Sample records for program briefly describes

  1. Data Collection and Use in Early Childhood Education Programs: Evidence from the Northeast Region. Stated Briefly. REL 2015-085 (United States)

    Zweig, Jacqueline; Irwin, Clare W.; Kook, Janna Fuccillo; Cox, Josh


    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. This study explores how seven early childhood education programs in a mid-sized city in the Northeast region are collecting and using data, how they would like to use data, how they could use the data that they have, and the…

  2. National Weatherization Assistance Program Characterization Describing the Recovery Act Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report characterizes the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) during the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) period. This research was one component of the Recovery Act evaluation of WAP. The report presents the results of surveys administered to Grantees (i.e., state weatherization offices) and Subgrantees (i.e., local weatherization agencies). The report also documents the ramp up and ramp down of weatherization production and direct employment during the Recovery Act period and other challenges faced by the Grantees and Subgrantees during this period. Program operations during the Recovery Act (Program Year 2010) are compared to operations during the year previous to the Recovery Act (Program Year 2008).

  3. Epistemic Learning Programs A Calculus for Describing Epistemic Action Models


    Ramezanian, Mohammad Ardeshir Rasoul


    Dynamic Epistemic Logic makes it possible to model and reason about information change in multi-agent systems. Information change is mathematically modeled through epistemic action Kripke models introduced by Baltag et al. Also, van Ditmarsch interprets the information change as a relation between epistemic states and sets of epistemic states and to describe it formally, he considers a special constructor LB called learning operator. Inspired by this, it seems natural to us that the basic sou...

  4. A Dutch day treatment program for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in comparison with internationally described programs. (United States)

    Lammers, M W; Exterkate, C C; De Jong, C A J


    A Dutch day treatment program for patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa is described and compared to intensive day treatment programs for patients with eating disorders outlined in international literature. The 5-day program is described in terms of its general characteristics, intended outcome and specific treatment interventions. Along these parameters it is compared to the programs found in a systematic literature search of day hospitalization programs for eating disorders. Global inspection shows a lot of similarities between all the programs. Looking more closely, also many important differences exist (concerning, e.g. treatment duration, intensity of treatment, theoretical orientation, goals of treatment and weight gain regime). Because of the differences, it is hard to compare outcome data between centres. Besides, on many of these dimensions, the literature does not yet tell us unambiguously what is best for our patients. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the dialogue between treatment centres going. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  5. Defining and describing capacity issues in U.S. Doctor of Nursing Practice programs. (United States)

    Minnick, Ann F; Norman, Linda D; Donaghey, Beth


    Recent calls to expand the number of U.S. Doctors of Nursing Practice (DNPs) raises questions about programs' capacities, content and requirements, and their ability to expand. This paper aims to describe (1) key aspects of DNP program capacities that may provide direction for DNP program expansion plans, the timing of such expansion and program QI efforts; and (2) the impact of the DNP on faculty resources for research doctoral programs. A survey of all U.S. DNP programs (n = 130; response rate 72%) was conducted in 2011 based on previously tested items. Reviews of Web sites of nonresponding schools provided some data from all programs. Ratios of students to faculty active in advanced practice (AP) and in QI (QI) were high (AP 11.0:1, SD 10.1; QI 20.2:1, SD 17.0 respectively). There was wide variation in scholarly requirements (0-4: 50% of program had none) and program committee composition (1-5; mode=2). Almost all responding schools that offered PhD and DNP programs reported assigning research-active or potentially research-active faculty in both programs. The ability to expand programs while maintaining quality may be compromised by capacity issues. Addressing demand issues through the alignment of program requirements with societal and employment requirements may provide directions for addressing current DNP capacity issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Soil Stack: An Interactive Computer Program Describing Basic Soil Science and Soil Degradation. (United States)

    Cattle, S. R.; And Others


    A computer program dealing with numerous aspects of soil degradation has a target audience of high school and university students (16-20 year olds), and is presented in a series of cards grouped together as stacks. Describes use of the software in Australia. (LZ)

  7. In this article, we describe briefly a number-theoretic problem first ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 2. The Sierpinski Problem. Shailesh A Shirali. Classroom Volume 11 Issue 2 February 2006 pp 78-87. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords. Sierpinski ...

  8. Describing a residency program developed for newly graduated nurse practitioners employed in retail health settings. (United States)

    Thabault, Paulette; Mylott, Laura; Patterson, Angela


    Retail health clinics are an expanding health care delivery model and an emerging new practice site for nurse practitioners (NPs). Critical thinking skills, clinical competence, interprofessional collaboration, and business savvy are necessary for successful practice in this highly independent and autonomous setting. This article describes a pilot residency partnership program aimed at supporting new graduate NP transition to practice, reducing NP turnover, and promoting academic progression. Eight new graduate NPs were recruited to the pilot and paired with experienced clinical NP preceptors for a 12-month program that focused on increasing clinical and business competence in the retail health setting. The residency program utilized technology to facilitate case conferences and targeted Webinars to enhance learning and peer-to-peer sharing and support. An on-line doctoral-level academic course that focused on interprofessional collaboration in health care, population health, and business concepts was offered. Both NPs and preceptors were highly satisfied with the academic-service residency program between MinuteClinic and Northeastern University School of Nursing in Boston, MA. New NPs particularly valued the preceptor model, the clinical case conferences, and business Webinars. Because their priority was in gaining clinical experience and learning the business acumen relevant to managing the processes of care, they did not feel ready for the doctoral course and would have preferred to take later in their practice. The preceptors valued the academic course and felt that it enhanced their precepting and leadership skills. At the time of this article, 6 months post completion of the residency program, there has been no turnover. Our experience supports the benefits for residency programs for newly graduated NPs in retail settings. The model of partnering with academia by offering a course within a service organization's educational programs can enable academic

  9. National Weatherization Assistance Program Characterization - Describing the Pre-ARRA Progam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Ingo [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Keene, Ashleigh [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cowan, Claire [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Koski, Karen [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    This report characterizes the Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) as it was administered in Program Year 2008. WAP has supported energy efficiency improvements to the homes of low-income households in the United States since 1976. The program provides grants, guidance, and other support to grantees: weatherization programs administered by each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia and some Native American tribes. Although there have been studies of some grantee-administered weatherization programs, the overall effectiveness of the national weatherization program has not been formally evaluated since Program Year 1989. Since that time, the program has evolved significantly, with an increased focus on baseload electric usage, continued evolution of diagnostic tools, new guidelines and best practices for heating-related measures, and adjustments in program rules. More recently, the program has also adjusted to large, temporary funding increases and changes in federal rules spurred by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Because the Weatherization Assistance Program of today is dramatically different from the one evaluated in 1989, DOE determined to undertake a new comprehensive evaluation of the national program. This new national evaluation is managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Under a competitive solicitation process, ORNL selected APPRISE, Inc., Blasnik & Associates, Dalhoff Associates and the Energy Center of Wisconsin to conduct the evaluation. The national evaluation comprises two independent evaluations. The first evaluation of which this report is a part focuses on Program Year 2008 (PY08). The second evaluation focuses on the ARRA-funded years of 2009 through 2011. This report, together with its companion the Eligible Population Study addresses specific program characterization goals established for the greater evaluation. The Energy Center led grantee and subgrantee data collection efforts

  10. Defining an economics research program to describe and evaluate ecosystem services. (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline


    Balancing society’s multiple and sometimes competing objectives regarding forests calls for information describing the direct and indirect benefits resulting from forest policy and management, whether to address wildfire, loss of open space, unmanaged recreation, ecosystem restoration, or other objectives. The USDA Forest Service recently has proposed the concept of...

  11. Describing Illinois Music Programs Using the Whole School Effectiveness Guidelines Survey for Music Education: A Statewide Investigation (United States)

    Ciorba, Charles R.; McLay, Melanie


    The purpose of this study was to describe Illinois music educators' self-perceptions regarding the demographics, logistics, function, and implementation of their classroom operations using the Whole School Effectiveness Guidelines Survey for Music Programs. The survey was administered to K-12 music educators (N = 1,251) throughout the state of…

  12. A non-linear regression analysis program for describing electrophysiological data with multiple functions using Microsoft Excel. (United States)

    Brown, Angus M


    The objective of this present study was to demonstrate a method for fitting complex electrophysiological data with multiple functions using the SOLVER add-in of the ubiquitous spreadsheet Microsoft Excel. SOLVER minimizes the difference between the sum of the squares of the data to be fit and the function(s) describing the data using an iterative generalized reduced gradient method. While it is a straightforward procedure to fit data with linear functions, and we have previously demonstrated a method of non-linear regression analysis of experimental data based upon a single function, it is more complex to fit data with multiple functions, usually requiring specialized expensive computer software. In this paper we describe an easily understood program for fitting experimentally acquired data, in this case the stimulus-evoked compound action potential from the mouse optic nerve, with multiple Gaussian functions. The program is flexible and can be applied to describe data with a wide variety of user-input functions.

  13. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Technical Basis Guide Describing How to Perform Safety Margin Configuration Risk Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; James Knudsen; Bentley Harwood


    The INL has carried out a demonstration of the RISMC approach for the purpose of configuration risk management. We have shown how improved accuracy and realism can be achieved by simulating changes in risk – as a function of different configurations – in order to determine safety margins as the plant is modified. We described the various technical issues that play a role in these configuration-based calculations with the intent that future applications can take advantage of the analysis benefits while avoiding some of the technical pitfalls that are found for these types of calculations. Specific recommendations have been provided on a variety of topics aimed at improving the safety margin analysis and strengthening the technical basis behind the analysis process.

  14. Negative Stimulus-Response Compatibility Observed with a Briefly Displayed Image of a Hand (United States)

    Vainio, Lari


    Manual responses can be primed by viewing an image of a hand. The left-right identity of the viewed hand reflexively facilitates responses of the hand that corresponds to the identity. Previous research also suggests that when the response activation is triggered by an arrow, which is backward-masked and presented briefly, the activation manifests…

  15. Briefly delayed reinforcement effects on variable-ratio and yoked-interval schedule performance. (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Lattal, Kennon A


    Most investigations of briefly delayed reinforcement have involved schedules that arrange a time-plus-response requirement. The present experiment examined whether briefly delaying reinforcement on schedules that have a ratio requirement differs from results with schedules that have a time-plus-response requirement. Four pigeons responded on a two-component multiple schedule. One component arranged a variable-ratio (VR) 50 and the other a variable-interval (VI) schedule in which the distribution of reinforcers was yoked to the preceding VR schedule. Across a series of conditions, delays were imposed in both schedules. These delays were brief (0.25- or 0.5-s) unsignaled delays and, as control conditions, a 5-s unsignaled delay and a 0.5-s delay signaled by a blackout of the chamber. In the yoked-VI component, the brief unsignaled delay increased response rates in six of nine opportunities and increased the proportion of short interresponse times (IRTs) (reinforcement condition. The results replicate effects reported with time-based schedules and extend these observations by showing that changes commonly observed in VI performance with briefly delayed reinforcement are not characteristic of VR responding. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. The Correlates of Academic Performance for English Language Learner Students in a New England District. Stated Briefly. REL 2014-021 (United States)

    Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.


    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The study examined student and program characteristics that are related to English proficiency and content area achievement for English language learner (ELL) students in one urban district in Connecticut. Study authors found…

  17. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood culture isolates from briefly incubated solid medium cultures. (United States)

    Ballestero-Téllez, Mónica; Recacha, Esther; de Cueto, Marina; Pascual, Álvaro


    Mass spectrometry Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) helps in the rapid identification of microorganisms causing blood stream infection. Rapid and reliable methods are required to decrease the turnaround time for reporting antimicrobial susceptibility results from blood culture isolates. An evaluation was performed on the reliability of a method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood culture isolates from briefly incubated solid medium cultures. The agreement between the evaluated and standard methods was 99.3%. The major and minor error rates were 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively, and no very major errors were observed. The inoculation of briefly incubated solid medium cultures into antimicrobial susceptibility testing panels is an easy and reliable technique, and helps to decrease the turnaround time for reporting antimicrobial susceptibility results of positive blood cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Females' Duration Estimates of Briefly-Viewed Male, but Not Female, Photographs Depend on Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Arantes


    Full Text Available We tested a prediction that females' duration estimates of briefly-viewed male, but not female, photos would be modulated by attractiveness. Twenty-seven female participants viewed sequences of five stimuli of identical duration in which the first four were sine-wave gratings (Gabor discs and the fifth was either the same sine-wave grating (control trials or a photo of an attractive or unattractive male or female (test trials. After each sequence, participants had to reproduce the duration of the fifth stimulus. Results confirmed our prediction and showed that duration estimates of attractive male photos were significantly longer than corresponding estimates for unattractive male photos, while there was no significant difference in estimated duration for attractive and unattractive female photos. Our data show that unexpectedly viewing an attractive male affects time perception in females, and are the first demonstration that stimuli relevant to reproductive fitness, which engage the appetitive motivational system, can increase perceived duration.

  19. Recognition memory for briefly presented pictures: the time course of rapid forgetting. (United States)

    Potter, Mary C; Staub, Adrian; Rado, Janina; O'Connor, Daniel H


    When viewing a rapid sequence of pictures, observers momentarily understand the gist of each scene but have poor recognition memory for most of them (M. C. Potter, 1976). Is forgetting immediate, or does some information persist briefly? Sequences of 5 scenes were presented for 173 ms/picture; when yes-no testing began immediately, recognition was initially high but declined markedly during the 10-item test. With testing delays of 2 or 6 s, the decline over testing was less steep. When 10 or 20 pictures were presented, there was again a marked initial decline during testing. A 2-alternative forced-choice recognition test produced similar results. Both the passage of time and test interference (but not presentation interference) led to forgetting. The brief persistence of information may assist in building a coherent representation over several fixations.

  20. The BNL rare kaon decay program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littenberg, L.


    The rare kaon decay program at Brookhaven National Laboratory is reviewed. Results from the last round of experiments are briefly discussed. The three experiments currently collecting data are described. Prospects for future experiments are discussed.

  1. Protocols for collection of streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data to describe stream quality for the Hydrobiological Monitoring Program, Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery Program, city of Wichita, Kansas (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.


    The city of Wichita, Kansas uses the Equus Beds aquifer, one of two sources, for municipal water supply. To meet future water needs, plans for artificial recharge of the aquifer have been implemented in several phases. Phase I of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Program began with injection of water from the Little Arkansas River into the aquifer for storage and subsequent recovery in 2006. Construction of a river intake structure and surface-water treatment plant began as implementation of Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR Program in 2010. An important aspect of the ASR Program is the monitoring of water quality and the effects of recharge activities on stream conditions. Physical, chemical, and biological data provide the basis for an integrated assessment of stream quality. This report describes protocols for collecting streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data as part of the city of Wichita's hydrobiological monitoring program (HBMP). Following consistent and reliable methods for data collection and processing is imperative for the long-term success of the monitoring program.

  2. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-pump dysfunction in rat cardiomyocytes briefly exposed to hydroxyl radicals. (United States)

    Morris, T E; Sulakhe, P V


    The effects of hydroxyl radical exposure of intact cardiomyocytes on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function were investigated. For this purpose, isolated rat heart myocytes were exposed briefly (1 min) to the hydroxyl radical generating system (H2O2/FeCl2 or FeSO4) or 5-5'-dithiobis-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), a sulfhydryl oxidizing reagent, and following this a SR-enriched fraction was isolated. Marked decreases in the SR calcium uptake activities were seen in the myocytes exposed to either the hydroxyl radical-generating system or DTNB. The exposure of myocytes to the hydroxyl radical, but not DTNB, markedly increased the amount of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in the subsequently isolated SR. Total sulfhydryl group content in SR was decreased by exposure of myocytes to DTNB. Further, there was a significant decrease in [3H]-NEM binding to SR isolated from the hydoxyl radical-treated myocytes indicating that sulfhydryl groups are affected (oxidized). Both mannitol and catalase were found to offer complete protection against the inhibitory effect of peroxide +/- iron on calcium uptake. Also the above-mentioned alterations in both MDA and sulfhydryl group content were prevented by mannitol and catalase. Exogenously added cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-PK) or calmodulin (CAM) increased SR calcium uptake activity. In the SR isolated from the treated myocytes, the stimulatory effects of A-PK and CAM were also seen, although under all assay conditions calcium uptakes were of lower magnitude. The findings are consistent with the view that the damaging effect of the hydroxyl radical and DTNB on the functioning of SR occurs rapidly in the intact cardiomyocytes. The hydroxyl radical-provoked damage involves both protein sulfhydryl and lipid oxidation.

  3. Air Pollution Training Programs. (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  4. Programming Language Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoníček Jan


    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  5. A meta-review of evidence on heart failure disease management programs: the challenges of describing and synthesizing evidence on complex interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson David R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite favourable results from past meta-analyses, some recent large trials have not found Heart Failure (HF disease management programs to be beneficial. To explore reasons for this, we evaluated evidence from existing meta-analyses. Methods Systematic review incorporating meta-review was used. We selected meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials published after 1995 in English that examined the effects of HF disease management programs on key outcomes. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, DARE, NHS EED, NHS HTA, Ageline, AMED, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL; cited references, experts and existing reviews were also searched. Results 15 meta-analyses were identified containing a mean of 18.5 randomized trials of HF interventions +/- 10.1 (range: 6 to 36. Overall quality of the meta-analyses was very mixed (Mean AMSTAR Score = 6.4 +/- 1.9; range 2-9. Reporting inadequacies were widespread around populations, intervention components, settings and characteristics, comparison, and comparator groups. Heterogeneity (statistical, clinical, and methodological was not taken into account sufficiently when drawing conclusions from pooled analyses. Conclusions Meta-analyses of heart failure disease management programs have promising findings but often fail to report key characteristics of populations, interventions, and comparisons. Existing reviews are of mixed quality and do not adequately take account of program complexity and heterogeneity.

  6. Pharmacobezoars described and demystified. (United States)

    Simpson, Serge-Emile


    A bezoar is a concretion of foreign material that forms and persists in the gastrointestinal tract. Bezoars are classified by their material origins. Phytobezoars contain plant material, trichobezoars contain hair, lactobezoars contain milk proteins, and pharmacobezoars contain pharmaceutical products. Tablets, suspensions, and even insoluble drug delivery vehicles can, on rare occasions, and sometimes under specific circumstances, form pharmacobezoars. The goal of this review is to catalog and examine all of the available reports in the English language medical literature that convincingly describe the formation and management of pharmacobezoars. Articles included in this review were identified by performing searches using the terms "bezoar," "pharmacobezoar," and "concretion" in the following databases: OVID MEDLINE, PubMed, and JSTOR. The complete MEDLINE and JSTOR holdings were included in the search without date ranges. The results were limited to English language publications. Articles that described nonmedication bezoars were not included in the review. Articles describing phytobezoars, food bezoars, fecal impactions, illicit drug packet ingestions, enteral feeding material bezoars, and hygroscopic diet aid bezoars were excluded. The bibliographic references within the articles already accumulated were then examined in order to gather additional pharmacobezoar cases. The cases are grouped by pharmaceutical agent that formed the bezoar, and groupings are arranged in alphabetical order. Discussions and conclusions specific to each pharmaceutical agent are included in that agent's subheading. Patterns and themes that emerged in the review of the assembled case reports are reviewed and presented in a more concise format. Pharmacobezoars form under a wide variety of circumstances and in a wide variety of patients. They are difficult to diagnose reliably. Rules for suspecting, diagnosing, and properly managing a pharmacobezoar are highly dependent on the

  7. New Described Dermatological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Gönül


    Full Text Available Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.”

  8. AD/HD and the Capture of Attention by Briefly Exposed Delay-Related Cues: Evidence from a Conditioning Paradigm (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; De Houwer, Jan; De Ruiter, Karen; Ajzenstzen, Michal; Holland, Sarah


    Background: The selective attention of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) to briefly exposed delay-related cues was examined in two experiments using a dot-probe conditioning paradigm. Method: Colour cues were paired with negatively (i.e., imposition of delay) and positively valenced cues (i.e., escape from or avoidance…

  9. Parenting Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martín-Quintana


    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at emphasizing the importance of using parenting programs to promote parental competences. There is a need for this support taking into account the complexity of the parenting task in our modern societies. Following the European recommendation on positive parenting, those parenting programs are considered important measures to support parents in their educational role. Forward, several generations of parenting programs at the international context were briefly described and some examples of programs within the national context, as well. This paper provides some reflection on three models of parental education, and shows the results of an experiential parenting programs addressed to parents in psychosocial risk situation in two Spanish communities. A new program “Crecer felices en familia”, still in the implementation phase, was also described. As a conclusion, the paper emphasized the importance of evaluating programs in order to know more about their efficacy and to improve the way of implementation in real settings.

  10. Programming language for computations in the Interkosmos program (United States)

    Schmidt, K.


    The programming system for Intercosmos data processing, based on the structural programming theory, which considers a program as an ordered set of standardized elementary parts, from which the user programs are automatically generated, is described. The programs are comprised of several modules, which are briefly summarized. The general structure of the programming system is presented in a block diagram. A programming control language developed to formulate the problem quickly and completely is presented along with basic symbols which are characteristic of the Intercosmos programming system.

  11. Page 1 232 S Dattagupta used also for describing certain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    232 S Dattagupta used also for describing certain autocatalytic chemical reactions and we shall have occasion to comment briefly on one such reaction chain later on. 3.3. More complex systems. Equations of the types (1)–(3) can be generalised in a straightforward manner for systems with Seyeral constituents. They read.

  12. Extension Wellness Ambassadors: Individual Effects of Participation in a Health-Focused Master Volunteer Program (United States)

    Washburn, Lisa T.; Traywick, LaVona; Copeland, Lauren; Vincent, Jessica


    We present findings from a pilot implementation of the Extension Wellness Ambassador Program, a health-focused master volunteer program, and briefly describe the program approach and purpose. Program participants received 40 hr of training and completed assessments of self-efficacy, physical activity, and functional fitness at baseline and 3-month…

  13. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev


    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  14. Impact of briefly-assessed depression on secondary prevention outcomes after acute coronary syndrome: a one-year longitudinal survey (United States)

    McGee, Hannah M; Doyle, Frank; Conroy, Ronán M; De La Harpe, Davida; Shelley, Emer


    Background Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are at increased risk of further acute cardiac events. Secondary prevention aims to decrease morbidity and mortality post-ACS. Depression is related to increased risk in this population, and to poorer secondary prevention activities. However, lengthy depression assessment techniques preclude depression assessment in routine care. The present study investigated the relationship of briefly-assessed depression with secondary prevention outcomes one year post-ACS. Methods Following ethics committee approval, hospitals recruited patients for a national survey of ACS. Consenting patients with ACS completed a brief depression scale during hospitalisation. The predictive validity of two brief scales was independently assessed, with groups combined for the overall sample. Participants then completed a one-year longitudinal follow-up postal survey of secondary prevention activities. Results The response rate for follow-up was 86% (n = 681). Proportions taking anti-platelet (88% v 87%; p = 0.334) and lipid-lowering (83% v 84%; p = 0.437) therapies remained unchanged. Prevalence of smoking (40% v 22%; p smoked (20 v 10; p 0.05), but did predict continuation of smoking (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0, p = 0.003), a higher (above median) number of general practitioner visits (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4, p = 0.005), failure to return to work (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.8, p = 0.015), and not feeling better (OR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.3–1.0, p = 0.05) at one year. Conclusion Rapid depression assessment can be used to help identify patients with ACS at risk of a range of poorer secondary prevention outcomes. The results provide support for the routine screening of depression in acute settings. Strategies to increase rates of smoking cessation, return to work, general well-being and decrease health service use by depressed patients may need to incorporate some element of treatment for depression. PMID:16476160

  15. Impact of briefly-assessed depression on secondary prevention outcomes after acute coronary syndrome: a one-year longitudinal survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De La Harpe Davida


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS are at increased risk of further acute cardiac events. Secondary prevention aims to decrease morbidity and mortality post-ACS. Depression is related to increased risk in this population, and to poorer secondary prevention activities. However, lengthy depression assessment techniques preclude depression assessment in routine care. The present study investigated the relationship of briefly-assessed depression with secondary prevention outcomes one year post-ACS. Methods Following ethics committee approval, hospitals recruited patients for a national survey of ACS. Consenting patients with ACS completed a brief depression scale during hospitalisation. The predictive validity of two brief scales was independently assessed, with groups combined for the overall sample. Participants then completed a one-year longitudinal follow-up postal survey of secondary prevention activities. Results The response rate for follow-up was 86% (n = 681. Proportions taking anti-platelet (88% v 87%; p = 0.334 and lipid-lowering (83% v 84%; p = 0.437 therapies remained unchanged. Prevalence of smoking (40% v 22%; p 0.05, but did predict continuation of smoking (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0, p = 0.003, a higher (above median number of general practitioner visits (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4, p = 0.005, failure to return to work (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.8, p = 0.015, and not feeling better (OR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.3–1.0, p = 0.05 at one year. Conclusion Rapid depression assessment can be used to help identify patients with ACS at risk of a range of poorer secondary prevention outcomes. The results provide support for the routine screening of depression in acute settings. Strategies to increase rates of smoking cessation, return to work, general well-being and decrease health service use by depressed patients may need to incorporate some element of treatment for depression.

  16. Focused cardiac ultrasound screening for rheumatic heart disease by briefly trained health workers: a study of diagnostic accuracy. (United States)

    Engelman, Daniel; Kado, Joseph H; Reményi, Bo; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Donath, Susan; Wilson, Nigel J; Steer, Andrew C


    Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) can identify individuals with subclinical disease who could benefit from antibiotic prophylaxis. However, most settings have inadequate resources to implement conventional echocardiography and require a feasible, accurate screening method. We aimed to investigate the accuracy of screening by non-expert operators using focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS). In this prospective study of diagnostic accuracy, we recruited schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years in Fiji to undergo two blinded tests. The index test was a FoCUS assessment of mitral and aortic regurgitation, performed by nurses after an 8-week training programme. The reference standard was the diagnosis of RHD by a paediatric cardiologist, based on a standard echocardiogram performed by a skilled echocardiographer. The primary outcome was the accuracy of the index test with use of the most sensitive criteria (any regurgitation). We included 2004 children in the study. The index tests were done between September, 2012, and September, 2013, by seven nurses in eight schools in Fiji. The diagnostic accuracy of the screening test (area under receiver operator characteristic curve) was 0·89 (95% CI 0·83-0·94). When the primary cut-off point (any regurgitation) was used for analysis, sensitivity was 84·2% (72·1-92·5) and specificity was 85·6% (83·9-87·1). The sensitivity of individual nurses ranged from 66·7% to 100% and specificity 74·0% to 93·7%. Screening by briefly trained nurses using FoCUS was accurate for the diagnosis of RHD. Refinements to training and screening test methods should be studied in a range of settings, and in parallel with investigations of the long-term clinical and cost-effectiveness of screening for RHD. Cure Kids, New Zealand; the Fiji Water Foundation provided funding for portable ultrasound equipment; see acknowledgments for further details of funders. Copyright © 2016 Engelman et al. Open Access article distributed

  17. MULGRES: a computer program for stepwise multiple regression analysis (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin


    MULGRES is a computer program source deck that is designed for multiple regression analysis employing the technique of stepwise deletion in the search for most significant variables. The features of the program, along with inputs and outputs, are briefly described, with a note on machine compatibility.

  18. An Undergraduate Information Security Program: More than a Curriculum (United States)

    Woodward, Belle; Imboden, Thomas; Martin, Nancy L.


    This paper describes the implementation of an information security program at a large Midwestern university. The initial work is briefly summarized and improvements that have occurred over time are described. Current activities and future plans are discussed. This paper offers insight and lessons learned for organizations that have or are…

  19. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.


    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A…

  20. Isotope Program Report June FY2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Jr, Benjamin E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Egle, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Isotope Program Monthly Highlights are briefly described. These include data on isotopes shipped, updates on equipment fabrication and testing, a potential new approach for nondestructive measurement of the amount of Cf-252 deposited on a surface, and efforts to recover and purify uranium-234 obtained from old PuBe sources.

  1. When performance and risk taking are related: Working for rewards is related to risk taking when the value of rewards is presented briefly. (United States)

    Veling, Harm; Bijleveld, Erik


    Valuable monetary rewards can boost human performance on various effortful tasks even when the value of the rewards is presented too briefly to allow for strategic decision making. However, the mechanism by which briefly-presented reward information influences performance has remained unclear. One possibility is that performance after briefly-presented reward information is primarily boosted via activation of the dopamine reward system, whereas performance after very visible reward information is driven more by strategic processes. To examine this hypothesis, we first presented participants with a task in which they could earn rewards of relatively low (1 cent) or high (10 cents) value, and the value information was presented either briefly (17 ms) or for an extended duration (300 ms). Furthermore, responsiveness of the dopamine system was indirectly estimated with a measure of risk taking, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Results showed that performance after high- compared to low-value rewards was indeed related to the BART scores only when reward information was presented briefly. These results are suggestive of the possibility that brief presentation of reward information boosts performance directly via activating the dopamine system, whereas extended presentation of reward information leads to more strategic reward-driven behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Challenges in describing ribosome dynamics (United States)

    Nguyen, Kien; Whitford, Paul Charles


    For decades, protein folding and functional dynamics have been described in terms of diffusive motion across an underlying energy landscape. With continued advances in structural biology and high-performance computing, the field is positioned to extend these approaches to large biomolecular assemblies. Through the application of energy landscape techniques to the ribosome, one may work towards establishing a comprehensive description of the dynamics, which will bridge theoretical concepts and experimental observations. In this perspective, we discuss a few of the challenges that will need to be addressed as we extend the application of landscape principles to the ribosome.

  3. Persistence Statements: Describing Digital Stickiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kunze


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a draft vocabulary for making “persistence statements.” These are simple tools for pragmatically addressing the concern that anyone feels upon experiencing a broken web link. Scholars increasingly use scientific and cultural assets in digital form, but choosing which among many objects to cite for the long term can be difficult. There are few well-defined terms to describe the various kinds and qualities of persistence that object repositories and identifier resolvers do or don’t provide. Given an object’s identifier, one should be able to query a provider to retrieve human- and machine-readable information to help judge the level of service to expect and help gauge whether the identifier is durable enough, as a sort of long-term bet, to include in a citation. The vocabulary should enable providers to articulate persistence policies and set user expectations.

  4. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia. (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C M; Oort, Frans J


    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A sample of 446 students (63 with dyslexia) completed a large test battery and a large questionnaire. Five factors were found in both the test battery and the questionnaire. These 10 factors loaded on 5 latent factors (spelling, phonology, short-term memory, rhyme/confusion, and whole-word processing/complexity), which explained 60% of total variance. Three analyses supported the validity of these factors. A confirmatory factor analysis fit with a solution of five factors (RMSEA = .03). Those with dyslexia differed from those without dyslexia on all factors. A combination of five factors provided reliable predictions of dyslexia and nondyslexia (accuracy >90%). We also looked for factorial deficits on an individual level to construct subtypes of dyslexia, but found varying profiles. We concluded that a multiple cognitive deficit model of dyslexia is supported, whereas the existence of subtypes remains unclear. We discussed the results in relation to advanced compensation strategies of students, measures of intelligence, and various correlations within groups of those with and without dyslexia. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  5. In-District Programs for Students with Autism: How Do New Jersey Special Education Directors Describe and Understand the Factors that They Think Influence Their Decision to Adopt and Use Applied Behavior Analysis? (United States)

    Cook, Irene


    This dissertation examined the perspectives of New Jersey public school special education administrators on factors that influenced their decision to use or not use applied behavior analysis (ABA), an educational methodology, for their in-district programs serving children with autism. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has called…

  6. Passandra septentrionaria sp. nov.: the first described species of Passandridae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) from Eocene Baltic amber. (United States)

    Bukejs, Andris; Alekseev, Vitalii I; Mckellar, Ryan C


    Based on two relatively well-preserved specimens from Eocene Baltic amber, Passandra septentrionaria sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It is the first formally described species of Passandridae from Baltic amber, and the first known European representative of the family. The global distribution of extant Passandra Dalman is mapped, and the historical distribution of the group is briefly discussed.

  7. Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

  8. A Cooperative Bilingual Language Program for Deaf Adolescents. (United States)

    Neuroth-Gimbrone, Cindy; Logiodice, Colleen M.


    Briefly describes a program that sought to improve the written English skills of deaf adolescents' whose first language was American Sign Language, focusing on first-language skills, metalinguistic skills, translating skills, lexical matching across languages, translation of syntactical structures, and recognition of the importance of the…

  9. A Guide for Planning Programs in Agricultural Education. (United States)

    Eichelberger, A. E.; And Others

    The general information necessary for planning a high school program in agricultural educated is provided, based on the following briefly described occupational areas: agricultural production, agricultural supplied/services, agricultural mechanics, agricultural products (processing, inspection, and marketing), agricultural resources (conversation,…

  10. Photovoltaic energy systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the Photovoltaics Program are highlighted and each of the US Department of Energy's current photovoltaics projects initiated or renewed during fiscal year 1981 is described, including its title, directing organization, project engineer, contractor, principal investigator, contract period, funding, and objectives. The Photovoltaics Program is briefly summarized, including the history and organization and highlights of the research and development and of planning, assessment, and integration. Also summarized is the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program. An exhaustive bibliography is included. (LEW)

  11. On new gravitational instantons describing creation of braneworlds

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, M; Zhuk, A


    By considering five-dimensional cosmological models with a bulk filled with a pressureless scalar field or equivalently dust matter, and a negative cosmological constant, we have found a regular instantonic solution which is free from any singularity at the origin of the extra coordinate. This instanton describes the five-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter wormhole, when the bulk has a topology RxS sup 4. Compactified braneworld instantons which are built up from such an instantonic solution describe either a single brane or a string of branes. Their analytical continuation to the pseudo-Riemannian metric can give rise to either four-dimensional inflating branes or solutions with the same dynamical behaviour for extra dimension and branes, in addition to multitemporal solutions. Dust braneworld models with arbitrary dimensions (D>=5) as well as other spatial topologies are also briefly discussed.

  12. LTP - A Tutorial Program for Analysis of Linear Two - Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valsa


    Full Text Available The paper describes basic possibilities offered by the program LTP (Linear Two-Ports in teaching electrial networks theory. At the same time the most important algorithms used in the program are briefly described. The program LTP analyses immittance and transfer functions of two-ports in the domain of complex variable p, in the frequency domain and in the time domain. The results can be obtained in symbolic, semisymbolic and numerical form (with optional graphical representation of the numerical results. The program is user friendly and can be used easily by anyone.

  13. Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.

  14. Research on Knowledge Based Programming and Algorithm Design. (United States)


    34prime finding" (including the Sieve of Eratosthenes and linear time prime finding). This research is described in sections 6,7,8, and 9. 4 ii. Summary of...algorithm and several variants on prime finding including the Sieve of Eratosthenes and a more sophisticated linear-time algorithm. In these additional...overview of our approach to improving the programming process. We briefly describe an emerging system and set of associated ideas which are being implemented

  15. Encouraging Wildland Fire Preparedness: Lessons Learned from Three Wildfire Education Programs (United States)

    Victoria Sturtevant; Sarah McCaffrey


    Managers may often wonder why some people do not choose to adopt defensible space practices despite understanding the benefits of doing so. Research has sought to understand why a new practice or innovation is or is not adopted. This paper will briefly discuss factors found to influence adoption rates and describe how three different fire education programs - Firewise...

  16. 23 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - State Highway Agency Equal Employment Opportunity Programs (United States)


    ... disparate effect on such groups. For example, if more minorities and females are being laid off because they... labor compliance or engineering. 3. Describe training provided for personnel having EEO compliance... compliance program. Briefly summarize total findings. 2. Identify any significant impact or effect of this...

  17. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.


    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  19. Timoides agassizii Bigelow, 1904, little-known hydromedusa (Cnidaria), appears briefly in large numbers off Oman, March 2011, with additional notes about species of the genus Timoides. (United States)

    Purushothaman, Jasmine; Kharusi, Lubna Al; Mills, Claudia E; Ghielani, Hamed; Marzouki, Mohammad Al


    A bloom of the hydromedusan jellyfish, Timoides agassizii, occurred in February 2011 off the coast of Sohar, Al Batinah, Sultanate of Oman, in the Gulf of Oman. This species was first observed in 1902 in great numbers off Haddummati Atoll in the Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean and has rarely been seen since. The species appeared briefly in large numbers off Oman in 2011 and subsequent observation of our 2009 samples of zooplankton from Sohar revealed that it was also present in low numbers (two collected) in one sample in 2009; these are the first records in the Indian Ocean north of the Maldives. Medusae collected off Oman were almost identical to those recorded previously from the Maldive Islands, Papua New Guinea, the Marshall Islands, Guam, the South China Sea, and Okinawa. T. agassizii is a species that likely lives for several months. It was present in our plankton samples together with large numbers of the oceanic siphonophore Physalia physalis only during a single month's samples, suggesting that the temporary bloom off Oman was likely due to the arrival of mature, open ocean medusae into nearshore waters. We see no evidence that T. agassizii has established a new population along Oman, since if so, it would likely have been present in more than one sample period. We are unable to deduce further details of the life cycle of this species from blooms of many mature individuals nearshore, about a century apart. Examination of a single damaged T. agassizii medusa from Guam, calls into question the existence of its congener, T. latistyla, known only from a single specimen.

  20. Describing Creativity in Design Across Disciplines


    Mann, Llew; Tekmen Araci, Yasemin


    Creativity is an essential aspect of design thinking. Being able to describe creativity and creative processes is important for developing future designers. While much research has been undertaken describing creativity in design, there is very little investigating how creativity and creative thinking varies across disciplines. A coding scheme involving six separate codes was developed initially from the literature, refined and then used to describe how creativity and creative thinking was app...

  1. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter


    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts....... In this article, we present the experiment and its results. They indicate that with such a setting it is relatively easy to reach a degree of consensus about criteria. Such an interactive program can therefore be very useful, for instance when choosing among design proposals or when selecting artefacts...

  2. Some small self-describing Turing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margenstern


    Full Text Available Several small self-describing Turing machines are constructed. The number of instructions varies from 275 to 206, depending on the chosen encoding principles. The previous Thatcher's result (2532 instructions of self-describing machine in Wang's format is essentially improved.

  3. Children describe life after Hurricane Andrew. (United States)

    Coffman, S


    Hurricane Andrew, which devastated the south Florida coast in August 1992, left over 250,000 people homeless with multiple health and social problems. This nursing study explored the experiences of 17 children, ages 5 through 12, who lived in the geographic area of storm damage. Common experiences described by the children included remembering the storm, dealing with after-effects, and reestablishing a new life. In general, children described a sense of strangeness, articulated as "life is weird" after the hurricane. In addition to stressful responses, many positive reactions were described by children in the study, revealing that the disaster also had a maturing effect.

  4. Disposition of recently described species of Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Samson, Robert A.; Stolk, Amelia C.


    Hundred and twenty-two species, varieties, and new combinations of Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Talaromyces described since 1977 have been studied taxonomically and screened for mycotoxin production. Only 48 taxa could be accepted: Eupenicillium angustiporcatum, E. cryptum, E. lineolatum, E.

  5. Describing and Enhancing Collaboration at the Computer. (United States)

    Beatty, Ken


    Describes research conducted with Hong Kong university students that investigated challenges to collaboration during computer-assisted instruction as evidenced by discourse. Evaluates videotapes of the students according to a set of discourse markers and suggests implications for software designers, teachers, and students to enhance collaboration…

  6. Statistical Methods for Describing Developmental Patterns. (United States)

    Burchinal, Margaret R.


    Describes a variety of analytic tools available to address questions about development, including growth-curve methods, hierarchical regressions, and both primary and secondary data analysis of project and extant data. Demonstrates some of these techniques using extant data from two projects to examine questions about treatment efficacy and…

  7. How Digital Native Learners Describe Themselves (United States)

    Thompson, Penny


    Eight university students from the "digital native" generation were interviewed about the connections they saw between technology use and learning, and also their reactions to the popular press claims about their generation. Themes that emerged from the interviews were coded to show patterns in how digital natives describe themselves.…

  8. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni


    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KSH Newton Singh


    Jul 11, 2017 ... eral of class II and plane symmetric space–times are of class III. However, the entire spherically ... vital role in describing the internal symmetry of ele- mentary particle physics [7]. Pavsic and Tapia [8] have ... positive values of the central pressure, central den- sity and nonzero positive value of (e ν)r=0 and.

  10. Is the Water Heating Curve as Described? (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Oliva, A. I.


    We analysed the heating curve of water which is described in textbooks. An experiment combined with some simple heat transfer calculations is discussed. The theoretical behaviour can be altered by changing the conditions under which the experiment is modelled. By identifying and controlling the different parameters involved during the heating…

  11. Describing Spirituality at the End of Life. (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Berry, Devon M


    Spirituality is salient to persons nearing the end of life (EOL). Unfortunately, researchers have not been able to agree on a universal definition of spirituality reducing the effectiveness of spiritual research. To advance spiritual knowledge and build an evidence base, researchers must develop creative ways to describe spirituality as it cannot be explicitly defined. A literature review was conducted to determine the common attributes that comprise the essence of spirituality, thereby creating a common ground on which to base spiritual research. Forty original research articles (2002 to 2012) focusing on EOL and including spiritual definitions/descriptions were reviewed. Analysis identified five attributes that most commonly described the essence of spirituality, including meaning, beliefs, connecting, self-transcendence, and value. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Generating and Describing Affective Eye Behaviors (United States)

    Mao, Xia; Li, Zheng

    The manner of a person's eye movement conveys much about nonverbal information and emotional intent beyond speech. This paper describes work on expressing emotion through eye behaviors in virtual agents based on the parameters selected from the AU-Coded facial expression database and real-time eye movement data (pupil size, blink rate and saccade). A rule-based approach to generate primary (joyful, sad, angry, afraid, disgusted and surprise) and intermediate emotions (emotions that can be represented as the mixture of two primary emotions) utilized the MPEG4 FAPs (facial animation parameters) is introduced. Meanwhile, based on our research, a scripting tool, named EEMML (Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language) that enables authors to describe and generate emotional eye movement of virtual agents, is proposed.

  13. [Different terms used to describe "red tides"]. (United States)

    Ochoa, José Luis; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick; Saad, Jorge


    An event characterized by sudden increase in phytoplankton population, in the sea or aqueous environment, is often designated by different Spanish terms that attempt to describe the nature, aspect, characteristics, and/or properties of such phenomena. In this communication, we discuss the convenience of reaching an agreement among the Spanish-speaking scientific community to use a simple Spanish term that could be much more informative and accurate when referring to Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), in general. Summarizing the different Spanish terms historically employed to describe the proliferation of noxious phytoplankton in the sea, we propose "Proliferación Microalgal Nociva" (PMN = HAB) as a term that, on the basis of its etymological meaning could be considered correct. Its use could help to avoid the prevailing confusion in our language caused by different misleading terms now employed when referring to a Harmful Algal Bloom event.

  14. Modeling Approaches for Describing Microbial Population Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lencastre Fernandes, Rita

    population consists of cells in different states, and it implies a heterogeneous distribution of activities (e.g. respiration, product yield), including different responses to extracellular stimuli. The existence of a heterogeneous cell population may explain the lower productivities obtained......) to predict distributions of certain population properties including particle size, mass or volume, and molecular weight. Similarly, PBM allow for a mathematical description of distributed cell properties within microbial populations. Cell total protein content distributions (a measure of cell mass) have been...... population dynamics, in response to the substrate consumption observed during batch cultivation. Cell size and cell cycle position distributions were used to describe the cell population. A two-stage PBM was developed and coupled to an unstructured model describing the extracellular environment. The good...

  15. How do consumers describe wine astringency? (United States)

    Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana; Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Ares, Gastón


    Astringency is one of the most important sensory characteristics of red wine. Although a hierarchically structured vocabulary to describe the mouthfeel sensations of red wine has been proposed, research on consumers' astringency vocabulary is lacking. In this context, the aim of this work was to gain an insight on the vocabulary used by wine consumers to describe the astringency of red wine and to evaluate the influence of wine involvement on consumers' vocabulary. One hundred and twenty-five wine consumers completed and on-line survey with five tasks: an open-ended question about the definition of wine astringency, free listing the sensations perceived when drinking an astringent wine, free listing the words they would use to describe the astringency of a red wine, a CATA question with 44 terms used in the literature to describe astringency, and a wine involvement questionnaire. When thinking about wine astringency consumers freely elicited terms included in the Mouth-feel Wheel, such as dryness and harsh. The majority of the specific sub-qualities of the Mouth-feel Wheel were not included in consumer responses. Also, terms not classified as astringency descriptors were elicited (e.g. acid and bitter). Only 17 out of the 31 terms from the Mouth-feel Wheel were used by more than 10% of participants when answering the CATA question. There were no large differences in the responses of consumer segments with different wine involvement. Results from the present work suggest that most of the terms of the Mouth-feel Wheel might not be adequate to communicate the astringency characteristics of red wine to consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Criteria Describing High-Rise Buildings


    Ernestas Gaudutis


    Although the evolution of high rise buildings according to different literature sources counts the 2nd century, however, until now, no universally accepted criterion to characterize them has been established. Considering standards used in different countries of the world and various sources of literature, this article tries to sign the existing situation and offer a criterion to mark high rise buildings. The analysis of the reasons of the notion describing high rise buildings is carried out a...

  17. Hanford National Environmental Research Park (NERP): a descriptive summary of the site and site-related research programs, 1952--1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B.E.; Rickard, W.H.


    The Hanford National Environmental Research Park site is described in general terms and major plant communities and special habitats are discussed. Important bird, mammal, and fish populations are listed. Current research programs on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and radioecology are reviewed briefly. A list is included of some 100 publications that report results of research studies in detail.

  18. HAL/S - The programming language for Shuttle (United States)

    Martin, F. H.


    HAL/S is a higher order language and system, now operational, adopted by NASA for programming Space Shuttle on-board software. Program reliability is enhanced through language clarity and readability, modularity through program structure, and protection of code and data. Salient features of HAL/S include output orientation, automatic checking (with strictly enforced compiler rules), the availability of linear algebra, real-time control, a statement-level simulator, and compiler transferability (for applying HAL/S to additional object and host computers). The compiler is described briefly.

  19. A functional language for describing reversible logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal


    Reversible logic is a computational model where all gates are logically reversible and combined in circuits such that no values are lost or duplicated. This paper presents a novel functional language that is designed to describe only reversible logic circuits. The language includes high....... Reversibility of descriptions is guaranteed with a type system based on linear types. The language is applied to three examples of reversible computations (ALU, linear cosine transformation, and binary adder). The paper also outlines a design flow that ensures garbage- free translation to reversible logic...

  20. Frameworks for understanding and describing business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin


    This chapter provides in a chronological fashion an introduction to six frameworks that one can apply to describing, understanding and also potentially innovating business models. These six frameworks have been chosen carefully as they represent six very different perspectives on business models...... and in this manner “complement” each other. There are a multitude of varying frameworks that could be chosen from and we urge the reader to search and trial these for themselves. The six chosen models (year of release in parenthesis) are: • Service-Profit Chain (1994) • Strategic Systems Auditing (1997) • Strategy...

  1. Classification system to describe workpieces definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Macconnell, W R


    A Classification System to Describe Workpieces provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects and principles of coding. This book discusses the various applications of the classification system of coding.Organized into three chapters, this book begins with an overview of the requirements of a system of classification pertaining adequately and equally to design, production, and work planning. This text then examines the purpose of the classification system in production to determine the most suitable means of machining a component. Other chapters consider the optimal utilization of m

  2. Using fundamental equations to describe basic phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.


    When the fundamental thermodynamic balance equations (mass, energy, and momentum) are used to describe the processes in a simple refrigeration system, then one finds that the resulting equation system will have a degree of freedom equal to one. Further investigations reveal that it is the equation...... and subcooling are introduced. Since the degree of freedom was equal to one, using both the superheat and subcooling require that one of the fundamental equations must be omitted from the equation system.The main purpose of the paper is to clarify the relation between the fundamental balance equations...

  3. Criteria Describing High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Gaudutis


    Full Text Available Although the evolution of high rise buildings according to different literature sources counts the 2nd century, however, until now, no universally accepted criterion to characterize them has been established. Considering standards used in different countries of the world and various sources of literature, this article tries to sign the existing situation and offer a criterion to mark high rise buildings. The analysis of the reasons of the notion describing high rise buildings is carried out and its relations with high rise construction rudiments found in different cultures are characterized. Article in Lithuanian

  4. A Semantic Approach to Describe Geospatial Resources (United States)

    de Sousa, Sidney Roberto

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly using geospatial data from the Web to produce geographic information. One big challenge is to find the relevant data, which often is based on keywords or even file names. However, these approaches lack semantics. Thus, it is necessary to provide mechanisms to prepare data to help retrieval of semantically relevant data. This paper proposes an approach to attack this problem. This approach is based on semantic annotations that use geographic metadata and ontologies to describe heterogeneous geospatial data. Semantic annotations are RDF/XML files that rely on a FGDC metadata schema, filled with appropriate ontology terms, and stored in a XML database. The proposal is illustrated by a case study of semantic annotations of agricultural resources, using domain ontologies.

  5. Using default inheritance to describe LTAG

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, R; Weir, D; Evans, Roger; Gazdar, Gerald; Weir, David


    We present the results of an investigation into how the set of elementary trees of a Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar can be represented in the lexical knowledge representation language DATR (Evans & Gazdar 1989a,b). The LTAG under consideration is based on the one described in Abeille et al. (1990). Our approach is similar to that of Vijay-Shanker & Schabes (1992) in that we formulate an inheritance hierarchy that efficiently encodes the elementary trees. However, rather than creating a new representation formalism for this task, we employ techniques of established utility in other lexically-oriented frameworks. In particular, we show how DATR's default mechanism can be used to eliminate the need for a non-immediate dominance relation in the descriptions of the surface LTAG entries. This allows us to embed the tree structures in the feature theory in a manner reminiscent of HPSG subcategorisation frames, and hence express lexical rules as relations over feature structures.

  6. Fractional Langevin equation to describe anomalous diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kobelev, V


    A Langevin equation with a special type of additive random source is considered. This random force presents a fractional order derivative of white noise, and leads to a power-law time behavior of the mean square displacement of a particle, with the power exponent being noninteger. More general equation containing fractional time differential operators instead of usual ones is also proposed to describe anomalous diffusion processes. Such equation can be regarded as corresponding to systems with incomplete Hamiltonian chaos, and depending on the type of the relationship between the speed and coordinate of a particle yields either usual or fractional long-time behavior of diffusion. Correlations with the fractional Fokker-Planck equation are analyzed. Possible applications of the proposed equation beside anomalous diffusion itself are discussed.

  7. Programming Languages RESONAN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we will briefly review various programming lan- ... notation should also match the type of algorithm. For example, programming languages to solve science and engineering problems should support arithmetic using wide ranging, high .... programs using a library of reusable 'components' was imperative.

  8. Biofilm carrier migration model describes reactor performance. (United States)

    Boltz, Joshua P; Johnson, Bruce R; Takács, Imre; Daigger, Glen T; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Brockmann, Doris; Kovács, Róbert; Calhoun, Jason M; Choubert, Jean-Marc; Derlon, Nicolas


    The accuracy of a biofilm reactor model depends on the extent to which physical system conditions (particularly bulk-liquid hydrodynamics and their influence on biofilm dynamics) deviate from the ideal conditions upon which the model is based. It follows that an improved capacity to model a biofilm reactor does not necessarily rely on an improved biofilm model, but does rely on an improved mathematical description of the biofilm reactor and its components. Existing biofilm reactor models typically include a one-dimensional biofilm model, a process (biokinetic and stoichiometric) model, and a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) mass balance that [when organizing CFSTRs in series] creates a pseudo two-dimensional (2-D) model of bulk-liquid hydrodynamics approaching plug flow. In such a biofilm reactor model, the user-defined biofilm area is specified for each CFSTR; thereby, Xcarrier does not exit the boundaries of the CFSTR to which they are assigned or exchange boundaries with other CFSTRs in the series. The error introduced by this pseudo 2-D biofilm reactor modeling approach may adversely affect model results and limit model-user capacity to accurately calibrate a model. This paper presents a new sub-model that describes the migration of Xcarrier and associated biofilms, and evaluates the impact that Xcarrier migration and axial dispersion has on simulated system performance. Relevance of the new biofilm reactor model to engineering situations is discussed by applying it to known biofilm reactor types and operational conditions.

  9. Can the genetic code be mathematically described? (United States)

    Gonzalez, Diego L


    From a mathematical point of view, the genetic code is a surjective mapping between the set of the 64 possible three-base codons and the set of 21 elements composed of the 20 amino acids plus the Stop signal. Redundancy and degeneracy therefore follow. In analogy with the genetic code, non-power integer-number representations are also surjective mappings between sets of different cardinality and, as such, also redundant. However, none of the non-power arithmetics studied so far nor other alternative redundant representations are able to match the actual degeneracy of the genetic code. In this paper we develop a slightly more general framework that leads to the following surprising results: i) the degeneracy of the genetic code is mathematically described, ii) a new symmetry is uncovered within this degeneracy, iii) by assigning a binary string to each of the codons, their classification into definite parity classes according to the corresponding sequence of bases is made possible. This last result is particularly appealing in connection with the fact that parity coding is the basis of the simplest strategies devised for error correction in man-made digital data transmission systems.

  10. Describing ocular aberrations with wavefront vergence maps. (United States)

    Nam, Jayoung; Thibos, Larry N; Iskander, D Robert


    A common optometric problem is to specify the eye's ocular aberrations in terms of Zernike coefficients and to reduce that specification to a prescription for the optimum sphero-cylindrical correcting lens. The typical approach is first to reconstruct wavefront phase errors from measurements of wavefront slopes obtained by a wavefront aberrometer. This paper applies a new method to this clinical problem that does not require wavefront reconstruction. Instead, we base our analysis of axial wavefront vergence as inferred directly from wavefront slopes. The result is a wavefront vergence map that is similar to the axial power maps in corneal topography and hence has a potential to be favoured by clinicians. We use our new set of orthogonal Zernike slope polynomials to systematically analyse details of the vergence map analogous to Zernike analysis of wavefront maps. The result is a vector of slope coefficients that describe fundamental aberration components. Three different methods for reducing slope coefficients to a spherocylindrical prescription in power vector forms are compared and contrasted. When the original wavefront contains only second order aberrations, the vergence map is a function of meridian only and the power vectors from all three methods are identical. The differences in the methods begin to appear as we include higher order aberrations, in which case the wavefront vergence map is more complicated. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of vergence map representation of ocular aberrations.

  11. Symptomatic dermographism: an inadequately described disease. (United States)

    Schoepke, N; Młynek, A; Weller, K; Church, M K; Maurer, M


    Symptomatic dermographism is the most common form of physical urticaria with a prevalence of 2-5%. However, its clinical picture has rarely been described. To understand more of patients' views about the practical aspects of their condition, its cause and impact on quality of life. Ninety-one of 150 patients with symptomatic dermographism from our specialist urticaria clinic completed a 38-question questionnaire sent them by mail. The mean duration of disease was 6¼ years. In most patients, the condition was continuous, but ~25% had prolonged symptom-free phases. Severity was evaluated as moderate in 45%, severe in 33% and very severe in 6% of respondents. Other responses included: symptoms worse in the evening in 81%; quality of life significantly impaired in 44%; normal life not possible 7%; stress induces acute episodes 44%; other urticarial forms coexist 21%; allergy coexist 48%. A family history was reported in 14%. Almost all patients were taking H1 -anti-histamines, 49% getting marked improvement and 23% becoming symptoms free. It is a survey only of patient opinions. This questionnaire survey confirmed that symptomatic dermographism is a debilitating condition with profound effects on quality of life but its underlying cause and disease mechanisms remain obscure. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. How patients describe bulimia or binge eating. (United States)

    Abraham, S F; Beumont, P J


    Thirty-two patients who complained of episodes of ravenous overeating which they felt unable to control (bulimia) were asked to describe their behaviour and symptoms. There was considerable variation both between and within individuals, but a number of factors were defined which appeared to be common to all with the complaint. It is difficult to set up strict criteria for the recognition of bulimia, and those that have recently been proposed are criticized in the light of our present findings. Bulimia is usually associated with an excessive concern about body weight. It occurs in patients with anorexia nervosa, in whom it is often a relatively early feature of the illness, but it is also found in subjects of normal weight or obese subjects who have never been emaciated. Episodes of bulimia are usually preceded by dysphoric mood states. The gorging may alleviate the dysphoria temporarily, but many patients later experience negative feelings such as depression and self-depreciation. The ability to induce vomiting after a bulimic episode is a major influence determining the clinical presentation.

  13. Positions priming in briefly presented search arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, Arni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Kyllingsbæk, Søren


    Repetition priming in visual search has been a topic of extensive research since Maljkovic & Nakayama [1994, Memory & Cognition, 22, 657-672] presented the first detailed studies of such effects. Their results showed large reductions in reaction times when target color was repeated on consecutive...... variable. Here we present results from experiments where position priming is demonstrated in paradigms involving temporally limited exposures to singleton targets. Position priming of response accuracy was observed in an eye-movement-controlled spatial judgment task and in partial report tasks where...... the targets are oddly colored alphanumeric characters. The effects arise at very low exposure durations and benefit accuracy at all exposure durations towards the subjects’ ceiling. We conclude that temporally constricted experimental conditions can add to our understanding priming in visual search...

  14. Recognition and Memory for Briefly Presented Scenes (United States)

    Potter, Mary C.


    Three times per second, our eyes make a new fixation that generates a new bottom-up analysis in the visual system. How much is extracted from each glimpse? For how long and in what form is that information remembered? To answer these questions, investigators have mimicked the effect of continual shifts of fixation by using rapid serial visual presentation of sequences of unrelated pictures. Experiments in which viewers detect specified target pictures show that detection on the basis of meaning is possible at presentation durations as brief as 13 ms, suggesting that understanding may be based on feedforward processing, without feedback. In contrast, memory for what was just seen is poor unless the viewer has about 500 ms to think about the scene: the scene does not need to remain in view. Initial memory loss after brief presentations occurs over several seconds, suggesting that at least some of the information from the previous few fixations persists long enough to support a coherent representation of the current environment. In contrast to marked memory loss shortly after brief presentations, memory for pictures viewed for 1 s or more is excellent. Although some specific visual information persists, the form and content of the perceptual and memory representations of pictures over time indicate that conceptual information is extracted early and determines most of what remains in longer-term memory. PMID:22371707

  15. The Effects of Briefly Interrupting Marital Conflict. (United States)

    Gottman, John M; Tabares, Amber


    This study examined couples' (N = 94) behavior resulting from two proximal change interventions. One was a spousal "compliments intervention" to increase positivity, and the other was a "criticize intervention" to increase negativity. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention conditions or a control group. There was no main effect in affect from the pretest conflict discussion to the posttest conflict discussion between the interventions or control group. However, a manipulation check on how couples acted during either intervention produced a significant interaction effect. Pretest affect during conflict and marital satisfaction significantly predicted couples' construal of the intervention. Professionals may need to monitor how couples use specific interventions and direct the processes how the intervention is construed by the couple. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  16. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.


    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Social network analysis for program implementation. (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Czaja, Sara; Chu, Kar-Hai; Brown, C Hendricks


    This paper introduces the use of social network analysis theory and tools for implementation research. The social network perspective is useful for understanding, monitoring, influencing, or evaluating the implementation process when programs, policies, practices, or principles are designed and scaled up or adapted to different settings. We briefly describe common barriers to implementation success and relate them to the social networks of implementation stakeholders. We introduce a few simple measures commonly used in social network analysis and discuss how these measures can be used in program implementation. Using the four stage model of program implementation (exploration, adoption, implementation, and sustainment) proposed by Aarons and colleagues [1] and our experience in developing multi-sector partnerships involving community leaders, organizations, practitioners, and researchers, we show how network measures can be used at each stage to monitor, intervene, and improve the implementation process. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts. We conclude with expected benefits and challenges associated with this approach.

  18. Benchmarking of numerical models describing the dispersion of radionuclides in the Arctic Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, E.M.; Gurbutt, P.; Harms, I.


    As part of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a working group was created to model the dispersal and transfer of radionuclides released from radioactive waste disposed of in the Kara Sea. The objectives of this group are: (1......) development of realistic and reliable assessment models for the dispersal of radioactive contaminants both within, and from, the Arctic ocean; and (2) evaluation of the contributions of different transfer mechanisms to contaminant dispersal and hence, ultimately, to the risks to human health and environment....... With regard to the first objective, the modelling work has been directed towards assessment of model reliability and asone aspect of this, a benchmarking exercise has been carried out. This paper briefly describes the benchmark scenario, the models developed and used, and discusses some of the benchmarking...

  19. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E


    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  20. Auditing nuclear weapons quality programs at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.H.


    Some of the problems involved in introducing quality assurance on a broad scale in a national laboratory are discussed. A philosophy of how QA can be utilized beneficially in research and development activities is described briefly, and our experiences at Los Alamos in applying QA to nuclear weapons activities are outlines. The important role of audits is emphasized; audits are used not merely to determine the effectiveness of QA programs but also to explain and demonstrate the usefulness of QA to a generally sceptical body of engineers and scientists. Finally, some ways of easing the application of QA in the future are proposed. 1 ref.

  1. Annual report of the Wind Characteristics Program Element, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendell, L.L.; Barchet, W.R.; Connell, J.R.; Miller, A.H.; Pennell, W.T.; Renne, D.S.


    This annual report briefly describes the technical progress within each segment of the WCPE from October 1979 through September 1980. It includes the progress accomplished directly by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and by subcontractors funded directly by DOE or through PNL. To expedite the management of the activities to produce the required information, the WCPE has been divided into three program areas: Wind Energy Prospecting, Support for Design and Operations, and Site Evaluation. Accomplishments in each of these program areas provide a highlight of WCPE activities in FY 1980.

  2. Intelligence for education: as described by Piaget and measured by psychometrics. (United States)

    Shayer, Michael


    Two separate paths to the concept of intelligence are discussed: the psychometric path being concerned with the measurement of intelligence, involving the methodology of norm-referenced testing; the path followed by Piaget, and others, addresses from the start the related question of how intelligence can be described, and employs a criterion-referenced methodology. The achievements of psychometrics are briefly described, with an argument that they now remain important tools of what Kuhn called 'normal science'. The criterion-referenced approach of Piaget and others is described, with evidence from intervention studies that the Genevan descriptions of children-in-action have allowed the choice of contexts within which children can profitably be challenged to go further in their thinking. Hence, Genevan psychology is also now a part of the normal science with important uses, shown both in neo-Piagetian studies and further research stemming from Geneva. Discussion of the 'Flynn effect' sheds light on both paths, with problems still unresolved. The argument is then developed that the relevance of neuroscience needs to be discussed to try to decide in what ways it may provide useful insights into intelligence.

  3. Lineage grammars: describing, simulating and analyzing population dynamics. (United States)

    Spiro, Adam; Cardelli, Luca; Shapiro, Ehud


    Precise description of the dynamics of biological processes would enable the mathematical analysis and computational simulation of complex biological phenomena. Languages such as Chemical Reaction Networks and Process Algebras cater for the detailed description of interactions among individuals and for the simulation and analysis of ensuing behaviors of populations. However, often knowledge of such interactions is lacking or not available. Yet complete oblivion to the environment would make the description of any biological process vacuous. Here we present a language for describing population dynamics that abstracts away detailed interaction among individuals, yet captures in broad terms the effect of the changing environment, based on environment-dependent Stochastic Tree Grammars (eSTG). It is comprised of a set of stochastic tree grammar transition rules, which are context-free and as such abstract away specific interactions among individuals. Transition rule probabilities and rates, however, can depend on global parameters such as population size, generation count, and elapsed time. We show that eSTGs conveniently describe population dynamics at multiple levels including cellular dynamics, tissue development and niches of organisms. Notably, we show the utilization of eSTG for cases in which the dynamics is regulated by environmental factors, which affect the fate and rate of decisions of the different species. eSTGs are lineage grammars, in the sense that execution of an eSTG program generates the corresponding lineage trees, which can be used to analyze the evolutionary and developmental history of the biological system under investigation. These lineage trees contain a representation of the entire events history of the system, including the dynamics that led to the existing as well as to the extinct individuals. We conclude that our suggested formalism can be used to easily specify, simulate and analyze complex biological systems, and supports modular

  4. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud


    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  5. Describing Earth system simulations with the Metafor CIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Lawrence


    Full Text Available The Metafor project has developed a common information model (CIM using the ISO19100 series formalism to describe numerical experiments carried out by the Earth system modelling community, the models they use, and the simulations that result. Here we describe the mechanism by which the CIM was developed, and its key properties. We introduce the conceptual and application versions and the controlled vocabularies developed in the context of supporting the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. We describe how the CIM has been used in experiments to describe model coupling properties and describe the near term expected evolution of the CIM.

  6. Theorizing and Describing Preservice Teachers' Images of Families and Schooling (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth


    This article examines how prospective teachers just beginning a professional education program think about working with parents. Through interviews with students in an elementary teacher education program, I explore how biography shapes dispositions toward families by setting expectations for the roles and the activities of participants. Merging…

  7. Audio-Described Educational Materials: Ugandan Teachers' Experiences (United States)

    Wormnaes, Siri; Sellaeg, Nina


    This article describes and discusses a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study of how 12 visually impaired teachers in Uganda experienced audio-described educational video material for teachers and student teachers. The study is based upon interviews with these teachers and observations while they were using the material either…

  8. Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease: the science that describes the link

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Exley, Christopher


    ... that has been encircled is the gene for the amyloid precursor protein. (Thanks to Walter Lukiw for supplying this information.) Aluminium and Alzheimer's Disease: The Science that Describes the LinkAluminium and Alzheimer's Disease The Science that Describes the Link Edited by Christopher Exley Birchall Centre for Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Scienc...

  9. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.


    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and

  10. Chikungunya means 'that which bends up', and describes the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHIK virus was first isolated from patients during an epidemic in Tanzania in 1952-53. Chikungunya means 'that which bends up', and describes the symptoms caused by the severe joint pains.

  11. Propositions that describe the intended meaning of Enterprise Architecture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mentz, JC


    Full Text Available In scientific inquiry definitions serves the purpose of describing what something is in terms that are concise, precise and allows for clear communication. Since the start of the enterprise architecture (EA) research field the issue...

  12. Critical notes on New Guinea plants described by A. Gilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.


    Two new genera and nineteen new species of Dicotyledons from Papua New Guinea collected and described by A. Gilli (1980) have been examined by specialists. These families are Begoniaceae, Cruciferae, Elaeocarpaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Hypericaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, and

  13. Digital data sets describing metropolitan areas in the conterminous US (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes metropolitan areas in the conterminous United States, developed from U.S. Bureau of the Census boundaries of Consolidated Metropolitan...

  14. Which number system is "best" for describing empirical reality?


    Visser, Matt


    Eugene Wigner's much discussed notion of the "unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics" in describing the physics of empirical reality is simultaneously both trivial and profound. After all, the relevant mathematics was, (in the first instance), originally developed in order to be useful in describing empirical reality. On the other hand, certain aspects of the mathematical superstructure have now taken on a life of their own, with at least some features of the mathematical superstructure gr...

  15. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola


    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  16. Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos: Publications and status of described taxa. (United States)

    Signorelli, Javier H; Urteaga, Diego; Teso, Valeria


    Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos was an Argentinian malacologist working in the "Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo" at La Plata University where she taught invertebrate zoology between 1947 and 1990. Her scientific publications are listed in chronological order. Described genus-group and species-group taxa are listed. Information about the type locality and type material, and taxonomic remarks are also provided. Finally, type material of all described taxa was requested and, when located, illustrated.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner


    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  18. A Notation for Describing Multiple Views of VLSI Circuits (United States)


    leaf In the functional programming language pFP cells or abstract objects) and a set of relations among [ Sheeran 83] the behavior specification implies a...A raduate VLSI design class has employed the notation in the design of modules com- [ Sheeran 83] M. Sheeran , "jvFP - An Algebraic VLSI prising a

  19. Conceptualizing and Describing Teachers' Learning of Pedagogical Concepts (United States)

    González, María José; Gómez, Pedro


    In this paper, we propose a model to explore how teachers learn pedagogical concepts in teacher education programs that expect them to become competent in lesson planning. In this context, we view pedagogical concepts as conceptual and methodological tools that help teachers to design a lesson plan on a topic, implement this lesson plan and assess…

  20. Describing Physics Student Teachers' Orientations through Lesson Planning (United States)

    Karal, Isik Saliha


    Recent educational reforms realized in teacher education programs (TEPs) and secondary physics syllabus were aimed at placing the learning and teaching approaches in a constructivist framework. For this reason, student teachers in pre-service TEPs are expected to develop orientations adopting student-centred teaching approaches. The purpose of…

  1. A randomized controlled trial of a commercial internet weight loss program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Womble, Leslie G; Wadden, Thomas A; McGuckin, Brian G; Sargent, Stephanie L; Rothman, Rebecca A; Krauthamer-Ewing, E Stephanie


    ...) a weight loss manual (i.e., LEARN Program for Weight Control 2000). At baseline, participants in both groups met briefly with a psychologist who instructed them to follow the components of their program as closely as possible...

  2. Describing Roles that Gay-Straight Alliances Play in Schools: From Individual Support to School Change (United States)

    Griffin, Pat; Lee, Camille; Waugh, Jeffrey; Beyer, Chad


    Based on a broader qualitative study of organizational level changes in schools participating in Massachusetts' Safe Schools Program, the authors describe four roles that GSAs played in the twenty-two schools: counseling and support; "safe" space; primary vehicle for raising awareness, increasing visibility, and educating about LGBT…

  3. Algorithm describing pressure distribution of non-contact TNT explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kiciński


    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The aim of this study is to develop a computational algorithm, describing the shock wave pressure distribution in the space induced by non-contact TNT explosion. The procedure describes pressure distribution on a damp surface of the hull. Simulations have been carried out using Abaqus/CAE. The study also shows the pressure waveform descriptions provided by various authors and presents them in charts. The formulated conclusions convince efficiency of the algorithm application.[b]Keywords:[/b] Underwater explosion, shock wave, CAE, TNT, Kobben class submarine

  4. Slices method to describe ray propagation in inhomogeneous media (United States)

    Aguilar-Gutiérrez, J. F.; Arroyo Carrasco, M. L.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.


    We describe an alternative method that numerically calculates the trajectory followed by a light ray in rotationally symmetric inhomogeneous media in the paraxial approximation. The medium is divided into thin parallel slices and a radial quadratic refractive index is considered for each slice. The ABCD matrix is calculated in each slice and the trajectory of the ray was obtained. The method is demonstrated considering media with a refractive index distribution used to describe the human eye lens. The results are compared with the exact numerical solution for each particular distribution. In all cases, a good agreement is obtained for the proposed method and the exact numerical solution.

  5. Describing Elementary Teachers' Operative Systems: A Case Study (United States)

    Dotger, Sharon; McQuitty, Vicki


    This case study introduces the notion of an operative system to describe elementary teachers' knowledge and practice. Drawing from complex systems theory, the operative system is defined as the network of knowledge and practices that constituted teachers' work within a lesson study cycle. Data were gathered throughout a lesson study cycle in which…

  6. Describing Elementary Certification Methods across the Elementary Music Career Cycle (United States)

    Svec, Christina L.


    The purpose of the study was to describe elementary music method choice and certification method choice overall and across the elementary music career cycle. Participants (N = 254) were categorized as Level I or Elementary Division in a southwestern music education association database. The questionnaire included 25 four-point Likert-type items…

  7. Performance of density functional theory methods to describe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fukui function shows a small dependence with both the exchange and correlation functional and the basis set. Evolution of the Fukui function along the reaction path describes important changes in the basic sites of the corresponding molecules. These results are in agreement with the chemical behavior of those species.

  8. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance (United States)

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.


    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  9. Stochastic Oscillations of General Relativistic Disks Described by a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A generalized Langevin equation driven by fractional Brownian motion is used to describe the vertical oscillations of general relativistic disks. By means of numerical calculation method, the displacements, velocities and luminosities of oscillating disks are explicitly obtained for different Hurst exponent H . The results show ...

  10. Linear Plasma Oscillation Described by Superposition of Normal Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans


    The existence of steady‐state solutions to the linearized ion and electron Vlasov equation is demonstrated for longitudinal waves in an initially stable plasma. The evolution of an arbitrary initial perturbation can be described by superposition of these solutions. Some common approximations...

  11. Describing Middle School Students' Organization of Statistical Data. (United States)

    Johnson, Yolanda; Hofbauer, Pamela

    The purpose of this study was to describe how middle school students physically arrange and organize statistical data. A case-study analysis was used to define and characterize the styles in which students handle, organize, and group statistical data. A series of four statistical tasks (Mooney, Langrall, Hofbauer, & Johnson, 2001) were given to…

  12. Describing, Instantiating and Evaluating a Reference Architecture : A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris


    The result of a domain maturing is the emergence of reference architectures that offer numerous advantages to software architects and other stakeholders. However there is no straightforward way to describe a reference architecture and in sequence to design instances for specific systems, while at

  13. Dynamic modelling of pectin extraction describing yield and functional characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Cognet, T.; Santacoloma, P. A.


    A dynamic model of pectin extraction is proposed that describes pectin yield, degree of esterification and intrinsic viscosity. The dynamic model is one dimensional in the peel geometry and includes mass transport of pectin by diffusion and reaction kinetics of hydrolysis, degradation and de-este...

  14. Describing the Corneal Shape after Wavefront-Optimized Photorefractive Keratectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Tim; Wijdh, Robert H. J.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.


    PURPOSE: To develop a procedure for describing wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) corneas and to characterize PRK-induced changes in shape. METHODS: We analyzed preoperative and postoperative corneal elevation data of 41 eyes of 41 patients (mean [±SD] age, 38 [±11] years) who

  15. Refinement for a model describing forage production, animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An existing model describing the influence of Acacia karoo density on forage production, animal production and profitablility is reviewed and amended to introduce recent research results. The refined model predicts that maximum forage production can be attained at 1 220 tree equivalents (TE) per ha, maximum livemass ...

  16. Superintendents Describe Their Leadership Styles: Implications for Practice (United States)

    Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang


    Superintendents from eight southeastern United States school districts self-described their leadership styles across the choices of autocratic, laissez-faire, democratic, situational, servant, or transformational. When faced with this array of choices, the superintendents chose with arguable equitableness, indicating that successful leaders can…

  17. How Vocational Teachers Describe Their Vocational Teacher Identity (United States)

    Köpsén, Susanne


    Given the current demands of Swedish vocational education and the withdrawal of the requirement for formal teacher competence in vocational subject teachers, the aim of this article is to develop knowledge of what it means to be a vocational subject teacher in an upper secondary school, i.e. how vocational subject teachers describe their…

  18. Avicenna, the first to describe thyroid-related orbitopathy. (United States)

    Nabipour, Iraj; Burger, Albert; Moharreri, Muhammad-Reza; Azizi, Fereidoun


    The history of the association of goiter and orbital disease is discussed. Although Graves and Basedow are credited with the first descriptions of this association, it was described many years earlier between AD 1000 and 1110 by two Persian physicians and philosophers, Avicenna and Al-Jurjani.

  19. Improving models for describing phosphorus cycling in agricultural soils (United States)

    The mobility of phosphorus in the environment is controlled to a large extent by its sorption to soil. Therefore, an important component of all P loss models is how the model describes the biogeochemical processes governing P sorption and desorption to soils. The most common approach to modeling P c...

  20. Technology Applied to ELT: Reviewing Practical Uses to Enhance English Teaching Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rojas Serrano


    Full Text Available In this paper, the author reports on some of the areas of technology currently used in the teaching and learning of languages, and reviews some of the uses of technological tools that are present in the English Adult Program and activities carried out at The Centro Colombo Americano (CCA in Bogota, Colombia. After briefly describing what is being applied worldwide in terms of what is being done at the CCA, some suggestions are offered in order to enhance the English teaching and learning processes through the use of new technologies.

  1. Stopping air pollution at its source; Clean Air Program explanatory notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    An Ontario government review of its air pollution control program found that Regulation 308, the principal regulation relating to air pollution control, needed updating to provide additional protection to the people and environment. These explanatory notes provide a summary of the discussion paper, which presents an overview of the proposed amendments to Regulation 308 and a summary of objectives, in order to stimulate comments and criticism. The notes list the objections to the old regulation and briefly describe the objectives of the proposed amendments in the areas of emission limits, classification of contaminants, levels of pollution control, and ambient air standards. Definitions of terms and phraseology are also included.

  2. Medicare and Medicaid programs; Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982; information notice on Medicare and Medicaid amendments--HCFA. General notice. (United States)


    This notice describes briefly some of the provisions of Title I of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-248, enacted September 3, 1982) that affect eligibility, benefits, reimbursement, and administration of the Medicare and Medicaid programs. We wish to bring to the attention of the public several provisions that are, in large part, self-explanatory and that are now or will soon become effective. These provisions will be implemented on the dates indicated, even though specific regulations have not been published. We will incorporate these new provisions in regulations, program instructions, and other materials as appropriate.

  3. Development of a model and computer code to describe solar grade silicon production processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, R K; Srivastava, R


    Models and computer codes which may be used to describe flow reactors in which high purity, solar grade silicon is produced via reduction of gaseous silicon halides are described. A prominent example of the type of process which may be studied using the codes developed in this program is the SiCl/sub 4//Na reactor currently being developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corp. During this program two large computer codes were developed. The first is the CHEMPART code, an axisymmetric, marching code which treats two-phase flows with models describing detailed gas-phase chemical kinetics, particle formation, and particle growth. This code, based on the AeroChem LAPP (Low Altitude Plume Program) code can be used to describe flow reactors in which reactants mix, react, and form a particulate phase. Detailed radial gas-phase composition, temperature, velocity, and particle size distribution profiles are computed. Also, depositon of heat, momentum, and mass (either particulate or vapor) on reactor walls is described. The second code is a modified version of the GENMIX boundary layer code which is used to compute rates of heat, momentum, and mass transfer to the reactor walls. This code lacks the detailed chemical kinetics and particle handling features of the CHEMPART code but has the virtue of running much more rapidly than CHEMPART, while treating the phenomena occurring in the boundary layer in more detail than can be afforded using CHEMPART. These two codes have been used in this program to predict particle formation characteristics and wall collection efficiencies for SiCl/sub 4//Na flow reactors. Results are described.

  4. Final Results on the CERN PS Electrostatic Septa Consolidation Program

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, Jan; Bobbio, Piero; Carlier, Etienne; Hourican, Michael; Masson, Thierry; Müller, Tania; Prost, Antoine; Crescenti, Massimo


    The CERN PS electrostatic septum consolidation program is coming to completion after almost 4 years of development. The program was started to fulfil the increased requirements on vacuum performance and the need to reduce the time necessary for maintenance interventions. The new design of septum 31, used for the so-called 'continuous transfer' 5-turn extraction, and the related construction issues will be presented together with the operational experience gained during the PS 2002 run. In addition, the experience of two years of operation with the new generation septum 23, used for a resonant slow extraction, will be briefly discussed. The continued development undertaken since its installation in the PS ring in 2001 will also be described.

  5. Sociodemographic differences in dietary habits described by food frequency questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Haraldsdottír, Johanna; Holm, Lotte


    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a modest number of food frequency questions are sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and to identify sociodemographic characteristics of subjects adhering to food-based dietary guidelines operationalised in a "healthy-diet index...... household vs single household). The results also showed that gender difference in dietary habits is associated with other sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The selected food frequency questions proved sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and this method may......". DESIGN: Cross-sectional population survey. SUBJECTS: A total of 480 men, 515 women, aged 15-90 y. Random sample of private telephone numbers drawn from regional telephone records, geographically stratified. Participation rate 62%. METHODS: Computer-assisted telephone interviews, including six food...

  6. Double sigmoidal models describing the growth of coffee berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Jesus Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to verify if the growth pattern of coffee berries, considering fresh mass accumulation over time, is double sigmoid and to select the most suitable nonlinear model to describe such behavior. Data used consisted of fourteen longitudinal observations of average fresh mass of coffee berries obtained in an experiment with the cultivar Obatã IAC 1669-20. The fits provided by the Logistic and Gompertz models were compared in their single and double versions. Parameters were estimated using the least squares method using the Gauss-Newton algorithm implemented in the nls function of the R software. It can be concluded that the growth pattern of the coffee fruit, in fresh mass accumulation, is double sigmoid. The double Gompertz and double Logistic models were adequate to describe such a growth curve, with a superiority of the double Logistic model.

  7. Coming to terms about describing Golden Eagle reproduction (United States)

    Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Brown, Jessi L.


    Clearly defined terms are essential for reporting and understanding research findings, and inconsistent terminology can complicate efforts to compare findings from different studies. In this article, we reiterate and clarify recommended terms for describing Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) territory occupancy and reproduction. Several authors have provided recommendations for reporting data on raptor reproduction, but our literature review showed that authors continue to use different, often ambiguous and undefined, terms. The inconsistent use of terminology by researchers has been continued and expanded by lawmakers, regulators, and managers, perpetuating confusion. We recommend that authors clearly define and reference all terminology that they use, and we caution against use of the term “active” to describe a nest or nesting territory, because it is tainted with a history of inconsistent use. We provide a glossary of recommended terms for Golden Eagles and other large, long-lived raptors.

  8. Polychaete species (Annelida) described from the Philippine and China Seas. (United States)

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; Carrera-Parra, Luis F; Muir, Alexander I; De León-González, Jesús Angel; Piotrowski, Christina; Sato, Masanori


    The South China and Philippine Seas are among the most diverse regions in the Western Pacific. Although there are several local polychaete checklists available, there is none comprising the whole of this region. Presented herein is a comprehensive list of the original names of all polychaete species described from the region. The list contains 1037 species, 345 genera and 60 families; the type locality, type depository, and information regarding synonymy are presented for each species. 

  9. Physiological and anthropometric parameters that describe a rugby union team.


    Maud, P J


    The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physiological parameters that apply to a USA amateur rugby union club team. Fifteen players who were members of the club's first team were evaluated for body composition, muscular strength, power and endurance, flexibility, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and cardio-respiratory function shortly after completion of the regular season. Means for some of the variables measured include: age, 29 yr; height, 180 cm; weight, 84 kg...

  10. NASA Small Business Innovation Research program (United States)

    Johnson, Harry W.


    NASA activities in the framework of the 11-agency federal Small Business Innovation Research program are outlined in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Statistics on the program are given; the technical topics covered are listed; and the procedures involved in evaluating applications for support are discussed. A number of typical defects in proposals are indicated, and recommendations for avoiding them are provided.

  11. An alternating renewal process describes the buildup of perceptual segregation. (United States)

    Steele, Sara A; Tranchina, Daniel; Rinzel, John


    For some ambiguous scenes perceptual conflict arises between integration and segregation. Initially, all stimulus features seem integrated. Then abruptly, perhaps after a few seconds, a segregated percept emerges. For example, segregation of acoustic features into streams may require several seconds. In behavioral experiments, when a subject's reports of stream segregation are averaged over repeated trials, one obtains a buildup function, a smooth time course for segregation probability. The buildup function has been said to reflect an underlying mechanism of evidence accumulation or adaptation. During long duration stimuli perception may alternate between integration and segregation. We present a statistical model based on an alternating renewal process (ARP) that generates buildup functions without an accumulative process. In our model, perception alternates during a trial between different groupings, as in perceptual bistability, with random and independent dominance durations sampled from different percept-specific probability distributions. Using this theory, we describe the short-term dynamics of buildup observed on short trials in terms of the long-term statistics of percept durations for the two alternating perceptual organizations. Our statistical-dynamics model describes well the buildup functions and alternations in simulations of pseudo-mechanistic neuronal network models with percept-selective populations competing through mutual inhibition. Even though the competition model can show history dependence through slow adaptation, our statistical switching model, that neglects history, predicts well the buildup function. We propose that accumulation is not a necessary feature to produce buildup. Generally, if alternations between two states exhibit independent durations with stationary statistics then the associated buildup function can be described by the statistical dynamics of an ARP.

  12. A new taxonomy for describing and defining adherence to medications (United States)

    Vrijens, Bernard; De Geest, Sabina; Hughes, Dyfrig A; Przemyslaw, Kardas; Demonceau, Jenny; Ruppar, Todd; Dobbels, Fabienne; Fargher, Emily; Morrison, Valerie; Lewek, Pawel; Matyjaszczyk, Michal; Mshelia, Comfort; Clyne, Wendy; Aronson, Jeffrey K; Urquhart, J


    Interest in patient adherence has increased in recent years, with a growing literature that shows the pervasiveness of poor adherence to appropriately prescribed medications. However, four decades of adherence research has not resulted in uniformity in the terminology used to describe deviations from prescribed therapies. The aim of this review was to propose a new taxonomy, in which adherence to medications is conceptualized, based on behavioural and pharmacological science, and which will support quantifiable parameters. A systematic literature review was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and PsycINFO from database inception to 1 April 2009. The objective was to identify the different conceptual approaches to adherence research. Definitions were analyzed according to time and methodological perspectives. A taxonomic approach was subsequently derived, evaluated and discussed with international experts. More than 10 different terms describing medication-taking behaviour were identified through the literature review, often with differing meanings. The conceptual foundation for a new, transparent taxonomy relies on three elements, which make a clear distinction between processes that describe actions through established routines (‘Adherence to medications’, ‘Management of adherence’) and the discipline that studies those processes (‘Adherence-related sciences’). ‘Adherence to medications’ is the process by which patients take their medication as prescribed, further divided into three quantifiable phases: ‘Initiation’, ‘Implementation’ and ‘Discontinuation’. In response to the proliferation of ambiguous or unquantifiable terms in the literature on medication adherence, this research has resulted in a new conceptual foundation for a transparent taxonomy. The terms and definitions are focused on promoting consistency and quantification in terminology and methods to aid in the conduct, analysis and interpretation of

  13. A proposal to describe a phenomenon of expanding language (United States)

    Swietorzecka, Kordula

    Changes of knowledge, convictions or beliefs are subjects of interest in frame of so called epistemic logic. There are various proposed descriptions of a process (or its results) in which so a called agent may invent certain changes in a set of sentences that he had already chosen as a point of his knowledge, convictions or beliefs (and this is also considered in case of many agents). In the presented paper we are interested in the changeability of an agent's language which is by its own independent from already mentioned changes. Modern epistemic formalizations assume that the agent uses a fixed (and so we could say: static) language in which he expresses his various opinions which may change. Our interest is to simulate a situation when a language is extended by adding to it new expressions which were not known by the agent so he couldn't even consider them as subjects of his opinions. Actually such a phenomenon happens both in natural and scientific languages. Let us mention a fact of expanding languages in process of learning or in result of getting of new data about some described domain. We propose a simple idealization of extending sentential language used by one agent. Actually the language is treated as a family of so called n-languages which get some epistemic interpretation. Proposed semantics enables us to distinguish between two different types of changes - these which occur because of changing agent's convictions about logical values of some n-sentences - we describe them using one place operator C to be read it changes that - and changes that consist in increasing the level of n-language by adding to it new expressions. However the second type of change - symbolized by variable G - may be also considered independently of the first one. The logical frame of our considerations comes from and it was originally used to describe Aristotelian theory of substantial changes. This time we apply the mentioned logic in epistemology.

  14. Icosahedral symmetry described by an incommensurately modulated crystal structure model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolny, Janusz; Lebech, Bente


    A crystal structure model of an incommensurately modulated structure is presented. Although six different reciprocal vectors are used to describe the model, all calculations are done in three dimensions making calculation of the real-space structure trivial. Using this model, it is shown that both...... the positions of the bragg reflections and information about the relative intensities of these reflections are in full accordance with the diffraction patterns reported for microcrystals of the rapidly quenched Al86Mn14 alloy. It is also shown that at least the local structure possesses full icosahedral...

  15. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described]. (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter


    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  16. Can accurate kinetic laws be created to describe chemical weathering? (United States)

    Schott, Jacques; Oelkers, Eric H.; Bénézeth, Pascale; Goddéris, Yves; François, Louis


    Knowledge of the mechanisms and rates of mineral dissolution and growth, especially close to equilibrium, is essential for describing the temporal and spatial evolution of natural processes like weathering and its impact on CO2 budget and climate. The Surface Complexation approach (SC) combined with Transition State Theory (TST) provides an efficient framework for describing mineral dissolution over wide ranges of solution composition, chemical affinity, and temperature. There has been a large debate for several years, however, about the comparative merits of SC/TS versus classical growth theories for describing mineral dissolution and growth at near-to-equilibrium conditions. This study considers recent results obtained in our laboratory on oxides, hydroxides, silicates, and carbonates on near-equilibrium dissolution and growth via the combination of complementary microscopic and macroscopic techniques including hydrothermal atomic force microscopy, hydrogen-electrode concentration cell, mixed flow and batch reactors. Results show that the dissolution and precipitation of hydroxides, kaolinite, and hydromagnesite powders of relatively high BET surface area closely follow SC/TST rate laws with a linear dependence of both dissolution and growth rates on fluid saturation state (Ω) even at very close to equilibrium conditions (|ΔG| magnesite and quartz, which have low surface areas, fewer active sites are available for growth and dissolution. Such minerals exhibit rates dependencies on Ω at near equilibrium conditions ranging from linear to highly non-linear functions of Ω, depending on the treatment of the crystals before the reaction. It follows that the form of the f(ΔG) function describing the growth and dissolution of minerals with low surface areas depends on the availability of reactive sites at the exposed faces and thus on the history of the mineral-fluid interaction and the hydrodynamic conditions under which the crystals are reacted. It is advocated

  17. Generalized holographic dark energy model described at the Hubble length

    CERN Document Server

    Malekjani, M


    We generalize the holographic dark energy model described in Hubble length IR cutoff by assuming a slowly time varying function for holographic parameter $c^2$. We calculate the evolution of EoS parameter and the deceleration parameter as well as the evolution of dark energy density in this generalized model. We show that the phantom line is crossed from quintessence regime to phantom regime which is in agreement with observation. The evolution of deceleration parameter indicates the transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion. Eventually, we show that the GHDE with HIR cutoff can interpret the pressureless dark matter era at the early time and dark energy dominated phase later.

  18. Two heuristic approaches to describe periodicities in genomic microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Aßmus


    Full Text Available In the first part we discuss the filtering of panels of time series based on singular value decomposition. The discussion is based on an approach where this filtering is used to normalize microarray data. We point out effects on the periodicity and phases for time series panels. In the second part we investigate time dependent periodic panels with different phases. We align the time series in the panel and discuss the periodogram of the aligned time series with the purpose of describing the periodic structure of the panel. The method is quite powerful assuming known phases in the model, but it deteriorates rapidly for noisy data.  

  19. Retropharyngeal abscess described as a complication of infectious mononucleosis


    Roldán Fidalgo, Amaya; Laguna Ortega, David; Pinilla Urraca, Mayte; Rodríguez Valiente, Antonio; Velasco Martínez, Maria Eugenia; Martínez Ruíz-Coello, Antonio; Ramos Martínez, Antonio


    [ES] Se describe un caso de absceso retrofaríngeo como complicación de mononucleosis infecciosa. Paciente adolescente que acudió al servicio de urgencias de nuestro hospital con una masa de crecimiento progresivo retrofaríngeo y cervical que comprometió la vía aérea y requirió intervención quirúrgica bajo anestesia general para su correcto drenaje y control. El diagnostico de mononucleosis infecciosa fue clínico y serológico. La tomografía computerizada (TC) cervical permitió objetivar ...

  20. Spectral Gaps of Dirac Operators Describing Graphene Quantum Dots (United States)

    Benguria, Rafael D.; Fournais, Søren; Stockmeyer, Edgardo; Van Den Bosch, Hanne


    The two-dimensional Dirac operator describes low-energy excitations in graphene. Different choices for the boundary conditions give rise to qualitative differences in the spectrum of the resulting operator. For a family of boundary conditions, we find a lower bound to the spectral gap around zero, proportional to |Ω|-1/2, where {Ω } \\subset R2 is the bounded region where the Dirac operator acts. This family contains the so-called infinite mass and armchair cases used in the physics literature for the description of graphene quantum dots.

  1. The First Described Case of Occupational Anthracofibrosis in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen Rangelov


    Full Text Available Anthracofibrosis is a newly recognized disease that was first described in association with tuberculosis in 1998 in Korea. However, recent reports suggest strong association with biomass fuel smoke exposure, and exposure to mineral dusts, coal, silica, and mica. Most of the reported cases to date are in patients from Asia or in immigrants of Asian origin. There are no published reports of anthracofibrosis in the USA. We present the first case of a USA born African American male patient with anthracofibrosis.

  2. Theory of control systems described by differential inclusions

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhengzhi; Huang, Jun


    This book provides a brief introduction to the theory of finite dimensional differential inclusions, and deals in depth with control of three kinds of differential inclusion systems. The authors introduce the algebraic decomposition of convex processes, the stabilization of polytopic systems, and observations of Luré systems. They also introduce the elemental theory of finite dimensional differential inclusions, and the properties and designs of the control systems described by differential inclusions. Addressing the material with clarity and simplicity, the book includes recent research achievements and spans all concepts, concluding with a critical mathematical framework. This book is intended for researchers, teachers and postgraduate students in the area of automatic control engineering.

  3. The glass transition in a nutshell: a source of inspiration to describe the subcritical transition to turbulence. (United States)

    Dauchot, Olivier; Bertin, Eric


    The starting point of the present work is the observation of possible analogies, both at the phenomenological and at the methodological level, between the subcritical transition to turbulence and the glass transition. Having recalled the phenomenology of the subcritical transition to turbulence, we review the theories of the glass transition at a very basic level, focusing on the history of their development as well as on the concepts they have elaborated. Doing so, we aim at attracting the attention on the above-mentioned analogies, which we believe could inspire new developments in the theory of the subcritical transition to turbulence. We then briefly describe a model inspired by one of the simplest and most inspiring models of the glass transition, the so-called Random Energy Model, as a first step in that direction.

  4. A new eigenfunction spatial analysis describing population genetic structure. (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Diniz, João Vitor Barnez P L; Rangel, Thiago Fernando; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; Telles, Mariana Pires de Campos; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Bini, Luis Mauricio


    Several methods of spatial analyses have been proposed to infer the relative importance of evolutionary processes on genetic population structure. Here we show how a new eigenfunction spatial analysis can be used to model spatial patterns in genetic data. Considering a sample of n local populations, the method starts by modeling the response variable (allele frequencies or phenotypic variation) against the eigenvectors sequentially extracted from a geographic distance matrix (n × n). The relationship between the coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the models and the cumulative eigenvalues, which we named the spatial signal-representation (SSR) curve, can be more efficient than Moran's I correlograms in describing different patterns. The SSR curve was also applied to simulated data (under distinct scenarios of population differentiation) and to analyze spatial patterns in alleles from microsatellite data for 25 local populations of Dipteryx alata, a tree species endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado. The SSR curves are consistent with previous phylogeographical patterns of the species, revealing combined effects of isolation-by-distance and range expansion. Our analyses demonstrate that the SSR curve is a useful exploratory tool for describing spatial patterns of genetic variability and for selecting spatial eigenvectors for models aiming to explain spatial responses to environmental variables and landscape features.

  5. Motion in a stochastic layer described by symbolic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misguich, J.H.; Reuss, J.D. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Elskens, Y. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France); Balescu, R. [Association Euratom, Brussels (Belgium)


    The motion in the stochastic layer surrounding an island can be studied by using the standard map: this problem is of direct relevance to the diffusion of magnetic field lines in a tokamak. In a previous work it was shown that this process can be adequately modelled by a continuous time random walk (CTRW) describing transitions of the running point between three basins representing, respectively, trapped motion around the island, and passing motion above or below the island. The sticking property of the island deeply modifies the nature of the transport process, leading to sub-diffusive behavior. In the present work it is shown that the motion can be analyzed in terms of a symbolic dynamics which leads to the possibility of an automatic measurement of the data necessary for the construction of the CTRW. The logical features of the procedure are described, and the method is applied to an analysis of long time series, thus completing the results of the previous work. (author) 10 refs.

  6. First order reversal curves diagrams for describing ferroelectric switching characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Mitoseriu


    Full Text Available First Order Reversal Curves (FORC are polarization-field dependences described between saturation field Esat and a variable reversal field Er∈(-Esat, Esat. The FORC diagrams were proposed to describe some characteristics of the switching process in ferroelectrics. The approach is related to the Preisach model which considers the distribution of the elementary switchable units over their coercive and bias fields. The influence of the anisotropic porosity in Pb(Zr,TiO3 bulk ceramics on the FORC distributions demonstrated the existence of a positive/negative bias as a result of the confinement induced by anisotropy. The reducing of grain size in Ba(Zr,TiO3 ceramics causes an increase of the ratio of the reversible/irreversible components of the polarization on the FORC distribution indicating the tendency of system towards the superparaelectric state. The FORC method demonstrates to provide a kind of ‘fingerprinting’ of various types of switching characteristics in ferroic systems.

  7. Extended nonlinear feedback model for describing episodes of high inflation (United States)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek


    An extension of the nonlinear feedback (NLF) formalism to describe regimes of hyper- and high-inflation in economy is proposed in the present work. In the NLF model the consumer price index (CPI) exhibits a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β, with β > 0, predicting a blow up of the economy at a critical time tc. However, this model fails in determining tc in the case of weak hyperinflation regimes like, e.g., that occurred in Israel. To overcome this trouble, the NLF model is extended by introducing a parameter γ, which multiplies all terms with past growth rate index (GRI). In this novel approach the solution for CPI is also analytic being proportional to the Gaussian hypergeometric function 2F1(1 / β , 1 / β , 1 + 1 / β ; z) , where z is a function of β, γ, and tc. For z → 1 this hypergeometric function diverges leading to a finite time singularity, from which a value of tc can be determined. This singularity is also present in GRI. It is shown that the interplay between parameters β and γ may produce phenomena of multiple equilibria. An analysis of the severe hyperinflation occurred in Hungary proves that the novel model is robust. When this model is used for examining data of Israel a reasonable tc is got. High-inflation regimes in Mexico and Iceland, which exhibit weaker inflations than that of Israel, are also successfully described.

  8. Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna


    This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

  9. Physiological and anthropometric parameters that describe a rugby union team. (United States)

    Maud, P J


    The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physiological parameters that apply to a USA amateur rugby union club team. Fifteen players who were members of the club's first team were evaluated for body composition, muscular strength, power and endurance, flexibility, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and cardio-respiratory function shortly after completion of the regular season. Means for some of the variables measured include: age, 29 yr; height, 180 cm; weight, 84 kg; lean body weight, 74 kg; body fat, 12%, endurance sit-ups, 50/min; vertical jump height, 51 cm; anaerobic power output, 132 (1.32 kw); anaerobic capacity, 2247 (22.5 kJ); maximum heart rate, 186 beats/min; maximum ventilation, 175 l/min-1; maximum respiratory quotient 1.23; and maximum oxygen uptake, 56.6 min-1. In comparison with other rugby players studied these players had higher maximum oxygen uptake values, were similar in endurance sit-up and vertical jump ability, exhibited less upper body strength, and the forwards had lower body fat percentages. They were generally within the range of scores found to describe the aerobic and anaerobic fitness, and body composition of other élite amateur and professional intermittent sport athletes.

  10. An Exact Formula to Describe the Amplification Process in a Photomultiplier Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Rademacker, J


    An analytical function is derived that exactly describes the amplification process due to a series of discrete, Poisson-like amplifications like those in a photo multiplier tube (PMT). A numerical recipe is provided that implements this function as a computer program. It is shown how the program can be used as the core-element of a faster, simplified routine to fit PMT spectra with high efficiency. The functionality of the method is demonstrated by fitting both, Monte Carlo generated and measured PMT spectra.

  11. Waves Described By The Nonlinear Fifth Order Partial Differential Equation (United States)

    Kudryashov, N. A.; Soukharev, M. B.; Siroklin, S. A.

    Nonlinear long waves on the water are considered taking into account the general- ization of the Korteveg - de Vries equation that is the fifth order partial differential equation. The following problems are studied. First of all it was shown the Cauchy problem can not be solved for the partial differential equation considered by the in- verse scattering transform. However a number of special solution are found in the form of solitary waves and in the form of cnoidal waves. In the general case the boundary value problem described by this fifth order nonlinear partial differential equation is solved by means of the finite difference method. With this aim the finite - difference approximations of the fifth nonlinear partial differential equations was developed. The stability condition and the convergence of the difference equation are discussed. The possible types of nonlinear waves (kinks, periodical waves and solitary waves) are considered. The stability of nonlinear waves studied is discussed taking into account the numerical approach.

  12. Describing linguistic information in a behavioural framework: Possible or not?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cooman, G. [Universiteit Gent, Zwijnaarde (Belgium)


    The paper discusses important aspects of the representation of linguistic information, using imprecise probabilities with a behavioural interpretation. We define linguistic information as the information conveyed by statements in natural language, but restrict ourselves to simple affirmative statements of the type {open_quote}subject-is-predicate{close_quote}. Taking the behavioural stance, as it is described in detail, we investigate whether it is possible to give a mathematical model for this kind of information. In particular, we evaluate Zadeli`s suggestion that we should use possibility measures to this end. We come to tile conclusion that, generally speaking, possibility measures are possibility models for linguistic information, but that more work should be done in order to evaluate the suggestion that they may be the only ones.

  13. Construction of Virtual Psychology Laboratory Describing Exploratory Experimental Behavior (United States)

    Nakaike, Ryuichi; Miwa, Kazuhisa

    In the present study, we show a simulated experiment environment, VPL(Virtual Psychology Laboratory), for visualizing user's exploratory experimental behavior, and present two main modules of the environment: (1) a cognitive simulator and (2) a system for automatically describing experimenter's behavior based on EBS (Exploratory Behavior Schema) proposed by the author. Users use this environment as an experimental psychologist who investigates human collaborative discovery. They experience many trials of conducting experiments using the simulated environment, and analyze by themselves their experimental processes based on the description of their behavior by EBS. It is expected that learners can notice their errors of experimental planning and refine various types of knowledge related to the experimental skills by repeating the experimental activities in this environment.

  14. Method to describe stochastic dynamics using an optimal coordinate. (United States)

    Krivov, Sergei V


    A general method to describe the stochastic dynamics of Markov processes is suggested. The method aims to solve three related problems: the determination of an optimal coordinate for the description of stochastic dynamics; the reconstruction of time from an ensemble of stochastic trajectories; and the decomposition of stationary stochastic dynamics into eigenmodes which do not decay exponentially with time. The problems are solved by introducing additive eigenvectors which are transformed by a stochastic matrix in a simple way - every component is translated by a constant distance. Such solutions have peculiar properties. For example, an optimal coordinate for stochastic dynamics with detailed balance is a multivalued function. An optimal coordinate for a random walk on a line corresponds to the conventional eigenvector of the one-dimensional Dirac equation. The equation for the optimal coordinate in a slowly varying potential reduces to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the action function.

  15. 16th century European earthquakes described in some contemporary woodcuts (United States)

    Deresiewicz, H.


    In the middle of the 15th century, shortly after Gutenberg’s invention of printing using individual lead type, the first illustrated broadsides (or broadsheets) began appearing in southern Germany.  Usually printed on one side of a sheet of paper, they consisted of a woodcut illustration, sometimes colored, either by hand or by stencil, and several columns of text, often in verse.  The appeal of the publications to the mass reader was often stimulated by sensationalism in word and picture, somewhat like that purveyed today’s tabloid press.  What follows are woodcuts and portions of the text from 16th to 17th century broadsheets that describe earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

  16. Describing sequence-ensemble relationships for intrinsically disordered proteins. (United States)

    Mao, Albert H; Lyle, Nicholas; Pappu, Rohit V


    Intrinsically disordered proteins participate in important protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions and control cellular phenotypes through their prominence as dynamic organizers of transcriptional, post-transcriptional and signalling networks. These proteins challenge the tenets of the structure-function paradigm and their functional mechanisms remain a mystery given that they fail to fold autonomously into specific structures. Solving this mystery requires a first principles understanding of the quantitative relationships between information encoded in the sequences of disordered proteins and the ensemble of conformations they sample. Advances in quantifying sequence-ensemble relationships have been facilitated through a four-way synergy between bioinformatics, biophysical experiments, computer simulations and polymer physics theories. In the present review we evaluate these advances and the resultant insights that allow us to develop a concise quantitative framework for describing the sequence-ensemble relationships of intrinsically disordered proteins.

  17. Fundamental solution of the problem describing ship motion in waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jankowski


    Full Text Available The problem describing a ship motion in waves comprises the Laplace equation, boundary condition on wetted surface of the ship, condition on the free surface of the sea in the form of a differential equation, the radiation condition, and a condition at infinity. This problem can be transformed to a Fredholm equation of second kind, and then numerically solved using the boundary element method, if the fundamental solution of the problem is known. This paper presents the derivation of the fundamental solution. In physical interpretation, the fundamental solution represents the moving and pulsating source under free surface of the sea. The free surface elevation, generated by the source for different forward speed and frequency of pulsation, is presented in this paper.

  18. Chromatography modelling to describe protein adsorption at bead level. (United States)

    Gerontas, Spyridon; Shapiro, Michael S; Bracewell, Daniel G


    Chromatographic modelling can be used to describe and further understand the behaviour of biological species during their chromatography separation on adsorption resins. Current modelling approaches assume uniform rate parameters throughout the column. Software and hardware advances now allow us to consider what can be learnt from modelling at bead level, enabling simulation of heterogeneity in bead and packed bed structure due to design or due to changes during operation. In this paper, a model has been developed to simulate at bead level protein loading in 1.5 μl microfluidic columns. This model takes into account the heterogeneity in bead sizes and the spatial variations of the characteristics of a packed bed, such as bed void fraction and dispersion, thus offering a detailed description of the flow field and mass transfer phenomena. Simulations were shown to be in good agreement with published experimental data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Issues with Describing the Uncertainties in Atmospheric Remote Sensing Measurements (United States)

    Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Kramarova, N. A.


    Uncertainty in atmospheric measurements from satellites and other remote sensing platforms comes from several sources. Users are familiar with concepts of accuracy and precision for physical measurements made using instrumentation, but retrieval algorithms also frequently require statistical information since measurements alone may not completely determine the parameter of interest. This statistical information has uncertainty associated with it as well, and it often contributes a sizeable fraction to the total uncertainty. The precise combination of physical and statistical information in remotely sensed data can vary with season, latitude, altitude, and conditions of measurement. While this picture is complex, it is important to clearly define the overall uncertainty for users without oversimplifying so they can interpret the data correctly. Assessment of trends, quantification of radiative forcing and chemical budgets, and comparisons of models with satellite observations all benefit from having adequate uncertainty information. But even today, terminology and interpretation of these uncertainties is a hot topic of discussion among experts. Based on our experience producing a 44 year-long dataset of total ozone and ozone profiles, we discuss our ideas for describing uncertainty in atmospheric datasets for global change research. Assumptions about the atmosphere used in retrievals can also be provided with exact information detailing how the final product depends on these assumptions. As a practical example, we discuss our modifications to the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) algorithm in Version 9 to provide robust uncertainties for each measurement and supply as much useful information to users as possible. Finally, we describe how uncertainties in individual measurements combine when the data are aggregated in time and space.

  20. Angular momentum and torque described with the complex octonion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Zi-Hua, E-mail: [School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)


    The paper aims to adopt the complex octonion to formulate the angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Applying the octonionic representation enables one single definition of angular momentum (or torque, force) to combine some physics contents, which were considered to be independent of each other in the past. J. C. Maxwell used simultaneously two methods, the vector terminology and quaternion analysis, to depict the electromagnetic theory. It motivates the paper to introduce the quaternion space into the field theory, describing the physical feature of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The spaces of electromagnetic field and of gravitational field can be chosen as the quaternion spaces, while the coordinate component of quaternion space is able to be the complex number. The quaternion space of electromagnetic field is independent of that of gravitational field. These two quaternion spaces may compose one octonion space. Contrarily, one octonion space can be separated into two subspaces, the quaternion space and S-quaternion space. In the quaternion space, it is able to infer the field potential, field strength, field source, angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the gravitational field. In the S-quaternion space, it is capable of deducing the field potential, field strength, field source, current continuity equation, and electric (or magnetic) dipolar moment etc in the electromagnetic field. The results reveal that the quaternion space is appropriate to describe the gravitational features, including the torque, force, and mass continuity equation etc. The S-quaternion space is proper to depict the electromagnetic features, including the dipolar moment and current continuity equation etc. In case the field strength is weak enough, the force and the continuity equation etc can be respectively reduced to that in the classical field theory.

  1. Angular momentum and torque described with the complex octonion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Hua Weng


    Full Text Available The paper aims to adopt the complex octonion to formulate the angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Applying the octonionic representation enables one single definition of angular momentum (or torque, force to combine some physics contents, which were considered to be independent of each other in the past. J. C. Maxwell used simultaneously two methods, the vector terminology and quaternion analysis, to depict the electromagnetic theory. It motivates the paper to introduce the quaternion space into the field theory, describing the physical feature of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The spaces of electromagnetic field and of gravitational field can be chosen as the quaternion spaces, while the coordinate component of quaternion space is able to be the complex number. The quaternion space of electromagnetic field is independent of that of gravitational field. These two quaternion spaces may compose one octonion space. Contrarily, one octonion space can be separated into two subspaces, the quaternion space and S-quaternion space. In the quaternion space, it is able to infer the field potential, field strength, field source, angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the gravitational field. In the S-quaternion space, it is capable of deducing the field potential, field strength, field source, current continuity equation, and electric (or magnetic dipolar moment etc in the electromagnetic field. The results reveal that the quaternion space is appropriate to describe the gravitational features, including the torque, force, and mass continuity equation etc. The S-quaternion space is proper to depict the electromagnetic features, including the dipolar moment and current continuity equation etc. In case the field strength is weak enough, the force and the continuity equation etc can be respectively reduced to that in the classical field theory.

  2. Visualization of Large-Scale Narrative Data Describing Human Error. (United States)

    Irwin, William J; Robinson, Saul D; Belt, Stephen M


    Objective Introduced is a visual data exploration technique for compiling, reducing, organizing, visually rendering, and filtering text-based narratives for detailed analysis. Background The analysis of data sets provides an increasingly difficult problem. The method of visual representation is considered an effective tool in many applications. The focus of this study was to determine if a latent semantic analysis-based projection of narrative data into a geographic information systems software program provided a useful tool for reducing and organizing large sums of narrative data for analysis. Method This approach utilizes latent semantic analysis to reduce narratives to a high-dimensional vector, truncates the vector to a two-dimensional projection through application of isometric mapping, and then visually renders the result with geographic information systems software. This method is demonstrated on aviation self-reported safety narratives sourced from the Aviation Safety Reporting System. Results Thematic regions from the corpus are illustrated along with the first five topics identified. Conclusion Shown is the ability to assimilate a large number of narratives, identify contextual themes, recognize common events and outliers, and organize resultant topics. Application Large narrative-based data sets present in aviation and other domains may be visualized to facilitate efficient analysis, enhance comprehension, and improve safety.

  3. Failure to Visualize and Describe Operations: The Evolution and Implementation of the Operational Framework (United States)


    Failure to Visualize and Describe Operations: The Evolution and Implementation of the Operational Framework A Monograph by MAJ ...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Daniel K. Bourke 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...Development Model. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON MAJ Daniel K

  4. Describing the Breakbone Fever: IDODEN, an Ontology for Dengue Fever (United States)

    Mitraka, Elvira; Topalis, Pantelis; Dritsou, Vicky; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Louis, Christos


    Background Ontologies represent powerful tools in information technology because they enhance interoperability and facilitate, among other things, the construction of optimized search engines. To address the need to expand the toolbox available for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases we embarked on the construction of specific ontologies. We present here IDODEN, an ontology that describes dengue fever, one of the globally most important diseases that are transmitted by mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed IDODEN using open source software, and modeled it on IDOMAL, the malaria ontology developed previously. IDODEN covers all aspects of dengue fever, such as disease biology, epidemiology and clinical features. Moreover, it covers all facets of dengue entomology. IDODEN, which is freely available, can now be used for the annotation of dengue-related data and, in addition to its use for modeling, it can be utilized for the construction of other dedicated IT tools such as decision support systems. Conclusions/Significance The availability of the dengue ontology will enable databases hosting dengue-associated data and decision-support systems for that disease to perform most efficiently and to link their own data to those stored in other independent repositories, in an architecture- and software-independent manner. PMID:25646954

  5. Describing visual scenes: towards a neurolinguistics based on construction grammar. (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A; Lee, Jinyong


    The present paper is part of a larger effort to locate the production and perception of language within the broader context of brain mechanisms for action and perception more generally. Here we model function in terms of the competition and cooperation of schemas. We use the task of describing visual scenes to explore the suitability of Construction Grammar as an appropriate framework for a schema-based linguistics. We recall the early VISIONS model of schema-based computer analysis of static visual scenes and then introduce SemRep as a graphical representation of dynamic visual scenes designed to support the generation of varied descriptions of episodes. We report preliminary results on implementing the production of sentences using Template Construction Grammar (TCG), a new form of construction grammar distinguished by its use of SemRep to express semantics. We summarize data on neural correlates relevant to future work on TCG within the context of neurolinguistics, and show how the relation between SemRep and TCG can serve as the basis for modeling language comprehension.

  6. The complexity of organizational change: describing communication during organizational turbulence. (United States)

    Salem, Philip


    Organizational researchers and practitioners have been interested in organizational change for some time. Historically, they have directed most of their efforts at improving the efficiency of planned top-down change. These efforts were strategic attempts at altering parameters leading to transformational change. Most efforts failed to meet their intended purposes. Transformational organizational change has not been likely. The legitimate systems have been robust. There has been little systematic investigation of the communication occurring during these efforts. The purpose of this essay is to describe results of a mixed methods research project answering two research questions. (a) How do organizational members communicate during a time of turbulence? (b) What features of this communication suggest the potential for or resistance to transformative change? Comparing the results at the beginning of the period to other periods, gives insight into how social actors communicate and enact the organization during a threshold period where transformational change was possible. Results reveal identifiable patterns of communication as communication strategies, parameters, or basins of attraction. The overall pattern explains how micro communication patterns intersect and how the accumulation of these patterns may resist or accomplish change at a macro level.

  7. Conceptual framework describing a child's total (built, natural ... (United States)

    The complexity of the components and their interactions that characterize children’s health and well-being are not adequately captured by current public health paradigms. Children are exposed to combinations of chemical and non-chemical stressors from their built, natural, and social environments at each lifestage and throughout their lifecourse. Children’s inherent characteristics (e.g., sex, genetics, pre-existing disease) and their activities and behaviors also influence their exposures to chemical and non-chemical stressors from these environments. We describe a conceptual framework that considers the interrelationships between inherent characteristics, activities and behaviors, and stressors (both chemical and non-chemical) from the built, natural, and social environments in influencing children’s health and well-being throughout their lifecourse. This framework is comprised of several intersecting circles that represent how stressors from the total environment interact with children’s inherent characteristics and their activities and behaviors to influence their health and well-being at each lifestage and throughout their lifecourse. We used this framework to examine the complex interrelationships between chemical and non-chemical stressors for two public health challenges specific to children: childhood obesity and general cognitive ability. One systematic scoping review showed that children’s general cognitive ability was influenced not only by

  8. Hierarchical structure analysis describing abnormal base composition of genomes (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhengqing; Liu, Jian-Kun; She, Zhen-Su


    Abnormal base compositional patterns of genomic DNA sequences are studied in the framework of a hierarchical structure (HS) model originally proposed for the study of fully developed turbulence [She and Lévêque, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 336 (1994)]. The HS similarity law is verified over scales between 103bp and 105bp , and the HS parameter β is proposed to describe the degree of heterogeneity in the base composition patterns. More than one hundred bacteria, archaea, virus, yeast, and human genome sequences have been analyzed and the results show that the HS analysis efficiently captures abnormal base composition patterns, and the parameter β is a characteristic measure of the genome. Detailed examination of the values of β reveals an intriguing link to the evolutionary events of genetic material transfer. Finally, a sequence complexity (S) measure is proposed to characterize gradual increase of organizational complexity of the genome during the evolution. The present study raises several interesting issues in the evolutionary history of genomes.

  9. An ontological approach to describing neurons and their relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hamilton


    Full Text Available The advancement of neuroscience, perhaps the most information rich discipline of all the life sciences, requires basic frameworks for organizing the vast amounts of data generated by the research community to promote novel insights and integrated understanding. Since Cajal, the neuron remains a fundamental unit of the nervous system, yet even with the explosion of information technology, we still have few comprehensive or systematic strategies for aggregating cell-level knowledge. Progress toward this goal is hampered by the multiplicity of names for cells and by lack of a consensus on the criteria for defining neuron types. However, through umbrella projects like the Neuroscience Information Framework and the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility, we have the opportunity to propose and implement an informatics infrastructure for establishing common tools and approaches to describe neurons through a standard terminology for nerve cells and a database (a Neuron Registry where these descriptions can be deposited and compared. This article provides an overview of the problem and outlines a solution approach utilizing ontological characterizations.

  10. Jan Evangelista Purkynje (1787-1869): first to describe fingerprints. (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Pietrzak, Krzysztof


    Fingerprints have been used for years as the accepted tool in criminology and for identification. The first system of classification of fingerprints was introduced by Jan Evangelista Purkynje (1787-1869), a Czech physiologist, in 1823. He divided the papillary lines into nine types, based on their geometric arrangement. This work, however, was not recognized internationally for many years. In 1858, Sir William Herschel (1833-1917) registered fingerprints for those signing documents at the Indian magistrate's office in Jungipoor. Henry Faulds (1843-1930) in 1880 proposed using ink for fingerprint determination and people identification, and Francis Galton (1822-1911) collected 8000 fingerprints and developed their classification based on the spirals, loops, and arches. In 1892, Juan Vucetich (1858-1925) created his own fingerprint identification system and proved that a woman was responsible for killing two of her sons. In 1896, a London police officer Edward Henry (1850-1931) expanded on earlier systems of classification and used papillary lines to identify criminals; it was his system that was adopted by the forensic world. The work of Jan Evangelista Purkynje (1787-1869) (Figure 1), who in 1823 was the first to describe in detail fingerprints, is almost forgotten. He also established their classification. The year 2013 marked the 190th anniversary of the publication of his work on this topic. Our contribution is an attempt to introduce the reader to this scientist and his discoveries in the field of fingerprint identification. Copyright © 2015.

  11. Entropic-Skins Geometry to Describe Wall Turbulence Intermittency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Queiros-Conde


    Full Text Available In order to describe the phenomenon of intermittency in wall turbulence and, more particularly, the behaviour of moments  and and intermittency exponents ζP with the order p and distance to the wall, we developed a new geometrical framework called “entropic-skins geometry” based on the notion of scale-entropy which is here applied to an experimental database of boundary layer flows. Each moment has its own spatial multi-scale support Ωp (“skin”. The model assumes the existence of a hierarchy of multi-scale sets Ωp ranged from the “bulk” to the “crest”. The crest noted characterizes the geometrical support where the most intermittent (the highest fluctuations in energy dissipation occur; the bulk is the geometrical support for the whole range of fluctuations. The model assumes then the existence of a dynamical flux through the hierarchy of skins. The specific case where skins display a fractal structure is investigated. Bulk fractal dimension  and crest dimension  are linked by a scale-entropy flux defining a reversibility efficiency  (d is the embedding dimension. The model, initially developed for homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows, is applied here to wall bounded turbulence where intermittency exponents are measured by extended self-similarity. We obtained for intermittency exponents the analytical expression with γ ≈ 0.36 in agreement with experimental results.

  12. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  13. [Nursing between ethic and aesthetic. Profession described by media]. (United States)

    Gradellini, Cinzia; Idamou, Sara; Lusetti, Simona


    Nurse's role, according to the media, does not fit the role and evolution that nursing had in these last years: nursing remains unknown to public. Objective of research is to define how nurse's image is described by media. analysis of two newspapers, at national and local level with respect to articles about nurses, taking into account numbers of articles, position, topic (malpractice, frauds/crimes, job/economical cuts, praise). A second part of research has been focused on online newspapers, by using key words. Analysis of television medical dramas about presence of nurse, competences, relationship with physician/patient, social elements, context of work (acute or chronic), impact on patients welfare, and eventually ethical-deontological aspects has been carried out. on three hundred articles related health context, thirty-nine talk about nurse; five of those are in first page. 39% of articles regards frauds/crimes, 19% job/economical cuts, 15% malpractice. With respect to online articles, 66% concerns frauds/crimes. In medical dramas there is small attention to nurse who has generic competence as well as other health professional but doctor. The nurse character is played only by women. a low level of professionalism comes out both from newspaper and television. A specific professional identity is often absent furthermore nurses are relegated to a role of weakness in work and private circumstance.

  14. North American matsutake: names clarified and a new species described. (United States)

    Trudell, Steven A; Xu, Jianping; Saar, Irja; Justo, Alfredo; Cifuentes, Joaquin


    Tricholoma matsutake, known widely as "matsutake," has great commercial and cultural significance in Japan. Because Japanese production is insufficient to meet the high domestic demand, morphologically similar mushrooms, thought by many to belong to T. magnivelare, are imported from western North America. However, molecular data produced since the early 2000s have indicated that more than one species of matsutake occur in North America and this raises the question of correct naming for the different species. To address this question, we assessed the phylogenetic diversity within North American matsutake based on nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] barcode) sequences, including newly obtained sequences from the type collections for Agaricus ponderosus and Armillaria arenicola, and morphological characters. Our results agree with earlier indications that three matsutake species occur in North America and allow us to clarify the correct application of names-T. magnivelare from the eastern USA and Canada, T. murrillianum from the western USA and Canada, and T. mesoamericanum from Mexico, newly described here. The existence of the three North American species is further supported by the results of evolutionary divergence analysis, geographical distributions, and morphological characters.

  15. Male powerlifting performance described from the viewpoint of complex systems. (United States)

    García-Manso, J M; Martín-González, J M; Da Silva-Grigoletto, M E; Vaamonde, D; Benito, P; Calderón, J


    This paper reflects on the factors that condition performance in powerlifting and proposes that the result-generating process is inadequately described by the allometric equations commonly used. We analysed the scores of 1812 lifters belonging to all body mass categories, and analysed the changes in the results achieved in each weight category and by each competitor. Current performance-predicting methods take into account biological variables, paying no heed to other competition features. Performance in male powerlifting (as in other strength sports) behaves as a self-organised system with non-linear interactions between its components. Thus, multiple internal and external elements must condition changes in a competitor's score, the most important being body mass, body size, the number of practitioners, and the concurrency of favourable factors in one individual. It was observed that each behaved in a specific form in the high level, according to the individuals' circumstances, which make up the main elements of the competitive system in every category. In powerlifting, official weight categories are generally organised in three different groups: light (125 kg) lifter categories, each one of them with specific allometric exponents. The exponent should be revised periodically, especially with regard to the internal dynamics of the category, and adjusted according to possible changes affecting competition.

  16. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades (United States)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean


    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  17. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumel, Stephanie E-mail:; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean E-mail:


    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Sensitizing Children to the Social and Emotional Mechanisms involved in Racism: a program evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Triliva


    Full Text Available This paper describes and discusses the results of an intervention aiming to sensitize children to the social and emotional processes involved in racism. The intervention was applied and evaluated in 10 Greek elementary schools. The goals and the intervention methods of the program modules are briefly outlined and the results of the program evaluation are elaborated and discussed. Two-hundred students participated in the program and 180 took part in the pre-and-post-testing which assessed their ability to identify emotions associated with prejudice, discrimination and stereotypical thinking; to understand similarities and differences between people; and to develop perspective taking and empathic skills in relation to diverse others. Results indicate gains in all three areas of assessment although the increased ability to identify similarities between people can also be attributed to age/grade effects. The implications of the findings are discussed with regard to antiracism intervention methods and evaluation strategies.

  19. NASA's educational programs (United States)

    Brown, Robert W.


    The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

  20. Describing failure in geomaterials using second-order work approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Nicot


    Full Text Available Geomaterials are known to be non-associated materials. Granular soils therefore exhibit a variety of failure modes, with diffuse or localized kinematical patterns. In fact, the notion of failure itself can be confusing with regard to granular soils, because it is not associated with an obvious phenomenology. In this study, we built a proper framework, using the second-order work theory, to describe some failure modes in geomaterials based on energy conservation. The occurrence of failure is defined by an abrupt increase in kinetic energy. The increase in kinetic energy from an equilibrium state, under incremental loading, is shown to be equal to the difference between the external second-order work, involving the external loading parameters, and the internal second-order work, involving the constitutive properties of the material. When a stress limit state is reached, a certain stress component passes through a maximum value and then may decrease. Under such a condition, if a certain additional external loading is applied, the system fails, sharply increasing the strain rate. The internal stress is no longer able to balance the external stress, leading to a dynamic response of the specimen. As an illustration, the theoretical framework was applied to the well-known undrained triaxial test for loose soils. The influence of the loading control mode was clearly highlighted. It is shown that the plastic limit theory appears to be a particular case of this more general second-order work theory. When the plastic limit condition is met, the internal second-order work is nil. A class of incremental external loadings causes the kinetic energy to increase dramatically, leading to the sudden collapse of the specimen, as observed in laboratory.

  1. Ankle Kinematics Described By Means Of Stereophotogrammetry And Mathematical Modelling (United States)

    Allard, Paul; Nagata, Susan D.; Duhaime, Morris; Labelle, Hubert; Murphy, Norman


    The ankle is a complex structure allowing foot mobility while providing stability. In an attempt to improve the knowledge of the kinematics of the ankle, an approach incorporating both experimental and analytical techniques was developed. Stereophotogrammetry combined with the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) technique, was used to quantify the spatial displacements of the foot. Four motorized cameras were fixed on a baseboard 0.62 m from a support frame so as to obtain two stereopairs, one medial and one lateral. For a pair, the cameras were 0.52 m apart and maintained a convergent angle of 21.5°. The support frame was designed to fix the tibia while allowing foot motion. A device comprised of 76 markers, 38 of which were visible to each pair of cameras was used for the calibration. The spatial position of each marker was measured to a precision of 0.05 mm whereas their computed spatial position using the DLT technique was accurate to 0.4 mm. For the experiment, two embalmed cadaver legs and feet, amputated at midshank and of normal appearance were used. After a partial dissection, three pin markers were embedded into each of the medial and lateral sides of the talus permitting the calculation of its center of rotation. Each foot was photographed in 5 positions at 10° intervals, ranging from 30 ° of plantarflexion to 10° of dorsiflexion. An analytical model was developed to spatially describe the rotation of the foot about the ankle. The model calculates the plane of motion and the orientation of the axis of rotation relative to the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes. These were found respectively to be for foot one: 100°, 86°, 15° and for foot two: 91°, 69°, 21°.

  2. Species-free species distribution models describe macroecological properties of protected area networks. (United States)

    Robinson, Jason L; Fordyce, James A


    Among the greatest challenges facing the conservation of plants and animal species in protected areas are threats from a rapidly changing climate. An altered climate creates both challenges and opportunities for improving the management of protected areas in networks. Increasingly, quantitative tools like species distribution modeling are used to assess the performance of protected areas and predict potential responses to changing climates for groups of species, within a predictive framework. At larger geographic domains and scales, protected area network units have spatial geoclimatic properties that can be described in the gap analysis typically used to measure or aggregate the geographic distributions of species (stacked species distribution models, or S-SDM). We extend the use of species distribution modeling techniques in order to model the climate envelope (or "footprint") of individual protected areas within a network of protected areas distributed across the 48 conterminous United States and managed by the US National Park System. In our approach we treat each protected area as the geographic range of a hypothetical endemic species, then use MaxEnt and 5 uncorrelated BioClim variables to model the geographic distribution of the climatic envelope associated with each protected area unit (modeling the geographic area of park units as the range of a species). We describe the individual and aggregated climate envelopes predicted by a large network of 163 protected areas and briefly illustrate how macroecological measures of geodiversity can be derived from our analysis of the landscape ecological context of protected areas. To estimate trajectories of change in the temporal distribution of climatic features within a protected area network, we projected the climate envelopes of protected areas in current conditions onto a dataset of predicted future climatic conditions. Our results suggest that the climate envelopes of some parks may be locally unique or have

  3. Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences (United States)

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.


    We compared habitat characteristics of nest sites (female-selected sites) and song perch sites (male-selected sites) with those of sites unused by Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) at three different scales of vegetation measurement: (1) microplot (central willow [Salix spp.] bush and four adjacent bushes); (2) mesoplot (0.07 ha); and, (3) macroplot (flycatcher territory size). Willow Flycatchers exhibited vegetation preferences at all three scales. Nest sites were distinguished by high willow density and low variability in willow patch size and bush height. Song perch sites were characterized by large central shrubs, low central shrub vigor, and high variability in shrub size. Unused sites were characterized by greater distances between willows and willow patches, less willow coverage, and a smaller riparian zone width than either nest or song perch sites. At all scales, nest sites were situated farther from unused sites in multivariate habitat space than were song perch sites, suggesting (1) a correspondence among scales in their ability to describe Willow Flycatcher habitat, and (2) females are more discriminating in habitat selection than males. Microhabitat differences between male-selected (song perch) and female-selected (nest) sites were evident at the two smaller scales; at the finest scale, the segregation in habitat space between male-selected and female-selected sites was greater than that between male-selected and unused sites. Differences between song perch and nest sites were not apparent at the scale of flycatcher territory size, possibly due to inclusion of (1) both nest and song perch sites, (2) defended, but unused habitat, and/or (3) habitat outside of the territory, in larger scale analyses. The differences between nest and song perch sites at the finer scales reflect their different functions (e.g., nest concealment and microclimatic requirements vs. advertising and territorial defense, respectively), and suggest that the exclusive use

  4. Describing soil surface microrelief by crossover length and fractal dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vidal Vázquez


    Full Text Available Accurate description of soil surface topography is essential because different tillage tools produce different soil surface roughness conditions, which in turn affects many processes across the soil surface boundary. Advantages of fractal analysis in soil microrelief assessment have been recognised but the use of fractal indices in practice remains challenging. There is also little information on how soil surface roughness decays under natural rainfall conditions. The objectives of this work were to investigate the decay of initial surface roughness induced by natural rainfall under different soil tillage systems and to compare the performances of a classical statistical index and fractal microrelief indices. Field experiments were performed on an Oxisol at Campinas, São Paulo State (Brazil. Six tillage treatments, namely, disc harrow, disc plow, chisel plow, disc harrow + disc level, disc plow + disc level and chisel plow + disc level were tested. Measurements were made four times, firstly just after tillage and subsequently with increasing amounts of natural rainfall. Duplicated measurements were taken per treatment and date, yielding a total of 48 experimental surfaces. The sampling scheme was a square grid with 25×25 mm point spacing and the plot size was 1350×1350 mm, so that each data set consisted of 3025 individual elevation points. Statistical and fractal indices were calculated both for oriented and random roughness conditions, i.e. after height reading have been corrected for slope and for slope and tillage tool marks. The main drawback of the standard statistical index random roughness, RR, lies in its no spatial nature. The fractal approach requires two indices, fractal dimension, D, which describes how roughness changes with scale, and crossover length, l, specifying the variance of surface microrelief at a reference scale. Fractal parameters D and l, were estimated by two independent self-affine models

  5. World-wide developments in motor vehicle inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klausmeier, R. [Consulting Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Kishan, S. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)


    Motor vehicles contribute much to urban air pollution. As a result, most governments have enacted emission standards that significantly lower pollutant emission levels from new motor vehicles. For example, vehicles built in the United States emit 95 % fewer pollutants than uncontrolled vehicles when they are new. However, studies indicate that proper maintenance is needed to obtain the full benefit of vehicle emission controls. Furthermore, there is evidence that a significant percentage of the vehicle fleet is not properly maintained. This has led to the creation of motor vehicle Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) Programs. I/M programs inspect vehicles for indications that they are emitting excessive quantities of pollutants. Vehicles that fail the inspection must be repaired in order to comply with program requirements. The first I/M programs were implemented in the United States in the early 1970s. With substantial urging from the federal government, most of the U.S. states with severe air pollution problems have implemented I/M programs. Recently, with the passage of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, many states have been required to significantly upgrade the performance and coverage of their I/M programs. I/M programs also have been implemented in Europe and recently in Asia. This presentation reviews developments in I/M programs for light-duty gasoline powered vehicles. Developments in I/M programs for diesel powered vehicles are briefly described. (author)

  6. Diagnostic performance on briefly presented digital pathology images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Houghton


    Full Text Available Background: Identifying new and more robust assessments of proficiency/expertise (finding new "biomarkers of expertise" in histopathology is desirable for many reasons. Advances in digital pathology permit new and innovative tests such as flash viewing tests and eye tracking and slide navigation analyses that would not be possible with a traditional microscope. The main purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of time-restricted testing of expertise in histopathology using digital images. Methods: 19 novices (undergraduate medical students, 18 intermediates (trainees, and 19 experts (consultants were invited to give their opinion on 20 general histopathology cases after 1 s and 10 s viewing times. Differences in performance between groups were measured and the internal reliability of the test was calculated. Results: There were highly significant differences in performance between the groups using the Fisher′s least significant difference method for multiple comparisons. Differences between groups were consistently greater in the 10-s than the 1-s test. The Kuder-Richardson 20 internal reliability coefficients were very high for both tests: 0.905 for the 1-s test and 0.926 for the 10-s test. Consultants had levels of diagnostic accuracy of 72% at 1 s and 83% at 10 s. Conclusions: Time-restricted tests using digital images have the potential to be extremely reliable tests of diagnostic proficiency in histopathology. A 10-s viewing test may be more reliable than a 1-s test. Over-reliance on "at a glance" diagnoses in histopathology is a potential source of medical error due to over-confidence bias and premature closure.

  7. Just one look: Direct gaze briefly disrupts visual working memory. (United States)

    Wang, J Jessica; Apperly, Ian A


    Direct gaze is a salient social cue that affords rapid detection. A body of research suggests that direct gaze enhances performance on memory tasks (e.g., Hood, Macrae, Cole-Davies, & Dias, Developmental Science, 1, 67-71, 2003). Nonetheless, other studies highlight the disruptive effect direct gaze has on concurrent cognitive processes (e.g., Conty, Gimmig, Belletier, George, & Huguet, Cognition, 115(1), 133-139, 2010). This discrepancy raises questions about the effects direct gaze may have on concurrent memory tasks. We addressed this topic by employing a change detection paradigm, where participants retained information about the color of small sets of agents. Experiment 1 revealed that, despite the irrelevance of the agents' eye gaze to the memory task at hand, participants were worse at detecting changes when the agents looked directly at them compared to when the agents looked away. Experiment 2 showed that the disruptive effect was relatively short-lived. Prolonged presentation of direct gaze led to recovery from the initial disruption, rather than a sustained disruption on change detection performance. The present study provides the first evidence that direct gaze impairs visual working memory with a rapidly-developing yet short-lived effect even when there is no need to attend to agents' gaze.

  8. Structure of electric double layers in capacitive systems and to what extent (classical) density functional theory describes it. (United States)

    Härtel, Andreas


    Ongoing scientific interest is aimed at the properties and structure of electric double layers (EDLs), which are crucial for capacitive energy storage, water treatment, and energy harvesting technologies like supercapacitors, desalination devices, blue engines, and thermocapacitive heat-to-current converters. A promising tool to describe their physics on a microscopic level is (classical) density functional theory (DFT), which can be applied in order to analyze pair correlations and charge ordering in the primitive model of charged hard spheres. This simple model captures the main properties of ionic liquids and solutions and it predicts many of the phenomena that occur in EDLs. The latter often lead to anomalous response in the differential capacitance of EDLs. This work constructively reviews the powerful theoretical framework of DFT and its recent developments regarding the description of EDLs. It explains to what extent current approaches in DFT describe structural ordering and in-plane transitions in EDLs, which occur when the corresponding electrodes are charged. Further, the review briefly summarizes the history of modeling EDLs, presents applications, and points out limitations and strengths in present theoretical approaches. It concludes that DFT as a sophisticated microscopic theory for ionic systems is expecting a challenging but promising future in both fundamental research and applications in supercapacitive technologies.

  9. Structure of electric double layers in capacitive systems and to what extent (classical) density functional theory describes it (United States)

    Härtel, Andreas


    Ongoing scientific interest is aimed at the properties and structure of electric double layers (EDLs), which are crucial for capacitive energy storage, water treatment, and energy harvesting technologies like supercapacitors, desalination devices, blue engines, and thermocapacitive heat-to-current converters. A promising tool to describe their physics on a microscopic level is (classical) density functional theory (DFT), which can be applied in order to analyze pair correlations and charge ordering in the primitive model of charged hard spheres. This simple model captures the main properties of ionic liquids and solutions and it predicts many of the phenomena that occur in EDLs. The latter often lead to anomalous response in the differential capacitance of EDLs. This work constructively reviews the powerful theoretical framework of DFT and its recent developments regarding the description of EDLs. It explains to what extent current approaches in DFT describe structural ordering and in-plane transitions in EDLs, which occur when the corresponding electrodes are charged. Further, the review briefly summarizes the history of modeling EDLs, presents applications, and points out limitations and strengths in present theoretical approaches. It concludes that DFT as a sophisticated microscopic theory for ionic systems is expecting a challenging but promising future in both fundamental research and applications in supercapacitive technologies.

  10. Describing Surfaces. (United States)


    lightbulb. It is well-known (for exam~ple, do Carmo "" "..-’,.’.V .. .V...i ra I s ; ul ing-.. "’. Figure 11. The helicoid of a single blade. (Reproduced from [do Carmo 1976, Figure 2-27 Page 94]) where m and 1 are assumed...York. Do Carmo , Manfredo P, [1976], Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, Prent- ice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Faugeras, 0. D., et. al, [1982

  11. Describing Matter (United States)

    Adams, Krista; Feagin, Shannon


    This article presents a lesson that was designed to explore the scientific descriptions of matter through both the intensive and extensive properties that students successfully added to their vocabulary. Students' examples demonstrated that there were places where their reasoning about matter faltered as related to how the material is the same…

  12. Student-Described Engagement with Text: Insights are Discovered from Fourth Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. WEIH


    Full Text Available This article reports on a research study investigating student-described engagement with selfselected text in a classroom where a core reading program (in the context of this study meaning instruction based primarily on manuals and commercial textbooks comprised the majority of their literacy instruction. Fourth grade students were invited to characterize their responses to their self-selected reading within focus group discussions. Data instruments included audio taped focus group discussions, student photographs, observational field notes, and students’ literature. Implementing the constant comparative method for data analysis, outcomes were determined and implications for classroom practice suggested.

  13. Student-described engagement with text: Insights are discovered from fourth graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. Weih


    Full Text Available This article reports on a research study investigating student-described engagement with selfselected text in a classroom where a core reading program (in the context of this study meaning instruction based primarily on manuals and commercial textbooks comprised the majority of their literacy instruction. Fourth grade students were invited to characterize their responses to their self-selected reading within focus group discussions. Data instruments included audio taped focus group discussions, student photographs, observational field notes, and students’ literature. Implementing the constant comparative method for data analysis, outcomes were determined and implications for classroom practice suggested.

  14. Evaluating Value Chain Development Programs: Assessing Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity Effects of Contract Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.


    Provides insights regarding the possible procedures for assessing welfare, efficiency, and equity effects of value chain development (VCD) programs, taking advantage of available analytical tools derived from impact analysis, transaction cost theory, and contract choice approaches and briefly

  15. Optimization of biotechnological systems through geometric programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Nestor V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past, tasks of model based yield optimization in metabolic engineering were either approached with stoichiometric models or with structured nonlinear models such as S-systems or linear-logarithmic representations. These models stand out among most others, because they allow the optimization task to be converted into a linear program, for which efficient solution methods are widely available. For pathway models not in one of these formats, an Indirect Optimization Method (IOM was developed where the original model is sequentially represented as an S-system model, optimized in this format with linear programming methods, reinterpreted in the initial model form, and further optimized as necessary. Results A new method is proposed for this task. We show here that the model format of a Generalized Mass Action (GMA system may be optimized very efficiently with techniques of geometric programming. We briefly review the basics of GMA systems and of geometric programming, demonstrate how the latter may be applied to the former, and illustrate the combined method with a didactic problem and two examples based on models of real systems. The first is a relatively small yet representative model of the anaerobic fermentation pathway in S. cerevisiae, while the second describes the dynamics of the tryptophan operon in E. coli. Both models have previously been used for benchmarking purposes, thus facilitating comparisons with the proposed new method. In these comparisons, the geometric programming method was found to be equal or better than the earlier methods in terms of successful identification of optima and efficiency. Conclusion GMA systems are of importance, because they contain stoichiometric, mass action and S-systems as special cases, along with many other models. Furthermore, it was previously shown that algebraic equivalence transformations of variables are sufficient to convert virtually any types of dynamical models into

  16. Effective Communication and Neurolinguistic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Bashir (Corresponding Author


    Full Text Available Importance of effective communication can hardly be ignored in any sphere of life. This is achieved through various means. One such instrument is Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP which has now taken roots in various aspects of learning and education. Its potential spans education and learning, language teaching, business management and marketing, psychology, law, and several other fields. In our work, we will briefly explore various facets of NLP with special reference to effective communication.

  17. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  18. Industrial Energy-Efficiency Improvement Program. Annual report to the Congress and the President 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies and practices which will improve energy efficiency; encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels; and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams is described. The role of research, development, and demonstration; technology implementation; the reporting program; and progress are covered. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. Additional data from voluntary submissions, a summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix are briefly presented. (MCW)

  19. HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics (United States)

    Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.


    In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library (, Expat XML Parser ( Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high

  20. Electrolichas circumbalticus gen. et sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea: Ptilodactylidae) from Baltic amber, the first anchytarsine toed-winged beetle described from Europe. (United States)

    Alekseev, Vitalii I; Jäch, Manfred A


    A new genus and species of Ptilodactylidae, Electrolichas circumbalticus gen. et sp. nov., the first fossil representative of the subfamily Anchytarsinae, is described from Baltic amber. This Eocene beetle can be distinguished from the extant genera of Anchytarsinae by the combination of the following characters: labrum transverse, terminal segment of maxillary palps cylindrical, antennae with non-articulated rami, basal pronotal margin only very finely crenulate, lacking a median denticle, anterior margin of scutellum not excised medially, elytra not striate, tarsi not pseudotetramerous, proportional lengths: 1.5: 1.2: 1.2: 1.1: 1.5, flashy pads on apex of first tarsomere as well as on tarsomeres 2-4. A list of the extant species of Anchytarsinae is provided. Both hitherto described fossil ptilodactylid genera are briefly discussed.

  1. On the species of the genus Anthaxia Eschscholtz, 1829 described by A. Théry from Angola in 1947 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Anthaxiini). (United States)

    Bílý, Svatopluk


    The type specimens of the genus Anthaxia Eschscholtz, 1829 described from Angola by A. Théry (1947) were studied, critically evaluated and some of them synonymised: Anthaxia (Cratomerus) reticollis Quedenfeldt, 1886 = A. (C.) coelestis Théry, 1947, syn. nov., A. (Haplanthaxia) egena Kerremans, 1913 = A. (H.) decimata Théry, 1947, syn. nov., A. (H.) duvivieri Kerremans, 1898 = A. (H.) eumede Théry, 1947, syn. nov., A. (H.) mashuna Obenberger, 1931 = A. (H.) morula Théry, 1947, syn. nov. and A. (H.) sjoestedti Kerremans, 1908 = A. (H.) recisa Théry, 1947, syn. nov. The male of A. (H.) monardi Théry, 1947 is briefly described and A. (H.) puchneri Bílý, 2014 is shortly discussed. All mentioned species and the relevant types of the newly synonymised species are illustrated.

  2. Programming Algol

    CERN Document Server

    Malcolme-Lawes, D J


    Programming - ALGOL describes the basics of computer programming using Algol. Commands that could be added to Algol and could increase its scope are described, including multiplication and division and the use of brackets. The idea of labeling or naming a command is also explained, along with a command allowing two alternative results. Most of the important features of Algol syntax are discussed, and examples of compound statements (that is, sets of commands enclosed by a begin ... end command) are given.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the digital computer an

  3. Energy efficient engine program contributions to aircraft fuel conservation (United States)

    Batterton, P. G.


    Significant advances in high bypass turbofan technologies that enhance fuel efficiency have been demonstrated in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program. This highly successful second propulsion element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program included major contract efforts with both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. Major results of these efforts will be presented including highlights from the NASA/General Electric E3 research turbofan engine test. Direct application of all the E3 technologies could result in fuel savings of over 18% compared to the CF6-50 and JT9D-7. Application of the E3 technologies to new and derivative engines such as the CF6-80C and PW 2037, as well as others, will be discussed. Significant portions of the fuel savings benefit for these new products can be directly related to the E3 technology program. Finally, results of a study looking at far term advanced turbofan engines will be briefly described. The study shows that substantial additional fuel savings over E3 are possible with additional turbofan technology programs.

  4. Choreographic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    , as they offer a concise view of the message flows enacted by a system. For this reason, in the last decade choreographies have been used in the development of programming languages, giving rise to a programming paradigm that in this dissertation we refer to as Choreographic Programming. Recent studies show...... endpoint described in a choreography can then be automatically generated, ensuring that such implementations are safe by construction. However, current formal models for choreographies do not deal with critical aspects of distributed programming, such as asynchrony, mobility, modularity, and multiparty...... sessions; it remains thus unclear whether choreographies can still guarantee safety when dealing with such nontrivial features. This PhD dissertation argues for the suitability of choreographic programming as a paradigm for the development of safe distributed systems. We proceed by investigating its...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa TÜRKSEVER


    Full Text Available In this paper, Application Programming Interfaces (API which are used for graphics software development are classified and introduced briefly. Properties of 2D and 3D API's are specified. Programs which are implemented in this study (Kup3B Java2D version, Kup3B Java3D version are compared by number of lines of code written. Charts are constructed by using values obtained and interpreted.

  6. A characterization of Parkinson's disease by describing the visual field motion during gait (United States)

    Trujillo, David; Martínez, Fabio; Atehortúa, Angélica; Alvarez, Charlens; Romero, Eduardo


    An early diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) is crucial towards devising successful rehabilitation programs. Typically, the PD diagnosis is performed by characterizing typical symptoms, namely bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, postural instability or freezing gait. However, traditional examination tests are usually incapable of detecting slight motor changes, specially for early stages of the pathology. Recently, eye movement abnormalities have correlated with early onset of some neurodegenerative disorders. This work introduces a new characterization of the Parkinson disease by describing the ocular motion during a common daily activity as the gait. This paper proposes a fully automatic eye motion analysis using a dense optical flow that tracks the ocular direction. The eye motion is then summarized using orientation histograms constructed during a whole gait cycle. The proposed approach was evaluated by measuring the χ2 distance between the orientation histograms, showing substantial differences between control and PD patients.

  7. Model tool to describe chemical structures in XML format utilizing structural fragments and chemical ontology. (United States)

    Sankar, Punnaivanam; Alain, Krief; Aghila, Gnanasekaran


    We have developed a model structure-editing tool, ChemEd, programmed in JAVA, which allows drawing chemical structures on a graphical user interface (GUI) by selecting appropriate structural fragments defined in a fragment library. The terms representing the structural fragments are organized in fragment ontology to provide a conceptual support. ChemEd describes the chemical structure in an XML document (ChemFul) with rich semantics explicitly encoding the details of the chemical bonding, the hybridization status, and the electron environment around each atom. The document can be further processed through suitable algorithms and with the support of external chemical ontologies to generate understandable reports about the functional groups present in the structure and their specific environment.

  8. The “Zing Factor”—How Do Faculty Describe the Best Pediatrics Residents? (United States)

    Rosenbluth, Glenn; O'Brien, Bridget; Asher, Emily M.; Cho, Christine S.


    Background Faculty in graduate medical education programs may not have uniform approaches to differentiating the quality of residents, and reviews of evaluations suggest that faculty use different standards when assessing residents. Standards for assessing residents also do not consistently map to items on evaluation forms. One way to improve assessment is to reach consensus on the traits and behaviors that are (or should be) present in the best residents. Methods A trained interviewer conducted semistructured interviews with faculty affiliated with 2 pediatrics residency programs until content saturation was achieved. Interviewees were asked to describe specific traits present in residents they identify as the best. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. We used an iterative, inductive approach to generate a coding scheme and identify common themes. Results From 23 interviews, we identified 7 thematic categories of traits and behaviors: personality, energy, professionalism, team behaviors, self-improvement behaviors, patient-interaction behaviors, and medical knowledge and clinical skills (including a subcategory, knowledge integration). Most faculty interviewees focused on traits like passion, enthusiasm, maturity, and reliability. Examination score or intelligence was mentioned less frequently than traits and behaviors categorized under personality and professionalism. Conclusions Faculty identified many traits and behaviors in the residents they define as the best. The thematic categories had incomplete overlap with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and CanMEDS competencies. This research highlights the ongoing need to review our assessment strategies, and may have implications for the ACGME Milestone Project. PMID:24701319

  9. Describing Myxococcus xanthus aggregation using Ostwald ripening equations for thin liquid films. (United States)

    Bahar, Fatmagül; Pratt-Szeliga, Philip C; Angus, Stuart; Guo, Jiaye; Welch, Roy D


    When starved, a swarm of millions of Myxococcus xanthus cells coordinate their movement from outward swarming to inward coalescence. The cells then execute a synchronous program of multicellular development, arranging themselves into dome shaped aggregates. Over the course of development, about half of the initial aggregates disappear, while others persist and mature into fruiting bodies. This work seeks to develop a quantitative model for aggregation that accurately simulates which will disappear and which will persist. We analyzed time-lapse movies of M. xanthus development, modeled aggregation using the equations that describe Ostwald ripening of droplets in thin liquid films, and predicted the disappearance and persistence of aggregates with an average accuracy of 85%. We then experimentally validated a prediction that is fundamental to this model by tracking individual fluorescent cells as they moved between aggregates and demonstrating that cell movement towards and away from aggregates correlates with aggregate disappearance. Describing development through this model may limit the number and type of molecular genetic signals needed to complete M. xanthus development, and it provides numerous additional testable predictions.

  10. Using logistic regression to describe the length of breastfeeding: a study in Guadalajara, Mexico. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, G J; Vega-Lopez, M G; Cabrera-Pivaral, C


    This study seeks, through a logistic regression model, to describe the pattern of breastfeeding duration in Guadalajara, Mexico, during 1993. A multistage random sample of children under 1 year of age (n = 1036) was studied; observational data regarding breastfeeding duration, obtained through a "status quo" procedure, were compared with prevalence rates obtained from the logistic regression model. Modeling the duration of breastfeeding during the first year of life rather than only analyzing observational data helps researchers to understand this process in a dynamic and quantitative way. For example, uncommon indicators of breastfeeding were derived from the model. These indicators are impossible to obtain from observational data. The prevalence curve estimated through the logistic model was adequately fitted to observed data: there were no significant differences between the number or distribution of breastfed infants observed and those predicted by the model. Moreover, the model revealed that less than 40% of the children were breastfed in the fourth month of life; the median age for weaning was 39.3 days; 55% of the potential breastfeeding in the first 4 months did not occur; and the greatest abandonment of breastfeeding in the first 4 months was observed in the first 60 days. Thus, logistic regression seems a suitable option to construct a population-based model that describes breastfeeding duration during the first year of life. The indicators derived from the model offer health care providers valuable information for developing programs that promote breastfeeding.

  11. Effect of Federal programs on health sciences libraries. (United States)

    Palmer, R A


    The radical changes and improvements in health sciences libraries during the last quarter century have been primarily achieved through the leadership of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) in the application of technology and in the creation of a biomedical communications network. This article describes principal programs and activities of the National Library of Medicine and their effects on health sciences libraries: the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS), implementation of the Medical Library Assistance Act (MLAA), and defense of "fair use" of copyrighted material. The article briefly summarizes more recent Federal activities which directly affect access to and dissemination of health information and concludes with a summary of problems for which solutions must be found if health sciences libraries are to be prepared to meet the future. It is clear from comparing the programs described with current government attitudes that, although the Federal government has promoted advancement in the dissemination of biomedical information in the past, this trend is reversing, and Federal funding to libraries is decreasing while the cost of accessing information is increasing.

  12. Describing Parents' Perceptions, Valuation, and Support of Study Abroad Programs at Three Southern Land-Grant Universities (United States)

    Redwine, Tobin; Blackburn, Joey; Bunch, J. C.; Greenhaw, Laura; Rutherford, Tracy; Wingenbach, Gary; Walther, David


    Parents are an integral part of the decision to study abroad, but little research investigates parents' perceptions about study abroad. This study uses the Theory of Planned Behavior as a conceptual framework to explain perceptions and value of study abroad by parents of agriculture students Land-Grant universities based on previous international…

  13. Teaching Programming with Scratch




    There are quite a few good programing languages and environments for teaching kids how to program. They help beginners learn basic programming constructs usually with help of interactive environment. In this thesis I will describe and compare a few of those languages and environments. Scratch is a language and programming environment that is also intended for learning programming using blocks that make writing complicated instructions easier and reduce beginners' difficulties with syntax erro...

  14. Hospitality Management. Florida Vocational Program Guide. (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide is intended for the implementation of a hospitality management program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, describes jobs under the program, and includes a curriculum framework and student performance standards for…

  15. Urban teens and young adults describe drama, disrespect, dating violence and help-seeking preferences. (United States)

    Martin, Caitlin Eileen; Houston, Avril Melissa; Mmari, Kristin N; Decker, Michele R


    Adolescent dating violence is increasingly recognized as a public health problem. Our qualitative investigation sought input from urban, African-American adolescents at risk for dating violence concerning (Tjaden and Thoennes in Full report of the prevelance, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: findings from the national violence against women survey. US Department of Justice, Washington, DC, 2000) dating violence descriptions, (WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women: Summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2005) preferences for help-seeking for dating violence, and (Intimate partner violence in the United States. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Washington, DC, 2007) recommendations for a teen dating violence resource center. Four focus groups were conducted with urban, African American adolescents (n = 32) aged 13-24 recruited from an urban adolescent clinic's community outreach partners. Qualitative analysis was conducted. Participants assigned a wide range of meanings for the term "relationship drama", and used dating violence using language not typically heard among adults, e.g., "disrespect". Participants described preferences for turning to family or friends before seeking formal services for dating violence, but reported barriers to their ability to rely on these informal sources. When asked to consider formal services, they described their preferred resource center as confidential and safe, with empathetic, non-judgmental staff. Teens also gave insight into preferred ways to outreach and publicize dating violence resources. Findings inform recommendations for youth-specific tailoring of violence screening and intervention efforts. Current evidence that slang terms, i.e., "drama", lack specificity suggests that they should not be integrated within screening protocols

  16. Day surgery awake craniotomy for removing brain tumours: technical note describing a simple protocol. (United States)

    Carrabba, G; Venkatraghavan, L; Bernstein, M


    Day surgery awake craniotomy has been recently proposed for patients harbouring supratentorial brain tumours. This technique has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in a large cohort of patients operated by one neurosurgeon at the University of Toronto. The aim of this paper is to present a technical description of the protocol that has been adopted for these patients and a discussion of relevant practical issues which may arise. In particular, patient eligibility criteria are briefly discussed and intra- and post-operative management are presented. Key messages for those who are going to start to perform day surgery awake craniotomies include the preparation of a fast, simple and standardized protocol for the treatment of these patients and cooperation among patients and their care-givers (surgeon, anesthetist, nurses, family members).

  17. Describing and understanding depression in spouses of cancer patients in palliative phase. (United States)

    Fasse, Léonor; Flahault, Cécile; Brédart, Anne; Dolbeault, Sylvie; Sultan, Serge


    The cancer patient's relatives and family constitute one of the patient's main sources of support throughout the disease. In recent years, several studies have emphasized the psychological vulnerability of spouses-caregivers with a high proportion suffering from anxiety and depression symptoms. The literature underlines several factors of detrimental outcomes but critical aspects of the spousal relationship as attachment were neglected. This study aims at (1) describing depressive symptoms and depression among spouses who care for palliative cancer patients and (2) highlighting important factors explaining these symptoms. We surveyed 60 spouses 1-6 months before the patient's death, (38 men, mean age: 62 years). We found a high frequency of depression symptoms (25%) in the sample. Higher depression scores were associated to insecure-anxious attachment style, more frequent venting of emotion and disengagement through substance use. Despite limitations, this description of caregivers' emotional adjustment in the palliative phase is unique. Future support programs could use the present information by focusing on emotional venting and avoidance. It also underlines the benefits for caregivers to develop organizational skills thanks to services that will lessen tasks or care responsibilities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Responsive Space Program Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dors, Eric E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The goal of the Responsive Space program is to make significant, integrated science and technology contributions to the end-to-end missions of the U.S. Government that protect against global emerging and nuclear threats, from the earliest adversary planning through resilient event response report describes the LANL space program, mission, and other activities. The report describes some of their activities.

  19. Semiannual progress report for the Idaho Geothermal Program, April 1-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihrig, R.R.


    Progress made by the Idaho Geothermal Program between March 31 and September 30, 1979 is discussed. Geothermal well tests at the Raft River geothermal site, facility construction, and the first hydraulic fracture treatment of a geothermal well are summarized. The results of direct applications experiments are described briefly, including experiments in aquaculture, agriculture, fluidized bed space heating, fluidized bed food drying, essential oil extraction, and geothermal assisted conversion of biomass to ethanol. Improvements to the binary cycle prototype power plant at Raft River, construction progress on the 5-MW pilot plant, and experimental work on direct contact heat exchangers are discussed. Also outlined is progress on environmental studies at Raft River, including a brief discussion of socioeconomic impacts of geothermal development on Cassia County, Idaho. Results are presented of a 48-industry survey conducted to determine industry's views of the technology barriers to accelerating hydrothermal energy commercialization. A projection summarizes the capital and manpower needed through 1987 to place 6800 MW of direct applications development online. Progress reports are also included on DOE's Program Opportunity Notice (PON) Program demonstration projects and DOE's Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) Program study projects.

  20. Fusion magnet safety studies program: superconducting magnet protection system and failure. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allinger, J.; Danby, G.; Hsieh, S.Y.; Keane, J.; Powell, J.; Prodell, A.


    This report includes the first two quarters study of available information on schemes for protecting superconducting magnets. These schemes can be divided into two different categories. The first category deals with the detection of faulty regions (or normal regions) in the magnet. The second category relates to the protection of the magnet when a fault is detected, and the derived signal which can be used to activate a safety system (or energy removal system). The general detection and protection methods are first described briefly and then followed by a survey of the protection systems used by different laboratories for various magnets. A survey of the cause of the magnet difficulties or failures is also included. A preliminary discussion of these protection schemes and the experimental development of this program is given.

  1. Recommendation: Comprehensive Programming. (United States)

    Kelly, Judith


    This article summarizes recommendations of the Richardson Study regarding a comprehensive approach to programing for gifted students. Basic components of comprehensive programing are outlined, and seven steps deemed essential to program development and implementation are described, as implemented by the Pyramid Project in four school districts in…

  2. DOE conservation/solar applications FY 79 budget program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The FY 1979 DOE budget is presented pictorially and graphically. Information on the programs in the organization (solar applications, residential and commercial, industrial, transportation, state and local, and multisector) is included for such areas as major markets; energy contribution; development; strategies; standards; research; energy conservation; and commercialization. A final chart on funding depicts comparisons of the 1978 and 1979 budgets briefly.

  3. Current status of the AMS program at the TANDAR Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Niello, J.; Alvarez, D.E.; Liberman, R.G. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica] [and others


    The status of the AMS program at the TANDAR laboratory is briefly overviewed and recent improvements on the tandem accelerator are summarized. {sup 36} Cl measurements have been extensively performed and studies with nickel beams have been started. Their results are presented and evaluated in the context of future activities. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs.; marti at

  4. Intellectual Property Law and the Protection of Computer Programs. (United States)

    Lomio, J. Paul


    Briefly reviews the laws pertaining to copyrights, patents, and trade secrets, and discusses how each of these may be applied to the protection of computer programs. The comparative merits and limitations of each category of law are discussed and recent court decisions are summarized. (CLB)

  5. Characterization of genomic instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and engaging teaching strategies described in two curricula (United States)

    Keller, Alexandra P.

    Cancer arises through an accumulation of mutations in the genome. In cancer cells, mutations are frequently caused by DNA rearrangements, which include chromosomal breakages, deletions, insertions, and translocations. Such events contribute to genomic instability, a known hallmark of cancer. To study cycles of chromosomal instability, we are using baker's yeast as a model organism. In yeast, a ChrVII system was previously developed (Admire et al., 2006), in which a disomic yeast strain was used to identify regions of instability on ChrVII. Using this system, a fragile site on the left arm of ChrVII (Admire et al., 2006) was identified and characterized. This study led to insight into mechanisms involved in chromosomal rearrangements and mutations that arise from them as well as to an understanding of mechanisms involved in genomic instability. To further our understanding of genomic instability, I devised a strategy to study instability on a different chromosome (ChrV) (Figure 3), so that we could determine whether lessons learned from the ChrVII system are applicable to other chromosomes, and/or whether other mechanisms of instability could be identified. A suitable strain was generated and analyzed, and our findings suggest that frequencies of instability on the right arm of ChrV are similar to those found in ChrVII. The results from the work in ChrV described in this paper support the idea that the instability found on ChrVII is not an isolated occurrence. My research was supported by an NSF GK-12 grant. The aim of this grant is to improve science education in middle schools, and as part of my participation in this program, I studied and practiced effective science communication methodologies. In attempts to explain my research to middle school students, I collaborated with others to develop methods for explaining genetics and the most important techniques I used in my research. While developing these methods, I learned more about what motivates people to learn

  6. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations. Power Systems Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States); Vance, E.F. [Vance (E.F.), Fort Worth, TX (United States)


    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation`s power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation`s electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Cabrera Delgado


    Full Text Available This article aims to get an overview of the process of including the computer programming and the robotics in the educational curriculum of the basic education in several European countries, including Spain. For this purpose, the cases of Estonia and France are briefly analyzed, two countries in the European Union, which can be considered pioneers in implementing such teaching. Also, in relation to Spain, it is analyzed some of the current initiatives implemented by some Autonomous Communities in this sense.

  8. Programming in C++ for engineering and science

    CERN Document Server

    Nyhoff, Larry


    ""The book is lavishly illustrated with examples and exercises, which would make it both an ideal course companion and a book for private study. The author's abilities to explain briefly the history of computing and to write an engaging text are to be commended. If you buy only one text on programming in C++, then this should be the one for you.""-Carl M. O'Brien, International Statistical Review (2013), 81

  9. Math on a sphere: Making use of public displays in mathematics and programming education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eisenberg


    Full Text Available Science on a Sphere (SoS is a compelling educational display installed at numerous museums and planetariums around the world; essentially the SoS display is a large spherical surface on which multicolor high-resolution depictions of (e.g. planetary weather maps may be depicted. Fascinating as the SoS display is, however, it is in practice restricted to the use of museum professionals; students (and for that matter, older museum visitors are unable to create their own displays for the surface. This paper describes a working software system, Math on a Sphere (MoS, that democratizes the SoS display by providing a simple programming interface to the public, over the World Wide Web. Briefly, our system allows anyone to write programs for spherical graphics patterns, and then to upload those programs at a planetarium or museum site and see the result on the giant sphere. This paper describes the implementation of the MoS system; sketches a sample project; and concludes with a more wide-ranging discussion of our user testing to date, as well as strategies for empowering children and students with greater control of public displays.

  10. Synopsis of a computer program designed to interface a personal computer with the fast data acquisition system of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (United States)

    Bechtel, R. D.; Mateos, M. A.; Lincoln, K. A.


    Briefly described are the essential features of a computer program designed to interface a personal computer with the fast, digital data acquisition system of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The instrumentation was developed to provide a time-resolved analysis of individual vapor pulses produced by the incidence of a pulsed laser beam on an ablative material. The high repetition rate spectrometer coupled to a fast transient recorder captures complete mass spectra every 20 to 35 microsecs, thereby providing the time resolution needed for the study of this sort of transient event. The program enables the computer to record the large amount of data generated by the system in short time intervals, and it provides the operator the immediate option of presenting the spectral data in several different formats. Furthermore, the system does this with a high degree of automation, including the tasks of mass labeling the spectra and logging pertinent instrumental parameters.

  11. Neutron cross section programs in the energy region from 1 to 24 MeV at the LASL Van de Graaff Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchampaugh, George F [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Drake, Darrell M [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Veeser, Lynn R [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory


    Neutron measurements relevant to the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's (LASL) programmatic efforts and to the U.S. fission and fusion energy programs can be divided into four categories: secondary neutron emission cross sections on light elements, gamma-ray production cross sections, total cross sections on light isotopes, and (n,2n) and (n,3n) cross sections. Many of these measurements were performed using the unusual capabilities of the LASL's Van de Graaffs. This is especially true for the high energy (greater than or equal to 20 MeV) measurements on (n,2n) and (n,3n) cross sections. One describes briefly the four types of measurements, to illustrate each measurement with some examples, and to present any new data that are not as yet available in the literature. One also indicates in which programs new measurements are planned for the next year.

  12. Designing and managing successful endangered species recovery programs (United States)

    Clark, Tim W.; Crete, Ron; Cada, John


    Endangered species recovery is characterized by complexity and uncertainty in both its biological and organizational aspects. To improve performance in the organizational dimension, some models of organizations are briefly introduced with an emphasis on the organization as a system for processing information, i.e., for successfully dealing with the high uncertainty in the task environment. A strong task orientation,which rewards achievement of the primary goal, is suggested as ideal for this task, as is generative rationality, which encourages workers to observe, critique, and generate new ideas. The parallel organization—a flexible, participatory, problem-solving structure set up alongside traditional bureaucracies—is offered as a useful structure for meeting the demands of uncertainties encountered during recovery. Task forces and projects teams can be set up as parallel organizations. Improved managerial functions include coordinating roles to facilitate the flow and use of information; decision making to avoid “groupthink”—the defects, symptoms, and countermeasures are described; and productive, active management of the inevitable conflict. The inability of organizations to solve dilemmas, to examine their own structures and management, and to change themselves for more effective, efficient, and equitable performance is seen as the major obstacle to improved recovery programs. Some recommendations for effecting change in bureaucracies are made along with a call for case studies detailing the organizational dimensions of endangered species recovery programs.

  13. NASA's Technology Utilization Program. (United States)

    Farley, C. F.


    NASA's Technology Utilization Program is described, illustrating how it can be useful in achieving improved productivity, providing more jobs, solving public sector challenges, and strengthening the international competitive situation. Underlying the program is the fact that research and development conducted in NASA's aeronautics and space programs have generated much technical information concerning processes, products, or techniques which may be useful to engineers, doctors, or to others. The program is based on acquisition and publication, working with the user, and applications engineering.

  14. Photovoltaic systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Each of the Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Systems Program projects funded and/or in existence during fiscal year 1978 (October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978) are described. The project sheets list the contractor, principal investigator, and contract number and funding and summarize the programs and status. The program is divided into various elements: program assessment and integration, research and advanced development, technology development, system definition and development, system application experiments, and standards and performance criteria. (WHK)

  15. A strategy for automatically generating programs in the lucid programming language (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.


    A strategy for automatically generating and verifying simple computer programs is described. The programs are specified by a precondition and a postcondition in predicate calculus. The programs generated are in the Lucid programming language, a high-level, data-flow language known for its attractive mathematical properties and ease of program verification. The Lucid programming is described, and the automatic program generation strategy is described and applied to several example problems.

  16. A new and general model to describe, characterize, quantify and classify the interactive effects of temperature and pH on the activity of enzymes. (United States)

    Prieto, M A; Vazquez, J A; Murado, M A


    We suggest a new and general model to describe the effects of temperature (T) and pH on the catalytic activity of enzymes. Despite the abundance of models to describe those effects, the current proposals are unsatisfactory, except for specific experimental cases in which the interactive mechanism between the two variables does not exist. For both variables, our solution analyses the activated and deactivated phases of an enzyme as phenomena of different nature. The system is described with independent probability functions. The interactive effects between T and pH are introduced with simple auxiliary functions. These functions describe the variations induced by each variable in the parameters that define the effects of the other. The structure of the resulting equation is, in theory and practice, very regular, which facilitates its use, and it is highly descriptive in different scenarios with or without interactive effects. The model was tested on three different enzymatic systems which are specifically designed to produce data for the evaluation of the effect of T and pH on the enzyme activity (A). Afterwards, our model was validated using results from other authors. Briefly, the authors found that: (1) other available models that were compared with our proposal were inefficient and in all cases our model provided the only statistically consistent solution; (2) in four cases, the enzymatic activity could only be explained if interactive effects are accepted; (3) synergy and antagonism concepts for the interaction between T and pH were described and classified; and (4) our solution is universal and independent of the structure of an enzyme and the reaction concerned.

  17. Center for development technology and program in technology and human affairs. [emphasizing technology-based networks (United States)

    Wong, M. D.


    The role of technology in nontraditional higher education with particular emphasis on technology-based networks is analyzed nontraditional programs, institutions, and consortia are briefly reviewed. Nontraditional programs which utilize technology are studied. Technology-based networks are surveyed and analyzed with regard to kinds of students, learning locations, technology utilization, interinstitutional relationships, cost aspects, problems, and future outlook.

  18. Working Effectively with People: Contributions of Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) to Visual Literacy. (United States)

    Ragan, Janet M.; Ragan, Tillman J.


    Briefly summarizes history of neurolinguistic programing, which set out to model elements and processes of effective communication and to reduce these to formulas that can be taught to others. Potential areas of inquiry for neurolinguistic programers which should be of concern to visual literacists are discussed. (MBR)

  19. 15 CFR 930.71 - Federal license or permit activity described in detail. (United States)


    ... described in detail. 930.71 Section 930.71 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... Federal license or permit activity described in detail. The term “federal license or permit activity described in detail” means any activity requiring a federal license or permit, as defined in § 930.51, which...

  20. Brazilian Air Force aircraft structural integrity program: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto W. S. Mello Junior


    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the activities developed by the Structural Integrity Group at the Institute of Aeronautics and Space - IAE, Brazil, as well as the status of ongoing work related to the life extension program for aircraft operated by the Brazilian Air Force BAF. The first BAF-operated airplane to undergo a DTA-based life extension was the F-5 fighter, in the mid 1990s. From 1998 to 2001, BAF worked on a life extension project for the BAF AT- 26 Xavante trainer. All analysis and tests were performed at IAE. The fatigue critical locations (FCLs were presumed based upon structural design and maintenance data and also from exchange of technical information with other users of the airplane around the world. Following that work, BAF started in 2002 the extension of the operational life of the BAF T-25 “Universal”. The T-25 is the basic training airplane used by AFA - The Brazilian Air Force Academy. This airplane was also designed under the “safe-life” concept. As the T-25 fleet approached its service life limit, the Brazilian Air Force was questioning whether it could be kept in flight safely. The answer came through an extensive Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA program, briefly described in this paper. The current work on aircraft structural integrity is being performed for the BAF F-5 E/F that underwent an avionics and weapons system upgrade. Along with the increase in weight, new configurations and mission profiles were established. Again, a DTA program was proposed to be carried out in order to establish the reliability of the upgraded F-5 fleet. As a result of all the work described, the BAF has not reported any accident due to structural failure on aircraft submitted to Damage Tolerance Analysis.

  1. Restructuring Symbolic Programs for Concurrent Execution on Multiprocessors (United States)


    spastic kind. -Richard G. Gill, White Water and Black Magic Optin1ization of Concurrent Progran1s This chapter briefly describes some...the definition above can be strengthened by the additional constraint: 4. The execution of 5 1 and 5 2 is not mutually exclusive. Precisely

  2. Description of a standardized rehabilitation program based on sub-maximal eccentric following a platelet-rich plasma infiltration for jumper’s knee (United States)

    Kaux, Jean-François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Namurois, Marie-Hélène; Bauvir, Philippe; Defawe, Nathalie; Delvaux, François; Lehance, Cédric; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis


    Summary Introduction. Different series emphasized the necessity of rehabilitation program after infiltration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in case of tendinopathy. However, most of them describe only briefly the reeducation protocol and these programs vary. Our aim was to extensively describe a specific standardized rehabilitation program. Methods. After a review of literature of post-PRP infiltration protocols, we had developed a standardized rehabilitation protocol. This protocol was evaluated by 30 subjects with chronic jumper’s knee who. A standardised progressive sub-maximal eccentric program supervised by a physical therapist for 6 weeks was started 1 week post-infiltration. The patient benefited also from electromyostimulation, isometric strengthening and stretching of the quadriceps, cycloergometer and cryotherapy. After the supervised program, the patient had to make an auto-reeducation added to the reathletisation protocol for 6 more weeks which was followed by maintenance exercises up to 1 year. The assessments were made using a VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores. Results. The VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores decreased very significantly with time. The compliance to auto-reeducation was good. Conclusions. We proposed a simple and efficient protocol based on sub-maximal eccentric reeducation to add to PRP infiltrations in case of patellar tendinopathy. PMID:24932453

  3. A technical framework to describe occupant behavior for building energy simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William; Hong, Tianzhen


    Green buildings that fail to meet expected design performance criteria indicate that technology alone does not guarantee high performance. Human influences are quite often simplified and ignored in the design, construction, and operation of buildings. Energy-conscious human behavior has been demonstrated to be a significant positive factor for improving the indoor environment while reducing the energy use of buildings. In our study we developed a new technical framework to describe energy-related human behavior in buildings. The energy-related behavior includes accounting for individuals and groups of occupants and their interactions with building energy services systems, appliances and facilities. The technical framework consists of four key components: i. the drivers behind energy-related occupant behavior, which are biological, societal, environmental, physical, and economical in nature ii. the needs of the occupants are based on satisfying criteria that are either physical (e.g. thermal, visual and acoustic comfort) or non-physical (e.g. entertainment, privacy, and social reward) iii. the actions that building occupants perform when their needs are not fulfilled iv. the systems with which an occupant can interact to satisfy their needs The technical framework aims to provide a standardized description of a complete set of human energy-related behaviors in the form of an XML schema. For each type of behavior (e.g., occupants opening/closing windows, switching on/off lights etc.) we identify a set of common behaviors based on a literature review, survey data, and our own field study and analysis. Stochastic models are adopted or developed for each type of behavior to enable the evaluation of the impact of human behavior on energy use in buildings, during either the design or operation phase. We will also demonstrate the use of the technical framework in assessing the impact of occupancy behavior on energy saving technologies. The technical framework presented is

  4. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy


    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results. Also includes Power Plant Improvement Initiative Projects.

  5. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy


    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  6. Compositional C++: Compositional Parallel Programming


    Chandy, K. Mani; Kesselman, Carl


    A compositional parallel program is a program constructed by composing component programs in parallel, where the composed program inherits properties of its components. In this paper, we describe a small extension of C++ called Compositional C++ or CC++ which is an object-oriented notation that supports compositional parallel programming. CC++ integrates different paradigms of parallel programming: data-parallel, task-parallel and object-parallel paradigms; imperative and declarative programm...

  7. A Case Study of Connecticut Community Colleges Nursing Programs to Describe Gerontological Content Inclusion in Associate Degree Registered Nursing Programs Using an Educational Curriculum Framework (United States)

    Harris, Leslie J.


    The population of adults over age 65 must have competently prepared registered nurses to meet their current and future health care needs. There is a societal component in nursing to ensure that all nurses have the content, skills, and strategies, which includes a focus on basic gerontology preparation. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive…

  8. Summary of commercial conservation programs environmental issues and program consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachler, M.C.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration. The purpose of the report is to compare and contrast the environmental requirements and issues involving Bonneville's residential conservation programs. In addition to environmental issues that Bonneville has addressed in environmental documents, this report also briefly examines new issues that may affect residential conservation programs. The key environmental concern confronting each of the programs with measures aimed at reducing air leakage in houses (both new and existing) is indoor air quality. There are inconsistencies in how the Weatherization Program and the New Homes programs approach indoor air quality. However, these differences make sense, given the character and constraints affecting how each program operates. Newer issues that have arisen include global warming, potential health effects of mineral and glass fibers, and possible fire hazards associated with plastic foam and cellulose insulation. Bonneville staff are aware of these issues as they relate to conservation programs. No action appears necessary at this time.

  9. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aybars UĞUR


    Full Text Available In this paper realism in computer graphics and components providing realism are discussed at first. It is mentioned about illumination models, surface rendering methods and light sources for this aim. After that, ray tracing which is a technique for creating two dimensional image of a three-dimensional virtual environment is explained briefly. A simple ray tracing algorithm was given. "SahneIzle" which is a ray tracing program implemented in Java programming language which can be used on the internet is introduced. As a result, importance of network-centric ray tracing software is discussed.

  11. Mental Models and Programming Aptitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Bennedsen, Jens; Larsen, Kasper Dalgaard


    Predicting the success of students participating in introductory programming courses has been an active research area for more than 25 years. Until recently, no variables or tests have had any significant predictive power. However, Dehnadi and Bornat claim to have found a simple test for programm......Predicting the success of students participating in introductory programming courses has been an active research area for more than 25 years. Until recently, no variables or tests have had any significant predictive power. However, Dehnadi and Bornat claim to have found a simple test...... for programming aptitude to cleanly separate programming sheep from non-programming goats. We briefly present their theory and test instrument. We have repeated their test in our local context in order to verify and perhaps generalise their findings, but we could not show that the test predicts students' success...... in our introductory program-ming course. Based on this failure of the test instrument, we discuss various explanations for our differing results and suggest a research method from which it may be possible to generalise local results in this area. Furthermore, we discuss and criticize Dehnadi and Bornat...

  12. Geothermal Technologies Program: Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Geothermal Technologies Program Utah fact sheet describes the geothermal areas and use in Utah, focusing on power generation as well as direct use, including geothermally heated greenhouses, swimming pools, and therapeutic baths.

  13. SBIR/STTR Programs (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA SBIR and STTR programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA needs as described in the annual...

  14. On a Mathematical Model with Noncompact Boundary Conditions Describing Bacterial Population (United States)

    Boulanouar, Mohamed


    In this work, we are concerned with the well-posedness of a mathematical model describing a maturation-velocity structured bacterial population. Each bacterium is distinguished by its degree of maturity and its maturation velocity. The bacterial mitosis is mathematically described by noncompact boundary conditions. We show that the mathematical model is governed by a positive strongly continuous semigroup.

  15. Use of Steinhausen's model for describing periodic Coriolis star nystagmus. [biodynamics of semicircular canal system (United States)

    Valentinuzzi, M.


    Phase lag, maximal slow phase velocity, and beat frequency were measured in periodic Coriolis star nystagmus. The results have been described by Steinhausen's model of the semicircular canal system. Estimates of the biophysical constants have been obtained. It is concluded that this model is a good functional approximation for describing, and also for interpreting, the behavior of the system.

  16. An engineering formula to describe the AC loss of BSCCO/Ag tape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabbers, J.J.; ten Haken, Bernard; Chevtchenko, O.A.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.


    An engineering function to describe the AC loss of BSCCO/Ag tape conductors is developed. For a wide range of transport currents and magnetic fields (with different orientation) the loss is described with an uncertainty of 10%. The equation is based on the analytical expressions available, BSCCO/Ag

  17. Study of Nonhomogeneous Equations with Variable Coefficients Describing Washing Machines Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Alekhin


    Full Text Available Earlier in a slightly intertwined system of differential equations describing the dynamics of the random vibrations of the drum type washing machine suspended unit was fixed. This article studies the general case of nonhomogeneous equations with variable coefficients describing washing machines vibration.

  18. Which Terms Should Be Used to Describe Autism? Perspectives from the UK Autism Community (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hattersley, Caroline; Molins, Bonnie; Buckley, Carole; Povey, Carol; Pellicano, Elizabeth


    Recent public discussions suggest that there is much disagreement about the way autism is and should be described. This study sought to elicit the views and preferences of UK autism community members--autistic people, parents and their broader support network--about the terms they use to describe autism. In all, 3470 UK residents responded to an…

  19. 29 CFR 779.238 - Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engagement in described activities determined on annual... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises § 779.238 Engagement in described activities determined...

  20. Message formulation and structural assembly: Describing "easy" and "hard" events with preferred and dispreferred syntactic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, M. van de; Meyer, A.S.; Konopka, A.E.


    When formulating simple sentences to describe pictured events, speakers look at the referents they are describing in the order of mention. Accounts of incrementality in sentence production rely heavily on analyses of this gaze-speech link. To identify systematic sources of variability in message and

  1. Butler–Volmer–Monod model for describing bio-anode polarization curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.; Heijne, ter A.; Stein, N.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    A kinetic model of the bio-anode was developed based on a simple representation of the underlying biochemical conversions as described by enzyme kinetics, and electron transfer reactions as described by the Butler–Volmer electron transfer kinetics. This Butler–Volmer–Monod model was well able to

  2. Programming in COBOL

    CERN Document Server

    Lancaster, G T


    Programming in COBOL is a simple yet concise how-to book that teaches the programming language in a short yet effective step-by-step manner, which can be easily understood by anyone with sufficient knowledge in information technology. Covering first the advantages of COBOL over other programming languages, the book discusses COBOL's divisions - identification, environment, procedure, and data, and then describes the testing of the COBOL source programs and program questions. The book is valuable for those who wish to learn basic COBOL language, but do not have the time to take manufacturers' o

  3. Geothermal Technologies Program: Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This general publication describes geothermal direct use systems, and how they have been effectively used throughout the country. It also describes the DOE program R&D efforts in this area, and summarizes several projects using direct use technology.

  4. Top-down and bottom-up contributions to understanding sentences describing objects in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer


    Full Text Available Theories of embodied language comprehension propose that the neural systems used for perception, action and emotion are also engaged during language comprehension. Consistent with these theories, behavioral studies have shown that the comprehension of language that describes motion is affected by simultaneously perceiving a moving stimulus (Kaschak et al., 2005. In two neuroimaging studies, we investigate whether comprehension of sentences describing moving objects activates brain areas known to support the visual perception of moving objects (i.e., area MT/V5. Our data indicate that MT/V5 is indeed selectively engaged by sentences describing objects in motion towards the comprehender compared to sentences describing visual scenes without motion. Moreover, these sentences activate areas along the cortical midline of the brain, known to be engaged when participants process self-referential information. The current data thus suggest that sentences describing situations with potential relevance to one’s own actions activate both higher-order visual cortex as well brain areas involved in processing information about the self. The data have consequences for embodied theories of language comprehension: first, they show that perceptual brain areas support sentential-semantic processing. Second the data indicate that sensory-motor simulation of events described through language are susceptible to top-down modulation of factors such as relevance of the described situation to the self.

  5. The colour of pain: can patients use colour to describe osteoarthritis pain? (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Wells, Victoria; Dixon, Samantha; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael


    The aim of the present study was to explore patients' views on the acceptability and feasibility of using colour to describe osteoarthritis (OA) pain, and whether colour could be used to communicate pain to healthcare professionals. Six group interviews were conducted with 17 patients with knee OA. Discussion topics included first impressions about using colour to describe pain, whether participants could associate their pain with colour, how colours related to changes to intensity and different pain qualities, and whether they could envisage using colour to describe pain to healthcare professionals. The group interviews indicated that, although the idea of using colour was generally acceptable, it did not suit all participants as a way of describing their pain. The majority of participants chose red to describe high-intensity pain; the reasons given were because red symbolized inflammation, fire, anger and the stop signal in a traffic light system. Colours used to describe the absence of pain were chosen because of their association with positive emotional feelings, such as purity, calmness and happiness. A range of colours was chosen to represent changes in pain intensity. Aching pain was consistently identified as being associated with colours such as grey or black, whereas sharp pain was described using a wider selection of colours. The majority of participants thought that they would be able to use colour to describe their pain to healthcare professionals, although issues around the interpretability and standardization of colour were raised. For some patients, using colour to describe their pain experience may be a useful tool to improve doctor-patient communication. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. What do we teach? What do we know? A methodology for describing archaeological skills and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Collis


    Full Text Available I recommend that we should move to a flexible, modular system, in describing courses and training, in defining the skills needed to operate as archaeologists and professional career structures, and in describing ourselves as archaeologists. A 'Thesaurus' of skills and knowledge can be constructed, with levels of expertise, which will give us a simple and flexible tool for describing the range of activities necessary to the profession. Two or three examples are discussed, and ways in which quality can be controlled without too much bureaucracy. Potentially this approach has a world-wide application.

  7. Scientific Objectives of China-Russia Joint Mars Exploration Program YH-1 (United States)

    Wu, Ji; Zhu, Guang-Wu; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Chi; Li, Lei; Sun, Yue-Qiang; Guo, Wei; Huang, Cheng-Li


    Compared with other planets, Mars is a planet most similar with the earth and most possible to find the extraterrestrial life on it, and therefore especially concerned about by human beings. In recent years, some countries have launched Mars probes and announced their manned Mars exploration programs. China has become the fifth country in the world to launch independently artificial satellites, and the third country able to carry out an independent manned space program. However, China is just at the beginning of deep space explorations. In 2007, China and Russia signed an agreement on a joint Mars exploration program by sending a Chinese micro-satellite Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) to the Mars orbit. Once YH-1 enters its orbit, it will carry out its own exploration, as well as the joint exploration with the Russian Phobos-Grunt probe. This paper summarizes the scientific background and objectives of YH-1 and describes briefly its payloads for realizing these scientific objectives. In addition, the main exploration tasks of YH-1 and a preliminary prospect on its exploration results are also given.

  8. Standard nomenclature and methods for describing the condition of pavements draft TRH 6

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curtayne, PC


    Full Text Available The need for describing the condition of pavements occurs frequently in highway engineering. Accurate descriptions are a prerequisite for establishing procedures with which to evaluate the various aspects of the pavement condition. A variety...

  9. An annotated review of the Salamander types described in the Fauna Japonica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.


    The whereabouts of the salamander types described by Temminck & Schlegel in the Fauna Japonica (1838) are discussed and lectotypes are selected from the syntypes for the following nominal species : Salamandra naevia Temminck & Schlegel, S. unguiculata Temminck & Schlegel, S. subcristata Temminck &

  10. Better mood and better performance. Learning rule-described categories is enhanced by positive mood. (United States)

    Nadler, Ruby T; Rabi, Rahel; Minda, John Paul


    Theories of mood and its effect on cognitive processing suggest that positive mood may allow for increased cognitive flexibility. This increased flexibility is associated with the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, both of which play crucial roles in hypothesis testing and rule selection. Thus, cognitive tasks that rely on behaviors such as hypothesis testing and rule selection may benefit from positive mood, whereas tasks that do not rely on such behaviors should not be affected by positive mood. We explored this idea within a category-learning framework. Positive, neutral, and negative moods were induced in our subjects, and they learned either a rule-described or a non-rule-described category set. Subjects in the positive-mood condition performed better than subjects in the neutral- or negative-mood conditions in classifying stimuli from rule-described categories. Positive mood also affected the strategy of subjects who classified stimuli from non-rule-described categories.

  11. Trait Attribution to a Described Action as a Function of Changes in Salient Information (United States)

    Marston, Barbara J.


    This study is a preliminary attempt to examine the nature of statements expressing traits as qualities of actions. It investigates the relative importance of five different variables in determining the trait attribution made to a described act. (Author)

  12. Butler-Volmer-Monod model for describing bio-anode polarization curves. (United States)

    Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Ter Heijne, Annemiek; Stein, Nienke; Rozendal, René A; Buisman, Cees J N


    A kinetic model of the bio-anode was developed based on a simple representation of the underlying biochemical conversions as described by enzyme kinetics, and electron transfer reactions as described by the Butler-Volmer electron transfer kinetics. This Butler-Volmer-Monod model was well able to describe the measured bio-anode polarization curves. The Butler-Volmer-Monod model was compared to the Nernst-Monod model described the experimental data significantly better. The Butler-Volmer-Monod model has the Nernst-Monod model as its full electrochemically reversible limit. Contrary to the Nernst-Monod model, the Butler-Volmer-Monod model predicts zero current at equilibrium potential. Besides, the Butler-Volmer-Monod model predicts that the apparent Monod constant is dependent on anode potential, which was supported by experimental results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of reactive kinetic models describing reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes in soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Scheutz, Charlotte


    include first order kinetics, Monod kinetics to describe sequential reductive dechlorination and bacterial growth, and metabolic models which simulate fermentation and redox processes interacting with reductive dechlorination processes. The review shows that the estimated kinetic parameters reported vary...

  14. Use of a negative binomial distribution to describe the presence of Sphyrion laevigatum in Genypterus blacodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Peña-Rehbein

    Full Text Available This paper describes the frequency and number of Sphyrion laevigatum in the skin of Genypterus blacodes, an important economic resource in Chile. The analysis of a spatial distribution model indicated that the parasites tended to cluster. Variations in the number of parasites per host could be described by a negative binomial distribution. The maximum number of parasites observed per host was two.

  15. Describing the longitudinal course of major depression using Markov models: Data integration across three national surveys


    Lee Robert C; Patten Scott B


    Abstract Background Most epidemiological studies of major depression report period prevalence estimates. These are of limited utility in characterizing the longitudinal epidemiology of this condition. Markov models provide a methodological framework for increasing the utility of epidemiological data. Markov models relating incidence and recovery to major depression prevalence have been described in a series of prior papers. In this paper, the models are extended to describe the longitudinal c...

  16. Type localities for species of amphibians and reptiles described from Costa Rica


    Savage, Jay M.


    The geographic type locality for all species, subspecies and varieties of amphibians and reptiles, originally described from Costa Rica, are listed alphabetically. Altitude, vegetation and notes on the locale, together with the taxa described from it are included. The list provides a framework for understanding the sources of old collections in the milieu of historical and economic development, and a basic bibliography of Costa Rican herpetology.

  17. SAMPO, A Fortran IV Program for Computer Analysis of Gamma Spectrafrom Ge(Li) Detectors, and for Other Spectra with Peaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routti, Jorma T.


    SAMPO is a Fortran IV program written to perform the data- reduction analysis described by J. T. Routti and S. G. Prussin in Photopeak Method for the Computer Analysis of Gamma-Ray Spectra from Semiconductor Detectors, Nuclear Instruments and Methods 72, 125-142 (1969). The code has also been used to analyze other spectra with peaks and continua. Program SAMPO can be used for an automatic off-line or an interactive on-line analysis. It includes algorithms for line-shape, energy, and efficiency calibrations, and peak-search and peak-fitting routines. Different options are available to make the code applicable to accurate nuclear spectroscopic work as well as to routine data reduction. The mathematical methods and their coding are briefly described. Instructions for using the program and for preparing input data are given and the optimal strategies for running the code are discussed. Instructions are given for using the LRL program library version of SAMPO and for obtaining source decks.

  18. Suggested Guidelines for Teaching Undergraduate History of Physical Education and Sport in a Physical Education Teacher Education Program. Guidance Document (United States)

    Lawrence, Don; Lumpkin, Angela; Park, Roberta; Thomas, Robert; Morgenegg, Bruce


    Studying the historical antecedents of physical education and sport typically forms part of the curriculum of physical education teacher education (PETE) programs in U.S. colleges and universities. These courses commonly use a survey model, briefly examining the development of organized physical education and sport practices and programs from…

  19. Impact of Indentation in Programming


    Parvatham, Niranjan Kumar


    In computer programming languages, indentation formats program source code to improve readability. Programming languages make use of indentation to define program structure .Programmers use indentation to understand the structure of their programs to human readers. Especially, indentation is the better way to represent the relationship between control flow constructs such as selection statements or loops and code contained within and outside them. This paper describes about different indentat...

  20. A Semantic Web-Based Methodology for Describing Scientific Research Efforts (United States)

    Gandara, Aida


    Scientists produce research resources that are useful to future research and innovative efforts. In a typical scientific scenario, the results created by a collaborative team often include numerous artifacts, observations and relationships relevant to research findings, such as programs that generate data, parameters that impact outputs, workflows…

  1. Scopes describe frames : A uniform model for memory layout in dynamic semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, C.B.; Neron, P.J.M.; Tolmach, Andrew; Visser, Eelco; Krishnamurthi, Shriram; Lerner, Benjamin S.


    Semantic specifications do not make a systematic connection between the names and scopes in the static structure of a program and memory layout, and access during its execution. In this paper we introduce a systematic approach to the alignment of names in static semantics and memory in dynamic

  2. Nuclear Security Education Program at the Pennsylvania State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenlue, Kenan [The Pennsylvania State University, Radiation Science and Engineering Center, University Park, PA 16802-2304 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA 16802-2304 (United States); Jovanovic, Igor [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA 16802-2304 (United States)


    Reactor (PSBR), gamma irradiation facilities (in-pool irradiator, dry irradiator, and hot cells), neutron beam laboratory, radiochemistry laboratories, and various radiation detection and measurement laboratories. A new nuclear security education laboratory was created with DOE NNSA- GTRI funds at RSEC. The nuclear security graduate level curriculum enables the PSU to educate and train future nuclear security experts, both within the United States as well as worldwide. The nuclear security education program at Penn State will grant a Master's degree in nuclear security starting fall 2015. The PSU developed two courses: Nuclear Security- Detector And Source Technologies and Nuclear Security- Applications of Detectors/Sensors/Sources for Radiation Detection and Measurements (Laboratory). Course descriptions and course topics of these courses are described briefly: - Nuclear Security - Detector and Source Technologies; - Nuclear Security - Applications of Detectors/Sensors/Sources for Radiation Detection and Measurements Laboratory.

  3. WSTF Propulsion and Pyrotechnics Corrective Action Test Program Status-2000 (United States)

    Saulsberry, R.; Ramirez, J.; Julien, H. L.; Hart, M.; Smith, W.; Bement, L.; Meagher, N. E.


    Extensive propulsion and pyrotechnic testing has been in progress at the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) since 1995. This started with the Mars Observer Propulsion and Pyrotechnics Corrective Action Test Program (MOCATP). The MOCATP has concluded, but extensive pyrovalve testing and research and development has continued at WSTF. The capability to accurately analyze and measure pyrovalve combustion product blow-by, evaluate propellant explosions initiated by blow-by, and characterize pyrovalve operation continues to be used and improved. This paper contains an overview of testing since MOCATP inception, but focuses on accomplishments since the status was last reported at the 35th Joint Propulsion Conference, June, 1999. This new activity includes evaluation of 3/8 inch Conax pyrovalves; development and testing of advanced pyrovalve technologies; investigation of nondestructive evaluation techniques to inspect pyrotechnically induced hydrazine explosions both through testing and modeling. Data from this collection of projects are now being formatted into a pyrovalve applications and testing handbook and consensus standard to benefit pyrovalve users and spacecraft designers. The handbook is briefly described here and in more detail in a separate paper. To increase project benefit, pyrovalve manufacturers are encouraged to provide additional valves for testing and consideration, and feedback is encouraged in all aspects of the pyrotechnic projects.

  4. Leveraging OpenStudio's Application Programming Interfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, N.; Ball, B.; Goldwasser, D.; Parker, A.; Elling, J.; Davis, O.; Kruchten, D.


    OpenStudio development efforts have been focused on providing Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) where users are able to extend OpenStudio without the need to compile the open source libraries. This paper will discuss the basic purposes and functionalities of the core libraries that have been wrapped with APIs including the Building Model, Results Processing, Advanced Analysis, UncertaintyQuantification, and Data Interoperability through Translators. Several building energy modeling applications have been produced using OpenStudio's API and Software Development Kits (SDK) including the United States Department of Energy's Asset ScoreCalculator, a mobile-based audit tool, an energy design assistance reporting protocol, and a portfolio scale incentive optimization analysismethodology. Each of these software applications will be discussed briefly and will describe how the APIs were leveraged for various uses including high-level modeling, data transformations from detailed building audits, error checking/quality assurance of models, and use of high-performance computing for mass simulations.

  5. Functional Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas


    Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify...

  6. Functional Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify...

  7. Functional Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify......Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...

  8. A distributed program composition system (United States)

    Brown, Robert L.


    A graphical technique for creating distributed computer programs is investigated and a prototype implementation is described which serves as a testbed for the concepts. The type of programs under examination is restricted to those comprising relatively heavyweight parts that intercommunicate by passing messages of typed objects. Such programs are often presented visually as a directed graph with computer program parts as the nodes and communication channels as the edges. This class of programs, called parts-based programs, is not well supported by existing computer systems; much manual work is required to describe the program to the system, establish the communication paths, accommodate the heterogeneity of data types, and to locate the parts of the program on the various systems involved. The work described solves most of these problems by providing an interface for describing parts-based programs in this class in a way that closely models the way programmers think about them: using sketches of diagraphs. Program parts, the computational modes of the larger program system are categorized in libraries and are accessed with browsers. The process of programming has the programmer draw the program graph interactively. Heterogeneity is automatically accommodated by the insertion of type translators where necessary between the parts. Many decisions are necessary in the creation of a comprehensive tool for interactive creation of programs in this class. Possibilities are explored and the issues behind such decisions are presented. An approach to program composition is described, not a carefully implemented programming environment. However, a prototype implementation is described that can demonstrate the ideas presented.

  9. A Playful Programming Products Vs. Programming Concepts Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allsopp, Benjamin Brink


    to computer program: playful programming. This research also describes a project to bring together different stakeholders (developers, educators, parents and researchers) with a common vocabulary for describing, developing, teaching with and comparing these playful programming products and develops a model...... of supported programming concepts that can be used to differentiate these products. The model includes programming concepts like operators, procedures, encapsulation, variables and events, but also identifies numerous specialization and sub-specializations of these concepts. This paper aims to use this model...... to provide educators and researchers involved in pilot studies with an overview of which programming concepts various playful programming products exercise (a playful programming products vs. programming concepts matrix). We also add additional concept specializations and expand on the descriptions...

  10. A Meta-model Describing the Development Process of Mobile Learning (United States)

    Wingkvist, Anna; Ericsson, Morgan

    This paper presents a meta-model to describe the development process of mobile learning initiatives. These initiatives are often small scale trials that are not integrated in the intended setting, but carried out outside of the setting. This results in sustainability issues, i.e., problems to integrate the results of the initiative as learning aids. In order to address the sustainability issues, and in turn help to understand the scaling process, a meta-model is introduced. This meta-model divides the development into four areas of concern, and the life cycle of any mobile learning initiative into four stages. The meta-model was developed by analyzing and describing how a podcasting initiative was developed, and is currently being evaluated as a tool to both describe and evaluate mobile learning initiatives. The meta-model was developed based on a mobile learning initiative, but the meta-model itself is extendible to other forms of technology-enhanced learning.

  11. [New devices of fecal diversion and collection: adverse effects described in the literature]. (United States)

    Sánchez López, M I


    Among products for the management and control of faeces in patients with fecal incontinence, there are new devices that allow the diversion and collection of fecal matter. This study has aimed to know the complications related to these new devices described in the literature. A search was made in the main bibliographic databases, obtaining publications on the new devices. The relevant documents were selected, these being those that described complications. After these were described. A total of 13 relevant documents were recovered. There were 45 adverse events 36 patients. Those having the greatest incidence were rectal bleeding (10 patients) and abdominal distension (6 patients). In order to provide the best patient care, it is essential to know the possible complications in order to be able to prevent them. The cares given these patients need to be reevaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  12. A method for describing the canopy architecture of coppice poplar with allometric relationships. (United States)

    Casella, Eric; Sinoquet, Hervé


    A multi-scale biometric methodology for describing the architecture of fast-growing short-rotation woody crops is used to describe 2-year-old poplar clones during the second rotation. To allow for expressions of genetic variability observed within this species (i.e., growth potential, leaf morphology, coppice and canopy structure), the method has been applied to two clones: Ghoy (Gho) (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. x Populus nigra L.) and Trichobel (Tri) (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray x Populus trichocarpa). The method operates at the stool level and describes the plant as a collection of components (shoots and branches) described as a collection of metameric elements, themselves defined as a collection of elementary units (internode, petiole, leaf blade). Branching and connection between the plant units (i.e., plant topology) and their spatial location, orientation, size and shape (i.e., plant geometry) describe the plant architecture. The methodology has been used to describe the plant architecture of 15 selected stools per clone over a 5-month period. On individual stools, shoots have been selected from three classes (small, medium and large) spanning the diameter distribution range. Using a multi-scale approach, empirical allometric relationships were used to parameterize elementary units of the plant, topological relationships and geometry (e.g., distribution of shoot diameters on stool, shoot attributes from shoot diameter). The empirical functions form the basis of the 3-D Coppice Poplar Canopy Architecture model (3-D CPCA), which recreates the architecture and canopy structure of fast-growing coppice crops at the plot scale. Model outputs are assessed through visual and quantitative comparisons between actual photographs of the coppice canopy and simulated images. Overall, results indicate a good predictive ability of the 3-D CPCA model.

  13. Comment on "Comparison of dose rates calculated on Nucletron NPS v11 catheter tracking versus catheter describing"

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Laarse, R


    N D MacDougall has reported to Nucletron a dose error in the module MPS v11.33 of the Nucletron NPS brachytherapy program. This dose error occurred when an implant was reconstructed using the image tracking method. MPS v11 offers five methods for reconstruction from radiographs of the 3D localization in space of an iridium wire implant. The method using catheter-describing points is the most accurate one. It is based on digitizing the corresponding images of X-ray markers in the catheters on two radiographs, taken at different angles with an isocentric X-ray machine such as a treatment simulator. The method using tracking is the least accurate one. It tracks wire images on the radiographs to reconstruct a wire in space consisting of maximally 98 wire segments. This is the least accurate method because there is no correspondence between the image points of a wire on the radiographs.

  14. Terms, definitions and measurements to describe sonographic features of myometrium and uterine masses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Bosch, Thierry; Dueholm, Margit; Leone, FP


    The MUSA (Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment) statement is a consensus statement on terms, definitions and measurements that may be used to describe and report the sonographic features of the myometrium using gray-scale sonography, color/power Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound...... imaging. The terms and definitions described may form the basis for prospective studies to predict the risk of different myometrial pathologies, based on their ultrasound appearance, and thus should be relevant for the clinician in daily practice and for clinical research. The sonographic features and use...

  15. Endorsement of Models Describing Sexual Response of Men and Women with a Sexual Partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids; Sand, Michael


    INTRODUCTION: Several models have been used to describe men's and women's sexual responses. These models have been conceptualized as linear or circular models. The circular models were proposed to describe women's sexual function best. AIM: This study aims to determine whether men and women thought...... that current theoretical models of sexual responses accurately reflected their own sexual experience and to what extent this was influenced by sexual dysfunction. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a large, broadly sampled, nonclinical population, cohort of Danish men and women. The Female Sexual Function...

  16. Voices of the Filipino Community Describing the Importance of Family in Understanding Adolescent Behavioral Health Needs. (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R; Galura, Kristina; Aliganga, Frank Anthony P; Supan, Jocelyn; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    Filipinos are a large, yet invisible, minority at high risk for adolescent behavioral health problems. Limited research describes the family as offering a source of positive support for some Filipino youths and yet for some it is also a source of stress and isolation, leading to struggles with adolescent depression and suicidal behavior. This article describes a qualitative study that investigates the role of family when understanding behavioral health needs among Filipino adolescents. Findings highlight the importance of addressing family cohesion when designing interventions aimed at improving the well-being of Filipino youth.

  17. Red Sea Leucothoidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) including new and re-described species

    KAUST Repository

    White, Kristine N.


    Examination of leucothoid amphipods of the Red Sea has revealed seven species not previously reported from this location. Leucothoe minoculis sp. nov., Leucothoe pansa sp. nov., Leucothoe reimeri sp. nov., and Paranamixis sommelieri sp. nov. are described and the range of Leucothoe predenticulata Ledoyer, 1978, L. acutilobata Ledoyer, 1978 and L. squalidens Ledoyer, 1978 is expanded to include the Red Sea. Clarification of reports of L. acanthopus Schellenberg, 1928 and L. bannwarthi (Schellenberg, 1928) is provided and Leucothoe alani sp. nov. is described from outside the Red Sea.

  18. FORTRAN computer program for seismic risk analysis (United States)

    McGuire, Robin K.


    A program for seismic risk analysis is described which combines generality of application, efficiency and accuracy of operation, and the advantage of small storage requirements. The theoretical basis for the program is first reviewed, and the computational algorithms used to apply this theory are described. The information required for running the program is listed. Published attenuation functions describing the variation with earthquake magnitude and distance of expected values for various ground motion parameters are summarized for reference by the program user. Finally, suggestions for use of the program are made, an example problem is described (along with example problem input and output) and the program is listed.

  19. Components of a Measure to Describe Organizational Culture in Academic Pharmacy. (United States)

    Desselle, Shane; Rosenthal, Meagen; Holmes, Erin R; Andrews, Brienna; Lui, Julia; Raja, Leela


    Objective. To develop a measure of organizational culture in academic pharmacy and identify characteristics of an academic pharmacy program that would be impactful for internal (eg, students, employees) and external (eg, preceptors, practitioners) clients of the program. Methods. A three-round Delphi procedure of 24 panelists from pharmacy schools in the U.S. and Canada generated items based on the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP), which were then evaluated and refined for inclusion in subsequent rounds. Items were assessed for appropriateness and impact. Results. The panel produced 35 items across six domains that measured organizational culture in academic pharmacy: competitiveness, performance orientation, social responsibility, innovation, emphasis on collegial support, and stability. Conclusion. The items generated require testing for validation and reliability in a large sample to finalize this measure of organizational culture.

  20. DUKSUP: A Computer Program for High Thrust Launch Vehicle Trajectory Design and Optimization (United States)

    Spurlock, O. Frank; Williams, Craig H.


    From the late 1960s through 1997, the leadership of NASAs Intermediate and Large class unmanned expendable launch vehicle projects resided at the NASA Lewis (now Glenn) Research Center (LeRC). One of LeRCs primary responsibilities --- trajectory design and performance analysis --- was accomplished by an internally-developed analytic three dimensional computer program called DUKSUP. Because of its Calculus of Variations-based optimization routine, this code was generally more capable of finding optimal solutions than its contemporaries. A derivation of optimal control using the Calculus of Variations is summarized including transversality, intermediate, and final conditions. The two point boundary value problem is explained. A brief summary of the codes operation is provided, including iteration via the Newton-Raphson scheme and integration of variational and motion equations via a 4th order Runge-Kutta scheme. Main subroutines are discussed. The history of the LeRC trajectory design efforts in the early 1960s is explained within the context of supporting the Centaur upper stage program. How the code was constructed based on the operation of the AtlasCentaur launch vehicle, the limits of the computers of that era, the limits of the computer programming languages, and the missions it supported are discussed. The vehicles DUKSUP supported (AtlasCentaur, TitanCentaur, and ShuttleCentaur) are briefly described. The types of missions, including Earth orbital and interplanetary, are described. The roles of flight constraints and their impact on launch operations are detailed (such as jettisoning hardware on heating, Range Safety, ground station tracking, and elliptical parking orbits). The computer main frames on which the code was hosted are described. The applications of the code are detailed, including independent check of contractor analysis, benchmarking, leading edge analysis, and vehicle performance improvement assessments. Several of DUKSUPs many major impacts on

  1. Comparison of models for describing the lactation curve of latxa sheep and an analysis of factors affecting milk yield. (United States)

    Ruiz, R; Oregui, L M; Herrero, M


    The objectives of this work were 1) to compare the goodness-of-fit of empirical models of the lactation curve and 2) to analyze the factors affecting the shapes of the lactation curves, the parameters describing them, and the overall milk yield of Latxa dairy sheep. A total of 14,699 records from 2711 ewes, collected during three consecutive years (1995 to 1997) by the milk recording program of the Latxa ewe of the Basque Country (Spain), were used. Six mathematical models and three fitting procedures were compared. The estimation of model parameters by nonlinear fitting procedures was superior to that by linear regression methods. A nonlinear variable decay model fitted the data better than the other models, as judged by lower mean square prediction error, residual sums of squares, and a lack of first-order positive autocorrelation as assessed by the Durbin Watson coefficient. The effects of the flock, flock-year interaction, month of lambing, length of lactation nested within month of lambing, parity, and number of live lambs born had significant effects on the parameters of the model and the total milk yield (P < 0.01). The prediction of milk yield from the selected model was similar to the estimates obtained with the Fleischmann method currently used by the national breeding program for the Latxa breed.

  2. Program management model study (United States)

    Connelly, J. J.; Russell, J. E.; Seline, J. R.; Sumner, N. R., Jr.


    Two models, a system performance model and a program assessment model, have been developed to assist NASA management in the evaluation of development alternatives for the Earth Observations Program. Two computer models were developed and demonstrated on the Goddard Space Flight Center Computer Facility. Procedures have been outlined to guide the user of the models through specific evaluation processes, and the preparation of inputs describing earth observation needs and earth observation technology. These models are intended to assist NASA in increasing the effectiveness of the overall Earth Observation Program by providing a broader view of system and program development alternatives.

  3. Development of a Pharmacokinetic Model to Describe the Complex Pharmacokinetics of Pazopanib in Cancer Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, H.; Erp, N. van; Bins, S.; Mathijssen, R.H.; Schellens, J.H.; Beijnen, J.H.; Steeghs, N.; Huitema, A.D.


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pazopanib is a multi-targeted anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitor. This study was conducted to develop a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model describing the complex pharmacokinetics of pazopanib in cancer patients. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic data were available from 96

  4. A simple equation for describing the temperature dependent growth of free-floating macrophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van Tj.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Nes, van E.H.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.


    Temperature is one of the most important factors determining growth rates of free-floating macrophytes in the field. To analyse and predict temperature dependent growth rates of these pleustophytes, modelling may play an important role. Several equations have been published for describing

  5. Combining the CIDOC CRM and MPEG-7 to Describe Multimedia in Museums. (United States)

    Hunter, Jane

    This paper describes a proposal for an interoperable metadata model, based on international standards, that has been designed to enable the description, exchange and sharing of multimedia resources both within and between cultural institutions. Domain-specific ontologies have been developed by two different ISO Working Groups to standardize the…

  6. "We All We Got": Describing and Connecting Football and Classroom Figured Worlds and Literacies (United States)

    Rudd, Lynn L.


    Adolescents use literacies in order to build identities in a variety of figured worlds. Some identities become more powerful than others as adolescents attempt to understand and successfully utilize the valuations and literacies of the diverse figured worlds in which they participate. The goals of this study were to describe the figured worlds of…

  7. Structural Models Describing Placebo Treatment Effects in Schizophrenia and Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, Venkatesh Pilla; Kozielska, Magdalena; Johnson, Martin; Vermeulen, An; de Greef, Rik; Liu, Jing; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes H.


    Large variation in placebo response within and among clinical trials can substantially affect conclusions about the efficacy of new medications in psychiatry. Developing a robust placebo model to describe the placebo response is important to facilitate quantification of drug effects, and eventually

  8. Evaluation by policy makers of a procedure to describe perceived landscape openness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitkamp, S.G.; Berg, van den A.E.; Bregt, A.K.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.


    In the last decade policy makers have increasingly recognized the need to include people’s perceptions in methods for describing landscape quality. At the same time, a third wave of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has become available that make it technically possible to model landscape quality

  9. Evaluation by policy makers of a procedure to describe perceived landscape openness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitkamp, Gerd; Van den Berg, Agnes E.; Bregt, Arnold K.; Van Lammeren, Ron J. A.

    In the last decade policy makers have increasingly recognized the need to include people's perceptions in methods for describing landscape quality. At the same time, a third wave of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has become available that make it technically possible to model landscape quality

  10. The perception of static colored noise: detection and masking described by CIE94

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Bijl, P.; Roelofsen, J.


    We present psychophysical data on the perception of static colored noise. In our experiments, we use the CIE94 color difference formula to quantify the noise strength and for describing our threshold data. In Experiment 1 we measure the visual detection thresholds for fixed pattern noise on a

  11. A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models (United States)

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; Bastiansen, Finn; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Ginot, Vincent; Giske, Jarl; Goss-Custard, John; Grand, Tamara; Heinz, Simone K.; Huse, Geir; Huth, Andreas; Jepsen, Jane U.; Jorgensen, Christian; Mooij, Wolf M.; Muller, Birgit; Pe'er, Guy; Piou, Cyril; Railsback, Steven F.; Robbins, Andrew M.; Robbins, Martha M.; Rossmanith, Eva; Ruger, Nadja; Strand, Espen; Souissi, Sami; Stillman, Richard A.; Vabo, Rune; Visser, Ute; DeAngelis, Donald L.


    Simulation models that describe autonomous individual organisms (individual based models, IBM) or agents (agent-based models, ABM) have become a widely used tool, not only in ecology, but also in many other disciplines dealing with complex systems made up of autonomous entities. However, there is no standard protocol for describing such simulation models, which can make them difficult to understand and to duplicate. This paper presents a proposed standard protocol, ODD, for describing IBMs and ABMs, developed and tested by 28 modellers who cover a wide range of fields within ecology. This protocol consists of three blocks (Overview, Design concepts, and Details), which are subdivided into seven elements: Purpose, State variables and scales, Process overview and scheduling, Design concepts, Initialization, Input, and Submodels. We explain which aspects of a model should be described in each element, and we present an example to illustrate the protocol in use. In addition, 19 examples are available in an Online Appendix. We consider ODD as a first step for establishing a more detailed common format of the description of IBMs and ABMs. Once initiated, the protocol will hopefully evolve as it becomes used by a sufficiently large proportion of modellers.

  12. Describing one- and two-neutron halos in effective field theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 1, 2014 ... c Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. 83, No. 5. — journal of. November 2014 physics pp. 661–671. Describing one- and two-neutron halos in effective field theory. DANIEL R PHILLIPS. Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics,. Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, ...

  13. Defining and Describing Rural: Implications for Rural Special Education Research and Policy (United States)

    Hawley, Leslie R.; Koziol, Natalie A.; Bovaird, James A.; McCormick, Carina M.; Welch, Greg W.; Arthur, Ann M.; Bash, Kirstie


    A critical aspect of rural research is carefully defining and describing the rural context. This is particularly important in rural special education research because different definitions of rural may influence resource allocation, grant funding eligibility, and/or research findings. In order to highlight the importance of operationalizing rural,…

  14. “Quadruple whammy”‑ A preventable newly described syndrome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 14, 2014 ... 25. Onuigbo MA, Roman‑Maradiaga BP, Achebe NJ. “Quadruple Whammy”‑A newly described preventable syndrome of peri‑operative AKI on CKD in patients on concurrent “triple whammy” medications. In: Onuigbo MA, editor. ACE. Inhibitors: Medical Uses, Mechanisms of Action, Potential Adverse Effects ...

  15. Comparison of macro- and microscopic theories describing multicomponent mass transport in microporous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benes, Nieck Edwin; Verweij, H.


    A detailed discussion is presented of three well-known macroscopic theories for describing the mass transport behavior of multicomponent mixtures; these include Fick's law, the Onsager theory of irreversible thermodynamics, and the Maxwell-Stefan theory. The merits and drawbacks of these theories

  16. Intelligence for Education: As Described by Piaget and Measured by Psychometrics (United States)

    Shayer, Michael


    Two separate paths to the concept of intelligence are discussed: the psychometric path being concerned with the "measurement" of intelligence, involving the methodology of norm-referenced testing; the path followed by Piaget, and others, addresses from the start the related question of how intelligence can be "described," and employs a…

  17. Identification of rheological parameters describing the physico-chemical properties of anaerobic sulphidogenic sludge suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.


    This work determined rheological parameters able to describe the rheological properties of the flocculant sludge presents in sulphidogenic anaerobic bioreactors, i.e. a MBR (membrane bioreactor) and a CSTR (continuous stirred tank reactor). Both sludges displayed a non-Newtonian rheological

  18. Poor concurrence between disabilities as described by patients and established assessment tools three months after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tistad, Malin; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Tham, Kerstin


    BACKGROUND: Disability/problems, one phenomenon underlying people's need for health care services, can be viewed both from the perspectives of people with stroke (felt problems), and the health professionals (assessed problems). OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe felt problems three months after...

  19. Investigation of a Complex Space-Time Metric to Describe Precognition of the Future (United States)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.; Targ, Russell


    For more than 100 years scientists have attempted to determine the truth or falsity of claims that some people are able to describe and experience events or information blocked from ordinary perception. For the past 25 years, the authors of this paper - together with researchers in laboratories around the world — have carried out experiments in remote viewing. The evidence for this mode of perception, or direct knowing of distant events and objects, has convinced us of the validity of these claims. It has been widely observed that the accuracy and reliability of this sensory awareness does not diminish with either electromagnetic shielding, nor with increases in temporal or spatial separation between the percipient and the target to be described. Modern physics describes such a time-and-space independent connection between percipient and target as nonlocal. In this paper we present a geometrical model of space-time, which has already been extensively studied in the technical literature of mathematics and physics. This eight-dimensional metric is known as "complex Minkowski space," and has been shown to be consistent with our present understanding of the equations of Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, and Schrödinger. It also has the interesting property of allowing a connection of zero distance between points in the complex manifold, which appear to be separate from one another in ordinary observation. We propose a model that describes the major elements of experimental parapsychology, and at the same time is consistent with the present highly successful structure of modern physics.

  20. [Neurological aspects described in The treasure of medicines for all illnesses by Gregorio López]. (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J; Vázquez-Cabrera, C B

    Latin American medicine in the 16th century produced the first collections of herbs with native plants from the New World. Treatises on popular therapies appeared, which included gallenic remedies as well as incorporating autochthonous plants. We review the main neurological diseases and their treatments described in The Treasure of Medicines for All Illnesses by Gregorio Lopez (1542-1596). Some critics claim that his work was an enumeration of empirical prescriptions, sometimes with a magico-religious influence, which was extended in successive reprints. Yet, this manuscript is probably the first treatise on therapeutics written by a European in the New World to describe the native remedies employed in the treatment of diseases. In the section entitled Remedies in alphabetical order the following neurological ailments and appropriate remedies to treat them are described: abscess, apoplexy, brain, chilling, cramp, gota coral or epilepsy, headache, melancholy, memory, migraine, nerves, palsy, paralysis, sciatica, stupor and vertigo. The list of diseases is very complete and includes syndromes ranging from fevers, colics and bruises to phthisis, scabs or burns. The copy of the manuscript in the Vatican contains a final section on Indian medicines, which includes a list of medicinal plants used at that time, with the names given in Nahuatl language. Headaches, epilepsy and conditions affecting the peripheral nerves were the neurological pathologies that were described at greatest length in The Treasure of Medicines for All Illnesses, and for which a greater number of natural prescriptions were compiled.

  1. Disability and Profiles of Functioning of Patients with Parkinson's Disease Described with ICF Classification (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde; Ajovalasit, Daniela; Carella, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Albanese, Alberto; Romito, Luigi


    The objective of this study was to describe the functional profiles of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and the relationships between impairment in body functions, limitations in activities, and environmental factors, using the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Patients…

  2. Robustness of a cross contamination model describing transfer of pathogens during grinding of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Sant’Ana, A. S.; Hansen, Solvej Katrine Holm


    This study aimed to evaluate a cross contamination model for its capability of describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes during grinding of varying sizes and numbers of pieces of meats in two grinder systems. Data from 19 trials were collected. Three evaluation approaches were a...

  3. Describing the Nature and Effect of Teacher Interactions with Students during Seat Work on Challenging Tasks (United States)

    Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug


    As part of a project that is examining how to support teachers in the use of challenging tasks and those teacher actions that encourage students to persist, we focused on the activities of students and teachers during seatwork. We describe the nature of teacher interactions with students, student behaviours when working on challenging tasks, and…

  4. Type-studies in the Polyporaceae—I. Tropical species described by C. H. Persoon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryvarden, Leif


    The type specimens of 20 tropical polypores described by C. H. Persoon have been examined. Eleven species are accepted, seven are reduced to synonymy, while one name is a nomen nudum. One type is so poorly developed that no conclusive determination is possible. The combination Trametes marianna

  5. Describing wildland surface fuel loading for fire management: A review of approaches, methods and systems (United States)

    Robert E. Keane


    Wildland fuelbeds are exceptionally complex, consisting of diverse particles of many sizes, types and shapes with abundances and properties that are highly variable in time and space. This complexity makes it difficult to accurately describe, classify, sample and map fuels for wildland fire research and management. As a result, many fire behaviour and effects software...

  6. Entanglement in quantum computers described by the XXZ model with defects


    Santos, L. F.


    We investigate how to generate maximally entangled states in systems characterized by the Hamiltonian of the XXZ model with defects. Some proposed quantum computers are described by such model. We show how the defects can be used to obtain EPR states and W states when one or two excitations are considered.

  7. Francis Moto The aim of this paper is to describe tonal mobility in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis Moto. The aim of this paper is to describe tonal mobility in. Chichewa. We will establish that the surface positions of. Chichewa tonal contrasts do not always con-espond to their original locations in the underlying structure, but rather that their point of origin may be in preceding syllables, morphemes or even words, ...

  8. Children with Imaginary Companions Focus on Mental Characteristics When Describing Their Real-life Friends (United States)

    Davis, Paige E.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles


    Relations between having an imaginary companion (IC) and (i) descriptions of a real-life friend, (ii) theory of mind performance, and (iii) reported prosocial behaviour and behavioural difficulties were investigated in a sample of 5-year-olds (N?=?159). Children who had an IC were more likely than their peers without an IC to describe their best…

  9. Effective Practices in STEM Integration: Describing Teacher Perceptions and Instructional Method Use (United States)

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John; McKim, Billy R.


    Career and Technical Education (CTE), including agricultural education, has been suggested as a platform for delivering Science, Technology, Education, and Mathematics (STEM) content in secondary classrooms (Stone, 2011). The purpose of this descriptive study was to describe agriculture teachers' perceptions and confidence levels for integrating…

  10. Students with Low Vision Describe Their Visual Impairments and Visual Functioning (United States)

    Guerette, Amy R.; Lewis, Sandra; Mattingly, Cameron


    In the study reported here, the responses to a survey that was designed to determine the knowledge of their visual impairment of 51 students with low vision were analyzed. Although the students described their visual weaknesses and strengths, they had limited knowledge of, and difficulty communicating about, the medical aspects of their…

  11. 78 FR 37230 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence... (United States)


    ... current thinking on product-specific design of BE studies to support ANDAs. They do not create or confer... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing... provide product-specific guidance on the design of BE studies to support abbreviated new drug applications...

  12. 77 FR 74669 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence... (United States)


    ... Agency's current thinking on product-specific design of BE studies to support ANDAs. They do not create... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing... provide product-specific guidance on the design of BE studies to support abbreviated new drug applications...

  13. 77 FR 56851 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing... provide product-specific guidance on the design of BE studies to support abbreviated new drug applications... practices regulation (21 CFR 10.115). These guidances represent the Agency's current thinking on product...

  14. 78 FR 66745 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence... (United States)


    ... thinking on product-specific design of BE studies to support ANDAs. They do not create or confer any rights... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing... provide product-specific guidance on the design of BE studies to support abbreviated new drug applications...

  15. How Do Students Studying Turkish in Lithuania Describe Turkish Culture and People? (United States)

    Varisoglu, M. Celal


    The aim of this paper is to describe ideas that students learning Turkish in Lithuania have about Turkish culture and Turkish people. A descriptive method was used in the research. The data for the research was collected from 15 students who learn Turkish at Vilnius University in Vilnius, Lithuania. For the participating in the research students,…

  16. 28 CFR 75.6 - Statement describing location of books and records. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statement describing location of books... of books and records. (a) Any producer of any book, magazine, periodical, film, videotape, digitally... the book, magazine, periodical, film, videotape, digitally- or computer-manipulated image, digital...

  17. Notes on the Pentatomidae (Hemiptera Heteroptera) described by Dr. Snellen van Vollenhoven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouteden, H.


    During a short stay made last year in Leyden, I was enabled, through the courtesy of Mr. Ritsema, to examine the types of the Pentatomidae in the Leyden Museum, described by the late Snellen van Vollenhoven. Various doubtful species were thus identified and observations of previous authors

  18. Measurements described in a paper by Blackman, Blanchard, Benane, and House are statistically invalid. (United States)

    Adair, R K


    Blackman et al. [1994] describe an experiment that purports to show that weak 45 Hz magnetic fields inhibit the growth of neurites from PC-12 cells treated with a growth stimulation factor. I present a statistical analysis of the data in that paper that shows that the data were corrupted in some way; hence, the results are invalid.

  19. Water in micro- and nanofluidics systems described using the water potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert


    This Tutorial Review shows the behaviour of water in micro- and nanofluidic systems. The chemical potential of water (‘water potential’) conveniently describes the energy level of the water at different locations in and around the system, both in the liquid and gaseous state. Since water moves from

  20. A new species of Talaromyces and a discussion of some recently described taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, R.A.; Abdel-Fattah, H.M.


    A new species of Talaromyces C. R. Benjamin, T. assiutensis, is described and illustrated. It was isolated from Egyptian soil amended with crushed buffalo hooves and incubated for five months at 35°C. T. assiutensis is characterized by white to pale yellow ascomata, small, smooth-walled to finely

  1. Evaluating satellite imagery-based land use data for describing forestland development in western Washington (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Alissa Moses; David L. Azuma; Andrew. Gray


    Forestry professionals are concerned about how forestlands are affected by residential and other development. To address those concerns, researchers must find appropriate data with which to describe and evaluate rates and patterns of forestland development and the impact of development on the management of remaining forestlands. We examine land use data gathered from...

  2. Dynamic behaviour of reactive distillation tray columns described with a non-equilibrium cell model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baur, R.; Taylor, R.; Krishna, R.


    In this paper we develop a generic, dynamic, nonequilibrium (NEQ) cell model for reactive distillation (RD) tray columns. The features of our model are (1) the use of Maxwell–Stefan equations for describing mass transfer between fluid phases, (2) the reaction is assumed to take place in the liquid

  3. Using the Language of Sets to Describe Nested Systems in Emergy Evaluations (United States)

    The language of set theory has been recently used to describe the emergy evaluation of a process. In this paper this mathematical language is used as a guide to evaluate the emergy of nested systems. We analyze a territorial system on multiple scales as an example of hierarchical...


    We developed a novel model describing Eisenia andrei body concentrations for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn as a function of pH, metals, and soluble organic carbon (SOC) in soil extracts for potential use in predicting values in contaminated field sites. Data from 17 moderately contaminated ...

  5. Taxonomic status of the roses (Rosa) described by S.G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, J.; Petrova, A; Tan, Kit


    The original herbarium vouchers for six species of Rosa (Rosaceae) described by S. G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria are taxonomically evaluated. Two species (R. balcanica, R. orphei) are considered hybrids, four other names (R. bulgarica, R. parilica, R. pontica and R. rhodopaea) are taxonomic synonyms...

  6. A model based on soil structural aspects describing the fate of genetically modified bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van der N.; Elsas, van J.D.; Heijnen, C.E.


    A computer simulation model was developed which describes growth and competition of bacteria in the soil environment. In the model, soil was assumed to contain millions of pores of a few different size classes. An introduced bacterial strain, e.g. a genetically modified micro-organism (GEMMO), was

  7. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2003 (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy


    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  8. 20 CFR 632.255 - Program planning. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program planning. 632.255 Section 632.255... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.255 Program planning. (a... with its title IV program. (2) Native American grantees shall use the planning process described in...

  9. Wind energy: Program overview, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The DOE Wind Energy Program assists utilities and industry in developing advanced wind turbine technology to be economically competitive as an energy source in the marketplace and in developing new markets and applications for wind systems. This program overview describes the commercial development of wind power, wind turbine development, utility programs, industry programs, wind resources, applied research in wind energy, and the program structure.

  10. Toward Documentation of Program Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt


    The documentation of a program often falls behind the evolution of the program source files. When this happens it may be attractive to shift the documentation mode from updating the documentation to documenting the evolution of the program. This paper describes tools that support the documentation...... of program evolution. The tools are refinements of the Elucidative Programming tools, which in turn are inspired from Literate Programming tools. The version-aware Elucidative Programming tools are able to process a set of program source files in different versions together with unversioned documentation...... files. The paper introduces a set of fine grained program evolution steps, which are supported directly by the documentation tools. The automatic discovery of the fine grained program evolution steps makes up a platform for documenting coarse grained and more high-level program evolution steps...

  11. Technical Communication Programs at Canadian Post-secondary Institutions. (United States)

    Graves, Roger; And Others


    Reports on a survey identifying the location, extent, and focus of technical writing programs at Canadian colleges and universities. Describes representative programs in some detail. Discusses the focus of these programs and the need for more programs. (SR)

  12. An Intergenerational Program with Benefits (United States)

    Holmes, Christine L.


    Illustrates how the director and teachers of a child care program and the staff of a residential nursing home facility collaborated to develop, implement, and evaluate an onsite intergenerational program. Describes program goals; recruitment plan; elder, staff, and teacher orientation; options for intergenerational activities; and program…

  13. A Preventative Child Abuse Program. (United States)

    Kiernan, Bette Unger; And Others

    This article describes the Child Development and Parenting Program (CDP), a preventative child abuse program that assists single women who are pregnant or have preschool children to cope constructively with the problems of single parenting. The short-term goals of the program, i.e., providing education in child development and parenting skills and…

  14. The Army Preposition Afloat Program: Is It a Program We Need?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curl, William


    ... of most required classes. This paper addresses the evolution of the APA program, describes the current and planned APA program, discusses management of the APA, and looks critically at the value of the program in support...

  15. Describing the Corporeality: educational implications from the swing of brazilian football and dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Normando Gomes-da-Silva


    Full Text Available This study describes the corporeality from its sign, the swing. Swing as the perceptive and expressive way of the cultural subject to relate to the Brazilian context. It´s about a descriptive research, with qualitative methodology and documentary type, which tecnic of data collect happened from photographics dippings (frame to frame extracted from two different videographic situations: the dribble of football and the movement of dance. The leading question of the study is characterized by: which are the educative implications that come from the Brazilian swing at football and on the dance? The two gestures described were: at football the Robinho´s dribble (Brazil x Ecuador, Maracanã/RJ, 2007 and on the dance, a performance analysis of the movement were given by Laban Movement Analysis (LMA, with its movement factors (time, space, weight and flow. The results show that the Brazilian swing can be deployed in pedagogical implications for sensory and multicultural education.

  16. A describing function approach to bipolar RF-power amplifier simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Jens


    A method for fast and accurate computations of the primary performance parameters such as gain, efficiency, output power, and bandwidth in class-C biased RF-power amplifier stages is presented. The method is based on a describing function characterization of the RF-power transistor where the term......A method for fast and accurate computations of the primary performance parameters such as gain, efficiency, output power, and bandwidth in class-C biased RF-power amplifier stages is presented. The method is based on a describing function characterization of the RF-power transistor where...... the terminal currents are assumed sinusoidal. The approximation comprises both the input and output properties of the transistor simultaneously and includes the effects of base widening, current saturation, and the most significant thermal dependencies. The method is verified through a series of experiments....

  17. Real meromorphic differentials: a language for describing meron configurations in planar magnetic nanoelements (United States)

    Bogatyrev, A. B.


    We use the language of real meromorphic differentials from the theory of Klein surfaces to describe the metastable states of multiply connected planar ferromagnetic nanoelements that minimize the exchange energy and have no side magnetic charges. These solutions still have sufficient internal degrees of freedom, which can be used as Ritz parameters to minimize other contributions to the total energy or as slow dynamical variables in the adiabatic approximation. The nontrivial topology of the magnet itself leads to several effects first described for the annulus and observed in the experiment. We explain the connection between the numbers of topological singularities of various types in the magnet and the constraints on the positions of these singularities following from the Abel theorem. Using multivalued Prym differentials leads to new meron configurations that were not considered in the classic work by Gross.

  18. New expressions to describe solution nonideal osmotic pressure, freezing point depression, and vapor pressure. (United States)

    Fullerton, G D; Zimmerman, R J; Cantu, C; Cameron, I L


    New empirical expressions for osmotic pressure, freezing point depression, and vapor pressure are proposed based on the concepts of volume occupancy and (or) hydration force. These expressions are in general inverse relationships in comparison to the standard ideal expressions for the same properties. The slopes of the new equations are determined by the molecular weight of the solute and known constants. The accuracy and precision of the molecular weights calculated from the slope are identical and approximately 1% for the experiments reported here. The nonideality of all three colligative expressions is described by a dimensionless constant called the solute-solvent interaction parameter I. The results on sucrose have the same I = 0.26 for all three solution properties. The nonideality parameter I increased from 0.26 on sucrose to 1.7 on hemoglobin to successfully describe the well-known nonideal response of macromolecules.

  19. A Porosity Method to Describe Complex 3D-Structures Theory and Application to an Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-F. Robbe


    Full Text Available A theoretical method was developed to be able to describe the influence of structures of complex shape on a transient fluid flow without meshing the structures. Structures are considered as solid pores inside the fluid and act as an obstacle for the flow. The method was specifically adapted to fast transient cases.The porosity method was applied to the simulation of a Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident in a small-scale replica of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. A 2D-axisymmetrical simulation of the MARS test was performed with the EUROPLEXUS code. Whereas the central internal structures of the mock-up could be described with a classical shell model, the influence of the 3D peripheral structures was taken into account with the porosity method. 

  20. Struggling to maintain individuality - Describing the experience of food in nursing homes for people with dementia. (United States)

    Milte, Rachel; Shulver, Wendy; Killington, Maggie; Bradley, Clare; Miller, Michelle; Crotty, Maria


    To describe the food and dining experience of people with cognitive impairment and their family members in nursing homes. Interviews and focus groups with people with cognitive impairment and their family members (n=19). Thematic analysis was undertaken using NVivo10 data analysis software package to determine key themes. The main themes identified tracked a journey for people with cognitive impairment in nursing homes, where they initially sought to have their individual needs and preferences recognised and heard, expressed frustration as they perceived growing barriers to receiving dietary care which met their preferences, and ultimately described a deterioration of the amount of control and choice available to the individual with loss of self-feeding ability and dysphagia. Further consideration of how to incorporate individualised dietary care is needed to fully implement person-centred care and support the quality of life of those receiving nursing home care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The brain imaging data structure, a format for organizing and describing outputs of neuroimaging experiments (United States)

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Auer, Tibor; Calhoun, Vince D.; Craddock, R. Cameron; Das, Samir; Duff, Eugene P.; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Glatard, Tristan; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Handwerker, Daniel A.; Hanke, Michael; Keator, David; Li, Xiangrui; Michael, Zachary; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, B. Nolan; Nichols, Thomas E.; Pellman, John; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rokem, Ariel; Schaefer, Gunnar; Sochat, Vanessa; Triplett, William; Turner, Jessica A.; Varoquaux, Gaël; Poldrack, Russell A.


    The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques has defined modern neuroimaging. Since its inception, tens of thousands of studies using techniques such as functional MRI and diffusion weighted imaging have allowed for the non-invasive study of the brain. Despite the fact that MRI is routinely used to obtain data for neuroscience research, there has been no widely adopted standard for organizing and describing the data collected in an imaging experiment. This renders sharing and reusing data (within or between labs) difficult if not impossible and unnecessarily complicates the application of automatic pipelines and quality assurance protocols. To solve this problem, we have developed the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS), a standard for organizing and describing MRI datasets. The BIDS standard uses file formats compatible with existing software, unifies the majority of practices already common in the field, and captures the metadata necessary for most common data processing operations. PMID:27326542

  2. Congruent embodied representations for visually presented actions and linguistic phrases describing actions. (United States)

    Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Wilson, Stephen M; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Iacoboni, Marco


    The thesis of embodied semantics holds that conceptual representations accessed during linguistic processing are, in part, equivalent to the sensory-motor representations required for the enactment of the concepts described . Here, using fMRI, we tested the hypothesis that areas in human premotor cortex that respond both to the execution and observation of actions-mirror neuron areas -are key neural structures in these processes. Participants observed actions and read phrases relating to foot, hand, or mouth actions. In the premotor cortex of the left hemisphere, a clear congruence was found between effector-specific activations of visually presented actions and of actions described by literal phrases. These results suggest a key role of mirror neuron areas in the re-enactment of sensory-motor representations during conceptual processing of actions invoked by linguistic stimuli.

  3. Approach of describing dynamic production of volatile fatty acids from sludge alkaline fermentation. (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Liu, Yiwen; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Chang; Yang, Qi; Peng, Lai; He, Dandan; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Xiaoming; Ni, Bing-Jie


    In this work, a mathematical model was developed to describe the dynamics of fermentation products in sludge alkaline fermentation systems for the first time. In this model, the impacts of alkaline fermentation on sludge disintegration, hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis processes are specifically considered for describing the high-level formation of fermentation products. The model proposed successfully reproduced the experimental data obtained from five independent sludge alkaline fermentation studies. The modeling results showed that alkaline fermentation largely facilitated the disintegration, acidogenesis, and acetogenesis processes and severely inhibited methanogenesis process. With the pH increase from 7.0 to 10.0, the disintegration, acidogenesis, and acetogenesis processes respectively increased by 53%, 1030%, and 30% while methane production decreased by 3800%. However, no substantial effect on hydrolysis process was found. The model also indicated that the pathway of acetoclastic methanogenesis was more severely inhibited by alkaline condition than that of hydrogentrophic methanogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What types of terms do people use when describing an individual's personality? (United States)

    Leising, Daniel; Scharloth, Joachim; Lohse, Oliver; Wood, Dustin


    An important yet untested assumption within personality psychology is that more important person characteristics are more densely reflected in language. We investigated how ratings of importance and other term properties are associated with one another and with a term's frequency of use. Research participants were asked to provide terms that described individuals they knew, which resulted in a set of 624 adjectives. These terms were independently rated for importance, social desirability, observability, stateness versus traitness, level of abstraction, and base rate. Terms rated as describing more important person characteristics were in fact used more often by the participants in the sample and in a large corpus of online communications (close to 500 million words). More frequently used terms and more positive terms were also rated as being more abstract, more traitlike, and more widely applicable (i.e., having a greater base rate). We discuss the implications of these findings with regard to person perception in general. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Misestimation of temperature when applying Maxwellian distributions to space plasmas described by kappa distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaou, Georgios


    This paper presents the misestimation of temperature when observations from a kappa distributed plasma are analyzed as a Maxwellian. One common method to calculate the space plasma parameters is by fitting the observed distributions using known analytical forms. More often, the distribution function is included in a forward model of the instrument's response, which is used to reproduce the observed energy spectrograms for a given set of plasma parameters. In both cases, the modeled plasma distribution fits the measurements to estimate the plasma parameters. The distribution function is often considered to be Maxwellian even though in many cases the plasma is better described by a kappa distribution. In this work we show that if the plasma is described by a kappa distribution, the derived temperature assuming Maxwell distribution can be significantly off. More specifically, we derive the plasma temperature by fitting a Maxwell distribution to pseudo-data produced by a kappa distribution, and then examine the d...

  6. A mathematical model describes the malignant transformation of low grade gliomas: Prognostic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena U Bogdańska

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most frequent type of primary brain tumours. Low grade gliomas (LGGs, WHO grade II gliomas may grow very slowly for the long periods of time, however they inevitably cause death due to the phenomenon known as the malignant transformation. This refers to the transition of LGGs to more aggressive forms of high grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO grade III and IV gliomas. In this paper we propose a mathematical model describing the spatio-temporal transition of LGGs into HGGs. Our modelling approach is based on two cellular populations with transitions between them being driven by the tumour microenvironment transformation occurring when the tumour cell density grows beyond a critical level. We show that the proposed model describes real patient data well. We discuss the relationship between patient prognosis and model parameters. We approximate tumour radius and velocity before malignant transformation as well as estimate the onset of this process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study tests evaluates 43 Chinese tradesmen opinios describe the main factors that influnce Greek consumers’ behavior. A structural model was constructed to represent the relationship between consumer components. The model was tested for its Convergent and Discriminant Validity. Moreover it was tested for its reliability and construct reliability. The findings from this study may be used by Chinese tradesmen to develop their marketing campains and customers.

  8. Scientific heritage of Alexandru Roşca: publications, spider collection, described species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoriak, Mariia


    During the period 1931–1939, Roşca described 13 spider species. To date, five species names have been synonymised. We propose that six species should be treated as nomina dubia because of their poor descriptions and lack of availability of types and/or other specimens. For two of Roşca’s species, Pardosa roscai (Roewer, 1951 and Tetragnatha reimoseri (Roşca, 1939, data and figures are presented and information on them is updated.

  9. Application of Peleg's equation to describe creep responses of potatoes under constant and variable storage conditions. (United States)

    Solomon, W K; Jindal, V K


    The application of Peleg's equation to characterize creep behavior of potatoes during storage was investigated. Potatoes were stored at 25, 15, 5C, and variable (fluctuating) temperature for 16 or 26 weeks. The Peleg equation adequately described the creep response of potatoes during storage at all storage conditions (R 2  = .97to .99). Peleg constant k 1 exhibited a significant (p < .05) decreasing trend with storage time (t s ) for samples stored under the experimental conditions whereas the constant k 2 appeared to be unaffected much by t s except for samples stored at 25C. Under constant temperature storage, k 1 was found to be a linear function of t s (R 2  = .87 to .97). Also, the rate of change of k 1 appeared to be temperature dependent described by a linear relationship between the degradation rate constant for k 1 (α) and storage temperature (T). For the variable storage condition, a bulk mean temperature (T bm ) was calculated to account for a series combination of storage time and temperature which the potatoes were subjected to. It was possible to describe the changes in k 1 due to variable storage temperature in terms of T bm and t s using stepwise multiple regression (R 2  = . 94). Precise description of the changes in the rheological properties of raw potatoes during storage could help predict the associated effect on the texture of cooked potatoes. Easy and simple methods of describing creep responses during storage or processing will be potentially helpful to better understand the phenomenon. The model parameters from such model could be used to relate rheological properties of raw and cooked potatoes. Moreover, the model parameters could be used to establish relationship between instrumental and sensory attributes which will help in the prediction of sensory attributes from instrumental data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Articles with short titles describing the results are cited more often. (United States)

    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Lima, João Paulo da Silveira Nogueira; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro


    The aim of this study was to evaluate some features of article titles from open access journals and to assess the possible impact of these titles on predicting the number of article views and citations. Research articles (n = 423, published in October 2008) from all Public Library of Science (PLoS) journals and from 12 Biomed Central (BMC) journals were evaluated. Publication metrics (views and citations) were analyzed in December 2011. The titles were classified according to their contents, namely methods-describing titles and results-describing titles. The number of title characters, title typology, the use of a question mark, reference to a specific geographical region, and the use of a colon or a hyphen separating different ideas within a sentence were analyzed to identify predictors of views and citations. A logistic regression model was used to identify independent title characteristics that could predict citation rates. Short-titled articles had higher viewing and citation rates than those with longer titles. Titles containing a question mark, containing a reference to a specific geographical region, and that used a colon or a hyphen were associated with a lower number of citations. Articles with results-describing titles were cited more often than those with methods-describing titles. After multivariate analysis, only a low number of characters and title typology remained as predictors of the number of citations. Some features of article titles can help predict the number of article views and citation counts. Short titles presenting results or conclusions were independently associated with higher citation counts. The findings presented here could be used by authors, reviewers, and editors to maximize the impact of articles in the scientific community.

  11. Probability density cloud as a geometrical tool to describe statistics of scattered light. (United States)

    Yaitskova, Natalia


    First-order statistics of scattered light is described using the representation of the probability density cloud, which visualizes a two-dimensional distribution for complex amplitude. The geometric parameters of the cloud are studied in detail and are connected to the statistical properties of phase. The moment-generating function for intensity is obtained in a closed form through these parameters. An example of exponentially modified normal distribution is provided to illustrate the functioning of this geometrical approach.

  12. Including effects of microstructure and anisotropy in theoretical models describing hysteresis of ferromagnetic materials


    Hauser, H.; Melikhov, Yevgen; Jiles, David


    Two recent theoretical hysteresis models (Jiles-Atherton model and energetic model) are examined with respect to their capability to describe the dependence of the magnetization on magnetic field, microstructure, and anisotropy. It is shown that the classical Rayleigh law for the behavior of magnetization at low fields and the Stoner-Wohlfarth theory of domain magnetization rotation in noninteracting magnetic single domain particles can be considered as limiting cases of a more general theore...

  13. Expected IPS variations due to a disturbance described by a 3-D MHD model (United States)

    Tappin, S. J.; Dryer, M.; Han, S. M.; Wu, S. T.


    The variations of interplanetary scintillation due to a disturbance described by a three-dimensional, time-dependent, MHD model of the interplanetary medium are calculated. The resulting simulated IPS maps are compared with observations of real disturbances and it is found that there is some qualitative agreement. It is concluded that the MHD model with a more realistic choice of input conditions would probably provide a useful description of many interplanetary disturbances.

  14. A modified scoring system to describe gross pathology in the rabbit model of tuberculosis (United States)


    Background The rabbit model is an ideal means to study the pathogenesis of tuberculosis due to its semblance to the disease in humans. We have previously described the results using a bronchoscopic route of infection with live bacilli as a reliable means of generating lung cavities in sensitized rabbits. The role of sensitization in the development of disease outcomes has been well established in several animal models. We have described here the varying gross pathology that result from lack of sensitization with heat-killed M. bovis prior to high-dose bronchoscopic infection with live bacilli. Results Rabbits lacking sensitization did not generate lung cavities, but instead formed solely a tuberculoid pneumonia that replaced the normal lung parenchyma in the area of infection. Extrapulmonary dissemination was seen in approximately equal frequency and distribution in both rabbit populations. Notable differences include the lack of intestinal lesions in non-sensitized rabbits likely due to the lack of ingestion of expectorated bacilli from cavitary lesions. The experiment also employed a modified scoring system developed initially in the primate model of tuberculosis to allow for the quantification of findings observed at necropsy. Conclusions To date, no such scoring system has been employed in the rabbit model to describe gross pathology. The quantitative methodology would allow for rapid comparative analyses and standardization of thoracic and extrapulmonary pathology that could be evaluated for statistical significance. The aim is to use such a scoring system as the foundation for all future rabbit studies describing gross pathology at all stages in TB pathogenesis. PMID:21375756

  15. A modified scoring system to describe gross pathology in the rabbit model of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne Jonathan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rabbit model is an ideal means to study the pathogenesis of tuberculosis due to its semblance to the disease in humans. We have previously described the results using a bronchoscopic route of infection with live bacilli as a reliable means of generating lung cavities in sensitized rabbits. The role of sensitization in the development of disease outcomes has been well established in several animal models. We have described here the varying gross pathology that result from lack of sensitization with heat-killed M. bovis prior to high-dose bronchoscopic infection with live bacilli. Results Rabbits lacking sensitization did not generate lung cavities, but instead formed solely a tuberculoid pneumonia that replaced the normal lung parenchyma in the area of infection. Extrapulmonary dissemination was seen in approximately equal frequency and distribution in both rabbit populations. Notable differences include the lack of intestinal lesions in non-sensitized rabbits likely due to the lack of ingestion of expectorated bacilli from cavitary lesions. The experiment also employed a modified scoring system developed initially in the primate model of tuberculosis to allow for the quantification of findings observed at necropsy. Conclusions To date, no such scoring system has been employed in the rabbit model to describe gross pathology. The quantitative methodology would allow for rapid comparative analyses and standardization of thoracic and extrapulmonary pathology that could be evaluated for statistical significance. The aim is to use such a scoring system as the foundation for all future rabbit studies describing gross pathology at all stages in TB pathogenesis.

  16. Redescription of three species of Filistatidae (Araneae) described by C.F. Roewer from Afghanistan. (United States)

    Zonstein, Sergei L; Marusik, Yuri M; Koponen, Seppo


    Types of three filistatid species described by Roewer (1960, 1962) from Afghanistan are redescribed and two of them transferred to other filistatid genera. The new combinations proposed are: Zaitunia afghana (Roewer 1962) comb. n. (ex. Filistata Latreille, 1810) and Tricalamus lindbergi (Roewer, 1962) comb. n. (ex. Pritha Lehtinen, 1967). The taxonomic position of Pholcoides afghana Roewer, 1960 is discussed and the species is placed in the filistatid subfamily Prithinae Gray, 1994.

  17. Probability density cloud as a geometrical tool to describe statistics of scattered light (United States)

    Yaitskova, Natalia


    First-order statistics of scattered light is described using the representation of probability density cloud which visualizes a two-dimensional distribution for complex amplitude. The geometric parameters of the cloud are studied in detail and are connected to the statistical properties of phase. The moment-generating function for intensity is obtained in a closed form through these parameters. An example of exponentially modified normal distribution is provided to illustrate the functioning of this geometrical approach.

  18. A fractal model to describe the evolution of multiphase flow properties during mineral dissolution


    Guarracino, Luis; Roetting, Tobias Stefan; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús


    Understanding the changes in multiphase flow parameters caused by mineral dissolution-precipitation is required for multiple applications ranging from geological storage of CO2, enhanced geothermal energy production or ground water pollution. We present a physically-based theoretical model for describing the temporal evolution of porosity, saturated and relative permeabilities, retention curve and diffusion coefficient during rock dissolution by reactive fluids. The derivation of the model is...

  19. Automated static image analysis as a novel tool in describing the physical properties of dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Andrzej KUREK


    Full Text Available Abstract The growing interest in the usage of dietary fiber in food has caused the need to provide precise tools for describing its physical properties. This research examined two dietary fibers from oats and beets, respectively, in variable particle sizes. The application of automated static image analysis for describing the hydration properties and particle size distribution of dietary fiber was analyzed. Conventional tests for water holding capacity (WHC were conducted. The particles were measured at two points: dry and after water soaking. The most significant water holding capacity (7.00 g water/g solid was achieved by the smaller sized oat fiber. Conversely, the water holding capacity was highest (4.20 g water/g solid in larger sized beet fiber. There was evidence for water absorption increasing with a decrease in particle size in regards to the same fiber source. Very strong correlations were drawn between particle shape parameters, such as fiber length, straightness, width and hydration properties measured conventionally. The regression analysis provided the opportunity to estimate whether the automated static image analysis method could be an efficient tool in describing the hydration properties of dietary fiber. The application of the method was validated using mathematical model which was verified in comparison to conventional WHC measurement results.

  20. Walking during the encoding of described environments enhances a heading-independent spatial representation. (United States)

    Santoro, Ilaria; Murgia, Mauro; Sors, Fabrizio; Prpic, Valter; Agostini, Tiziano


    Previous studies demonstrated that physical movement enhanced spatial updating in described environments. However, those movements were executed only after the encoding of the environment, minimally affecting the development of the spatial representation. Thus, we investigated whether and how participants could benefit from the execution of physical movement during the encoding of described environments, in terms of enhanced spatial updating. Using the judgement of relative directions task, we compared the effects of walking both during and after the description of the environment, and walking only after the description on spatial updating. Spatial updating was evaluated in terms of accuracy and response times in different headings. We found that the distribution of response times across Headings seemed not to be related to the physical movement executed, whereas the distribution of accuracy scores seemed to significantly change with the action executed. Indeed, when no movement occurred during the encoding of the environment, a preference for the learning heading was found, which did not emerge when walking during encoding occurred. Therefore, the results seem to suggest that physical movement during encoding supports the development of a heading-independent representation of described environments, reducing the anchoring for a preferred heading in favor of a global representation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The white matter query language: a novel approach for describing human white matter anatomy. (United States)

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik


    We have developed a novel method to describe human white matter anatomy using an approach that is both intuitive and simple to use, and which automatically extracts white matter tracts from diffusion MRI volumes. Further, our method simplifies the quantification and statistical analysis of white matter tracts on large diffusion MRI databases. This work reflects the careful syntactical definition of major white matter fiber tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language makes it possible to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions that describe white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This novel method makes it possible to automatically label white matter anatomy across subjects. After describing this method, we provide an example of its implementation where we encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter for ten association and 15 projection tracts per hemisphere, along with seven commissural tracts. Importantly, this novel method is comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. Finally, we present results applying this method to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a small proof-of-concept study to detect changes in association tracts that characterize schizophrenia.

  2. "It's a Burden You Carry": Describing Moral Distress in Emergency Nursing. (United States)

    Wolf, Lisa A; Perhats, Cydne; Delao, Altair M; Moon, Michael D; Clark, Paul R; Zavotsky, Kathleen E


    Moral distress in nursing has been studied in many settings, but there is a paucity of research on moral distress as it manifests in the emergency department. One study suggests a correlation between moral distress and aspects of burnout, and other researchers report that nurses have considered leaving their position or even their profession because of moral distress. Further exploration of these issues may provide insight into their effects on ED patient care and the emergency nursing profession. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of moral distress as it is experienced and described by emergency nurses. A qualitative, exploratory design was employed using semi-structured focus groups for data collection. Using an iterative process, transcripts were analyzed for emerging themes by the research team. Six researchers analyzed the transcripts using a thematic analysis approach. Themes from the data included dysfunctional practice arena, being overwhelmed, and adaptive/maladaptive coping. Participants described, overall, a profound feeling of not being able to provide patient care as they wanted to. Causes of moral distress in emergency nurses are environment driven, not incident driven, as is described in other settings, and include a high-acuity, high-demand, technical environment with insufficient resources. Interventions should be targeted to improve environmental factors that contribute to the moral distress of emergency nurses. Future research should focus on the development and validation of an instrument to measure moral distress in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermoluminescence systems with two or more glow peaks described by anomalous kinetic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P.W.


    The usual first and second order TL kinetic expressions are based on a number of assumptions, including the usually unstated assumption that charges released from one type of trap, giving rise to one glow peak, are not retrapped on other types of traps, associated with other glow peaks. Equations have been developed describing TL systems in which charges released from one type of trap may be retrapped in other types of traps. Called interactive kinetic equations, they are quite simple but have been studied by numerical methods. In particular, glow curves computed from the interactive kinetic equations have been regarded as data and analyzed by fitting them to the usual first and second order kinetic expressions. All of the anomalous features described above are reproduced. For example, usually the computed glow peaks are well fitted by the first and second order expressions over their upper 60 to 80% but not in the wings. This explains why the usual analysis methods, especially those utilizing peak temperature, full width, etc. appear to describe such peaks. Often unrealistic kinetic parameters are often obtained. Furthermore, the computed glow curves often reproduce the observed dependence on dose.

  4. Support for using five attributes to describe spirituality among families with a parent in hospice. (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Sheehan, Denice; Shahrour, Ghada


    The importance of spirituality in the dying process is well documented. However, what spirituality means in these situations is hard to discern because few people (patients, families, researchers, or caregivers) will view spirituality in the same way. The present research supports the use of a spiritual framework consisting of five common attributes (meaning, beliefs, connections, self-transcendence, and value) as a mechanism for viewing spirituality for people nearing the end of life. Using qualitative interviews from two related studies, our study aims to describe the prevalence of spirituality and its nature according to these five spiritual attributes. Data from two previous studies were analyzed. The first employed the methods of grounded theory to understand the strategies adolescents used to manage the impending death of a parent. Some 61 participants from 26 families were interviewed, including ill parents/patients, well parents/caregivers, and adolescents. The second study consisted of 15 interviews with the surviving parent and adolescents from 6 of these families after the death of the parent. The original research from which these data were drawn did not seek to describe spirituality. However, spiritual themes were prevalent in the stories of many participants and included each of the five spiritual attributes. Our findings demonstrate the prevalence of spirituality in the everyday lives of these families and supports the use of the spiritual framework according to the five common attributes to describe spirituality.

  5. The history of endemic Iberian ground beetle description (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae): which species were described first? (United States)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.


    iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.

  6. Lazar K. Lazarević, the author who first described the straight leg raising test. (United States)

    Drača, Sanja


    To highlight the contributions of Lazar K. Lazarević (1851-1891), physician, scientist, writer, and translator in the field of neurology. During his brief period of professional activities, Lazar K. Lazarević published 78 articles in various branches of medicine. His most important contribution to neurologic science was his description of the straight leg raising test. The article "Ischiac postica cotunnii: one contribution to its differential diagnosis" was published in Serbian in the Serbian Archives of Medicine in 1880, and republished in German in Vienna in 1884. In this article, based on 6 patients from his medical practice, Lazarević correctly explained that stretching the sciatic nerve is the cause of pain during the straight leg raising test. He gave a full description of several maneuvers used to perform the test, and described the control test. Maneuvers described by Lazarević are known by other names. Analysis of the historical events and documentation indicates that Lazarević could have described the straight leg raising test in sciatica before Lasègue. He identified stretching of the sciatic nerve as the cause of pain and presented several maneuvers, which are now known by other names as labels for various diagnostic categories. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Medicinal aspects of opium as described in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine. (United States)

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Zargaran, Arman


    Throughout history, opium has been used as a base for the opioid class of drugs used to suppress the central nervous system. Opium is a substance extracted from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Its consumption and medicinal application date back to antiquity. In the medieval period, Avicenna, a famous Persian scholar (980-1037 AD) described poppy under the entry Afion of his medical encyclopedia Canon of Medicine. Various effects of opium consumption, both wanted and unwanted are discussed in the encyclopedia. The text mentions the effects of opioids such as analgesic, hypnotic, antitussive, gastrointestinal, cognitive, respiratory depression, neuromuscular disturbance, and sexual dysfunction. It also refers to its potential as a poison. Avicenna describes several methods of delivery and recommendations for doses of the drug. Most of opioid effects described by Avicenna have subsequently been confirmed by modern research, and other references to opium use in medieval texts call for further investigation. This article highlights an important aspect of the medieval history of medicine.

  8. An Online Database of the Immatures of Coleoptera (Arthopoda, Insecta) Described from Brazil (United States)

    Costa, Cleide


    Abstract Background An online database of the described immature beetles from Brazil is presented for the first time based on published literature. The main purpose of this online database is to ensure accessibility to data associated with the described immature Coleoptera from Brazil, which will be useful for future biological, ecological, conservational and biogeographical studies. New information More than 9,486 specimens of 248 genera, 282 species and 4 subspecies of 76 Coleoptera families from 15 states and the Federal District of Brazil were found. Taxonomical and ecological information about each species, when available, are given. The dataset of Immatures of Coleoptera described from Brazil are available and can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at and the SiBBr at PMID:28765725


    Valla, Jeffrey M.; Williams, Wendy M.


    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. “Now more than ever, the nation’s changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia.”—Irving P. McPhail.. PMID:22942637

  10. MIDI Programming in Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt


    makes it possible to carry out systematic modifications and transformations of MIDI contents with use of pure functional programming. Side by side with the XML-inspired MIDI language, the paper describes an Emacs-based, textual programming environment that supports the MIDI programming process....... The programming environment also supports a variety of interactive features - similar to MIDI sequencers - but restricted to a textual representation of the music. The main contributions of the work are considered to be (1) An accumulated MIDI function library, which can transform MIDI files in many non......-trivial ways; (2) A proposed working process alternating between creative mode and programmatic editing mode within a MIDI programming environment; and (3) A textual MIDI programming environment with embedded support of many interactive, MIDI-related functionalities....

  11. Functional Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    that state, in functional programming you model programs by describing how functions translate input data to output data. Functions themselves are considered to be data you can manipulate and much of the strength of functional programming comes from manipulating functions; that is, building more complex......Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...

  12. A nursing bioethics program. (United States)

    Albrizio, M A; Ozuna, J; Mattheis, R; Saunders, J


    In 1985 the Seattle Veterans' Administration Medical Center nursing service implemented a nursing program for bioethics with three goals: (1) to expand the nurse's knowledge of bioethical principles, (2) to develop the nurse's ability and confidence in analyzing bioethical dilemmas, and (3) to increase bioethical application at the bedside. Two psychosocial clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) led this highly successful nursing program that prepared nurses to more actively and responsibly participate in bioethical decision making within the medical center. The program offers an annual workshop for new members, holds a monthly discussion group, conducts a yearly enrichment program, and completes an annual evaluation report. This article describes nursing service bioethics program from planning through evaluation and the role of the CNS as program coordinator, facilitator, and educator in the expanding field of bioethics.

  13. Nine Tips for Creating an Effective Extended School Year Program for Students with Disabilities (United States)

    Sobeck, Emily Eyrolles


    Extended school year (ESY) is a summer program available for students with disabilities who meet specific qualifying criteria. Teachers are often hesitant to accept the position of the ESY teacher due to the ambiguities and demands of the position. The purpose of this article is to briefly share the impetus and focus of ESY and give special…

  14. Integrated Sociology Program Assessment: Inclusion of a Senior Portfolio Graduation Requirement (United States)

    Crockett, Jason L.; Fu, Albert S.; Greenwood, Joleen L.; John, Mauricia A.


    This article presents information about the planning, implementation, and findings of an assessment-based student portfolio designed by the faculty of a sociology program at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, a midsized public regional liberal arts institution. First, we briefly present the rationale for implementing a portfolio system and the…

  15. NASA-GIT predoctoral design training program. [systems and mechanical engineering (United States)


    The training program is discussed briefly, and the quantity and quality of academic achievement of those students who were supported by the traineeships are summarized. Dissertations which were completed or on which substantial progress was made are listed, along with a short description of the activities and status of each of the former trainees.

  16. Black, white, or gray: finding commonality on how orthodontists describe the areas between Angle's molar classifications. (United States)

    Snyder, Randall; Jerrold, Laurance


    Angle's system for classifying molar relationships has been the standard in orthodontics for over a century. The purpose of this study was to determine what orthodontic students are being taught about the terminology of molar relationships and the use of Angle's molar classification system. An e-mail survey was sent to the department chair or the program director of every orthodontic program in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico (n = 80). The survey included photos of models placed into 1/4 cusp, 1/2 cusp, and 3/4 cusp distal occlusions, and the participants were asked to classify them by selecting from a list of terms or writing 1 of their own. They were also asked whether they thought that the Angle molar classification was adequate for communication and diagnosis. Forty surveys were completed and returned. The results showed that a variety of terminology is being taught, and most educators do not use Angle's system as he defined it. About half of the respondents were dissatisfied with the Angle molar classification system. A modification of Angle's system that is more descriptive is needed.

  17. New Production Reactors Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Part I of this New Production Reactors (NPR) Program Plan: describes the policy basis of the NPR Program; describes the mission and objectives of the NPR Program; identifies the requirements that must be met in order to achieve the mission and objectives; and describes and assesses the technology and siting options that were considered, the Program's preferred strategy, and its rationale. The implementation strategy for the New Production Reactors Program has three functions: Linking the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities to policies requirements, and the process for selecting options. The development of an implementation strategy ensures that activities and procedures are consistent with the rationale and analysis underlying the Program. Organization of the Program. The strategy establishes plans, organizational structure, procedures, a budget, and a schedule for carrying out the Program. By doing so, the strategy ensures the clear assignment of responsibility and accountability. Management and monitoring of the Program. Finally, the strategy provides a basis for monitoring the Program so that technological, cost, and scheduling issues can be addressed when they arise as the Program proceeds. Like the rest of the Program Plan, the Implementation Strategy is a living document and will be periodically revised to reflect both progress made in the Program and adjustments in plans and policies as they are made. 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Planning the expansion of transmission with evolutionary programming; Planeacion de la expansion de transmision con programacion evolutiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceciliano Meza, Jose Luis; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)


    A method of evolutionary programming for the planning of transmission networks in electrical power systems is presented. This is a whole problem mixed and nonlinear, with a combinatory nature that leads to a very large number of possible solutions for electrical systems of medium and large scale. The problem of transmission planning is described briefly and later it is formulated in mathematical terms. The proposed algorithm of evolutionary programming is applied to a large scale network that is representative of the Mexican electrical system. [Spanish] Se presenta un metodo de programacion evolutiva para la planeacion de redes de transmision en sistemas electricos de potencia. Este es un problema entero mixto y no lineal, con una naturaleza combinatoria que conduce a un numero muy grande de soluciones posibles para sistemas electricos de mediana y gran escala. Se describe brevemente el problema de planeacion de transmision y posteriormente se formula en terminos matematicos. El algoritmo propuesto de programacion evolutiva se aplica a una red electrica de gran escala que es representativa del sistema electrico Mexicano.

  19. Phenology of brown marmorated stink bug described using female reproductive development. (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne L; Fleischer, Shelby; Hamilton, George C; Hancock, Tori; Krawczyk, Gregorz; Lee, Jana C; Ogburn, Emily; Pote, John M; Raudenbush, Amy; Rucker, Ann; Saunders, Michael; Skillman, Victoria P; Sullivan, Jeanne; Timer, Jody; Walgenbach, James; Wiman, Nik G; Leskey, Tracy C


    Temperature-based degree-day models describe insect seasonality and to predict key phenological events. We expand on the use of a temperature-based process defining timing of reproduction through the incorporation of female reproductive physiology for the invasive pentatomid species Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. A five-stage ranking system based on ovary development was able to distinguish between the reproductive statuses of field-collected females. Application of this ranking method described aspects of H. halys ' seasonality, overwintering biology, and phenology across geographic locations. Female H. halys were collected in the US from NJ, WV, NC, OR, and two sites in PA in 2006-2008 (Allentown, PA only) and 2012-2014. Results identify that H. halys enters reproductive diapause in temperate locations in the fall and that a delay occurs in developmental maturity after diapause termination in the spring. Modification of the Snyder method to identify biofix determined 12.7-hr photoperiod as the best fit to define initiation of reproduction in the spring. Applying the biofix, we demonstrated significant differences between locations for the rate at which the overwintering generation transition into reproductive status and the factors contributing to this difference require further study. For example, after including abiotic variables influencing development such as temperature and photoperiod (critical diapause cue), reproduction occurred earlier in OR and for an extended period in NJ. This data describe a method to investigate insect seasonality by incorporating physiological development across multiple regions that can clarify phenology for insects with overlapping generations.

  20. A survey of the Rubus species (Rosaceae described from the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matzke-Hajek, Günter


    Full Text Available Taxonomy, nomenclatura and distribution of the bramble species (Rubus L., subgen. Rubus described from the Canary Islands are studied. Apart from the widespread Mediterranean R. ulmifolius Schott two species occur: R. bollei Focke (Syn.: R. canariensis Focke, R. suspiciosus Menezes and R. palmensis A. Hansen. The latter is not an endemic of La Palma as assumed by its discoverer, but is recorded for the first time also in Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Complete descriptions are provided, and illustrations of distinctive features often lacking in herbarium specimens are presented. Problems concerning the typification are discussed. Rubus x wolfredoi-wildpretii H. E. Weber nothospec. nov., the frequent hybrid between Rubus bollei and R. ulmifolius is described as new to science. Rubus bornmuelleri Focke from Gran Canaria is based on a specimen dubium and has to be deleted from the list of Canarían species.Se han estudiado la taxonomía, la nomenclatura y la distribución de las especies de zarzas (Rubus L., subgen. Rubus descritas de las Islas Canarias. Junto a Rubus ulmifolius Schott, especie muy frecuente en el Mediterráneo, se encontraron dos especies: R. bollei Focke (Syn.: R. canariensis Focke, R. suspiciosus Menezes y R. palmensis A. Hansen. Se incluyen descripciones completas e ilustraciones de algunas características relevantes y que no siempre se han observado en especímenes de herbario revisados. Además, se discuten problemas de tipificación y se describe como nuevo para la ciencia Rubus x wolfredoi-wildpretii H.E. Weber nothospec. nov., híbrido frecuente entre R. bollei y R. ulmifolius. R. bornmuelleri Focke de Gran Canaria debe ser excluido de la lista de las especies canarias, al estar basada su descripción en un specimen dubium.

  1. Novel insights into early neuroanatomical evolution in penguins from the oldest described penguin brain endocast. (United States)

    Proffitt, J V; Clarke, J A; Scofield, R P


    Digital methodologies for rendering the gross morphology of the brain from X-ray computed tomography data have expanded our current understanding of the origin and evolution of avian neuroanatomy and provided new perspectives on the cognition and behavior of birds in deep time. However, fossil skulls germane to extracting digital endocasts from early stem members of extant avian lineages remain exceptionally rare. Data from early-diverging species of major avian subclades provide key information on ancestral morphologies in Aves and shifts in gross neuroanatomical structure that have occurred within those groups. Here we describe data on the gross morphology of the brain from a mid-to-late Paleocene penguin fossil from New Zealand. This most basal and geochronologically earliest-described endocast from the penguin clade indicates that described neuroanatomical features of early stem penguins, such as lower telencephalic lateral expansion, a relatively wider cerebellum, and lack of cerebellar folding, were present far earlier in penguin history than previously inferred. Limited dorsal expansion of the wulst in the new fossil is a feature seen in outgroup waterbird taxa such as Gaviidae (Loons) and diving Procellariiformes (Shearwaters, Diving Petrels, and allies), indicating that loss of flight may not drastically affect neuroanatomy in diving taxa. Wulst enlargement in the penguin lineage is first seen in the late Eocene, at least 25 million years after loss of flight and cooption of the flight stroke for aquatic diving. Similar to the origin of avian flight, major shifts in gross brain morphology follow, but do not appear to evolve quickly after, acquisition of a novel locomotor mode. Enlargement of the wulst shows a complex pattern across waterbirds, and may be linked to sensory modifications related to prey choice and foraging strategy. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  2. Using correlation functions to describe complex multi-phase porous media structures (United States)

    Karsanina, Marina; Sizonenko, Timofey; Korost, Dmitry; Gerke, Kirill


    Multi-scale flow and transport modelling relies on multi-scale image/property fusion techniques. Previusly we have rigorously addressed binary porous media description and stochastic reconstruction problems. However, numerous porous media have more than two, usually solids and pores, phases, e.g., clays, organic, heavy minerals and such. In this contribution we develop efficient approaches to utilize correlation functions to describe such muti-phase soil and rock structures using large sets of cluster, linear and probability functions, including cross-correlations. The approach is tested on numerous 3D images, which were segmented into 3 and more relevant phases. It is shown that multi-phase correlation functions are potentially a very powerful tool to describe any type of porous media at hand and this study also provides a basis for multi-phase stochastic reconstruction techniques, necessary for multi-phase image fusion to obtain large 3D images of hierarchical porous media based on, for example, macro and micro X-ray tomography scans and FIB/BIB-SEM and SEM. References: 1) Karsanina, M.V., Gerke, K.M., Skvortsova, E.B. and Mallants, D. (2015) Universal spatial correlation functions for describing and reconstructing soil microstructure. PLoS ONE 10(5), e0126515. 2) Gerke, K. M., & Karsanina, M. V. (2015). Improving stochastic reconstructions by weighting correlation functions in an objective function. EPL (Europhysics Letters),111(5), 56002. 3) Gerke, K. M., Karsanina, M. V., Vasilyev, R. V., & Mallants, D. (2014). Improving pattern reconstruction using directional correlation functions. EPL (Europhysics Letters), 106(6), 66002. 4) Gerke, K.M., Karsanina, M. V, Mallants, D., 2015. Universal Stochastic Multiscale Image Fusion: An Example Application for Shale Rock. Sci. Rep. 5, 15880. doi:10.1038/srep15880

  3. Genetic Resources for Advanced Biofuel Production Described with the Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy eTorto-Alalibo


    Full Text Available Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO: project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat, can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way.

  4. How do patients describe their disabilities? A coding system for categorizing patients' descriptions. (United States)

    Morris, Megan A; Inselman, Jonathan; Rogers, Julie M G; Halverson, Colin; Branda, Megan; Griffin, Joan M


    To provide care that meets the values and preferences of patients with disabilities, health care providers need to understand patients' perceptions and understanding of their disability. No studies have explored patients' definitions of disability within the healthcare setting. The aim of the study was to understand how patients' define their disability in the healthcare setting and to develop a coding system for categorizing how they describe their disability. In 2000 all new outpatients at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN completed a form that inquired if they had a disability and if so, to write in the disability. The research team categorized the responses by disability type (e.g.: visual or physical) and how the patient described his disability or "disability narrative" (e.g.: diagnosis or activity). Within 128,636 patients, 14,908 reported a disability. For adults, lower limb (26%) and chronic conditions (24%) were the most frequent disability type and activity limitations (56%) were the most frequent disability narrative category. For pediatric patients, developmental disabilities (43%) were the most frequently reported disability type and diagnoses (83%) were the most frequent disability narrative category. Patients used different disability narrative categories to describe different disability types. For example, most adults reporting a mental health listed a diagnosis (97%), compared to only 13% of those with lower limb disabilities. Patients had diverse descriptions of their disabilities. In order for providers and healthcare organizations to provide high-quality care, they should engage patients in developing a consistent, patient-centered language around disability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. “Lagrangian Temperature”: Derivation and Physical Meaning for Systems Described by Kappa Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livadiotis


    Full Text Available The paper studies the “Lagrangian temperature” defined through the entropy maximization in the canonical ensemble, which is the negative inverse Lagrangian multiplier corresponding to the constraint of internal energy. The Lagrangian temperature is derived for systems out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions such as space plasmas. The physical meaning of temperature is manifested by the equivalency of two different definitions, that is, through Maxwell’s kinetic theory and Clausius’ thermodynamics. The equivalency of the two definitions is true either for systems at thermal equilibrium described by Maxwell distributions or for systems out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions, and gives the meaning of the actual temperature, that is, the real or measured temperature. However, the third definition, that of the Lagrangian temperature, coincides with the primary two definitions only at thermal equilibrium, and thus, in the general case of systems out of thermal equilibrium, it does not represent the actual temperature, but it is rather a function of this. The paper derives and examines the exact expression and physical meaning of the Lagrangian temperature, showing that it has essentially different content to what is commonly thought. This is achieved by: (i maximizing the entropy in the continuous description of energy within the general framework of non-extensive statistical mechanics, (ii using the concept of the “N-particle” kappa distribution, which is governed by a special kappa index that is invariant of the degrees of freedom and the number of particles, and (iii determining the appropriate scales of length and speed involved in the phase-space microstates. Finally, the paper demonstrates the behavior of the Lagrangian against the actual temperature in various datasets of space plasmas.

  6. Relating gas chromatographic profiles to sensory measurements describing the end products of the Maillard reaction. (United States)

    Stanimirova, I; Boucon, C; Walczak, B


    Often in analytical practice, a set of samples is described by different types of measurements in the hope that a comprehensive characterisation of samples will provide a more complete picture and will help in determining the similarities among samples. The main focus is then on how to combine the information described by different measurement variables and how to analyse it simultaneously. In other words, the main goal is to find a common representation of samples that emphasises the individual and common properties of the different blocks of variables. Several methods can be adopted for the simultaneous analysis of multiblock data with a common object mode. These are: consensus principal component analysis (CPCA), SUM-PCA, multiple factor analysis (MFA) and structuration des tableaux à trois indices de la statistique (STATIS).In this article we present a comparison of the performances of these methods for data describing the chemistry and sensory profiles of the Maillard reaction products. The aroma compounds formed during the reaction of thermal heating between one or two selected amino acids and one or two reducing sugars have been analysed by head space gas chromatography and the intensity and nature of the odour of the resulting products has been evaluated according to selected descriptors by a panel of sensory experts.The results showed that using the information of the chromatographic and sensory data in conjunction enhanced the interpretability of the data. SUM-PCA and more specifically multiple factor analysis, MFA, allowed for a detailed study of the similarities of mixtures in terms of reaction products and sensory profiles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Describing peripancreatic collections in severe acute pancreatitis using morphologic terms: an international interobserver agreement study. (United States)

    van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bollen, Thomas L; Besselink, Marc G; Banks, Peter A; Boermeester, Marja A; van Eijck, Casper H; Evans, Jonathan; Freeny, Patrick C; Grenacher, Lars; Hermans, John J; Horvath, Karen D; Hough, David M; Laméris, Johan S; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Mortele, Koenraad J; Neoptolemos, John P; Sarr, Michael G; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Werner, Jens; Gooszen, Hein G


    The current terminology for describing peripancreatic collections in acute pancreatitis (AP) derived from the Atlanta Symposium (e.g. pseudocyst, pancreatic abscess) has shown a very poor interobserver agreement, creating the potential for patient mismanagement. A study was undertaken to determine the interobserver agreement for a new set of morphologic terms to describe peripancreatic collections in AP. An international, interobserver agreement study was performed: 7 gastrointestinal surgeons, 2 gastroenterologists and 8 radiologists in 3 US and 5 European tertiary referral hospitals independently evaluated 55 computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with predicted severe AP. The percentage agreement [median, interquartile range (IQR)] for 9 clinically relevant morphologic terms was calculated among all reviewers, and separately among radiologists and clinicians. The percentage agreement was defined as poor (bubbles (1; 1-1), and air-fluid levels (1; 1-1). Overall agreement was moderate for extent of pancreatic nonenhancement (0.60; 0.46-0.88) and encapsulation (0.56; 0.48-0.69). The percentage agreement was greater among radiologists than clinicians for extent of pancreatic nonenhancement (0.75 vs. 0.57, p = 0.008), encapsulation (0.67 vs. 0.46, p = 0.001), and content (1 vs. 0.78, p = 0.008). Interobserver agreement for the new set of morphologic terms to describe peripancreatic collections in AP is good to excellent. Therefore, we recommend that current clinically based definitions for CT findings in AP (e.g. pancreatic abscess) should no longer be used. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP.

  8. Mathematical model describing the thyroids-pituitary axis with distributed time delays in hormone transportation (United States)

    Neamţu, Mihaela; Stoian, Dana; Navolan, Dan Bogdan


    In the present paper we provide a mathematical model that describe the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in autoimmune (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis. Since there is a spatial separation between thyroid and pituitary gland in the body, time is needed for transportation of thyrotropin and thyroxine between the glands. Thus, the distributed time delays are considered as both weak and Dirac kernels. The delayed model is analyzed regarding the stability and bifurcation behavior. The last part contains some numerical simulations to illustrate the effectiveness of our results and conclusions.

  9. New animal taxa described in the Iberian Peninsula and Macaronesia since 1994 (XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fernández


    Full Text Available This current paper compiles the 20th installment of these lists of new taxa. It includes 501 records with 378 species, 55 genera or subgenera, 43 suprageneric categories and 25 subspecies published in 251 papers, mainly in 2015 and 2016. Also included are those previously published records that had not been included in the previous compilations. All of them have been described in the geographical area under review and near abyssal bottoms, or its known distribution includes it; likewise, when the higher rank include taxa present in that region.

  10. A simple morphologically structured model describing the growth of filamentous microorganisms. (United States)

    Nielsen, J


    Based on the reported mechanisms for filamentous growth, a simple morphologically structured growth model is set up. The model may describe the growth of filamentous microorganisms both on a solid medium and in a submerged culture. For description of a submerged culture the model is combined with a simple population model, which is derived from a balance for the distribution function for the hyphal elements. The model is compared with experimental data for three species of filamentous microorganisms: Geotrichum candidum, Streptomyces hygroscopicus, and Penicillium chrysogenum. (c) 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Accuracy Assessment for Cad Modeling of Freeform Surface Described by Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golba Grzegorz


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of comparative analysis of modeling accuracy the freeform surface constructed by using a variety of algorithms for surface modeling. Also determined the accuracy of mapping the theoretical freeform surface described by mathematical equation. To model surface objects used: SolidWorks 2012, CATIA v5 and Geomagic Studio 12. During the design process of CAD models were used: profile curves, fitting parametric surface and polygonal mesh. To assess the accuracy of the CAD models used Geomagic Qualify 12. On the basis of analyse defined the scope of application of each modeling techniques depending on the nature of the constructed object.

  12. Equatorial oscillations maintained by gravity waves as described with the Doppler Spread Parameterization: II. Heuristic analysis (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Hartle, R. E.; Chan, K. L.


    The Doppler Spread Parameterization (DSP) for gravity waves (GW) developed by Hines is applied to the zonal momentum budget at the equator. For sufficiently large oscillation amplitudes in the background zonal winds, comparable to the GW induced wind variability, the momentum source is intermittent and as such it represents a nonlinearity of third or generally odd order. This kind of nonlinearity generates, besides higher harmonics, the fundamental harmonic itself which is retained in a simplified analytical solution that can describe self-sustained oscillations without invoking external, time dependent forcing. The formulation is discussed to provide some understanding of the numerical results presented in the companion paper.

  13. A Novel Method Describing the Space Charge Limited Region in a Planar Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Ghergherehchi


    Full Text Available A novel and rather simple method is presented to describe the physics of space-charge region in a planar diode. The method deals with the issue in the time domain and as a consequence transient time behavior can be achieved. Potential distributions and currents obtained using this technique, supposing zero initial velocity for electrons, reveal absolute agreement with Child's results. Moreover, applying the method for non-zero uniform initial velocity for electrons, gives results which are in good agreement with previous works

  14. Evaluation of mathematical models to describe growth of grazing young bulls


    Henrique Jorge Fernandes; Luis Orlindo Tedeschi; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Edenio Detmann; Luisa Melville Paiva; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Aline Gomes da Silva; José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of different mathematical models to describe growth of grazing beef cattle. Data of 20 Nellore bulls with initial weight of 129±28.1 kg and final weight of 405±62.0 kg were used. The animals were randomly divided into four plots and placed on B. decumbens Stapf pastures. Three plots received concentrate supplement with different protein profiles and the fourth plot received only mineral supplement. Animals were weighed every 28 days to desig...

  15. Mass Action Models Describing Extant Horizontal Transfer of Plasmids: Inferences and Parameter Sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Barth F.; Lardon, Laurent


    Predicting the fate of horizontally transmissible elements in extant microbial communities might be facilitated by the availability of suitable mathematical models. Since the mid-1970s, mass action models have been introduced to describe the transfer of conjugal and mobilizable genetic elements...... of the outcomes to the various plasmid dynamic parameters. For our analysis, we developed a set of user-friendly MatLab® routines, which are deposited in the public domain. We hope that the availability of these routines will encourage the computationally untrained microbiologist to make use of these mathematical...

  16. A UML-based ontology for describing hospital information system architectures. (United States)

    Winter, A; Brigl, B; Wendt, T


    To control the heterogeneity inherent to hospital information systems the information management needs appropriate hospital information systems modeling methods or techniques. This paper shows that, for several reasons, available modeling approaches are not able to answer relevant questions of information management. To overcome this major deficiency we offer an UML-based ontology for describing hospital information systems architectures. This ontology views at three layers: the domain layer, the logical tool layer, and the physical tool layer, and defines the relevant components. The relations between these components, especially between components of different layers make the answering of our information management questions possible.

  17. A new model for describing remission times: the generalized beta-generated Lindley distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available New generators are required to define wider distributions for modeling real data in survival analysis. To that end we introduce the four-parameter generalized beta-generated Lindley distribution. It has explicit expressions for the ordinary and incomplete moments, mean deviations, generating and quantile functions. We propose a maximum likelihood procedure to estimate the model parameters, which is assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation study. We also derive an additional estimation scheme by means of least square between percentiles. The usefulness of the proposed distribution to describe remission times of cancer patients is illustrated by means of an application to real data.

  18. Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomised controlled trials in grant proposals: a documentary analysis (United States)


    Background There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Methods Using the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) database we identified trials funded in the United Kingdom, ongoing between 2001 and 2010, and reporting the use of qualitative research. We requested copies of proposals from lead researchers. We extracted data from the proposals using closed and open questions, analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. Results 2% (89/3812) of trials in the mRCT database described the use of qualitative research undertaken with the trial. From these 89 trials, we received copies of 36 full proposals, of which 32 met our inclusion criteria. 25% used less than a single paragraph to describe the qualitative research. The aims of the qualitative research described in these proposals focused mainly on the intervention or trial conduct. Just over half (56%) of the proposals included an explicit rationale for conducting the qualitative research with the trial, the most frequent being to optimise implementation into clinical practice or to interpret trial findings. Key information about methods, expertise and resources was missing in a large minority of proposals, in particular sample size, type of analysis, and non-personnel resources. 28% specifically stated that qualitative researchers would conduct the qualitative research. Conclusions Our review of proposals of successfully funded studies identified good practice but also identified limited space given to describing the qualitative research, with an associated lack of attention to the rationale for

  19. Hydrodynamic-type systems describing 2-dimensional polynomially integrable geodesic flows (United States)

    Manno, Gianni; Pavlov, Maxim V.


    Starting from a homogeneous polynomial in momenta of arbitrary order we extract multi-component hydrodynamic-type systems which describe 2-dimensional geodesic flows admitting the initial polynomial as integral. All these hydrodynamic-type systems are semi-Hamiltonian, thus implying that they are integrable according to the generalized hodograph method. Moreover, they are integrable in a constructive sense as polynomial first integrals allow to construct generating equations of conservation laws. According to the multiplicity of the roots of the polynomial integral, we separate integrable particular cases.

  20. Electrical performances of pyroelectric bimetallic strip heat engines describing a Stirling cycle (United States)

    Arnaud, A.; Boughaleb, J.; Monfray, S.; Boeuf, F.; Cugat, O.; Skotnicki, T.


    This paper deals with the analytical modeling of pyroelectric bimetallic strip heat engines. These devices are designed to exploit the snap-through of a thermo-mechanically bistable membrane to transform a part of the heat flowing through the membrane into mechanical energy and to convert it into electric energy by means of a piezoelectric layer deposited on the surface of the bistable membrane. In this paper, we describe the properties of these heat engines in the case when they complete a Stirling cycle, and we evaluate the performances (available energy, Carnot efficiency...) of these harvesters at the macro- and micro-scale.

  1. Human Errors - A Taxonomy for Describing Human Malfunction in Industrial Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens


    as physiological factors are also taken into consideration. The taxonomy for event analysis, including human malfunction, is presented. Possibilities for the prediction of human error are discussed. The need for careful studies in actual work situations is expressed. Such studies could provide a better......This paper describes the definition and the characteristics of human errors. Different types of human behavior are classified, and their relation to different error mechanisms are analyzed. The effect of conditioning factors related to affective, motivating aspects of the work situation as well...... understanding of the complexity of human error situations as well as the data needed to characterize these situations....

  2. [Alferecía and the first cases of tetanus neonaturum described in Chile in 1894]. (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter


    Federico Puga Borne presented the first two cases of known Chilean tetanus neonatorum in 1891. These cases had a fatal course, were poorly described and had no necropsy. The presentation was done in a regular session of the Sociéte Scientifique du Chili, founded in 1891 by a French citizen settled in the country, and published in the Actes de la Sociéte Scientifique du Chili. At this time, tetanus had never been seen in a newborn in Chile, while it was very common in other South American countries; its popular name was alferecía, but this term covered many other neurological disorders.

  3. Technical note: Use of accelerometers to describe gait patterns in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passillé, A. M. de; Jensen, Margit Bak; Chapinal, N.


    Developments in accelerometer technology offer new opportunities for automatic monitoring of animal behavior. Until now, commercially available accelerometers have been used to measure walking in adult cows but have failed to identify walking in calves. We described the pattern of acceleration...... associated with various gaits in calves and tested whether measures of acceleration could be used to count steps and distinguish among gait types. A triaxial accelerometer (sampling at 33 readings/s with maximum measurement at +/-3.2 g) was attached to 1 hind leg of 7 dairy calves, and each calf was walked...

  4. An attempt to describe a relationship between concrete deterioration quantities and bridge deck condition assessment techniques (United States)

    Varnavina, Aleksandra V.; Sneed, Lesley H.; Khamzin, Aleksey K.; Torgashov, Evgeniy V.; Anderson, Neil L.


    This paper presents a study of the performance of four techniques - visual inspection, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Ultrasonic Surface Wave (USW), and core control - that were used to assess condition of a concrete bridge deck. The bridge deck was then rehabilitated using hydrodemolition, and the concrete removed during hydrodemolition was assumed to be deteriorated. LiDAR measurements of concrete depth removal collected after hydrodemolition were used as ground truth. Comparisons of bridge deck condition assessment data and LiDAR concrete removal measurements were performed in this study. The comparisons attempt to find and describe a possible relationship between bridge deck assessment techniques and quantities of concrete deterioration.

  5. Investigation of statistical relationships between quantities describing bone architecture, its fractal dimensions and mechanical properties. (United States)

    Cichański, Artur; Nowicki, Krzysztof; Mazurkiewicz, Adam; Topoliński, Tomasz


    The paper presents linear, logarithmic and exponential regression tabecular bone indices, fractal dimensions and strength. The analysis of the above parameters was supported by determining non-parametric correlation coefficients: Spearman's ρ, gamma and Kendall's τ. The principal components' analysis (PCA) was also performed in order to reduce the number of indices describing the variance in the data set. The analysis showed the most independent indices: lacunarity (λm, λmin, λmax), BMD, Conn.D., SMI, DA, ρA and age.

  6. Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomised controlled trials in grant proposals: a documentary analysis. (United States)

    Drabble, Sarah J; O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny


    There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Using the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) database we identified trials funded in the United Kingdom, ongoing between 2001 and 2010, and reporting the use of qualitative research. We requested copies of proposals from lead researchers. We extracted data from the proposals using closed and open questions, analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. 2% (89/3812) of trials in the mRCT database described the use of qualitative research undertaken with the trial. From these 89 trials, we received copies of 36 full proposals, of which 32 met our inclusion criteria. 25% used less than a single paragraph to describe the qualitative research. The aims of the qualitative research described in these proposals focused mainly on the intervention or trial conduct. Just over half (56%) of the proposals included an explicit rationale for conducting the qualitative research with the trial, the most frequent being to optimise implementation into clinical practice or to interpret trial findings. Key information about methods, expertise and resources was missing in a large minority of proposals, in particular sample size, type of analysis, and non-personnel resources. 28% specifically stated that qualitative researchers would conduct the qualitative research. Our review of proposals of successfully funded studies identified good practice but also identified limited space given to describing the qualitative research, with an associated lack of attention to the rationale for doing the qualitative research and

  7. Combustion chamber pressure control based on mixed H∞-describing function approach (United States)

    Nassirharand, Amir; Mousavai Firdeh, S. R.


    A new single range controller design approach for use with nonlinear liquid propellant engines (LPE) is developed. The approach is based on a describing function model of the nonlinear LPE coupled with the application of the H∞ control theory. The approach is applicable to nonlinear LPEs of a general nature without any restrictions on nonlinearity type, number of nonlinear terms, nonlinearity arrangement, or system order. The approach is applied to an existing nonlinear LPE, and the results are compared with those obtained with an alternative method that was previously reported in the open literature.

  8. A Sliding Mode Control of Semi-Active Suspension Systems with Describing Function Method (United States)

    Toyama, Shigehiro; Ikeda, Fujio

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller of semi-active suspension systems. The sliding mode controller is designed by the describing function method so that a switching function is enforced into a desired limit cycle instead of a perfect sliding mode. Although the proposed sliding mode controller cannot generate the limit cycle as desired because of the passive constraint of controllable dampers, restricting the switching function in the vicinity of the origin can suppress the deterioration due to the passive constraint, such as increase of jerk of the sprung mass. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  9. Treatment for depression in 63 countries worldwide: describing and explaining cross-national differences. (United States)

    Smits, Fransje; Huijts, Tim


    This study describes differences between 63 countries in treatment for depression and explores explanations for these differences. Treatment for depression is measured as the overall chance that an individual receives treatment, plus as the chance to receive treatment given the presence of depressive symptoms. Using the World Health Survey (2002-2004, N=249,116), we find strong cross-national variation in the chance to receive treatment for depression. Additionally, multilevel regression analyses reveal that urbanization, employment status, marital status, level of education, gender, age, and national wealth all partly explain cross-national differences in the chance to receive treatment for depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Female and male Hispanic students majoring in science or engineering: Their stories describing their educational journeys (United States)

    Brown, Susan Wightman

    National statistics clearly demonstrate an underrepresentation of minorities in the fields of science and engineering. Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asians do not typically choose science or engineering as their college major; therefore, there is a very small representation of these minorities in the science and engineering labor force. The decision not to major in science and engineering may begin as soon as the child can begin to recognize role models in the media. News stories, magazine articles, television programs, teachers, parents, administrators, and other agencies have painted the picture of a scientist or engineer as being dominantly a White male. Schools have continued society's portrayal by using curriculum, textbooks, role models, instructional strategies, and counseling that continues to encourage the White male to succeed in science and engineering, but discourages the minority students, male and female, from succeeding in these fields. In this qualitative study, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, who are majoring in science or engineering, were interviewed using Seidman's in-depth interviewing technique. These students were shadowed in their college science or engineering classes; their high school and college transcripts were analyzed; and, a focus group was brought together at the end of the interviewing process in order to allow interaction between the participants. The goal was to explore the educational journeys of the 22 Hispanic students. What made a difference in the journeys of these 22 students so that they could succeed in majors that have historically discouraged minority students? Seven themes emerged: family support, honors program, challenging and interactive curriculum, college preparation in high school courses, caring and kind teachers, small class size, and small communities. Gender comparison of the educational journeys documents these differences between the females and males: college preparation, mentoring

  11. Abstract Interpretation of PIC programs through Logic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim Steen; Gallagher, John Patrick


    A logic based general approach to abstract interpretation of low-level machine programs is reported. It is based on modelling the behavior of the machine as a logic program. General purpose program analysis and transformation of logic programs, such as partial evaluation and convex hull analysis....... The specialised emulator can now be further analysed to gain insight into the given program for the PIC microcontroller. The method describes a general framework for applying abstractions, illustrated here by linear constraints and convex hull analysis, to logic programs. Using these techniques on the specialised...

  12. A data base describing low-gravity fluids and materials processing experiments (United States)

    Winter, C. A.; Jones, J. C.


    A data base documenting information on approximately 600 fluids and materials processing experiments performed in a low-gravity environment has been prepared at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The compilation was designed to document all such experimental efforts performed: (1) on U.S. manned space vehicles; (2) on payloads deployed from U.S. manned space vehicles; and (3) on all domestic and international sounding rocket programs (excluding those of the U.S.S.R. and China). Identification of major (reported) sources of significant anomalies during 100 of the experiments is reported and discussed. Further, a preliminary summary of the number of these 100 investigations which experienced an anomaly affecting a certain percentage of the experimental results/objectives is presented.

  13. The relationship between the reading and signing skills of deaf children in bilingual education programs. (United States)

    Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Ormel, Ellen; Verhoeven, Ludo


    This paper reports on one experiment in which we investigated the relationship between reading and signing skills. We administered a vocabulary task and a story comprehension task in Sign Language of the Netherlands and in written Dutch to a group of 87 deaf children from bilingual education programs. We found a strong and positive correlation between the scores obtained in the sign vocabulary task and the reading vocabulary task when age, short-term memory scores, and nonverbal intelligence scores were controlled for. In addition, a correlation was observed between the scores in the story comprehension tasks in Sign Language of the Netherlands and written Dutch but only when vocabulary scores for words and signs were not taken into account. The results are briefly discussed with reference to a model we recently proposed to describe lexical development for deaf children in bilingual education programs (Hermans, D., Knoors, H., Ormel, E., & Verhoeven, L., 2008). In addition, the implications of the results of the present study for previous studies on the relationship between reading and signing skills are discussed.

  14. National Forestry Research Plan and Strategic Plan of the Agricultural Science and Technology Program (Colciencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica María Baquero Parra


    Full Text Available This paper aims to share the national research priorities in agriculture and forestry areas with the scientific community, based on the lines of research identified by the Agricultural Science and Technology Program for the 2010-2019 Strategic Plans by Colciencias. The Strategic Agriculture Plan has determined that the research priorities are Colombia to manage the supply chain, nutrition, rural poverty, quality and innocuousness, as well as the slow production transformation: cost of opportunity and insufficient, decontextualized research. Each of the aforementioned problems is briefly described in the document. As far as the National Plan of Forestry Research is concerned, the following three main topics were suggested: to strengthen a national genetic improvement of tree species that contribute to productivity and the increase of environmental services; to identify and characterize areas, species and potential products for reforestation programs; and to identify species, arrangements and densities that optimize the goods that may be obtained from a forest plantation and its environmental services for the top priority social and agro-ecological conditions of the country. The information regarding the two National Strategic Plans is expected to be disclosed during the first semester of 2011, so that the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (Colciencias can support the research projects that meet the expectations of the identified priorities.

  15. Numerical approach to describe complementary drying of banana slices osmotically dehydrated (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, Aluízio Freire; da Silva, Wilton Pereira; de Farias Aires, Juarez Everton; Farias Aires, Kalina Lígia C. A.


    In this work, diffusion model was used to describe the water loss in the complementary drying process of cylindrical slices of banana pretreated by osmotic dehydration. A numerical solution has been proposed for the diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates, which was obtained through the Finite Volume Method. The diffusion equation was discretized assuming that the effective water diffusivity and the dimensions of a finite cylinder may vary; also considering the boundary condition of the third kind. The banana slices were cut in length of about 1.00 cm and average radius 1.70 cm before osmotic pretreatment, and completed the pretreatment with length of about 0.74 cm and average radius 1.40 cm. The complementary drying was carried out in a kiln with circulation and air exchange. Drying temperatures were the same as used in the osmotic pretreatment (40 to 70 °C). The proposed model described well the water loss, with good statistical indicators for all fits.

  16. Describing the longitudinal course of major depression using Markov models: data integration across three national surveys. (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Lee, Robert C


    Most epidemiological studies of major depression report period prevalence estimates. These are of limited utility in characterizing the longitudinal epidemiology of this condition. Markov models provide a methodological framework for increasing the utility of epidemiological data. Markov models relating incidence and recovery to major depression prevalence have been described in a series of prior papers. In this paper, the models are extended to describe the longitudinal course of the disorder. Data from three national surveys conducted by the Canadian national statistical agency (Statistics Canada) were used in this analysis. These data were integrated using a Markov model. Incidence, recurrence and recovery were represented as weekly transition probabilities. Model parameters were calibrated to the survey estimates. The population was divided into three categories: low, moderate and high recurrence groups. The size of each category was approximated using lifetime data from a study using the WHO Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). Consistent with previous work, transition probabilities reflecting recovery were high in the initial weeks of the episodes, and declined by a fixed proportion with each passing week. Markov models provide a framework for integrating psychiatric epidemiological data. Previous studies have illustrated the utility of Markov models for decomposing prevalence into its various determinants: incidence, recovery and mortality. This study extends the Markov approach by distinguishing several recurrence categories.

  17. Roughness in Surface Force Measurements: Extension of DLVO Theory To Describe the Forces between Hafnia Surfaces. (United States)

    Eom, Namsoon; Parsons, Drew F; Craig, Vincent S J


    The interaction between colloidal particles is commonly viewed through the lens of DLVO theory, whereby the interaction is described as the sum of the electrostatic and dispersion forces. For similar materials acting across a medium at pH values remote from the isoelectric point the theory typically involves an electrostatic repulsion that is overcome by dispersion forces at very small separations. However, the dominance of the dispersion forces at short separations is generally not seen in force measurements, with the exception of the interaction between mica surfaces. The discrepancy for silica surfaces has been attributed to hydration forces, but this does not explain the situation for titania surfaces where the dispersion forces are very much larger. Here, the interaction forces between very smooth hafnia surfaces have been measured using the colloid probe technique and the forces evaluated within the DLVO framework, including both hydration forces and the influence of roughness. The measured forces across a wide range of pH at different salt concentrations are well described with a single parameter for the surface roughness. These findings show that even small degrees of surface roughness significantly alter the form of the interaction force and therefore indicate that surface roughness needs to be included in the evaluation of surface forces between all surfaces that are not ideally smooth.

  18. Evaluation of mathematical models to describe growth of grazing young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jorge Fernandes


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of different mathematical models to describe growth of grazing beef cattle. Data of 20 Nellore bulls with initial weight of 129±28.1 kg and final weight of 405±62.0 kg were used. The animals were randomly divided into four plots and placed on B. decumbens Stapf pastures. Three plots received concentrate supplement with different protein profiles and the fourth plot received only mineral supplement. Animals were weighed every 28 days to design growth curve of full body weight. Five mathematical models were evaluated to describe animal growth: Multiphase, Linear, Logarithmic, Gompertz and Logistic models. Assessment of adequacy of the models was performed by using coefficient of determination, simultaneous F-test for identity of parameters, concordance correlation coefficient, root of the mean square error of prediction and partition of the mean square error of prediction. The analysis of the pairwise mean square error of prediction and the delta Akaike's information criterion were used to compare the models for accuracy and precision. Evaluation of all the tested models showed that all of them were able to predict variability among animals. However, Gompertz, Logarithmic and Logistic models created individual predictions that were not satisfactory. Models differed from each other concerning accuracy and precision; the best were in the following order: Multiphase, Linear, Gompertz, Logarithmic and Logistic. The Multiphase model was more efficient than the others for description of grazing beef cattle growth.

  19. Self-describing schemes for interoperable MPEG-7 multimedia content descriptions (United States)

    Paek, Seungyup; Benitez, Ana B.; Chang, Shih-Fu


    In this paper, we present the self-describing schemes for interoperable image/video content descriptions, which are being developed as part of our proposal to the MPEG-7 standard. MPEG-7 aims to standardize content descriptions for multimedia data. The objective of this standard is to facilitate content-focused applications like multimedia searching, filtering, browsing, and summarization. To ensure maximum interoperability and flexibility, our descriptions are defined using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML), developed by the World Wide Web Consortium. We demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our self-describing schemes in our MPEG-7 testbed. First, we show how our scheme can accommodate image and video descriptions that are generated by a wide variety of systems. Then, we present two systems being developed that are enabled and enhanced by the proposed approach for multimedia content descriptions. The first system is an intelligent search engine with an associated expressive query interface. The second system is a new version of MetaSEEk, a metasearch system for mediation among multiple search engines for audio-visual information.

  20. Numerical approach to describe complementary drying of banana slices osmotically dehydrated (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, Aluízio Freire; da Silva, Wilton Pereira; de Farias Aires, Juarez Everton; Farias Aires, Kalina Lígia C. A.


    In this work, diffusion model was used to describe the water loss in the complementary drying process of cylindrical slices of banana pretreated by osmotic dehydration. A numerical solution has been proposed for the diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates, which was obtained through the Finite Volume Method. The diffusion equation was discretized assuming that the effective water diffusivity and the dimensions of a finite cylinder may vary; also considering the boundary condition of the third kind. The banana slices were cut in length of about 1.00 cm and average radius 1.70 cm before osmotic pretreatment, and completed the pretreatment with length of about 0.74 cm and average radius 1.40 cm. The complementary drying was carried out in a kiln with circulation and air exchange. Drying temperatures were the same as used in the osmotic pretreatment (40 to 70 °C). The proposed model described well the water loss, with good statistical indicators for all fits.

  1. Does Flory-Rehner theory quantitatively describe the swelling of thermoresponsive microgels? (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos G; Richtering, Walter


    The swelling of thermoresponsive microgels is widely modelled through Flory-Rehner theory, which combines Flory-Huggins solution thermodynamics with the affine network model of elasticity. While it has been shown that FR theory closely follows experimental results for a range of systems, the large number of free parameters required to fit size vs. temperature data make a proper evaluation of the theory difficult. In order to test the applicability of FR theory to microgel particles, we analyse viscosity and light scattering data for PNIPAM microgels as a function of temperature, cross-linking degree (f) and molar mass. In the collapsed state, the polymer volume fraction is estimated to be ϕ C ≃ 0.44, independent of cross linking degree and molar mass. Fixing ϕ C , f and the θ temperature to independent estimates, the FR model appears to describe microgel swelling well, particularly for high cross-linking densities. Estimates for the various fit parameters differ from earlier reports by an order of magnitude. A comparison of the χ parameter obtained from FR theory with values for the linear polymer reveals that the agreement between experiment and theory is somewhat fortuitous. Although the FR model can accurately describe experimental data, the accuracy of the obtained fit parameters is significantly poorer.

  2. Numerical-graphical method for describing the creep of damaged highly filled polymer materials (United States)

    Bykov, D. L.; Martynova, E. D.; Mel'nikov, V. P.


    A method for describing the creep behavior until fracture of a highly filled polymer material previously damaged in preliminary tests is proposed. The constitutive relations are the relations of nonlinear endochronic theory of aging viscoelastic materials (NETAVEM) [1]. The numerical-graphical method for identifying the functions occurring in NETAVEM, which was proposed in [2] for describing loading processes at a constant strain rate, is used here for the first time in creep theory. We use the results of experiments with undamaged and preliminary damaged specimens under the action of the same constant tensile loads. The creep kernel is determined in experiments with an undamaged specimen. The reduced time function contained in NETAVEM is determined from the position of points corresponding to the same values of strain on the creep curves of the damaged and undamaged specimens. An integral equation is solved to obtain the aging function, and then the viscosity function is determined. The knowledge of all functions contained in the constitutive relations permits solving the creep problem for products manufactured from a highly filled polymer material.

  3. A Network Model to Describe the Terminal Differentiation of B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Méndez


    Full Text Available Terminal differentiation of B cells is an essential process for the humoral immune response in vertebrates and is achieved by the concerted action of several transcription factors in response to antigen recognition and extracellular signals provided by T-helper cells. While there is a wealth of experimental data regarding the molecular and cellular signals involved in this process, there is no general consensus regarding the structure and dynamical properties of the underlying regulatory network controlling this process. We developed a dynamical model of the regulatory network controlling terminal differentiation of B cells. The structure of the network was inferred from experimental data available in the literature, and its dynamical behavior was analyzed by modeling the network both as a discrete and a continuous dynamical systems. The steady states of these models are consistent with the patterns of activation reported for the Naive, GC, Mem, and PC cell types. Moreover, the models are able to describe the patterns of differentiation from the precursor Naive to any of the GC, Mem, or PC cell types in response to a specific set of extracellular signals. We simulated all possible single loss- and gain-of-function mutants, corroborating the importance of Pax5, Bcl6, Bach2, Irf4, and Blimp1 as key regulators of B cell differentiation process. The model is able to represent the directional nature of terminal B cell differentiation and qualitatively describes key differentiation events from a precursor cell to terminally differentiated B cells.


    Yoon, Jin H; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F; Suchting, Robert; Weaver, Matthew T; Brown, Gregory S; Omar, Yasmine; Haliwa, Ilana


    Delay discounting describes how a reward loses value as a function of increasing delay to its receipt and has been reliably associated with a variety of vulnerable populations including those with substance use disorders (SUDs). Two commonly used models to assess delay discounting in the field of SUDs include log k derived from Mazur's hyperbolic equation and area under the curve (AUC). In the current study, we compared log k with AUC on delay discounting data obtained from non-treatment seeking, cocaine- and methamphetamine-dependent volunteers. We specifically chose this population in order to obtain a distribution of relatively steep discounters. The results show that the relationship between AUC and log k is better described by a quadratic rather than a linear function. In other words, changes in discounting, as measured by AUC and log k, are reflected differently across a range of obtained responses. Additionally, the distribution of AUC values was skewed, which appears to be more likely among populations exhibiting greater discounting. Finally, closer examination of indifference points revealed that AUC was almost perfectly predicted by the area from the two longest delays, with relatively less input from shorter delays. Given these results, researchers should exercise additional caution when deciding which method to assess discounting data and how final results are to be interpreted, particularly when dealing with relatively high rates of discounting. High rates of discounting are likely in populations with impulsive disorders such as those with SUDs.

  5. Keratitis caused by the recently described new species Aspergillus brasiliensis: two case reports

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    Vágvölgyi Csaba


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human infections caused by Aspergillus brasiliensis have not yet been reported. We describe the first two known cases of fungal keratitis caused by Aspergillus brasiliensis. Case presentations A 49-year-old Indian Tamil woman agricultural worker came with pain and defective vision in the right eye for one month. Meanwhile, a 35-year-old Indian Tamil woman presented with a history of a corneal ulcer involving the left eye for 15 days. The fungal strains isolated from these two cases were originally suspected to belong to Aspergillus section Nigri based on macro- and micromorphological characteristics. Molecular identification revealed that both isolates represent A. brasiliensis. Conclusion The two A. brasiliensis strains examined in this study were part of six keratitis isolates from Aspergillus section Nigri, suggesting that this recently described species may be responsible for a significant proportion of corneal infections caused by black Aspergilli. The presented cases also indicate that significant differences may occur between the severities of keratitis caused by individual isolates of A. brasiliensis.

  6. Quantitative law describing market dynamics before and after interest-rate change. (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene


    We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)∼(t-T)(-Ω) , with Ω positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n'(|t-T|) of "preshocks" before the interest-rate change at time T . This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the "sign effect," in which "bad news" has a larger impact than "good news." Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a "market under-reaction" that lasts at least one trading day.

  7. A bottom-up model to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season peaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, E.; Albisu, L.M.


    Peaches are consumed in Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Nowadays there are few areas in Europe that produce peaches with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), and the Calanda area is one of them. The aim of this work is to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season PDO Calanda peaches in the city of Zaragoza, Spain, by a bottom-up model. The bottom-up model proves greater amount of information than top-down models. In this approach it is estimated one utility function per consumer. Thus, it is not necessary to make assumptions about preference distributions and correlations across respondents. It was observed that preference distributions were neither normal nor independently distributed. If those preferences were estimated by top-down models, conclusions would be biased. This paper also explores a new way to describe preferences through individual utility functions. Results show that the largest behavioural group gathered origin sensitive consumers. Their utility increased if the peaches were produced in the Calanda area and, especially, when peaches had the PDO Calanda brand. In sequence, the second most valuable attribute for consumers was the price. Peach size and packaging were not so important on purchase choice decision. Nevertheless, it is advisable to avoid trading smallest size peaches (weighting around 160 g/fruit). Traders also have to be careful by using active packaging. It was found that a group of consumers disliked this kind of product, probably, because they perceived it as less natural. (Author)

  8. A bottom-up model to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiénne Groot


    Full Text Available Peaches are consumed in Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Nowadays there are few areas in Europe that produce peaches with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, and the Calanda area is one of them. The aim of this work is to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season PDO Calanda peaches in the city of Zaragoza, Spain, by a bottom-up model. The bottom-up model proves greater amount of information than top-down models. In this approach it is estimated one utility function per consumer. Thus, it is not necessary to make assumptions about preference distributions and correlations across respondents. It was observed that preference distributions were neither normal nor independently distributed. If those preferences were estimated by top-down models, conclusions would be biased. This paper also explores a new way to describe preferences through individual utility functions. Results show that the largest behavioural group gathered origin sensitive consumers. Their utility increased if the peaches were produced in the Calanda area and, especially, when peaches had the PDO Calanda brand. In sequence, the second most valuable attribute for consumers was the price. Peach size and packaging were not so important on purchase choice decision. Nevertheless, it is advisable to avoid trading smallest size peaches (weighting around 160 g/fruit. Traders also have to be careful by using active packaging. It was found that a group of consumers disliked this kind of product, probably, because they perceived it as less natural.

  9. How do the parents describe personality of their child with cognitive disability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Colnerič


    Full Text Available The Five-Factor Model (FFM of personality domains was demonstrated as useful taxonomy to classify parents' descriptions of children and adolescents across several countries. In the present study, 156 Slovene children (Mage= 6.95 years with cognitive disabilities (CD were described by their mothers and fathers. A coding scheme developed within a previous international research project was used to categorize the expressions generated by the parents. The scheme includes five main categories, with three subcategories each, and ten additional categories outside the FFM. Over 70% of parental responses were coded within the FFM sugesting that this taxonomy is also relevant for categorizing characteristics of individuals with CD. There was a significant agreement between the spouses on describing their child with CD. In comparison to samples of normative children across different studies, Agreeableness received a higher proportion of descriptions by parents, mostly due to reports coded in Helpfulness and low Manageability subcategories. A lower proportion of descriptors was coded in the Openness/Intellect category, mostly due to reports on interests of children with CD. The lowest proportion of descriptors was ascribed to the Conscientiousness and Emotional Instability categories. Most of the responses outside the FFM were coded in the Disabilities category as the parents often mentioned their child's disabilities in the course of interview.

  10. Describing Growth Pattern of Bali Cows Using Non-linear Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafiz A.W


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the best fit non-linear regression model to describe the growth pattern of Bali cows. Estimates of asymptotic mature weight, rate of maturing and constant of integration were derived from Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Logistic models which were fitted to cross-sectional data of body weight taken from 74 Bali cows raised in MARDI Research Station Muadzam Shah Pahang. Coefficient of determination (R2 and residual mean squares (MSE were used to determine the best fit model in describing the growth pattern of Bali cows. Von Bertalanffy model was the best model among the four growth functions evaluated to determine the mature weight of Bali cattle as shown by the highest R2 and lowest MSE values (0.973 and 601.9, respectively, followed by Gompertz (0.972 and 621.2, respectively, Logistic (0.971 and 648.4, respectively and Brody (0.932 and 660.5, respectively models. The correlation between rate of maturing and mature weight was found to be negative in the range of -0.170 to -0.929 for all models, indicating that animals of heavier mature weight had lower rate of maturing. The use of non-linear model could summarize the weight-age relationship into several biologically interpreted parameters compared to the entire lifespan weight-age data points that are difficult and time consuming to interpret.

  11. Postponing a General Practitioner Visit: Describing Social Differences in Thirty-One European Countries. (United States)

    Detollenaere, Jens; Van Pottelberge, Amelie; Hanssens, Lise; Pauwels, Lieven; van Loenen, Tessa; Willems, Sara


    To describe social differences in postponing a general practitioner visit in 31 European countries and to explore whether primary care strength is associated with postponement rates. Between October 2011 and December 2013, the multicountry QUALICOPC study collected data on 61,931 patients and 7,183 general practitioners throughout Europe. Access to primary care was measured by asking the patients whether they postponed a general practitioner visit in the past year. Social differences were described according to patients' self-rated household income, education, ethnicity, and gender. Data were analyzed using multivariable and multilevel binomial logistic regression analyses. According to the variance-decomposition in the multilevel analysis, most of the variance can be explained by patient characteristics. Postponement of general practitioner care is higher for patients with a low self-rated household income, a low education level, and a migration background. In addition, although the point estimates are consistent with a substantial effect, no statistically significant association between primary care strength and postponement in the 31 countries is determined. Despite the universal and egalitarian goals of health care systems, access to general practitioner care in Europe is still determined by patients' socioeconomic status (self-rated household income and education) and migration background. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. A force-based mechanistic model for describing activated sludge settling process. (United States)

    Xu, Guihua; Yin, Fengjun; Xu, Yuanjian; Yu, Han-Qing


    Sludge settling as the last step in the biological wastewater treatment process substantially affects the system performance, and thus the design and control optimization of the sludge settling process has been frequently investigated with mathematical modeling tools. So far, these models are developed on the basis of the solid flux theory with numerous parameters and complicated boundary conditions, and their prediction results are often unsatisfactory. In this work, a new force-based mechanical model with five parameters was developed, in which five forces were adopted and Newton's law, rather than the flux theory, was used to describe the sludge settling process. In such a model, the phase interactions were taken into account. New functions of hydrodynamic drag, solids pressure and shear stress were developed. Model validation results demonstrate that both batch and continuous sludge settling processes could be accurately described by this model. The predictions of this model were more accurate than those of flux theory-based models, suggesting its advantages in understanding sludge settling behaviors. In addition, this mechanistic model needed to input 5 parameters and set 1 boundary condition only, and could be directly executed by commercial computational fluid dynamics software. Thus, this force-based model provides a more convenient and useful tool to improve the activated sludge settling design and operation optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Terminal attack trajectories of peregrine falcons are described by the proportional navigation guidance law of missiles. (United States)

    Brighton, Caroline H; Thomas, Adrian L R; Taylor, Graham K


    The ability to intercept uncooperative targets is key to many diverse flight behaviors, from courtship to predation. Previous research has looked for simple geometric rules describing the attack trajectories of animals, but the underlying feedback laws have remained obscure. Here, we use GPS loggers and onboard video cameras to study peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus , attacking stationary targets, maneuvering targets, and live prey. We show that the terminal attack trajectories of peregrines are not described by any simple geometric rule as previously claimed, and instead use system identification techniques to fit a phenomenological model of the dynamical system generating the observed trajectories. We find that these trajectories are best-and exceedingly well-modeled by the proportional navigation (PN) guidance law used by most guided missiles. Under this guidance law, turning is commanded at a rate proportional to the angular rate of the line-of-sight between the attacker and its target, with a constant of proportionality (i.e., feedback gain) called the navigation constant ( N ). Whereas most guided missiles use navigation constants falling on the interval 3 ≤ N ≤ 5, peregrine attack trajectories are best fitted by lower navigation constants (median N drones designed to remove other drones from protected airspace. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Describing the longitudinal course of major depression using Markov models: Data integration across three national surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Robert C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most epidemiological studies of major depression report period prevalence estimates. These are of limited utility in characterizing the longitudinal epidemiology of this condition. Markov models provide a methodological framework for increasing the utility of epidemiological data. Markov models relating incidence and recovery to major depression prevalence have been described in a series of prior papers. In this paper, the models are extended to describe the longitudinal course of the disorder. Methods Data from three national surveys conducted by the Canadian national statistical agency (Statistics Canada were used in this analysis. These data were integrated using a Markov model. Incidence, recurrence and recovery were represented as weekly transition probabilities. Model parameters were calibrated to the survey estimates. Results The population was divided into three categories: low, moderate and high recurrence groups. The size of each category was approximated using lifetime data from a study using the WHO Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI. Consistent with previous work, transition probabilities reflecting recovery were high in the initial weeks of the episodes, and declined by a fixed proportion with each passing week. Conclusion Markov models provide a framework for integrating psychiatric epidemiological data. Previous studies have illustrated the utility of Markov models for decomposing prevalence into its various determinants: incidence, recovery and mortality. This study extends the Markov approach by distinguishing several recurrence categories.

  15. Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.


    A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

  16. Institute for Scientific and Educational Technology (ISET)-Education, Research and Training Programs in Engineering and Sciences (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N. (Principal Investigator); Massenberg, Samuel E. (Technical Monitor)


    The 'Institute for Scientific and Educational Technology' has been established to provide a mechanism through which universities and other research organizations may cooperate with one another and with different government agencies and industrial organizations to further and promote research, education, and training programs in science, engineering, and related fields. This effort has been undertaken consistent with the national vision to 'promote excellence in America s educational system through enhancing and expanding scientific and technological competence.' The specific programs are directed in promoting and achieving excellence for individuals at all levels (elementary and secondary schools, undergraduate and graduate education, and postdoctoral and faculty research). The program is consistent with the existing activities of the Institute for Computational and Applied Mechanics (ICAM) and the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The efforts will be directed to embark on other research, education, and training activities in various fields of engineering, scientific, and educational technologies. The specific objectives of the present program may be outlined briefly as follows: 1) Cooperate in the various research, education, and technology programs of the Office of Education at LaRC. 2) Develop procedures for interactions between precollege, college, and graduate students, and between faculty and students at all levels. 3) Direct efforts to increase the participation by women and minorities in educational programs at all levels. 4) Enhance existing activities of ICAM and ASEE in education, research, and training of graduate students and faculty. 5) Invite distinguished scholars as appropriate and consistent with ISET goals to spend their summers and/or sabbaticals at NASA Langley andor ODU and interact with different researchers and graduate students. Perform research and administrative activities as needed

  17. The PALS program. Intergenerational remotivation. (United States)

    Hutchinson, S A; Bondy, E


    Social isolation is a major problem for the institutionalized elderly. An intergenerational geriatric remotivation program is one method to stimulate social awareness and functioning. Data analysis revealed the construct of invitational work as describing the social behaviors of children and elders during the program sessions, and the basic social psychological process of reconnecting as referring to what certain elders did in the Pals Program and to what the program meant to the elders. Although touted as a panacea for social isolation of elders, intergenerational remotivation programs are revealed in this research to be quite complex and even problematic. To be successful in decreasing social isolation, such programs require ongoing staff monitoring and interventions.

  18. Suitability of parametric models to describe the hydraulic properties of an unsaturated coarse sand and gravel (United States)

    Mace, Andy; Rudolph, David L.; Kachanoski , R. Gary


    The performance of parametric models used to describe soil water retention (SWR) properties and predict unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) as a function of volumetric water content (θ) is examined using SWR and K(θ) data for coarse sand and gravel sediments. Six 70 cm long, 10 cm diameter cores of glacial outwash were instrumented at eight depths with porous cup ten-siometers and time domain reflectometry probes to measure soil water pressure head (h) and θ, respectively, for seven unsaturated and one saturated steady-state flow conditions. Forty-two θ(h) and K(θ) relationships were measured from the infiltration tests on the cores. Of the four SWR models compared in the analysis, the van Genuchten (1980) equation with parameters m and n restricted according to the Mualem (m = 1 - 1/n) criterion is best suited to describe the θ(h) relationships. The accuracy of two models that predict K(θ) using parameter values derived from the SWR models was also evaluated. The model developed by van Genuchten (1980) based on the theoretical expression of Mualem (1976) predicted K(θ) more accurately than the van Genuchten (1980) model based on the theory of Burdine (1953). A sensitivity analysis shows that more accurate predictions of K(θ) are achieved using SWR model parameters derived with residual water content (θr) specified according to independent measurements of θ at values of h where θ/h ∼ 0 rather than model-fit θr values. The accuracy of the model K(θ) function improves markedly when at least one value of unsaturated K is used to scale the K(θ) function predicted using the saturated K. The results of this investigation indicate that the hydraulic properties of coarse-grained sediments can be accurately described using the parametric models. In addition, data collection efforts should focus on measuring at least one value of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and as complete a set of SWR data as possible, particularly in the dry range.

  19. Describing the apprenticeship of chemists through the language of faculty scientists (United States)

    Skjold, Brandy Ann

    Attempts to bring authentic science into the K-16 classroom have led to the use of sociocultural theories of learning, particularly apprenticeship, to frame science education research. Science educators have brought apprenticeship to science classrooms and have brought students to research laboratories in order to gauge its benefits. The assumption is that these learning opportunities are representative of the actual apprenticeship of scientists. However, there have been no attempts in the literature to describe the apprenticeship of scientists using apprenticeship theory. Understanding what science apprenticeship looks like is a critical component of translating this experience into the classroom. This study sought to describe and analyze the apprenticeship of chemists through the talk of faculty scientists. It used Lave and Wenger’s (1991) theory of Legitimate Peripheral Participation as its framework, concentrating on describing the roles of the participants, the environment and the tasks in the apprenticeship, as per Barab, Squire and Dueber (2000). A total of nine chemistry faculty and teaching assistants were observed across 11 settings representing a range of learning experiences from introductory chemistry lectures to research laboratories. All settings were videotaped, focusing on the instructor. About 89 hours of video was taken, along with observer field notes. All videos were transcribed and transcriptions and field notes were analyzed qualitatively as a broad level discourse analysis. Findings suggest that learners are expected to know basic chemistry content and how to use basic research equipment before entering the research lab. These are taught extensively in classroom settings. However, students are also required to know how to use the literature base to inform their own research, though they were rarely exposed to this in the classrooms. In all settings, conflicts occurred when student under or over-estimated their role in the learning

  20. Concept medium program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter


    The present essays is an attempt to dertermine the architecural project of the 21st century in realation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of society as its program. This attempt adopts the internal point of view of an architect in describing a modern architectural...... project within the framework: concept - program, these notions being concieved as spatial representations primarily and immediately "given" to architecture....

  1. The Design of Online Tertiary Courseware for a Blended Learning, Project-Based, E-Business Management Program in the Middle East (United States)

    Rush, Arthur


    This case study briefly explores how an online, multimedia learning module based on a Cognitive Apprenticeship higher level pedagogy can positively affect students achieving the learning outcomes of a Constructivist project-based curriculum in a blended e-business management program in the Middle East. The cohort in this program is nonnative…

  2. Development of theoretical approach for describing electronic properties of hetero-interface systems under applied bias voltage (United States)

    Iida, Kenji; Noda, Masashi; Nobusada, Katsuyuki


    We have developed a theoretical approach for describing the electronic properties of hetero-interface systems under an applied electrode bias. The finite-temperature density functional theory is employed for controlling the chemical potential in their interfacial region, and thereby the electronic charge of the system is obtained. The electric field generated by the electronic charging is described as a saw-tooth-like electrostatic potential. Because of the continuum approximation of dielectrics sandwiched between electrodes, we treat dielectrics with thicknesses in a wide range from a few nanometers to more than several meters. Furthermore, the approach is implemented in our original computational program named grid-based coupled electron and electromagnetic field dynamics (GCEED), facilitating its application to nanostructures. Thus, the approach is capable of comprehensively revealing electronic structure changes in hetero-interface systems with an applied bias that are practically useful for experimental studies. We calculate the electronic structure of a SiO2-graphene-boron nitride (BN) system in which an electrode bias is applied between the graphene layer and an electrode attached on the SiO2 film. The electronic energy barrier between graphene and BN is varied with an applied bias, and the energy variation depends on the thickness of the BN film. This is because the density of states of graphene is so low that the graphene layer cannot fully screen the electric field generated by the electrodes. We have demonstrated that the electronic properties of hetero-interface systems are well controlled by the combination of the electronic charging and the generated electric field.

  3. A consilience model to describe N2O production during biological N removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Smets, Barth F.


    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, is produced during biological nitrogen conversion in wastewater treatment operations. Complex mechanisms underlie N2O production by autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms, which continue to be unravelled. Mathematical models that describe nitric oxide......, followed by NO reduction to N2O. It also considers NO and N2O as intermediates in heterotrophic denitrification in a 4-step model. Three biological NO and N2O production pathways are accounted for, improving the capabilities of existing models while not increasing their complexity. Abiotic contributions...... from NH2OH and HNO2 reactions are also included. The consilient model structure can theoretically predict NO and N2O emissions under a wide range of operating conditions and will help develop mitigation strategies....

  4. Common themes in nutrient acquisition by plant symbiotic microbes, described by the Gene Ontology (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Tyler, Brett M


    A critical function for symbionts is the acquisition of nutrients from their host. Relationships between hosts and symbionts range from biotrophic mutualism to necrotrophic parasitism, with a corresponding range of structures to facilitate nutrient flow between host and symbiont. Here, we review common themes among the nutrient acquisition strategies of a range of plant symbiotic microorganisms, including mutualistic symbionts, biotrophic pathogens that feed from living tissue, necrotrophic pathogens that kill host tissue, and hemibiotrophic pathogens that switch from biotrophy to necrotrophy. We show how Gene Ontology (GO) terms developed by the Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium can be used for describing commonalities in nutrient acquisition among diverse plant symbionts. Where appropriate, parallels found among animal symbionts are also highlighted. PMID:19278554

  5. Emergent long-range synchronization of oscillating ecological populations without external forcing described by Ising universality. (United States)

    Noble, Andrew E; Machta, Jonathan; Hastings, Alan


    Understanding the synchronization of oscillations across space is fundamentally important to many scientific disciplines. In ecology, long-range synchronization of oscillations in spatial populations may elevate extinction risk and signal an impending catastrophe. The prevailing assumption is that synchronization on distances longer than the dispersal scale can only be due to environmental correlation (the Moran effect). In contrast, we show how long-range synchronization can emerge over distances much longer than the length scales of either dispersal or environmental correlation. In particular, we demonstrate that the transition from incoherence to long-range synchronization of two-cycle oscillations in noisy spatial population models is described by the Ising universality class of statistical physics. This result shows, in contrast to all previous work, how the Ising critical transition can emerge directly from the dynamics of ecological populations.

  6. Using visible-near infrared spectra to describe the distribution of Danish topsoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Rossel, Raphael A. Viscarra; Deng, Fan

    between 350–2500nm. We interpreted the soils by gleaning the organic and texture information from the spectra. To summarize the information content in the spectra we performed a principal component analysis (PCA). The first three PC’s explained 94% of the variability in the spectra. The scores from...... the PCA were clustered using k-means to help with interpretation. Soil properties of the clusters were described using the mean spectrum of each class. We mapped the scores of the first three principal components using ordinary kriging. These maps and a cluster map derived with k-means clustering were...... used in the final discussion. The spectroscopic cluster map showed clearly soils with large clay contents, soils that are predominantly sandy, those that are silty and those with large amounts of organic matter, respectively. Their distribution reflects the general pattern of soil variability...

  7. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol. (United States)

    Kroll, Jesse H; Donahue, Neil M; Jimenez, Jose L; Kessler, Sean H; Canagaratna, Manjula R; Wilson, Kevin R; Altieri, Katye E; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Wozniak, Andrew S; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R; Smith, Jared D; Kolb, Charles E; Worsnop, Douglas R


    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that they play in human health, biogeochemical cycles and the Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state, a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of the average carbon oxidation state, using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number.

  8. A novel approach to describing and detecting performance anti-patterns (United States)

    Sheng, Jinfang; Wang, Yihan; Hu, Peipei; Wang, Bin


    Anti-pattern, as an extension to pattern, describes a widely used poor solution which can bring negative influence to application systems. Aiming at the shortcomings of the existing anti-pattern descriptions, an anti-pattern description method based on first order predicate is proposed. This method synthesizes anti-pattern forms and symptoms, which makes the description more accurate and has good scalability and versatility as well. In order to improve the accuracy of anti-pattern detection, a Bayesian classification method is applied in validation for detection results, which can reduce false negatives and false positives of anti-pattern detection. Finally, the proposed approach in this paper is applied to a small e-commerce system, the feasibility and effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated further through experiments.

  9. Calibration and validation of a model describing complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in a granular SBR system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem; Gernaey, Krist


    BACKGROUND: A validated model describing the nitritation-anammox process in a granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system is an important tool for: a) design of future experiments and b) prediction of process performance during optimization, while applying process control, or during system scale......-up. RESULTS: A model was calibrated using a step-wise procedure customized for the specific needs of the system. The important steps in the procedure were initialization, steady-state and dynamic calibration, and validation. A fast and effective initialization approach was developed to approximate pseudo...... steady-state in the biofilm system. For oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa) estimation, long-term data, removal efficiencies, and the stoichiometry of the reactions were used. For the dynamic calibration a pragmatic model fitting approach was used - in this case an iterative Monte Carlo based...

  10. Putting a face on the dark figure: Describing victims who don’t report crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohring Stephanie


    Full Text Available Since the inception of large scale victimisation surveys a considerable amount of research has been conducted investigating the so called ‘dark figure’ of unreported crime. Although this figure has consistently hovered around 60% of all victims, recent research reveals little about those who choose not to pursue formal avenues of justice. This article thus seeks to open a dialogue which focuses on the actual people behind the dark figure. It uses examples from the Scottish Crime and Justice Survey to describe these individuals and to explore explanations for their non-reporting. It highlights the importance of deprivation and vulnerability with regards to reporting crime but also the initial risk of victimisation. It concludes by arguing that the lack of focus on victims who don’t report leaves them vulnerable and invisible to the eyes of policy makers and the criminal justice system.

  11. Naturally Transformable Acinetobacter sp. Strain ADP1 Belongs to the Newly Described Species Acinetobacter baylyi (United States)

    Vaneechoutte, Mario; Young, David M.; Ornston, L. Nicholas; De Baere, Thierry; Nemec, Alexandr; Van Der Reijden, Tanny; Carr, Emma; Tjernberg, Ingela; Dijkshoorn, Lenie


    Genotypic and phenotypic analyses were carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of the naturally transformable Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. Transfer tDNA-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and selective restriction fragment amplification (amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis) indicate that strain ADP1 and a second transformable strain, designated 93A2, are members of the newly described species Acinetobacter baylyi. Transformation assays demonstrate that the A. baylyi type strain B2T and two other originally identified members of the species (C5 and A7) also have the ability to undergo natural transformation at high frequencies, confirming that these five strains belong to a separate species of the genus Acinetobacter, characterized by the high transformability of its strains that have been cultured thus far. PMID:16391138

  12. The analysis of solutions behaviour of Van der Pol Duffing equation describing local brain hemodynamics (United States)

    Cherevko, A. A.; Bord, E. E.; Khe, A. K.; Panarin, V. A.; Orlov, K. J.


    This article proposes the generalized model of Van der Pol — Duffing equation for describing the relaxation oscillations in local brain hemodynamics. This equation connects the velocity and pressure of blood flow in cerebral vessels. The equation is individual for each patient, since the coefficients are unique. Each set of coefficients is built based on clinical data obtained during neurosurgical operation in Siberian Federal Biomedical Research Center named after Academician E. N. Meshalkin. The equation has solutions of different structure defined by the coefficients and right side. We investigate the equations for different patients considering peculiarities of their vessel systems. The properties of approximate analytical solutions are studied. Amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency characteristics are built for the small-dimensional solution approximations.

  13. Standardizing terms, definitions and concepts for describing and interpreting unwanted immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rup, B; Pallardy, M; Sikkema, D


    immunogenic responses to BPs, in particular those affecting clinical safety or efficacy, remain among the most common negative effects associated with this important class of drugs. To manage and reduce risk of unwanted immunogenicity, diverse communities of clinicians, pharmaceutical industry and academic...... scientists are involved in: interpretation and management of clinical and biological outcomes of BP immunogenicity, improvement of methods for describing, predicting and mitigating immunogenicity risk and elucidation of underlying causes. Collaboration and alignment of efforts across these communities...... is made difficult due to lack of agreement on concepts, practices and standardized terms and definitions related to immunogenicity. The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI;, ABIRISK consortium [Anti-Biopharmaceutical (BP) Immunization Prediction and Clinical Relevance to Reduce...

  14. Computer-aided Nonlinear Control System Design Using Describing Function Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nassirharand, Amir


    A systematic computer-aided approach provides a versatile setting for the control engineer to overcome the complications of controller design for highly nonlinear systems. Computer-aided Nonlinear Control System Design provides such an approach based on the use of describing functions. The text deals with a large class of nonlinear systems without restrictions on the system order, the number of inputs and/or outputs or the number, type or arrangement of nonlinear terms. The strongly software-oriented methods detailed facilitate fulfillment of tight performance requirements and help the designer to think in purely nonlinear terms, avoiding the expedient of linearization which can impose substantial and unrealistic model limitations and drive up the cost of the final product. Design procedures are presented in a step-by-step algorithmic format each step being a functional unit with outputs that drive the other steps. This procedure may be easily implemented on a digital computer with example problems from mecha...

  15. Detection of a newly described pestivirus of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in France. (United States)

    Frölich, Kai; Jung, Sandra; Ludwig, Arne; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Gibert, Philippe; Gauthier, Dominique; Hars, Jean


    A pestivirus was detected and characterized in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) originating from the French part of the Pyrenees. Phylogenetic analysis of the pestivirus was done on the basis of a fragment from the 5' noncoding region including 22 published nucleotide sequences of different pestivirus strains. Our strain was grouped within the clade of border disease viruses (BDV). However, it had an intermediate position between clade BDV and classical swine fever viruses representing a basal position to BDV strains of domestic sheep. Our strain was grouped as a sister unit to a novel pestivirus (Chamois-1) recently described from chamois in Spain. Therefore, we postulate that this virus occurs in the entire population of Pyrenean chamois. On the basis of the phylogenetic grouping of this isolate, a postulated cross-species transmission of pestivirus from domestic sheep to chamois via shared pastures seems to be unlikely.

  16. A model describing the complexing effect in the leaching of aluminum from cooking utensils. (United States)

    Bi, S


    A simple model describing the complexing effect in the leaching of aluminum from cooking utensils is presented in this paper. Some experimental results obtained by previous workers may be explained by this model, which demonstrates that the complexing effect takes a very important role in the process of aluminum liberated from cooking utensils. Increased concentrations of complexing ions (organic acids, fluoride ion, OH-, etc.) significantly enhance the release of aluminum. The speciation of aluminum in simulated food solution is also investigated. The model suggests that in the pH range of most food (pH 4-8) aluminum present is predominantly in the form of organic Al-complexes, which is harmful to the human body.

  17. Capability of LEP-type surfaces to describe noncollinear reactions 2 - Polyatomic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Garcia, Joaquin


    In this second article of the series, the popular LEP-type surface for collinear reaction paths and a "bent" surface, which involves a saddle point geometry with a nonlinear central angle, were used to examine the capacity of LEP-type surfaces to describe the kinetics and dynamics of noncollinear reaction paths in polyatomic systems. Analyzing the geometries, vibrational frequencies, curvature along the reaction path (to estimate the tunneling effect and the reaction coordinate-bound modes coupling), and the variational transition- state theory thermal rate constants for the NH//3 + O(**3P) reaction, we found that the "collinear" LEP-type and the "bent" surfaces for this polyatomic system show similar behavior, thus allowing a considerable saving in time and computational effort. This agreement is especially encouraging for this polyatomic system because in the Cs symmetry the reaction proceeds via two electronic states of symmetries **3A prime and **3A double prime , which had to be independently calibrated....

  18. Vibrational energy transport in acetylbenzonitrile described by an ab initio-based quantum tier model (United States)

    Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Yagi, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Takami, Toshiya; Stock, Gerhard


    Performing comprehensive quantum-chemical calculations, a vibrational Hamiltonian of acetylbenzonitrile is constructed, on the basis of which a quantum-mechanical "tier model" is developed that describes the vibrational dynamics following excitation of the CN stretch mode. Taking into account 36 vibrational modes and cubic and quartic anharmonic couplings between up to three different modes, the tier model calculations are shown to qualitatively reproduce the main findings of the experiments of Rubtsov and coworkers (2011), including the energy relaxation of the initially excited CN mode and the structure-dependent vibrational transport. Moreover, the calculations suggest that the experimentally measured cross-peak among the CN and CO modes does not correspond to direct excitation of the CO normal mode but rather reflects excited low-frequency vibrations that anharmonically couple to the CO mode. Complementary quasiclassical trajectory calculations are found to be in good overall agreement with the quantum calculations.

  19. Sawfly taxa (Hymenoptera, Symphyta described by Edward Newman and Charles Healy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Liston


    Full Text Available Type specimens of seven nominal species of sawfly described by Edward Newman and one by Charles Healy were studied. This material is housed in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, United Kingdom. The following new synonymies are proposed (valid names in parentheses: Hartigia Schiødte, 1839 (Phylloecus Newman, 1838, Cephus helleri Taschenberg, 1871 (Phylloecus faunus Newman, 1838 and Euura gallae Newman, 1837 (Euura mucronata (Hartig, 1837. The type species of Euura Newman, 1837 and Euura subgenus Gemmura E. L. Smith, 1968 belong to the same taxonomic species, Euura mucronata (Hartig, 1837, so that these genus group names become new synonyms. Lectotypes are designated for Phyllotoma tormentillae Healy, 1868, Fenusa ianthe Newman, 1837, Fenusa parviceps Newman, 1837, Selandria pallida Newman, 1837 and Phylloecus faunus Newman, 1838. 26 new combinations are proposed for species formerly placed in Hartigia and here transferred to Phylloecus, and 4 original combinations are re-instated as valid.

  20. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.


    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).