use it for constructive purposes like wasteland development and agriculture, Regional Research Laboratory (RRL), Bhopal has been implementing the Technology Demonstration Project at Captive Power Plant (CPP), National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO), Angul (Orissa). A wasteland was selected in 1999 and the pond ash was admixed at concentration of 280 t/ha and 560 t/ha. Experiments were conducted in Randomised Block Design (RBD) plots raising maize, paddy, onion, and sunflower crops and their yields are increased by 20-25% over control. The effect of Pond ash on soil with respect to trace and heavy metals like Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Co, Cd, etc. and radioactivity levels has been found to be within the critical limits. No hyper toxicity symptoms have been noticed on the crop physiology during the growth stages in any of the seasons. The food quality analyses show that there is no higher accumulation of heavy metals in the food samples grown in the coal ash mixed soils and the concentration were found to be in the permissible limits specified by PFC, 1954 Act, 1994 with 1995 supplement edition and the standard of the National Institute of Nutrition Hyderabad. 21 refs., 8 tabs.

  10. Magnetic properties of Fe-Co-based bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberto, Paola, E-mail: tiberto@inrim.i [INRIM, Electromagnetism Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy); Piccin, Rafael [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Lupu, Nicoleta; Chiriac, Horia [National Institute of Research and Development for Technichal Physics, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Baricco, Marcello [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2009-08-26

    Amorphous [(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 75}B{sub 20}Si{sub 5}]{sub 93}Nb{sub 4}Y{sub 3}(x=0, 0.2 and 0.4) have been produced by water-cooled Cu-mold injection casting technique in cylindrical shape. Amorphous ribbon having the same composition have been produced by rapid quenching technique. The presence of an amorphous structure have been checked by means of X-ray diffraction measurements and differential scanning calorimetry. Magnetic hysteresis loops have been measured by means of vibrating sample magnetometer at a maximum field of 10 kOe. In addition, to study the frequency dependence of magnetic losses, hysteresis loops have been measured by a digital wattmeter. A critical analysis of the results obtained on both ribbons and bulk cylinder will be presented. The obtained data will be compared with the ones of Fe-based materials conventionally exploited in applications.

  11. A comparative study of intrinsic versus bulk polarized fluorescence in cervical tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Dharitri; Lodhi, Md. Ejaz A.; Shukla, Prashant; Agarwal, Nidhi; Pandey, Kiran; Pradhan, Asima

    2008-02-01

    This study aims towards applying the intrinsic polarized fluorescence technique for obtaining valuable information from human cervical tissue samples. The efficacy of this technique is tested in human tissues by comparing its diagnostic capabilities with the bulk fluorescence. It is seen that biochemical information is hidden due to the presence of distortions by tissue scattering and absorption in the fluorescence spectra. Intrinsic tissue fluorescence provides a complete understanding of the biochemical and/or morphological changes that take place during the progression of disease. Recording of the experimental data and thereafter subsequent extraction of the intrinsic fluorescence serves as fingerprints towards determining the occurrence of these diseases. Here we report a comparative study of intrinsic versus bulk polarized fluorescence in cervical tissues. Intrinsic fluorescence is seen to be a more sensitive technique than bulk fluorescence for diagnosis of cervical cancers. Attempts have been made to study the changes in the amount of different fluorophores found in the epithelial and stromal layer of cervical tissue (both normal and cancerous). It has been seen that collagen decreases and NADH increases as a healthy cervical tissue develops into a cancerous one. Intrinsic fluorescence provides more consistent discriminating results as compared to bulk polarized fluorescence. It is also more sensitive in giving biochemical information from the different layers in cervical tissue. It may be concluded that intrinsic fluorescence shows promise as a viable tool for providing valuable insights towards fruitful diagnosis of the various stages of disease development and changes occurring with age.

  12. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration in Antarctic Carbonaceous Chondrites from Comparative ICP-MS Bulk Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Azcarate, J.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Zolensky, M.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites (CC) indicate that these meteorites have been preserved in or on ice for, at least, tens of thousands of years. Due to the porous structure of these chondrites formed by the aggregation of silicate-rich chondrules, refractory inclusions, metal grains, and fine-grained matrix materials, the effect of pervasive terrestrial water is relevant. Our community defends that pristine CC matrices are representing samples of scarcely processed protoplanetary disk materials as they contain stellar grains, but they might also trace parent body processes. It is important to study the effects of terrestrial aqueous alteration in promoting bulk chemistry changes, and creating distinctive alteration minerals. Particularly because it is thought that aqueous alteration has particularly played a key role in some CC groups in modifying primordial bulk chemistry, and homogenizing the isotopic content of fine-grained matrix materials. Fortunately, the mineralogy produced by parent-body and terrestrial aqueous alteration processes is distinctive. With the goal to learn more about terrestrial alteration in Antarctica we are obtaining reflectance spectra of CCs, but also performing ICP-MS bulk chemistry of the different CC groups. A direct comparison with the mean bulk elemental composition of recovered falls might inform us on the effects of terrestrial alteration in finds. With such a goal, in the current work we have analyzed some members representative of CO and CM chondrite groups.

  13. Effect of preheating and light-curing unit on physicochemical properties of a bulk fill composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobaldo, Jéssica Dias; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane Suzy; Catelan, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of composite preheating and polymerization mode on degree of conversion (DC), microhardness (KHN), plasticization (P), and depth of polymerization (DP) of a bulk fill composite. Forty disc-shaped samples (n = 5) of a bulk fill composite were prepared (5 × 4 mm thick) and randomly divided into 4 groups according to light-curing unit (quartz-tungsten-halogen [QTH] or light-emitting diode [LED]) and preheating temperature (23 or 54 °C). A control group was prepared with a flowable composite at room temperature. DC was determined using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, KHN was measured with a Knoop indenter, P was evaluated by percentage reduction of hardness after 24 h of ethanol storage, and DP was obtained by bottom/top ratio. Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Regardless of light-curing, the highest preheating temperature increased DC compared to room temperature on bottom surface. LED showed a higher DC compared to QTH. Overall, DC was higher on top surface than bottom. KHN, P, and DP were not affected by curing mode and temperature, and flowable composite showed similar KHN, and lower DC and P, compared to bulk fill. Composite preheating increased the polymerization degree of 4-mm-increment bulk fill, but it led to a higher plasticization compared to the conventional flowable composite evaluated.

  14. Social Emotional Learning in a Guatemalan Preschool Sample: Does Socioeconomic Status Moderate the Effects of a School-Based Prevention Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Amanda B.; Edstrom, Leihua; Mildon, Heather A.; Davila, Lesliann

    2015-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the effectiveness of a universal social skills program and compared social emotional knowledge on individual skills interviews with 100 Guatemalan preschool children from resource rich (N?=?47) and resource poor (N?=?53) backgrounds. Participant ages ranged from 3- to 6-years-old. SEL was evaluated prior and subsequent to…

  15. The Preliminary Findings of a Study Exploring the Perceptions of a Sample of Young Heterosexual Males regarding HIV Prevention Education Programming in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahagan, Jacqueline; Rehman, Laurene; Barbour, Laura; McWilliam, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of young Canadian females becoming infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission with an infected male sexual partner, the majority of current HIV prevention programs and services in Canada continue to ignore the needs of young heterosexual males. This research is derived from 30 in-depth interviews, 9 focus…

  16. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  17. Bulk-mediated surface transport in the presence of bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Dagdug, Leonardo; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2017-07-01

    Surface transport, when the particle is allowed to leave the surface, travel in the bulk for some time, and then return to the surface, is referred to as bulk-mediated surface transport. Recently, we proposed a formalism that significantly simplifies analysis of bulk-mediated surface diffusion [A. M. Berezhkovskii, L. Dagdug, and S. M. Bezrukov, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 084103 (2015)]. Here this formalism is extended to bulk-mediated surface transport in the presence of bias, i.e., when the particle has arbitrary drift velocities on the surface and in the bulk. A key advantage of our approach is that the transport problem reduces to that of a two-state problem of the particle transitions between the surface and the bulk. The latter can be solved with relative ease. The formalism is used to find the Laplace transforms of the first two moments of the particle displacement over the surface in time t at arbitrary values of the particle drift velocities and diffusivities on the surface and in the bulk. This allows us to analyze in detail the time dependence of the effective drift velocity of the particle on the surface, which can be highly nontrivial.

  18. Engineering Nanostructural Routes for Enhancing Thermoelectric Performance: Bulk to Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraman, Rajeshkumar; Lan, Tian-Wey; Hsiung, Te-Chih; Amada, Dedi; Lee, Ping-Chung; Ou, Min-Nan; Chen, Yang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectricity is a very important phenomenon, especially its significance in heat-electricity conversion. If thermoelectric devices can be effectively applied to the recovery of the renewable energies, such as waste heat and solar energy, the energy shortage, and global warming issues may be greatly relieved. This review focusses recent developments on the thermoelectric performance of a low-dimensional material, bulk nanostructured materials, conventional bulk materials etc. Particular emphasis is given on, how the nanostructure in nanostructured composites, confinement effects in one-dimensional nanowires and doping effects in conventional bulk composites plays an important role in ZT enhancement.

  19. Eco Issues in Bulk Materials Handling Technologies in Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Zrnić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with eco issues in bulk materials handling in ports. Solid, free-flowing materials are said to be in bulk. Bulk materials handling is very difficult, because it incorporates all the features of liquids, gasses and mass solids. Energy efficiency, dust emissions in nearby environment, dust explosions, jamming, noise, handling of hazardous materials and protection of materials from contamination are issues that will be considered in this paper. Here are also presented possible solutions for some of these issues

  20. Tunable bulk polaritons of graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Zhengren; Kang, Chaoyang; Cheng, Bei; Chen, Liang; Yang, Xuefeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Weibing; Wang, Baoji

    2014-06-02

    The tunable hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) based on the graphene-dielectric layered structure at THz frequency is presented, and the surface and bulk polaritons of the graphene-based HMM are theoretically studied. It is found that the dispersions of the polaritons can be tuned by varying the Fermi energy of graphene sheets, the graphene-dielectric layers and the layer number of graphene sheets. In addition, the highly confined bulk polariton mode can be excited and is manifested in an attenuated total reflection configuration as a sharp drop in the reflectance. Such properties can be used in tunable optical reflection modulation with the assistance of bulk polaritons.

  1. Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dange

    correlations and the interactive effects of wind power and load forecast uncertainty on system reliability are examined. The concept of the security cost associated with operating in the marginal state in the well-being framework is incorporated in the economic analyses associated with system expansion planning including wind power and load forecast uncertainty. Overall reliability cost/worth analyses including security cost concepts are applied to select an optimal wind power injection strategy in a bulk electric system. The effects of the various demand side management measures on system reliability are illustrated using the system, load point, and well-being indices, and the reliability index probability distributions. The reliability effects of demand side management procedures in a bulk electric system including wind power and load forecast uncertainty considerations are also investigated. The system reliability effects due to specific demand side management programs are quantified and examined in terms of their reliability benefits.

  2. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of an Arts Education Program on Executive Function, Behavior, and Brain Structure in a Sample of Nonclinical School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Jong-Min; Baik, Young; Kim, Kihyun; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Kwon, Hunki; Jung, Yeon-Kyung; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2015-11-01

    The authors examined the effects of arts education on cognition, behavior, and brain of children. Twenty-nine nonclinical children participated in a 15-week arts education program that was composed of either creative movement or musical arts. Children completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, clinical scales, and brain magnetic resonance imaging before and after the intervention. Following program completion, performances on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Children's Depression Inventory scores, and conduct disorder scores were significantly improved. Furthermore, cortical thickness in the left postcentral gyrus and superior parietal lobule were increased, and the mean diffusivity values in the right posterior corona radiate and superior longitudinal fasciculus were decreased. Positive correlations between changes in cognitive measurements and changes in cortical thickness were observed. This preliminary study suggests a positive effect of arts education on executive functions in association with brain changes. However, these findings must be interpreted with caution due to the noncomparative study design. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. A comparative study of the density of defect states in bulk samples ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V for glassy Se90Sb10 pellets at different temperatures. Here, e is the electronic charge, A is the cross-sectional area of the film, n0 is the density of free charge carriers, d is the electrode spacing and S is given by. S = 2εrε0/eg0kT d2,. (2) where εr is the static value of the dielectric constant, ε0 is the permittivity of free space,.

  4. Evidence of soluble microbial products accelerating chloramine decay in nitrifying bulk water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal Krishna, K C; Sathasivan, Arumugam; Chandra Sarker, Dipok

    2012-09-01

    The discovery of a microbially derived soluble product that accelerates chloramine decay is described. Nitrifying bacteria are believed to be wholly responsible for rapid chloramine loss in drinking water systems. However, a recent investigation showed that an unidentified soluble agent significantly accelerated chloramine decay. The agent was suspected to be either natural organic matter (NOM) or soluble microbial products (SMPs). A laboratory scale reactor was fed chloraminated reverse osmosis (RO) treated water to eliminate the interference from NOM. Once nitrification had set in, experiments were conducted on the reactor and feed waters to determine the identity of the component. The study showed the presence of SMPs released by microbes in severely nitrified waters. Further experiments proved that the SMPs significantly accelerated chloramine decay, probably through catalytic reaction. Moreover, application of common protein denaturing techniques stopped the reaction implying that the compound responsible was likely to be a protein. This significant finding will pave the way for better control of chloramine in the distribution systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii in goat bulk milk samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... human and animals, and ticks are considered to be the natural primary reservoirs of C. burnetii and are responsible for the spread of the infection in wild animals and for transmission to domestic animals (Norlander,. 2000; Pluta et al., 2010). Cattle, sheep and goats are the main sources of human infection.

  6. Non-destructive identification of micrometer-scale minerals and their position within a bulk sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henning O.; Hakim, Sepide S.; Pedersen, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Using the conventional techniques of mineralogy, it has been a challenge to determine mineral identity, crystal orientation and spatial position of micrometer-sized crystals that are embedded in a rock, sediment or soil. Traditionally, the individual grains must be extracted and analyzed separate...

  7. Challenges in Bulk Soil Sampling and Analysis for Vapor Intrusion Screening of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft Engineering Issue Paper discusses technical issues with monitoring soil excavations for VOCs and describes options for such monitoring as part of a VI pathway assessment at sites where soil excavation is being considered or used as part of the remedy for VOC-contaminat...

  8. Improving estimation of phytoplankton isotopic values from bulk POM samples in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Questions/MethodsResponses of phytoplankton to excessive nutrients in rivers cause many ecological problems, including harmful algal blooms, hypoxia and even food web collapse, posing serious risks to fish and human health. Successful remediation requires identificati...

  9. Diameter grouping in bulk samples of single-walled carbon nanotubes from optical absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golden, M.S.; Fink, J.; Dunsch, L.; Bauer, H.-D.; Reibold, M.; Knupfer, M.; Friedlein, R.; Pichler, T.; Jost, O.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of the synthesis parameters on the mean characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes in soot produced by the laser vaporization of graphite has been analyzed using optical absorption spectroscopy. The abundance and mean diameter of the nanotubes were found to be most influenced by

  10. Vacancy-type defects in bulk GaN grown by the Na-flux method probed using positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uedono, Akira; Imanishi, Masayuki; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Ishibashi, Shoji; Sumiya, Masatomo; Mori, Yusuke

    2017-10-01

    Defects in bulk GaN grown by the Na-flux method have been studied using a positron annihilation technique. Pyramidal bulk samples showed striation and inhomogeneous color distributions. Measurements of the Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons revealed that the concentration of vacancy-type defects increased with decreasing transparency of the samples. The major defect species was identified as a Ga vacancy coupled with nitrogen vacancies. A correlation between the oxygen incorporation and the introduction of such vacancies was observed. For c-plane GaN grown by a coalescence growth method, the concentration of vacancy-type defects was close to or under the detection limit of positron annihilation technique (≤1015cm-3), suggesting that high-quality bulk GaN can be fabricated using this method.

  11. Wear Resistance of Bulk-fill Composite Resin Restorative Materials Polymerized under different Curing Intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhudhairy, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the wear resistance of four bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials cured using high- and low-intensity lights. Twenty-four samples were prepared from each composite resin material (Tetric N-Ceram, SonicFill, Smart Dentin Replacement, Filtek Bulk-Fill) resulting in a total of 96 samples; they were placed into a mold in a single increment. All of the 96 samples were cured using the Bluephase N light curing unit for 20 seconds. Half of the total specimens (n = 48) were light cured using high-intensity output (1,200 mW/cm2), while the remaining half (n = 48) were light cured using low-intensity output (650 mW/cm2). Wear was analyzed by a three-dimensional (3D) noncontact optical profilometer (Contour GT-I, Bruker, Germany). Mean and standard deviation (SD) of surface loss (depth) after 120,000 cycles for each test material was calculated and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a significance level at p materials with each other without taking the curing light intensity into consideration (p = 0.352). A significant difference in the mean surface loss was observed between SonicFill cured using high-intensity light compared with that cured using low-intensity light (p resistance of the four bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials tested compared with lower curing light intensity (650 mW/cm2). Furthermore, SonicFill cured using low-intensity light was the most wear-resistant material tested, whereas Tetric N-Ceram cured using high-intensity light was the least wear resistant. The wear resistance was better with the newly introduced bulk-fill composite resins under low-intensity light curing.

  12. Particle Size-Specific Magnetic Measurements as a Tool for Enhancing Our Understanding of the Bulk Magnetic Properties of Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Hatfield

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bulk magnetic properties of soils and sediments are often sensitive proxies for environmental change but commonly require interpretation in terms of the different sources of magnetic minerals (or components that combine to generate them. Discrimination of different components in the bulk magnetic record is often attempted through endmember unmixing and/or high resolution measurements that can require intensive measurement plans, assume linear additivity, and sometimes have difficulty in discriminating a large number of sources. As an alternative, magnetic measurements can be made on isolated sediment fractions that constitute the bulk sample. When these types of measurements are taken, heterogeneity is frequently observed between the magnetic properties of different fractions, suggesting different magnetic components often associate with different physical grain sizes. Using a particle size-specific methodology, individual components can be isolated and studied and bulk magnetic properties can be linked to, and isolated from, sedimentological variations. Deconvolving sedimentary and magnetic variability in this way has strong potential for increased understanding of how magnetic fragments are carried in natural systems, how they vary with different source(s, and allows for a better assessment of the effect environmental variability has in driving bulk magnetic properties. However, despite these benefits, very few studies exploit the information they can provide. Here, I present an overview of the different sources of magnetic minerals, why they might associate with different sediment fractions, how bulk magnetic measurements have been used to understand the contribution of different components to the bulk magnetic record, and outline how particle size-specific magnetic measurements can assist in their better understanding. Advantages and disadvantages of this methodology, their role alongside bulk magnetic measurements, and potential future

  13. Titan : A new facility for ultraclean sampling of trace elements and isotopes in the deep oceans in the international Geotraces program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baar, H.J.W.; Timmermans, K.R; Laan, P.; De Porto, H.H.; Ober, S.; Blom, J.J.; Bakker, M.C.; Schilling, J; Sarthou, G.; Smit, M. G.; Klunder, M

    2008-01-01

    Towards more rapid ultraclean sampling of deep ocean waters for trace elements, a novel rectangular frame was constructed of titanium, holding two rows of 12 samplers, as well as various sensors. The frame is deployed to deep ocean waters by an 8000 m length Kevlar wire with internal power and

  14. Achieving Cultural Congruency in Weight Loss Interventions: Can a Spirituality-Based Program Attract and Retain an Inner-City Community Sample?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Davis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic minorities continue to be disproportionately affected by obesity and are less likely to access healthcare than Caucasians. It is therefore imperative that researchers develop novel methods that will attract these difficult-to-reach groups. The purpose of the present study is to describe characteristics of an urban community sample attracted to a spiritually based, weight loss intervention. Methods. Thirteen participants enrolled in a pilot version of Spiritual Self-Schema Therapy (3S applied to disordered eating behavior and obesity. Treatment consisted of 12 one-hour sessions in a group therapy format. At baseline, participants were measured for height and weight and completed a battery of self-report measures. Results. The sample was predominantly African-American and Hispanic and a large percentage of the sample was male. Mean baseline scores of the EDE-Q, YFAS, and the CES-D revealed clinically meaningful levels of eating disordered pathology and depression, respectively. The overall attrition rate was quite low for interventions targeting obesity. Discussion. This application of a spiritually centered intervention seemed to attract and retain a predominantly African-American and Hispanic sample. By incorporating a culturally congruent focus, this approach may have been acceptable to individuals who are traditionally more difficult to reach.

  15. An analytical protocol for the determination of total mercury concentrations in solid peat samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos-Barraclough, F; Givelet, N; Martinez-Cortizas, A

    2002-01-01

    Traditional peat sample preparation methods such as drying at high temperatures and milling may be unsuitable for Hg concentration determination in peats due to the possible presence of volatile Hg species, which could be lost during drying. Here, the effects of sample preparation and natural....... A comparison of two Hg profiles from an Arctic peat core, measured in frozen samples and in air-dried samples, revealed that no Hg losses occurred upon air-drying. A comparison of Hg concentrations in several plant species that make up peat, showed that some species (Pinus mugo, Sphagnum recurvum...... concentration in individual peat slices. Several subsamples from each peat slice are air dried, combined and measured for Hg using the AMA254, using a program of 30 s (drying), 125 s (decomposition) and 45 s (waiting). Bulk density and water content measurements are performed on every slice using separate...

  16. Influence of Soap Characteristics and Food Service Facility Type on the Degree of Bacterial Contamination of Open, Refillable Bulk Soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W; Jensen, Dane; Gerba, Charles P; Shumaker, David; Arbogast, James W

    2018-02-01

    Concern has been raised regarding the public health risks from refillable bulk-soap dispensers because they provide an environment for potentially pathogenic bacteria to grow. This study surveyed the microbial quality of open refillable bulk soap in four different food establishment types in three states. Two hundred ninety-six samples of bulk soap were collected from food service establishments in Arizona, New Jersey, and Ohio. Samples were tested for total heterotrophic viable bacteria, Pseudomonas, coliforms and Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. Bacteria were screened for antibiotic resistance. The pH, solids content, and water activity of all soap samples were measured. Samples were assayed for the presence of the common antibacterial agents triclosan and parachlorometaxylenol. More than 85% of the soap samples tested contained no detectable microorganisms, but when a sample contained any detectable microorganisms, it was most likely contaminated at a very high level (∼7 log CFU/mL). Microorganisms detected in contaminated soap included Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia liquefaciens, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter gergoviae, Serratia odorifera, and Enterobacter cloacae. Twenty-three samples contained antibiotic-resistant organisms, some of which were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Every sample containing less than 4% solids had some detectable level of bacteria, whereas no samples with greater than 14% solids had detectable bacteria. This finding suggests the use of dilution and/or low-cost formulations as a cause of bacterial growth. There was a statistically significant difference ( P = 0.0035) between the fraction of bacteria-positive samples with no detected antimicrobial agent (17%) and those containing an antimicrobial agent (7%). Fast food operations and grocery stores were more likely to have detectable bacteria in bulk-soap samples compared with convenience stores ( P food service establishments.

  17. Numerical investigations on the characteristics of thermomagnetic instability in MgB2 bulks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jing; Li, Maosheng; Zhou, Youhe

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of thermomagnetic instability in MgB2 bulks by numerically solving the macroscopic dynamics of thermomagnetic interaction governed by the coupled magnetic and heat diffusion equations in association with a modified E-J power-law relationship. The finite element method is used to discretize the system of partial differential equations. The calculated magnetization loops with flux jumps are consistent with the experimental results for MgB2 slabs bathed in a wide range of ambient temperatures. We reveal the evolution process of the thermomagnetic instability and present the distributions of the magnetic field, temperature, and current density before and after flux jumps. A 2D axisymmetric model is used to study the thermomagnetic instability in cylindrical MgB2 bulks. It is found that the number of flux jumps monotonously reduces as the ambient temperature rises and no flux jump appears when the ambient temperature exceeds a certain value. Moreover, the flux-jump phenomenon exists in a wide range of the ramp rate of the applied external field, i.e. 10-2-102 T s-1. Furthermore, the dependences of the first flux-jump field on the ambient temperature, ramp rate, and bulk thickness are investigated. The critical bulk thicknesses for stability are obtained for different ambient temperatures and sample radii. In addition, the influence of the capability of the interfacial heat transfer on the temporal response of the bulk temperature is discussed. We also find that the prediction of thermomagnetic instability is sensitive to the employment of the flux creep exponent in the simulations.

  18. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Bulk Metallic Glass Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The first major objective of the ‘Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) for Space Applications’ project is to raise the technology readiness level dry lubricated,...

  19. Nondestructive Method for Bulk Chemical Characterization of Barred Olivine Chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Perez, M. A.; Cervantes-de la Cruz, K. E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-05-01

    This work develops a bulk chemical characterization of barred olivine chondrules based on the XRF analysis using a portable equipment at the National Research and Conservation Science Laboratory of Cultural Heritage (LANCIC-IF) in Mexico City.

  20. Lazy Evaluation for Concurrent OLTP and Bulk Transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Huisman, Marieke; van Keulen, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Existing concurrency control systems cannot execute transactions with overlapping updates concurrently. This is especially problematic for bulk updates, which usually overlap with all concurrent transactions. To solve this, we have developed a concurrency control mechanism based on lazy evaluation,